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Sample records for denshi jh tsshin

  1. JH & JH Properties, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    JH & JH Properties, LLC (the Company) is located in Fargo, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Fargo, North Dakota.

  2. Coordinated changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. A decrease in JH titer during the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa once again synthesizes JH, which plays an essential role in orchestrating reproductive maturation. In spite of the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector, a detailed study of the changes of JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle has never been performed. In the present studies, using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FD) method, we measured changes in JH levels in the hemolymph of female mosquitoes during the pupal and adult stages. Our results revealed tightly concomitant changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle of female mosquito. Feeding high sugar diets resulted in an increase of JH titers, and mating also modified JH titers in hemolymph. In addition these studies confirmed that JH titer in mosquitoes is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the CA.

  3. Juvenile hormone (JH) esterase of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is not a target of the JH analog insecticide methoprene.

    PubMed

    Kamita, Shizuo G; Samra, Aman I; Liu, Jun-Yan; Cornel, Anthony J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are essential sesquiterpenes that control insect development and reproduction. JH analog (JHA) insecticides such as methoprene are compounds that mimic the structure and/or biological activity of JH. In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, cqjhe, from the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that encodes CqJHE, an esterase that selectively metabolizes JH. Unlike other recombinant esterases that have been identified from dipteran insects, CqJHE hydrolyzed JH with specificity constant (k(cat)/K(M) ratio) and V(max) values that are common among JH esterases (JHEs). CqJHE showed picomolar sensitivity to OTFP, a JHE-selective inhibitor, but more than 1000-fold lower sensitivity to DFP, a general esterase inhibitor. To our surprise, CqJHE did not metabolize the isopropyl ester of methoprene even when 25 pmol of methoprene was incubated with an amount of CqJHE that was sufficient to hydrolyze 7,200 pmol of JH to JH acid under the same assay conditions. In competition assays in which both JH and methoprene were available to CqJHE, methoprene did not show any inhibitory effects on the JH hydrolysis rate even when methoprene was present in the assay at a 10-fold higher concentration relative to JH. Our findings indicated that JHE is not a molecular target of methoprene. Our findings also do not support the hypothesis that methoprene functions in part by inhibiting the action of JHE.

  4. The juvenile hormone (JH) epoxide hydrolase gene in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome encodes a protein which has negligible participation in JH degradation.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Aline; Hartfelder, Klaus; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2010-09-01

    Epoxide hydrolases are multifunctional enzymes that are best known in insects for their role in juvenile hormone (JH) degradation. Enzymes involved in JH catabolism can play major roles during metamorphosis and reproduction, such as the JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), which degrades JH through hydration of the epoxide moiety to form JH diol, and JH esterase (JHE), which hydrolyzes the methyl ester to produce JH acid. In the honey bee, JH has been co-opted for additional functions, mainly in caste differentiation and in age-related behavioral development of workers, where the activity of both enzymes could be important for JH titer regulation. Similarity searches for jheh candidate genes in the honey bee genome revealed a single Amjheh gene. Sequence analysis, quantification of Amjheh transcript levels and Western blot assays using an AmJHEH-specific antibody generated during this study revealed that the AmJHEH found in the fat body shares features with the microsomal JHEHs from several insect species. Using a partition assay we demonstrated that AmJHEH has a negligible role in JH degradation, which, in the honey bee, is thus performed primarily by JHE. High AmJHEH levels in larvae and adults were related to the ingestion of high loads of lipids, suggesting that AmJHEH has a role in dietary lipid catabolism.

  5. Identification and characterization of a juvenile hormone (JH) response region in the JH esterase gene from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Kethidi, Damodar R; Perera, Srini C; Zheng, S; Feng, Qi-Li; Krell, Peter; Retnakaran, Arthur; Palli, Subba R

    2004-05-07

    Using a differential display of mRNA technique we discovered that the juvenile hormone (JH) esterase gene (Cfjhe) from Choristoneura fumiferana is directly induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I), and the JH I induction is suppressed by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). To study the mechanism of action of these two hormones in the regulation of expression of this gene, we cloned the 1270-bp promoter region of the Cfjhe gene and identified a 30-bp region that is located between -604 and -574 and is sufficient to support both JH I induction and 20E suppression. This 30-bp region contains two conserved hormone response element half-sites separated by a 4-nucleotide spacer similar to the direct repeat 4 element and is designated as a putative juvenile hormone response element (JHRE). In CF-203 cells, a luciferase reporter placed under the control of JHRE and a minimal promoter was induced by JH I in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, 20E suppressed this JH I-induced luciferase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nuclear proteins isolated from JH I-treated CF-203 cells bound to JHRE and the binding was competed by a 100-fold excess of the cold probe but not by 100-fold excess of double-stranded oligonucleotides of unrelated sequence. JH I induced/modified nuclear proteins prior to their binding to JHRE and 20E suppressed this JH I induction/modification. These results suggest that the 30-bp JHRE identified in the Cfjhe gene promoter is sufficient to support JH induction and 20E suppression of the Cfjhe gene.

  6. JH modulates a cellular immunity of Tribolium castaneum in a Met-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Hepat, Rahul; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates diverse physiological processes in insects during entire developmental stages. Especially, the identification of Methoprene-tolerant (Met), a JH nuclear receptor, allows us to better understand molecular actions of JH to control gene expressions related with metamorphosis. However, several physiological processes including cellular immune response and some molecular actions of JH have been suspected to be mediated via its non-genomic actions. To prove its non-genomic action, JH nuclear signals were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) of Met or its downstream gene, Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. These RNAi-treated larvae failed to undergo a normal development and suffered precocious metamorphosis. Hemocytes of T. castaneum exhibited their spreading behavior on extracellular matrix and nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. When the larvae were treated with either RNAi of Met or Kr-h1, the hemocytes of the treated larvae were responsive to JH without any significant difference with those of control larvae. These results suggest that the response of hemocytes to JH is not mediated by its nuclear signal. On the other hand, the JH modulation of hemocyte behaviors of T. castaneum was significantly influenced by membrane and cytosolic protein activities, in which ethoxyzolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase), calphostin C (a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C) or ouabain (a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase) significantly suppressed the responsiveness of hemocytes to JH.

  7. Nutritional regulation of JH synthesis: a mechanism to control reproductive maturation in mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Noriega, Fernando G

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) titers must be modulated to permit the normal progress of development and reproduction in mosquitoes. In adult female Aedes aegypti, JH levels are low at adult eclosion, elevated in sugar-fed females and low again after a blood meal. Although degradation plays a role, JH titer is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the corpora allata gland (CA). CA from newly eclosed females (0-1 h after emergence) exhibit a very low basal JH biosynthetic activity, Aedes-allatotropin stimulates the CA in newly emerged females to produce JH. There is a correlation between nutritional reserves at adult emergence (teneral reserves) and CA activity. JH synthesis is significantly reduced in teneral females that emerge with low nutritional reserves. Taking a blood meal results in a reduction of CA activity. The biosynthetic activity of Ae. aegypti CA is significantly inhibited by factors present in the head, as well as by Anopheles gambiae PISCF-allatostatin. Nutritional signals affect the release of allatotropin and allatostatins by the brain resulting in the activation or inhibition of JH synthesis. JH is therefore an important part of a transduction mechanism that connects changes in the nutritional status with activation of specific physiological events during reproduction.

  8. Overexpression of Drosophila juvenile hormone esterase binding protein results in anti-JH effects and reduced pheromone abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The titer of juvenile hormone (JH), which has wide ranging physiological effects in insects, is regulated in part by JH esterase (JHE). We show that overexpression in Drosophila melanogaster of the JHE binding protein, DmP29 results in a series of apparent anti-JH effects. We hypothesize that DmP29 ...

  9. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  10. A morph-specific daily cycle in the rate of JH biosynthesis underlies a morph-specific daily cycle in the hemolymph JH titer in a wing-polymorphic cricket.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhangwu; Zera, Anthony J

    2004-10-01

    A previous study documented a high amplitude, morph-specific daily cycle in the hemolymph JH titer in the wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus. The JH titer rose and fell 10-20 fold in the flight-capable [LW(f), long-winged] morph during the late-photophase-early scotophase, while it was relatively constant during that time in the flightless (SW, short-winged) morph. In the present study we documented a dramatic morph-specific daily cycle in the in vitro rate of juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis that was tightly correlated with the hemolymph JH titer on days 5-7 of adulthood. Biosynthetic rates rose and fell 1-2 fold between the late photophase-early scotophase on each of days 5-6 and 6-7 of adulthood in the LW(f) morph, while biosynthetic rates were relatively constant during this period in the flightless, short-winged morph (SW), except for a slight dip in the rate of biosynthesis late in the photophase on these days. Similar morph-specific patterns of JH biosynthesis were observed whether rates were measured on corpora allata attached to corpora cardiaca in males or females, or on corpora allata alone. Hemolymph juvenile hormone esterase activity was significantly higher in the LW(f) vs. the SW morph during the beginning of scotophase, when the JH titer is decreasing rapidly in the LW(f) morph. Results indicate that the morph-specific daily cycle in the JH titer in G. firmus is primarily regulated by a morph-specific daily cycle in the rate of JH biosynthesis and to a lesser degree by hemolymph JH esterase activity. This is the first documentation of a diurnal cycle in the rate of JH biosynthesis in any insect, or a daily cycle in the rate of JH biosynthesis that is correlated with a specific morph in a polymorphic species. Results have important implications for the endocrine regulation of dispersal polymorphism, circadian rhythms of insect hormone titers and their regulators, and general studies of the JH titer and its regulation in insects.

  11. Insights into tidal disruption of stars from PS1-10jh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda E.; Murray, Norman

    2015-12-01

    Was PS1-10jh, an optical/ultraviolet transient discovered by the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey, the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole (BH)? We address two aspects of the problem: the composition of the putative disrupted object (using the spectroscopic data), and the energetics of the observed gas and radiation (using the photometric data). We perform photoionization calculations and compare with the observed lower limit of the line ratio L_{He II 4686}/L_{Hα }>5 to argue that this event was not the disruption of a solar-type star, and instead was likely the disruption of a helium core (as first proposed by Gezari et al.). Disruption of such a dense object requires a relatively small central BH, MBH ≲ 2 × 105 M⊙. We use the photometric data to infer that PS1-10jh comprised an outflow of ˜0.01 M⊙ of gas, escaping from the BH at ˜1000 km s-1, and we propose that this outflow was driven primarily by radiation pressure trapped by Thomson and resonance line scattering. The large ratio of radiated energy to kinetic energy, Erad/EK ˜ 104, together with the large value of Erad ˜ 2 × 1051 erg, suggests that the outflow was shocked at large radius (perhaps similar to superluminous supernovae or the internal shock model for gamma-ray bursts). We describe puzzles in the physics of PS1-10jh, and discuss how this event may help us understand future tidal disruptions and super-Eddington accretion events as well.

  12. Prevalence of BCL-2/J(H) Translocation in Healthy African Americans.

    PubMed

    Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Greg J; Braggio, Esteban; Albertie, Monica L; Weis, Jennifer A; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Cerhan, James R; Vishnu, Prakash; Jorgensen, Matthew S; Foran, James M; Thomas, Colleen S; Fonseca, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) (BCL-2/J(H)) is present in over 80 % of all follicular lymphomas and is detectable in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of healthy individuals. The prevalence of this translocation has not been studied in African Americans (AAs). Given the higher incidence of follicular lymphomas in whites compared to AAs in the United States (USA), we hypothesized that the translocation prevalence in the blood of AAs would be lower. DNA was isolated from PBL from blood samples collected from participants from FL. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on the BCL-2/J(H) major (MBC) and minor breakpoint cluster (mBC) regions. Eight of the 77 (10.4 %) blood samples from AA participants were positive for MBC (95 % CI, 4.6-19.5 %), and three (3.9 %) were positive for mBC (95 % CI, 0.81-10.97 %) of BCL-2/J(H), with a total of 11 (14.3 %) participants with positive samples (95 % CI, 7.35-24.13 %). In 167 white patient samples, 22 (13.2 %; 95 % CI, 8.44-19.26 %) were positive for MBC, and five (3.0 %; 95 % CI, 0.98-6.85 %) were positive for mBC, with a total of 25 (15 %) participants with positive samples (CI, 9.93-21.30 %). The prevalence of t(14;18)(q32;q21) is not significantly different among AAs and whites from the USA. The lower prevalence of follicular lymphomas in AAs compared with whites is likely a result of differences in secondary molecular alterations involved in follicular lymphoma development. This study is the first report of prevalence of t(14;18) in an AA cohort.

  13. Morph-associated JH titer diel rhythm in Gryllus firmus: Experimental verification of its circadian basis and cycle characterization in artificially selected lines raised in the field.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a high-amplitude, diel cycle for the hemolymph JH titer in the wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus. The JH titer rose and fell in the flight-capable morph (long-winged, LW(f)) above and below the relatively temporally invariant JH titer in the flightless (short-winged, SW) morph. The morph-specific JH titer cycle appeared to be primarily driven by a morph-specific diel cycle in the rate of JH biosynthesis. In the present study, cycles of the JH titer and rate of JH biosynthesis in the LW(f) morph persisted in the laboratory under constant darkness with an approximate 24h periodicity. The JH titer cycle also shifted in concert with a shift in the onset of the scotophase, was temperature compensated in constant darkness, and became arrhythmic under constant light. These results provide strong support for the circadian basis of the morph-specific diel rhythm of the JH titer and JH biosynthetic rate. Persistence of the JH titer cycle under constant darkness in multiple LW-selected and SW-selected stocks also provides support for the genetic basis of the morph-associated circadian rhythm. The morph-specific JH titer cycle was observed in these stocks raised in the field, in both males and females, in each of 3 years studied. The onset of the cycle in the LW(f) morph, a few hours before sunset, correlated well with the onset of the cycle, a few hours before lights-off, in the laboratory. The morph-specific JH titer cycle is a general feature of G. firmus, under a variety of environmental conditions, and is not an artifact of specific laboratory conditions or specific genetic stocks. It is a powerful experimental model to investigate the mechanisms underlying endocrine circadian rhythms, their evolution, and their impact on life history evolution.

  14. Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens JH146(T) isolated from the basalt subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Tae; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Stewart, Lucy C; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens JH146(T) is a hyperthermophilic and obligate hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from low-temperature (26 °C) hydrothermal vent fluid at Axial Seamount in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It is most closely related to the N2-fixing methanogen Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22; however, they differ in that JH146 cannot fix N2 or reductively assimilate nitrate. In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of strain JH146(T) (1,607,556 bp) with its 1635 protein coding genes, and 41 RNA genes. Our analysis focuses on its methane production via the acetyl-CoA pathway and its deleted gene clusters related to nitrogen assimilation. This study extends our understanding of methanogenesis at high temperatures and the impact of these organisms on the biogeochemistry of subseafloor hydrothermal environments and the deep sea.

  15. IAA production by Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 promotes Indian mustard growth in the presence of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Kim, Jin-Won; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sp. strain JH 2-2, isolated from the rhizosphere of plants at a multi-metal contaminated mine site, has the potential to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and promote plant growth by reducing Cr toxicity and producing IAA. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cr(VI) to Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 was 1000 mg L(-1) and the strain reduced 99% of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) to Cr(IV) within 24 h. Lower Cr(VI) stress (10 mg L(-1) ) stimulated IAA production, but much less IAA was produced at 30 or 50 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) . Inoculation with Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 increased the length of Brassica juncea L. roots by 364% and stems by 735% in the presence of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) from those of uninoculated control plants. These findings suggest potential use of Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 to promote phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Cr(VI).

  16. The hemolymph JH titer exhibits a large-amplitude, morph-dependent, diurnal cycle in the wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhangwu; Zera, Anthony J

    2004-01-01

    The hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) titer was measured in over 500 flight-capable and flightless, adult female Gryllus firmus at 3-6 h intervals during each of days 2-8 of adulthood. The flight-capable morph exhibited a large-amplitude daily cycle in the hemolymph JH titer, while the flightless morph exhibited a barely perceptible cycle. The JH titer cycle was observed on all days in the flight-capable morph, but the large amplitude cycle (>15-20 fold increase in mean titer; >100-fold increase in some individuals), began on day 5. For both the large and small amplitude cycles, the JH titer peaked near the end of the photophase-beginning of the scotophase. The hemolymph ecdysteroid titer did not exhibit a corresponding large amplitude daily cycle, although a low amplitude cycle (1-3-fold change) was seen in both morphs. The large magnitude rise in the JH titer in the flight-capable morph during the photophase was not due to decreased hemolymph volume or JH degradation. Daily cycles in the JH titer may be common, but may have gone unnoticed in other insect species due to restricted temporal sampling. Failure to identify these cycles can result in substantial errors in inferring biological roles for JH. Because JH regulates flight behaviors, morph-specific daily cycles in the JH titer may be especially common in dispersal-polymorphic insects, in which flight is restricted to one morph during a limited period of the day or night. However, because JH regulates numerous biological traits, analogous cycles may be common in insects exhibiting other types of complex (e.g. caste or phase) polymorphism, in which morphs differ in a biological characteristic that is restricted to a specific period of the photophase or scotophase.

  17. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  18. Analysis and comparison of the mouse and human immunoglobulin heavy chain JH-Cmu-Cdelta locus.

    PubMed

    Koop, B F; Richards, J E; Durfee, T D; Bansberg, J; Wells, J; Gilliam, A C; Chen, H L; Clausell, A; Tucker, P W; Blattner, F R

    1996-02-01

    We report here 23,686 bases of contiguous DNA sequences from the mouse germline immunoglobulin heavy chain (H) constant (C) mu delta region. The sequence spans the joining (JH) regions, the mu constant region (C mu), the delta constant region (C delta) coding regions, a domain relic, the mu switch region (S mu), seven blocks of simple sequence repeats, a large unique sequence inverted repeat, a large unique sequence forward repeat, and all of the intervening material. A comparison of this 23.7-kb region with the corresponding human C mu/C delta region reveals clear homology in the coding and introns of C mu but not in the 5' flanking J gene segments nor in the intergenic and C delta regions. This mixed pattern of similarity between the human and the mouse sequences contrasts with high levels of similarity found in the T-cell receptor C alpha/C delta region and alpha and beta myosin genes and the very low levels found in the gamma-crystallin, XRCC1, and beta-globin gene clusters. The human and mouse comparison further suggests the incorporation of novel sequences into expressed genes of IgD.

  19. Deep JH Imaging of the LITTLE THINGS Galaxies: Stellar Mass Assembly in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre; Herrmann, Kim; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2011-02-01

    We propose to obtain deep broadband JH images for 6 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIm) which are part of a larger sample assembled by the LITTLE THINGS project (a VLA Large Proposal). Using the NIR data requested here and other multi-band data we have collected, we will, for the first time, construct high-quality spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the whole spectral range of stellar emission for a representative sample of dIm galaxies. dIm galaxies numerically dominate the local Universe, yet our understanding of the star formation processes in dIm galaxies is very poor. For example, the star formation rate profile often correlates closely with the stellar surface brightness profile of the older stars, but not with the gas, and we do not know why. Also, abrupt changes in the slope of the stellar exponential profile imply a change in the star formation process at the surface brightness breaks according to some models, but this has not been shown observationally. With the SEDs constructed as a function of radius within each galaxy and our stellar population synthesis technique, we will answer the questions: 1) How is the stellar mass across the disks assembled throughout the lifetime of dwarf irregular galaxies? 2) Are there corresponding surface mass density breaks at the surface brightness breaks seen in many dIm galaxies? And is there any difference in the stellar populations before and beyond the surface brightness breaks?

  20. Deep JH Imaging of the LITTLE THINGS Galaxies: Stellar Mass Assembly in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre; Herrmann, Kim; Little Things Team

    2011-08-01

    We propose to obtain deep broadband JH images for 2 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIm) which are part of a larger sample assembled by the LITTLE THINGS project (a VLA Large Proposal). Using the NIR data requested here and other multi-band data we have collected, we will, for the first time, construct high-quality spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the whole spectral range of stellar emission for a representative sample of dIm galaxies. dIm galaxies numerically dominate the local universe, yet our understanding of the star formation processes in dIm galaxies is very poor. For example, the star formation rate profile often correlates closely with the stellar surface brightness profile of the older stars, but not with the gas, and we do not know why. Also, abrupt changes in the slope of the stellar exponential profile imply a change in the star formation process at the surface brightness breaks according to some models, but this has not been shown observationally. With the SEDs constructed as a function of radius within each galaxy and our stellar population synthesis technique, we will answer the questions: 1) How is the stellar mass across the disks assembled throughout the lifetime of dwarf irregular galaxies? 2) Are there corresponding surface mass density breaks at the surface brightness breaks seen in many dIm galaxies? 3) Is there any difference in the stellar populations before and beyond the surface brightness breaks?

  1. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  2. Salivaricin E and abundant dextranase activity may contribute to the anti-cariogenic potential of the probiotic candidate Streptococcus salivarius JH.

    PubMed

    Walker, Glenn V; Heng, Nicholas C K; Carne, Alan; Tagg, John R; Wescombe, Philip A

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that is continuing to increase in prevalence, reducing the quality of life for millions worldwide as well as causing considerable expense, with an estimated US$108 billion spent on dental care in the USA each year. Oral probiotics are now being investigated to determine whether they could play a role in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Streptococcus salivarius strain JH is a potential probiotic candidate that produces multiple proteinaceous antimicrobials (bacteriocins), the inhibitory spectrum of which includes Streptococcus mutans, one of the principal causative agents of dental caries. The genome of strain JH has previously been shown to contain the biosynthetic loci for the bacteriocins salivaricin A3, streptin and streptococcin SA-FF22. Here we show that strain JH also produces salivaricin E, a 32 aa lantibiotic with a mass of 3565.9 Da, which is responsible for the inhibition of S. mutans growth. In addition, strain JH was shown to produce dextranase, an enzyme that hydrolyses (1 → 6)-α-D-glucosidic linkages, at levels higher than any other S. salivarius tested. In vitro testing showed that partial hydrolysis of the exopolymeric substances of S. mutans, using strain JH dextranase, improved the anti-S. mutans inhibitory activity of the lytic bacteriocin, zoocin A. The multiple bacteriocin and dextranase activities of strain JH support its candidature for development as an oral probiotic.

  3. Juvenile hormone titers in virgin and mated Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana females: assessment of the capacity of males to produce and transfer JH to the female during copulation.

    PubMed

    Cusson, M; Delisle, J; Miller, D

    1999-07-01

    We used a radioimmunoassay (RIA) to assess the effect of mating on juvenile hormone (JH) titer in females of the tortricid moths Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana. Virgins had undetectable levels of JH in their hemolymph on the 5th day of the pupal stage but titers rose to 1-4 and 0.2-0.5 ng JH II eq./ml, respectively, after emergence. On days 1, 3 and 5 following copulation, females of both species had higher JH titers than virgins of the same ages, with the greatest difference between virgin and mated females observed on day 3 for C. fumiferana and on day 5 for C. rosaceana. This increase was apparently not the result of a male-to-female transfer of JH during copulation since: (i) the accessory sex glands (ASGs) of males of both species displayed a very limited ability to convert JH acid into JH, (ii) ASGs produced no JH when incubated in vitro in the presence of L-[methyl-(3)H]-methionine, (iii) ASGs of males injected with L-[methyl-(3)H]-methionine 24 h prior to dissection contained no JH-associated radioactivity, and (iv) freshly formed spermatophores dissected out of females mated to similarly injected males contained no trace of radioactive JH. In addition, the JH content of ASGs and spermatophores, as measured by RIA, was not higher than that of virgin-female hemolymph, on a per-mg basis. However, in contrast with earlier findings in other species of moths, the CA of male C. fumiferana and C. rosaceana maintained in vitro in the presence of tritiated methionine produced and released JH I, JH II and JH III in quantities and proportions similar to those reported for female glands.

  4. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau E-mail: rcheng@gatech.edu

    2014-06-20

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  5. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes.

  6. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as “activating” egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: 1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? 2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? 3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female’s resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle’s likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the “activating” effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  7. PS1-10jh CONTINUES TO FOLLOW THE FALLBACK ACCRETION RATE OF A TIDALLY DISRUPTED STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gezari, S.; Chornock, R.; Lawrence, A.; Rest, A.; Jones, D. O.; Berger, E.; Challis, P. M.; Narayan, G.

    2015-12-10

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t{sup −5/3} power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  8. Cloning, expression, and characterization of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis JH8 strain.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2016-10-02

    The sequence cato encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sequence cato contained an ORF of 858 bp encoding a polypeptide of 285 amino acid residues. The recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase exists as a homodimer structure with a subunit molecular mass of 32 KD. Recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was unstable below pH 5.0 and stable from pH 7.0 to 9.0; its optimum pH was at 7.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30°C, and it possessed a thermophilic activity within a broad temperature range. Under the optimal conditions with catechol as substrate, the Km and Vmax of recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were 9.2 µM and 0.987 µM/min, respectively. This is the first article presenting cloning and expressing in E. coli of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from C. tropicalis and characterization of the recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase.

  9. The Amino Acid Transporter JhI-21 Coevolves with Glutamate Receptors, Impacts NMJ Physiology, and Influences Locomotor Activity in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Augustin, Hrvoje; Clark, Nathan L; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Simonnet, Mégane M; Steinert, Joern R; Geillon, Flore; Manière, Gérard; Featherstone, David E; Grosjean, Yael

    2016-01-25

    Changes in synaptic physiology underlie neuronal network plasticity and behavioral phenomena, which are adjusted during development. The Drosophila larval glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents a powerful synaptic model to investigate factors impacting these processes. Amino acids such as glutamate have been shown to regulate Drosophila NMJ physiology by modulating the clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby regulating the strength of signal transmission from the motor neuron to the muscle cell. To identify amino acid transporters impacting glutmatergic signal transmission, we used Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), a recently developed bioinformatic tool. Our screen identified ten proteins co-evolving with NMJ glutamate receptors. We selected one candidate transporter, the SLC7 (Solute Carrier) transporter family member JhI-21 (Juvenile hormone Inducible-21), which is expressed in Drosophila larval motor neurons. We show that JhI-21 suppresses postsynaptic muscle glutamate receptor abundance, and that JhI-21 expression in motor neurons regulates larval crawling behavior in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  10. Morph-specific diurnal variation in allatostatin immunostaining in the corpora allata of Gryllus firmus: implications for the regulation of a morph-specific circadian rhythm for JH biosynthetic rate.

    PubMed

    Stay, Barbara; Zera, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies have documented a circadian cycle in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis in the long-winged, flight-capable morph, but not in the short-winged flightless morph of the cricket Gryllus firmus. One rapid and reversible inhibitor of in vitro JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in crickets is the neuropeptide Phe-Gly-Leu/Ile-amide type of allatostatins (ASTs). To investigate the possible role of allatostatin regulation of the morph-specific circadian cycle of JH production, the quantity of this type of AST in the nerves within the CA was determined by the density of anti-AST-immunostaining in confocal images using the Image J program. The density of immunostaining was inversely related to the rate of JH biosynthesis: Immunostaining in the CA was high and did not differ between morphs early in the photophase when the in vitro rate of JH biosynthesis is low and equivalent in the morphs. However, during the end of the photophase, when the rate of JH biosynthesis rises dramatically in the flight-capable morph, but not in the flightless morph, immunostaining was significantly lower in the flight-capable compared to the flightless morph. These results indicate that morph-specific differences in delivery of AST to the CA and its probable release likely regulate the morph-specific circadian pattern of JH biosynthesis. Also, the negative correlation between AST density and JH production provides evidence for predicting the periods of altered release of these rapid-acting paracine regulators of JH biosynthesis.

  11. Methylation of CpG sites in BCL2 major breakpoint region and the increase of BCL2/JH translocation with aging.

    PubMed

    Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; de Prado, Elena; Ardanaz, Maite; Martin-Arruti, Maialen; Garcia-Orad, Cristina; Guerra, Isabel; Ruiz, Irune; Zabalza, Iñaki; Garcia-Orad, Africa

    2015-10-01

    The BCL2 breakage mechanism has been shown to be highly dependent on DNA methylation at the major breakpoint region (MBR) CpG sites. We recently described an increased frequency of BCL2/ JH translocation with aging. It is known that methylation levels change with aging. The present study aimed to determine whether methylation alterations at CpG sites of BCL2 MBR were the cause of increased breakages with aging. We analyzed the methylation levels of three CpG sites on the region by pyrosequencing and studied if methylation levels and/or polymorphisms affecting CpG sites were associated with an increase of translocations. We observed that although the methylation levels of MBR CpG sites were higher in individuals with BCL2/JH translocation, in contrast to our expectations, these levels decreased with the age. Moreover, we show that polymorphisms at those CpG sites leading to absence of methylation seem to be a protective factor for the apparition of translocations.

  12. Human antibody expression in transgenic rats: comparison of chimeric IgH loci with human VH, D and JH but bearing different rat C-gene regions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Osborn, Michael J; Avis, Suzanne; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Ménoret, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio; Buelow, Roland; Brüggemann, Marianne

    2013-12-31

    Expression of human antibody repertoires in transgenic animals has been accomplished by introducing large human Ig loci into mice and, more recently, a chimeric IgH locus into rats. With human VH, D and JH genes linked to the rat C-region antibody expression was significantly increased, similar to wild-type levels not found with fully human constructs. Here we compare four rat-lines containing the same human VH-region (comprising 22 VHs, all Ds and all JHs in natural configuration) but linked to different rat CH-genes and regulatory sequences. The endogenous IgH locus was silenced by zinc-finger nucleases. After breeding, all lines produced exclusively chimeric human H-chain with near normal IgM levels. However, in two lines poor IgG expression and inefficient immune responses were observed, implying that high expression, class-switching and hypermutation are linked to optimal enhancer function provided by the large regulatory region at the 3' end of the IgH locus. Furthermore, exclusion of Cδ and its downstream interval region may assist recombination. Highly diverse IgG and immune responses similar to normal rats were identified in two strains carrying diverse and differently spaced C-genes.

  13. SCExAO and GPI Y JH band photometry and integral field spectroscopy of the young brown dwarf companion to HD 1160

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia, Eugenio Victor; Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; ...

    2017-01-10

    Here, we present high signal-to-noise ratio, precise Y JH photometry and Y band (0.957–1.120 μm) spectroscopy of HD 1160 B, a young substellar companion discovered from the Gemini NICI Planet Finding Campaign using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument and the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 1160 B has typical mid-M dwarf-like infrared colors and a spectral type of M5.5more » $${}_{-0.5}^{+1.0}$$, where the blue edge of our Y band spectrum rules out earlier spectral types. Atmospheric modeling suggests HD 1160 B has an effective temperature of 3000–3100 K, a surface gravity of log g = 4–4.5, a radius of 1.55 ± 0.10 R J, and a luminosity of log L/L ⊙ = –2.76 ± 0.05. Neither the primary's Hertzspring–Russell diagram position nor atmospheric modeling of HD 1160 B show evidence for a subsolar metallicity. Interpretation of the HD 1160 B spectroscopy depends on which stellar system components are used to estimate the age. Considering HD 1160 A, B and C jointly, we derive an age of 80–125 Myr, implying that HD 1160 B straddles the hydrogen-burning limit (70–90 M J). If we consider HD 1160 A alone, younger ages (20–125 Myr) and a brown dwarf-like mass (35–90 M J) are possible. Interferometric measurements of the primary, a precise Gaia parallax, and moderate-resolution spectroscopy can better constrain the system's age and how HD 1160 B fits within the context of (sub)stellar evolution.« less

  14. Artocarpus altilis CG-901 alters critical nodes in the JH1-kinase domain of Janus kinase 2 affecting upstream JAK/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nash, Oyekanmi; Omotuyi, Olaposi; Lee, Joonku; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Ogbadu, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    As a key step in achieving low-cost, easily accessible anti-cancer therapy for low- and middle-income countries, we recently established the scientific basis for the folkloric use of Artocarpus altilis for the treatment of cancer by investigating the geranyl dihydrochalcone (CG-901) content and its interference with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and blockage of further downstream signaling. In the current study, the CG-901 upstream target was queried by chemical fingerprinting similarity assessment, semi-empirical (PM6ESCF) QMMM and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Moderate (∼0.4) to high (∼0.7) Tanimoto scores were found when the CG-901 scaffold was compared to ligands co-crystallized with Janus kinases (JAK) 1-3. High negative energy values were obtained when the CG-901 was treated semi-empirically (PM6ESCF) within the classical field of JAK (1-3). Multiple nanosecond MD simulations showed that CG-901 did not cause any large structural perturbations in the nucleotide-binding, activation and catalytic loops within the kinase (JH1) domain of JAK (1-3); however, it reduced the energy required to attain metastability along the path to energy minima conformation. In comparison to JAK1 and Apo-state JAK2, JAK2-bound CG-901 exhibited a highly re-organized key intra-domain protein network; indicating atomic level interference with inter-residue communication. In conclusion, CG-901 isolated from A. altilis represents a broad-spectrum JAK inhibitor, which may underlie the mechanism of STAT3 phosphorylation blockage. Graphical abstract Upper panel Janus kinase 2 upstream signaling pathway. Lower panel Apo-JAK2 (left) and CG-901-bound JAK2 (right).

  15. Assessment of BCL2/J(H) translocation in healthy individuals exposed to low-level radiation of 137CsCl in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, H F; Laranjeira, A B A; Yunes, J A; Costa, E O A; de A Melo, C O; de M e Silva, D; da Cruz, A D

    2013-01-16

    Healthy radio-exposed individuals who received low levels of Cesium-137 radiation during the accident that occurred in Goiânia in 1987, their families and controls were tested for the detection of t(14;18)-rearranged B cells in peripheral blood by using a highly sensitive, real-time quantitative PCR method. The chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is characteristic of follicular lymphoma and is a frequent abnormality observed in other types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This translocation leads to constitutive activation of the BCL2 oncogene by the enhancers of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus. In healthy individuals, the same translocation may also be found in a small fraction of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and positive cells might serve as an indicator for environmental exposure to carcinogens and possibly correlate with the cumulative risk of developing t(14;18)- positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twenty healthy radio-exposed individuals, 10 relatives and 10 non-exposed healthy individuals were tested for the detection of this translocation. Only 1 non-exposed individual was positive for the chromosomal translocation, and healthy radio-exposed individuals presented lower levels of cells bearing the BCL2/J(H) rearrangement when compared to the levels of the patients with follicular lymphoma before treatment. However, evaluation of more cells would be required to confirm the total absence of circulating cells bearing BCL2/J(H) rearrangement.

  16. J.H. Pons on 'Sympathetic insanity': With an introduction by GE Berrios.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E; Pons, J H

    2014-09-01

    The ancient concept of 'sympathy' originally referred to a putative affinity or force that linked all natural objects together. This notion was later used to explain the manner in which human beings related and felt for each other. A large literature exists on both the physical and psychological definitions of sympathy. Until the nineteenth century the conceptual apparatus of medicine preserved the view that the organs of the human body had a sympathetic affinity for each other. In addition to these 'physiological' (normal) sympathies there were morbid ones which explained the existence of various diseases. A morbid sympathy link also explained the fact that insanity followed the development of pathological changes in the liver, spleen, stomach and other bodily organs. These cases were classified as 'sympathetic insanities'. After the 1880s, the sympathy narrative was gradually replaced by physiological, endocrinological and psychodynamic explanations. The clinical states involved, however, are often observed in hospital practice and constitute the metier of 'consultation-liaison psychiatry'. Hence, it is surprising that historical work on the development of this discipline has persistently ignored the concept of 'sympathetic insanity'.

  17. The JH1 Haplotype-a newly discovered marker for infertility in the jersy breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus on production traits in genetic selection programs with little consideration for traits associated with reproduction has contributed to the decline in reproductive function. Moreover, there is a negative genetic correlation between milk yield and reproduction so that selection for yield ca...

  18. [Two letters to Alexander Numan by J.H. van Opdorp, surgeon at Arnemuiden (Province of Zealand)].

    PubMed

    Oldenkamp, E P; Mathijsen, A H

    2000-01-01

    The periodical, Veeartsenijkundig Magazijn, that Numan had started in 1828 caught the attention of a surgeon in a small town in the neighbourhood of Middelburg. In his two letters he tells about his experiences in animal healing, leaving it to Numan which use he eventually might make of these observations. In the first letter (1829) he tells how he as a ship's doctor was shipwrecked in the Indian Ocean, and after being put ashore on a small island, had successfully performed an operation on an ass, suffering from a very large praeputial tumor. In his second letter (1830) he tells about his practice in Arnemuiden where he settled after leaving the navy. As there were no trained veterinarians in the surroundings, he extended his care also to animals. l.a. he reports on a case of a cow suffering from an enlarged heart, and this item was, indeed, published by Numan. A biographical sketch of Van Opdorp is added. His name is known in the medical history of The Netherlands, because he was the most fervent adherent of the teachings of Broussais, a professor of medicine in Paris. Although these teachings found many followers in the French-speaking countries, the propaganda made by Van Opdorp through a periodical, devoted to this so called physiological medicine, did not meet with success in The Netherlands.

  19. Improved Measurement of 3J(H αi, N i+1 ) Coupling Constants in H 2O Dissolved Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, Frank; Schmidt, Jürgen M.; Maurer, Steffen; Rüterjans, Heinz

    2001-11-01

    A modification to the recently proposed α/β-HN(CO)CA-J TROSY pulse sequence (P. Permi et al., J. Magn. Reson.146, 255-259 (2000)) makes it possible to determine 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) coupling constants from a single E.COSY-type cross-peak pattern rather than from two 1Hα spin-state-edited subspectra. Advantages are increased 15N resolution, critical to extracting accurate 1Hα-15N coupling constants, and minimized differential relaxation due to nested 13Cα and 15N evolution periods. Application of the improved pulse sequence to Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin results in 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) values being systematically larger than those obtained with the original scheme. Parametrization of the coupling dependence on the protein backbone torsion angle ψ yields the Karplus relation 3J(Hαi, Ni+1)=-1.00 cos2(ψ-120°)+0.65 cos(ψ-120°)-0.15 Hz, with a residual root-mean-square difference of 0.13 Hz between measured and back-calculated coupling constants. The curve compares with data derived from ubiquitin (A. C. Wang and A. Bax, J. Am. Chem. Soc.117, 1810-1813 (1995)), although spanning a slightly larger range of J values in flavodoxin. The orientation of the Ala39/Ser40 peptide link, forming a type-II β-turn in flavodoxin, is twisted against X-ray-derived torsions by approximately 10° in the NMR structure as evident from the analysis of φ- and ψ-related 3J coupling constants. The remaining deviation of some experimental values from the prediction is likely to be due to strong hydrogen bonding, substituent effects, or the additional dependence on the adjacent torsions φ.

  20. The use of groundwater tracers, including {sup 36}Cl, {delta}{sup 18}O, and {delta}{sup 2}JH, in the study fo the Magothy aquifer, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, C.A.; Mignerey, A.C.; Helz, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    The recent conclusion of a study of groundwater from the Magothy Formation, Maryland allows for an examination of processes occurring in this aquifer system. Water samples were gathered from a wide area along flow paths estimated from hydrological parameters and analyzed for the major cations and anions, nutrients, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, in addition to {sup 36}Cl, {delta}{sup 18}O, and {delta}{sup 2}H. Also, three samples that contained anomalously high {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios were analyzed for {sup 3}H in an attempt to determine possible sources for those readings. A comparison of the results of this study to those of a previous study conducted by this group of the overlying Aquia Aquifer will also be given. The potential of inter-aquifer mixing between the two systems in some areas and of matching {sup 36}Cl and Cl{sup -} values to sea level rise and fall will be discussed.

  1. Erratum: Hayward IP, Bridle KR, Campbell GR, Underwood PA, Campbell JH (1995) Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype. Cell Biology International 19: 839-846. doi: 10.1006/cbir.1995.1019.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The above article, published in print in Cell Biology International in September 1995 and online on 2 January 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1006/cbir.1995.1019/abstract), is an exact duplicate of the article 'Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype' (Hayward et al., ), which was published in the previous issue of Cell Biology International (Hayward et al., ). The duplicate publication is the result of an administrative error. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience.

  2. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  3. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    PubMed

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution.

  4. Effect of Joule heating on electrokinetic transport.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Barbaros; Li, Dongqing

    2008-03-01

    The Joule heating (JH) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in electrokinetic flow due to the presence of electrical potential gradient and electrical current. JH may become pronounced for applications with high electrical potential gradients or with high ionic concentration buffer solutions. In this review, an in-depth look at the effect of JH on electrokinetic processes is provided. Theoretical modeling of EOF and electrophoresis (EP) with the presence of JH is presented and the important findings from the previous studies are examined. A numerical study of a fused-silica capillary PCR reactor powered by JH is also presented to extend the discussion of favorable usage of JH.

  5. Digital engineering aspects of Karst map: a GIS version of Davies, W.E., Simpson, J.H., Ohlmacher, G.C., Kirk, W.S., and Newton, E.G., 1984, Engineering aspects of Karst: U.S. Geological Survey, National Atlas of the United States of America, Scale 1:7,500,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobin, Bret D.; Weary, David J.

