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Sample records for denshi jh tsshin

  1. JH & JH Properties, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    JH & JH Properties, LLC (the Company) is located in Fargo, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Fargo, North Dakota.

  2. Coordinated changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. A decrease in JH titer during the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa once again synthesizes JH, which plays an essential role in orchestrating reproductive maturation. In spite of the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector, a detailed study of the changes of JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle has never been performed. In the present studies, using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FD) method, we measured changes in JH levels in the hemolymph of female mosquitoes during the pupal and adult stages. Our results revealed tightly concomitant changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle of female mosquito. Feeding high sugar diets resulted in an increase of JH titers, and mating also modified JH titers in hemolymph. In addition these studies confirmed that JH titer in mosquitoes is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the CA.

  3. Evaluation of Differences in Automated QT/QTc Measurements between Fukuda Denshi and Nihon Koden Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Motoaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Takatsuki, Seiji; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Automatic measurement becomes a preference, and indeed a necessity, when analyzing 1000 s of ECGs in the setting of either drug-inducing QT prolongation screening or genome-wide association studies of QT interval. The problem is that individual manufacturers apply different computerized algorithms to measure QT interval. We conducted a comparative study to assess the outcomes with different automated measurements of QT interval between ECG machine manufacturers and validated the related heart rate correction methods. Methods and Results Herein, we directly compared these different commercial systems using 10,529 Fukuda Denshi ECGs and 72,754 Nihon Kohden ECGs taken in healthy Japanese volunteers. Log-transformed data revealed an equal optimal heart rate correction formula of QT interval for Fukuda Denshi and Nihon Kohden, in the form of QTc = QT/RR−0.347. However, with the raw data, the optimal heart rate correction formula of QT interval was in the form of QTc = QT+0.156×(1-RR) for Fukuda Denshi and QTc = QT+0.152×(1-RR) for Nihon Kohden. After optimization of heart rate correction of QT interval by the linear regression model using either log-transformed data or raw data, QTc interval was ∼10 ms longer in Nihon Kohden ECGs than in those recorded on Fukuda Denshi machines. Indeed, regression analysis revealed that differences in the ECG machine used had up to a two-fold larger impact on QT variation than gender difference. Such an impact is likely to be of considerable importance when ECGs for a given individual are recorded on different machines in the setting of multi-institutional joint research. Conclusions We recommend that ECG machines of the same manufacturer should be used to measure QT and RR intervals in the setting of multi-institutional joint research. It is desirable to unify the computer algorithm for automatic QT and RR measurements from an ECG. PMID:25229724

  4. Juvenile Hormone (JH) Esterase of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Is Not a Target of the JH Analog Insecticide Methoprene

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Samra, Aman I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Cornel, Anthony J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are essential sesquiterpenes that control insect development and reproduction. JH analog (JHA) insecticides such as methoprene are compounds that mimic the structure and/or biological activity of JH. In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, cqjhe, from the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that encodes CqJHE, an esterase that selectively metabolizes JH. Unlike other recombinant esterases that have been identified from dipteran insects, CqJHE hydrolyzed JH with specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) and Vmax values that are common among JH esterases (JHEs). CqJHE showed picomolar sensitivity to OTFP, a JHE-selective inhibitor, but more than 1000-fold lower sensitivity to DFP, a general esterase inhibitor. To our surprise, CqJHE did not metabolize the isopropyl ester of methoprene even when 25 pmol of methoprene was incubated with an amount of CqJHE that was sufficient to hydrolyze 7,200 pmol of JH to JH acid under the same assay conditions. In competition assays in which both JH and methoprene were available to CqJHE, methoprene did not show any inhibitory effects on the JH hydrolysis rate even when methoprene was present in the assay at a 10-fold higher concentration relative to JH. Our findings indicated that JHE is not a molecular target of methoprene. Our findings also do not support the hypothesis that methoprene functions in part by inhibiting the action of JHE. PMID:22174797

  5. Juvenile hormone (JH) esterase of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is not a target of the JH analog insecticide methoprene.

    PubMed

    Kamita, Shizuo G; Samra, Aman I; Liu, Jun-Yan; Cornel, Anthony J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are essential sesquiterpenes that control insect development and reproduction. JH analog (JHA) insecticides such as methoprene are compounds that mimic the structure and/or biological activity of JH. In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, cqjhe, from the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that encodes CqJHE, an esterase that selectively metabolizes JH. Unlike other recombinant esterases that have been identified from dipteran insects, CqJHE hydrolyzed JH with specificity constant (k(cat)/K(M) ratio) and V(max) values that are common among JH esterases (JHEs). CqJHE showed picomolar sensitivity to OTFP, a JHE-selective inhibitor, but more than 1000-fold lower sensitivity to DFP, a general esterase inhibitor. To our surprise, CqJHE did not metabolize the isopropyl ester of methoprene even when 25 pmol of methoprene was incubated with an amount of CqJHE that was sufficient to hydrolyze 7,200 pmol of JH to JH acid under the same assay conditions. In competition assays in which both JH and methoprene were available to CqJHE, methoprene did not show any inhibitory effects on the JH hydrolysis rate even when methoprene was present in the assay at a 10-fold higher concentration relative to JH. Our findings indicated that JHE is not a molecular target of methoprene. Our findings also do not support the hypothesis that methoprene functions in part by inhibiting the action of JHE.

  6. The juvenile hormone (JH) epoxide hydrolase gene in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome encodes a protein which has negligible participation in JH degradation.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Aline; Hartfelder, Klaus; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2010-09-01

    Epoxide hydrolases are multifunctional enzymes that are best known in insects for their role in juvenile hormone (JH) degradation. Enzymes involved in JH catabolism can play major roles during metamorphosis and reproduction, such as the JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), which degrades JH through hydration of the epoxide moiety to form JH diol, and JH esterase (JHE), which hydrolyzes the methyl ester to produce JH acid. In the honey bee, JH has been co-opted for additional functions, mainly in caste differentiation and in age-related behavioral development of workers, where the activity of both enzymes could be important for JH titer regulation. Similarity searches for jheh candidate genes in the honey bee genome revealed a single Amjheh gene. Sequence analysis, quantification of Amjheh transcript levels and Western blot assays using an AmJHEH-specific antibody generated during this study revealed that the AmJHEH found in the fat body shares features with the microsomal JHEHs from several insect species. Using a partition assay we demonstrated that AmJHEH has a negligible role in JH degradation, which, in the honey bee, is thus performed primarily by JHE. High AmJHEH levels in larvae and adults were related to the ingestion of high loads of lipids, suggesting that AmJHEH has a role in dietary lipid catabolism.

  7. Characterization and purification of the Drosophila Kc cell JH binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiuhua.

    1989-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is one of the principal regulators of insect development. First, physical properties of the JH binding protein are characterized using a photoaffinity ligand ({sup 3}H)-EFDA. Second, ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is employed as labeled to examined the behavior of the JH binding protein in several protein separation procedures. The properties of heparin-agarose, hydroxylapatite, gel filtration, ion exchange, and chromatofocusing chromatography are examined for their ability to affect separation of the JH binding protein from other components of Kc cell cytosol. Third, several of the separation procedures are linked sequentially into a JH binding protein purification scheme and the procedure is shown to purify the JH binding protein to homogeneity. Fourth, competition study is carried out to demonstrate the protein purified using ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is JH competable. In addition, JH III, the naturally occurring hormone, is used as the radioligand in this purification procedure, the authenticity of the intracellar JH binding protein is reassured. Fifth, the amino acid composition of the JH binding protein is elucidated. Finally, nanomoles of the purified JH binding protein are collected for protein microsequencing. The sequencing data will be used to synthesize peptide which, in turn, will be used for JH binding protein antibody production.