    2004-01-01

    These data are digital facsimiles of the original 1984 Engineering Aspects of Karst map by Davies and others. This data set was converted from a printed map to a digital GIS coverage to provide users with a citable national scale karst data set to use for graphic and demonstration purposes until new, improved data are developed. These data may be used freely with proper citation. Because it has been converted to GIS format, these data can be easily projected, displayed and queried for multiple uses in GIS. The karst polygons of the original map were scanned from the stable base negatives of the original, vectorized, edited and then attributed with unit descriptions. All of these processes potentially introduce small errors and distortions to the geography. The original map was produced at a scale of 1:7,500,000; this coverage is not as accurate, and should be used for broad-scale purposes only. It is not intended for any site-specific studies.

  6. Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hip. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... the knee. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  7. Deciding to have knee or hip replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hip In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... the knee. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  8. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower extremity. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  9. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hip In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... the knee. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  10. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foot. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  11. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

  12. Activities of natural methyl farnesoids on pupariation and metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl farnesoate (MF) and juvenile hormone (JH III), which respectively bind to the receptors USP and MET, and bisepoxy JH III (bisJHIII) were assessed for several activities during Drosophila larval development, and during prepupal development to eclosed adults. Dietary MF and JH III were similar...

  13. Tunable wavelength filters using polymer long-period waveguide gratings based on metal-cladding directly defined technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-Hou; Chen, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Xi-Bin; Yi, Yun-Ji; Sun, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61575076, 61475061, and 61405070), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. JCKY-QKJC08), the Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province, China (Grant Nos. 20130522151JH, 20140519006JH, and 20160520091JH), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M571362).

  14. Juvenile hormone catabolism and oviposition in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, as functions of age, mating status, and hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Tracey J; Ramaswamy, Sonny B; Srinivasan, Asoka; Dorn, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    In vitro catabolism of juvenile hormone (JH) in haemolymph of adult female Cydia pomonella was ascribed mainly to juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) activity. No significant differences were noted between virgin and mated females 0-96 h post-emergence. Changes in JHE activity did not appear dependent upon fluctuations in JH titre; conversely, changes in JHE activity could not explain the changes in JH titres. Maximal JHE activity was recorded at 24 h (331.47 +/- 47.25 pmol/h/microl; 355.93 +/- 36.68 pmol/h/microl, virgin; mated insects, respectively) and preceded the peak in JH titres at 48 h. Topical application of JH II (10 ng-10 microg) or fenoxycarb (50 ng) enhanced JHE activity up to 640 and 56%, respectively. Treatment upon emergence with 10 microg JH II induced enzymic activity for less than 24 h, and when 10 microg JH II or 50 ng fenoxycarb were applied, circulating JH titres returned to control levels within 24 h. Oviposition was highly sensitive to exogenous JH and declined significantly with dosages >100 pg. To allow a degree of oocyte maturation before JH treatment, the hormone was administered at 6, 12, 24, or 48 h post-emergence and/or females were mated. Neither measure "protected" the system; oviposition declined immediately after JH application.

  15. The insulin/TOR signal transduction pathway is involved in the nutritional regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2013-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) levels must be modulated to permit the normal progress of development and reproductive maturation in mosquitoes. JH is part of a transduction system that assesses nutritional information and controls reproduction in mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes aegypti show nutritionally-dependent dynamic changes in corpora allata (CA) JH biosynthetic activities. A coordinated expression of most JH biosynthetic enzymes has been described in female pupae and adult mosquitoes; increases or decreases in transcript levels for all the enzymes were concurrent with increases or decreases in JH synthesis; suggesting that transcriptional changes are at least partially responsible for the dynamic changes of JH biosynthesis. The goal of the present study is to identify signaling network components responsible for the nutritional-dependent changes of JH synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes. The insulin/TOR signaling network plays a central role in the transduction of nutritional signals that regulate cell growth and metabolism in insects. These pathways have also been suggested as a link between nutritional signals and JH synthesis regulation in the CA of cockroaches and flies. We used a combination of in vitro studies and in vivo genetic knockdown experiments to explore nutritional signaling pathways in the CA. Our results suggest that the insulin/TOR pathway plays a role in the transduction of the nutritional information that regulates JH synthesis in mosquitoes. Transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding JH biosynthetic enzymes is at least partially responsible for these nutritionally modulated changes of JH biosynthesis.

  16. Metabolic analysis reveals changes in the mevalonate and juvenile hormone synthesis pathways linked to the mosquito reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Lamboglia, Ivanna; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates reproductive maturation in insects; therefore interruption of JH biosynthesis has been considered as a strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. The corpora allata (CA) from mosquitoes is highly specialized to supply variable levels of JH, which are linked to ovarian developmental stages and influenced by nutritional signals. However, very little is known about how changes in JH synthesis relate to reproductive physiology and how JH synthesis regulation is translated into changes in the CA machinery. With the advent of new methods that facilitate the analysis of transcripts, enzymes and metabolites in the minuscule CA, we were able to provide comprehensive descriptions of the mevalonic (MVA) and JH synthesis pathways by integrating information on changes in the basic components of those pathways. Our results revealed remarkable dynamic changes in JH synthesis and exposed part of a complex mechanism that regulates CA activity. Principal component (PC) analyses validated that both pathways (MVAP and JH-branch) are transcriptionally co-regulated as a single unit, and catalytic activities for the enzymes of the MVAP and JH-branch also changed in a coordinate fashion. Metabolite studies showed that global fluctuations in the intermediate pool sizes in the MVAP and JH-branch were often inversely related. PC analyses suggest that in female mosquitoes, there are at least 4 developmental switches that alter JH synthesis by modulating the flux at distinctive points in both pathways.

  17. Establishment of a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting chemicals with juvenile hormone activity using adult Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryoko; Watanabe, Haruna; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and JH agonists have been shown to induce male offspring production in various daphnids, including Daphnia magna using OECD TG211. The critical period (about 1h) for JH action on ova in the parent's ovary to induce male offspring is existing at 7-8h later from ovulation. Therefore, we considered that adult D. magna could be used to produce a short-term screening method for detecting JH analogs. Using this method, we successfully demonstrated male offspring induction in the second broods after exposure to JH or JH agonists. After investigating the exposure time, the number of repetitions and the exposure concentration, we established a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting JH analogs using adult D. magna. We examined positive and negative control chemicals using a previously developed method and verified the validity of our new testing method.

  18. [Role of DopR in the molecular mechanism of the dopamine control of juvenile hormone metabolism in female Drosophila].

    PubMed

    Karpova, E K; Bogomolova, E V; Romonova, I V; Gruntenko, N E; Raushenbakh, I Iu

    2012-08-01

    The effect of a decreased availability of the D1-like dopamine receptor (DopR) in Drosophila (caused by DopR antagonist added into food) on the juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis rate in young female D. melanogaster has been studied. The JH degradation rate and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) activities were used as indicators of the JH synthesis rate. Treatment of the flies with butaclamol, a specific DopR antagonist, has been demonstrated to increase the JH degradation rate, and the stress reactivity of the system of JH metabolism and decrease the ALP activity and stress reactivity, and increase the TDC activity and stress reactivity. As shown earlier, all this indicates a decrease in the JH synthesis rate in young female drosophila with a decreased DopR availability. It is concluded that the activating effect of dopamine on JH synthesis in Drosophila is mediated by D1-like receptors.

  19. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in Insects: What Is New, What Do We Know, and What Questions Remain?

    PubMed

    Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of JH biosynthesis has significantly changed in the last years. In this review I would like to discuss the following topics: (1) the progresses in understanding the JH biosynthesis pathway. Access to genome sequences has facilitated the identification of all the genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and the completion of comprehensive transcriptional studies, as well as the expression and characterization of recombinant enzymes. Now the existence of different flux directionalites, feed-back loops and pathway branching points in the JH biosynthesis pathways can be explored; (2) the new concepts in the modulation of JH synthesis by allatoregulators. The list of putative JH modulators is increasing. I will discuss their possible role during the different physiological states of the CA; (3) the new theoretical and physiological frameworks for JH synthesis analysis. I will discuss the bases of the flux model for JH biosynthesis. JH plays multiple roles in the control of ovary development in female mosquitoes; therefore, the CA presents different physiological states, where JH synthesis is altered by gating the flux at distinctive points in the pathway; (4) in the final section I will identify new challenges and future directions on JH synthesis research.

  20. Juvenile hormone counteracts the bHLH-PAS transcription factors MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent programmed cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Sheng, Zhentao; Liu, Hanhan; Wen, Di; He, Qianyu; Wang, Sheng; Shao, Wei; Jiang, Rong-Jing; An, Shiheng; Sun, Yaning; Bendena, William G; Wang, Jian; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Wilson, Thomas G; Song, Qisheng; Li, Sheng

    2009-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many developmental and physiological events in insects, but its molecular mechanism remains conjectural. Here we report that genetic ablation of the corpus allatum cells of the Drosophila ring gland (the JH source) resulted in JH deficiency, pupal lethality and precocious and enhanced programmed cell death (PCD) of the larval fat body. In the fat body of the JH-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice, two caspase genes that are crucial for PCD induced by the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), were significantly upregulated. These results demonstrated that JH antagonizes 20E-induced PCD by restricting the mRNA levels of Dronc and Drice. The antagonizing effect of JH on 20E-induced PCD in the fat body was further confirmed in the JH-deficient animals by 20E treatment and RNA interference of the 20E receptor EcR. Moreover, MET and GCE, the bHLH-PAS transcription factors involved in JH action, were shown to induce PCD by upregulating Dronc and Drice. In the Met- and gce-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice were downregulated, whereas in the Met-overexpression fat body, Dronc and Drice were significantly upregulated leading to precocious and enhanced PCD, and this upregulation could be suppressed by application of the JH agonist methoprene. For the first time, we demonstrate that JH counteracts MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent PCD in controlling fat body remodeling and larval-pupal metamorphosis in Drosophila.

  1. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  2. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis. PMID:26894583

  3. Comparative ovarian microarray analysis of juvenile hormone-responsive genes in water flea Daphnia magna: potential targets for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Williams, Timothy D; Sato, Tomomi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2017-03-01

    The freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna has been extensively employed in chemical toxicity tests such as OECD Test Guidelines 202 and 211. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the treatment of juvenile hormones (JHs) or their analogues to female daphnids can induce male offspring production. Based on this finding, a rapid screening method for detection of chemicals with JH-activity was recently developed using adult D. magna. This screening system determines whether a chemical has JH-activity by investigating the male offspring inducibility. Although this is an efficient high-throughput short-term screening system, much remains to be discovered about JH-responsive pathways in the ovary, and whether different JH-activators act via the same mechanism. JH-responsive genes in the ovary including developing oocytes are still largely undescribed. Here, we conducted comparative microarray analyses using ovaries from Daphnia magna treated with fenoxycarb (Fx; artificial JH agonist) or methyl farnesoate (MF; a putative innate JH in daphnids) to elucidate responses to JH agonists in the ovary, including developing oocytes, at a JH-sensitive period for male sex determination. We demonstrate that induction of hemoglobin genes is a well-conserved response to JH even in the ovary, and a potential adverse effect of JH agonist is suppression of vitellogenin gene expression, that might cause reduction of offspring number. This is the first report demonstrating different transcriptomics profiles from MF and an artificial JH agonist in D. magna ovary, improving understanding the tissue-specific mode-of-action of JH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Antifungal Activity of a Synthetic Cationic Peptide against the Plant Pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and Three Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric T; Evans, Kervin O; Dowd, Patrick F

    2015-09-01

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 μg/ml, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 μg/ml of JH8944. Most conidia of Fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with 50 μg/ml of JH8944. Germinating F. graminearum conidia required 238 μg/ml of JH8944 for 90% growth inhibition. The peptide did not cause any damage to tissues surrounding maize leaf punctures when tested at a higher concentration of 250 μg/ml even after 3 days. Liposomes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol were susceptible to leakage after treatment with 25 and 50 μg/ml of JH8944. These experiments suggest this peptide destroys fungal membrane integrity and could be utilized for control of crop fungal pathogens.

  5. Juvenile hormone esterase: biochemistry and structure

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Normal insect development requires a precisely timed, precipitous drop in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) titer. This drop occurs through a coordinated halt in JH biosynthesis and increase in JH metabolism. In many species, JH esterase (JHE) is critical for metabolism of the resonance-stabilized methyl ester of JH. JHE metabolizes JH with a high kcat/KM ratio that results primarily from an exceptionally low KM. Here we review the biochemistry and structure of authentic and recombinant JHEs from six insect orders, and present updated diagnostic criteria that help to distinguish JHEs from other carboxylesterases. The use of a JHE-encoding gene to improve the insecticidal efficacy of biopesticides is also discussed. PMID:23543805

  6. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway.

  7. Identification of two juvenile hormone inducible transcription factors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Ueno, Chihiro; Nakamura, Yuki; Kinjoh, Terunori; Ito, Yuka; Shimura, Sachiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Shigeo; Mita, Kazuei; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kamimura, Manabu

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many physiological processes in insects. However, the signal cascades in which JH is active have not yet been fully elucidated, particularly in comparison to another major hormone ecdysteroid. Here we identified two JH inducible transcription factors as candidate components of JH signaling pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. DNA microarray analysis showed that expression of two transcription factor genes, E75 and Enhancer of split mβ (E(spl)mβ), was induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I) in NIAS-Bm-aff3 cells. Real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that expression of four E75 isoforms (E75A, E75B, E75C and E75D) and E(spl)mβ was 3-8 times greater after JH I addition. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide did not suppress JH-induced expression of the genes, indicating that they were directly induced by JH. JH-induced expression of E75 and E(spl)mβ was also observed in four other B. mori cell lines and in larval hemocytes of final instar larvae. Notably, E75A expression was induced very strongly in larval hemocytes by topical application of the JH analog fenoxycarb; the level of induced expression was comparable to that produced by feeding larvae with 20-hydroxyecdysone. These results suggest that E75 and E(spl)mβ are general and direct target genes of JH and that the transcription factors encoded by these genes play important roles in JH signaling.

  8. The ectoparasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) uses instar-specific endocrine disruption strategies to suppress the development of its host Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, John P; Bell, Howard A; Audsley, Neil; Marris, Gay C; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne; Bryning, Gareth; Frisco, Caroline; Cusson, Michel

    2006-01-01

    To successfully complete its development, the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis must inhibit the moult of its host, Lacanobia oleracea. In the present study, we examined the possibility that moult- and metamorphosis-associated endocrine events may be disrupted in caterpillars parasitized as newly moulted last (sixth) instars. Juvenile hormone (JH) titres on days 2 and 5 of the final stadium were significantly higher (> 100 fold) in parasitized than in non-parasitized hosts, in which JH was essentially absent. Elevated JH levels were associated with reduced haemolymph JH esterase (JHE) activity (down by 99.8%) and enhanced in vitro JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) (up to 4.5 fold). Wasp adults and/or larvae, in which we measured high levels of JH III (up to 2.7 ng/g), but little or no JH I or JH II, were not seen as likely sources of JH in parasitized hosts, in which we found mostly JH I and JH II. In addition, removal of parasitoid eggs or larvae after oviposition did not prevent the rise in JH titres seen in parasitoid-laden hosts, suggesting that wasp venom may be responsible for the observed hormonal dysfunction. Host haemolymph 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) levels were largely unaffected by parasitism during the final stadium although they were observed to increase earlier and decrease more rapidly in parasitized insects. We compare these results with those reported earlier for L. oleracea larvae parasitized by E. pennicornis as penultimate (fifth) instars, which display significantly depressed 20-E titres relative to control larvae. We conclude that E. pennicornis employs host endocrine-disruption strategies that differ according to whether the host is parasitized as a penultimate or final-stadium larva.

  9. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis, oocyte growth and vitellogenin accumulation in Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Delisle, J; Cusson, M

    1999-06-01

    We assessed the effects of age and mating status on in vitro juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, oocyte growth, egg production and vitellogenin (Vg) accumulation in the tortricid moths, Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana. To determine whether vitellogenesis is dependent on the presence of JH, we also examined the effects of decapitation and JH analog treatments on egg production. In both species, the corpora allata (CA) of adult females released fmol quantities of JH, with JH II being the major homolog produced. The CA began producing detectable quantities of JH around the time of emergence. Full activation of the CA was observed a few hours sooner in C. fumiferana than in C. rosaceana. In pharate adults and young virgin females of both species, growth of the basal oocyte reflected changes in CA activity. Decapitation of newly emerged females significantly reduced egg production, but treatment of decapitated females with the JH analog methoprene resulted in egg production that was similar to (C. fumiferana) or greater than (C. rosaceana) that of controls, indicating that JH is required for oocyte maturation. Vg was first observed in the hemolymph before the presumptive time of CA activation, suggesting that the synthesis of this protein is not dependent on JH. The presence of normal quantities of Vg in the hemolymph of pupae decapitated before CA activation confirmed this hypothesis. The Vg titer underwent a transient decline following CA activation and was significantly lower in mated than in virgin females of both species 3 and 5 days after copulation. Since CA activation at emergence and mating are both expected to cause a rise in the JH titer, we suggest that the declines in the levels of Vg result from JH-enhanced Vg uptake by the developing oocytes. Mating induced a significant increase in egg production but had no measurable impact on rates of JH biosynthesis in vitro.

  10. Delta-Tocotrienol: Radiation Protection and Effects on Signal Transduction Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    101.3) Tween 80, Brij combinations Prodrugs 1. DT3 Glycinate (JH-V-91.2) 2. DT3 Succinate (JH-V-103.2) 3. DT3 Glucoside (JH-V-119) Rn DT3 Group Added...EM1 75 25 25 56 EM2 100 25 25 25 DT3 as Prodrugs Glycinate 225 6 6 19 Succinate 240 19 13 38 Glucoside 225 37* 38 44 (75) * contains 10% ethanol

  11. A coordinated expression of biosynthetic enzymes controls the flux of juvenile hormone precursors in the corpora allata of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nouzova, Marcela; Edwards, Marten J; Mayoral, Jaime G; Noriega, Fernando G

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of metamorphosis and ovarian development in mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes show developmental and dynamically regulated changes of JH synthesis. Newly emerged females have corpora allata (CA) with low biosynthetic activity, but they produce high amounts of JH a day later; blood feeding results in a striking decrease in JH synthesis, but the CA returns to a high level of JH synthesis three days later. To understand the molecular bases of these dynamic changes we combined transcriptional studies of 11 of the 13 enzymes of the JH pathway with a functional analysis of JH synthesis. We detected up to a 1000-fold difference in the levels of mRNA in the CA among the JH biosynthetic enzymes studied. There was a coordinated expression of the 11 JH biosynthetic enzymes in female pupae and adult mosquito. Increases or decreases in transcript levels for all the enzymes resulted in increases or decreases of JH synthesis; suggesting that transcript changes are at least partially responsible for the dynamic changes of JH biosynthesis observed. JH synthesis by the CA was progressively increased in vitro by addition of exogenous precursors such as geranyl-diphosphate, farnesyl-diphosphate, farnesol, farnesal and farnesoic acid. These results suggest that the supply of these precursors and not the activity of the last 6 pathway enzymes is rate limiting in these glands. Nutrient reserves play a key role in the regulation of JH synthesis. Nutritionally deficient females had reduced transcript levels for the genes encoding JH biosynthetic enzymes and reduced JH synthesis. Our studies suggest that JH synthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools, enzyme levels and external regulators such as nutrients and brain factors. Enzyme levels might need to surpass a minimum threshold to achieve a net flux of precursors through the biosynthetic

  12. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action. PMID:26927076

  13. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7.

  14. Methoprene-tolerant 1 regulates gene transcription to maintain insect larval status.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Liu, Chun-Yan; Liu, Wen; Wang, Di; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-08-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are regulated by two hormones: 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). The hormone 20E regulates gene transcription via the nuclear receptor EcR to promote metamorphosis, whereas JH regulates gene transcription via its intracellular receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) to prevent larval-pupal transition. However, the function and mechanism of Met in various insect developments are not well understood. We propose that Met1 plays a key role in maintaining larval status not only by promoting JH-responsive gene transcription but also by repressing 20E-responsive gene transcription in the Lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. Met1 protein is increased during feeding stage and decreased during molting and metamorphic stages. Met1 is upregulated by JH III and a low concentration of 20E independently, but is downregulated by a high concentration of 20E. Knockdown of Met1 in larvae causes precocious pupation, decrease in JH pathway gene expression, and increase in 20E pathway gene expression. Met1 interacts with heat shock protein 90 and binds to JH response element to regulate Krüppel homolog 1 transcription in JH III induction. Met1 interacts with ultraspiracle protein 1 (USP1) to repress 20E transcription complex EcRB1/USP1 formation and binding to ecdysone response element. These data indicate that JH via Met1 regulates JH pathway gene expression and represses 20E pathway gene expression to maintain the larval status.

  15. Gonadotropic and Physiological Functions of Juvenile Hormone in Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Workers

    PubMed Central

    Shpigler, Hagai; Amsalem, Etya; Huang, Zachary Y.; Cohen, Mira; Siegel, Adam J.; Hefetz, Abraham; Bloch, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of advanced sociality in bees is associated with apparent modifications in juvenile hormone (JH) signaling. By contrast to most insects in which JH is a gonadotropin regulating female fertility, in the highly eusocial honey bee (Apis mellifera) JH has lost its gonadotrophic function in adult females, and instead regulates age-related division of labor among worker bees. In order to shed light on the evolution of JH signaling in bees we performed allatectomy and replacement therapies to manipulate JH levels in workers of the "primitively eusocial" bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Allatectomized worker bees showed remarkable reduction in ovarian development, egg laying, Vitellogenin and Krüppel homolog 1 fat body transcript levels, hemolymph Vitellogenin protein abundance, wax secretion, and egg-cell construction. These effects were reverted, at least partially, by treating allatectomized bees with JH-III, the natural JH of bees. Allatectomy also affected the amount of ester component in Dufour's gland secretion, which is thought to convey a social signal relating to worker fertility. These findings provide a strong support for the hypothesis that in contrast to honey bees, JH is a gonadotropin in bumblebees and lend credence to the hypothesis that the evolution of advanced eusociality in honey bees was associated with major modifications in JH signaling. PMID:24959888

  16. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Daphnia magna has been used extensively to evaluate organism- and population-level responses to pollutants in acute toxicity and reproductive toxicity tests. We have previously reported that exposure to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists results in a reduction of reproductive function and production of male offspring in a cyclic parthenogenesis, D. magna. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided tools to understand better the responses to pollutants in aquatic organisms, including D. magna. DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal daphnids exposed to JH agonists: methoprene (125, 250 and 500 ppb), fenoxycarb (0.5, 1 and 2 ppb) and epofenonane (50, 100 and 200 ppb). Exposure to these JH analogs resulted in chemical-specific patterns of gene expression. The heat map analyses based on hierarchical clustering revealed a similar pattern between treatments with a high dose of methoprene and with epofenonane. In contrast, treatment with low to middle doses of methoprene resulted in similar profiles to fenoxycarb treatments. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered as JH-responsive genes. These data suggest that fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism compared with other JH analogs, agreeing with data of previously reported toxicity tests. In conclusion, D. magna DNA microarray is useful for the classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes.

  17. Teaching Geography Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Jones, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    Twenty suggestions in five conceptual areas -- interdependence, population, pollution, resource utilization, land use -- are offered to teachers incorporating environmental studies into their social studies curricula. (JH)

  18. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-02-26

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action.

  19. Wolbachia-induced paternal defect in Drosophila is likely by interaction with the juvenile hormone pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Ya; Xiong, En-Juan; Li, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Lin-Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2014-06-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many insect species. They can manipulate the host's reproduction to increase their own maternal transmission. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one such manipulation, which is expressed as embryonic lethality when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females. However, matings between males and females carrying the same Wolbachia strain result in viable progeny. The molecular mechanisms of CI are currently not clear. We have previously reported that the gene Juvenile hormone-inducible protein 26 (JhI-26) exhibited the highest upregulation in the 3rd instar larval testes of Drosophila melanogaster when infected by Wolbachia. This is reminiscent of an interaction between Wolbachia and juvenile hormone (JH) pathway in flies. Considering that Jhamt gene encodes JH acid methyltransferase, a key regulatory enzyme of JH biosynthesis, and that methoprene-tolerant (Met) has been regarded as the best JH receptor candidate, we first compared the expression of Jhamt and Met between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected fly testes to investigate whether Wolbachia infection influence the JH signaling pathway. We found that the expressions of Jhamt and Met were significantly increased in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting an interaction of Wolbachia with the JH signaling pathway. Then, we found that overexpression of JhI-26 in Wolbachia-free transgenic male flies caused paternal-effect lethality that mimics the defects associated with CI. JhI-26 overexpressing males resulted in significantly decrease in hatch rate. Surprisingly, Wolbachia-infected females could rescue the egg hatch. In addition, we showed that overexpression of JhI-26 caused upregulation of the male accessory gland protein (Acp) gene CG10433, but not vice versa. This result suggests that JhI-26 may function at the upstream of CG10433. Likewise, overexpression of CG10433 also resulted in paternal-effect lethality. Both JhI-26 and CG10433 overexpressing males

  20. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  1. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    PubMed

    McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees.

  2. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  3. Influence of juvenile hormone and mating on oogenesis and oviposition in the codling moth, cydia pomonella

    PubMed

    Webb; Shu; Ramaswamy; Dorn

    1999-01-01

    Oogenesis in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the role of juvenile hormones (JHs) were addressed. Rudimentary ovarian structures were recognisable in day 3-4 pupae, when haemolymph JH was still undetectable by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion mode (GC-MS/SIM). The presence of developing oocytes was observed by light microscopy on day 8, coincident with very low JH titres (0.74 +/- 0.05 ng/ml JH II). Chorionation was only evident upon emergence, following an increase in JH in the pharate adult (0h old: 4.71 +/- 0.34 ng/ml JH II). Analysis of haemolymph from virgin and mated females indicated that JH II was predominant, with approximately equal and lower quantities of JHs I and III (3.3- to 5.0-fold less). When pupae or newly emerged adults were treated with JH homologues, no alteration in ovarian protein content was apparent, but the JH mimetic, fenoxycarb, depressed the number of oocytes filling >/= 50% follicular volume. Chorion deposition was stimulated by JHs I, II, or III (10 &mgr;g), but not by fenoxycarb (0.05 &mgr;g, 10 &mgr;g). Mating provided correct stimuli for enhanced choriogenesis and egg laying, and, since haemolymph JH titres were concomitantly elevated (approximately 2-fold), it was postulated that the rise in JH elicited both these events. Application of JHs to virgin females, however, could not mimic mating; only increases in choriogenesis were induced: JH-treatment of virgins (or mated insects) significantly decreased oviposition rates over 24 and 48 h and markedly reduced the life-time total number of eggs. Arch. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Eng, W S; Robles, S; Vogt, R G; Wiśniewski, J R; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural 3H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated [125I]12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added 125I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of [125I]12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  5. Fundamental Combustion Processes of Particle-Laden Shear Flows in Solid Fuel Ramjets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-17

    1978. Ozisik, M. N., Radiative Transfer and Interactions with Conduction and Convection, Wiley, New York, New York. 1973. 330j Stufflebeam , J.H., and... Stufflebeam , J.H., and Eckbreth, A.C., "Multi- land Ohio, pp. 1-7, July 1982. pIe Species CARS Measurements of High Pres- 3 Psure Solid Propellant Combustion

  6. The stress of secondary school for vulnerable students.

    PubMed

    Safer, D J

    1986-10-01

    An assessment of the stress of junior high/middle school (JH/MS) can be made by comparing overall behavior and academic student patterns in JH/MS with those in elementary school (ES), and by evaluating the differential educational consequences experienced by JH/MS students who had varying degrees of maladjustment in ES. Specific numeric data indicate that the environment is far more open, combative, frightening, impersonal, and academically taxing in JH/MS than in the ES. Partly as a result, suspensions, unexcused absenteeism, and grade failure occur at a much greater overall rate in JH/MS. Also, the immediate aftermath of these school adversities is significantly more deleterious in JH/MS than in ES. An analysis of the differential outcome data reveals that JH/MS students who had prominent ES maladjustments have a 5-13-fold greater rate of grade failure, suspension, and undue absenteeism than do students without such ES difficulties, and that generally students without major ES malajustment patterns continue to perform well after their entry to secondary school. In effect, then, JH/MS is primarily a stressful environment for students who are vulnerable on entry.

  7. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... he would sign a check or legal document (e.g., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is...., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is not permitted, paper prescriptions shall...

  8. Role of Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Transterrin Response In Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-21

    for identifying dividing cells. Int. J. Cancer, 27::329-334. 13. Wrba, F., Ritzinger, E., Reiner, A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR...A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR) expression in breast carcinoma and its possible relationship to prognosis. An immunohistochemical

  9. A cumulative feeding threshold required for vitellogenesis can be obviated with juvenile hormone treatment in lubber grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, R B; Hatle, J D

    2008-01-01

    Developmental thresholds can ensure that an adequate condition has been attained to proceed through major transitions (e.g. initiation of reproduction, metamorphosis). Nutrition is critical to attaining most thresholds, because it is needed for both growth and storage. Attaining a threshold typically stimulates the release of hormones that commit the animal to the developmental transition, yet the relationships between the nutrition needed for developmental thresholds and these endocrine signals are poorly understood. Lubber grasshoppers require a cumulative feeding threshold to initiate vitellogenesis and potentially commit to oviposition. We tested the relative roles of the nutritional threshold and the major gonadotropin (juvenile hormone; JH) in initiating vitellogenesis and committing to oviposition. The source of JH was removed from all females, and then JH analog was applied after different amounts of feeding. Threshold feeding was not required to initiate vitellogenesis, suggesting that sub-threshold grasshoppers are competent to respond to JH. Further, sub-threshold grasshoppers went on to oviposit earlier than supra-threshold grasshoppers treated with JH at the same time. Hence, threshold feeding is required only to cause the production and release of JH. At the same time, we also found that individuals that were restored with JH late in life tended to favor current reproduction, at the expense of future reproduction. Both time to oviposition and vitellogenin profiles were consistent with this developmental allocation. Taken together, our results suggest that lubber grasshoppers adjust reproductive tactics primarily in response to nutrition (which only serves to release JH) and secondarily in response to age.

  10. The pleiotropic allatoregulatory neuropeptides and their receptors: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Heleen; Gijbels, Marijke; Lismont, Els; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Marchal, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormones (JH) are highly pleiotropic insect hormones essential for post-embryonic development. The circulating JH titer in the hemolymph of insects is influenced by enzymatic degradation, binding to JH carrier proteins, uptake and storage in target organs, but evidently also by rates of production at its site of synthesis, the corpora allata (CA). The multiple processes in which JH is involved alongside the critical significance of JH in insect development emphasize the importance for elucidating the control of JH production. Production of JH in CA cells is regulated by different factors: by neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate, but also by allatoregulatory neuropeptides originating from the brain and axonally transported to the CA where they bind to their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Different classes of allatoregulatory peptides exist which have other functions aside from acting as influencers of JH production. These pleiotropic neuropeptides regulate different processes in different insect orders. In this mini-review, we will give an overview of allatotropins and allatostatins, and their recently characterized GPCRs with a view to better understand their modes of action and different action sites.

  11. Ligand-binding properties of a juvenile hormone receptor, Methoprene-tolerant

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Jean-Philippe; Iwema, Thomas; Epa, V. Chandana; Takaki, Keiko; Rynes, Jan; Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a sesquiterpenoid of vital importance for insect development, yet the molecular basis of JH signaling remains obscure, mainly because a bona fide JH receptor has not been identified. Mounting evidence points to the basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH)/Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the best JH receptor candidate. However, details of how Met transduces the hormonal signal are missing. Here, we demonstrate that Met specifically binds JH III and its biologically active mimics, methoprene and pyriproxyfen, through its C-terminal PAS domain. Substitution of individual amino acids, predicted to form a ligand-binding pocket, with residues possessing bulkier side chains reduces JH III binding likely because of steric hindrance. Although a mutation that abolishes JH III binding does not affect a Met–Met complex that forms in the absence of methoprene, it prevents both the ligand-dependent dissociation of the Met–Met dimer and the ligand-dependent interaction of Met with its partner bHLH-PAS protein Taiman. These results show that Met can sense the JH signal through direct, specific binding, thus establishing a unique class of intracellular hormone receptors. PMID:22167806

  12. Ligand-binding properties of a juvenile hormone receptor, Methoprene-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jean-Philippe; Iwema, Thomas; Epa, V Chandana; Takaki, Keiko; Rynes, Jan; Jindra, Marek

    2011-12-27

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a sesquiterpenoid of vital importance for insect development, yet the molecular basis of JH signaling remains obscure, mainly because a bona fide JH receptor has not been identified. Mounting evidence points to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the best JH receptor candidate. However, details of how Met transduces the hormonal signal are missing. Here, we demonstrate that Met specifically binds JH III and its biologically active mimics, methoprene and pyriproxyfen, through its C-terminal PAS domain. Substitution of individual amino acids, predicted to form a ligand-binding pocket, with residues possessing bulkier side chains reduces JH III binding likely because of steric hindrance. Although a mutation that abolishes JH III binding does not affect a Met-Met complex that forms in the absence of methoprene, it prevents both the ligand-dependent dissociation of the Met-Met dimer and the ligand-dependent interaction of Met with its partner bHLH-PAS protein Taiman. These results show that Met can sense the JH signal through direct, specific binding, thus establishing a unique class of intracellular hormone receptors.

  13. Argonaute 1 is indispensable for juvenile hormone mediated oogenesis in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiasheng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2013-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is the primary hormone controlling vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, an evolutionarily primitive insect species with panoistic ovaries. However, molecular mechanisms of locust oogenesis remain unclear and the role of microRNA (miRNA) in JH mediated locust vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation has not been explored. Using miRNA sequencing and quantification with small RNA libraries derived from fat bodies of JH-deprived versus JH analog-exposed female adult locusts, we have identified 83 JH up-regulated and 60 JH down-regulated miRNAs. QRT-PCR validation has confirmed that transcription of selected miRNAs responded to JH administration and correlated with changes in endogenous hemolymph JH titers. Depletion of Argonaute 1 (Ago1), a key regulator of miRNA biogenesis and function by RNAi in female adult locusts dramatically decreased the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and severely impaired follicular epithelium development, terminal oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. Our data indicate that Ago1 and Ago1-dependent miRNAs play a crucial role in locust vitellogenesis and egg production.

  14. Precocene-I inhibits juvenile hormone biosynthesis, ovarian activation, aggression and alters sterility signal production in bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) workers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important regulator of development and physiology in insects. While in many insect species, including bumble bees, JH function as gonadotropin in adults, in some highly eusocial insects its role has shifted to regulate social behavior including division of labor, dominanc...

  15. Juvenile Hormone Regulation of Drosophila Epac - A Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rap1 Small GTPase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we utilized a microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster to analyze the effect of (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH) on genome-wide gene expression in Drosophila S2 cells. Treatment with JH yielded a collection of 32 gene transcripts that demonstrated a ...

  16. Microarray Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Response in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was used to analyze the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on genome-wide gene expression. JH is a member of a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Altho...

  17. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  18. Role of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in adult morphogenesis and in adult ecdysis of Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent.

  19. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  20. Military-Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Epidemiology, Immunology, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    November 2006-January 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2;56(4):73-6. Salazar MI, Richardson JH, Sanchez- Vargas I, Olson KE, Beaty BJ. 2007. Dengue...virus type 2: replication and tropisms in orally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. BMC Microbiol. 30;7(1):9 Richardson JH, Molina-Cruz A, Salazar

  1. Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile hormone-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shemshedini, L.; Wilson, T.G. )

    1990-03-01

    The Met mutant of Drosophila melanogaster is highly resistant to juvenile hormone III (JH III) or its chemical analog, methoprene, an insect growth regulator. Five major mechanisms of insecticide resistance were examined in Met and susceptible Met{sup +} flies. These two strains showed only minor differences when penetration, excretion, tissue sequestration, or metabolism of ({sup 3}H)JH III was measured. In contrast, when we examined JH III binding by a cytosolic binding protein from a JH target tissue, Met strains had a 10-fold lower binding affinity than did Met{sup +} strains. Studies using deficiency-bearing chromosomes provide strong evidence that the Met locus controls the binding protein characteristics and may encode the protein. These studies indicate that resistance in Met flies results from reduced binding affinity of a cytosolic binding protein for JH III.

  2. How does juvenile hormone control insect metamorphosis and reproduction?

    PubMed

    Riddiford, Lynn M

    2012-12-01

    In insects juvenile hormone (JH) regulates both metamorphosis and reproduction. This lecture focuses on our current understanding of JH action at the molecular level in both of these processes based primarily on studies in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The roles of the JH receptor complex and the transcription factors that it regulates during larval molting and metamorphosis are summarized. Also highlighted are the intriguing interactions of the JH and insulin signaling pathways in both imaginal disc development and vitellogenesis. Critical actions of JH and its receptor in the timing of maturation of the adult optic lobe and of female receptivity in Drosophila are also discussed.

  3. John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2015-11-23

    This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  4. Coupling between H+ transport and anaerobic glycolysis in turtle urinary bladder: effect of inhibitors of H+ ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, P.R.; Husted, R.F.; Mueller, A.; Beauwens, R.

    1981-03-15

    The coupling between H+ transport (JH) and anaerobic glycolysis was examined in vitro in an anaerobic preparation of turtle urinary bladder. JH was measured as the short-circuit current after Na+ transport was abolished with ouabain and by pH stat titration. The media were gassed with N2 and 1% CO2 (PO2 less than 0.5 mm Hg) and contained 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, JH was not inhibited by 3 mM serosal (S) cyanide or by 0.1 mM mucosal (M) dinitrophenol. Control anaerobic lactate production (Jlac) of 47 bladders was plotted as a function of simultaneously measured JH. The slope of Jlac on JH was 0.58

  5. Hormonal control of sexual receptivity in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Schal, C; Chiang, A S

    1995-09-29

    Many animals exhibit specific behaviors associated with sexual receptivity only when they are reproductively competent. In insects with gonadal maturation cycles, these behaviors usually coincide with ovarian maturation. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), regulates female reproductive physiology. Various experimental manipulations, including ablation of the CA, therapy with JH analogs, CA denervation, ovariectomy, and changing nutrient quality, coupled with time-lapse video recording, support the hypothesis that JH also controls female sexual receptivity. A re-examination of the role of the CA in the maturation of male sexual readiness shows that, while sexual behavior develops in the absence of JH in both B. germanica and Supella longipalpa, JH accelerates the expression of sexual readiness.

  6. Behavioural effects of juvenile hormone and their influence on division of labour in leaf-cutting ant societies.

    PubMed

    Norman, Victoria C; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour in social insects represents a major evolutionary transition, but the physiological mechanisms that regulate this are still little understood. Experimental work with honey bees, and correlational analyses in other social insects, have implicated juvenile hormone (JH) as a regulatory factor, but direct experimental evidence of behavioural effects of JH in social insects is generally lacking. Here, we used experimental manipulation of JH to show that raised JH levels in leaf-cutting ants results in workers becoming more active, phototactic and threat responsive, and engaging in more extranidal activity - behavioural changes that we show are all characteristic of the transition from intranidal work to foraging. These behavioural effects on division of labour suggest that the JH mediation of behaviour occurs across multiple independent evolutions of eusociality, and may be a key endocrine regulator of the division of labour which has produced the remarkable ecological and evolutionary success of social insects.

  7. Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic methanogen isolated from a volcanically active deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, You-Tae; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Park, Cheon-Seok; Holden, James F

    2015-04-01

    A hyperthermophilic methanogen, strain JH146(T), was isolated from 26 °C hydrothermal vent fluid emanating from a crack in basaltic rock at Marker 113 vent, Axial Seamount in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It was identified as an obligate anaerobe that uses only H2 and CO2 for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain is more than 97% similar to other species of the genus Methanocaldococcus . Therefore, overall genome relatedness index analyses were performed to establish that strain JH146(T) represents a novel species. For each analysis, strain JH146(T) was most similar to Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22, which can fix N2 and also comes from Marker 113 vent. However, strain JH146(T) differs from strain FS406-22 in that it cannot fix N2. The average nucleotide identity score for strain JH146(T) was 87%, the genome-to-genome direct comparison score was 33-55% and the species identification score was 93%. For each analysis, strain JH146(T) was below the species delineation cut-off. Full-genome gene synteny analysis showed that strain JH146(T) and strain FS406-22 have 97% genome synteny, but strain JH146(T) was missing the operons necessary for N2 fixation and assimilatory nitrate reduction that are present in strain FS406-22. Based on its whole genome sequence, strain JH146(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Methanocaldococcus for which the name Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens is proposed. The type strain is JH146(T) ( = DSM 27223(T) = KACC 18232(T)).

  8. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-05-17

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect's life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb'Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb'jhamt In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb'Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb'Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb'jhamt Gb'Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb'myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb'jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb'myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb'myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5-8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development.

  9. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect’s life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb’Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb’jhamt. In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb’Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb’Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb’jhamt. Gb’Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb’myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb’jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb’myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb’myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5–8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development. PMID:27140602

  10. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  11. Hairy and Groucho mediate the action of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant in gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Tusar T.; Shin, Sang Woon; Dou, Wei; Roy, Sourav; Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Li; Zou, Zhen; Girke, Thomas; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The arthropod-specific juvenile hormone (JH) controls numerous essential functions. Its involvement in gene activation is known to be mediated by the transcription factor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which turns on JH-controlled genes by directly binding to E-box–like motifs in their regulatory regions. However, it remains unclear how JH represses genes. We used the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, in which JH is necessary for reproductive maturation, to show that a repressor, Hairy, is required for the gene-repressive action of JH and Met. The RNA interference (RNAi) screen for Met and Hairy in the Aedes female fat body revealed a large cohort of Met- and Hairy-corepressed genes. Analysis of selected genes from this cohort demonstrated that they are repressed by JH, but RNAi of either Met or Hairy renders JH ineffective in repressing these genes in an in vitro fat-body culture assay. Moreover, this JH action was prevented by the addition of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) to the culture, indicating the existence of an indirect regulatory hierarchy. The lack of Hairy protein in the CHX-treated tissue was verified using immunoblot analysis, and the upstream regions of Met/Hairy-corepressed genes were shown to contain common binding motifs that interact with Hairy. Groucho (gro) RNAi silencing phenocopied the effect of Hairy RNAi knockdown, indicating that it is involved in the JH/Met/Hairy hierarchy. Finally, the requirement of Hairy and Gro for gene repression was confirmed in a cell transfection assay. Thus, our study has established that Hairy and its cofactor Gro mediate the repressive function of JH and Met. PMID:26744312

  12. Juvenile hormone facilitates the antagonism between adult reproduction and diapause through the methoprene-tolerant gene in the female Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Fen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In insects, the process whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates short-day (SD)-induced reproductive diapause has been previously investigated. However, we still do not understand the mechanism by which JH regulates long-day (LD)-induced reproductive diapause. In this study, we use a cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia capable of entering reproductive diapause under LD conditions, as a model to test whether JH regulates female reproductive diapause similar to the mechanism of SD-induced diapause. Our results showed that the JH analog (JHA) methoprene significantly induced ovarian development but inhibited lipid accumulation of diapause-destined adults. Meanwhile, the transcripts of the vitellogenin (Vg) genes were upregulated, whereas the expression of the fat synthesis and stress tolerance genes were downregulated. RNA interference of the JH candidate receptor gene methoprene-tolerant (Met) blocked JH-induced ovarian development and Vg transcription, suggesting a positive regulatory function for JH-Met signaling in reproduction. Furthermore, under reproduction-inducing conditions, Met depletion promoted a diapause-like phenotype, including arrested ovarian development and increased lipid storage, and stimulated the expression of diapause-related genes involved in lipid synthesis and stress tolerance, suggesting JH-Met signaling plays an important role in the inhibition of diapause. Accordingly, our data indicate that JH acts through Met to facilitate development of the reproductive system by upregulating Vg expression while inhibiting diapause by suppressing lipid synthesis and stress tolerance in the cabbage beetle. Combined with previous studies in SD-induced reproductive diapause, we conclude that JH may regulate female reproductive diapause using a conserved Met-dependent pathway, regardless of the length of the photoperiod inducing diapause in insects.

  13. Expressional and functional analysis of CYP15A1, a juvenile hormone epoxidase, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Ishii, Fumika; Washidu, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Akio; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Miura, Ken; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is synthesized and secreted by the corpora allata. In the final two steps of JH biosynthesis, farnesoic acid (FA) is converted to JH through methylation by JH acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT) and epoxidation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP15. In the present study, we identified a homolog of CYP15 from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TcCYP15A1), and analyzed its expression as well as its role in JH biosynthesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the level of TcCYP15A1 mRNA was high in the embryonic stage as well as in the middle of the final larval instar. In the embryonic stage, the transcript level of TcCYP15A1 started to increase 30h after egg laying (AEL), peaked 54-60h AEL, and was followed by an increase of TcJHAMT mRNA, suggesting that JH biosynthesis started at this time point. TcCYP15A1 mRNA was present, but not exclusively so in the larval corpora allata. The recombinant TcCYP15A1 protein epoxidized both FA and methyl farnesoate (MF) in highly stereo-specific manners. These results confirmed that TcCYP15A1 is involved in JH biosynthesis. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcCYP15A1 in the pre-final larval instar did not result in precocious metamorphosis to pupa, indicating that MF may exhibit JH-like activity in order to maintain the larval status. The double knockdown of TcJHAMT and TcCYP15A1 resulted in pupae and adults with shorter wings, suggesting that the precursors of JH, JH acid and MF, may be essential for wing expansion.

  14. Differential physiological responses of the German cockroach to social interactions during the ovarian cycle.

    PubMed

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2012-09-01

    In many animal species, social interactions can influence the morphology, physiology and behavior of individuals, including their rate of development and reproduction. Reproduction in cockroaches is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), and social interactions have been shown to accelerate female reproduction in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), by stimulating JH production. However, it is not clear in this or any other insect species whether social facilitation of the reproductive rate occurs throughout the ovarian cycle or only at certain stages. We compared the effects of social interactions during the pre-oviposition period (when JH production is high) and during gestation (when little JH is produced), as well as during the first ovarian cycle (when females are virgin) and the second ovarian cycle (after females had mated). Social interaction with one conspecific female was sufficient to accelerate JH production and oocyte maturation, but this effect was reversed by crowding. Social interactions also accelerated the onset of sexual receptivity in virgin females. However, social interactions failed to shorten gestation, suggesting that social cues stimulate JH production only when the corpora allata (CA) are active and not when CA activity is suppressed by the central nervous system. Females were most responsive to transient social isolation and transient social interactions when 2-3 days old, suggesting that they are particularly sensitive to social interactions when their CA become active. Overall, these results show that all JH-dependent events in the reproductive cycle of B. germanica females are under the strong influence of social interactions.

  15. Nucleoporin Nup358 facilitates nuclear import of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in an importin β- and Hsp83-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    He, Qianyu; Zhang, Yuanxi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, DanDan; Dong, Wentao; Li, Sheng; Wu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The bHLH-PAS transcription factor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met)(1), functions as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor and transduces JH signals by directly binding to E-box like motifs in the regulatory regions of JH response genes. Nuclear localization of Met is crucial for its transcriptional activity. Our previous studies have shown that the chaperone protein Hsp83 facilitates JH-induced Met nuclear import in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of Met nuclear transport are not fully elucidated. Using DNA affinity chromatography, we have previously detected binding of the nucleoporin Nup358, in the presence of JH, to the JH response region (JHRR) sequences isolated from the Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) promoter. Here, we have demonstrated that Nup358 regulates JH-Hsp83-induced Met nuclear localization. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Nup358 expression in Drosophila fat body perturbs Met nuclear transport during the 3 h after initiation of wandering, when the JH titer is high. The accompanying reduced expression of the transport receptor importin β in Nup358 RNAi flies could be one of the reasons accounting for Met mislocalization. Furthermore, a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain at the N-terminal end of Nup358 interacts with Hsp83 and is indispensable for Met nuclear localization. Overexpression of the TPR domain in Drosophila fat body prevents Met nuclear localization resulting in a decrease in JHRR-driven reporter activity and Kr-h1 expression. These data show that Nup358 facilitates JH-induced Met nuclear transport in a manner dependent on importin β and Hsp83.

  16. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the mosquito corpora allata.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. JH titer decreases in the last instar larvae allowing pupation and metamorphosis to progress. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which plays an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) prepares the pupae for ecdysis, and would be an ideal candidate to direct a developmental program in the CA of the pharate adult mosquito. In this study, we provide evidence that 20E acts as an age-linked hormonal signal, directing CA activation in the mosquito pupae. Stimulation of the inactive brain-corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex (Br-CA-CC) of the early pupa (24 h before adult eclosion or -24 h) in vitro with 20E resulted in a remarkable increase in JH biosynthesis, as well as increase in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). Addition of methyl farnesoate but not farnesoic acid also stimulated JH synthesis by the Br-CA-CC of the -24 h pupae, proving that epoxidase activity is present, but not JHAMT activity. Separation of the CA-CC complex from the brain (denervation) in the -24 h pupae also activated JH synthesis. Our results suggest that an increase in 20E titer might override an inhibitory effect of the brain on JH synthesis, phenocopying denervation. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that 20E acts as a developmental signal that ensures proper reactivation of JH synthesis in the mosquito pupae.

  17. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

  18. Recombination events near the immunoglobulin Cmu gene join variable and constant region genes, switch heavy-chain expression, or inactivate the locus.

    PubMed

    Cory, S; Webb, E; Gough, J; Adams, J M

    1981-04-28

    Immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression is initiated by recombination between a variable region (VH) gene and one of several joining region (JH) genes located near the mu constant region (Cmu) gene, and the active VH gene can subsequently switch to another CH gene. That the general mechanism for CH switching involves recombination between sites within the JH-Cmu intervening sequence and the 5' flanking region of another CH gene is supported here by Southern blot hybridization analysis of eight IgG- and IgA-secreting plasmacytomas. An alternative model requiring successive VH linkage to similar JH clusters near each CH gene is shown to be very unlikely since the mouse genome appears to contain only one complement of the JH locus and no JH gene was detectable within large cloned sequences flanking germline C gamma 3 and C gamma 1 genes. Thus, VH-JH joining and CH switching are mediated by separate regions of "the joining-switch" or J-S element. In each plasmacytoma examined, the J-S element had undergone recombination within both the JH locus and the switch region and was shown to be linked to the functional CH gene in an IgG3, and IgG1, and three IgA secretors. Both JH joining and CH switching occurred by deletion of DNA. Switch recombination occurred at more than one site within the J-S element in different lines, even for recombination with the same CH gene. Significantly, although heavy-chain expression is restricted to one allele ("allelic exclusion"), all rearranged in each plasmacytoma. Some rearrangements were aberrant, involving, for example, deletion of all JH genes from the allele. Hence, an error-prone recombination machinery may account for allelic exclusion in many plasmacytomas.

  19. Juvenile hormone titers, ovarian status and epicuticular hydrocarbons in gynes and workers of the paper wasp Belonogaster longitarsus.

    PubMed

    Kelstrup, Hans C; Hartfelder, Klaus; Esterhuizen, Nanike; Wossler, Theresa C

    2017-04-01

    The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation. JH levels have long been inferred to be low in gynes but this has never been tested. In what is the first study to measure JH in gyne-containing colonies of a temperate paper wasp, and the first to incorporate hormone assays in Belonogaster, our results show that the JH titer positively correlates with gyne-specific traits (including oocyte length and a low frequency of foraging trips) in B. longitarsus, a South African paper wasp. Measures of dominance correlated with oocyte length, but not all dominant females possessed activated ovaries. The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of gynes and workers were distinct, with oocyte length and JH titer showing a positive association with longer-chain methyl-branched alkanes. Nonetheless, evidence for a role of JH in dominance was inconclusive. Finally, the range of JH titers among gynes, and the positive association of JH titers with ovarian status and prospective fertility signals, makes it unlikely that the gyne phenotype is maintained by low JH levels.

  20. Function of Phe-259 and Thr-314 within the Substrate Binding Pocket of the Juvenile Hormone Esterase of Manduca sexta†

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Wogulis, Mark D.; Law, Christopher S.; Morisseau, Christophe; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Huang, Huazhang; Wilson, David K.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect developmental hormone that is found at low nanomolar levels in larval insects. The methyl ester of JH is hydrolyzed in many insects by an esterase that shows high specificity for JH. We have previously determined a crystal structure of the JH esterase (JHE) of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (MsJHE) [Wogulis, M., Wheelock, C. E., Kamita, S. G., Hinton, A. C., Whetstone, P. A., Hammock, B. D., and Wilson, D. K. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 4045-4057]. Our molecular modeling indicates that JH fits very tightly within the substrate binding pocket of MsJHE. This tight fit places two non-catalytic amino acid residues, Phe-259 and Thr-314, within the appropriate distance and geometry to potentially interact with the α,β-unsaturated ester and epoxide, respectively, of JH. These residues are highly conserved in numerous biologically active JHEs. Kinetic analyses of mutants of Phe-259 or Thr-314 indicate that these residues contribute to the low KM that MsJHE shows for JH. This low KM, however, comes at the cost of reduced substrate turnover. Neither nucleophilic attack of the resonance stabilized ester by the catalytic serine nor the availability of a water molecule for attack of the acyl-enzyme intermediate appear to be a rate-determining step in the hydrolysis of JH by MsJHE. We hypothesize that the release of the JH acid metabolite from the substrate binding pocket limits the catalytic cycle. Our findings also demonstrate that chemical bond strength does not necessarily correlate with how reactive the bond will be to metabolism. PMID:20307057

  1. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M; Mitchell, Robert D; Bissinger, Brooke W; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  2. Proceedings of the Army Science Conference (14th) Held at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York on 19-21 June 1984. Volume 3. Principal Authors P through Z.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-22

    assistance of SP5 Carol A. Bossone and SP6 James D. Justus , the excellent secretarial work of Mrs. Loraine E. Hoover, and the superb support of...tetrabromoisoindole for reaction 21. REMY, STAPLER, BLUHM AND BISSETT REFERENCES 1. D.E. Remy, Tetrahedron Lett., 1451 (1983). 2. J.H. Heilberger, Justus ... Liebigs Ann. Chem., 529, 205 (1937); J.H. Heilberger and A. v-on Reay bid, 531, 2797T937); J.H. Heilberger, A. von Rebay, and D.B. Hever; ibid, TS3,-297

  3. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M.; Mitchell, Robert D.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  4. Artificial Quantum Solids: Physics, Fabrication and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    M. Chandrasekhar, unpublished, 1995; S. Bandyopadhyay, A. E. Miller, and M. Chandrasekhar, in Proc. of SPIE, Photonics West󈨣, San Jose , CA, (PAGE...quantum dot arrays synthesized by a novel electrochemical technique," in Proc. SP1E, Photonics West 󈨣, San Jose /CA, Feb. 1995, vol. 2397, pp. 11...i+-i)iti) + lUi -j^J)* V2V Jh\\+Ap) V2V Jh\\+4p) /l(i--=L=)lU> - /ifi + ^ä^),!- V2V y/hA+4pJ V 2V Jh\\+4J*J In the basis of

  5. Self, memory, and imagining the future in a case of psychogenic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, Clare J; Ellis, Judi A; Baker, Ian; Butler, Chris R

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of psychogenic amnesia and examine the relationships between autobiographical memory impairment, the self, and ability to imagine the future. Case study JH, a 60-year-old male, experienced a 6-year period of pervasive psychogenic amnesia covering all life events from childhood to the age of 53. JH was tested during his amnesic period and again following hypnotherapy and the recovery of his memories. JH's amnesia corresponded with deficits in self-knowledge and imagining the future. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory and processes involving remembering and imagining.

  6. Feasibility of a wireless gamma probe in radioguided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-01

    Radioguided surgery through the use of a gamma probe is an established practice, and has been widely applied in the case of sentinel lymph node biopsies. A wide range of intraoperative gamma probes is commercially available. The primary characteristics of the gamma probes include their sensitivity, spatial resolution, and energy resolution. We present the results obtained from a prototype of a new wireless gamma probe. This prototype is composed of a 20 mm thick cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG) inorganic scintillation crystal from Furukawa Denshi and a Hamamatsu S12572-100C multi-pixel photon counter equipped with a designed electronics. The measured performance characteristics include the energy resolution, energy linearity, angular aperture, spatial resolution and sensitivity. Measurements were carried out using 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, and 137Cs sources. The energy resolutions for 0.122 and 0.511 MeV were 17.2% and 6.9%, respectively. The designed prototype consumes an energy of approximately 4.4 W, weighs about 310 g (including battery) having a dimension of 20 mm (D)  ×  130 mm (L).

  7. Utopia and Methodology: Uses of Fiction in American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Kenneth M.

    1975-01-01

    A look at utopian literature, 1888-1900, typifies the problems of approaching literature as a vehicle for American studies. The problems, however, do not excuse the greater fault of omitting literature altogether. (JH)

  8. Headaches - danger signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... TJ, Robertson CE, Smith JH. Headache and other craniofacial pain. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  9. On the Teaching of Irish Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Daniel J.

    1974-01-01

    The Irish Republic as a laboratory for teachers of comparative politics has potential in the areas of revolution, culture, economic development, and general problem solving as illustrated by this article and its references. (JH)

  10. "Roots" Touched Children: Planned or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathouse, Betty

    1977-01-01

    Explores children's reactions to the televised version of Alex Haley's "Roots" through interviews with thirty 8-year-old third-graders (10 Black, 10 Mexican-American, 10 White) from two classrooms in South Phoenix, Arizona. (BF/JH)

  11. Bridging the Theory-Practice Gap in Humanities Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Nancy Ellen

    1974-01-01

    Suggestions are made for realizing the essense of a culture, the general spirit premeating and expressing a era, and an event in time that must be explored -- all within the walls of a classroom. (Author/JH)

  12. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  13. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  14. Some Reflections on the Crisis of the University Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Gabriel A.

    1974-01-01

    Specialization and reductionism are characteristics of higher education which can not be ignored but which must be related and interpreted in a higher order of disciplined sysnthesis and speculation. (Author/JH)

  15. 9. Charles B. Wheelock, Photographer ca. 1890 'VIEW OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Charles B. Wheelock, Photographer ca. 1890 'VIEW OF WEST AUSTIN TAKEN FROM CAPITOL DOME' SHOWING J.H. HOUGHTON HOUSE WITH TAYLOR-HUNNICUTT HOUSE JUST BEHIND - John H. Houghton House, 307 West Twelfth Street, Austin, Travis County, TX

  16. Methods and Materials for Teaching Occupational Survival Skills. Module Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This document contains twelve sixteen-item multiple choice tests and answer keys for the modules in the Occupational Survival Skills series (CE 018 557-568.) (CE 018 556 describes the series and its development.) (JH)

  17. The Indians of New Mexico: Apache, Navaho, Pueblo, Ute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Robert G., Ed.

    Brief descriptions of American Indians inhabiting New Mexico give current and historical information on geographical location, population, language, cultural background, and income sources. Eighteen pueblo communities and four Federal Indian reservations are discussed. (JH)

  18. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Padley SPG, Lazoura O. Pulmonary neoplasms. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM , ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  19. Aging changes in the face

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  20. You're on Your Own!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Douglas

    1978-01-01

    The author directs comments to first-year vocational agricultural teachers: importance of personal interest, developing a teaching philosophy and teaching techniques, being ambitious, and using good judgment. (JH)

  1. Selected Resource Materials for Teaching Urban Geography in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, M. H.; Deer, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    This discussion of non-book materials available in Australia for secondary instruction in urban geography emphasizes their suitability for conveying particular concepts as well as appropriateness at particular curricular levels. (JH)

  2. Secondary Education in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucius

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the development of education in Nepal from its beginnings in indigenous education associated with Hindu and Buddhist religions to the present democratic period, which began in 1971 and entails a reform in curriculum and school organization. (JH)

  3. Teaching American Environmental History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  4. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    Miller RH III, Azar FM, Throckmorton TW. Shoulder and elbow injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ... Krishnan SG. Rotator cuff and impingement lesions. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  5. The New Religious Consciousness and the Secular University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    1974-01-01

    Talcott Parson's concept of cognitive rationality as the main purpose of the university is considered and juxtaposed with a new religious conciousness, born of the critical intellect and housed in the contemporary university. (JH)

  6. Paradoxes of Plenty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quine, Willard

    1974-01-01

    Prodigality of funds in academic channels has led to unexpected results: while some improved scholarship has been accomplished, mass subsidy has changed the tone of the university and the attitudes and activities of its participants. (JH)

  7. Influence of age and juvenile hormone on brain dopamine level in male honeybee (Apis mellifera): association with reproductive maturation.

    PubMed

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Masami

    2008-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a major functional biogenic amine in insects and has been suggested to regulate reproduction in female honeybees. However, its function has not been investigated in male drones. To clarify developmental changes of DA in drones, brain DA levels were investigated at various ages and showed a similar pattern to the previously reported juvenile hormone (JH) hemolymph titer. The DA level was lowest at emergence and peaked at day 7 or 8, followed by decline. Application of JH analog increased brain DA levels in young drones (2-4-days-old), suggesting regulation of DA by JH in drones. In young drones, maturation of male reproductive organs closely matched the increase in brain DA. The dry weight of testes decreased and that of seminal vesicles increased from emergence to day 8. The dry weight of mucus glands increased up to day 4. Consequently, DA regulated by JH might have reproductive behavior and/or physiological functions in drones.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: chordoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... called the notochord is the precursor of the spinal column. The notochord disappears before birth, but in a ... JH, Rhines LD, Gokaslan ZL. Chordoma of the spinal column. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan;19(1): ...

  9. The University, the City, and the Arts. (Part of a Symposium: Government and the Arts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, William O.

    1970-01-01

    The university must devote increased, multidisciplinary attention to urban needs in order to train urban administrators effectively. Significant progress can thus be made toward revitalization of the arts, the university, and the city. (JH)

  10. Do Principals' Interpersonal Attitudes Agree with Those of Teachers and Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Albert H.

    1970-01-01

    This study of interpersonal relationships between teachers, principals, and students finds that attitudes of teachers and principals toward children are correlated positively although pupils' and principals' ratings of teachers lack significant correlation. (JH)

  11. An Evaluation Procedure for a New Program To Prepare Administrator Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Larry W.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    This article describes a new program directed toward preparing principals to function as change agents in elementary and secondary schools in Appalachia. Program evaluation procedures that include cost effectiveness analysis based on Bayesian statistics are described in detail. (JH)

  12. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  13. A Hierarchy of Basic Organizational Needs in Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Hugh L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study, designed to test the hypothesis that decision making in formal organizations is related to a hierarchy of needs, gained empirical support for the hypothesis from the results of a sampling of 139 private liberal arts college presidents. (JH)

  14. Paper-making in Schools in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kenneth

    1974-01-01

    Making paper becomes a means for overcoming lack of money in a rural community: Students make money and gain scientific knowledge and practice learning skills by implementing paper-making technology. (JH)

  15. A Bibliography for Historians of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersman, Elinor Mondale

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of journal articles is arranged by journal, the article, under the major headings of educational experience in the United States; the educational experience of women; educational experience in other countries, and historiography and bibliography. (JH)

  16. DAMASCUS ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FERGUSON, CHARLES A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AS A TEXTBOOK FOR AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN THE SPOKEN ARABIC LANGUAGE OF DAMASCUS, SYRIA. CONTAINED IN THE TEXT ARE DETAILED GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION, STRUCTURAL AND PRONUNCIATION INFORMATION, AND A CUMULATIVE ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. (JH)

  17. Recent Growth of Aerial Photographic Interpretation/Remote Sensing in Geography in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, John E.; Thaman, Konai

    1974-01-01

    This paper traces the history and growth of air photo interpretation and remote sensing within the field of geography. Courses offered in these fields, factors influencing growth, research findings, and professional geographic interest are discussed. (JH)

  18. Classroom Production of an Historical Film Essay: Reflections and Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, John G.; Tracy, Raymond

    1974-01-01

    Guidelines for classroom production of an historical film are suggested on the basis of the author's experience with college students who developed a film on America in the fifties. Technical and procedural suggestions are emphasized. (JH)

  19. Tort Liability of School Districts, Officers, and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Lee O.; Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.

    1970-01-01

    This chapter, which reviews recent court decisions affecting all segments of school liability, includes discussion of the effect of recent decisions on the common law doctrine of sovereign immunity. (JH)

  20. Scrotal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shaida N, Berman L. Male genitourinary tract. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  1. Delinquency: How Do We Snap the Chain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Philip B.; Miller, Neal

    1974-01-01

    Pretrial Diversion, the act of taking an accused offender out of the usual criminal court sequence (trial, sentencing, jail) before the trial actually happens, is exemplified by Project Crossroads in Washington, D. C. (Author/JH)

  2. Food and History: Teaching Social History Through the Study of Cuisine Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bertram M.

    1974-01-01

    Some interesting relationships between food and history -- working women and convenience food, exploration and the importation of new vegetables, reliance on potatoes and Irish emigration -- are suggested to indicate the usefulness of exploring history through eating habits. (JH)

  3. The Humanities at Pine Crest School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Phillip L.

    1974-01-01

    This secondary humanities curriculum is based on four assumptions: humanities are for all students, must be interdisciplinary as well as presented through multimedia, deal with real issues affectively as well as cognitively, involve value judgements and decision making. (JH)

  4. Existentialism in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David R.

    1974-01-01

    An existential approach to geographic education refers to the individual's ability to conceive of and experience geographic phenomena; implies a responsibility toward, as well as appreciation of, spatially defined phenomena; and leads to aesthetic and advocacy geography. (JH)

  5. Data-driven Techniques to Estimate Parameters in the Homogenized Energy Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    sensor. volume 79781K. Proceedings of the SPIE 7978, 2011. [9] D.J. Hartl, D.C. Lagoudas, F.T. Calkins , and J.H. Mabe. Use of a ni60ti shape memory...D.C. Lagoudas, F.T. Calkins , and J.H. Mabe. Use of a ni60ti shape memory alloy for active jet engine chevron application: II. experimentally validated

  6. Nutrient limitation results in juvenile hormone-mediated resorption of previtellogenic ovarian follicles in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Noriega, Fernando G

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a central hormonal regulator of previtellogenic development in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. JH levels are low at eclosion and increase during the first day after adult emergence. This initial rise in JH is essential for female reproductive maturation. After previtellogenic maturation is complete, the mosquito enters a 'state-of-arrest' during which JH synthesis continues at a slower pace and further ovary development is repressed until a blood meal is taken. By examining the relationships between juvenile hormone, follicular resorption and nutrition in A. aegypti, we were able to define a critical role of JH during the previtellogenic resting stage. The rate of follicular resorption in resting stage mosquitoes is dependent on nutritional quality. Feeding water alone caused the rate of follicular resorption to reach over 20% by day 7 after emergence. Conversely, feeding a 20% sucrose solution caused resorption to remain below 5% during the entire experimental period. Mosquitoes fed 3% sucrose show rates of resorption intermediate between water and 20% sucrose and only reached 10% by day 7 after emergence. Follicular resorption is related to JH levels. Ligated abdomens separated from a source of JH (the corpora allata) showed an increase in resorption comparable to similarly aged starved mosquitoes (16%). Resorption in ligated abdomens was reduced to 6% by application of methoprene. The application of methoprene was also sufficient to prevent resorption in intact mosquitoes starved for 48 h (14% starved vs. 4% starved with methoprene). Additionally, active caspases were localized to resorbing follicles indicating that an apoptotic cell-death mechanism is responsible for follicular resorption during the previtellogenic resting stage. Taken together, these results indicate that JH mediates reproductive trade-offs in resting stage mosquitoes in response to nutrition.

  7. The glutathione-related detoxication responses to juvenile and ecdysone hormones in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Leman; Kayalı, Hülya Ayar; Karacali, Sabire

    2013-08-01

    The effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) on the glutathione pathway of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined by investigating glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities as well as reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) content with respect to developmental stage. The continuous decreases of GSH-Px and GST activities dependent on the growth period of G. mellonella occurred in JH and 20E groups over and under their controls, respectively. While the GR activities of G. mellonella showed increases in young pupa (YP) for both control and in old larvae (OL) for the 20E groups after the minimum at these periods, they also increased after old pupa (OP) for the JH group with a maximum in OL period. Although GR activity levels in the JH group were significantly higher compared with controls and 20E groups up to OP period, the activity levels for the control and 20E groups were higher than those of the JH group at adult (AD) and old pupa (OP) periods, respectively. In spite of increases in the GR activity of 20E and control groups of G. mellonella, decreased GSH and increased GSSG levels were observed at aging period. GSH levels in the JH group reached a maximum at prepupa (PP) and then decreased with non-significant changes from OL to AD period. According to the results, GSH and GSSG levels, as well as GSH/GSSG ratios, were below and over control levels in 20E and JH groups, respectively, during all of the investigated developmental stages. On the contrary, the LPO levels were higher than the control for 20E and lower for the JH groups during the developmental period. These results show that while ecdysone hormone has a negative effect on the glutathione-related detoxication capacity of G. mellonella, the juvenile hormone has a positive effect on this process.

  8. The Role of Polycomb Group Gene BMI-1 in the Development of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    1 mole/L EGTA, 1 mol/L EDTA, 20 mmol/L NaF, 100 mmol/L Na3VO4, 0.5% NP-40, 1% Triton X-100, 1 mol/L phenyl methylsulfonyl flouride (pH 7.4)] with...of myelodysplastic syndrome and patient prognosis. Blood. 2006 Jan 1;107(1):305-8. 12. Kim JH, Yoon SY, Kim CN, Joo JH, Moon SK, Choe IS, Choe YK

  9. Developmental link between sex and nutrition; doublesex regulates sex-specific mandible growth via juvenile hormone signaling in stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Sugime, Yasuhiro; Emlen, Douglas J; Lavine, Laura C; Miura, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in trait expression are widespread among animals and are especially pronounced in ornaments and weapons of sexual selection, which can attain exaggerated sizes. Expression of exaggerated traits is usually male-specific and nutrition sensitive. Consequently, the developmental mechanisms generating sexually dimorphic growth and nutrition-dependent phenotypic plasticity are each likely to regulate the expression of extreme structures. Yet we know little about how either of these mechanisms work, much less how they might interact with each other. We investigated the developmental mechanisms of sex-specific mandible growth in the stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, focusing on doublesex gene function and its interaction with juvenile hormone (JH) signaling. doublesex genes encode transcription factors that orchestrate male and female specific trait development, and JH acts as a mediator between nutrition and mandible growth. We found that the Cmdsx gene regulates sex differentiation in the stag beetle. Knockdown of Cmdsx by RNA-interference in both males and females produced intersex phenotypes, indicating a role for Cmdsx in sex-specific trait growth. By combining knockdown of Cmdsx with JH treatment, we showed that female-specific splice variants of Cmdsx contribute to the insensitivity of female mandibles to JH: knockdown of Cmdsx reversed this pattern, so that mandibles in knockdown females were stimulated to grow by JH treatment. In contrast, mandibles in knockdown males retained some sensitivity to JH, though mandibles in these individuals did not attain the full sizes of wild type males. We suggest that moderate JH sensitivity of mandibular cells may be the default developmental state for both sexes, with sex-specific Dsx protein decreasing sensitivity in females, and increasing it in males. This study is the first to demonstrate a causal link between the sex determination and JH signaling pathways, which clearly interact to determine the

  10. Developmental Link between Sex and Nutrition; doublesex Regulates Sex-Specific Mandible Growth via Juvenile Hormone Signaling in Stag Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Sugime, Yasuhiro; Emlen, Douglas J.; Lavine, Laura C.; Miura, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in trait expression are widespread among animals and are especially pronounced in ornaments and weapons of sexual selection, which can attain exaggerated sizes. Expression of exaggerated traits is usually male-specific and nutrition sensitive. Consequently, the developmental mechanisms generating sexually dimorphic growth and nutrition-dependent phenotypic plasticity are each likely to regulate the expression of extreme structures. Yet we know little about how either of these mechanisms work, much less how they might interact with each other. We investigated the developmental mechanisms of sex-specific mandible growth in the stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, focusing on doublesex gene function and its interaction with juvenile hormone (JH) signaling. doublesex genes encode transcription factors that orchestrate male and female specific trait development, and JH acts as a mediator between nutrition and mandible growth. We found that the Cmdsx gene regulates sex differentiation in the stag beetle. Knockdown of Cmdsx by RNA-interference in both males and females produced intersex phenotypes, indicating a role for Cmdsx in sex-specific trait growth. By combining knockdown of Cmdsx with JH treatment, we showed that female-specific splice variants of Cmdsx contribute to the insensitivity of female mandibles to JH: knockdown of Cmdsx reversed this pattern, so that mandibles in knockdown females were stimulated to grow by JH treatment. In contrast, mandibles in knockdown males retained some sensitivity to JH, though mandibles in these individuals did not attain the full sizes of wild type males. We suggest that moderate JH sensitivity of mandibular cells may be the default developmental state for both sexes, with sex-specific Dsx protein decreasing sensitivity in females, and increasing it in males. This study is the first to demonstrate a causal link between the sex determination and JH signaling pathways, which clearly interact to determine the

  11. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF) is a stage-specific suppressor for juvenile hormone biosynthesis by corpora allata, and a critical factor for the initiation of insect metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-15

    Molting and metamorphosis are essential events for arthropod development, and juvenile hormone (JH) and its precursors play critical roles for these events. We examined the regulation of JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in Bombyx mori, and found that intact brain-corpora cardiaca (CC)-CA complexes produced a smaller amount of JH than that in CC-CA complexes and CA alone throughout the 4th and 5th (last) instar stadium. The smaller amount of synthesis was due to allatostatin-C (AST-C) produced by the brain. The CC synthesized short neuropeptide F (sNPF) that also suppressed the JH synthesis, but only in day 3 4th stadium and after the last larval ecdysis. For the suppression, both peptides prevented the expression of some of the distinct JH biosynthetic enzymes in the mevalonate pathway. Allatotropin (AT) stimulated sNPF expression in the CC of day 1 5th instar stadium, not of day 3 4th; therefore the stage-specific inhibition of JH synthesis by sNPF was partly due to the stimulative action of AT on the sNPF expression besides the stage-specific expression of the sNPF receptors in the CA, the level of which was high in day 2 4th and day 0 5th instar larvae. The cessation of JH biosynthesis in the last instar larvae is a key event to initiate pupal metamorphosis, and both sNPF and AST-C are key factors in shutting down JH synthesis, along with the decline of ecdysone titer and dopamine.

  12. Juvenile hormone titer in capped worker brood of Apis mellifera and reproduction in the bee mite Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, P; Rachinsky, A; Strambi, A; Strambi, C; Röpstorf, P

    1990-05-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) titers were recorded from fifth instar worker larvae of Apis mellifera carnica, Apis mellifera lamarckii, and Africanized honeybees kept under temperate and tropical climatic conditions. No differences in hormone titer according to honeybee race or climatic conditions were determined. However, the rate of reproduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni, on larvae of the different honeybee races was highly variable. The possible role of honeybee JH in control of the parasite's reproduction is discussed.

  13. Remote Patient Management in a Mammographic Screening Environment in Underserved Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    year (2005). Published reports acknowledging this award, to date, Include: 13 1. Zheng B, Ganott MA, Britton CA, Hakim CM, Hardesty LA, Chang TS...Leader JK, Sumkin JH, Drescher JM, Maitz GS, Zheng B, Wallace L, Hakim C, Hertzberg TM, Hardesty L, Shah R, Clearfield R, Sneddon C, Lindeman S...Hertzberg TM, Hardesty LA, Sumkin JH, Cohen C, Sneddon C, Lindeman S, Craig D, and Drescher JM. Preliminary clinical evaluation of a multi-site

  14. Muscle Contraction During Electro-Muscular Incapacitation: A Comparison Between Square-Wave Pulses and the Taser (registered trademark) X26 Electronic Control Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Dayton TE, Ross JA, Johnson LR, Kuhnel CT , Fines DA, Theis CF. An evaluation of the electrical properties and bio-behavioral effects of four commercially...unlimited. 10. Rogers WR, Merritt JH, Comeaux JA Jr, Kuhnel CT , Moreland DF, Teltschik DG, Lucas JH, Mur- phy MR. Strength-duration curve for an...Suh HJ, Batt J, Lawson D, Hernandez V, Abdo A, Yang TN, Mendoza E, Collins K, Laymon M. Estimation of the distribution of intramuscular current

  15. Actinomadura jiaoheensis sp. nov. and Actinomadura sporangiiformans sp. nov., two novel actinomycetes isolated from muddy soil and emended description of the genus Actinomadura.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; Sun, Pengyu; Han, Chuanyu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Yunxi; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-12-01

    Two novel actinomycetes, designated strains NEAU-Jh1-3(T) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T), were isolated from muddy soil collected from a riverbank in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, north China. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two novel isolates exhibited 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and that they are closely related to Actinomadura viridis IFO 15238(T) (99.6, 99.6 %) and Actinomadura vinacea IFO 14688(T) (99.3, 99.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two cultures clustered together and formed a cluster with A. viridis IFO 15238(T), A. vinacea IFO 14688(T) and Actinomadura rugatobispora IFO 14382(T). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains NEAU-Jh1-3(T) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T) was 63.6 %, and the values between the two strains and their close phylogenetic relatives were also below 70 %. With reference to phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization results, the two strains can be distinguished from each other and their close phylogenetic relatives. Thus, strains NEAU-Jh1-3(T) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T) represent two novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the names Actinomadura jiaoheensis sp. nov. and Actinomadura sporangiiformans sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-Jh1-3(T) (=CGMCC 4.7197(T) = JCM 30341(T)) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7211(T) = JCM 30342(T)), respectively.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): J. H. Baxter Superfund site, Weed, CA. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-27

    The J.H. Baxter site is in Weed Siskiyou County, north-central California, and consists of the 33-acre J.H. Baxter facility and the adjacent 870-acre Roseburg Forest Products facility. Since 1937, wood treatment operations at the site have involved a variety of chemicals including ammonical copper-zinc-arsenate, creosote, and PCP. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, ground water, and surface water are organics including PAHs and dioxins; and metals including arsenic.

  17. Nutrient limitation results in juvenile hormone-mediated resorption of previtellogenic ovarian follicles in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a central hormonal regulator of previtellogenic development in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. JH levels are low at eclosion and increase during the first day after adult emergence. This initial rise in JH is essential for female reproductive maturation. After previtellogenic maturation is complete, the mosquito enters a ‘state-of-arrest’ during which JH synthesis continues at a slower pace and further ovary development is repressed until a blood meal is taken. By examining the relationships between juvenile hormone, follicular resorption and nutrition in A. aegypti, we were able to define a critical role of JH during the previtellogenic resting stage. The rate of follicular resorption in resting stage mosquitoes is dependent on nutritional quality. Feeding water alone caused the rate of follicular resorption to reach over 20% by day 7 after emergence. Conversely, feeding a 20% sucrose solution caused resorption to remain below 5% during the entire experimental period. Mosquitoes fed 3% sucrose show rates of resorption intermediate between water and 20% sucrose and only reached 10% by day 7 after emergence. Follicular resorption is related to JH levels. Ligated abdomens separated from a source of JH (the corpora allata) showed an increase in resorption comparable to similarly aged starved mosquitoes (16%). Resorption in ligated abdomens was reduced to 6% by application of methoprene. The application of methoprene was also sufficient to prevent resorption in intact mosquitoes starved for 48 hours (14% starved vs. 4% starved with methoprene). Additionally, active caspases were localized to resorbing follicles indicating that an apoptotic cell-death mechanism is responsible for follicular resorption during the previtellogenic resting stage. Taken together, these results indicate that JH mediates reproductive trade-offs in resting stage mosquitoes in response to nutrition. PMID:21708165

  18. Cluster Formation and Evolution on Semiconductor and Insulator Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Abrupt, Defect-Free Interfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1568-1572 (1989). 40. T.J. Wagener, Yongjun Hu, Y. Gao, M.B. Jost, J.H. Weaver, N. Spencer, and...Monmouth, New Jersey, May 1988. 9. Yongjun Hu, T.J. Wagener, Y. Gao, and J.H. Weaver, "Cluster Growth and the Evolution of Empty Electronic States," 35th

  19. Cyclic Dinitroureas As Self-Remediating Munition Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-26

    Heteroatom Chem. 1991, 2, 313. 9 Vedachalam, M.; Ramakrishnan, V.T.; Boyer, J.H.; Dagley, I.J.; Nelson, K.A.; Adolph, H.G.; Gilardi, R.; George, C...Ramakrishnan, V.T.; Boyer, J.H. Heteroatom Chem. 1991, 2, 313. 15 Dagley, I.J.; Flippen-Anderson, J.L. Aust. J. Chem. 1994, 47, 2033. 7 Figure 3

  20. Generation of antibody- and B cell-deficient pigs by targeted disruption of the J-region gene segment of the heavy chain locus.

    PubMed

    Mendicino, M; Ramsoondar, J; Phelps, C; Vaught, T; Ball, S; LeRoith, T; Monahan, J; Chen, S; Dandro, A; Boone, J; Jobst, P; Vance, A; Wertz, N; Bergman, Z; Sun, X-Z; Polejaeva, I; Butler, J; Dai, Y; Ayares, D; Wells, K

    2011-06-01

    A poly(A)-trap gene targeting strategy was used to disrupt the single functional heavy chain (HC) joining region (J(H)) of swine in primary fibroblasts. Genetically modified piglets were then generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and bred to yield litters comprising J(H) wild-type littermate (+/+), J(H) heterozygous knockout (±) and J(H) homozygous knockout (-/-) piglets in the expected Mendelian ratio of 1:2:1. There are only two other targeted loci previously published in swine, and this is the first successful poly(A)-trap strategy ever published in a livestock species. In either blood or secondary lymphoid tissues, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and ELISA detected no circulating IgM(+) B cells, and no transcription or secretion of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. Histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies failed to detect lymph node (LN) follicles or CD79α(+) B cells, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. T cell receptor (TCR)(β) transcription and T cells were detected in J(H) -/- pigs. When reared conventionally, J(H) -/- pigs succumbed to bacterial infections after weaning. These antibody (Ab)- and B cell-deficient pigs have significant value as models for both veterinary and human research to discriminate cellular and humoral protective immunity to infectious agents. Thus, these pigs may aid in vaccine development for infectious agents such as the pandemic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H1N1 swine flu. These pigs are also a first significant step towards generating a pig that expresses fully human, antigen-specific polyclonal Ab to target numerous incurable infectious diseases with high unmet clinical need.