  8. Identification and characterization of a juvenile hormone (JH) response region in the JH esterase gene from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Kethidi, Damodar R; Perera, Srini C; Zheng, S; Feng, Qi-Li; Krell, Peter; Retnakaran, Arthur; Palli, Subba R

    2004-05-07

    Using a differential display of mRNA technique we discovered that the juvenile hormone (JH) esterase gene (Cfjhe) from Choristoneura fumiferana is directly induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I), and the JH I induction is suppressed by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). To study the mechanism of action of these two hormones in the regulation of expression of this gene, we cloned the 1270-bp promoter region of the Cfjhe gene and identified a 30-bp region that is located between -604 and -574 and is sufficient to support both JH I induction and 20E suppression. This 30-bp region contains two conserved hormone response element half-sites separated by a 4-nucleotide spacer similar to the direct repeat 4 element and is designated as a putative juvenile hormone response element (JHRE). In CF-203 cells, a luciferase reporter placed under the control of JHRE and a minimal promoter was induced by JH I in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, 20E suppressed this JH I-induced luciferase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nuclear proteins isolated from JH I-treated CF-203 cells bound to JHRE and the binding was competed by a 100-fold excess of the cold probe but not by 100-fold excess of double-stranded oligonucleotides of unrelated sequence. JH I induced/modified nuclear proteins prior to their binding to JHRE and 20E suppressed this JH I induction/modification. These results suggest that the 30-bp JHRE identified in the Cfjhe gene promoter is sufficient to support JH induction and 20E suppression of the Cfjhe gene.

  9. JH modulates a cellular immunity of Tribolium castaneum in a Met-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Hepat, Rahul; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates diverse physiological processes in insects during entire developmental stages. Especially, the identification of Methoprene-tolerant (Met), a JH nuclear receptor, allows us to better understand molecular actions of JH to control gene expressions related with metamorphosis. However, several physiological processes including cellular immune response and some molecular actions of JH have been suspected to be mediated via its non-genomic actions. To prove its non-genomic action, JH nuclear signals were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) of Met or its downstream gene, Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. These RNAi-treated larvae failed to undergo a normal development and suffered precocious metamorphosis. Hemocytes of T. castaneum exhibited their spreading behavior on extracellular matrix and nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. When the larvae were treated with either RNAi of Met or Kr-h1, the hemocytes of the treated larvae were responsive to JH without any significant difference with those of control larvae. These results suggest that the response of hemocytes to JH is not mediated by its nuclear signal. On the other hand, the JH modulation of hemocyte behaviors of T. castaneum was significantly influenced by membrane and cytosolic protein activities, in which ethoxyzolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase), calphostin C (a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C) or ouabain (a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase) significantly suppressed the responsiveness of hemocytes to JH.

  10. Nutritional regulation of JH synthesis: a mechanism to control reproductive maturation in mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Noriega, Fernando G

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) titers must be modulated to permit the normal progress of development and reproduction in mosquitoes. In adult female Aedes aegypti, JH levels are low at adult eclosion, elevated in sugar-fed females and low again after a blood meal. Although degradation plays a role, JH titer is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the corpora allata gland (CA). CA from newly eclosed females (0-1 h after emergence) exhibit a very low basal JH biosynthetic activity, Aedes-allatotropin stimulates the CA in newly emerged females to produce JH. There is a correlation between nutritional reserves at adult emergence (teneral reserves) and CA activity. JH synthesis is significantly reduced in teneral females that emerge with low nutritional reserves. Taking a blood meal results in a reduction of CA activity. The biosynthetic activity of Ae. aegypti CA is significantly inhibited by factors present in the head, as well as by Anopheles gambiae PISCF-allatostatin. Nutritional signals affect the release of allatotropin and allatostatins by the brain resulting in the activation or inhibition of JH synthesis. JH is therefore an important part of a transduction mechanism that connects changes in the nutritional status with activation of specific physiological events during reproduction.

  11. Overexpression of Drosophila juvenile hormone esterase binding protein results in anti-JH effects and reduced pheromone abundance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The titer of juvenile hormone (JH), which has wide ranging physiological effects in insects, is regulated in part by JH esterase (JHE). We show that overexpression in Drosophila melanogaster of the JHE binding protein, DmP29 results in a series of apparent anti-JH effects. We hypothesize that DmP29 ...

  12. Structural and Functional Characterization of the JH2 Pseudokinase Domain of JAK Family Tyrosine Kinase 2 (TYK2).

    PubMed

    Min, Xiaoshan; Ungureanu, Daniela; Maxwell, Sarah; Hammarén, Henrik; Thibault, Steve; Hillert, Ellin-Kristina; Ayres, Merrill; Greenfield, Brad; Eksterowicz, John; Gabel, Chris; Walker, Nigel; Silvennoinen, Olli; Wang, Zhulun

    2015-11-06

    JAK (Janus family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases) family tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) participates in signaling through cytokine receptors involved in immune responses and inflammation. JAKs are characterized by dual kinase domain: a tyrosine kinase domain (JH1) that is preceded by a pseudokinase domain (JH2). The majority of disease-associated mutations in JAKs map to JH2, demonstrating its central regulatory function. JH2s were considered catalytically inactive, but JAK2 JH2 was found to have low autoregulatory catalytic activity. Whether the other JAK JH2s share ATP binding and enzymatic activity has been unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of TYK2 JH2 in complex with adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATP-γS) and characterize its nucleotide binding by biochemical and biophysical methods. TYK2 JH2 did not show phosphotransfer activity, but it binds ATP and the nucleotide binding stabilizes the protein without inducing major conformational changes. Mutation of the JH2 ATP-binding pocket increased basal TYK2 phosphorylation and downstream signaling. The overall structural characteristics of TYK2 JH2 resemble JAK2 JH2, but distinct stabilizing molecular interactions around helix αAL in the activation loop provide a structural basis for differences in substrate access and catalytic activities among JAK family JH2s. The structural and biochemical data suggest that ATP binding is functionally important for both TYK2 and JAK2 JH2s, whereas the regulatory phosphorylation appears to be a unique property of JAK2. Finally, the co-crystal structure of TYK2 JH2 complexed with a small molecule inhibitor demonstrates that JH2 is accessible to ATP-competitive compounds, which offers novel approaches for targeting cytokine signaling as well as potential therapeutic applications. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  14. Insights into tidal disruption of stars from PS1-10jh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda E.; Murray, Norman

    2015-12-01

    Was PS1-10jh, an optical/ultraviolet transient discovered by the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey, the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole (BH)? We address two aspects of the problem: the composition of the putative disrupted object (using the spectroscopic data), and the energetics of the observed gas and radiation (using the photometric data). We perform photoionization calculations and compare with the observed lower limit of the line ratio L_{He II 4686}/L_{Hα }>5 to argue that this event was not the disruption of a solar-type star, and instead was likely the disruption of a helium core (as first proposed by Gezari et al.). Disruption of such a dense object requires a relatively small central BH, MBH ≲ 2 × 105 M⊙. We use the photometric data to infer that PS1-10jh comprised an outflow of ˜0.01 M⊙ of gas, escaping from the BH at ˜1000 km s-1, and we propose that this outflow was driven primarily by radiation pressure trapped by Thomson and resonance line scattering. The large ratio of radiated energy to kinetic energy, Erad/EK ˜ 104, together with the large value of Erad ˜ 2 × 1051 erg, suggests that the outflow was shocked at large radius (perhaps similar to superluminous supernovae or the internal shock model for gamma-ray bursts). We describe puzzles in the physics of PS1-10jh, and discuss how this event may help us understand future tidal disruptions and super-Eddington accretion events as well.

  15. Prevalence of BCL-2/J(H) Translocation in Healthy African Americans.

    PubMed

    Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Greg J; Braggio, Esteban; Albertie, Monica L; Weis, Jennifer A; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Cerhan, James R; Vishnu, Prakash; Jorgensen, Matthew S; Foran, James M; Thomas, Colleen S; Fonseca, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) (BCL-2/J(H)) is present in over 80 % of all follicular lymphomas and is detectable in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of healthy individuals. The prevalence of this translocation has not been studied in African Americans (AAs). Given the higher incidence of follicular lymphomas in whites compared to AAs in the United States (USA), we hypothesized that the translocation prevalence in the blood of AAs would be lower. DNA was isolated from PBL from blood samples collected from participants from FL. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on the BCL-2/J(H) major (MBC) and minor breakpoint cluster (mBC) regions. Eight of the 77 (10.4 %) blood samples from AA participants were positive for MBC (95 % CI, 4.6-19.5 %), and three (3.9 %) were positive for mBC (95 % CI, 0.81-10.97 %) of BCL-2/J(H), with a total of 11 (14.3 %) participants with positive samples (95 % CI, 7.35-24.13 %). In 167 white patient samples, 22 (13.2 %; 95 % CI, 8.44-19.26 %) were positive for MBC, and five (3.0 %; 95 % CI, 0.98-6.85 %) were positive for mBC, with a total of 25 (15 %) participants with positive samples (CI, 9.93-21.30 %). The prevalence of t(14;18)(q32;q21) is not significantly different among AAs and whites from the USA. The lower prevalence of follicular lymphomas in AAs compared with whites is likely a result of differences in secondary molecular alterations involved in follicular lymphoma development. This study is the first report of prevalence of t(14;18) in an AA cohort.