  1. Evaluating Vaccine Candidates for Filariasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-16

    antibody deficient JH mice vaccinated with iL3 and control mice 4 and 7 weeks post infection. E) Parasite burdens in iL3 vaccinated and control...timeframes of worm clearance post challenge in iL3 vaccinated hosts also suggests the presence of multiple mechanisms of protection (22; 84...c mice (NCI) and antibody deficient JH Mice (BALB background Taconic mouse model 001147) were used to carry out research. All research was conducted

  2. Glutamate-gated chloride channels inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Ping; Lin, Shu-Chen; Lin, Chi-Yen; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2005-11-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized and released from endocrine gland corpus allatum (CA) plays an important role in insect metamorphosis, vitellogenesis and reproduction. Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the nervous system and its activated receptors possess excitatory and inhibitory forms in muscle fibers of invertebrates. Previously, we have shown that the rise of intracellular calcium through excitatory glutamate receptors, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA-type channels stimulates JH synthesis in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of inhibitory chloride permeable glutamate (GluCl) receptors on CA cell membranes. Application of the GluCl channel activators, ibotenic acid (Ibo) and ivermectin, but not gamma-aminobutyric acid caused a decline in JH synthesis in glands of either high or low activity during the gonadotrophic cycle. Also, while recording the membrane potential of the isolated whole CA glands intracellularly, Ibo induced a hyperpolarizated response. Both changes in the membrane potential and inhibition of JH synthesis could be abolished by the application of the chloride channel blocker picrotoxin. Finally, we found both excitatory and inhibitory glutamate receptors cause antagonistic effects on rates of JH synthesis. These results indicate a novel function of GluCl channels in the inhibition of JH synthesis that could be a potential pathway for developing a new generation of insecticides.

  3. Homeodomain Protein Scr Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in the Silkworm.

    PubMed

    Meng, Meng; Liu, Chun; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Qian, Heying; Tian, Ling; Li, Jiarui; Dai, Dandan; Xu, Anying; Li, Sheng; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

    2015-11-02

    The silkworm Dominant trimolting (Moltinism, M³) mutant undergoes three larval molts and exhibits precocious metamorphosis. In this study, we found that compared with the wild-type (WT) that undergoes four larval molts, both the juvenile hormone (JH) concentration and the expression of the JH-responsive gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) began to be greater in the second instar of the M³ mutant. A positional cloning analysis revealed that only the homeodomain transcription factor gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is located in the genomic region that is tightly linked to the M³ locus. The expression level of the Scr gene in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (Br-CC-CA) complex, which controls the synthesis of JH, was very low in the final larval instar of both the M³ and WT larvae, and exhibited a positive correlation with JH titer changes. Importantly, luciferase reporter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the Scr protein could promote the transcription of genes involved in JH biosynthesis by directly binding to the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of homeodomain protein on their promoters. These results conclude that the homeodomain protein Scr is transcriptionally involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis in the silkworm.

  4. Effect of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene on H-fibroin regulation during the last instar larval development of Corcyra cephalonica.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, R K; Sridevi, P; Senthilkumaran, B; Dutta Gupta, Aparna

    2013-01-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), co-ordinately orchestrate insect growth and development. The process of silk synthesis and secretion in lepidopteran insects is known to be under hormonal control. However, the role of JH in this process has not been demonstrated hitherto. The present study is aimed to elucidate the role of JH in H-fibroin regulation in Corcyra cephalonica, a serious lepidopteran pest. Reiterated amino acid stretches and the large molecular weight of H-fibroin render its cloning and characterization cumbersome. To address this, a commercially synthesized short amino acid peptide conjugated with a carrier protein was used to generate antibodies against the N-terminal region of H-fibroin. ELISA and immunoblot experiments demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of antibody. Further, immunohistochemical analyses revealed the antibody's cross-reactivity with H-fibroins of C. cephalonica and Bombyx mori in the silk gland lumen. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the tissue-specificity and developmental expression of H-fibroin. Hormonal studies revealed that JH alone does not alter the expression of H-fibroin. However, in the presence 20E, JH reverses the declined expression caused by 20E administration to normal levels. This study provides molecular evidence for the regulation of H-fibroin by the cumulative action of JH and 20E.

  5. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult Blattella germanica requires nuclear receptors Seven-up and FTZ-F1

    PubMed Central

    Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L.; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David

    2017-01-01

    In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood. PMID:28074850

  6. Interruption of progerin–lamin A/C binding ameliorates Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Jin; Jung, Youn-Sang; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kang, So-mi; Oh, Ah-Young; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Jun, So-Young; Woo, Tae-Gyun; Chun, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang Kyum; Chung, Kyu Jin; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Kyeong; Jin, Guanghai; Na, Min-Kyun; Ha, Nam Chul; Bárcena, Clea; Freije, José M.P.; López-Otín, Carlos; Song, Gyu Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease that is caused by a silent mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C (lamin A/C). The G608G mutation generates a more accessible splicing donor site than does WT and produces an alternatively spliced product of LMNA called progerin, which is also expressed in normal aged cells. In this study, we determined that progerin binds directly to lamin A/C and induces profound nuclear aberrations. Given this observation, we performed a random screening of a chemical library and identified 3 compounds (JH1, JH4, and JH13) that efficiently block progerin–lamin A/C binding. These 3 chemicals, particularly JH4, alleviated nuclear deformation and reversed senescence markers characteristic of HGPS cells, including growth arrest and senescence-associated β-gal (SA–β-gal) activity. We then used microarray-based analysis to demonstrate that JH4 is able to rescue defects of cell-cycle progression in both HGPS and aged cells. Furthermore, administration of JH4 to LmnaG609G/G609G-mutant mice, which phenocopy human HGPS, resulted in a marked improvement of several progeria phenotypes and an extended lifespan. Together, these findings indicate that specific inhibitors with the ability to block pathological progerin–lamin A/C binding may represent a promising strategy for improving lifespan and health in both HGPS and normal aging. PMID:27617860

  7. Interruption of progerin-lamin A/C binding ameliorates Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Jin; Jung, Youn-Sang; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kang, So-Mi; Oh, Ah-Young; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Jun, So-Young; Woo, Tae-Gyun; Chun, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang Kyum; Chung, Kyu Jin; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Kyeong; Jin, Guanghai; Na, Min-Kyun; Ha, Nam Chul; Bárcena, Clea; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Song, Gyu Yong; Park, Bum-Joon

    2016-10-03

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease that is caused by a silent mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C (lamin A/C). The G608G mutation generates a more accessible splicing donor site than does WT and produces an alternatively spliced product of LMNA called progerin, which is also expressed in normal aged cells. In this study, we determined that progerin binds directly to lamin A/C and induces profound nuclear aberrations. Given this observation, we performed a random screening of a chemical library and identified 3 compounds (JH1, JH4, and JH13) that efficiently block progerin-lamin A/C binding. These 3 chemicals, particularly JH4, alleviated nuclear deformation and reversed senescence markers characteristic of HGPS cells, including growth arrest and senescence-associated β-gal (SA-β-gal) activity. We then used microarray-based analysis to demonstrate that JH4 is able to rescue defects of cell-cycle progression in both HGPS and aged cells. Furthermore, administration of JH4 to LmnaG609G/G609G-mutant mice, which phenocopy human HGPS, resulted in a marked improvement of several progeria phenotypes and an extended lifespan. Together, these findings indicate that specific inhibitors with the ability to block pathological progerin-lamin A/C binding may represent a promising strategy for improving lifespan and health in both HGPS and normal aging.

  8. Relationship between bioenergetics responses and organic pollutants in the giant mussel, Choromytilus chorus (Mollusca: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Toro, Beatriz; Navarro, Jorge M; Palma-Fleming, Hernán

    2003-05-08

    Samples of Choromytilus chorus (giant mussel) were collected at three sampling stations exposed to different degrees of pollution along the south-central portion of the Chilean coast in spring 1998 and summer 1999. Measurements were carried out on clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and oxygen consumption of the mussels under controlled laboratory conditions, and related to analytical data on organic pollutants in their tissues. Scope for growth (SFG) was employed as a physiological index to evaluate stress produced by pollutants existing at each sampling site. Individuals from San Vicente bay (highly polluted) showed negative SFG values in spring (-4.6 J/h per g) and summer (-3.5 J/h per g). These results indicated severe stress related to the accumulation of toxic compounds in their tissues. Specimens from Corral bay (medium level of pollution) gave a SFG of 15.5 J/h per g in spring and 6.5 J/h per g in summer, while those from Yaldad bay (low pollution) presented an inverse situation was observed with SFG values of 6.2 J/h per g in spring which was lower than the summer value of 25.7 J/h per g. There was a significant negative correlation between the SFG of the different populations of C. chorus and the concentrations of organochlorines (OChs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their tissues.

  9. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult Blattella germanica requires nuclear receptors Seven-up and FTZ-F1.

    PubMed

    Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David

    2017-01-11

    In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood.

  10. Juvenile hormone and allatostatins in the German cockroach embryo.

    PubMed

    Maestro, José L; Pascual, Núria; Treiblmayr, Karl; Lozano, Jesús; Bellés, Xavier

    2010-09-01

    Levels of juvenile hormone III (JH), FGLamide allatostatin peptides (ASTs), ASTs precursor (preproAST) mRNA and methyl farnesoate epoxidase (CYP15A1) mRNA were measured in embryos of the cockroach Blattella germanica. JH starts to rise just after dorsal closure, reaches maximal levels between 60% and 80% of embryogenesis, and decrease subsequently to undetectable levels. ASTs show low levels during the first two thirds of embryogenesis, increase thereafter and maintain high levels until hatching. PreproAST mRNA shows quite high levels during the two days following oviposition, thus behaving as a maternal transcript, the levels then become very low until mid embryogenesis, and increase afterwards, peaking towards the end of embryo development. CYP15A1 transcripts were detected around 25% embryogenesis and the levels tended to increase through embryogenesis, although differences amongst the days studied were not statistically significant. The opposite patterns of JH and AST towards the end of embryo development, along with the detection of AST immunoreactivity in corpora allata from late embryos, suggest that JH decline is caused by the increase of AST. Moreover, the uncorrelated patterns of JH concentration and CYP15A1 mRNA levels suggest that CYP15A1 expression does not modulate JH production.

  11. Homeodomain Protein Scr Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in the Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Meng; Liu, Chun; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Qian, Heying; Tian, Ling; Li, Jiarui; Dai, Dandan; Xu, Anying; Li, Sheng; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

    2015-01-01

    The silkworm Dominant trimolting (Moltinism, M3) mutant undergoes three larval molts and exhibits precocious metamorphosis. In this study, we found that compared with the wild-type (WT) that undergoes four larval molts, both the juvenile hormone (JH) concentration and the expression of the JH-responsive gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) began to be greater in the second instar of the M3 mutant. A positional cloning analysis revealed that only the homeodomain transcription factor gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is located in the genomic region that is tightly linked to the M3 locus. The expression level of the Scr gene in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (Br-CC-CA) complex, which controls the synthesis of JH, was very low in the final larval instar of both the M3 and WT larvae, and exhibited a positive correlation with JH titer changes. Importantly, luciferase reporter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the Scr protein could promote the transcription of genes involved in JH biosynthesis by directly binding to the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of homeodomain protein on their promoters. These results conclude that the homeodomain protein Scr is transcriptionally involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis in the silkworm. PMID:26540044

  12. Juvenile hormone receptors in insect larval epidermis: identification by photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, S R; Osir, E O; Eng, W; Boehm, M F; Edwards, M; Kulcsar, P; Ujvary, I; Hiruma, K; Prestwich, G D; Riddiford, L M

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated photoaffinity analogs of the natural lepidopteran juvenile hormones, JH I and II [epoxy[3H]bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate ([3H]EBDA) and epoxy[3H]homofarnesyl diazoacetate ([3H]EHDA)], and of the JH analog methoprene [[3H]methoprene diazoketone ([3H]MDK)] were synthesized and used to identify specific JH binding proteins in the larval epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). EBDA and EHDA specifically photolabeled a 29-kDa nuclear protein (pI 5.8). This protein and a second 29-kDa protein (pI 6.0) were labeled by MDK, but excess unlabeled methoprene or MDK only prevented binding to the latter. These 29-kDa proteins are also present in larval fat body but not in epidermis from either wandering stage or allatectomized larvae, which lack high-affinity JH binding sites. A 29-kDa nuclear protein with the same developmental specificity as this JH binder bound the DNA of two larval endocuticle genes. A 38-kDa cytosolic protein was also specifically photolabeled by these photoaffinity analogs. The 29-kDa nuclear protein is likely the high-affinity receptor for JH that mediates its genomic action, whereas the 38-kDa cytosolic protein may serve as an intracellular carrier for these highly lipophilic hormones and hormone analogs. Images PMID:11607060

  13. Molecular Determinants of Juvenile Hormone Action as Revealed by 3D QSAR Analysis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Beňo, Milan; Farkaš, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH). While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 Å or longer than 13.5 Å, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. Conclusions/Significance The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions. PMID:19547707

  14. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis.

  15. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O.; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis. PMID:28158248

  16. Juvenile Hormone Differentially Regulates Two Grp78 Genes Encoding Protein Chaperones Required for Insect Fat Body Cell Homeostasis and Vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Maowu; Li, Dong; Wang, Zhiming; Guo, Wei; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2017-03-29

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has a well-known role in stimulating insect vitellogenesis (i.e. yolk deposition) and oocyte maturation, but the molecular mechanisms of JH action in insect reproduction are unclear. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (Grp78) is a heat shock protein 70 kDa family member and one of the most abundant chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it helps fold newly synthesized peptides. Because of its prominent role in protein folding and also ER stress, we hypothesized that Grp78 might be involved in fat body cell homeostasis and vitellogenesis and a regulatory target of JH. We report here that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria possesses two Grp78 genes that are differentially regulated by JH. We found that Grp78-1 is regulated by JH through Mcm4/7-dependent DNA replication and polyploidization, whereas Grp78-2 expression is directly activated by the JH-receptor complex comprising Methoprene-tolerant and Taiman proteins. Interestingly, Grp78-2 expression in the fat body is about 10-fold higher than that of Grp78-1 Knockdown of either Grp78-1 or Grp78-2 significantly reduced levels of vitellogenin (Vg) protein, accompanied by retarded maturation of oocytes. Depletion of both Grp78-1 and Grp78-2 resulted in ER stress and apoptosis in the fat body and in severely defective Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation. These results indicate a crucial role of Grp78 in JH-dependent vitellogenesis and egg production. The presence and differential regulation of two Grp78 genes in L. migratoria likely help accelerate the production of this chaperone in the fat body to facilitate folding of massively synthesized Vg and other proteins.

  17. Common and Distinct Roles of Juvenile Hormone Signaling Genes in Metamorphosis of Holometabolous and Hemimetabolous Insects

    PubMed Central

    Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly). In either case juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C) in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis. PMID:22174880

  18. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  19. Roles of ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone in vitellogenesis in an endoparasitic wasp, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheng-zhang; Ye, Gong-yin; Guo, Jian-yang; Hu, Cui

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the endocrine regulation of vitellogenesis in an endoparastic wasp (Pteromalus puparum), the titers of ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone (JH) from the whole bodies are measured using the method of radioimmunoassay and GC-MS, and compared with the levels of vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA in the fat bodies, hemolymph Vg and ovarian vitellin (Vt), respectively. The results show that the ecdysteroid titer and fat body Vg mRNA level have a similar dynamics tendency, and the peak titer is at adult eclosion. The titer of JH III and ovarian Vt also have a similar dynamics tendency, and the peak titer is at 48h after eclosion. The profiles of hemolymph Vg, Vg mRNA in fat bodies and ovarian Vt, are also measured in the wasps after treated with different amounts of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE) or JH III in female pupa and adults. The results show that 20HE stimulates Vg synthesis in the fat bodies and its release into the hemolymph, and that JH III only accelerates Vg sequestration in the oocytes. Decapitation, which is believed to terminate synthesis of JH in insects, can not inhibit vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in P. puparum. Furthermore, Vg gene is expressed with a lower titer of JH and depressed by a higher titer of JH III. These studies suggest that ecdysteroids play a role in Vg synthesis and believed to be the dominant hormones in regulation of vitellogenesis in P. puparum, and JHs are not the essential factors to female reproduction in this wasp.

  20. Krüppel Homolog 1 Inhibits Insect Metamorphosis via Direct Transcriptional Repression of Broad-Complex, a Pupal Specifier Gene.

    PubMed

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Nagamine, Keisuke; Ito, Yuka; Nishita, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2016-01-22

    The Broad-Complex gene (BR-C) encodes transcription factors that dictate larval-pupal metamorphosis in insects. The expression of BR-C is induced by molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)), and this induction is repressed by juvenile hormone (JH), which exists during the premature larval stage. Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1) has been known as a JH-early inducible gene responsible for repression of metamorphosis; however, the functional relationship between Kr-h1 and repression of BR-C has remained unclear. To elucidate this relationship, we analyzed cis- and trans elements involved in the repression of BR-C using a Bombyx mori cell line. In the cells, as observed in larvae, JH induced the expression of Kr-h1 and concurrently suppressed 20E-induced expression of BR-C. Forced expression of Kr-h1 repressed the 20E-dependent activation of the BR-C promoter in the absence of JH, and Kr-h1 RNAi inhibited the JH-mediated repression, suggesting that Kr-h1 controlled the repression of BR-C. A survey of the upstream sequence of BR-C gene revealed a Kr-h1 binding site (KBS) in the BR-C promoter. When KBS was deleted from the promoter, the repression of BR-C was abolished. Electrophoresis mobility shift demonstrated that two Kr-h1 molecules bound to KBS in the BR-C promoter. Based on these results, we conclude that Kr-h1 protein molecules directly bind to the KBS sequence in the BR-C promoter and thereby repress 20E-dependent activation of the pupal specifier, BR-C. This study has revealed a considerable portion of the picture of JH signaling pathways from the reception of JH to the repression of metamorphosis.

  1. The POU factor ventral veins lacking/Drifter directs the timing of metamorphosis through ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, CeCe; Ko, Amy; Chaieb, Leila; Koyama, Takashi; Sarwar, Prioty; Mirth, Christen K; Smith, Wendy A; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2014-06-01

    Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl)/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3). In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3), were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm) and spook (spo) were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation.

  2. Knockdown of the juvenile hormone receptor gene inhibits soldier-specific morphogenesis in the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Isoptera: Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Yaguchi, Hajime; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2015-09-01

    The Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein has been established as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. Knockdown of the Met gene caused precocious metamorphosis and suppression of ovarian development. However, the function of Met in caste development of social insects is unclear. In termites, JH acts as a central factor for caste development, especially for soldier differentiation, which involves two molts from workers via a presoldier stage. Increased JH titer in workers is needed for the presoldier molt, and the high JH titer is maintained throughout the presoldier period. Although presoldiers have the fundamental morphological features of soldiers, the nature of the cuticle is completely different from that of soldiers. We expected that JH signals via Met are involved in soldier-specific morphogenesis of the head and mandibles during soldier differentiation, especially in the presoldier period, in natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we focused on soldier differentiation in an incipient colony of the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Met homolog (ZnMet) expression in heads increased just after the presoldier molt. This high expression was reduced by ZnMet double stranded (dsRNA) injection before the presoldier molt. Although this treatment did not cause any morphological changes in presoldiers, it caused strong effects on soldiers, their mandibles being significantly shorter and head capsules smaller than those of control soldiers. Injection of ZnMet dsRNA throughout the presoldier stage did not affect the formation of soldier morphology, including cuticle formation. These results suggested that the rapid increase in ZnMet expression and subsequent activation of JH signaling just after the presoldier molt are needed for the formation of soldier-specific weapons. Therefore, besides its established role in insect metamorphosis, the JH receptor signaling also underlies soldier development in termites.

  3. Light exposure leads to reorganization of microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies and influences juvenile hormone levels in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Christina; Wang, Ying; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Amdam, Gro V; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees show a remarkable behavioral plasticity at the transition from nursing inside the hive to foraging for nectar and/or pollen outside. This plasticity is important for age-related division of labor in honeybee colonies. The behavioral transition is associated with significant volume and synaptic changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain centers for sensory integration, learning, and memory. We tested whether precocious sensory exposure to light leads to changes in the density of synaptic complexes [microglomeruli (MG)] in the MBs. The results show that exposure to light pulses over 3 days induces a significant decrease in the MG density in visual subregions (collar) of the MB. Earlier studies had shown that foragers have increased levels of juvenile hormone (JH) co-occurring with a decrease of vitellogenin (Vg). Previous work further established that RNAi-mediated knockdown of vg and ultraspiracle (usp) induced an upregulation of JH levels, which can lead to precocious foraging. By disturbing both Vg and JH pathways using gene knockdown of vg and usp, we tested whether the changes in the hormonal system directly affect MG densities. Our study shows that MG numbers remained unchanged when Vg and JH pathways were perturbed, suggesting no direct hormonal influences on MG densities. However, mass spectrometry detection of JH revealed that precocious light exposure triggered an increase in JH levels in the hemolymph (HL) of young bees. This suggests a dual effect following light exposure via direct effects on MG reorganization in the MB calyx and a possible positive feedback on HL JH levels.

  4. Molecular mechanism underlying juvenile hormone-mediated repression of precocious larval–adult metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Jouraku, Akiya; Ito, Yuka; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval–pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we found that JH suppressed ecdysone-inducible E93 expression in the epidermis of the silkworm Bombyx mori and in a B. mori cell line. Reporter assays in the cell line revealed that the JH-dependent suppression was mediated by Kr-h1. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis identified a consensus Kr-h1 binding site (KBS, 14 bp) located in the E93 promoter region, and EMSA confirmed that Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS. Moreover, we identified a C-terminal conserved domain in Kr-h1 essential for the transcriptional repression of E93. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism in which JH-inducible Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS site upstream of the E93 locus to repress its transcription in a cell-autonomous manner, thereby preventing larva from bypassing the pupal stage and progressing to precocious adult development. These findings help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating the metamorphic genetic network, including the functional significance of Kr-h1, BR-C, and E93 in holometabolous insect metamorphosis. PMID:28096379

  5. Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Konopova, Barbora; Smykal, Vlastimil; Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly). In either case juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C) in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis.

  6. ATP Dependence of Na+-Driven Cl–HCO3 Exchange in Squid Axons

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Bruce A.; Hogan, Emilia M.; Russell, John M.; Boron, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    Squid giant axons recover from acid loads by activating a Na+-driven Cl–HCO3 exchanger. We internally dialyzed axons to an intracellular pH (pHi) of 6.7, halted dialysis and monitored the pHi recovery (increase) in the presence of ATP or other nucleotides, using cyanide to block oxidative phosphorylation. We computed the equivalent acid-extrusion rate (JH) from the rate of pHi increase and intracellular buffering power. In experimental series 1, we used dialysis to vary [ATP]i, finding that Michaelis-Menten kinetics describes JH vs. [ATP]i, with an apparent Vmax of 15.6 pmole cm−2 s−1 and Km of 124 µM. In series 2, we examined ATPγS, AMP-PNP, AMP-PCP, AMP-CPP, GMP-PNP, ADP, ADPβS and GDPβS to determine if any, by themselves, could support transport. Only ATPγS (8 mM) supported acid extrusion; ATPγS also supported the HCO3−-dependent 36Cl efflux expected of a Na+-driven Cl–HCO3 exchanger. Finally, in series 3, we asked whether any nucleotide could alter JH in the presence of a background [ATP]i of ~230 µM (control JH = 11.7 pmol cm−2 s−1). We found JH was decreased modestly by 8 mM AMP-PNP (JH = 8.0 pmol cm−2 s−1) but increased modestly by 1 mM ADPβS (JH = 16.0 pmol cm−2 s−1). We suggest that ATPγS leads to stable phosphorylation of the transporter or an essential activator. PMID:18478173

  7. Juvenile hormone and methyl farnesoate production in cockroach embryos in relation to dorsal closure and the reproductive modes of different species of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi

    2007-12-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), is first detectable after dorsal closure, a conspicuous event in embryogenesis. The present research found that the timing of dorsal closure was consistently at about 45% of the total embryonic development time across most of the oviparous and ovoviviparous cockroach species examined. These included the ovoviviparous cockroaches Blaberus discoidalis, Byrsotria fumigata, Rhyparobia maderae, Nauphoeta cinerea, Phoetalia pallida, Schultesia lampyridiformis, and Panchlora nivea, as well as the oviparous cockroaches Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, Eurycotis floridana, and Supella longipalpa. However, the only known viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata completed dorsal closure at 20.8% of embryo development time. Methyl farnesoate (MF), the immediate precursor of JH III, is considered a functional molecule in crustaceans; however, in insects its function is still unclear. To understand the role of JH and MF in cockroach embryos, I compared JH and MF biosynthesis and release in several cockroach species of known phylogenetic relationships. Using a radiochemical assay, the present research showed that cockroach embryos representing all three reproductive modes produced and released both JH and MF, as previously shown for B. germanica, N. cinerea, and D. punctata. Members of a pair of embryonic CA from B. discoidalis, B. fumigata, R. maderae, and D. punctata were incubated with and without farnesol. MF accumulated in large amounts only in CA of R. maderae in the presence of farnesol, which indicates that control of the last step of biosynthesis of JH, conversion of MF into JH by MF epoxidase, is probably a rate-limiting step in this species.

  8. The POU Factor Ventral Veins Lacking/Drifter Directs the Timing of Metamorphosis through Ecdysteroid and Juvenile Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Koyama, Takashi; Sarwar, Prioty; Mirth, Christen K.; Smith, Wendy A.; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl)/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3). In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3), were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm) and spook (spo) were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation. PMID:24945490

  9. Energization of sodium absorption by the H(+)-ATPase pump in mitochondria-rich cells of frog skin.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B J

    1992-11-01

    The frog skin in vivo is capable of active transepithelial H+ secretion (JH) which is matched by Na+ absorption (JNa). Studies in vitro demonstrate that JH is generated by an H(+)-ATPase pump localized in apical membranes of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells, whereas JNa occurs through an amiloride-sensitive pathway in principal (P) cells. The H+ pump is sensitive to inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) and to specific inhibitors of mitochondrial F1F0 H(+)-ATPase (oligomycin) and vacuolar (V)-type H(+)-ATPase (N-ethylmaleimide) and to inhibitors of both these types of H(+)-ATPases (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, DCCD). JH is independent of external K+, which differentiates it from gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase and is strictly dependent on aerobic metabolism. The proton pump is primarily implicated in whole-body acid-base regulation. Acute stimulation of JH in response (seconds-minutes) to an acid load involves insertion of H+ pumps (exocytosis) from a cytosolic pool into the apical membrane. The chronic response (days) to metabolic acid load involves morphological changes (increased apical membrane surface area and number of MR cells). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of membrane capacitance and current fluctuations from MR cells demonstrate that a respiratory acid load and aldosterone produce rapid exocytotic insertion of DCCD-sensitive conductive membrane. A secondary role of the H+ pump is to energize sodium absorption (JNa) via principal cells from dilute solutions in the absence of a permeant anion under open-circuit conditions. The apparent 1:1 stoichiometry between JH and JNa is a result of transepithelial electrical coupling between these electrogenic fluxes. The H+ pump in MR cells generates a transepithelial current (serosa to apical) which acts as a physiological voltage-clamp to hyperpolarize the apical membrane of P cells. This hyperpolarization can facilitate passive Na+ entry across the apical membrane against a threefold chemical gradient. Since

  10. Evolutionary Endocrinology of Hormonal Rhythms: Juvenile Hormone Titer Circadian Polymorphism in Gryllus firmus.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Daily rhythms for hormonal traits are likely widespread and important aspects of organismal (e.g., life history) adaptation. Yet they remain substantially understudied, especially with respect to variable rhythms within species. The cricket, Gryllus firmus, exhibits a genetically polymorphic circadian rhythm for the blood titer of the key hormone, juvenile hormone (JH). Gryllus firmus is also wing-polymorphic, consisting of a dispersing morph that delays reproduction and a flightless morph with substantially enhanced egg production. JH circadian phenotype strongly covaries with morph type: The blood JH titer is strongly rhythmic in multiple populations artificially-selected for the dispersing morph (LW(f) = long wings with functional flight muscles) and is essentially arrhythmic in populations selected for the SW (short-winged) morph. Association between JH titer cycle and LW(f) morph is also found in natural populations of G. firmus and in several related species in the field. This is one of the very few studies of endocrine titer variation in natural populations of an insect. The morph-specific cycle is underlain by a circadian rhythm in hormone biosynthesis, which in turn is underlain by a rhythm in a brain neuropeptide regulator of JH biosynthesis. The morph-specific JH titer circadian cycle is also strongly correlated with a morph-specific daily rhythm in global gene expression. This is currently the only example of a genetically-variable hormone circadian rhythm in both the laboratory and field that is strongly associated with an ecologically important polymorphism. The extensive information on the underlying causes of the morph-specific JH titer rhythm, coupled with the strong association between the JH circadian rhythm and wing polymorphism makes this system in G. firmus an exceptional experimental model to investigate the mechanisms underlying circadian hormonal adaptations. Genetic polymorphism for the JH titer circadian rhythm in G. firmus is discussed

  11. The Drosophila Juvenile Hormone Receptor Candidates Methoprene-tolerant (MET) and Germ Cell-expressed (GCE) Utilize a Conserved LIXXL Motif to Bind the FTZ-F1 Nuclear Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Travis J.; Dubrovsky, Edward B.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has been implicated in many developmental processes in holometabolous insects, but its mechanism of signaling remains controversial. We previously found that in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells, the nuclear receptor FTZ-F1 is required for activation of the E75A gene by JH. Here, we utilized insect two-hybrid assays to show that FTZ-F1 interacts with two JH receptor candidates, the bHLH-PAS paralogs MET and GCE, in a JH-dependent manner. These interactions are severely reduced when helix 12 of the FTZ-F1 activation function 2 (AF2) is removed, implicating AF2 as an interacting site. Through homology modeling, we found that MET and GCE possess a C-terminal α-helix featuring a conserved motif LIXXL that represents a novel nuclear receptor (NR) box. Docking simulations supported by two-hybrid experiments revealed that FTZ-F1·MET and FTZ-F1·GCE heterodimer formation involves a typical NR box-AF2 interaction but does not require the canonical charge clamp residues of FTZ-F1 and relies primarily on hydrophobic contacts, including a unique interaction with helix 4. Moreover, we identified paralog-specific features, including a secondary interaction site found only in MET. Our findings suggest that a novel NR box enables MET and GCE to interact JH-dependently with the AF2 of FTZ-F1. PMID:22249180

  12. Genetic and diurnal variation in the juvenile hormone titer in a wing-polymorphic cricket: implications for the evolution of life histories and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Zera, A J; Cisper, G

    2001-01-01

    The wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, contains (1) a flight-capable morph (LW(f)) with long wings and functional flight muscles, (2) a flightless morph with reduced wings and underdeveloped flight muscles (SW), and (3) a flightless morph with histolyzed flight muscles but with fully developed wings (LW(h)). The LW(f) morph differed genetically from the SW morph and phenotypically from the LW(h) morph in the size of flight muscles, ovarian growth during the first week of adulthood, and the hemolymph titer of juvenile hormone (JH). This is the first study to document that phenotypes that differ genetically in morphological aspects of dispersal capability and in ovarian growth also differ genetically in the titer of a hormone that potentially regulates those traits. The JH titer rose 9-100-fold during the photophase in the flight-capable LW(f) morph but did not change significantly during this time in either flightless morph. Prolonged elevation of the in vivo JH titer in flight-capable females, by topical application of a hormone analogue, caused a substantial increase in ovarian growth and histolysis of flight muscles. The short-term, diurnal rise in the JH titer in the dispersing morph may be a mechanism that allows JH to positively regulate nocturnal flight behavior, while not causing maladaptive histolysis of flight muscles and ovarian growth. This is the first demonstration of naturally occurring, genetically based variation for diurnal change in a hormone titer in any organism.

  13. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with RNA interference against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Powell, Charles A; Shatters, Robert G; Borovsky, Dov

    2014-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction in adults and metamorphism in larval mosquitoes. This report describes an approach to control Aedes aegypti using RNAi against JH acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III that converts JH acid III (JHA III) into JH III. In female A. aegypti that were injected or fed jmtA dsRNA targeting the AeaJHAMT gene (jmtA) transcript, egg development was inhibited in 50% of the treated females. In mosquito larvae that were fed transgenic Pichia pastoris cells expressing long hair pin (LHP) RNA, adult eclosion was delayed by 3 weeks causing high mortality. Northern blot analyses and qPCR studies show that jmtA dsRNA causes inhibition of jmtA transcript in adults and larvae, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of egg maturation and larval development. Taken together, these results suggest that jmtA LHP RNA expressed in heat inactivated genetically modified P. pastoris cells could be used to control mosquito populations in the marsh.

  14. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-03-28

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.

  15. Apis mellifera ultraspiracle: cDNA sequence and rapid up-regulation by juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Barchuk, A R; Maleszka, R; Simões, Z L P

    2004-10-01

    Two hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are key regulators of insect development including the differentiation of the alternative caste phenotypes of social insects. In addition, JH plays a different role in adult honey bees, acting as a 'behavioural pacemaker'. The functional receptor for 20E is a heterodimer consisting of the ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle (USP) whereas the identity of the JH receptor remains unknown. We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding Apis mellifera ultraspiracle (AMUSP) and examined its responses to JH. A rapid, but transient up-regulation of the AMUSP messenger is observed in the fat bodies of both queens and workers. AMusp appears to be a single copy gene that produces two transcripts ( approximately 4 and approximately 5 kb) that are differentially expressed in the animal's body. The predicted AMUSP protein shows greater sequence similarity to its orthologues from the vertebrate-crab-tick-locust group than to the dipteran-lepidopteran group. These characteristics and the rapid up-regulation by JH suggest that some of the USP functions in the honey bee may depend on ligand binding.

  16. Synchronous vitellogenin expression and sexual maturation during migration are negatively correlated with juvenile hormone levels in Mythimna separata

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246

  17. A comparison of reactive strength index-modified between six U.S. Collegiate athletic teams.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Sole, Christopher J; Bailey, Christopher A; Grazer, Jacob L; Beckham, George K

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in reactive strength index-modified (RSImod), jump height (JH), and time to takeoff (TTT) between 6 U.S. collegiate sport teams. One hundred six male and female Division I collegiate athletes performed unloaded (<1 kg) and loaded (20 kg) countermovement jumps as part of an ongoing athlete monitoring program. Reactive strength index-modified, JH, and TTT values for each team were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. Statistically significant differences in RSImod (p < 0.001), JH (p < 0.001), and TTT (p = 0.003) existed between teams during the unloaded jumping condition. Similarly, statistically significant differences in RSImod (p < 0.001), JH (p < 0.001), and TTT (p = 0.028) existed between teams during the loaded jumping condition. Men's soccer and baseball produced the greatest RSImod values during both the unloaded and loaded jumping conditions followed by women's volleyball, men's tennis, women's soccer, and women's tennis. The greatest JH during unloaded and loaded jumping conditions was produced by men's baseball followed by men's soccer, women's volleyball, men's tennis, women's soccer, and women's tennis. Men's soccer produced shorter TTT compared with men's baseball (12.7%) and women's soccer (13.3%) during the unloaded and loaded jumping conditions, respectively. Collegiate sport teams exhibit varying reactive strength characteristics during unloaded and loaded jumping conditions. Understanding the differences in RSImod between sports may help direct the creation of training and monitoring programs more effectively for various sports.

  18. The Genetic, Morphological, and Physiological Characterization of a Dark Larval Cuticle Mutation in the Butterfly, Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2010-01-01

    Studies on insect melanism have greatly contributed to our understanding of natural selection and the ultimate factors influencing the evolution of darkly pigmented phenotypes. Research on several species of melanic lepidopteran larvae have found that low levels of circulating juvenile hormone (JH) titers are associated with a melanic phenotype, suggesting that genetic changes in the JH biosynthetic pathway give rise to increased deposition of melanin granules in the cuticle in this group. But does melanism arise through different molecular mechanisms in different species? The present study reports on a Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) dark larvae single locus mutation, in which larvae exhibit a darker cuticle relative to wild type. Unlike other lepidopteran melanic larvae mutations, this one is autosomal recessive and does not appear to involve a deficiency in JH titers. Unlike JH deficiency mutants, dark larvae mutants display similar growth rates and sexual behaviors as wild type, and topical application of a JH analogue failed to rescue the wild type cuticular coloration. Finally, transmission electron microscopy showed that sclerotization or deposition of diffuse melanin, rather than deposition of melanin granules, produces the dark coloration found in the cuticle of this species. We conclude that different molecular mechanisms underlie larval melanism in different species of Lepidoptera. PMID:20644735

  19. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The “target of rapamycin” (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens. PMID:27043527

  20. Genetic Architecture of a Hormonal Response to Gene Knockdown in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Ying; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several other traits cosegregate with these behavioral phenotypes, comprising the pollen hoarding syndrome (PHS) one of the best-described animal behavioral syndromes. Genotype differences in responsiveness of JH to Vg are a potential mechanistic basis for the PHS. Here, we reduced Vg expression via RNA interference in progeny from a backcross between 2 selected lines of honey bees that differ in JH responsiveness to Vg reduction and measured JH response and ovary size, which represents another key aspect of the PHS. Genetic mapping based on restriction site-associated DNA tag sequencing identified suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ovary size and JH responsiveness. We confirmed genetic effects on both traits near many QTL that had been identified previously for their effect on various PHS traits. Thus, our results support a role for endocrine control of complex traits at a genetic level. Furthermore, this first example of a genetic map of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in a social insect helps to refine the genetic understanding of complex behaviors and the physiology that may underlie behavioral control in general. PMID:25596612

  1. A new method of detecting hormone-binding proteins electroblotted onto glass fiber filter: juvenile hormone-binding proteins from grasshopper hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, L S; Roberts, P E

    1990-03-01

    We have developed a new method to identify juvenile hormone (JH)-binding proteins blotted onto glass fiber filter (GFF) after electrophoretic separation. Insect JH regulates reproduction in the two-striped grasshopper, Melanoplus bivittatus. A number of proteins are involved in the delivery of JH from its site of synthesis to the nuclei of fat body cells where it acts to induce vitellogenesis. To identify JH binding proteins, hemolymph was separated by PAGE, electroblotted onto GFF, and incubated in [10-3H]JH-III. The amount of hormone bound by blotted proteins increased with the amount of protein on the filter, was competitively displaced by excess non-labeled hormone, and was affiliated with individual bands on fluorograms of proteins blotted after electrophoretic separation. GFF etched with trifluoroacetic acid was better than nitrocellulose, Zeta Probe, cellulose acetate or unetched GFF. Phosphate (pH 6.0-7.3) or Tris buffers (pH 7.3-8.0) worked equally well for the procedure. Unbound hormone was easily removed by short washes in buffer, and adequate binding for detection was achieved in a 15 min incubation. Preliminary data suggest that this technique may be used to detect receptors, carriers, and binding proteins of steroid hormones.

  2. Juvenile hormone-binding proteins of Melanoplus bivittatus identified by EFDA photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Proteins that bind juvenile hormone in the hemolymph and fat body of the grasshopper, Melanoplus bivittatus were identified by photoaffinity labeling with radiolabeled epoxyfarnesyl diazoacetate ({sup 3}H-EFDA), and were characterized by electrophoretic analysis. A protocol was developed which allowed detection of {sup 3}H-EFDA that was covalently linked to proteins upon exposure to ultraviolet light at 254 nm. Quantification of protein-linked {sup 3}H-EFDA by liquid scintillation spectrometry took advantage of the differential solubility of unlinked {sup 3}H-EFDA in toluene alone, and of the protein-linked {sup 3}H-EFDA in toluene plus the detergent, Triton X-100. Competition between EFDA and juvenile hormone (JH) for binding to JH-specific binding sites was measured by hydroxyapatite protein binding assays in the presence of radiolabeled JH or EFDA and competing non-radiolabeled hormone. The protein-linked EFDA was detected on fluorograms of SDS or nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels (PAGE), and by liquid scintillation spectrometry of membranes to which the proteins had been electrophoretically transferred. Proteins which specifically bound JH were identified by photolabeling proteins in the presence and absence of nonlabeled JH-III.

  3. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  4. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation.

  5. Public health-specific National Incident Management System trainings: building a system for preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Sivan; Barnett, Daniel J; Galastri, Costanza; Semon, Natalie L; Links, Jonathan M

    2010-01-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) are at the hub of the public health emergency preparedness system. Since the 2003 issuance of Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, LHDs have faced challenges to comply with a new set of all-hazards, 24/7 organizational response expectations, as well as the National Incident Management System (NIMS). To help local public health practitioners address these challenges, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness (JH-CPHP) created and implemented a face-to-face, public health-specific NIMS training series for LHDs. This article presents the development, evolution, and delivery of the JH-CPHP NIMS training program. In this context, the article also describes a case example of practice-academic collaboration between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and JH-CPHP to develop public health-oriented NIMS course content.

  6. Impact of Wetting/Oven-Drying Cycles on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Birch Plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooru, M.; Kasepuu, K.; Kask, R.; Lille, H.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore some physical and mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of birch (Betula sp.) nine-ply veneers glued with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) after 10 cycles of soaking/oven-drying. The properties to be determined were bending strength (BS), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), Janka hardness (JH) and thickness swelling (TS), which were tested according to the European Standards (EN). An analytical equation was used for approximation of the change in the physical and mechanical properties of the samples depending on the number of cycles. It was shown that the values of the studied properties were affected most by the first soaking and drying cycles after which BS and MOE decreased continuously while the values of JH and TS stabilized. After 10 cycles the final values of BS, MOE, JH and TS accounted for 75-81%, 95%, 82% and 98.5% of the initial values, respectively.