  16. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly <3 Lu (less of 5 ×10-5 m 3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14-22 Lu (2.3 ×10-4-3.6 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to

  17. Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens JH146(T) isolated from the basalt subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Tae; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Stewart, Lucy C; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens JH146(T) is a hyperthermophilic and obligate hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from low-temperature (26 °C) hydrothermal vent fluid at Axial Seamount in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It is most closely related to the N2-fixing methanogen Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22; however, they differ in that JH146 cannot fix N2 or reductively assimilate nitrate. In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of strain JH146(T) (1,607,556 bp) with its 1635 protein coding genes, and 41 RNA genes. Our analysis focuses on its methane production via the acetyl-CoA pathway and its deleted gene clusters related to nitrogen assimilation. This study extends our understanding of methanogenesis at high temperatures and the impact of these organisms on the biogeochemistry of subseafloor hydrothermal environments and the deep sea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid Simultaneous Amplification and Detection of the MBR/JH Chromosomal Translocation by Fluorescence Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bohling, Sandra D.; King, Thomas C.; Wittwer, Carl T.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and product analysis for the detection of chromosomal translocations, such as the t(14;18), has traditionally been a two-step process. PCR product detection has generally entailed gel electrophoresis and/or hybridization or sequencing for confirmation of assay specificity. Using a microvolume fluorimeter integrated with a thermal cycler and a PCR-compatible double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding fluorescent dye (SYBR Green I), we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous thermal amplification and detection of MBR/JH translocation products by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We analyzed DNA from 30 cases of lymphoproliferative disorders comprising 19 cases of previously documented MBR/JH-positive follicle center lymphoma and 11 reactive lymphadenopathies. The samples were coded and analyzed blindly for the presence of MBR/JH translocations by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We also performed dilutional assays using the MBR/JH-positive cell line SUDHL-6. Multiplex PCR for MBR/JH and β-globin was used to simultaneously assess sample adequacy. All (100%) of the 19 cases previously determined to be MBR/JH positive by conventional PCR analysis showed a characteristic sharp decrease in fluorescence at ∼90°C by melting curve analysis after amplification. Fluorescence melting peaks obtained by plotting the negative derivative of fluorescence over temperature (−dF/dT) versus temperature (T) showed melting temperatures (Tm) at 88.85 ± 1.15°C. In addition, multiplex assays using both MBR/JH and β-globin primers yielded easily distinguishable fluorescence melting peaks at ∼90°C and 81.2°C, respectively. Dilutional assays revealed that fluorescence melting curve analysis was more sensitive than conventional PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis with ultraviolet transillumination by as much as 100-fold. Simultaneous amplification and fluorescence melting curve analysis is a simple, reliable, and sensitive method

  19. RNA interference with the allatoregulating neuropeptide genes from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and its effects on the JH titer in the hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Griebler, Manuela; Westerlund, Stephanie A; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Meyering-Vos, Martina

    2008-06-01

    The juvenile hormone (JH) titer was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Three JH homologs, the JH I-III were detected in various amounts in larvae, prepupae and virgin adult females of Spodoptera frugiperda. In penultimate larvae, the JH II and III titers were relatively high, but decreased continuously during the 3 days of that stage, whereas JH I was detectable at low amounts only on the first 2 days. At the beginning of the last larval stage almost no JH could be detected but thereafter, a consistent low amount of JH III was present until the prepupal stage. In adult virgins, the JH titer peaked on the 2nd and 6th day after the imaginal molt. The measured hormone titers well agree with general lepidopteran physiology, because in larvae the JH titer should be high to prevent premature metamorphosis, but decrease in last instar larvae before pupation, whereas in adults JH returns to control various aspects of reproduction. JH biosynthesis is thought to be the main factor influencing the JH titer in the hemolymph and there is evidence that neuropeptides either act stimulatory (allatotropins) or inhibitory (allatostatins) on this process. After silencing of either the allatostatin AS-C-type (Spofr/Manse-AS) or the allatotropin AT 2 (Spofr-AT 2) gene the transcript level was reduced in brain and gut of last instar larvae as well as of adult S. frugiperda. This suppression led to an increased JH titer in larvae, suggesting an allatostatic activity of both the peptides in this stage. As a result of the elevated hormone titer, the last larval stage was prolonged. In prepupae, the JH titer was decreased, but the animals pupated and molted normally. In adult female virgin moths the effect on the JH titer was inversely dependent on the age of the moths and varied among the JH homologs, indicating that the peptides act either allatostatic or allatotropic. For both peptides, gene silencing clearly reduced the

  20. IAA production by Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 promotes Indian mustard growth in the presence of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Kim, Jin-Won; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sp. strain JH 2-2, isolated from the rhizosphere of plants at a multi-metal contaminated mine site, has the potential to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and promote plant growth by reducing Cr toxicity and producing IAA. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cr(VI) to Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 was 1000 mg L(-1) and the strain reduced 99% of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) to Cr(IV) within 24 h. Lower Cr(VI) stress (10 mg L(-1) ) stimulated IAA production, but much less IAA was produced at 30 or 50 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) . Inoculation with Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 increased the length of Brassica juncea L. roots by 364% and stems by 735% in the presence of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) from those of uninoculated control plants. These findings suggest potential use of Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 to promote phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Cr(VI).

  1. Quantitative PCR detection of t(14;18) bcl-2/JH fusion sequences in follicular lymphoma patients: comparison of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate samples.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Alex; Jones, Dan; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi

    2004-11-01

    In patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), it is unresolved whether peripheral blood (PB) can replace bone marrow (BM) aspirate samples for detection of bcl-2/JH fusion sequences that result from the t(14;18)(q32;q21). We compare here the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) analysis for bcl-2/JH involving the major breakpoint cluster region (mbr) on paired PB and BM aspirate samples from 60 consecutive FL patients. There was a significant correlation between the level of bcl-2/JH fusion sequence obtained from PB and BM aspirate samples (r = 0.886), with 82% of samples showing less than one log of difference. Patients who had histological evidence of FL involving concurrent BM biopsy specimens had moderate to high levels of bcl-2/JH in both PB and BM aspirate samples, allowing unequivocal determination of translocation status (median bcl-2/JH to cyclophilin level was 8.014%). In contrast, patients with no detectable FL in their BM biopsy specimens often showed low levels of bcl-2/JH in both PB and BM aspirate samples (bcl-2/JH to cyclophilin median level = 0.006%), in a range similar to background levels that could be detected in patients without FL (n = 15, median bcl-2 mbr/JH to cyclophilin level = 0.002%). We conclude that PB can be used in place of BM aspirate samples to test for the presence of bcl-2 mbr/JH fusion sequence in FL patients and that either PB or BM aspirate testing yields a rough approximation of the degree of BM involvement by FL. However, in patients with minimal levels of bcl-2/JH in PB or BM aspirate samples, confirmation of this result by testing the primary tumor is recommended to confirm the presence of an identical bcl-2/JH fusion sequence and exclude false-positive results.

  2. JH and K-band spectra of three SU UMa-type Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, R.; Sekiguchi, K.; Maehara, H.

    2007-08-01

    We present the results of JH and K-band spectroscopy on three SU UMa-type dwarf novae with orbital periods of 1.33 ~1.37 hr. We performed the SED fitting for the obtained spectra by assuming a power law distribution for the accretion disk and using template spectra of late-type dwarfs for secondary star. ASAS 002511+1217.2 and EQ J183926+260409 are WZ Sge-type or WX Cet-type dwarf novae. We found strong water absorption features in their spectra, which are characteristic in late M- or L-type dwarfs. The SED fitting suggests that their secondary contributions to the overall SED are less than one third. We identified the secondary stars as M9 and L1 type dwarfs, which are rather less massive but still normal stars. The spectrum of SDSS J013701-091235 is dominated by the secondary component. Spectral features of this object are similar to those of an early M-type dwarf in spite of its short orbital period. The spectrum of SDSS0137 strongly suggests that the evolutionary path of this object is different from that of ordinary CVs, and this object is a candidate of EI Psc-like systems.

  3. Analysis and comparison of the mouse and human immunoglobulin heavy chain JH-Cmu-Cdelta locus.

    PubMed

    Koop, B F; Richards, J E; Durfee, T D; Bansberg, J; Wells, J; Gilliam, A C; Chen, H L; Clausell, A; Tucker, P W; Blattner, F R

    1996-02-01

    We report here 23,686 bases of contiguous DNA sequences from the mouse germline immunoglobulin heavy chain (H) constant (C) mu delta region. The sequence spans the joining (JH) regions, the mu constant region (C mu), the delta constant region (C delta) coding regions, a domain relic, the mu switch region (S mu), seven blocks of simple sequence repeats, a large unique sequence inverted repeat, a large unique sequence forward repeat, and all of the intervening material. A comparison of this 23.7-kb region with the corresponding human C mu/C delta region reveals clear homology in the coding and introns of C mu but not in the 5' flanking J gene segments nor in the intergenic and C delta regions. This mixed pattern of similarity between the human and the mouse sequences contrasts with high levels of similarity found in the T-cell receptor C alpha/C delta region and alpha and beta myosin genes and the very low levels found in the gamma-crystallin, XRCC1, and beta-globin gene clusters. The human and mouse comparison further suggests the incorporation of novel sequences into expressed genes of IgD.

  4. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  5. Modulation of calcium carbonate precipitation by exopolysaccharide in Bacillus sp. JH7.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Bora; Lee, Yun Suk; Park, Woojun

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is proposed to facilitate calcium ion supersaturation through its nucleation effect during the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. However, the supersaturation effect of Ca(2+) via EPS in MICP has not been clearly demonstrated. Enhanced exopolysaccharide production of the alkali- and halotolerant MICP-capable bacteria, Bacillus sp. JH7, was achieved through glycerol addition. This was demonstrated by measuring cellular precipitation and Congo red binding. Interestingly, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis demonstrated that there was no MICP under glycerol-amended conditions. Although glycerol promoted exopolysaccharide capture of Ca(2+) ions, Ca(2+) embedded onto EPS did not participate in MICP formation. The pH was reduced in glycerol-added media, which led us to analyze high acetate production under our test conditions. Purified glycerol-induced exopolysaccharide showed a higher capacity of Ca(2+) capture than the control. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that three genes involved in exopolysaccharide production were highly upregulated by glycerol. The amounts of three detected monosaccharides (arabinose, glucose, and mannose) were altered by glycerol. Cell hydrophobicity measurements indicated that glycerol could confer more hydrophilic characteristics to cells, which might enhance Ca(2+) binding onto EPS. Unexpectedly, our data demonstrated, for the first time, that glycerol could promote exopolysaccharide and acetate production under our test condition, which could inhibit MICP by reducing the availability of free Ca(2+).

  6. Deep JH Imaging of the LITTLE THINGS Galaxies: Stellar Mass Assembly in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre; Herrmann, Kim; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2011-02-01

    We propose to obtain deep broadband JH images for 6 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIm) which are part of a larger sample assembled by the LITTLE THINGS project (a VLA Large Proposal). Using the NIR data requested here and other multi-band data we have collected, we will, for the first time, construct high-quality spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the whole spectral range of stellar emission for a representative sample of dIm galaxies. dIm galaxies numerically dominate the local Universe, yet our understanding of the star formation processes in dIm galaxies is very poor. For example, the star formation rate profile often correlates closely with the stellar surface brightness profile of the older stars, but not with the gas, and we do not know why. Also, abrupt changes in the slope of the stellar exponential profile imply a change in the star formation process at the surface brightness breaks according to some models, but this has not been shown observationally. With the SEDs constructed as a function of radius within each galaxy and our stellar population synthesis technique, we will answer the questions: 1) How is the stellar mass across the disks assembled throughout the lifetime of dwarf irregular galaxies? 2) Are there corresponding surface mass density breaks at the surface brightness breaks seen in many dIm galaxies? And is there any difference in the stellar populations before and beyond the surface brightness breaks?

  7. Deep JH Imaging of the LITTLE THINGS Galaxies: Stellar Mass Assembly in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre; Herrmann, Kim; Little Things Team

    2011-08-01

    We propose to obtain deep broadband JH images for 2 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIm) which are part of a larger sample assembled by the LITTLE THINGS project (a VLA Large Proposal). Using the NIR data requested here and other multi-band data we have collected, we will, for the first time, construct high-quality spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the whole spectral range of stellar emission for a representative sample of dIm galaxies. dIm galaxies numerically dominate the local universe, yet our understanding of the star formation processes in dIm galaxies is very poor. For example, the star formation rate profile often correlates closely with the stellar surface brightness profile of the older stars, but not with the gas, and we do not know why. Also, abrupt changes in the slope of the stellar exponential profile imply a change in the star formation process at the surface brightness breaks according to some models, but this has not been shown observationally. With the SEDs constructed as a function of radius within each galaxy and our stellar population synthesis technique, we will answer the questions: 1) How is the stellar mass across the disks assembled throughout the lifetime of dwarf irregular galaxies? 2) Are there corresponding surface mass density breaks at the surface brightness breaks seen in many dIm galaxies? 3) Is there any difference in the stellar populations before and beyond the surface brightness breaks?

  8. Mutation in the Jak kinase JH2 domain hyperactivates Drosophila and mammalian Jak-Stat pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, H; Rose, P; Barber, D; Hanratty, W P; Lee, S; Roberts, T M; D'Andrea, A D; Dearolf, C R

    1997-01-01

    The Jak (Janus) family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases plays a critical role in cytokine signal transduction pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, the dominant hop(Tum-l) mutation in the Hop Jak kinase causes leukemia-like and other developmental defects. Previous studies have suggested that the Hop(Tum-l) protein might be a hyperactive kinase. Here, we report on the new dominant mutation hop(T42), which causes abnormalities that are similar to but more extreme than those caused by hop(Tum-l). We determined that Hop(T42) contains a glutamic acid-to-lysine substitution at amino acid residue 695 (E695K). This residue occurs in the JH2 (kinase-like) domain and is conserved among all Jak family members. We determined that Hop(Tum-1) and Hop(T42) both hyperphosphorylated and hyperactivated D-Stat when overexpressed in Drosophila cells. Moreover, we found that the hop(T42) phenotype was partially rescued by a reduction of wild-type D-stat activity. Finally, generation of the corresponding E695K mutation in murine Jak2 resulted in increased autophosphorylation and increased activation of Stat5 in COS cells. These results demonstrate that the mutant Hop proteins do indeed have increased tyrosine kinase activity, that the mutations hyperactivate the Hop-D-Stat pathway, and that Drosophila is a relevant system for the functional dissection of mammalian Jak-Stat pathways. Finally, we propose a model for the role of the Hop-D-Stat pathway in Drosophila hematopoiesis. PMID:9032284

  9. Salivaricin E and abundant dextranase activity may contribute to the anti-cariogenic potential of the probiotic candidate Streptococcus salivarius JH.

    PubMed

    Walker, Glenn V; Heng, Nicholas C K; Carne, Alan; Tagg, John R; Wescombe, Philip A

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that is continuing to increase in prevalence, reducing the quality of life for millions worldwide as well as causing considerable expense, with an estimated US$108 billion spent on dental care in the USA each year. Oral probiotics are now being investigated to determine whether they could play a role in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Streptococcus salivarius strain JH is a potential probiotic candidate that produces multiple proteinaceous antimicrobials (bacteriocins), the inhibitory spectrum of which includes Streptococcus mutans, one of the principal causative agents of dental caries. The genome of strain JH has previously been shown to contain the biosynthetic loci for the bacteriocins salivaricin A3, streptin and streptococcin SA-FF22. Here we show that strain JH also produces salivaricin E, a 32 aa lantibiotic with a mass of 3565.9 Da, which is responsible for the inhibition of S. mutans growth. In addition, strain JH was shown to produce dextranase, an enzyme that hydrolyses (1 → 6)-α-D-glucosidic linkages, at levels higher than any other S. salivarius tested. In vitro testing showed that partial hydrolysis of the exopolymeric substances of S. mutans, using strain JH dextranase, improved the anti-S. mutans inhibitory activity of the lytic bacteriocin, zoocin A. The multiple bacteriocin and dextranase activities of strain JH support its candidature for development as an oral probiotic.