  7. The inverse microconglomerate test: Definition and application to the preservation of Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Rory; Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Dare, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic field test, the inverse microconglomerate test. In contrast with traditional conglomerate tests, which target specimens that might preserve primary magnetizations, the inverse microconglomerate test focuses on magnetic carriers having unblocking temperatures less than peak metamorphic temperatures. These mineral carriers are expected to carry a consistent direction of remagnetization. Hence, the inverse microconglomerate test evaluates whether coherent magnetizations are retained on a grain/mineral scale in a given sedimentary rock sample. By defining the remagnetization direction, it also serves as a benchmark for comparison of magnetizations from other grains/minerals having unblocking temperatures higher than peak metamorphic conditions (i.e., potential primary magnetizations). We apply this new test to sediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. For the JH sediments we focus on fuchsite, a secondary Cr-mica that contains relict Cr-Fe spinels capable of recording remanent magnetizations. We find that JH fuchsite grains retain consistent magnetic directions at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340 oC, which defines a positive test. This direction does not reproduce a nominal 1078-1070 Ma remagnetization reported by Weiss et al. (EPSL, 2015) that we interpret as an artifact of inappropriate use of averaging and statistics. The thermochemical remanent magnetization recorded by the fuchsite was most likely imparted during peak JH metamorphic conditions at ˜2650 Ma. Our inverse microconglomerate test complements a positive microconglomerate test and large scale positive conglomerate test conducted on JH cobbles (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013), further supporting evidence that JH zircons record Paleoarchean to Hadean primary magnetizations at high (greater than 550 oC) unblocking temperatures (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). More generally, the new inverse microconglomerate test may aid in

  8. Juvenile hormone and insulin suppress lipolysis between periods of lactation during tsetse fly pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Aaron A; Benoit, Joshua B; Michalkova, Veronika; Mireji, Paul O; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Moulton, John K; Wilson, Thomas G; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-06-15

    Tsetse flies are viviparous insects that nurture a single intrauterine progeny per gonotrophic cycle. The developing larva is nourished by the lipid-rich, milk-like secretions from a modified female accessory gland (milk gland). An essential feature of the lactation process involves lipid mobilization for incorporation into the milk. In this study, we examined roles for juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/IGF-like (IIS) signaling pathways during tsetse pregnancy. In particular, we examined the roles for these pathways in regulating lipid homeostasis during transitions between non-lactating (dry) and lactating periods. The dry period occurs over the course of oogenesis and embryogenesis, while the lactation period spans intrauterine larvigenesis. Genes involved in the JH and IIS pathways were upregulated during dry periods, correlating with lipid accumulation between bouts of lactation. RNAi suppression of Forkhead Box Sub Group O (FOXO) expression impaired lipolysis during tsetse lactation and reduced fecundity. Similar reduction of the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant (Met), but not its paralog germ cell expressed (gce), reduced lipid accumulation during dry periods, indicating functional divergence between Met and gce during tsetse reproduction. Reduced lipid levels following Met knockdown led to impaired fecundity due to inadequate fat reserves at the initiation of milk production. Both the application of the JH analog (JHA) methoprene and injection of insulin into lactating females increased stored lipids by suppressing lipolysis and reduced transcripts of lactation-specific genes, leading to elevated rates of larval abortion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to address the molecular physiology of JH and IIS in a viviparous insect, and specifically to provide a role for JH signaling through Met in the regulation of lipid metabolism during insect lactation.

  9. A role for juvenile hormone in the prepupal development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Riddiford, Lynn M; Truman, James W; Mirth, Christen K; Shen, Yu-Chi

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate the role of juvenile hormone (JH) in metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, the corpora allata cells, which produce JH, were killed using the cell death gene grim. These allatectomized (CAX) larvae were smaller at pupariation and died at head eversion. They showed premature ecdysone receptor B1 (EcR-B1) in the photoreceptors and in the optic lobe, downregulation of proliferation in the optic lobe, and separation of R7 from R8 in the medulla during the prepupal period. All of these effects of allatectomy were reversed by feeding third instar larvae on a diet containing the JH mimic (JHM) pyriproxifen or by application of JH III or JHM at the onset of wandering. Eye and optic lobe development in the Methoprene-tolerant (Met)-null mutant mimicked that of CAX prepupae, but the mutant formed viable adults, which had marked abnormalities in the organization of their optic lobe neuropils. Feeding Met(27) larvae on the JHM diet did not rescue the premature EcR-B1 expression or the downregulation of proliferation but did partially rescue the premature separation of R7, suggesting that other pathways besides Met might be involved in mediating the response to JH. Selective expression of Met RNAi in the photoreceptors caused their premature expression of EcR-B1 and the separation of R7 and R8, but driving Met RNAi in lamina neurons led only to the precocious appearance of EcR-B1 in the lamina. Thus, the lack of JH and its receptor Met causes a heterochronic shift in the development of the visual system that is likely to result from some cells 'misinterpreting' the ecdysteroid peaks that drive metamorphosis.

  10. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    PubMed

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  11. Distinct Roles of Met and Interacting Proteins on the Expressions of takeout Family Genes in Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinda; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    The takeout family genes encode relatively small proteins that are related to olfaction and are regulated by juvenile hormone (JH). The takeout genes modulate various physiological processes, such as behavioral plasticity in the migratory locust Locusta migraloria and feeding and courtship behaviors in Drosophila. Therefore, to understand the regulatory mechanism of these physiological processes, it is important to study the expressions of the takeout genes that are regulated by JH signaling. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) to study the role of JH signaling in the regulation of the takeout family genes in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens) through the application of Juvenile hormone III (JHIII) and the down-regulation of key genes in the JH signaling pathway. The topical application of JHIII induced the expressions of most of the takeout family genes, and their expressions decreased 2 and 3 days after the JHIII application. Down-regulating the brown planthopper JH receptor NlMethoprene-tolerant (NlMet) and its interacting partners, NlTaiman (NlTai) and Nlß-Ftz-F1 (Nlß-Ftz), through RNAi, exhibited distinct effects on the expressions of the takeout family genes. The down-regulation of NlMet and NlKrüppel-homolog 1 (NlKr-h1) increased the expressions of the takeout family genes, while the down-regulation of the Met interacting partners NlTai and Nlß-Ftz decreased the expressions of most of the takeout family genes. This work advanced our understanding of the molecular function and the regulatory mechanism of JH signaling. PMID:28270774

  12. Hormonal regulation and developmental role of Krüppel homolog 1, a repressor of metamorphosis, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Murata, Mika; Kobayashi, Isao; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Okada, Chieko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Tamura, Toshiki; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has an ability to repress the precocious metamorphosis of insects during their larval development. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-inducible gene that mediates this action of JH; however, the fine hormonal regulation of Kr-h1 and the molecular mechanism underlying its antimetamorphic effect are little understood. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the hormonal regulation and developmental role of Kr-h1. We found that the expression of Kr-h1 in the epidermis of penultimate-instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori was induced by JH secreted by the corpora allata (CA), whereas the CA were not involved in the transient induction of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage. Tissue culture experiments suggested that the transient peak of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage is likely to be induced cooperatively by JH derived from gland(s) other than the CA and the prepupal surge of ecdysteroid, although involvement of unknown factor(s) could not be ruled out. To elucidate the developmental role of Kr-h1, we generated transgenic silkworms overexpressing Kr-h1. The transgenic silkworms grew normally until the spinning stage, but their development was arrested at the prepupal stage. The transgenic silkworms from which the CA were removed in the penultimate instar did not undergo precocious pupation or larval-larval molt but fell into prepupal arrest. This result demonstrated that Kr-h1 is indeed involved in the repression of metamorphosis but that Kr-h1 alone is incapable of implementing normal larval molt. Moreover, the expression profiles and hormonal responses of early ecdysone-inducible genes (E74, E75, and Broad) in transgenic silkworms suggested that Kr-h1 is not involved in the JH-dependent modulation of these genes, which is associated with the control of metamorphosis.

  13. Cyp15F1: a novel cytochrome P450 gene linked to juvenile hormone-dependent caste differention in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Coy, Monique R; Scharf, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that jointly utilize juvenile hormone (JH), pheromones, and other semiochemicals to regulate caste differentiation and achieve caste homeostasis. Prior EST sequencing from the symbiont-free gut transcriptome of Reticulitermes flavipes unexpectedly revealed a number of unique cytochrome P450 (Cyp) transcripts, including fragments of a Cyp15 family gene (Cyp15F1) with homology to other insect Cyp15s that participate in JH biosynthesis. The present study investigated the role of Cyp15F1 in termite caste polyphenism and specifically tested the hypothesis that it plays a role in JH-dependent caste differentiation. After assembling the full-length Cyp15F1 cDNA sequence, we (i) determined its mRNA tissue expression profile, (ii) investigated mRNA expression changes in response to JH and the caste-regulatory primer pheromones γ-cadinene (CAD) and γ-cadinenal (ALD), and (iii) used RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with caste differentiation bioassays to investigate gene function at the phenotype level. Cyp15F1 has ubiquitous whole-body expression (including gut tissue); is rapidly and sustainably induced from 3 h to 48 h by JH, CAD, and ALD; and functions at least in part by facilitating JH-dependent soldier caste differentiation. These findings provide the second example of a termite caste regulatory gene identified through the use of RNAi, and significantly build upon our understanding of termite caste homeostatic mechanisms. These results also reinforce the concept of environmental caste determination in termites by revealing how primer pheromones, as socioenvironmental factors, can directly influence Cyp15 expression and caste differentiation.

  14. A cytochrome P450 terpenoid hydroxylase linked to the suppression of insect juvenile hormone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, T D; Unnithan, G C; Andersen, J F; Evans, P H; Murataliev, M B; Szabo, L Z; Mash, E A; Bowers, W S; Feyereisen, R

    1998-10-27

    A cDNA encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme was isolated from a cDNA library of the corpora allata (CA) from reproductively active Diploptera punctata cockroaches. This P450 from the endocrine glands that produce the insect juvenile hormone (JH) is most closely related to P450 proteins of family 4 and was named CYP4C7. The CYP4C7 gene is expressed selectively in the CA; its message could not be detected in the fat body, corpora cardiaca, or brain, but trace levels of expression were found in the midgut and caeca. The levels of CYP4C7 mRNA in the CA, measured by ribonuclease protection assays, were linked to the activity cycle of the glands. In adult females, CYP4C7 expression increased immediately after the peak of JH synthesis, reaching a maximum on day 7, just before oviposition. mRNA levels then declined after oviposition and during pregnancy. The CYP4C7 protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal His-tagged recombinant protein. In a reconstituted system with insect NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5, and NADPH, the purified CYP4C7 metabolized (2E,6E)-farnesol to a more polar product that was identified by GC-MS and by NMR as (10E)-12-hydroxyfarnesol. CYP4C7 converted JH III to 12-trans-hydroxy JH III and metabolized other JH-like sesquiterpenoids as well. This omega-hydroxylation of sesquiterpenoids appears to be a metabolic pathway in the corpora allata that may play a role in the suppression of JH biosynthesis at the end of the gonotrophic cycle.

  15. Identification of a locus within the hydrogenase gene cluster involved in intracellular nickel metabolism in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Changlin Fu; Maier, R.J. )

    1991-12-01

    A 0.6-kb fragment of DNA involved in intracellular Ni metabolism was isolated and cloned from a cosmid containing 23.2 kb of hydrogenase-related genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. This locus is located 8.3 kb upstream of the hydrogenase structural genes. The hydrogenase activity of a mutant with a gene-directed mutation at this locus (strain JHK7) showed dependency on nickel provided during hydrogenase depression. The hydrogenase activity was only 20% of that in the wild-type strain, JH, at a concentration of 0.5 {mu}M NiCl{sub 2}. The hydrogenase activity in JH reached its maximum at 3 {mu}M NiCl{sub 2}, whereas the mutant (JHK7) reached wild-type levels of hydrogenase activity when derepressed in 50 {mu}M NiCl{sub 2}. Studies with the hup-lacZ transcriptional fusion plasmid pSY7 in JHK7 showed that the mutant JHK7 expressed less promoter activity under low-nickel conditions than did strain JH. The mutant accumulated less nickel during a 45-h hydrogenase under low-nickel conditions than did strain JH. The mutant accumulated less nickel during a 45-h hydrogenase derepression period than did the wild type. However, both JHK7 and the JH wild-type strain had the same short-term Ni transport rates, and the K{sub m}s for Ni of both strains were about 62 {mu}M. When incubated under non-hydrogenase-derepression conditions, the mutant accumulated Ni at the same rate as strain JH. However, this stored source of nickel was unable to restore hydrogenase expression ability of the mutant to wild-type levels during derepression without nickel. The results that the locus identified in B. japonicum is not involved in nickel-specific transport.

  16. Evidence for differential biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (and related) sesquiterpenoids in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bendena, William G; Zhang, Jinrui; Burtenshaw, Sally M; Tobe, Stephen S

    2011-05-15

    Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that biosynthesis and regulation of juvenile hormone bisepoxide (JHB(3)) may not be coordinated with that of juvenile hormone (JH III). In this study, we have used the radiochemical assay to confirm the coordinated developmental sesquiterpenoid profile during adult life and analyze the effect of farnesol and farnesoic acid addition on methyl farnesoate, JH III and JHB(3) production by isolated ring glands of Drosophila third instar larvae or corpora allata of adult females. Application of exogenous farnesol or farnesoic acid to glands in vitro stimulated MF and JH III biosynthesis in both larvae and adults. Farnesol and farnesoic acid were inhibitory to JHB(3) biosynthesis in larvae. N-acetyl-geranyl-L-cysteine (NAGC) and S-farnesyl-thioacetic acid (SFTA) are farnesyl pyrophosphatase inhibitors that have specificity towards two different ring gland phosphatases. NAGC and SFTA had no effect on MF or JH III biosynthesis, whereas SFTA inhibited JHB(3) biosynthesis. SFTA shows specificity for a ring gland phosphatase, Phos2680, which has not been previously implicated as a contributor to JHB(3) biosynthesis. This finding suggests that farnesol production occurs in two alternate pools; one pool utilized for MF and JH III production and the other for JHB(3) production. Finally, we have used the UAS-GAL4 system in Drosophila to express juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) in vivo. In contrast to in vitro studies, JHAMT expression had no effect on MF or JH III biosynthesis but stimulated JHB(3) in both larvae and adults.

  17. Comparative metabolism of branched-chain amino acids to precursors of juvenile hormone biogenesis in corpora allata of lepidopterous versus nonlepidopterous insects

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, P.A.; Schooley, D.A.; Tsai, L.W.; Baker, F.C.

    1988-08-05

    Comparative studies were performed on the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis using several lepidopterous and nonlepidopterous insects. Corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes (CC-CA, the corpora allata being the organ of JH biogenesis) were maintained in culture medium containing a uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled BCAA, together with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as mass marker for JH quantification. BCAA catabolism was quantified by directly analyzing the medium for the presence of /sup 14/C-labeled propionate and/or acetate, while JHs were extracted, purified by liquid chromatography, and subjected to double-label liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that active BCAA catabolism occurs within the CC-CA of lepidopterans, and this efficiently provides propionyl-CoA (from isoleucine or valine) for the biosynthesis of the ethyl branches of JH I and II. Acetyl-CoA, formed from isoleucine or leucine catabolism, is also utilized by lepidopteran CC-CA for biosynthesizing JH III and the acetate-derived portions of the ethyl-branched JHs. In contrast, CC-CA of nonlepidopterans fail to catabolize BCAA. Consequently, exogenous isoleucine or leucine does not serve as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of JH III by these glands, and no propionyl-CoA is produced for genesis of ethyl-branched JHs. This is the first observation of a tissue-specific metabolic difference which in part explains why these novel homosesquiterpenoids exist in lepidopterans, but not in nonlepidopterans.

  18. Two Leptinotarsa uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases are specialized for chitin synthesis in larval epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Fu, Jia; Mu, Li-Li; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine-pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is involved in the biosynthesis of chitin, an essential component of the epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix (PM) in insects. In the present paper, two putative LdUAP genes were cloned in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In vivo bioassay revealed that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide activated the expression of the two LdUAPs, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and a 20E signaling gene LdFTZ-F1 repressed the expression. Juvenile hormone (JH), a JH analog pyriproxyfen and an increase in JH by RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C downregulated LdUAP1 but upregulated LdUAP2, whereas a decrease in JH by silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT had converse effects. Thus, expression of LdUAPs responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdUAP1 reduced chitin contents in whole larvae and integument samples, thinned tracheal taenidia, impaired larval-larval molt, larval-pupal ecdysis and adult emergence. In contrast, silencing of LdUAP2 significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut samples, damaged PM, and retarded larval growth. The resulting larvae had lighter fresh weights, smaller body sizes and depleted fat body. As a result, the development was arrested. Combined knockdown of LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 caused an additive negative effect. Our data suggest that LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 have specialized functions in biosynthesizing chitin in the epidermal cuticle and PM respectively in L. decemlineata.

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND HORMONE INDUCTION OF PUTATIVE CHITIN SYNTHASE GENES AND SPLICE VARIANTS IN Leptinotarsa decemlineata (SAY).

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Mu, Li-Li; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Chitin synthase (ChS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In this study, two ChS genes (LdChSA and LdChSB) were identified in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdChSA contains two splicing variants, LdChSAa and LdChSAb. Within the first, second, and third larval instars, the mRNA levels of LdChSAa, LdChSAb, and LdChSB coincide with the peaks of circulating 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). In vitro culture of midguts and an in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide stimulated the expression of the three LdChSs. Conversely, a reduction of 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD repressed the expression of these LdChSs, and ingestion of halofenozide by LdSHD RNAi larvae rescued the repression. Moreover, disruption of 20E signaling by RNAi of LdEcR, LdE75, LdHR3, and LdFTZ-F1 reduced the expression levels of these genes. Similarly, in vitro culture and an in vivo bioassay showed that exogenous JH and a JH analog methoprene activated the expression of the three LdChSs, whereas a decrease in JH by RNAi of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT downregulated these LdChSs. It seems that JH upregulates LdChSs at the early stage of each instar, whereas a 20E pulse triggers the transcription of LdChSs during molting in L. decemlineata.

  20. Recent advances in understanding haemochromatosis: a transition state

    PubMed Central

    Robson, K; Merryweather-Clar..., A; Cadet, E; Viprakasit, V; Zaahl, M; Pointon, J; Weatherall, D; Rochette, J

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the hepcidin gene HAMP and the hemojuvelin gene HJV have recently been shown to result in juvenile haemochromatosis (JH). Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide that plays a key role in regulating intestinal iron absorption. Hepcidin levels are reduced in patients with haemochromatosis due to mutations in the HFE and HJV genes. Digenic inheritance of mutations in HFE and HAMP can result in either JH or hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) depending upon the severity of the mutation in HAMP. Here we review these findings and discuss how understanding the different types of haemochromatosis and our increasing knowledge of iron metabolism may help to elucidate the host's response to infection. PMID:15466004

  1. Random Choice Solutions for Weak Spherical Shock-Wave Transitions of N-Waves in Air with Vibrational Excitation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    lit,- shol f ront. The rronsttit in- Tritlie, fill Icdis--ri-cd watc - Pci’. I JhV - Yi- ’sLi c1 iictct Itlcthat Tt risc- timc-s of wetik shock couild...FORMAT(// JH 9’KJ1:’,13,’, NMAX=1,139’, NNfl:’o 00510 3* 129𔄃 ID=’,13,𔄃 INC=’,12,’, NGQ:’, 00520 if 139’’ NPRINT:’,12,/1H ,’ESSz’,F7959’, XFAC:’, 00530 3

  2. A Multilevel Approach to Minimum Cost Network Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    h = I/N, by creating N+I gridpoints x, = jh , j = 0,...,N. This is the finest grid, which is referred to as f?. Grids in which the spacing between...approximate solution, vh. Finally, define Z’Jk=X𔃼h(fh-Nb- Jhv ) to be the restriction of the residual. The residual is the difference between the operator...equation used in the FMG cycle. Transferring this residual to the 2h grid gives .,•" (Cf - Jh hVb) =jrUu"-A?’vh . Using v2h••vb" , this becomes rhU21=_Xf6h

  3. Signaling Activity and Prognostic Significance of Variant Forms of p185HER-2/neu in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    tyrosine kinase by a unique sequential mechanism. J. Cell Biol., 139: 995-1003, 1997. 33. DiFiore, P.P., Pierce, J.H., Kraus, M.H., Segatto , 0., King, C.R...Acad. Sci., 84: 7159-7163, 1987. 35. Segatto , 0., King, R., Pierce, J.H., DiFiore, P.P., and Aaronson, S.A. Different structural alterations...metalloproteinase inhibitor. Nature r e5 33. DiFiore, P. P., Pierce,)J. H., Kraus, M. H., Segatto , 0., King, C. R., and Aaronson, (Lond.), 37F%1, 1994. S

  4. IGARSS 89: Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (12th) (Symposium Canadien sur la Teledetection): Quantitative Remote Sensing: An Economic Tool for the Nineties Held in Vancouver, Canada on 10-14 July 1989. Volume 2. Tuesday, July 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-14

    cartoghapique en vue de 56 l’etablissement de la carte d’utilisation de sol au Maroc H. Ait Belaid, K.P.B. Thomson, G. Edwards, J.H. Bealieu, Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy...INTEGREE X L’INFORMATION CARTOGRAPHIQUZ EN VUE DE L’ ETABLISSEMENT DE LA CARTE D’ UTILISATION DE SOL AU MAROC H. AIT BELAID, K.P.B. THOMSON, G. EDWARDS J.H... Maroc 1 int~gration de donn~es de td10edtection avec etintimement lide au d~veloppement et A les donn~es classiques de terrain. Elle prdsente

  5. Biosynthesis of the Juvenile Hormones of Manduca sexta: Labeling Pattern from Mevalonate, Propionate, and Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, David A.; Judy, Kenneth J.; Bergot, B. John; Hall, M. Sharon; Siddall, John B.

    1973-01-01

    Using organ culture, high-resolution liquid chromatography, and microchemical techniques, we demonstrated the efficient incorporation in vitro of several radiolabeled precursors into the two juvenile hormones of Manduca sexta. JH II, a homosesquiterpene hormone, reported from M. sexta as well as several other insects, incorporates radiolabel from acetate, mevalonate, and propionate. JH III, a sesquiterpene hormone recently reported as a natural product of M. sexta, incorporates label from acetate and mevalonate, but not from propionate. Based on the position of the labeled atoms in the precursors and upon the position of incorporation obtained from label-distribution data, a scheme for juvenile hormone biosynthesis is advanced. PMID:16592112

  6. Dystocia, stillbirth, gestation length, and birth weight in Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal crosses from a planned experiment.

    PubMed

    Olson, K M; Cassell, B G; McAllister, A J; Washburn, S P

    2009-12-01

    Holstein and Jersey cows were mated to 4 Holstein (H) bulls and 4 Jersey (J) bulls to create HH, HJ, JH, and JJ genetic groups (sire breed listed first) in a diallele crossbreeding scheme. Calvings (n = 756) occurred in research herds in Virginia, Kentucky, and North Carolina with 243, 166, 194, and 153 calvings in the HH, HJ, JH, and JJ groups, respectively. Birth weights (BW), dystocia scores (0 for unassisted and 1 for assisted), and stillbirth (0 for alive or 1 for dead within 48 h) were recorded at calving. Gestation lengths (GL) were determined from breeding dates. An animal model was used to analyze BW and GL, and an animal model with logistic regression was used for dystocia and stillbirth. Fixed effects considered for model inclusion were genetic group, herd-year-season, sex, parity (primiparous or multiparous), twin status, and gestation length. Genetic group and effects significant in the model building process were kept in the final model for each trait. Heifer calves had lower BW, shorter GL, and had a lower odds ratio (0.53) for dystocia than bull calves. Twins had lower BW, shorter GL, were 3.86 times more likely to experience dystocia, and 7.80 times more likely to be stillborn than single births. Primiparous cows had calves with lower BW, shorter GL, were 2.50 times more likely to require assistance at birth, and were 2.35 times more likely to produce stillborns than calves from multiparous cows. Genetic group did not affect GL. Least squares means (kg) for BW were 37.7 +/- 1.1, 29.1 +/- 1.1, 30.3 +/- 1.0, and 22.5 +/- 1.3 for HH, HJ, JH, and JJ, respectively. Animals in HH weighed more than animals of other genetic groups; the JJ group had the smallest BW, with no differences for BW between HJ and JH. Probability of dystocia in JJ and JH were 5.73% and 18.98% of HH. Calves in HJ and HH were not different for dystocia. Calves in HJ were 3.38 times more likely to be stillborn than calves in JH, but no other genetic group differences were significant

  7. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  8. Evaluation of Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging in Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    four regions are selected: • In order to minimize directional bias for the chosen Ndir sets to the tensor direction in each ROI, eight maximally...Orig17min1: Nbval = 5 (b = 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 s/mm2), Ndir = 30 (~17m Orig7min2: Nbval = 2 (b = 1000, 2000 s/mm2), Ndir = 30 (~7min) 1 Jensen JH...et al. 2005; 2Jensen JH & Helpern JA. 2010. Gold Standard: Full data (Nbval = 5, Ndir = 64, average of 4 repeats) 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

  9. Proof-of-Principle High Speed Electronic Imaging System. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Z𔃽H - X𔃽H TAN 0 ’H (49) Line rH = vIH - v2H (50) Line ell = hilH - h2H (51) Line JH hlH - h3H (52) Line k H VIH - V3H (53) Line gH = jH + H (54...Geometry, Revised Edition, Ginn and Co., 1956. 7. Wemer Frei Associates, Imagelab TM Model 100, Santa Monica, California 1986. 1 8. R.L. Kittyle, J.D

  10. Production, fertility, survival, and body measurements of Montbéliarde-sired crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins during their first 5 lactations.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Seykora, A J; Hansen, L B

    2014-01-01

    Two-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Holstein (MO × HO) as well as 3-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Jersey/Holstein (MO × JH) were compared with pure Holstein (HO) cows for production, somatic cell score (SCS), fertility, survival to subsequent calving, mortality, and body measurements during their first 5 lactations. Cows calved for the first time between 2005 and 2010 and were housed in either a confinement herd or a herd that had access to pasture for 165d of the year in the north central region of the United States. Body, hoof, and udder measurements of cows were also objectively measured. The MO × HO crossbred cows were not different from pure HO cows for fat-plus-protein production during any lactation. However, the MO × JH crossbred cows had 5% lower fat-plus-protein production compared with pure HO cows in the confinement herd. On the other hand, the MO × JH crossbred cows were not different for fat-plus-protein production in the third to fifth lactation compared with pure HO cows in the seasonal pasture herd. Across the 2 herds, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows had 21% higher first-service conception rate, 41 fewer days open, and 12% higher pregnancy rate compared with the pure HO cows. Furthermore, the MO × HO (5%) and MO × JH (12%) crossbred cows had lower mortality rates than the pure HO cows (18%). Because of superior fertility and lower mortality rates, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows, combined, had greater survival to second (+13%), third (+24%), fourth (+25%), and fifth (+17%) lactation compared with pure HO cows. For body measurements, MO × HO were similar to pure HO cows for hip height and heart girth, but MO × HO cows had more body condition and greater body weight (+39kg) across the first 5 lactations. The MO × JH cows had more body condition but 5cm shorter hip height and 28kg less body weight than pure HO cows across the first 5 lactations. Foot angle was steeper and hoof length was shorter for MO × HO

  11. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects.

  12. Memory Strategies Used by Young Normal and Retarded Children in a Directed Forgetting Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Norman W.; Ferguson, Robert P.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that normal children (sixteen 6- to 7-year-olds) and retarded children (sixteen 9- to 10-year-olds) equated for immediate memory performance may not use effective strategies to eliminate interference from irrelevant information in memory. (Author/JH)

  13. Development of Ground-Based Plant Sentinels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    caryophyllene and methyl salicylate . Similar experiments were carried out with peanut plants. They were found to emit characteristic volatile mixtures...Cardoza, Y.J., Schmelz, E.A., Raina, R., Engelberth, J.E. and Tumlinson, J.H. (2003) Differential volatile emissions and salicylic acid levels from tobacco

  14. Effect of the Ionosphere on Radiowave Systems (Based on Ionospheric Effects Symposium)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-30

    Arecibo and the Satellite Power Station", Journal of Ceophys Res., Apr. 1, 1978, 83, 1161-1123 (No. A4). 2. T. 8. Jones, K. Davies, B. Weider ...claracterizing the continuous aurora may generally _ represented by a MaxwelItan distribution abrve a few hundred eV of the form J(h)-( Joe / a )Ee where

  15. Allatostatin-C reversibly blocks the transport of citrate out of the mitochondria and inhibits juvenile hormone synthesis in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-02-01

    Aedes aegypti allatostatin-C (AeaAST-C or PISCF-AST) is a strong and fast reversible inhibitor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) synthesis by the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes; however, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. AeaAST-C showed no inhibitory activity in the presence of any of the intermediate precursors of JH III indicating that the AeaAST-C target is located before the entry of acetyl-CoA in the pathway. Stimulation experiments using different sources of carbon (glucose, pyruvate, acetate and citrate) suggest that AST-C acts after pyruvate is transformed to citrate in the mitochondria. In vitro inhibition of the citrate mitochondrial carrier (CIC) mimicked the effect of AeaAST-C, and was overridden by addition of citrate or acetate. Our results provide compelling evidence that AeaAST-C inhibits JH III synthesis by blocking the CIC carrier that transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytosol, obstructing the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA that sustains JH III synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes.

  16. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects.

  17. Identification of plant compounds that disrupt the insect juvenile hormone receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Fang, Ying; An, Saes-Byeol; Park, Doo-Sang; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Seonghyun; Kim, Namjung; Raikhel, Alexander S; Je, Yeon Ho; Shin, Sang Woon

    2015-02-10

    Insects impact human health through vector-borne diseases and cause major economic losses by damaging crops and stored agricultural products. Insect-specific growth regulators represent attractive control agents because of their safety to the environment and humans. We identified plant compounds that serve as juvenile hormone antagonists (PJHANs). Using the yeast two-hybrid system transformed with the mosquito JH receptor as a reporter system, we demonstrate that PJHANs affect the JH receptor, methoprene-tolerant (Met), by disrupting its complex with CYCLE or FISC, formation of which is required for mediating JH action. We isolated five diterpene secondary metabolites with JH antagonist activity from two plants: Lindera erythrocarpa and Solidago serotina. They are effective in causing mortality of mosquito larvae at relatively low LD50 values. Topical application of two diterpenes caused reduction in the expression of Met target genes and retardation of follicle development in mosquito ovaries. Hence, the newly discovered PJHANs may lead to development of a new class of safe and effective pesticides.

  18. Community Education: An Amalgam of Many Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minzey, Jack

    1972-01-01

    Community education is an educational philosophy, which holds that the school is responsible for all aspects of education. The promise of that philosophy lies in its potential for involving people in the identification and solution of their problems. (Author/JH)

  19. 78 FR 60297 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience Integrated Review Group; Diseases and..., jh377p@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience Integrated Review Group; Developmental Brain Disorders Study Section. Date: October 24-25, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda:...

  20. OVERVIEW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSENBERG, SHELDON

    THIS OVERVIEW CHAPTER INTRODUCES THE FORTHCOMING "DEVELOPMENTS IN APPLIED PSYCHOLINGUISTICS RESEARCH," S. ROSENBERG AND J.H. KOPLIN, EDITORS, WHICH WILL BE PUBLISHED IN 1968 BY MACMILLAN COMPANY. IT WAS DESIGNED TO SERVE AN INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION--TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THE MAJOR IDEAS AND CONCERNS OF THE CONTRIBUTORS, TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THEIR…

  1. Freedom to Make Choices for Health: Plus 40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2010-01-01

    In the 1969 inaugural issue of the "School Health Review", Douglass J.H. examined four major issues he felt were central to the question of choices one has about health: (1) problems with health care delivery methods; (2) persistent poverty in our population and its impact on health; (3) systemic problems inherent in social and institutional…

  2. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... practitioner may sign a paper prescription in the same manner as he would sign a check or legal document (e.g., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is not permitted, paper prescriptions shall be written with ink or indelible pencil, typewriter, or printed on a computer printer and shall be...

  3. Knowledge-Based Vision Techniques for the Autonomous Land Vehicle Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Supercomputing, Santa Clara, CA, April 30-May 5, 19891). Langdon, J.H., J. Bruckner, and H. H. Baker, "Pedal Mechanics and Bipedalism in Early Hominids ...34 in Origines de la Bipedie chez les Hominides , Editors Y. Coppens and B. Senat, Paris, France, June 1990. Quam, L.H. and T.M. Strat, "SRI Image

  4. Novel E-O Polymers: NLO Materials with Superior Temporal Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Warfare Center, July, 1991. 13. Mai Chen et al., American Chemical Society 24(19), p.5421, 1991. 14. Schaffner, J.H. and R.R Hayes, Integrated Photonics Research, 1991. 15. C. C. Teng, AppL Phys. Lett, 6Q, (1992) 1538. 19

  5. SDIO (Strategic Defense Initiative Office) Technical Information Management Center Bibliography of Unclassified Documents: January - December 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Gibbons , J.H. Date: 05/05/88 Pages:001 Report #: 0 Corp. Author: The Washington Post Index Terms: OTA SDIO Failure Feasibility Catastrpohic Ballistic...Capability Density Deployment Accession #:U01528 AD #: -0- * TITLE: Implementation Of A Distributed Adaptive Routing Algorithm On The INTEL iPSC Author

  6. Band-gap Engineering in Sputter Deposited Amorphous/Microcrystalline Sc(x)Ga(1-x)N

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    p. 2411. [12] J.TAUC, in Optical Properties of Solids , edited by F. Abeles (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 277- 310. [13] J.H. EDGAR, Properties of Group III Nitrides, J. H. Edgar ed., INSPEC Pub. London, 1994.

  7. THERMOSONDE 2007: In-Situ Measurement of Optical Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-07

    A.N., “The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large Reynolds numbers,” Dokl . Akad . Nauk SSSR , Vol. 30, 4, 1941. 4...A.M., “Structure of the temperature field in turbulent flows,” Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSR, Geogr. and Geophys. Ser., Vol. 13, 58, 1949. 6 Brown, J.H

  8. Identification of methyl farnesoate from the hemolymph of insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormones (JH) have been a focal point of study in insect endocrinology for more than 80 years and are implicated in regulation of more physiological and behavioral functions than any other insect hormone. Indeed, evidence has suggested that JHs are the only sesquiterpene hormone products s...

  9. Teaching "The Limits to Growth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Nancy E.

    1974-01-01

    Classroom use of "Limits to Growth" and related materials to integrate a course on population growth, food problems, resource problems and environmental issues is described in a journal available from the Foreign Area Materials Center, State Ed. Dept., 60 East 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 10017. (JH)

  10. Evaluating of the Anticonvulsant Gabapentin against Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures in a Guinea Pig Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Neuropharmacological mechanisms of nerve agent-induced seizures and neuropathology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , 1997, 21:559-579...compound soman: pharmacological mechanisms. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , 1991, 15:349-362. Shih, T.-M., McDonough, J.H., Koplovitz, I

  11. Investigation of Deep Dielectric Charging and Subsequent Currents on Geosynchronous Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    backscatter+ jh True ambient flux is all of the flux that surrounds the spacecraft. Ambient current density is current/unit area that comes from the ambient...We tacitly assume the currents are constant over the periods of integration. (5) Lnet= nambient +Jenergetic+Jsecondary+ Jbackscatter+ Jhv For the two

  12. The Interdependence of Various Types of Autoignition and Knock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-01-01

    HUGH L. DRYHKN, PH. D., Director of Aeronautical Research JOHN F. VICTORY, LL.M., Executiie Secretary JOHN W. CHOWI.EY, JH ., H. S., Associate...J F A^M £J F • J F * t _JM F *^B * J r * r JHV * ~ JJl F

  13. Control of Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures is Critical for Neuroprotection and Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    have recently completed a study on the effectiveness of several anticholinergic (atropine sulfate, biperiden HCl, or trihexyphenidyl HCl) and...anticholinergic drug atropine sulfate, biperiden HCl, trihexyphenidyl HCl, or the benzodiazepine drug diazepam or midazolam were given...Behav 64: 147-153. Shih T-M, McDonough JH (2000) Efficacy of biperiden and atropine as anticonvulsant treatment for organophosphorus nerve agent

  14. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  15. Thermal Fronts and Cross-Frontal Heat Flux in the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    lateral eddy diffusivity HTA are 12 expressed by 13 2 2 2 , , V T VH TT T TvT A z y T TA A z y...Korea Strait in early winter. J. Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 19(1), 56-67. 22 31 Lee, J.-H., H.-J. Lie, and C.-H. Cho (2003) The structure of ocean

  16. The Self, Political Socializatioon, and Education: Kenya as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Richard L.

    1973-01-01

    The political socialization of various African Kenyan leaders is used to illustrate the author's belief in H. G. Barnett's theory that the individual exerts an influence on the process of cultural change which is in opposition to Gabriel Almond's view that the individual is only a passive participant in society. (JH)

  17. Hormones in the field: evolutionary endocrinology of juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids in field populations of the wing-dimorphic cricket Gryllus firmus.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J; Zhao, Zangwu; Kaliseck, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Virtually no published information exists on insect endocrine traits in natural populations, which limits our understanding of endocrine microevolution. We characterized the hemolymph titers of juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids (ECDs), two key insect hormones, in field-collected short-winged, flightless (SW) and long-winged, flight-capable (LW(f)) morphs of the cricket Gryllus firmus. The JH titer exhibited a dramatic circadian rhythm in the LW(f) morph but was temporally constant in the flightless SW morph. This pattern was consistent in each of three years; in young, middle-aged, and older G. firmus; and in three other cricket species. The ECD titer was considerably higher in SW than in LW(f) females but did not exhibit temporal variation in any morph and did not differ between male morphs. JH and ECD may control different aspects of the morph-specific trade-off between nocturnal dispersal and reproduction. Results confirm and extend laboratory studies on young female G. firmus; most, but not all, important aspects of morph-specific differences in JH and ECD titers can be extrapolated from field to laboratory environments and vice versa. Hormone titers in Gryllus are more complex than those proposed in evolutionary endocrine models. Directly measuring hormone titer variation remains a fundamentally important task of insect evolutionary endocrinology.

  18. [The mechanism of the effect of apterous56f mutation on the reproductive function of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Raushenbakh, I Iu; Gruntenko, N E; Karpova, e K; Adon'eva, N V; Alekseev, A A; Chentsova, N A; Shumnaia, L V; Faddeeva, N V

    2006-02-01

    The effects of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were studied with respect to the content of dopamine (DA), intensity of the juvenile hormone (JH) degradation, and fecundity of the wildtype flies (Canton S) and JH-deficient apterous56f mutants (in young females, carrying this mutation, the levels of DA and 20E production were strongly increased). Fly feeding with L-DOPA proved to increase the level of DA in a dose-dependent manner and reduce JH degradation in 2-day-old females of both strains. Feeding with 20E produced the same effect. Treating the wild-type flies with 2.5 mg L-DOPA caused a 24-h delay in beginning of oviposition and reduction in fecundity throughout the experiment. An L-DOPA dose of 1 mg caused no such changes. An experimental increase in 20E titer led to reduced fecundity of the wild-type flies, though no delay in oviposition was observed. In mutant flies, an increase in DA and 20E levels accelerated beginning of oviposition and increased fecundity of young females, though the latter parameter was reduced in mature individuals. Thus, an increase in endogenous DA and 20E characteristic of young apterous56f females is assumed to be a compensatory response that leads to a higher JH titer and induction of vitellogenesis.

  19. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE. J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenhoff3, J.M. Rogers1, C. Lau1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Pa...