  10. The homeodomain protein PBX participates in JH-related suppressive regulation on the expression of major plasma protein genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Naoki; Kishimoto, Atsuhiro; Asano, Tsunaki; Izumi, Susumu

    2005-03-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, major plasma proteins referred to as 30K proteins are the most abundant proteins in the hemolymph of final (fifth) instar larvae. Surgical extirpation of corpora allata, the source of a juvenile hormone (JH), causes rapid accumulation of 30K proteins in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae. The 30K protein 6G1 (30K6G1) gene was repressed in primary cultured fat body cells treated with a JH analog (JHA), methoprene. To identify the JH response element present in the promoter region of the 30K6G1 gene, we performed transfection analyses of the 5'-deletion mutants of the 30K6G1 gene using primary cultured fat body cells, gel retardation assays and in vivo footprinting analysis. The results from those analyses revealed that a JH response element exists in the sequence between positions -147 and -140. When the promoter construct mutated at positions -143, -142, and -141 was transfected to fat body primary cultured cells, the suppression effect on the reporter gene expression caused by JHA was reduced. Gel retardation assay using specific antibody revealed that a PBX protein binds to the JH response element. Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene expression of Bombyx PBX is enhanced in the fat body cells by JHA treatment. These results indicate that PBX proteins are involved in the JH signaling pathway and play an important role in suppressing 30K protein gene expression in the fat body of B. mori.

  11. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  12. Competitive inhibition of an energy-dependent nickel transport system by divalent cations in Bradyrhizobium japonicum JH

    SciTech Connect

    Changlin Fu; Maier, R.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Both nickel-specific transport and nickel transport by a magnesium transporter have been described previously for a variety of nickel-utilizing bacteria. The derepression of hydrogenase activity in Bradyrhizobium japonicum JH and in a gene-directed mutant of strain JH (in an intracellular Ni metabolism locus), strain JHK7, was inhibited by MgSO{sub 4}. For both strains, Ni{sup 2+} uptake was also markedly inhibited by Mg{sup 2+}, and the Mg{sup 2+}-mediated inhibition could be overcome by high levels of Ni{sup 2+} provided in the assay buffer. The results indicate that both B. japonicum strains transport Ni{sup 2+} via a high-affinity magnesium transport system. Dixon plots (1/V versus inhibitor) showed that the divalent cations Co{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}, like Mg{sup 2+}, were competitive inhibitors of Ni{sup 2+} uptake, The K{sub i}s for nickel uptake inhibition by Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} were 48, 22, 12, and 8 {mu}M, respectively. Cu{sup 2+} strongly inhibited Ni{sup 2+} uptake, and molybdate inhibited it slightly. Respiratory inhibitors cyanide and azide, the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, the ATPase inhibitor N, N{prime}-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and ionospheres nigericin and valinomycin significantly inhibited short-term (5 min) Ni{sup 2+} uptake, showing that Ni{sup 2+} uptake in strain JH is energy dependent. Most of these conclusions are quite different from those reported previously for a different B. japonicum strain belonging to a different serogroup.

  13. Juvenile hormone titers in virgin and mated Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana females: assessment of the capacity of males to produce and transfer JH to the female during copulation.

    PubMed

    Cusson, M; Delisle, J; Miller, D

    1999-07-01

    We used a radioimmunoassay (RIA) to assess the effect of mating on juvenile hormone (JH) titer in females of the tortricid moths Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana. Virgins had undetectable levels of JH in their hemolymph on the 5th day of the pupal stage but titers rose to 1-4 and 0.2-0.5 ng JH II eq./ml, respectively, after emergence. On days 1, 3 and 5 following copulation, females of both species had higher JH titers than virgins of the same ages, with the greatest difference between virgin and mated females observed on day 3 for C. fumiferana and on day 5 for C. rosaceana. This increase was apparently not the result of a male-to-female transfer of JH during copulation since: (i) the accessory sex glands (ASGs) of males of both species displayed a very limited ability to convert JH acid into JH, (ii) ASGs produced no JH when incubated in vitro in the presence of L-[methyl-(3)H]-methionine, (iii) ASGs of males injected with L-[methyl-(3)H]-methionine 24 h prior to dissection contained no JH-associated radioactivity, and (iv) freshly formed spermatophores dissected out of females mated to similarly injected males contained no trace of radioactive JH. In addition, the JH content of ASGs and spermatophores, as measured by RIA, was not higher than that of virgin-female hemolymph, on a per-mg basis. However, in contrast with earlier findings in other species of moths, the CA of male C. fumiferana and C. rosaceana maintained in vitro in the presence of tritiated methionine produced and released JH I, JH II and JH III in quantities and proportions similar to those reported for female glands.

  14. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau E-mail: rcheng@gatech.edu

    2014-06-20

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  15. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as “activating” egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: 1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? 2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? 3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female’s resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle’s likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the “activating” effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  16. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PS1-10jh CONTINUES TO FOLLOW THE FALLBACK ACCRETION RATE OF A TIDALLY DISRUPTED STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gezari, S.; Chornock, R.; Lawrence, A.; Rest, A.; Jones, D. O.; Berger, E.; Challis, P. M.; Narayan, G.

    2015-12-10

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t{sup −5/3} power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  18. Biased JH usage in plasma cell immunoglobulin gene sequences from colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis but not in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Dunn-Walters, D; Boursier, L; Hackett, M; Spencer, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colonic and rectal mucosa. Autoantibodies have been observed in ulcerative colitis which may have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Evidence also suggests that there is an hereditary predisposition towards the disease, although no individual genes have been identified. 
AIMS—This is a pilot study of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgH) in ulcerative colitis to determine whether they have any particular genetic characteristics which may lead to a better understanding of the disease aetiology. 
SUBJECTS—Colonic or rectal tissue was obtained from five children with ulcerative colitis. Tissue was also obtained from five children with Crohn's disease and five children who did not have inflammatory bowel disease as controls. 
METHODS—B cells and IgD+ B cells were identified by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections. Areas of lamina propria containing plasma cells, and areas of IgD+ B cells were microdissected. The immunoglobulin genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequences were analysed for content of somatic mutations and composition of heavy chain. 
RESULTS—An increase in the use of JH6 and DXP'1, and a decrease in the use of JH4, gene segments in immunoglobulin genes from lamina propria plasma cells, and from virgin IgD+ B cells, was found in patients with ulcerative colitis. These biases were not present in the control groups. 
CONCLUSIONS—There is a fundamental difference in the immunoglobulin genes from patients with ulcerative colitis. Whether this is caused by a difference in content of immunoglobulin gene segments in the germline or a difference in the recombination mechanism is not known. 

 Keywords: ulcerative colitis; immunoglobulin heavy chain gene; joining region; diversity region; repertoire; Crohn's disease PMID:10026325

  19. Pseudomonas fluorescens JH 70-4 promotes pb stabilization and early seedling growth of sudan grass in contaminated mining site soil.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Babu, A Giridhar; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain (JH 70-4) exhibiting plant growth promoting characteristics (indoleacetic acid production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity), as well as heavy metal(loid) (HM) tolerance and Pb precipitation, was isolated from HM-contaminated soil at an abandoned mine site. The bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The JH 70-4 strain induced precipitation of Pb as PbS nanoparticles, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Solution pH, incubation time, and Pb concentration influenced removal and PbS formation. Inoculating contaminated soil with JH 70-4 decreased Pb availability; exchangeable Pb decreased while organic- and sulphide-bound Pb increased. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure showed a 65% decrease in Pb in leachate 60 d after inoculating soil with JH 70-4. Shoot and root lengths of Sudan grass grown in the inoculated soil were greater than in the uninoculated soil. Findings suggest that microbial Pb fixation is a viable strategy for remediating soil and promoting plant growth for phytostabilization of contaminated sites.

  20. Cloning, expression, and characterization of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis JH8 strain.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2016-10-02

    The sequence cato encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sequence cato contained an ORF of 858 bp encoding a polypeptide of 285 amino acid residues. The recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase exists as a homodimer structure with a subunit molecular mass of 32 KD. Recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was unstable below pH 5.0 and stable from pH 7.0 to 9.0; its optimum pH was at 7.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30°C, and it possessed a thermophilic activity within a broad temperature range. Under the optimal conditions with catechol as substrate, the Km and Vmax of recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were 9.2 µM and 0.987 µM/min, respectively. This is the first article presenting cloning and expressing in E. coli of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from C. tropicalis and characterization of the recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase.

  1. Enhancement of D-lactic acid production from a mixed glucose and xylose substrate by the Escherichia coli strain JH15 devoid of the glucose effect.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongying; Zhao, Xiao; Wang, Yongze; Ding, Xiaoren; Wang, Jinhua; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Iverson, Andrew; Zhou, Shengde

    2016-02-19

    A thermal tolerant stereo-complex poly-lactic acid (SC-PLA) can be made by mixing Poly-D-lactic acid (PDLA) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) at a defined ratio. This environmentally friendly biodegradable polymer could replace traditional recalcitrant petroleum-based plastics. To achieve this goal, however, it is imperative to produce optically pure lactic acid isomers using a cost-effective substrate such as cellulosic biomass. The roadblock of this process is that: 1) xylose derived from cellulosic biomass is un-fermentable by most lactic acid bacteria; 2) the glucose effect results in delayed and incomplete xylose fermentation. An alternative strain devoid of the glucose effect is needed to co-utilize both glucose and xylose for improved D-lactic acid production using a cellulosic biomass substrate. A previously engineered L-lactic acid Escherichia coli strain, WL204 (ΔfrdBC ΔldhA ΔackA ΔpflB ΔpdhR ::pflBp6-acEF-lpd ΔmgsA ΔadhE, ΔldhA::ldhL), was reengineered for production of D-lactic acid, by replacing the recombinant L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) with a D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA). The glucose effect (catabolite repression) of the resulting strain, JH13, was eliminated by deletion of the ptsG gene which encodes for IIBC(glc) (a PTS enzyme for glucose transport). The derived strain, JH14, was metabolically evolved through serial transfers in screw-cap tubes containing glucose. The evolved strain, JH15, regained improved anaerobic cell growth using glucose. In fermentations using a mixture of glucose (50 g L(-1)) and xylose (50 g L(-1)), JH15 co-utilized both glucose and xylose, achieving an average sugar consumption rate of 1.04 g L(-1)h(-1), a D-lactic acid titer of 83 g L(-1), and a productivity of 0.86 g L(-1) h(-1). This result represents a 46 % improved sugar consumption rate, a 26 % increased D-lactic acid titer, and a 48 % enhanced productivity, compared to that achieved by JH13. These results demonstrated that JH15 has

  2. The Amino Acid Transporter JhI-21 Coevolves with Glutamate Receptors, Impacts NMJ Physiology, and Influences Locomotor Activity in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Augustin, Hrvoje; Clark, Nathan L; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Simonnet, Mégane M; Steinert, Joern R; Geillon, Flore; Manière, Gérard; Featherstone, David E; Grosjean, Yael

    2016-01-25

    Changes in synaptic physiology underlie neuronal network plasticity and behavioral phenomena, which are adjusted during development. The Drosophila larval glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents a powerful synaptic model to investigate factors impacting these processes. Amino acids such as glutamate have been shown to regulate Drosophila NMJ physiology by modulating the clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby regulating the strength of signal transmission from the motor neuron to the muscle cell. To identify amino acid transporters impacting glutmatergic signal transmission, we used Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), a recently developed bioinformatic tool. Our screen identified ten proteins co-evolving with NMJ glutamate receptors. We selected one candidate transporter, the SLC7 (Solute Carrier) transporter family member JhI-21 (Juvenile hormone Inducible-21), which is expressed in Drosophila larval motor neurons. We show that JhI-21 suppresses postsynaptic muscle glutamate receptor abundance, and that JhI-21 expression in motor neurons regulates larval crawling behavior in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  3. The ponA Gene of Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 Codes for a Low-Affinity Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Duez, Colette; Hallut, Séverine; Rhazi, Noureddine; Hubert, Séverine; Amoroso, Ana; Bouillenne, Fabrice; Piette, André; Coyette, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    A soluble derivative of the Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 class A PBP1 (*PBP1) was overproduced and purified. It exhibited a glycosyltransferase activity on the Escherichia coli 14C-labeled lipid II precursor. As a dd- peptidase, it could hydrolyze thiolester substrates with efficiencies similar to those of other class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and bind β-lactams, but with k2/K (a parameter accounting for the acylation step efficiency) values characteristic of penicillin-resistant PBPs. PMID:15205448

  4. Methylation of CpG sites in BCL2 major breakpoint region and the increase of BCL2/JH translocation with aging.

    PubMed

    Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; de Prado, Elena; Ardanaz, Maite; Martin-Arruti, Maialen; Garcia-Orad, Cristina; Guerra, Isabel; Ruiz, Irune; Zabalza, Iñaki; Garcia-Orad, Africa

    2015-10-01

    The BCL2 breakage mechanism has been shown to be highly dependent on DNA methylation at the major breakpoint region (MBR) CpG sites. We recently described an increased frequency of BCL2/ JH translocation with aging. It is known that methylation levels change with aging. The present study aimed to determine whether methylation alterations at CpG sites of BCL2 MBR were the cause of increased breakages with aging. We analyzed the methylation levels of three CpG sites on the region by pyrosequencing and studied if methylation levels and/or polymorphisms affecting CpG sites were associated with an increase of translocations. We observed that although the methylation levels of MBR CpG sites were higher in individuals with BCL2/JH translocation, in contrast to our expectations, these levels decreased with the age. Moreover, we show that polymorphisms at those CpG sites leading to absence of methylation seem to be a protective factor for the apparition of translocations.

  5. Human antibody expression in transgenic rats: comparison of chimeric IgH loci with human VH, D and JH but bearing different rat C-gene regions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Osborn, Michael J; Avis, Suzanne; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Ménoret, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio; Buelow, Roland; Brüggemann, Marianne

    2013-12-31

    Expression of human antibody repertoires in transgenic animals has been accomplished by introducing large human Ig loci into mice and, more recently, a chimeric IgH locus into rats. With human VH, D and JH genes linked to the rat C-region antibody expression was significantly increased, similar to wild-type levels not found with fully human constructs. Here we compare four rat-lines containing the same human VH-region (comprising 22 VHs, all Ds and all JHs in natural configuration) but linked to different rat CH-genes and regulatory sequences. The endogenous IgH locus was silenced by zinc-finger nucleases. After breeding, all lines produced exclusively chimeric human H-chain with near normal IgM levels. However, in two lines poor IgG expression and inefficient immune responses were observed, implying that high expression, class-switching and hypermutation are linked to optimal enhancer function provided by the large regulatory region at the 3' end of the IgH locus. Furthermore, exclusion of Cδ and its downstream interval region may assist recombination. Highly diverse IgG and immune responses similar to normal rats were identified in two strains carrying diverse and differently spaced C-genes.

  6. SCExAO and GPI Y JH band photometry and integral field spectroscopy of the young brown dwarf companion to HD 1160

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia, Eugenio Victor; Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; ...