  20. The Effects on Pilot Performance of Antiemetic Drugs Administered Singly and in Combination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    of the two dependent variables. Experiment III The investigation of new drugs (IND) submission to the Federal Drug Administration ( FDA ) proposed a...Goodman, L.S., and Gilman, A.G. Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 5th edition, New York: MacMillan, 1975. 3. Marks, J.H. Use of chlorpromazine in

  1. Remote Sensing of Battlefield Weather Conditions Using Unmanned Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Konrad, T.G., Hill, M.L., Rowland, J.R., and Mayer , J.H.: "A Small Radio Controlled Aircraft as a Platform for Y.teorological Sensors," APL Technical...simulations were run assuming all the dropsondes were stowed throughout the mission. This presents a worse case condition for range/endurance. 3.1 Roller

  2. Religious Alienation and "Homosexual Consciousness" in "City of Night" and "Go Tell it on the Mountain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, James R.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of the works of two homosexual authors, John Rechy and James Baldwin, reveals similarities--the hating father, an oppressive religion--but also differences in the extent to which the two authors come to terms with themselves. (JH)

  3. DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL THROUGH INDUSTRIAL ARTS, ADDRESSES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL ARTS ASSOCIATION (27TH, TULSA, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    SPEECHES PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE ARE INCLUDED--(1) "TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE" BY J.H. HOLLOMON, (2) "DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL IN SPACE" BY J.F. SHEA, (3) "CURRICULUM--INNOVATIONS AND ISSUES, 1965" BY K. WILES, (4) "OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION" BY W.C. MEIERHENRY, AND (5) "AND AFTER THE…

  4. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects. PMID:27581362

  5. Venom of Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) induced endocrine changes in the hemolymph of its host, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ye, Gong-Yin; Dong, Sheng-Zhang; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2009-05-01

    Pteromalus puparum is a predominant endoparasitoid wasp of Pieris rapae. Its venom is the only active factor injected into host associated with oviposition. In this report, we explored whether the venom alone from this wasp affects the endocrine system of its host or not. We monitored the changes of hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH; only JH III detected), ecdysteroid, and juvenile hormone esterase activity (JHE) over 72 h in parasitized and venom-microinjected P. rapae pupae. Non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected P. rapae served as controls. Results showed that JH titers were significantly higher in parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae than that in control pupae during 24 to 72 h. After 12 h, JH titers were significantly promoted by parasitization and venom microinjection. JHE activities of non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae were significantly higher than that of parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae, which was with a peak at 12 h (parasitized pupae) or 24 h (venom-microinjected pupae) during 6 to 48 and 12 to 36 h, respectively. The hemolymph titers of ecdysteroid in non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae increased rapidly during 12 to 36 h with a peak at 36 h, and were higher than treatments before 48 h, while presenting a significant difference at 24 to 48 h between the treatments and controls. The results demonstrate that venom alone of this parasitoid wasp can disrupt its host's endocrine system.

  6. METAL-INDUCED LATE PULMONARY INJURY IS REDUCED BY OZONE (O3) COEXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    METAL-INDUCED LATE PULMONARY INJURY IS REDUCED BY OZONE (O3) COEXPOSURE. UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, PA Evansky, ER Lappi, G Ross, JH Richards, and DL Costa. NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.
    Ambient ...

  7. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples.

  8. Potential of novel antimicrobial peptide P3 from bovine erythrocytes and its analogs to disrupt bacterial membranes in vitro and display activity against drug-resistant bacteria in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Yanzhao; Wang, Qing; Hang, Bolin; Sun, Yawei; Wei, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Jianhe

    2015-05-01

    With the emergence of many antibiotic-resistant strains worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are being evaluated as promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics. P3, a novel hemoglobin peptide derived from bovine erythrocytes, exhibited modest antimicrobial activity in vitro. We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of P3 and an analog, JH-3, both in vitro and in vivo. The MICs of P3 and JH-3 ranged from 3.125 μg/ml to 50 μg/ml when a wide spectrum of bacteria was tested, including multidrug-resistant strains. P3 killed bacteria within 30 min by disrupting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and disturbing the intracellular calcium balance. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry showed that P3 assumed an α-helical conformation in bacterial lipid membranes, which was indispensable for antimicrobial activity. Importantly, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of JH-3 was 180 mg/kg of mouse body weight after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, and no death was observed at any dose up to 240 mg/kg body weight following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, JH-3 significantly decreased the bacterial count and rescued infected mice in a model of mouse bacteremia. In conclusion, P3 and an analog exhibited potent antimicrobial activities and relatively low toxicities in a mouse model, indicating that they may be useful for treating infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria.

  9. The Relationship Between Economic Understanding and the Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Edward; Tocco, Thomas S.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the contribution made by the social studies curriculum, in general, and the Americanism vs. Communism course in particular, to the development of overall economic understanding among high school seniors in Southwest Florida. (Author/JH)

  10. Caregiver-Infant Interaction and Early Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Leila; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Caregiver-infant transactions with 51 premature infants were studied in naturalistic observations in the home when the infants were aged 1, 3, and 8 months. Gesell developmental schedules and a sensorimotor scale were administered at 9 months. (Author/JH)

  11. Significance of ERa and c-Src Interaction in the Progression of Hormone Independent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    1998). Interestingly, the region of the kinase domain of ErbB-2 that correlates with c-Src association, referred to as TK2 ( Segatto et al., 1991...Biol., 17, 5410–5425. Di Fiore PP, Segatto O, Taylor WG, Aaronson SA and Pierce JH. (1990). Science, 248, 79–83. Fincham VJ, James M, Frame MC and

  12. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  13. Ligand binding pocket function of drosophila USP is necessary for metamorphosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely accepted paradigm that epoxidized methyl farnesoates (“juvenile hormones,” JHs) are the principle sesquiterpenoid hormones regulating insect metamorphosis was assessed in Drosophila melanogaster. GC-MS analysis showed that methyl farnesoate, rather than methyl epoxyfarnesoate (= JH III), ...

  14. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  15. Vertical Cities of the Future: Implications for the Study and Teaching of Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael L.

    1974-01-01

    The implications of a vertical city, of which the John Hancock Center in Chicago is a prototype, should be considered by teachers of urban studies. Questions clustering around nine discussion areas indicate the kinds of expanded, critical, and interdisciplinary thinking that planning and teaching for the future require. (JH)

  16. Louisbourg: An Experiment in Confluent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cato, Dennis

    1974-01-01

    Eight secondary seniors participated in an archaeological excavation, an experience in confluent learning, that is, an attempt to duplicate real life in the context of an education discipline. The three week experience gave the students an exciting sense of history, archaeological skills, and a feeling of camaraderie among new friends. (JH)

  17. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pi...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Neuromorphic-Vision Object Recognition Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Malibu Canyon Rd, Malibu, CA 90265, USA Lior Elazary, Randolph C. Voorhies, Daniel F. Parks, Laurent Itti University of Southern California 3641...and Pattern Recognition, CVPR’07, pp. 1-8. [12] Carpenter , G., Grossberg, S. and Reynolds. J.H. (1991), “ARTMAP: Supervised real-time learning and

  19. Lecture vs. Laboratory Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oomes, Fred W.; Jurshak, Steve

    1978-01-01

    The effects of lecture versus laboratory method of teaching on the achievement of forty-six students enrolled in a unit on soil and water management (surveying) were studied. Results indicated no significant differences between groups as measured by cognitive and motor skill tests. (JH)

  20. Experience-Expectant Plasticity in the Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Fahrbach, Susan E.; Moore, Darrell; Capaldi, Elizabeth A.; Farris, Sarah M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    1998-01-01

    Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) were reared in social isolation in complete darkness to assess the effects of experience on growth of the neuropil of the mushroom bodies (MBs) during adult life. Comparison of the volume of the MBs of 1-day-old and 7-day-old bees showed that a significant increase in volume in the MB neuropil occurred during the first week of life in bees reared under these highly deprived conditions. All regions of the MB neuropil experienced a significant increase in volume with the exception of the basal ring. Measurement of titers of juvenile hormone (JH) in a subset of bees indicated that, as in previous studies, these rearing conditions induced in some bees the endocrine state of high JH associated with foraging, but there was no correlation between JH titer and volume of MB neuropil. Treatment of another subset of dark-reared bees with the JH analog, methoprene, also had no effect of the growth of the MB neuropil. These results demonstrate that there is a phase of MB neuropil growth early in the adult life of bees that occurs independent of light or any form of social interaction. Together with previous findings showing that an increase in MB neuropil volume begins around the time that orientation flights occur and then continues throughout the phase of life devoted to foraging, these results suggest that growth of the MB neuropil in adult bees may have both experience-expectant and experience-dependent components. PMID:10454376

  1. Suitability of MRP II to Material Planning for Component Repair at Naval Aviation Depot, North Island.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Logistics Engineering and Management , Prentice Hall, Fourth Edition, 1992 Heizer , J.H. and Render, B., Production and Operations Management ; Strategic...production, inventory managers , purchasing, schedulers, and customers to plan their activities based on the same master schedule. The operating and...material usage by operation or activity as defined by production management ; • Review and negotiate workloads and establish budgets for forecasted

  2. Pointing to Parallels in Ability-Related Differences in the Use of Metacognition in Academic and Psychomotor Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Rose; Shore, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the use of metacognition by proficient and poor performers in academic and psychomotor tasks as well as highlights the parallels and provides directions for future research. Metacognition is knowledge about one's own cognitive processes [Flavell, J.H. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area…

  3. Stability of Dilute Tabun (GA) Solutions in Various Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Board for Disarmament, Helsinki, 1977. 2. Larson L. The hydrolysis of dimethylamido-ethoxy-phosphoryl cyanide (Tabun), Acta Chim.Scand. 1953; 7: 306... intoxicated guinea pigs. Epilepsy Research 2000; 38: 1-14. 7. McDonough JH, McMonagle J, Copeland T, Zoeffel D, Shih T-M. A comparative evaluation of

  4. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  5. Word Problems - This Time with Interleaving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-19

    San Jose , CA 95120-6099 SE 81991 Abstract. We consider regular expressions extended with the interleaving ope -tor, and investigate the complexity of...1976), 222-268. [IPC85] O.H. IBARRA , M.A. PALIS, AND J.H. CHANG, On efficient recognition of transductions and relations, Theoretical Computer Science

  6. Methyl farnesoate action, and morphogenetic signaling through the ligand binding pocket of the ortholog of the retinoid X receptor, in higher dipter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most attention on metamorphic signaling by small terpenoids has focused action by juvenile hormone (JH) through bHLH-PAS proteins (e.g., MET and GCE), especially as that signaling axis intersects with ecdysteroid action through the receptor EcR. However, a long-standing series of endocrine and pharm...

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Moral Development and Intellectual Development in Male Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intellectual development and moral development in order to provide additional descriptions of the relationship based on a Piagetian type conservation task and a Piagetian type paired-story situation involving intentional behaviors and final outcomes. (JH)

  8. Telemedicine Evaluation - Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    resource is more severely taxed (see Polzella & Reid, 1987 and Vidulich & Wickens, 1986, for contrasting views). If an unacceptably high workload is...Philipp, U., Reiche, D., & Kirchner, J.-H. (1971). The use of subjective ratings. Ergonomics, 14, 611-616. Polzella , D. J., & Reid, G. B. (1987). A

  9. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB(R))

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone (JH) analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations fr...

  10. Good Things to Color and Draw. Cosas Buenas para Colorear y Dibujar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton.

    Personal hygiene and self care skills are emphasized in a coloring book for bilingual students. This teaching aid is produced with Spanish and English captions or with only English captions. Opportunity for composing pictures by connecting dots and for freehand drawing as directed by captions is provided. (JH)

  11. 76 FR 52959 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings..., jh377p@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Genes, Genomes, and Genetics Integrated Review Group, Molecular... Panel, Chromatin Program Projects. Date: September 29, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To...

  12. Faster vortex core switching with lower current density using three-nanocontact spin-polarized currents in a confined structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Nan; Hua, Zhong; Li, Dong-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Not Available Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M541286), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant Nos. 20140520109JH and 20150414003GH), and the “Twelfth Five year” Scientific and Technological Research Project of Department of Education of Jilin Province, China.

  13. Leg or foot amputation

    MedlinePlus

    Gittler M. Lower limb amputations. In: Frontera, WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 119. Toy PC. General principles of amputations.In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, ...

  14. An isoform of Taiman that contains a PRD-repeat motif is indispensable for transducing the vitellogenic juvenile hormone signal in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiming; Yang, Libin; Song, Jiasheng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2017-03-01

    Taiman (Tai) has been recently identified as the dimerizing partner of juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met). However, the role of Tai isoforms in transducing vitellogenic signal of JH has not been determined. In this study, we show that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria has two Tai isoforms, which differ in an INDEL-1 domain with the PRD-repeat motif rich in histidine and proline at the C-terminus. Tai-A with the INDEL-1 is expressed at levels about 50-fold higher than Tai-B without the INDEL-1 in the fat body of vitellogenic adult females. Knockdown of Tai-A but not Tai-B results in a substantial reduction of vitellogenin expression in the fat body accompanied by the arrest of ovarian development and oocyte maturation, similar to that caused by depletion of both Tai isoforms. Either Tai-A or Tai-B combined with Met can induce target gene transcription in response to JH, but Tai-A appears to mediate a significantly higher transactivation. Our data suggest that the INDEL-1 domain plays a critical role in Tai function during reproduction as Tai-A appears be more active than Tai-B in transducing the vitellogenic JH signal in L. migratoria.

  15. The Synthesis of Artificial Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    important advance, and it was built upon in our Research Proposal. 0 I JH2-S NS-C 2 C,, HO~-’ Sherin Halfon has published a study of the factors that make...this modified DNA piece. Sherin Halfon has made a very interesting molecule in which a cyclodextrin dimer carries not only a metal binding group but also

  16. Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    www.paneuropeannetworks.com/ST9/#163/z 7 Stafford JH, Hao G, Best AM, Sun X, Thorpe PE. Highly specific PET imaging of prostate tumors in mice with an iodine - 124 ...vascular endothelial cells. • Autoradiography and PET imaging of radioactive iodine labeled PGN635 confirmed the targeting specificity of PGN635 and

  17. Stability and Change in the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Talcott

    1974-01-01

    The core structure of the university has remained intact through the storm of the sixties. Alterations with respect to governance and to minority groups appear to be a part of previously established developmental trends as well as functions of the period of turbulence. (JH)

  18. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations: A Military Leader’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    this type of debriefing9. Scientific research into single session debriefing also raised questions on some types of debriefing10 11. The debriefers...Fighting for Peace (In Dutch). 10 .Emmerik, A.A.P. van, Kamphuis, J.H., Hulsbosch,A.M., Emmelkamp, P.M.G (2002): Single session debriefing after

  19. Accountants and Teachers: Education Aims Are Similar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Robert J.; Limberg, Steven T.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of accounting instructors and practicing accountants indicates that both groups agree on the emphasis instructors should place on course content items. The results also indicate that the Q-sort is a powerful tool for assessing certain aspects of occupational curricula. (Author/JH)

  20. Salivary Proteomic and microRNA Biomarkers Development for Lung Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    single- end (50nt) reads were obtained for each library. We have developed customized bioinformatic pipelines to identify different types of non-coding...1cm. Publications, abstracts, and presentations Bahn JH, Zhang Q, Li FL, Chan T-M, Lin XL , Kim YK, Wong DTW, Xiao XX. The Landscape of miRNA

  1. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Jönsson G, Sjöholm AG, Truedsson L, Bengtsson AA, Braconier JH, Sturfelt G. Rheumatological manifestations, organ damage ... 31. Review. Citation on PubMed Truedsson L, Bengtsson AA, Sturfelt G. Complement deficiencies and systemic lupus erythematosus. ...

  2. Dynamics of dissolved organic matter during four storm events in two forest streams: source, export, and implications for harmful disinfection byproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyang; Hur, Jin; Lee, Sonmin; Chang, Soon-Woong; Shin, Hyun-Sang

    2015-06-01

    Dynamics of river dissolved organic matter (DOM) during storm events have profound influences on the downstream aquatic ecosystem and drinking water safety. This study investigated temporal variations in DOM during four storm events in two forest headwater streams (the EH and JH brooks, South Korea) and the impacts on the disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formation potential. The within-event variations of most DOM quantity parameters were similar to the flow rate in the EH but not in the larger JH brook. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) showed clockwise and counterclockwise hysteresis with the flow rate in the EH and JH brooks, respectively, indicating the importance of both flow path and DOM source pool size in determining the effects of storm events. The stream DOM became less aromatic/humified from the first to the last event in both brooks, probably due to the increasing fresh plant pool and the decreasing leaf litter pool during the course of rainy season. The DOC export during each event increased 1.3-2.7- and 1.1-7.0-fold by stormflows in the EH and JH brooks, respectively. The leaf litter and soil together was the major DOM source, particularly during early events. The enhanced DOM export probably increases the risks of DBPs formation in disinfection, as indicated by a strong correlation observed between DOC and trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP). High correlations between two humic-like fluorescent components and THMFP further suggested the potential of assessing THMFP with in situ fluorescence sensors during storms.

  3. Improving Performance Efficiency in the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Product, LHRH-(1-5). Endocrinology 146:280-286. 9 Eddington , D.O., E.L. Baldwin, J.H. Segars, T.J. Wu* (2006) Steroid hormone...Wu, D.O. Eddington , T.J. Wu* Immunocytochemical localization of Brx in the mouse brain. Brain Research (In preparation) 3 Woller, M.J., M.G

  4. Immigrations into Industrialized Countries. The Education of Migrant Workers -- Where Do We Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Alain

    1974-01-01

    The social and economic implications of migration for both the countries of arrival and the countries of departure are discussed. The right of the immigrant and his children to education is viewed as a "constant", despite political of economic policy. (JH)

  5. Errors in Human Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-15

    Instructional system, Including the works of Burton & -77 -;:-7 Final Report 3951 Brown (1979), Miller (1979), Goldstein (1979), and Stevens and Collins...rea-daAm i_=E1jJh. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1967. LaBerge , D., & Samuels, S. J. Toward a theory of automatic information processing

  6. Extracorporeal Organ Support following Trauma: The Dawn of a New Era in Combat Casualty Critical Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Cancio LC, Barillo DJ, et al. Long range transport of war-related burn casualties. J Trauma. 2008;64(Suppl 2):S136YS144; discussion S144YS145. 33. Sherlock ...shock. J BurnCare Rehabil. 1989;10:17Y26. 96. Neff LP, Allman JM, Holmes JH. The use of theraputic plasma exchange (TPE) in the setting of refractory

  7. Immunotherapy: questions to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 77. Pardoll D. Cancer immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 6. Review Date 8/15/2016 Updated by: Todd Gersten, ...

  8. Immunotherapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune-system . Accessed August 5, 2016. Pardoll D. Cancer Immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 6. Review Date 9/13/2015 Updated by: Todd Gersten, ...

  9. 76 FR 22907 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ....hunnicutt@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Oncology 1-Basic Translational Integrated Review Group; Cancer...-402-5671, zhengli@csr.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Immunology Integrated Review Group; Transplantation..., jh377p@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Immunology Integrated Review Group; Immunity and Host Defense...

  10. Role of Autism Susceptibility Gene, CNTNAP2, in Neural Circuitry for Vocal Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science (New York, NY), 328(5979), 710–722. doi:10.1126/ science.1188021 Griggs, E. M., Young, E. J...H. A., . . . Pääbo, S. (2007). The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals . Current Biology, 17(21), 1908–1912. doi

  11. Novelty and Familiarity as Redundant Cues in Retardate Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Daryl B.

    1976-01-01

    Forty retarded children, a Low Mental Age (MA) Group (mean MA 3-3 years) and a High MA Group (mean MA 5-7 years) were trained on 120 different two-choice visual discrimination problems. Initial performance differences were interpreted as a differential preference for novel and familiar stimuli. (JH)

  12. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  13. DOSIMETRY MODELING OF INHALED FORMALDEHYDE: BINNING NASAL FLUX PREDICTIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry Modeling of Inhaled Formaldehyde: Binning Nasal Flux Predictions for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Kimbell, J.S., Overton, J.H., Subramaniam, R.P., Schlosser, P.M., Morgan, K.T., Conolly, R.B., and Miller, F.J. (2001). Toxicol. Sci. 000, 000:000.

    Interspecies e...

  14. Epidemiologic Studies of Electric and Magnetic Fields and Cancer: A Case Study of Distortions by the Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-21

    birth defects ... " [58] ( Debendox .) when it comes to distortions by the media in (7) "Available data do not support the concept reporting scientific data...Environ Hyg 1990: 5: 884-892. orphans-or. what have we learnt from the Debendox 43. Jauchem JR. Merritt JH. The epidemiology of fiasco? Med J Atat 1985

  15. An Investigation of the Memory Response of the Local Immune System to Shigella Antigens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    cholera toxin, Shiaella flexneri, Salmonella typhi , and to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (2-6). The use of such isolated ileal loops as a probe is a logical... Salmonella typhi gal E Ty 21a expressing Shigella sonnei Form I antigen. Infect. Immun. 37:387, 1982. 5. Hamilton, S.R., D.F. Keren, J.H. Yardley, and

  16. Effect of low doses of precocene on reproduction and gene expression in green peach aphid.

    PubMed

    Ayyanath, Murali-Mohan; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Insect reproduction can be stimulated by exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide that kill the same insects at high doses. This bi-phasic dose response to a stressor is known as hormesis and has been demonstrated with many different insect-insecticide models. The specific mechanisms of the increased reproduction in insects following sublethal pesticide exposure are unknown, but may be related to juvenile hormone (JH), which has a major role in regulation of metamorphosis and reproductive development in insects. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of precocene, an antagonist of JH, would not result in stimulated reproductive outputs in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, as can be demonstrated with many neurotoxic insecticides. We also measured JH titers and the expression of various developmental (FPPS I), stress response (Hsp60), and dispersal (OSD, TOL and ANT) genes in aphids following exposure to the same precocene treatments. We found that when aphid nymphs were treated with certain sublethal concentrations of precocene, 1.5- to 2-fold increased reproductive stimulation occurred when they became adults, but this effect subsided in the following generation. Precocene treatments to nymphs resulted in no measurable effects on JH levels in subsequent reproducing adults. Although we detected major effects on gene expression following some precocene treatments (e.g. 100- to 300-fold increased expression of some genes), there were no clear relationships between gene expression and reproductive responses for a given treatment.

  17. Estimation of the Yield Strength of Metals from Crystal Defect Energies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    have been gathered and tabulated in a review by Inman and Tipler (18). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 1 shows the observed variation between w, and S...Metal- lography, ASTM STP 839, J.L. McCall and J.H. Steele, Jr., Eds., ASTM, Philadelphia. 1984. pp. 85-131. 18. M.C. Inman and H.R. Tipler : Metall. Rev

  18. Production of male neonates in Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) exposed to juvenile hormones and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2005-12-01

    We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) to either juvenile hormone I (JH I), juvenile hormone II (JH II), or the juvenile hormone-mimicking insecticides kinoprene, hydroprene, epofenonane, or fenoxycarb. By 21-day reproduction tests, we investigated the effects on the number of neonates born per female and the offspring sex ratio. All six chemicals induced D. magna to produce male neonates; the male sex ratio of the offspring increased as the chemical concentration increased. EC50 values for production of male neonates were estimated as 400 (JH I), 410 (JH II), 190 (kinoprene), 2.9 (hydroprene), 64 (epofenonane), and 0.92 (fenoxycarb) microg/l. The number of neonates produced was reduced with all chemicals at the concentrations investigated. At the EC50 for male production, five of the six chemicals reduced the reproductive rate to less than 50%; the exception was epofenonane, which caused only a slight reduction in reproductive rate. These results were similar to those obtained for five juvenoids studied previously, one of which was studied here again. There are now 10 chemical substances--all juvenile hormones or their analogs-that are known to induce D. magna to produce male neonates. This suggests that juvenile hormone is involved in initiating male production followed by sexual reproduction in D. magna, and probably in most cladocerans that exhibit cyclic parthenogenesis.

  19. Fine mapping and discovery of recessive mutations that cause abortions in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to trace the inheritance of 5 haplotypes affecting fertility (HH1, HH2, HH3, JH1, and BH1) were improved and implemented in December 2011. Programs that detect these haplotypes were modified to narrow the suspect region and detect additional crossover haplotypes believed to carry the lethal ...

  20. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

  1. Cyclic stress induced phase transformation in super-bainitic microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Wencui; Han, Ying; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Hua; Liu, Yunxu

    2017-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51171030 and 51604034), the Scientific and Technological Planning Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150520030JH), and the Scientific and Technological Research Fund of Jilin Provincial Education Department during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period, China (Grant No. 2015-95).

  2. Improving the Performance of Perfectly Matched Layers by Means of hp-Adaptivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of electromagnetic waves, J. Comput. Phys. 114 (1994), 185–200. [4] P. Bettess, Infinite elements, Penshaw Press, 1992. [5] J.H. Bramble and J.E...Computation, (In press), (2006). Preprint available at : http://www.math.tamu.edu/~ bramble /papers.html [6] W.C. Chew, Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media

  3. Metastable Polymeric Nitrogen From N2H2 Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    pressure gas system described elsewhere [Mao et aI, 1986]. Raman spectra were obtained from an Ar- ion laser operating at 514.5 nm with an optical...G., 1966: Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Polyatomic Molecules (van Nostrand, New York, pg. 416. Iota, Y., Yoo, C.-S., Klepeis, J.-H

  4. Genetic heterogeneity in the cysA-fus region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome: identification of the hos gene.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, S; Kobayashi, Y

    1985-01-01

    We identified a new gene, hos, which exerts different sporulation phenotypes in Bacillus subtilis strains with different genetic backgrounds. The hos+ gene showed normal sporulation in the genetic background of JH642 but showed temperature-sensitive sporulation in that of the Tano-oka W. The hos gene was mapped between cysA and rpoB. PMID:3922952

  5. [Effects of inter-row economic crop planting on soil moisture in a rain-fed jujube orchard in loess hilly region, China].

    PubMed

    Ling, Qiang; Zhao, Xi-ning; Gao, Xiao-dong; Li, Lu-sheng; Li, Hong-chen; Sun, Wen-hao

    2016-02-01

    Soil moisture variation in dryland sloping jujube. orchard was investigated after introducing two economic crops, i.e., feed Brassica napus (JR) and Hemerocallis fulva (JH) planted between jujube rows. Jujube tree without inter-row crop was set as control (CK). The results showed that mean soil moisture for JR and JH in the 0-180 cm soil layer increased by 6.2% and 10.1% compared with CK, respectively. Soil moisture changed mainly in the 0-60 cm soil layer in growth stage of Jujube trees. Soil moisture in JR and JH treatments significantly increased in the 0-60 cm soil layer, which could meet the demand in water resource of jujube plantation. The water consumption of jujube trees also mainly concentrated in the 0-60 cm soil layer. There was a significant decay exponential relationship between the soil moisture in the 0-20 cm layer and the drought duration after rainfall. During the 18-day dry period after rain, the soil moisture contents of JR and JH were apparently higher than that of CK. In conclusion, the jujube-crop intercropping system improved the soil moisture condition. It was an effective measure to overcome the seasonal drought in jujube orchards on the loess hilly region.

  6. Sinus x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH Schaefer- ...

  7. Examination of the Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Prostate Cancer Using the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    S141-144, 2001. 54. Nelson, E. C., Cambio , A. J., Yang, J. C., Ok, J. H., Lara, P. N., Jr., and Evans, C. P. Clinical implications of...2001;12 Suppl 2:S141-4. 46. Nelson EC, Cambio AJ, Yang JC, Ok JH, Lara PN, Jr., Evans CP. Clinical implications of neuroendocrine differentiation in

  8. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  9. Tailoring Software for Multiple Processor Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    the DSN/SPICE Group at Carnegie-Mellon University. [137) W.E. Riddle, J.H. Sayler , A.R. Segal, A.M. Stavely, J.C. Wileden. A Description Scheme to Aid...IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., 1982. To be published. [146) Gary H. Sockut and Robert P. Goldberg. Database Reorganization- Principles and Practice. Journal

  10. Engineered Two-Dimensional Ising Interactions on a Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulator with Hundreds of Spins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Today 60, 16 (2007). [19] J. S. Helton, K. Matan, M. P. Shores, E. a. Nytko, B. M. Bartlett , Y. Yoshida, Y. Takano, A. Suslov, Y. Qiu, J.-H. Chung, D. G...M. O Neil , Reviews of Modern Physics 71, 87 (1999). [33] D. Porras and J. I. Cirac, Physical Review Letters 92, 1 (2004). [34] I. Buluta, M. Kitaoka

  11. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  12. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    Liu G, Wong HK. Laminectomy and fusion. In: Shen FH, Samartzis D, Fessler RG, eds. Textbook of the Cervical Spine . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 34. Wood GW. Arthrodesis of the spine. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ...

  13. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-05-17

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs.

  14. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  15. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication. PMID:27402762

  16. Tipat Halav: Linking Families to Health Services in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Wendy; Hersh, Alice

    1977-01-01

    Describes Israel's maternal and child health program which consists of state-wide neighborhood-based centers providing prenatal care and advice; assessments of a child's growth and development; immunizations; extensive counseling about child development, childrearing, and nutrition; and referrals for care of sick children. (BF/JH)

  17. A Novel Role for Integrin Linked Kinase in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Gooch, W.M. III. Neoplasms associated with the Beckwith- Wiedemann Syndrome. Perspect. Pediatr. Pathol. 3: 255-272, 1976. 18. Dedhar, S., Williams, B., and...Nabel EG. Nabel GJ . The p21 5. Lee JH, Miele ME, Hicks DJ, Phillips KK, Trent JM, Weissman BE. cyclis-dependent kinase inhibitor suppresses

  18. Airsickness Prevention in Helicopter Passengers: A Comparison of Four Countermeasures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    due to a sympathetic response. The use of colloid gel -filled disposable female urinals as odorless emesis bags may have contributed to the control of...Goldberg, A. and Brinkmann, J. 2000. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, Mass: Integrative Medicine Communications. Brown, J.H

  19. Definition of the interferon-alpha receptor-binding domain on the TYK2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Yan, H; Piazza, F; Krishnan, K; Pine, R; Krolewski, J J

    1998-02-13

    Interferons and cytokines modulate gene expression via a simple, direct signaling pathway containing receptors, JAK tyrosine kinases, and STAT transcription factors. The interferon-alpha pathway is a model for these cascades. Two receptors, IFNaR1 and IFNaR2, associate exclusively in a constitutive manner with two JAK proteins, TYK2 and JAK1, respectively. Defining the molecular interface between JAK proteins and their receptors is critical to understanding the signaling pathway and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutics. This report defines the IFNaR1 interaction domain on TYK2. In vitro binding studies demonstrate that the amino-terminal half of TYK2, which is approximately 600 amino acids long and contains JAK homology (JH) domains 3-7, comprises the maximal binding domain for IFNaR1. A fragment containing amino acids 171-601 (JH3-6) also binds IFNaR1, but with reduced affinity. Glutathione S-transferase-TYK2 fusion proteins approximating either the JH6 or JH3 domain affinity-precipitate IFNaR1, suggesting that these are major sites of interaction within the larger binding domain. TYK2 amino acids 1-601 act in a dominant manner to inhibit the transcription of an interferon-alpha-dependent reporter gene, presumably by displacing endogenous TYK2 from the receptor. This same fragment inhibits interferon-alpha-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of TYK2, STAT1, and STAT2.

  20. The Loss of China: A Selected Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettig, David; Pozzetta, George E.

    1974-01-01

    This bibliographic review of books discussing the events involved in the loss of China to communism in the five years after World War II identifies basic resources on China, works mostly from the American point of view owing to the lack of availability of objective Chinese Scholarship. (JH)

  1. The Adaptation of Cultural Ties to Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Charles R.

    1974-01-01

    Examples of culture as a determinant of peoples' ability to respond to modernization, for instance, the ability of various Nigerian groups to benefit from Western education as a means of economic improvements, support the author's theory of the preeminence of cultural factors in economic and political modernization. (JH)

  2. The Need for Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Social studies in Nigerian schools would improve student's appreciation of their culture and instill a sense of national citizenship as well as broaden their interests and promote international understanding. Attempts are being made to replace the inadequate instruction of history and geography with a social studies component. (JH)

  3. Formation of Defect-Free Metal/Semiconductor Contacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-15

    Benning, Yongjun Hu, TJ. Wagener, M.B. Jost, and J.H. Weaver, "Thermally-Reversible Band Bending for BiIGaAs(1 10): Photoemission and Inverse...34Schottky Barrier Formation at Au/ZnSe(100) Interfaces," 35th National Symposium of the American Vacuum Society, Atlanta, October 1988. 14. Yongjun Hu

  4. Elements of Warfare in the Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enokhovich, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical movement, pressure, floating bodies, heat phenomena, electrical phenomena, when applied to military problems "for the patriotic edification and military instruction of the children" excite interest and place theory on concrete foundations. Examples of applied physical concepts follow in this article. (Author/JH)

  5. Control of Venous Thromboembolism and Metastasis in Breast Cancer by Anti-Fibrinolysis Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    1990;87:7235-9. 7 Scanlan MJ, Raj BK, Calvo B, Garin-Chesa P, Sanz-Moncasi MP, Healey JH, Old LJ, Rettig WJ. Molecular cloning of fibroblast activation... Molecular cloning of seprase: A serine integral membrane protease from human melanoma, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1997;1361:11-9. 10

  6. Strategy for Isolation of Gene Activation Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    4723-4733). 10. Singh H, LeBowitz JH, Baldwin AS, Sharp PA: Molecular cloning of an enhancer binding protein: Isolation by screening of an...expression library with a recognition site DNA. Cell, 52:415-423, 1988. 14 ii. Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook J: Molecular cloning . A laboratory manual, Cold

  7. Thoughts on Higher Educational Purposes and Goals: A Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R.

    1974-01-01

    Still valid today, the 85 "Theses" from the 1971 Assembly on University Goals and Governance opened with an emphasis on equality of higher educational opportunity. Emphases in the future should also include diversity and differentiation of institutions, comprehensive curricular reform, and absolute commitment to lifetime learning. (JH)

  8. Effect of Preschool Education on the School Readiness of Under-privileged Children of Delhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi; Banerji, Uma

    1975-01-01

    The present study found that preschool education as given by a public agency with limitations of space, play equipment, and inadequate funds positively affected a group of underprivileged children entering primary school (252 5-year-olds). The School Readiness Scale tested reading and number readiness. (JH)

  9. Identification of plant compounds that disrupt the insect juvenile hormone receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Fang, Ying; An, Saes-Byeol; Park, Doo-Sang; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Seonghyun; Kim, Namjung; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Je, Yeon Ho; Shin, Sang Woon

    2015-01-01

    Insects impact human health through vector-borne diseases and cause major economic losses by damaging crops and stored agricultural products. Insect-specific growth regulators represent attractive control agents because of their safety to the environment and humans. We identified plant compounds that serve as juvenile hormone antagonists (PJHANs). Using the yeast two-hybrid system transformed with the mosquito JH receptor as a reporter system, we demonstrate that PJHANs affect the JH receptor, methoprene-tolerant (Met), by disrupting its complex with CYCLE or FISC, formation of which is required for mediating JH action. We isolated five diterpene secondary metabolites with JH antagonist activity from two plants: Lindera erythrocarpa and Solidago serotina. They are effective in causing mortality of mosquito larvae at relatively low LD50 values. Topical application of two diterpenes caused reduction in the expression of Met target genes and retardation of follicle development in mosquito ovaries. Hence, the newly discovered PJHANs may lead to development of a new class of safe and effective pesticides. PMID:25624480

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT AND MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1Lau, C., 1J.M. Rogers, 1R.G. Hanson*, 1B.D. Barbee*, 1M.G. Narotsky, 1J.E. Schmid* and 2J.H. Richards*. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, and 2Environmental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Developmental toxicity of Perfluorooctane ...

  11. Induction in the New Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Richard

    1973-01-01

    The philosophical problem of "how one knows," using inductive reasoning and the use of inductive reasoning in four new social studies programs are discussed in order to promote an awareness among students and teachers of the complexity of the methodological problem. (JH)

  12. Evaluation of Water Resources in Bolivia, South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    totalled billions of dollars. A summary of these reports as (,]l as a K-rge number of oth r reports is documented i, jh 2 4 - pago Annotated Bibliography...Pequenas Productores Damnificados en la Gestion 1989/90.) Vallegrande, Bolivia. After PRODEVA ascertained the gravity of the drought problem in the

  13. Education and Culture in Africa; A Contribution to the Revision of the Addis Ababa Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamian, Bakari

    1974-01-01

    African education -- past and present -- is surveyed and suggestions are made to ensure that African national educational systems meet the needs of a modern world while fostering the full development of African culture and helping to satisfy the material and spiritual needs of the in people. (JH)

  14. A novel cell penetrating peptide carrier for the delivery of nematocidal proteins drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jea Hyun

    Nematodes have recently become a primary source of harmful diseases to the environment that inflict harsh damages to pine trees and marine species. However, nematodes cannot be killed by normal pesticides or chemicals due to their thick outer protective layer mainly composed of collagen and cuticles. Thus, a novel approach to trigger intracellular delivery of chemicals through the layers of nematodes is required. In this study, the selection of the novel CPP was carefully progressed through protein database and serial digested fragmentation, internalization of each amino sequence was analyzed through flow cytometry and confocal microscope. As one of the most effective CPP material, JH 1.6 was compared with other major CPPs and its cellular toxicity was investigated. Furthermore, JH 1.6 was attached to various RNA, DNA, and proteins and internalization efficiency was evaluated for mammalian cells. To examine its effects on nematodes in vivo, JH 1.6 was conjugated with nematocidal protein - botulinum neurotoxin (BnT) and treated in C.elegans as a model animal. The results showed that JH 1.6 had high relative internalization rate and low cellular toxicity compared to other major CPP such as TAT and GV1001 peptides.

  15. Modelling of U-tube Tanks for ShipMo3D Ship Motion Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    official languages unless the text is bilingual .) Ship roll motions in waves can be significant due to small roll damping and the proximity of ship... first ...John Duncan Head of Simulation Based Acquisition Defence Equipment and Support Abbey Wood Mail Point 8014 BRISTOL BS34 8JH UK DRDC

  16. A new variety of Declieuxia cucuminis (Rubiaceae) from the state of Tocantins, Brazil, and a review of the varieties recognized in the species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new variety of Declieuxia cacuminis Müll. Arg. is described and illustrated, D. cacuminis var. tocantinensis Delprete & J.H. Kirkbr. The new variety is endemic to the Brazilian state of Tocantins, and has been reported from cerrado vegetation in the southeastern corner of the state....

  17. Jejuia marina nov., isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyangmi; Yang, Jae-Hyung; Cha, Hyung-Kee; Lee, Jae-Bong; Suh, Seok-Jong; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Doo-Sang

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, JH03(T), was isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod shaped. The ranges of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration for growth of the bacterium were 10-45 °C, pH 6.0-9.5 and 0.5-5.0 % (w/v), respectively. The major fatty acids of the bacterium were iso-C(15:0) (15.4 %), iso-C(15:1) G (14.1 %), iso-C(16:0) 3-OH (14.1 %), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (11.5 %) and anteiso-C(15:0) (11.3 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified amino lipids and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JH03(T) was most closely related to Jejuia pallidilutea EM39(T) (96.5 % sequence similarity). Based on the polyphasic analysis, strain JH03(T) is a novel species of the genus Jejuia, for which the name Jejuia marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JH03(T) (= KCTC 42342(T) = JCM 30601(T)).

  18. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  19. Exploring Fields with Shift Registers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    and results from abstract algebra. These results can be found in any standard algebra text such as Dummit and Foote’s Abstract Algebra [3] or...School; 2004. 2. Conway, JH. On Numbers and Games. 2nd ed. Wellesley: AK Peters, Ltd.; 2001. 3. Dummit , D., Foote R. Abstract Algebra. 2nd ed. New

  20. Biodegradation of Guanidinium Ion in Aerobic Soil Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Frederick. Maryland 21701 The manufacture of several munitions, polymeric resins , flame retardants, and pharmaceuticals utilizes guanidine salts as... Melamines and Guanidines. J Sci Soil Manure Jpn 15:569-574 Lees H, Quastel JH (1947) Biochemistry of Nitrification in Soil. III. Nitrification of Various

  1. Nano-Material and Structural Engineering for Thermal Highways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    85, 3476 (2000). 11. S. K. Panda , D. Han, H. Yoo, H. Shin, H. Park, and J. Xu, “Synthesis of step-shaped bismuth nanowires - An approach towards...2013). 6. G.E. Fernandes, J-H Kim, A. Sood, and J.M. Xu, “ Giant temperature coefficient of resistance in carbon nanotube / phase-change polymer

  2. Discrimination Against the Aged in Young Childre's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Phyllis Winet

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a study which analyzed 100 books for children (preschool through grade three) and judged them by three criteria: frequency of occurrence of old people (65 and older) in text and illustrations, nature of their social participation, and their behavioral traits. (BF/JH)

  3. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in juvenile hormone biosynthesis...

  4. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  5. In Vivo Analysis of Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    SF2 influences 5’ splice site selection by activating proximal sites. Cell 62: 35-42 Koehorst SG, Jacobs HM, Thijssen JH, Blankenstein MA (1993) Wild...S, Frati L and Gulino A (1995) Estrogen receptors: new perspectives in breast cancer management. J. Ster. Bioch . Mol. Biol. 49:327-331. Pfeffer U

  6. Lotus alianus, a new species from Cabo Verde and nomeenclatural notes on Lotus section Pedrosia (Fabaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antao and Sao Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotyp...