    2017-01-10

    Here, we present high signal-to-noise ratio, precise Y JH photometry and Y band (0.957–1.120 μm) spectroscopy of HD 1160 B, a young substellar companion discovered from the Gemini NICI Planet Finding Campaign using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument and the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 1160 B has typical mid-M dwarf-like infrared colors and a spectral type of M5.5more » $${}_{-0.5}^{+1.0}$$, where the blue edge of our Y band spectrum rules out earlier spectral types. Atmospheric modeling suggests HD 1160 B has an effective temperature of 3000–3100 K, a surface gravity of log g = 4–4.5, a radius of 1.55 ± 0.10 R J, and a luminosity of log L/L ⊙ = –2.76 ± 0.05. Neither the primary's Hertzspring–Russell diagram position nor atmospheric modeling of HD 1160 B show evidence for a subsolar metallicity. Interpretation of the HD 1160 B spectroscopy depends on which stellar system components are used to estimate the age. Considering HD 1160 A, B and C jointly, we derive an age of 80–125 Myr, implying that HD 1160 B straddles the hydrogen-burning limit (70–90 M J). If we consider HD 1160 A alone, younger ages (20–125 Myr) and a brown dwarf-like mass (35–90 M J) are possible. Interferometric measurements of the primary, a precise Gaia parallax, and moderate-resolution spectroscopy can better constrain the system's age and how HD 1160 B fits within the context of (sub)stellar evolution.« less

  7. Artocarpus altilis CG-901 alters critical nodes in the JH1-kinase domain of Janus kinase 2 affecting upstream JAK/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nash, Oyekanmi; Omotuyi, Olaposi; Lee, Joonku; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Ogbadu, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    As a key step in achieving low-cost, easily accessible anti-cancer therapy for low- and middle-income countries, we recently established the scientific basis for the folkloric use of Artocarpus altilis for the treatment of cancer by investigating the geranyl dihydrochalcone (CG-901) content and its interference with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and blockage of further downstream signaling. In the current study, the CG-901 upstream target was queried by chemical fingerprinting similarity assessment, semi-empirical (PM6ESCF) QMMM and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Moderate (∼0.4) to high (∼0.7) Tanimoto scores were found when the CG-901 scaffold was compared to ligands co-crystallized with Janus kinases (JAK) 1-3. High negative energy values were obtained when the CG-901 was treated semi-empirically (PM6ESCF) within the classical field of JAK (1-3). Multiple nanosecond MD simulations showed that CG-901 did not cause any large structural perturbations in the nucleotide-binding, activation and catalytic loops within the kinase (JH1) domain of JAK (1-3); however, it reduced the energy required to attain metastability along the path to energy minima conformation. In comparison to JAK1 and Apo-state JAK2, JAK2-bound CG-901 exhibited a highly re-organized key intra-domain protein network; indicating atomic level interference with inter-residue communication. In conclusion, CG-901 isolated from A. altilis represents a broad-spectrum JAK inhibitor, which may underlie the mechanism of STAT3 phosphorylation blockage. Graphical abstract Upper panel Janus kinase 2 upstream signaling pathway. Lower panel Apo-JAK2 (left) and CG-901-bound JAK2 (right).

  8. Water-, pH- and temperature relations of germination for the extreme xerophiles Xeromyces bisporus (FRR 0025), Aspergillus penicillioides (JH06THJ) and Eurotium halophilicum (FRR 2471).

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hallsworth, John E

    2017-03-01

    Water activity, temperature and pH are determinants for biotic activity of cellular systems, biosphere function and, indeed, for all life processes. This study was carried out at high concentrations of glycerol, which concurrently reduces water activity and acts as a stress protectant, to characterize the biophysical capabilities of the most extremely xerophilic organisms known. These were the fungal xerophiles: Xeromyces bisporus (FRR 0025), Aspergillus penicillioides (JH06THJ) and Eurotium halophilicum (FRR 2471). High-glycerol spores were produced and germination was determined using 38 media in the 0.995-0.637 water activity range, 33 media in the 2.80-9.80 pH range and 10 incubation temperatures, from 2 to 50°C. Water activity was modified by supplementing media with glycerol+sucrose, glycerol+NaCl and glycerol+NaCl+sucrose which are known to be biologically permissive for X. bisporus, A. penicillioides and E. halophilicum respectively. The windows and rates for spore germination were quantified for water activity, pH and temperature; symmetry/asymmetry of the germination profiles were then determined in relation to supra- and sub-optimal conditions; and pH- and temperature optima for extreme xerophilicity were quantified. The windows for spore germination were ~1 to 0.637 water activity, pH 2.80-9.80 and > 10 and < 44°C, depending on strain. Germination profiles in relation to water activity and temperature were asymmetrical because conditions known to entropically disorder cellular macromolecules, i.e. supra-optimal water activity and high temperatures, were severely inhibitory. Implications of these processes were considered in relation to the in-situ ecology of extreme conditions and environments; the study also raises a number of unanswered questions which suggest the need for new lines of experimentation. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Assessment of BCL2/J(H) translocation in healthy individuals exposed to low-level radiation of 137CsCl in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, H F; Laranjeira, A B A; Yunes, J A; Costa, E O A; de A Melo, C O; de M e Silva, D; da Cruz, A D

    2013-01-16

    Healthy radio-exposed individuals who received low levels of Cesium-137 radiation during the accident that occurred in Goiânia in 1987, their families and controls were tested for the detection of t(14;18)-rearranged B cells in peripheral blood by using a highly sensitive, real-time quantitative PCR method. The chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is characteristic of follicular lymphoma and is a frequent abnormality observed in other types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This translocation leads to constitutive activation of the BCL2 oncogene by the enhancers of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus. In healthy individuals, the same translocation may also be found in a small fraction of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and positive cells might serve as an indicator for environmental exposure to carcinogens and possibly correlate with the cumulative risk of developing t(14;18)- positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twenty healthy radio-exposed individuals, 10 relatives and 10 non-exposed healthy individuals were tested for the detection of this translocation. Only 1 non-exposed individual was positive for the chromosomal translocation, and healthy radio-exposed individuals presented lower levels of cells bearing the BCL2/J(H) rearrangement when compared to the levels of the patients with follicular lymphoma before treatment. However, evaluation of more cells would be required to confirm the total absence of circulating cells bearing BCL2/J(H) rearrangement.

  10. Response to the comments by J.H. Evans

    SciTech Connect

    Barashev, Aleksandr; Golubov, Stanislav I

    2011-01-01

    Evans s comments are related only loosely to the main body of our paper, which is devoted to the onset of void ordering: his Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of this early stage of ordering are in a qualitative agreement with our results. They question, however, the basic mechanisms of damage accumulation revealed by a number of scientists using various techniques over the years. Here we argue that his views are erroneous due to overlooking some essential features of one-dimensional defect transport.

  11. The JH1 Haplotype-a newly discovered marker for infertility in the jersy breed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The focus on production traits in genetic selection programs with little consideration for traits associated with reproduction has contributed to the decline in reproductive function. Moreover, there is a negative genetic correlation between milk yield and reproduction so that selection for yield ca...

  12. J.H. Pons on 'Sympathetic insanity': With an introduction by GE Berrios.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E; Pons, J H

    2014-09-01

    The ancient concept of 'sympathy' originally referred to a putative affinity or force that linked all natural objects together. This notion was later used to explain the manner in which human beings related and felt for each other. A large literature exists on both the physical and psychological definitions of sympathy. Until the nineteenth century the conceptual apparatus of medicine preserved the view that the organs of the human body had a sympathetic affinity for each other. In addition to these 'physiological' (normal) sympathies there were morbid ones which explained the existence of various diseases. A morbid sympathy link also explained the fact that insanity followed the development of pathological changes in the liver, spleen, stomach and other bodily organs. These cases were classified as 'sympathetic insanities'. After the 1880s, the sympathy narrative was gradually replaced by physiological, endocrinological and psychodynamic explanations. The clinical states involved, however, are often observed in hospital practice and constitute the metier of 'consultation-liaison psychiatry'. Hence, it is surprising that historical work on the development of this discipline has persistently ignored the concept of 'sympathetic insanity'.

  13. [Two letters to Alexander Numan by J.H. van Opdorp, surgeon at Arnemuiden (Province of Zealand)].

    PubMed

    Oldenkamp, E P; Mathijsen, A H

    2000-01-01

    The periodical, Veeartsenijkundig Magazijn, that Numan had started in 1828 caught the attention of a surgeon in a small town in the neighbourhood of Middelburg. In his two letters he tells about his experiences in animal healing, leaving it to Numan which use he eventually might make of these observations. In the first letter (1829) he tells how he as a ship's doctor was shipwrecked in the Indian Ocean, and after being put ashore on a small island, had successfully performed an operation on an ass, suffering from a very large praeputial tumor. In his second letter (1830) he tells about his practice in Arnemuiden where he settled after leaving the navy. As there were no trained veterinarians in the surroundings, he extended his care also to animals. l.a. he reports on a case of a cow suffering from an enlarged heart, and this item was, indeed, published by Numan. A biographical sketch of Van Opdorp is added. His name is known in the medical history of The Netherlands, because he was the most fervent adherent of the teachings of Broussais, a professor of medicine in Paris. Although these teachings found many followers in the French-speaking countries, the propaganda made by Van Opdorp through a periodical, devoted to this so called physiological medicine, did not meet with success in The Netherlands.