  7. Demonstration/Validation of Long-Term Monitoring Using Wells Installed by Direct Push Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    December 1981, 92 pp. Steel. R.G.D., and J.H. Torrie, 1990. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, McGraw-Hill, NY. Walpole , R., and R. Myers, 1978...Parker CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755-1290 Phone: 603-646-4393 Fax: 603-646-4640 lparker@crrel.usace.army.mil CRREL Management

  8. Role of juvenile hormone and allatotropin on nutrient allocation, ovarian development and survivorship in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Li, Yiping; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2009-01-01

    Teneral reserves are utilized to initiate previtellogenic ovarian development in mosquitoes. Females having emerged with low teneral reserves have reduced juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and previtellogenic development. We investigated what role JH, allatotropin (AT) and other head-factors play in the regulation of previtellogenic ovarian development and adult survivorship. Factors from the head are essential for corpora allata (CA) activation and reproductive maturation. We have shown that decapitation of females within 9–12 h after adult ecdysis prevented normal development of the previtellogenic follicles; however maximum previtellogenic ovarian development could be induced in decapitated females by topically applying a JH analog. When females were decapitated 12 or more hours after emergence nutritional resources had been committed to ovarian development and survivorship was significantly reduced. To study if allatotropin levels correlated with teneral reserves, we measured AT titers in the heads of two adult phenotypes (large and small females) generated by raising larvae under different nutritional diets. In large mosquitoes AT levels increased to a maximum of 45 fmol in day 4; in contrast, the levels of allatotropin in the heads of small mosquitoes remained below 9 fmol during the 7 days evaluated. These results suggest that only when nutrients are appropriate, factors released from the brain induce the CA to synthesize enough JH to activate reproductive maturation. PMID:17070832

  9. Role of juvenile hormone and allatotropin on nutrient allocation, ovarian development and survivorship in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Mayoral, Jaime G; Li, Yiping; Noriega, Fernando G

    2007-03-01

    Teneral reserves are utilized to initiate previtellogenic ovarian development in mosquitoes. Females having emerged with low teneral reserves have reduced juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and previtellogenic development. We investigated what role JH, allatotropin (AT) and other head-factors play in the regulation of previtellogenic ovarian development and adult survivorship. Factors from the head are essential for corpora allata (CA) activation and reproductive maturation. We have shown that decapitation of females within 9-12h after adult ecdysis prevented normal development of the previtellogenic follicles; however maximum previtellogenic ovarian development could be induced in decapitated females by topically applying a JH analog. When females were decapitated 12 or more hours after emergence nutritional resources had been committed to ovarian development and survivorship was significantly reduced. To study if allatotropin levels correlated with teneral reserves, we measured AT titers in the heads of two adult phenotypes (large and small females) generated by raising larvae under different nutritional diets. In large mosquitoes AT levels increased to a maximum of 45 fmol in day 4; in contrast, the levels of allatotropin in the heads of small mosquitoes remained below 9 fmol during the 7 days evaluated. These results suggest that only when nutrients are appropriate, factors released from the brain induce the CA to synthesize enough JH to activate reproductive maturation.

  10. Thinking about Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Donald, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Research and teaching do not integrate easily. There have been alternate models for higher education which did not rely on this combination. Restructuring the academic professions to conform with the reality of academic life can be accomplished by accepting an alternate model such as that of the good undergraduate teacher. (JH)

  11. Nine Years of Cooperation: The US-German Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Helicopter Aeromechanics 2003-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Pilot Assistance Systems, 36th European Ro- torcraft Forum, Paris, France, 2010 [71] Lusardi, Jeff A., Blanken, Chris L., Ott, Carl L., Malpica...2012 [93] Bauknecht, Andre , Sa, J.H., van der Wall, Berend G.: Expansion of the pre- scribed wake code of the rotor simulation program S4 with a CFD

  12. Resolution of Low Back and Radicular Pain in a 40-year-old Male United States Navy Petty Officer after Collaborative Medical and Chiropractic Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-08

    the low back, radiating into the right “hip” ( sacroiliac joint ), buttock, and leg and numbness in the lateral right foot. An examination was performed...2006;12(7):659-68. 12. Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, Casey D, Cross JH, Shekelle P, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical

  13. Breast Cancer Therapy Using Antibody-Endostatin Fusion Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Shulman LN, Proper J, Kirvan M, Rattner B, Connors S, Keogan MT, Janicek MJ, Fogler WE, Schnipper L, or C, Phillips E, Folkman J, Kufe DW. Phase I...D, Marnocha R, Lee F, Friedl A, Tutsch K, Dresen A, Geiger P, Pluda J, Fogler W, Schiller JH, Wilding G. Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic

  14. Breast Cancer Therapy Using Antibody-Endostatin Fusion Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Rattner B, Connors S, Keogan MT, Janicek MJ, Fogler WE, Schnipper L, Kinchla N, Sidor C, Phillips E, Folkman J, Kufe DW. Phase I clinical trial of...Alberti D, Marnocha R, Lee F, Friedl A, Tutsch K, Dresen A, Geiger P, Pluda J, Fogler W, Schiller JH, Wilding G. Phase I pharmacokinetic and

  15. Making Economics Relevant: A Project for Measuring Price Discrimination in Supermarkets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, William F.

    1974-01-01

    This note describes a supermarket discrimination study which involves students in a controversial question of concern to them and their community, requiring the application of economic principles to achieve a basic understanding of the meaning and implications of the problem and thus providing students with "relevant" economics education. (JH)

  16. What's in a Name? Family Surnames and Social Upheaval in Medieval England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanahan, William F.

    1974-01-01

    Numerous examples of the origin of surnames in medieval England from patronymics, nicknames, trade names, villages, and home sites suggest a key for interesting students in the social upheavals that evolved from the Norman Conquest and the later rise of cities. (JH)

  17. Some Problems in Using Diffusion Models for New Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Irwin; Mackenzie, Kenneth D.

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes some of the problems involved in using diffusion models to formulate marketing strategies for introducing new products. Six models, which remove some of the theoretical and methodological restrictions inherent in current models of the adoption and diffusion process, are presented. (Author/JH)

  18. The role of juvenile hormone in competition and cooperation by burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michelle Pellissier

    2006-10-01

    Few studies have addressed the physiological mechanisms that modulate aggression in insects. In some social insects, there is a correlation of JH and aggression in colony defense and in the establishment of dominance, but only a few studies demonstrate a causal relationship. Burying beetles aggressively defend a breeding resource, a carcass, and juvenile hormone (JH) hemolymph titers increase rapidly upon the discovery of a carcass. In this study, I show that treatment with the JH analog, methoprene, in the absence of a carcass increases the probability of injuries from aggressive interactions, but treatment to one member of a pair of competing Nicrophorus orbicollis females does not increase the probability that she will win control of the resource. In addition, higher JH levels are not associated with greater competitive ability in communally breeding Nicrophorus tomentosus females. Treatment of one female N. tomentosus does not increase her share of the communal brood. Methoprene seems to make a less competitive female more persistent and less willing to concede, which, although maintaining her share of reproduction, results in her exclusion from the brood chamber.

  19. Micro-conglomerate tests and the Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo as recorded in zircons of the Jack Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Bono, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Jack Hills (JH) belt of Western Australia has tremendous potential for increasing our understanding of the ancient geomagnetic field through application of the single silicate crystal paleointensity (SCP) method (e.g. Tarduno et al., 2006). We have recently reported SCP data from JH zircons (Tarduno et al., 2013, 2015) that suggest the presence of a core dynamo > 750 million years earlier than prior estimates (to as old as 4.2 Ga). Here we elaborate on these measurements with an emphasis on our microconglomerate test. The JH belt has been metamorphosed to at least 475 °C, but the interiors of some cobble-sized clasts preserve regions with a magnetite-dominated magnetization that passes a conglomerate test after demagnetization to temperatures of 550 °C (Tarduno and Cottrell, 2013). High unblocking temperature components of magnetization are also suggested in the data of Weiss et al. (2015), but these data are extremely noisy. This leads us to believe that the Weiss et al. (2015) data lack the resolution to examine Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations. Locally, components of the JH sediments have the potential to preserve high unblocking temperature magnetizations that can be characterized with the SCP method. As a further step to assess the ancient recording fidelity of the JH meta-conglomerates, we have conducted a micro-conglomerate test on oriented small (~500 to 800 μm) samples, each centered on a single large (200-300 μm) zircon. We use an ultra-high resolution 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer that affords an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than other high-resolution SQUID rock magnetometers. Thermal demagnetization using a CO2 laser shows unblocking between 565 and 580 °C consistent with a magnetite carrier. The characteristic magnetization directions are well defined but together cannot be distinguished from those drawn from a random distribution. Importantly, this positive micro-conglomerate test also addresses the debate over the primary

  20. Choristoneura fumiferana entomopoxvirus prevents metamorphosis and modulates juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid titers.

    PubMed

    Palli, S R; Ladd, T R; Tomkins, W L; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B; Tanaka, Y; Arif, B; Retnakaran, A

    2000-01-01

    Larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, infected with C. fumiferana entomopoxvirus (CfEPV) continue to feed and grow without undergoing metamorphosis and die as moribund larvae. The lethal dose (LD(50)) and lethal time (LT(50)) values for fourth instar larvae are 2.4 spheroids and 25.2 days, respectively. One hundred percent of the control fourth instar larvae, which were fed water instead of virus, pupated by 18 days post feeding (PF). Only 30% of the larvae that were fed the LD(50) dose and none of the larvae that were fed the LD(95) dose pupated by 18 days PF. Of the control larvae, 95% became adults by 24 days PF, whereas in the treated group only 2% of larvae that were fed the LD(50) dose and none of the larvae that were fed the LD(95) dose became adults by 24 days PF. Some of the virus-treated larvae died as either larval/pupal or pupal/adult intermediates. These phenotypic effects were similar to the larval/pupal and pupal/adult intermediates, resulting from treating larvae with juvenile hormone (JH) or its analogs, which suggests that EPV may cause such abnormalities by modulating JH and/or ecdysteroid titers. In untreated sixth instar larvae the JH titer decreased to low levels by 24 h after ecdysis and remained low throughout larval life. EPV-fed sixth instar larvae had 2112 pg/ml on day 0, 477 pg/ml on day 1 and 875 pg/ml on day 8 of the sixth instar. Control larvae contained 860 ng of ecdysteroids per ml hemolymph on day 8 of the sixth instar, whereas EPV-treated larvae of the same age (30 days PF) had only 107 ng of ecdysteroids per ml of hemolymph. Thus, EPV infection results in increased JH titer and decreased ecdysteroid titer. Northern hybridization analysis was performed using RNA isolated from control and EPV-fed larvae and cDNA probes for (i) juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), which is JH inducible, (ii) Choristoneura hormone receptor 3 (CHR3), which is ecdysteroid inducible, and (iii) larval specific diapause associated protein 1

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 converts farnesal into farnesoic acid in the corpora allata of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Clifton, Mark E; Garcia, Elena Martin; LeBlanc, Elizabeth; Noriega, Fernando G

    2013-08-01

    The juvenile hormones (JHs) play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. Interrupting JH biosynthesis has long been considered a promising strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. Using a combination of RNAi, in vivo and in vitro studies we characterized the last unknown biosynthetic enzyme of the JH pathway, a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (AaALDH3) that oxidizes farnesal into farnesoic acid (FA) in the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes. The AaALDH3 is structurally and functionally a NAD(+)-dependent class 3 ALDH showing tissue- and developmental-stage-specific splice variants. Members of the ALDH3 family play critical roles in the development of cancer and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome in humans, but have not been studies in groups other than mammals. Using a newly developed assay utilizing fluorescent tags, we demonstrated that AaALDH3 activity, as well as the concentrations of farnesol, farnesal and FA were different in CA of sugar and blood-fed females. In CA of blood-fed females the low catalytic activity of AaALDH3 limited the flux of precursors and caused a remarkable increase in the pool of farnesal with a decrease in FA and JH synthesis. The accumulation of the potentially toxic farnesal stimulated the activity of a reductase that converted farnesal back into farnesol, resulting in farnesol leaking out of the CA. Our studies indicated AaALDH3 plays a key role in the regulation of JH synthesis in blood-fed females and mosquitoes seem to have developed a "trade-off" system to balance the key role of farnesal as a JH precursor with its potential toxicity.

  2. Distinct Luminal-Type Mammary Carcinomas Arise from Orthotopic Trp53-Null Mammary Transplantation of Juvenile versus Adult Mice

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, David H.; Ouyang, Haoxu; Mao, Jian-Hua; ...

    2014-12-01

    Age and physiologic status, such as menopause, are risk factors for breast cancer. Less clear is what factors influence the diversity of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of host age on the distribution of tumor subtypes in mouse mammary chimera consisting of wild-type hosts and Trp53 nullizygous epithelium, which undergoes a high rate of neoplastic transformation. Wild-type mammary glands cleared of endogenous epithelium at 3 weeks of age were subsequently transplanted during puberty (5 weeks) or at maturation (10 weeks) with syngeneic Trp53-null mammary tissue fragments and monitored for one year. Tumors arose sooner from adultmore » hosts (AH) compared with juvenile hosts (JH). However, compared with AH tumors, JH tumors grew several times faster, were more perfused, exhibited a two-fold higher mitotic index, and were more highly positive for insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylation. Most tumors in each setting were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (80% JH vs. 70% AH), but JH tumors were significantly more ER-immunoreactive (P = 0.0001) than AH tumors. A differential expression signature (JvA) of juvenile versus adult tumors revealed a luminal transcriptional program. Centroids of the human homologs of JvA genes showed that JH tumors were more like luminal A tumors and AH tumors were more like luminal B tumors. Hierarchical clustering with the JvA human ortholog gene list segregated luminal A and luminal B breast cancers across datasets. Lastly, these data support the notion that age-associated host physiology greatly influences the intrinsic subtype of breast cancer.« less

  3. Distinct Luminal-Type Mammary Carcinomas Arise from Orthotopic Trp53-Null Mammary Transplantation of Juvenile versus Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, David H.; Ouyang, Haoxu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hlatky, Lynn; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Age and physiologic status, such as menopause, are risk factors for breast cancer. Less clear is what factors influence the diversity of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of host age on the distribution of tumor subtypes in mouse mammary chimera consisting of wild-type hosts and Trp53 nullizygous epithelium, which undergoes a high rate of neoplastic transformation. Wild-type mammary glands cleared of endogenous epithelium at 3 weeks of age were subsequently transplanted during puberty (5 weeks) or at maturation (10 weeks) with syngeneic Trp53-null mammary tissue fragments and monitored for one year. Tumors arose sooner from adult hosts (AH) compared with juvenile hosts (JH). However, compared with AH tumors, JH tumors grew several times faster, were more perfused, exhibited a two-fold higher mitotic index, and were more highly positive for insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylation. Most tumors in each setting were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (80% JH vs. 70% AH), but JH tumors were significantly more ER-immunoreactive (P = 0.0001) than AH tumors. A differential expression signature (JvA) of juvenile versus adult tumors revealed a luminal transcriptional program. Centroids of the human homologs of JvA genes showed that JH tumors were more like luminal A tumors and AH tumors were more like luminal B tumors. Hierarchical clustering with the JvA human ortholog gene list segregated luminal A and luminal B breast cancers across datasets. Lastly, these data support the notion that age-associated host physiology greatly influences the intrinsic subtype of breast cancer.

  4. Reproductive status, endocrine physiology and chemical signaling in the Neotropical, swarm-founding eusocial wasp Polybia micans.

    PubMed

    Kelstrup, Hans C; Hartfelder, Klaus; Nascimento, Fabio S; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2014-07-01

    In the evolution of caste-based societies in Hymenoptera, the classical insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids were co-opted into new functions. Social wasps, which show all levels of sociality and lifestyles, are an ideal group in which to study such functional changes. Virtually all studies on the physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive division of labor and caste functions in wasps have been done on independent-founding paper wasps, and the majority of these studies have focused on species specially adapted for overwintering. The relatively little-studied tropical swarm-founding wasps of the Epiponini (Vespidae) are a diverse group of permanently social wasps, with some species maintaining caste flexibility well into the adult phase. We investigated the behavior, reproductive status, JH and ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph, ecdysteroid content of the ovary and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the caste-monomorphic, epiponine wasp Polybia micans Ducke. We found that the JH titer was not elevated in competing queens from established multiple-queen nests, but increased in lone queens that lack direct competition. In queenless colonies, JH titer rose transiently in young potential reproductives upon challenge by nestmates, suggesting that JH may prime the ovaries for further development. Ovarian ecdysteroids were very low in workers but higher and correlated with the number of vitellogenic oocytes in the queens. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels were low and variable in both workers and queens. Profiles of P. micans CHCs reflected caste, age and reproductive status, but were not tightly linked to either hormone. These findings show a significant divergence in hormone function in swarm-founding wasps compared with independently founding ones.

  5. Streptosporangium jiaoheense sp. nov. and Streptosporangium taraxaci sp. nov., actinobacteria isolated from soil and dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; Li, Zhilei; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Yao; Li, Jiansong; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains NEAU-Jh1-4T and NEAU-Wp2-0T, were isolated from muddy soil collected from a riverbank in Jiaohe and a dandelion root collected from Harbin, respectively. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these two strains. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains NEAU-Jh1-4T and NEAU-Wp2-0T indicated that strain NEAU-Jh1-4T clustered with Streptosporangium nanhuense NEAU-NH11T (99.32 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptosporangium purpuratum CY-15110T (98.30 %) and Streptosporangium yunnanense CY-11007T (97.95 %) and strain NEAU-Wp2-0T clustered with 'Streptosporangium sonchi  ' NEAU-QS7 (99.39 %), 'Streptosporangium kronopolitis' NEAU-ML10 (99.26 %), 'Streptosporangium shengliense' NEAU-GH7 (98.85 %) and Streptosporangium longisporum DSM 43180T (98.69 %). Moreover, morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the two isolates also confirmed their affiliation to the genus Streptosporangium. However, the low level of DNA-DNA hybridization and some phenotypic characteristics allowed the isolates to be differentiated from the most closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strains NEAU-Jh1-4T and NEAU-Wp2-0T represent two novel species of the genus Streptosporangium, for which the name Streptosporangium jiaoheense sp. nov. and Streptosporangium taraxaci sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-Jh1-4T (=CGMCC 4.7213T=JCM 30348T) and NEAU-Wp2-0T (=CGMCC 4.7217T=JCM 30349T), respectively.

  6. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  7. Polymorphism in anti-phosphocholine antibodies reflecting evolution of immunoglobulin families

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Complete variable (V) region amino acid sequences were determined for four heavy (H) and one light (L) chain from C57BL phosphocholine (PC)- binding monoclonal antibodies. Additional NH2-terminal sequences were obtained from H and L chains of C57BL and CBA/J origin. When these V regions were compared with previously reported anti-PC sequences, a number of observations could be made regarding the function and evolution of L and H chain segments used in these antibodies. (a) L and H chain V segments are remarkably conserved in these inbred strains, although there has been an accumulation of point mutations identifying apparently allelic forms of VK and VH. (b) Mice of each genotype use the same three VK segments in combination with a single VH segment to produce most anti-PC antibodies. An exception has been noted that indicates the occasional use of a second VH gene segment. (c) Multiple, different DH regions are used by mice of each strain, which suggests that the DH segment sequence plays no critical role in either antigen binding or VH-VL pairing. Furthermore, the DH segments and their corresponding gene families appear to be highly conserved in the inbred strains studied. (d) Most PC-binding antibodies use the JH1 joining segment. All JH1 sequences from C57BL mice differ from the BALB/c JH1 at position 105, which identifies allelic forms of the JH1 region. These studies are a first assessment of the nature of mutational events associated with the evolution of specific multigene immunoglobulin families and indicate that homologous VH, DH, JH, VK, and JK genes are similarly assembled and expressed in PC antibodies from three diverse genotypes. PMID:6401319

  8. Identification and characterization of the NMDA receptor and its role in regulating reproduction in the cockroach Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Hult, Ekaterina F; Marchal, Elisabeth; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-04-01

    The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays important roles in excitatory neurotransmission and in the regulation of reproduction in mammals. NMDAR in insects comprises two subunits, NR1 and NR2. In this study, we identified two NR1 paralogs and eleven NR2 alternatively spliced variants in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. This is the first report of NR1 paralogs in insects. The tissue distributions and expression profiles of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 in different tissues were also investigated. Previous studies have demonstrated NMDA-stimulated biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata through the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) in Diploptera punctata. However, our data show that the transcript levels of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 were low in the corpora allata. MK-801, a high-affinity antagonist of NMDAR, did not show any effect on JH biosynthesis in vitro. In addition, neither partial knockdown of DpNR2 nor in vivo treatment with a physiologically relevant dose of MK-801 resulted in any significant change in JH biosynthesis or basal oocyte growth. Injection of animals with a high dose of MK-801 (30 µg per animal per injection), which paralyzed the animals for 4-5 h, resulted in a significant decrease in JH biosynthesis on days 4 and 5. However, the reproductive events during the first gonadotrophic cycle in female D. punctata were unaffected. Thus, NMDAR does not appear to play important roles in the regulation of JH biosynthesis or mediate reproduction of female D. punctata.

  9. Reproductive status, endocrine physiology and chemical signaling in the Neotropical, swarm-founding eusocial wasp Polybia micans

    PubMed Central

    Kelstrup, Hans C.; Hartfelder, Klaus; Nascimento, Fabio S.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    In the evolution of caste-based societies in Hymenoptera, the classical insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids were co-opted into new functions. Social wasps, which show all levels of sociality and lifestyles, are an ideal group in which to study such functional changes. Virtually all studies on the physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive division of labor and caste functions in wasps have been done on independent-founding paper wasps, and the majority of these studies have focused on species specially adapted for overwintering. The relatively little-studied tropical swarm-founding wasps of the Epiponini (Vespidae) are a diverse group of permanently social wasps, with some species maintaining caste flexibility well into the adult phase. We investigated the behavior, reproductive status, JH and ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph, ecdysteroid content of the ovary and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the caste-monomorphic, epiponine wasp Polybia micans Ducke. We found that the JH titer was not elevated in competing queens from established multiple-queen nests, but increased in lone queens that lack direct competition. In queenless colonies, JH titer rose transiently in young potential reproductives upon challenge by nestmates, suggesting that JH may prime the ovaries for further development. Ovarian ecdysteroids were very low in workers but higher and correlated with the number of vitellogenic oocytes in the queens. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels were low and variable in both workers and queens. Profiles of P. micans CHCs reflected caste, age and reproductive status, but were not tightly linked to either hormone. These findings show a significant divergence in hormone function in swarm-founding wasps compared with independently founding ones. PMID:24744417

  10. Next-generation transgenic cotton: pyramiding RNAi and Bt counters insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Ni, Mi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Xiaofang; Gao, Meijing; Dai, Yan; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lei; Peng, Yonggang; Chen, Shuyuan; Ding, Lingyun; Tian, Yue; Li, Jie; Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xiaolin; Xu, Guowang; Guo, Wangzhen; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong; Heuberger, Shannon; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhu, Zhen

    2017-02-15

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are extensively cultivated worldwide. To counter rapidly increasing pest resistance to crops that produce single Bt toxins, transgenic plant 'pyramids' producing two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest have been widely adopted. However, cross-resistance and antagonism between Bt toxins limit the sustainability of this approach. Here we describe development and testing of the first pyramids of cotton combining protection from a Bt toxin and RNA interference (RNAi). We developed two types of transgenic cotton plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from the global lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera designed to interfere with its metabolism of juvenile hormone (JH). We focused on suppression of JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), which is crucial for JH synthesis, and JH-binding protein (JHBP), which transports JH to organs. In 2015 and 2016, we tested larvae from a Bt-resistant strain and a related susceptible strain of H. armigera on seven types of cotton: two controls, Bt cotton, two types of RNAi cotton (targeting JHAMT or JHBP) and two pyramids (Bt cotton plus each type of RNAi). Both types of RNAi cotton were effective against Bt-resistant insects. Bt cotton and RNAi acted independently against the susceptible strain. In computer simulations of conditions in northern China, where millions of farmers grow Bt cotton as well as abundant non-transgenic host plants of H. armigera, pyramided cotton combining a Bt toxin and RNAi substantially delayed resistance relative to using Bt cotton alone.

  11. Maps of Ventricular Activation Time (VAT) Differences in Children on Peritoneal Dialysis — a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Laszki-Szcząchor, Krystyna; Polak-Jonkisz, Dorota; Zwolińska, Danuta; Salomon, Ewa; Filipowski, Henryk; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: Decrement of glomerular filtration rate leads to many serious complications that cause both functional and structural impairments of the other organs. Long-term clinical observations of children and teenagers with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) showed that more than one third of those patients manifested various cardio-vascular conditions. The aim of the study was to analyze possible disturbances in the heart ventricular conduction system by using a technique of ventricular activation time (VAT) differences in ESRF children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) examinations. ♦ Material and methods: The study group comprised 10 ESRD children (mean age: 13.6 ± 2.31 years) on peritoneal dialysis – group I. The control group (group II) consisted of 26 age-matched healthy children with no clinical evidence of renal or cardiac disease and with normal 12-lead ECG recordings. Each of the ESRD patients was also subjected to the standard ECG examination. In order to capture possible heart conduction abnormalities, body surface potential mapping (BSPM) recordings were performed in PD patients between the successive dwells (‘on empty abdomen’) with a HPM-7100 Fukuda Denshi system. Based on the source ECG data, the original technique of a VAT difference map was then applied. ♦ Results: Differences between VAT values for the two examined groups of children, controls and ESRD patients on PD, were significantly pronounced in the region of the right upper anterior thorax, the entire left thorax and nearly in the total back. Such a pattern of VAT delays indicates a pathological electric transmission in the intraventricular conduction system of the left anterior fascicle of His bundle. ♦ Conclusion: 1. VAT maps (isochrone maps) can be useful to detect abnormal spreading and depolarization through the heart ventricles. 2. Map of VAT value differences makes it possible to identify early disturbances in the left His bundle branch in

  12. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds. In order to survive, it needs to drink water or suck a sap from plants occasionally. It was found that the young larval instars compensate the occasional water deficiency by the increased production of metabolic water. The juvenile hormone (JH)-dependent production of metabolic water, which was previously found in other species consuming dry food, was achieved in P. apterus by total metabolic combustion of the dietary lipid (neutral seed oil). The water-producing, hypermetabolic larvae were heated from inside by endothermic energy released from the uncoupling of oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation. The "warm", hypermetabolic larvae burning the dietary oil into CO2 and water showed the increased rates of respiratory metabolism. Microrespirographic recording of these larvae revealed the ratio of the respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2/O2) of 0.7, which indicated the breakdown of a pure triglyceride. The warm hypermetabolic larvae could be easily spotted and distinguished from the "cold" larvae on the screen of a thermovision camera. The last instar larvae lacking the JH were always only cold. They metabolized a carbohydrate substrate exclusively (RQ = 1.0), while the dietary lipid was stored in the fat body. In comparison with the hypermetabolic larvae of some other species fed on dry food, which exhibited the highest rates of O2 consumption ever recorded in a living organism (10-20 mL O2/g per hour), the metabolic difference between the warm and

  13. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    PubMed Central

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Shatters, Robert G.; Rougé, Pierre; Powell, Charles A.; Smagghe, Guy; Borovsky, Dov

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus ‘Liberibacter’ asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in JH biosynthesis in D. citri. A putative JH acid methyltransferase ortholog gene (jmtD) and its cognate cDNA were identified by searching D. citri genome database. Expression analysis shows expression in all life stages. In adults, it is expressed in the head-thorax, (containing the corpora allata), and the abdomen (containing ovaries and male accessory glands). A 3D protein model identified the catalytic groove with catalytically active amino acids and the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-binding loop. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and the purified enzyme showed high preference for farnesoic acid (FA) and homoFA (kcat of 0.752 × 10−3 and 0.217 × 10−3 s−1, respectively) as compared to JH acid I (JHA I) (cis/trans/cis; 2Z, 6E, 10cis), JHA III (2E, 6E, 10cis), and JHA I (trans/cis/cis; 2E, 2Z, 10cis) (kcat of 0.081 × 10−3, 0.013 × 10−3, and 0.003 × 10−3 s−1, respectively). This suggests that this ortholog is a DcFA-o-methyl transferase gene (fmtD), not a jmtD, and that JH biosynthesis in D. citri proceeds from FA to JH III through methyl farnesoate (MF). DcFA-o-MT does not require Ca2+, Mg2+ or Zn2+, however, Zn2+ (1 mM) completely inhibits the enzyme probably by binding H115 at the active groove. This represents the first purified FA-o-MT from Hemiptera with preferred biological activity for FA and not JHA. PMID:25893162

  14. Juvenile hormone stimulated tyrosine kinase-mediated protein phosphorylation in the CNS of the silk worm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Arif, A; Shanavas, A; Murthy, Ch R K; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2002-07-01

    In vitro studies with the larval CNS of the silkworm, Bombyx mori revealed the phosphorylation of a 48-kDa protein, which was not dependent on cyclic nucleotides. Studies also revealed modest phosphorylation of this protein by a calcium-dependent but calmodulin-independent mechanism. However, phosphorylation of this protein was greatly enhanced in the presence of juvenile hormone (JH) I by a calcium-independent mechanism. This stimulatory effect of JH was seen in both homogenates as well as in intact CNS of Bombyx. Immunoblotting studies revealed the cross-reaction of this 48-kDa protein with phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody and the phosphorylation of this protein was inhibited by genistein. This study suggests that the 48-kDa protein is a substrate for tyrosine kinase. The phosphorylation of this protein was also observed in other larval tissues such as salivary gland, fat body, and epidermis of Bombyx.

  15. Collection of Balanced-Aileron Test Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-01-01

    airplane. Tct’il rjutr;n ’irHecttVi £j. u(ry ’ fk) tfiii’frc’- jH ’-r I. • ! ’ ! ’—:—n frjttre * ?-.<t»thn-j*4. — "" ±±^ I Airplane AM c* 3 i...8217^---’ "P — •-• "•" " sV JHV Q •Jfc ^inUlg^ fclJ .X-----~---4:+.-----.--^ ;»1 ..r_:-:r:~+:-HTKl ^ __+_ ^ it:~.„.: -=-=?S-l...z :±_. J p Si^ T~ _ z ~i_ Jh 11 — — - TS -jr^-T ji # --*-iV-\\ "r1- ——i-ii fl • £i:;B

  16. Molecular characterization of antibodies bearing Id-460. II. Molecular basis for Id-460 expression

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Id-460+ immunoglobulins can be induced in vivo by immunization with dinitrophenyl (DNP) or P. pneumotropica and form two nonoverlapping groups of antibodies with respect to antigen binding specificity. In this study, using Id-460+ antibodies of differing antigen binding specificities, we compared on the molecular genetic level the five gene segment combinations (VH, DH, JH, VL, and JL) that encode the variable regions of these idiotype-positive immunoglobulins. The Id-460 determinant appears to be a conformational or combinatorial determinant encoded by VH460 and VK1 crosshybridizing genes. DH, JH, and JK gene segments appear to have no measurable effect upon expression of Id-460. Finally, antigen binding specificity does not appear to simply localize to any particular gene segment but may in part be the result of somatic mutation and/or VDJH junctional sequences, whose length correlates roughly with antigen binding specificity. PMID:3932578

  17. ‘An unusual response of dental sepsis to antibiotics: parallels with the Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction’

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Helen; Collier, Jonathan Marc; Collier, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Spreading odontogenic infections are a common source of hospital admissions to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) units. This report describes an unusual reaction to routine treatment for a spreading odontogenic infection in a healthy male with no known allergies, requiring the patient to be managed supportively in the resuscitation room. The patient deteriorated rapidly after the administration of paracetamol, intravenous fluids, steroids and antibiotics, demonstrating delusional behaviour, fever, rigors, tachycardia and hypoxia. Fever associated with sepsis can lead to confusional states, but similar symptoms have been described in the literature as a reaction to antibiotic therapy known as Jarisch–Herxheimer (J-H) reaction. This is potentially the first time a J-H like reaction has been described in the context of dental sepsis. The authors feel that the OMFS team should be aware of possible sequelae of medical therapy in patients with acute dental sepsis and be confident in their management of these complications. PMID:22707695

  18. Phylogenetic conservation of immunoglobulin heavy chains: direct comparison of hamster and mouse Cmu genes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, K L; Duncan, W R; Tucker, P W

    1985-08-12

    We have analyzed the JH-Cmu locus of the Syrian hamster by DNA cloning and sequencing. The single Cmu gene is highly homologous to that of the mouse. The hamster equivalents of the JH and switch (S) recombination regions are arranged as in the mouse, but surprisingly are not highly conserved. Also unlike its close murine relative, the Smu regions among inbred hamster strains are not polymorphic. The complete nucleotide sequence of hamster and mouse Cmu genes have been compared to partial Cmu sequences of other species. Conservation within a portion of the 3' untranslated region may signify functional requirements for 3' end processing. Mutational frequencies within exons and introns of hamster and mouse do not support the theory that the rate of DNA transitions to transversions decreases with evolutionary distance.

  19. Evaluation of Prototype Secondary Hardening Steels for Armor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    Laboratory, ARL- CR -175, August 1994. 3. B. Sundman, B. Jansson, and J.O. Andersson, Calphad , 9, 1985, pp. 153-190. 4. J.H. Graves and J.H. Beatty...this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I____ o ._oo_- o ___ Public reporting...actual desired actual desired actual C 0.27 0.21 0.27 0.30 0.27 0.30 Co 12.5 12.46 13.5 13.45 14.5 14.36 Ni 10.0 10.08 10.4 10.59 10.6 10.75 Cr 3.00

  20. Development and validation of the Johns Hopkins Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy; Walrath, Jo M; Kim, Miyong T

    2015-01-01

    Although the negative impact of disruptive clinician behavior on quality health care delivery has gained attention recently, little systematic effort to address this issue has been reported. To facilitate empirical research to reduce disruptive clinician behaviors, an assessment tool (Johns Hopkins Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey [JH-DCBS]) with 5 discrete subscales was developed using a 2-step design. First a pool of items was generated from focus group studies and the literature, and then a psychometric evaluation of the survey was conducted with a sample of clinicians (N = 1198) practicing in a large urban academic medical center. The results indicated that the tool was reliable (Cronbach α = .79-.91), showed high content validity (Content Validity Index = .97), and had significantly high correlations with theoretically selected variables. The study team concluded that the JH-DCBS provides a valid empirical assessment of disruptive behavior. Assessment results may be used to design strategies to improve the health and safety of practice environments.

  1. Endocrine uncoupling of the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance in eusocial insects.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marisa A; Flatt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In most animals reproduction trades off with somatic maintenance and survival. Physiologically this trade-off is mediated by hormones with opposite effects on reproduction and maintenance. In many insects, this regulation is achieved by an endocrine network that integrates insulin-like/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), juvenile hormone (JH), and the yolk precursor vitellogenin (Vg) (or, more generally, yolk proteins [YPs]). Downregulation of this network promotes maintenance and survival at the expense of reproduction. Remarkably, however, queens of highly eusocial social insects exhibit both enormous reproductive output and longevity, thus escaping the trade-off. Here we argue - based on recent evidence - that the proximate reason for why eusocial insects can decouple this trade-off is that they have evolved a different 'wiring' of the IIS-JH-Vg/YP circuit.

  2. Pleiotropic effects of juvenile hormone in ant queens and the escape from the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off.

    PubMed

    Pamminger, Tobias; Treanor, David; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-13

    The ubiquitous trade-off between survival and costly reproduction is one of the most fundamental constraints governing life-history evolution. In numerous animals, gonadotropic hormones antagonistically suppressing immunocompetence cause this trade-off. The queens of many social insects defy the reproduction-survival trade-off, achieving both an extraordinarily long life and high reproductive output, but how they achieve this is unknown. Here we show experimentally, by integrating quantification of gene expression, physiology and behaviour, that the long-lived queens of the ant Lasius niger have escaped the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off by decoupling the effects of a key endocrine regulator of fertility and immunocompetence in solitary insects, juvenile hormone (JH). This modification of the regulatory architecture enables queens to sustain a high reproductive output without elevated JH titres and suppressed immunocompetence, providing an escape from the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off that may contribute to the extraordinary lifespan of many social insect queens.

  3. A whole genome screening and RNA interference identify a juvenile hormone esterase-like gene of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaojun; Kumar, Sunil; Kim, Eunjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a crucial role in preventing precocious metamorphosis and stimulating reproduction. Thus, its hemolymph titer should be under a tight control. As a negative controller, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) performs a rapid breakdown of residual JH in the hemolymph during last instar to induce a larval-to-pupal metamorphosis. A whole genome of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, has been annotated and proposed 11 JHE candidates. Sequence analysis using conserved motifs commonly found in other JHEs proposed a putative JHE (Px004817). Px004817 (64.61 kDa, pI=5.28) exhibited a characteristic JHE expression pattern by showing high peak at the early last instar, at which JHE enzyme activity was also at a maximal level. RNA interference of Px004817 reduced JHE activity and interrupted pupal development with a significant increase of larval period. This study identifies Px004817 as a JHE-like gene of P. xylostella.

  4. Large cross sections for transitions with a small energy difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. H.; Shakov, Kh. Kh.

    2009-05-01

    Cross sections for transitions between states with small differences in energy can be quite large. An example is the 1s-2p transition in atomic hydrogen caused by the impact of a fast charged particle [1] or a photon [3]. In such cases the actual cross section may become much larger than the simple geometric cross section. Such transitions are often difficult to observe in the laboratory. However, they can be evaluated numerically. This effect can be significant in analysis of astrophysical data, as pointed out by T. Nandi [2]. I discuss a few examples of calculations and give a physical explanation for this effect. [4pt] [1] J.H. McGuire, D. J. Land, J. G. Brennan and G. Basbas, Phys. Rev. A19, 2180 (1979).[0pt] [2] Kh.Kh. Shakov and J.H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A67 033405 (2003). [0pt] [3] T. Nandi, private communication, 2008.

  5. The inverse microconglomerate test: Further evidence for the preservation of Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Rory D.; Tarduno, John A.; Bono, Richard K.; Dare, Matthew S.; Mitra, Gautam

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic test, applicable to metamorphosed terrains, that assesses the recording fidelity of a metasediment. Magnetic mineral carriers with unblocking temperatures lower than the peak metamorphic temperature should record a common remagnetization direction, whereas those with higher unblocking temperatures should be randomly distributed if a primary magnetization has been preserved on a sedimentary grain scale. We call this an inverse microconglomerate test. Application to metasediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Western Australia, reveals that the chrome mica fuchsite records a well-grouped secondary magnetization at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340°C, in contrast to the random distribution of in situ directions held by zircons isolated at unblocking temperatures >550°C. This positive test further supports JH zircons as hosts of primary Hadean magnetizations. More generally, the new test can aid in understanding the timing of peak metamorphism and deformation in complex terrains.

  6. Nitramine Propellant Ignition and Combustion Research: New Tools and New Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    34Laser Applications 5," (Ready, J.F. and Erf, R.K., Eds.), 213-309 (Academic Press, New York) (1984) 87. Eckbreth, A.C., Dobbs, G.M., Stufflebeam , J.H...and Tellex, P.A., Appl. Optics 23, 1328-1339 (1984) 88. Stufflebeam , J.H. and Eckbreth, A.C., in Combustion Probes for Solid Nitramines (Shaw, R.W

  7. Spectral Studies of Solid Propellant Combustion 2. Emission and Absorption Results for M-30 and HMX1 Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    for these equilibrium temperatures comes from some experimental data. Stufflebeam and Eckbreth have used CARS to measure tempe\\atures as high as...Aron and L.R. Harris. "CARS Probe of RDK Decomposition," Chem. Phys. Lett.. Vol. 103(5), p. 413. 1984. 23. J.H. Stufflebeam and A.C...UT 84302 United Technologies ATTN: A.C. Eckbreth J. Stufflebeam East Hartford, CT 06108 United Technologies Corp. Chemical Systems Division

  8. Resonant CARS Detection of OH Radicals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-31

    pp. 3819-3825. 13. Bloembergen, N., U.L. Lotem, and 4. Eckbreth, A.C., G.M. Dobbs, J.H. R.T. Lynch, "Llneshapes in Coherent Stufflebeam , and P.A...Combustion Engine," Aplied Oprics, VnI. 18, 15 November, 1979, pp. 3819-3825. i4 4Eckbreth, A.C., Dobbs, G.M., Stufflebeam , 1.11., .x , P.A., "CARS

  9. Association of Protein S Deficiency with Thrombosis in a Kindred with Increased Levels of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-15

    family with assay. Clin Chim Acts. 1983;127:279-88. hereditary thrombophilia . Blood. 1989;73:479-83. 22. Griffn JH, Gruber A, Fernandez JA. Reevaluation of...SMe E. Elevated plasminogen 25 Boiseol C, David H. Quantitative determination of serum triglycer- activator inhibitor (PAl), a cause of thrombophilia ...A study in 203 ides by the use of enzymes. Cliii Chem. 1973;19:476-82. patients with familial or sporadic venous thrombophilia . Thromb 26. Remnilgton

  10. Cell Growth and Survival in Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Core A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA * 28 July 1982 "Influence of Estrogen on Progesterone Receptor and Glycoprotein...estrogen and progesterone receptors in the rabbit endocervix. J Steroid Biochem 17:363-369, 1982. 116. Nicosia SV, Johnson JH, Streibel EJ, Mogul L...Proceedings p. 157a, 1981. 160. Chilton BS, Nicosia SV. Changes in cytosol and nuclear progesterone receptors as a measure of estrogen action in the

  11. Active urea transport independent of H+ and Na+ transport in frog skin epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, I; Dunel-Erb, S; Harvey, B J; Laurent, P; Ehrenfeld, J

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between H+ secretion (JH), Na+ absorption (JNa), and urea transport (Ju) in skin of frogs (Rana esculenta) adapted to running tap water, NaCl (100 mM), and KCl (100 mM). In addition, cell morphological changes, particularly in the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC), were followed. NaCl adaptation stimulated an active Ju, reduced JNa and JH, and caused a decrease in the apical surface of MRC. After KCl adaptation, JNa and JH were increased and highly correlated, with a twofold increase in Ju, whereas the numerous MRC developed infoldings on their apical membranes. No correlation was found between JH and Ju. Clamping the skins in a range of +/- 50 mV or changing the external pH from 7.4 to 5.4 (at high cellular buffering power) had no effect on Ju. Depolarization of the basolateral membranes (serosal KCl-Ringer) had no effect on Ju. Ju was reversibly blocked by acidification of the cells by oxygen-free solution and sulfhydryl reagents (Hg2+, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide). Diethylstilbestrol, a proton transport blocker, had no effect on Ju. Apical addition of amiloride and derivatives (phenamil and ethylisopropyl amiloride) reversibly blocked Ju, whereas ouabain had no effect. We conclude that a cation (Na+ or H+)-dependent process is unlikely to exist in R. esculenta skin. A primary active transport in a two-step process is the simplest hypothesis to account for the energy-dependent Ju that develops in NaCl-adapted frogs.

  12. Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis Georgios Alexandros Skrimpas1, Christian Walsted Sweeney2, Kun S...University of Denmark, Lyngby, 2800, Denmark nm@elektro.dtu.dk jh@elektro.dtu.dk ABSTRACT Condition monitoring of wind turbines is a field of continu...ous research and development as new turbine configurations enter into the market and new failure modes appear. Systems utilising well established

  13. The Effect of the Ionosphere on Radiowave Signals and Systems Performance Based on Ionospheric Effects Symposium Held on 1-3 May 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-03

    I 1W -A~(( Joe ) 1.J~h. AFqs -7 " t TIME DELAY 41 FPEOUENCY t fiHz I Fig. 9. Art Lonogras simii4a in appearance to the ou mIn Lonsati roughly folloing...e.g., Watt 1967, Best, Ratcliffe, and Wilkes, 136, Bracewell et al 1951, Kelly and Rao, 1981, and Jones, Davies, and Weider , 1972). The data were taken

  14. Immunization to Protect the U.S. Armed Forces: Heritage, Current Practice, Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    be negligible), and the appearance of the novel clinical entity of HTLV -III infection (now called human immunodeficiency virus, HIV). (9) In March... cutaneous and inhalation cases combined), (181) and licensed in 1970. (182, 183) Subsequent inhalation challenges in nonhuman primates and rabbits...the Army, 1958:167- 89. 148. Liebow AA, Bumstead JH. Cutaneous and other aspects of diphtheria. In: Havens WP Jr., ed. Internal Medicine in World War

  15. Complete amino acid sequence of heavy chain variable regions derived from two monoclonal anti-p-azophenylarsonate antibodies of BALB/c mice expressing the major cross-reactive idiotype of the A/J strain

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The primary structure of A/J anti-p-azophenylarsonate (anti-Ars) antibodies expressing the major A-strain cross-reactive idiotype (CRIA) has provided important insights into issues of antibody diversity and the molecular basis of idiotypy in this important model system. Until recently, this idiotype was thought to be rarely, if ever, expressed in BALB/c mice. Indeed, it has been reported that BALB/c mice lack the heavy chain variable segment (VH) gene that is utilized by the entire family of anti-Ars antibodies expressing the A/J CRI. Recently, however, it has been possible to elicit CRIA+, Ars binding antibodies in the BALB/c strain by immunizing first with anti-CRI and then with antigen. Such BALB/c, CRIA+ anti-Ars antibodies can be induced occasionally with antigen alone. VH region amino acid sequences are described for two CRIA+ hybridoma products derived from BALB/c mice. While remarkably similar to each other, their VH segments (1-98) differ from the VH segments of A/J CRIA+, anti-Ars antibodies in over 40 positions. Rather than the usual JH2 gene segment used by most A/J CRIA+ anti-Ars antibodies, one BALB/c CRIA+ hybridoma utilizes a JH1 gene segment, while the other uses a JH4. However, the D segments of both of the BALB/c antibodies are remarkably homologous to the D segments of several A/J CRIA+ antibodies sequenced previously, as are the amino terminal amino acid sequences of their light chains. These data imply that BALB/c mice express the A/J CRIA by producing antibodies with very similar, if not identical, light chain and heavy chain D segments, but in the context of different VH and JH gene segments than their A/J counterparts. The results document that molecules that share serologic specificities can have vastly different primary structures. PMID:6207261

  16. BESCT (Biology, Education, Screening, Chemoprevention and Treatment) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Neurosci ., 21, 6095–6104. Berridge MJ, Bootman MD and Lipp P. (1998). Nature, 395, 645–648. Berridge MJ, Lipp P and Bootman MD. (2000). Nat. Rev. Mol...2000). Eur. J. Neurosci ., 12, 1217–1226. Hofmann F, Lacinova L and Klugbauer N. (1999). Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol., 139, 33–87. Hurley JH, Cahill...1999). J. Neurosci ., 19, 684–691. Kochegarov AA, Beylina SI, Matveeva NB, Leontieva GA and Zinchenko VP. (2001). Comparative Biochem. Physiol. 128

  17. 14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship repair facilities dredging map. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 1. Plan no. 10,529. Scale one inch to 50 feet. September 22, 1943. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 18, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  18. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-29

    also suggests that the lymphatics play a critical role in fracture repair. With normal healing of tibial fracture, foci of ossification are...Effectiveness in segmental tibial defects in rats. Tissue Eng 12:489–497. Finkemeier CG. 2002. Bone-grafting and bone-graft substitutes. J Bone Joint...Vogelin E, Brekke JH, Jones NF. 2000. Heterotopic and orthotopic bone formation with a vascularized periosteal flap, a matrix and rh-BMP- 2 (bone

  19. Geotechnical Properties of Periplatform Carbonate Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    calcium carbonate is strongly inhibited by the presence of magnesium ions and by dissolved inorganic matter ( Edmond 1974). The depth at which...eds) Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 101, College Station, TX, pp 305-314. Edmond JM (1974) On the dissolution of carbonate...Office, Washington, pp 701-722. Shinn EA, Halley RB, Hudson JH, Lidz BH (1977) Limestone compaction: an enigma. Geology 5:21-24. Shinn EA, Robbin DM

  20. Methods of the Analysis of the Disruption of Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-02

    4..+M•- (.p)!a(1-s• lxft,,, d~j () jh ,1 ~ dig .’ DOC - 83061003 PAGE Let us select coefficients C4 so that the factors, which stand in equation...coordinates x-mil4 g)- Jhv at the moments of time &-kI: _.*[ - 5.-si "DOC 83061012 PAGE Wkh+I aj.j.,’,,+i.,W, (6.56) where ,-, pQ(L,, !h), qij= q (1i4

  1. Control of larval-pupal-adult molt in the moth Sesamia nonagrioides by juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Goodman, Walter G; Schafellner, Christa; Martini, Antonio; Sehnal, Frantisek; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2011-05-01

    Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared under long day (LD; 16L:8D) conditions pupate after 5 or 6 larval instars, whereas under short day (SD; 12L:12D) conditions they undergo up to 12 additional molts before pupating. This extended period of repeated molting is maintained by high levels of juvenile hormone (JH). Previous work demonstrated that both LD and SD larvae decapitated in the 6th instar pupate but further development is halted. By contrast, about one-third of SD larvae from which only the brain has been removed, undergo first a larval molt, then pupate and subsequently developed to the adult stage. Debrained LD larvae molt to larvae exceptionally but regularly pupate and produce adults. Implanted brains may induce several larval molts in debrained recipient larvae irrespectively of the photoperiodic conditions. The results of present work demonstrate that the prothoracic glands (PGs) and the corpora allata (CA) of debrained larvae continue to produce ecdysteroids and JHs, respectively. PGs are active also in the decapitated larvae that lack JH, consistent with the paradigm that CA, which are absent in the decapitated larvae, are the only source of this hormone. Completion of the pupal-adult transformation in both LD and SD debrained insects demonstrates that brain is not crucial for the development of S. nonagrioides but is required for diapause maintenance. Application of JH to headless pupae induces molting, presumably by activating their PGs. It is likely that JH plays this role also in the induction of pupal-adult transformation in debrained insects. Application of the ecdysteroid agonist RH 2485 (methoxyfenozide) to headless pupae also elicits molting: newly secreted cuticle is in some cases thin and indifferent, in other cases it bears distinct pupal or adult features.

  2. Clinical Trial of AC105 (Mg/PEG) for Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    505-9. Kwon BK, Roy J, Lee JH, Okon E, Zhang H, Marx JC, Kindy MS. (2009) Magnesium chloride in a polyethylene glycol formulation as a...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. is developing the polymer formulation of magnesium , known as AC-105...15. SUBJECT TERMS AC-105, Magnesium , Mg, Spinal Cord Injury, SCI 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  3. The Effect of Aviation Selection Test Battery Waivers on Marine Student-Aviator Attrition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Pensacola, Florida areas . IFS is fully-funded by the Department of the Navy (DoN) and “provides students with a maximum of 25 hours of civilian aviation...Systems Marine Science Aviation Technology Maritime Ops and Technology 70 NON-TECHNICAL Accounting Forestry National Security...28 September 2008, from Defense Technical Information Center Online database. Stock, J.H. & Watson, M.W. (2003). Introduction to Econometrics

  4. T-Cell Proliferation Involving the CD28 Pathway is Associated with Cyclosporine-Resistant Interleukin 2 Gene Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Security Classification) T-CELL PROLIFERATION INVOLVING THE CD28 PATHWAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH CYCLOSPORINE-RESISTANT INTERLEUKIN 2 GENE EXPRESSION 12. PERSONAL...Cyclosporins,. T Lymphocytes) r’jh ,,.. "’’ .. - | Gene Expression 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block num’ber) DTIC...American Society tor Microbiology T-Cell Proliferation Involving the CD28 Pathway Is Associated with Cyclosporine-Resistant Interleukin 2 Gene Expression

  5. Broadband Seismic Characterization of the Arabian Shield,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    Mohammed Al- Suwaiyel, the Vice President for Research of the King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology ( KACST ), the government agency responsible...Geophysical Research, 96 (1991) 20179- 20185. Badri, M., Qp and velocity crustal structure of central Saudi Arabia, KACST project final report 09-006 (1989...Arabian Peninsula from surface waves, KACST project final report 10-48 (1992), 259 p. Mooney, W.D., M.E. Gettings, H.R. Blank, and J.H. Healy. Saudi Arabian

  6. Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at the west end of the bridge. The plaque reads “1914; Mayor E.J. Drussel; Councilmen E.S. Henry, E.F. Hogan, R.P. Lamdin, C.F. Ross, J.H. Shuppert; Leonard & Day, Engineers; C.H. Gildersleeve, Builder.” - First Street Bridge, Spanning Napa River at First Street between Soscol Avenue & Juarez Street, Napa, Napa County, CA

  7. Anomalous Transport Coefficients Due to the Ion-Ion Two-Stream Plasma Microinstability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-25

    MaxwelHan Distribution on the Computer Kesh . p-*£) \\ j. T^jh^fO ££(£*) (F.5) &* tfLr gfZA^c ou-rZ/b fr*». «?,*) -" -"*&;))) *1[ fx^l- > w^W^tf- (F...NINE POINTS ARE USED IN THE FINITE DIFFERENCE EQUATION FOR THE i"> POINT) Flg. F-2. Kesh Point Numbering Scheme in the Method of Lines. 125

  8. Rate of Convergence Analysis of Discretization and Smoothing Algorithms for Semi-Infinite Minimax Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    minimax and min-max-min problems and their efficiency. Phd thesis , Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 2011. [25] J.H. Jung, D.P. O’Leary, and...California, USA. Corresponding author, email: joroyset@nps.edu ‡Principal Analyst, Operations Analysis and Simulation, Defence Science and Technology ...quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm in [11] and the Pshenichnyi-Pironneau-Polak ( PPP ) algorithm [8, Section 2.4] for solving finite minimax problems

  9. The Use of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet in Evacuation of Battlefield Casualties - An Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    reduce their revenue- earning potential, and not doing any modification that would * require a long layup of any airplane. The best solution to this...that least affects the owners’ use of them. In other words, the planes should not be modified in any manner that would reduce their revenue- earning ...September 1981. * 20. Dreyfuss, U.Y., Faktor , J.H., and Charnilas, J.Z. "Aeromedical Evacuation in Israel: A Study of 884 Cases." Aviation, Space, and

  10. Precocious metamorphosis in the juvenile hormone-deficient mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several "moltinism" mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval-larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval-pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH-deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis.

  11. Structure and Reactivity of the Phosphotriesterase Active Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    characterize different catalytic conformations for chorismate mutase . Preliminary evidence for water binding in phosphotriesterase suggests that activity in...MD/QM study of the chorismate mutase catalyzed Claisen rearrangement reaction. 2001.subm. J.Phys.Chem.B 22.Day, P.N.J., J.H.; Gordon,M.S.; Webb,S.P...Claisen rearrangement of an unusual substrate in chorismate mutase . 2001.subm. J.Phys.Chem.B 38.Stevens, W.J., Basch,H., Krauss,M., Compact effective

  12. Farnesol-Like Endogenous Sesquiterpenoids in Vertebrates: The Probable but Overlooked Functional “Inbrome” Anti-Aging Counterpart of Juvenile Hormone of Insects?

    PubMed Central

    De Loof, Arnold; Marchal, Elisabeth; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.; Schoofs, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Literature on the question whether the juvenile stage of vertebrates is hormonally regulated is scarce. It seems to be intuitively assumed that this stage of development is automated, and does not require any specific hormone(s). Such reasoning mimics the state of affairs in insects until it was shown that surgical removal of a tiny pair of glands in the head, the corpora allata, ended larval life and initiated metamorphosis. Decades later, the responsible hormone was found and named “juvenile hormone” (JH) because when present, it makes a larva molt into another larval stage. JH is a simple ester of farnesol, a sesquiterpenoid present in all eukaryotes. Whereas vertebrates do not have an anatomical counterpart of the corpora allata, their tissues do contain farnesol-like sesquiterpenoids (FLS). Some display typical JH activity when tested in appropriate insect bioassays. Some FLS are intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway of cholesterol, a compound that insects and nematodes (=Ecdysozoa) cannot synthesize by themselves. They ingest it as a vitamin. Until a recent (2014) reexamination of the basic principle underlying insect metamorphosis, it had been completely overlooked that the Ca2+-pump (SERCA) blocker thapsigargin is a sesquiterpenoid that mimics the absence of JH in inducing apoptosis. In our opinion, being in the juvenile state is primarily controlled by endogenous FLS that participate in controlling the activity of Ca2+-ATPases in the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SERCAs), not only in insects but in all eukaryotes. Understanding the control mechanisms of being in the juvenile state may boost research not only in developmental biology in general, but also in diseases that develop after the juvenile stage, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. It may also help to better understand some of the causes of obesity, a syndrome that holometabolous last larval insects severely suffer from, and for which they found a very drastic but efficient solution, namely

  13. Sleep Resilience, Comorbid Anxiety, and Treatment in a Murine Model of PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    exposure to hypercapnia prior to foot shock (conditioned stimulus). We have gone on to show that the physiologic responses to the conditioning...transient artifact in the heart rate tracing at time of foot shock did not affect the determination of End and Post heart rate and blood pressure values...cell replication. Diabetes 56: 1792– 1801. 32. Benington JH, Kodali SK, Heller HC (1994) Scoring transitions to REM sleep in rats based on the EEG

  14. Benchmarking in Foodservice Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    51. Lingle JH, Schiemann WA. From balanced scorecard to strategic gauges: Is measurement worth it? Mgt Rev. 1996; 85(3):56-61. 52. Struebing L...studies lasted from nine to twelve months, and could extend beyond that time for numerous reasons (49). Benchmarking was not industrial tourism , a...not simply data comparison, a fad, a means for reducing resources, a quick-fix program, or industrial tourism . Benchmarking was a complete process

  15. Recent Advances in Human Protozoan Parasites of Gastrointestinal Tract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    frequency of oral-anal sexual contacts. No relation was seen between the presence or chance of gastrointestinal symptoms and infection with E...Lancet May 14: 1103. SPENCER MJ., CHAPIN M.R. & GARCIA L.S. 1962. Dientamoeba fragilis: A gastrointestinal protozoan infection in adults. American...ULIC EIL& p .( RECENT ADVANCES IN HUMAN PROTOZOAN PARASITES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT J.H. Cross REPORT NO. CS -142 AD-A 182 878 ,ji.. ELECTE JULS j

  16. Critical Importance of In Vivo Amoxicillin and Cefotaxime Concentrations for Synergy in Treatment of Experimental Enterococcus faecalis Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Join-Lambert, Olivier; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Cuvelier, Catherine; Dautrey, Sophie; Farinotti, Robert; Fantin, Bruno; Carbon, Claude

    1998-01-01

    The synergy between amoxicillin and cefotaxime against two strains of Enterococcus faecalis (JH2-2 and 6370) in vitro and in rabbit endocarditis was investigated. In vitro synergy was obtained only when amoxicillin concentrations were below the MBC and when cefotaxime concentrations were above 1 μg/ml. No synergy was observed in vivo, because of the short period of time during which these pharmacologic requirements were achieved. PMID:9527811

  17. European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 8.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    labeling in the 371 ..... °.... .7. ’c. ESN 39-8 (1985) of albinos . Experiments to clarify this the sacculus branch. The results of question are...following peripheral lesion. While Plasticity in the vestibular system albino rats, after initially good com- is being studied by J.H. Courjon and his...lasers with out- electric atmospheric ( TEA ) lasers, oper- in the milliwatt region. This work ating at 10 um, and varying from ultra- ows closely

  18. Enlisted Selection and Classification Tests: Precursors of the ASVAB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    relations. The resulting test was the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) which was first used operationally in July 1950 (Eitelberg, Laurence ...school grades as the criterion and subtest scores on ASVAB Forms 8, 9, and 10 as predictors ( Ree , Mathews, Mullin, & Massey, 1981), least squares...PRL-DR-62-7. AD-284 775), Lackland AFB, TX: Personnel Research Laboratory, Aerospace Medical Division. 14 Eitelberg, M.J., Laurence , J.H

  19. Development of Magnetorheological Fluid Elastomeric Dampers for Helicopter Stability Augmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Philosophy, 2005 Dissertation directed by: Professor Norman M. Wereley Department of Aerospace Engineering Conventional lag dampers use passive... Engineering at the University of Maryland. A special word of thanks to Dr. Gang Wang, Dr. Jinsong Bao, Dr. Y.T. Choi, Dr. J.H. Yoo, Dr. V.T. Nagaraj...condition, the system response will be easily solved. Using the same ODE solver, the RDES model can also be applied in the MATLAB Simulink program such that

  20. Do Military Peacekeepers Want to Talk about Their Experiences? Perceived Psychological Support of UK Military Peacekeepers on Return from Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    stopped by the Surgeon General (the most senior UK military doctor) after emerging scientific evidence suggested that single session psychological...process” what has happened to them (15). Unlike formalized single session psychological debriefings, which have been found to be unhelpful, support...Kamphuis JH, Hulsbosch AM, Emmelkamp PM. Single session debriefing after psychological trauma: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2002;360(9335):766-71. [9

  1. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialyl Tn-antigen and derivatives†

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Li, Yanhong; Muthana, Saddam; Wang, Junru; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    An N-terminal and C-terminal truncated recombinant α2–6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium sp. JH-ISH-224, Psp2,6ST(15–501)-His6, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for one-pot three-enzyme synthesis of sialyl Tn (STn) antigens and derivatives containing natural and non-natural sialic acid forms. PMID:21725542

  2. Erythromycin- and copper-resistant Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment and co-transfer of erm(B) and tcrB to human Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Pasquaroli, Sonia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Vignaroli, Carla; Conti, Giulia; Citterio, Barbara; Biavasco, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    An erythromycin-, copper- and cadmium-resistant isolate of Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment was shown to harbor the plasmid pRE25 and to co-transfer erm(B) and tcrB to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. These data highlight the scope for antibiotic resistance selection by the marine environment through heavy metals and its possible involvement in antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections.

  3. Design and Evaluation of Ion Source for Satellite Charge Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Plasma Clouds in the Magnetosphere ," Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 76, 1971. DeForest, S.E., " Spacecraft Charging at Synchronous... Charging : A Review," Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, v. 71, pp. 167-226, 1980. Grard,R., Knott, K., and Pederson, A., Spacecraft Charging ...Satellite Program," Spacecraft Charging by Magnetospheric Plasmas , v.47, AIAA, ed. A. Rosen, AIAA with MIT Press, 1976. Moore, J.H., Davis, C.C.,

  4. Gulf Coast Deep Water Port Facilities study. Appendix B. North Central Gulf Hydrobiological Zones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-01

    alga flora of the Mississippi coast. Previous knowledge of the algal flora was limited primarily to the work of Taylor (1954). Eleuterius (1972...Rhodophyta, 7 of Chlorophyta, 5 of Phaeophyta, and 4 of Cyanophyta. In comparing the algal flora of the Chandeleur Islands to previous collections in...Changes in the Mississippi Sound," J. Mississippi A cad. Sci., 12. 1966. pp. 418-419. Mullahy, J.H., "Preliminary Survey of the Algal Flora of the Chandeleur

  5. Evaluation of Aerial Spray Technologies for Adult Mosquito Control Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and Spurgin 1995; Teske et al. 2005). Looking at the Fyfanon® label requirement for Dv0.5 < 60 µm and Dv0.9 < 100 µm, measurements from both laser...27, Switzerland, 31 pp. Teske M.E., Thistle H.W., Hewitt A.J., Kirk I.W., Dexter R.K., Ghent J.H. 2005. Rotary atomizer drop size distribution da

  6. Studies of Metal-Silicon, Silicon-Metal, and Silicide Based Interfaces: Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Investigations of Interface Formation and Compound Nucleation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    and the bulk thermodynamic properties of the constituents. These results are in agreement with those obtained from - morphological model for evolving...34 Phys. Rev. B 36, 1075-1079 (1987). 15. NI. del Giudice, J.J. Joyce, and J.H. Weaver, "Core Level Binding Energy Shifts, Thermodynamic Predictions...of overlayer thickness, we have shown that each species forms in a way which is limited by -K kinetics and bulk thermodynamics . This last point is

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Life Sciences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    this study. Values of angle f found by this method agree with values determined by vicinal constants of spin-spin interaction of 3JH-,N"CCX-’H and...The results indicate that ß-endorphin interacts with a heterogeneous population of opiate receptors of the lymphocytes. ß-Endorphin is apparently...hemoglobin in the blood stream was also influenced by other factors, particularly the capability of the polymers to interact with plasma proteins

  8. Circumventing Therapeutic Resistance and the Emergence of Disseminated Breast Cancer Cells Through Non-Invasive Optical Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    non- catalyzed conditons.43,44 Non- catalyzed ring-opening poly- merization of 3-CL must, however, be carried out $180 $C over several days, which is...Carbon Nanotubes by Chiral , Ionic, Semiconducting Polymers, P. Deria, C. D. Von Bargen, J.-H. Olivier, A. S. Kumbhar, J. G. Saven, and M. J. Therien...J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 16220−16234. 49) Fluence-Dependent Singlet Exciton Dynamics in Length-Sorted Chirality -Enriched Single-Wall Carbon

  9. The Effect of High-pressure Densification on Ballistic-penetration Resistance of a Soda-lime Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    available in the ANSYS/ Autodyn materials library [26]. Further details of the JH2 model for brittle mate- rials are provided in the remainder of this...Applications 4.2.1 Modifications to the EOS An examination of the polynomial EOS for glass as implemented in the ANSYS/ Autodyn material library...ANSYS/ Autodyn object code to form a new executable. 4.2.2 Modifications of the strength model Irreversible densification of glass is assumed to increase

  10. Soot Formation and Destruction in High-Pressure Flames with Real Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-18

    Optical investigations on soot forming methane - oxygen flames,‟ Combust. Sci. Tech. 5, 263 (1972). D‟Anna, D. and Kent, J.H., „Aromatic formation...07/31/2013 8.00 Wei Jing, William L. Roberts, Tiegang Fang. Effects of Temperature and Oxygen on Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel and...Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Diesel Spray Combustion Using a Single-Nozzle Injector in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber, Combustion

  11. Frequency Width in Predictions of Windsea Spectra and the Role of the Nonlinear Solver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-20

    which many readers will be familiar with.2 JON - SWAP y - 1 corresponds to fully developed seas, which tend to be relatively broad in frequency space...Phys. Oceanogr. 15. 1369-1377. Hasselmann. S.. Hasselmann. K.. Allender. J.H.. Barnett . T.P.. 1985. Computations and parameterizations of the...Oceanogr. 15. 1378-1391. Hasselmann. K., Barnett , T.P., Bouws, E.. Carlson. H.. Cartwright. D.E.. Enke, K.. Ewing. J.A., Cienapp, H., Hasselman, D.E

  12. Initial Testing of a Two-Dimensional Computer Code for Microwave-Induced Surface Breakdown in Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    operation of high- voltage electrical equipment are electron emission and surface flashover . As a step toward further understanding of these phenomena in gas...INITIAL TESTING OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER CODE FOR MICROWAVE-INDUCED SURFACE BREAKDOWN IN AIR* D.J. Mayhall and J.H. Yee Lawrence Livermore...computer code for microwave-induced surface breakdown in air is developed. This code is based on finite difference approximations to Maxwell’s curl

  13. The Power of Comparative Physiology: Evolution, Integration and Applied

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    into the small intestine, thereby removing gastric respiromenry. Our results revealed that monomeric and dimeric sugars caused metabolic rate function...Northern Arizona Univ. 14 7.14 Shunting in alligators: does it make 27 7.27 Biochemistry of steller sea lion a difference? M.N. Gardner and D.R. muscle...porcelain crabs from 48 7.48 Allometric cascade: a multiple- different thermal habitats. J.H. Stillman. causes model of body mass effects on Hopkins Marine

  14. Beyond the justification hypothesis: a broader theory of the evolution of self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Vazire, Simine; Robins, Richard W

    2004-12-01

    We evaluate Henriques' Justification Hypothesis (JH; this issue) and argue that his explanation for the evolution of self-consciousness is overly narrow and the evolutionary sequence of events is backwards. Instead, we propose a broader theory of the evolution of self-consciousness, with four categories of adaptive functions: (a) self-regulation, (b) selective information processing, (c) understanding others, and (d) identity formation.

  15. The Relationship Between Air Force Anesthesia Provider’s Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-14

    thesis. My eternal thanks for their love and support, their sacrifice of time and work, and without whose support this project could not have been...are anesthesiologists. Chan, Sunshine , Owen, and Shaffer (1995), looked at the job satisfaction of 2,804 U.S. radiologists. 65% of these physicians...Chan, W. C, Sunshine , J.H., Owen, J.B., & Shaffer, K. A. (1995). U.S. radiologists’ satisfaction in their profession. Radiology. 194. 649-656. Chaney

  16. The effects of juvenile hormone on Lasius niger reproduction.

    PubMed

    Pamminger, T; Buttstedt, A; Norman, V; Schierhorn, A; Botías, C; Jones, J C; Basley, K; Hughes, W O H

    2016-12-01

    Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper. By remodelling the gonadotropic effects of JH in reproductive regulation, the queens of the long-lived black garden ant Lasius niger (living up to 27 years), have circumvented the reproduction-survival trade off enabling them to maximize both reproduction and pathogen resistance simultaneously. In this study we measure fertility, vitellogenin gene expression and protein levels after experimental manipulation of hormone levels. We use these measurements to investigate the mechanistic basis of endocrinological role remodelling in reproduction and determine how JH suppresses reproduction in this species, rather then stimulating it, like in the majority of insects. We find that JH likely inhibits three key aspects of reproduction both during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, including two previously unknown mechanisms. In addition, we document that juvenile hormone, as in the majority of insects, has retained some stimulatory function in regulating vitellogenin expression. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this complex regulatory architecture of reproduction in L. niger, which might enable the evolution of similar reproductive phenotypes by alternate regulatory pathways, and the surprising flexibility regulatory role of juvenile hormone in this process.

  17. Proceedings of the General Meeting of the American Towing Tank Conference (20th) Held at Hoboken, New Jersey on 2-4 August 1983. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Underwater Systems Center ............ 1207 7. "Data Analysis Techniques in Model Testing," J.T. Dillingham and J.H. Hoste, Offshore Technology...a score of full scale trials data on ships from a tug to the SS MANHATTAN , about 25 percent had sufficient quantity and quality of data to be...the corresponding SNAME (single prime) coefficients. 719-A Symbol Nondimensional Form Definition c C" c Flow velocity past rudder L on cnn al

  18. Protection Against Sarin-Induced Seizures in Rats by Direct Brain Microinjection of Scopolamine, Midazolam or MK-801

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER scopolamine , midazolam or MK-801 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Skovira, JW, McDonough, JH, Shih...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense ATTN: MCMR-CDR-P 3100 Ricketts Point Road Aberdeen Proving... Medical Research Institute Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD of Chemical Defense 21010-5400 ATTN: MCMR-CDZ-I 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT 3100 Ricketts

  19. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    et.) H. Schwieger and H. Dombrowski Fortschrlft-ßer. VDIZeiisthr., Series 1, No. 64 (1980) 76 PP, 1 table, 27 figs. Price, 49-OM. Surn- rnarwed...Schäuble, C.C 619 Schmidt. J.H 558 Schmidt, W.C 532 Schumann, U 544 Schut/enhofer, L.A 5C5 Schwartz, E 570 Schwieger . H 611 Scott, J 564 87 i

  20. How to Alleviate Jet Lag/The Chronobiotic Substances (Comment reduire les effects du decalage horaire: les substances chronobioktiques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    We performed a real world study on jet lag called "operation Pegasus" that confirmed the hastening effect of melatonin on resynchronisation in a...M, English J, Marks V, Arendt JH. Some effects of jet lag and their alleviation by melatonin . Ergonomics 1987; 30(9): 1379-1393. 16. Arendt J...phase-response curve. Chronobiology International 1992; 9:380-392. 19. Middleton B, Arendt J, Stone B. Complex effects of melatonin on human circadian

  1. PDF Modelling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    calculations are compared to the experimental data of Cabra et al. (2002). These studies: reveal the stabilization mechanism of these flames; show the...have been performed of the lifted hydrogen flames studied experimentally by Cabra et al. (2002). These two studies are based on the composition PDF...and ’P =1). Black: exact solution; Red: CPIM; Blue: RCCE. 7 REFERENCES Barlow, R.S. and J.H. Frank (1998). Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1087-1095. Cabra , R

  2. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    alcohol and other drug abuse , b) the results of this investigation will facilitate translating prazosin treatment to clinical implementation in the...Exp Res 36:594-603. Koob GF, Le Moal M. (1997) Drug abuse : hedonic homeostatic dys- regulation. Science 278:52-8. Krystal JH, Webb E, Grill on C et al...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse , Addiction, and Relapse

  3. RNAi-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function turns honeybee ( Apis mellifera) workers into extremely precocious foragers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco Antonio, David Santos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The switch from within-hive activities to foraging behavior is a major transition in the life cycle of a honeybee ( Apis mellifera) worker. A prominent regulatory role in this switch has long been attributed to juvenile hormone (JH), but recent evidence also points to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin as a major player in behavioral development. In the present study, we injected vitellogenin double-stranded RNA (dsVg) into newly emerged worker bees of Africanized genetic origin and introduced them together with controls into observation hives to record flight behavior. RNA interference-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function shifted the onset of long-duration flights (>10 min) to earlier in life (by 3 4 days) when compared with sham and untreated control bees. In fact, dsVg bees were observed conducting such flights extremely precociously, when only 3 days old. Short-duration flights (<10 min), which bees usually perform for orientation and cleaning, were not affected. Additionally, we found that the JH titer in dsVg bees collected after 7 days was not significantly different from the controls. The finding that depletion of the vitellogenin titer can drive young bees to become extremely precocious foragers could imply that vitellogenin is the primary switch signal. At this young age, downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity apparently had little effect on the JH titer. As this unexpected finding stands in contrast with previous results on the vitellogenin/JH interaction at a later age, when bees normally become foragers, we propose a three-step sequence in the constellation of physiological parameters underlying behavioral development.

  4. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    the results of the diffeomorphic transform implemented using ANTs, an open source software package. Particularly, the textures of warped image are...obtained by an affine transformation of the other. This indicates that we can partition two images into small parts and then register each small part...Physics of Medical Imaging , 83134U, 2012. • Chui, J.H., Pokrajac, D.D., Maidment, A.D.A., Bakic, P.R., “Roadmap for Efficient Parallelization of

  5. Comparisons of Exact Results for the Virtual Correction to Bremsstrahlung in Electron-Positron Annihilation at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, S. A.; Glosser, C.; Jadach, S.; Ward, B. F. L.

    2004-10-01

    We have compared the virtual corrections to single hard bremsstrahlung as calculated by S. Jadach, M. Melles, B.F.L. Ward and S.A. Yost to several other expressions. The most recent of these comparisons is to the leptonic tensor calculated by J.H. Kuhn and G. Rodrigo for radiative return. Agreement is found to within 10-5 or better as a fraction of the Born cross section for most of the range of photon energies.

  6. Development and Evaluation of Stereographic Display for Lung Cancer Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    image interpretation. REFERENCES 1. Greenlee RT, Murray T , Bolder S, et al. Cancer statistics, 2000. CA Cancer J Clin 2000; 50:7-33. 2. Ries... Shinde , Samaia Piracha, Kristin Foley, Carl R. Fuhrman, Betty E. Shindel, J . Ken Leader, Walter F. Good Department of Radiology, University of...Habbema JDF, Pedersen JH, et al. Lung cancer screening by low-dose spiral computed tomography. Eur Respir J 2001; 18:857-866. 4. Flehinger BJ, Kimmel M

  7. Duration of Red Blood Cell Storage Is Associated with Increased Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and in Hospital Mortality in Patients with Traumatic Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-22

    potential adverse effects of the storage lesion. Finally, study is needed in human subjects to determine if stored RBCs are able to perfuse the...brain oxygenation deficits in humans . Anesthesi- ology 2006, 104(5):911-920. 18. Vamvakas EC, Carven JH: Length of storage of transfused red cells and...Current issues relating to the transfusion of stored red blood cells. Vox sanguinis 2009, 96(2):93-103. 20. Park MS, Salinas J, Wade CE, Wang J, Martini W

  8. Nuclear Tubulin: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    above. 17 KEY RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS * The process by which [311-tubulin enters the nucleus of cells does not involve transportation into the nucleus...Stenoien, D., Resau, J.H., Copeland, N.G., and Jenkins,N.A. 1999. Direct interaction of microtubule-and actin-based transport motors. Nature. 397:267-270...intermediate filaments, and arrangement of golgi elements. J. Cell. Biol. 97:1476-1490. Wolfrum, U., and Schmitt, A. 2000. Rhodopsin transport in the membrane

  9. The Legacy of Ideology in Soviet Foreign Policy Toward the West.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    trained such urban guerrillas as I.R. Sanchez (better known as the Venezuelan born terrorist ’Carlos’) and Mohammed Boudia of the Popular Front for the...WYCKOFF UNCLASSIFIED N 33 Ih hmEDmh IIII1 II1 11"-.2-5 Hnl L4- 1111. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NAIlONOL NtJH AU (G| SIANDJARD’ l𔃺A A * 246

  10. Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    ADDRESS(ES) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), 901 North Stuart Street, Suite 303, Arlington, VA 22203-1821 10. SPONSOR...Analysis of Contaminated Sites (Sunahara, G., Renoux, A., Thellen, C., Gaudet, C. and Pilon, A. eds.). John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 2002, pp 45-60...Production Industry; ORNL-6202; Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN, 1986. Spanggord, R.J.; Mill , T.; Chou, T.W.; Smith, J.H.; Lee, S

  11. Platoon Readiness as a Function of Leadership, Platoon, and Company Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    1993) declared that the difference between a good unit and a bad unit is leadership. J.H. Dalton, Secretary of the Navy, added that trust in its...transactional leadership components noted earlier. The log data have been linked to independently obtained MLQ survey results for the components of...Correlations with Independent Criteria of Effectiveness In previous military research, transformational leadership as measured by subordinates’ ratings

  12. Operation Stavanger: Standing Up a Deployable Joint Headquarters for the NATO Response Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    pgs. 13-16. Sheehan, J.H., P.K. Deitz, B.E. Bray, B.S. Harris and A.B.H. Yong. 2003. "The Military Missions and Means Framework ," in Proc. of...Yakov Haimes of Systems and Information Engineering, Un. of VA 9 Co-author of seminal paper on an EBO-related topic: " Missions and Means Framework " (2003

  13. C2Hn Fragments on Metal Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-22

    Roald Hoffmann Prepared for Publication in I ID Physical Review Letters Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853...r6me Silvestre and Roald Hoffmann Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Center Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 Abstract: -The chemisorption...Bernhardt and H. Vahrenkamp, Anqew. Chem. 96, 139 (1984). 8. P.-K. Wang , C.P. Slichter and J.H. Sinfelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 81 (1984). 9. K.Y. Yu, W.E

  14. Atropine and Other Anticholinergic Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    compromise near- who first analyzed the pharmacology and toxicol- vision in the case of accidental use. Military re- ogy of tabun obtained from captured...Lipp JA and Dola TJ (1978). Effect of atropine upon 290-293. the cerebrovascular system during soman-induced NakajimaT.Ohta S. Morita H etal. (1997...sarin: Clinical manifes- Wills JH (1963). Pharmacological antagonists of the tations and treatment of accidental poisoning by anticholinesterase agents

  15. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    cells. Science 1994, 263(5146):526-529. 11. Li JH, Man YG: Dual usages of single Wilms ’ tumor 1 immunohistochemistry in evaluation of breast tumors : a...mammary tumor cells (MCF10ADCIS.com and HCC70 cell lines) directly through the intact mouse teat into the correct anatomical location for ductal...may be preferentially compromised by tumors formed in postpartum involuting mammary glands but maintained by pregnancy. Our murine mammary

  16. Viral Vectors for Use in the Development of Biodefense Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-17

    of foreign proteins, makes alphavirus replicon vectors ideal candidates for use as vaccine vectors [65,66]. Construction of chimeric alphaviruses ...inoculation. 3.1. Sindbis virus-vectored vaccines SINV is one of the least pathogenic alphaviruses for humans and belongs to the Old World Alphavirus group...1232–1238. [65] J.H. Strauss, E.G. Strauss, The alphaviruses : gene expres- sion, replication , and evolution, Microbiol. Rev. 58 (1994) 491–562. [66] S

  17. Prepare and Evaluate an Organizational Relocation Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    2 P.O. Box 4089 Lubbock , TX 79409 Dr. Charles Fritz National Academy of Sciences Dr. John W. Billheimer 1 Room JH 73 SYSTAN, Inc. 2101 Constitution...000-0 13 June 5, 1980 Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22314 Dear Sir : Enclosed please find a copy (or copies) of...Manager Boeing Aerospace Special Projects 4I I PREPARE AND EVALUATE AN ORGANIZATIONAL RELOCATION PLAN FINAL REPORT eo by John M. Miller h ’ I. James

  18. B cells play key roles in th2-type airway immune responses in mice exposed to natural airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Hara, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens. In addition to producing antibodies, B cells participate in immune responses via various mechanisms. The roles of B cells in allergic airway inflammation and asthma have been controversial. We examined the functional importance of B cells in a mouse model of asthma, in which mice were exposed repeatedly to common airborne allergens. Naïve wild-type BALB/c mice or B cell-deficient JH-/- mice were exposed intranasally to a cocktail of allergen extracts, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, and house dust mite, every other day for two weeks. Ovalbumin was included in the cocktail to monitor the T cell immune response. Airway inflammation, lung pathology, and airway reactivity were analyzed. The airway exposure of naïve wild type mice to airborne allergens induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the lung, and increased the reactivity to inhaled methacholine. These pathological changes and immune responses were attenuated in B cell-deficient JH-/- mice. The allergen-induced expansion of CD4+ T cells was impaired in the lungs and draining lymph nodes of JH-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphocytes from JH-/- mice failed to produce Th2 cytokines in response to ovalbumin re-stimulation in vitro. Our results suggest that B cells are required for the optimal development of Th2-type immune responses and airway inflammation when exposed to common airborne allergens. The therapeutic targeting of B cells may be beneficial to treat asthma in certain patients.

  19. Minutes: Accredited Standards Committee on Bioacoustics, S3. U.S. tag for ISO/TC 43, Acoustics, IEC/TC 29 Electroacoustics, and ISO/TC 108/SC4 Human Exposure to Mechanical VIbration and Shock. Meeting held in Denver, Colorado on October 7, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-07

    on NLSrs tecnical reviews, advice, and support, as it does now. The designated private sector organization would represent U.S. firms, either directly...Academy of Otolaryngology (Alternate) Head and Neck Surgery Naunton, R.F. American Otological Society, Inc. Nixon, C. U.S. Dept. of the Air Force Page, J...U.S. Dept. of the Navy, BUREAU OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY Patterson, J.H. U.S. Army Aeromedical Res. Lab. Rogin. C. Hearing Industries Association (HIA

  20. On Proton Bombardment of Silicon Semiconductors. Ionization vs Displacement Disablements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    the averago of the "di spiic ’mnt-effective" r ,ccoi I energ ites for such protons. We r ,fer to the product I 1 i spl ,-cem,’r( nt dam eaI f unction s...H LIB OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH "P. A: iATE ’( HOUL ATTN. CODE 1114 A~A -PA~’ Hi ABORATCiRr OPERATIONAL TEST & EVAt UATION FORCE T -0 JH ATTN C.’ODE