  14. A Study of the Status of Computer Usage in Industrial Technology Programs in Idaho J.H. and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    A study examined the extent to which microcomputers are being used by industrial technology teachers in Idaho public junior and senior high schools. The express purpose of the study was to develop an information base upon which teacher educators and administrators could design pre- and inservice teacher education curricula. The survey…

  15. The use of groundwater tracers, including {sup 36}Cl, {delta}{sup 18}O, and {delta}{sup 2}JH, in the study fo the Magothy aquifer, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, C.A.; Mignerey, A.C.; Helz, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    The recent conclusion of a study of groundwater from the Magothy Formation, Maryland allows for an examination of processes occurring in this aquifer system. Water samples were gathered from a wide area along flow paths estimated from hydrological parameters and analyzed for the major cations and anions, nutrients, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, in addition to {sup 36}Cl, {delta}{sup 18}O, and {delta}{sup 2}H. Also, three samples that contained anomalously high {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios were analyzed for {sup 3}H in an attempt to determine possible sources for those readings. A comparison of the results of this study to those of a previous study conducted by this group of the overlying Aquia Aquifer will also be given. The potential of inter-aquifer mixing between the two systems in some areas and of matching {sup 36}Cl and Cl{sup -} values to sea level rise and fall will be discussed.

  16. Improved Measurement of 3J(H αi, N i+1 ) Coupling Constants in H 2O Dissolved Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, Frank; Schmidt, Jürgen M.; Maurer, Steffen; Rüterjans, Heinz

    2001-11-01

    A modification to the recently proposed α/β-HN(CO)CA-J TROSY pulse sequence (P. Permi et al., J. Magn. Reson.146, 255-259 (2000)) makes it possible to determine 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) coupling constants from a single E.COSY-type cross-peak pattern rather than from two 1Hα spin-state-edited subspectra. Advantages are increased 15N resolution, critical to extracting accurate 1Hα-15N coupling constants, and minimized differential relaxation due to nested 13Cα and 15N evolution periods. Application of the improved pulse sequence to Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin results in 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) values being systematically larger than those obtained with the original scheme. Parametrization of the coupling dependence on the protein backbone torsion angle ψ yields the Karplus relation 3J(Hαi, Ni+1)=-1.00 cos2(ψ-120°)+0.65 cos(ψ-120°)-0.15 Hz, with a residual root-mean-square difference of 0.13 Hz between measured and back-calculated coupling constants. The curve compares with data derived from ubiquitin (A. C. Wang and A. Bax, J. Am. Chem. Soc.117, 1810-1813 (1995)), although spanning a slightly larger range of J values in flavodoxin. The orientation of the Ala39/Ser40 peptide link, forming a type-II β-turn in flavodoxin, is twisted against X-ray-derived torsions by approximately 10° in the NMR structure as evident from the analysis of φ- and ψ-related 3J coupling constants. The remaining deviation of some experimental values from the prediction is likely to be due to strong hydrogen bonding, substituent effects, or the additional dependence on the adjacent torsions φ.

  17. The flowering of pathology as a medical discipline in Boston, 1892-c.1950: W.T. Councilman, FB Mallory, JH Wright, SB Wolbach and their descendants.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; O'Brien, Michael J; Young, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    During most of the nineteenth century, the discipline of pathology in Boston made substantial strides as a result of physicians and surgeons who practiced pathology on a part-time basis. The present essay tells the subsequent story, beginning in 1892, when full-time pathologists begin to staff the medical schools and hospitals of Boston. Three individuals from this era deserve special mention: William T Councilman, Frank Burr Mallory and James Homer Wright, with Councilman remembered primarily as a visionary and teacher, Mallory as a trainer of many pathologists, and Wright as a scientist. Together with S Burt Wolbach in the early-to-mid-twentieth century, these pathologists went on to train the next generation of pathologists-a generation that then populated the various hospitals that were developed in Boston in the early 1900s. This group of seminal pathologists in turn formed the diagnostically strong, academically productive, pathology departments that grew in Boston over the remainder of the twentieth century.

  18. Erratum: Hayward IP, Bridle KR, Campbell GR, Underwood PA, Campbell JH (1995) Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype. Cell Biology International 19: 839-846. doi: 10.1006/cbir.1995.1019.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The above article, published in print in Cell Biology International in September 1995 and online on 2 January 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1006/cbir.1995.1019/abstract), is an exact duplicate of the article 'Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype' (Hayward et al., ), which was published in the previous issue of Cell Biology International (Hayward et al., ). The duplicate publication is the result of an administrative error. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience.

  19. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    PubMed

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution.

  20. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  1. Numerical study of bipolar coordinate Jeffery-Hamel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Alpar; Nagy, Botond

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we report the bipolar coordinate formulation of Jeffery-Hamel (JH) flow and study vorticity-stream function, bipolar coordinate JH and conventional JH solutions. It is shown that our derived equation can intrinsically describe the flow behavior in curved geometries and it gives improved results as compared to conventional JH theory.

  2. Synthesis and bioassay of radiolabeled, chiral probes for juvenile hormone receptor study

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, W.

    1987-01-01

    Four different types of compounds were synthesized for the detailed study on interactions between insect juvenile hormone (JH) and the corresponding binding proteins, receptor proteins and catabolic enzymes: (1) High specific activity /sup 3/H-labeled, chiral alkyldiazoacetates with their skeletons approaching those of natural JH I and JH II were synthesized as photoaffinity labels for probing JH receptor proteins in Lepidoptera. Compared with epoxy farnesyl diazoacetate (EFDA), epoxy bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate (EBDA) and epoxy homofarnesyl diazoacetate (EHDA) have largely increased affinity to Manduca sexta JH binding proteins (JHBP) as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis. (2) Chiral JH I and JH II acids, as well as 12-hydroxy-JH I and JH II were synthesized. The hydroxy groups in these compounds provide tether points for attachment to proteins to serve as antigens with most of the recognition sites preserved to be used in JH radioimmunoassays. (3) The first radioiodine-labeled JH, (/sup 125/I)-12-iodo-JH I, was synthesized, both in no-carrier-added and carrier-added forms, as one of the probes for JH receptor study. (4) Four alkylthioltrifluoropropanones with skeletons approaching that of JH III and functional groups mimicking the JH epoxide moiety were synthesized as inhibitors for JH esterase (JHE).

  3. Effect of Joule heating on electrokinetic transport.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Barbaros; Li, Dongqing

    2008-03-01

    The Joule heating (JH) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in electrokinetic flow due to the presence of electrical potential gradient and electrical current. JH may become pronounced for applications with high electrical potential gradients or with high ionic concentration buffer solutions. In this review, an in-depth look at the effect of JH on electrokinetic processes is provided. Theoretical modeling of EOF and electrophoresis (EP) with the presence of JH is presented and the important findings from the previous studies are examined. A numerical study of a fused-silica capillary PCR reactor powered by JH is also presented to extend the discussion of favorable usage of JH.

  4. Computerized Processing and Graphic Representation of Viscoelastic Material Property Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    NF=NF+1 IF(CHISQ - CHIST ) 420,230,230 180 DO 200 J1I,NVP IF(J-JH)190,200 ,190 190 IF(CHISQ-CHI(J))230,200,200 200 CONTINUE IF(CHISQ-CHI(JH...250,270,270 230 DO 240 J=1,NV 240 Z(JH,J)=ZSTAR(J) CHI (JH) = CHIST GO TO 440 250 DO 260 J=1,NV 260 Z(JH,J)=X(J) CHIi (JH )=CHISQ 270 DO 280 J=1,NV IF(MASK(J

  5. Digital engineering aspects of Karst map: a GIS version of Davies, W.E., Simpson, J.H., Ohlmacher, G.C., Kirk, W.S., and Newton, E.G., 1984, Engineering aspects of Karst: U.S. Geological Survey, National Atlas of the United States of America, Scale 1:7,500,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobin, Bret D.; Weary, David J.

    2004-01-01

    These data are digital facsimiles of the original 1984 Engineering Aspects of Karst map by Davies and others. This data set was converted from a printed map to a digital GIS coverage to provide users with a citable national scale karst data set to use for graphic and demonstration purposes until new, improved data are developed. These data may be used freely with proper citation. Because it has been converted to GIS format, these data can be easily projected, displayed and queried for multiple uses in GIS. The karst polygons of the original map were scanned from the stable base negatives of the original, vectorized, edited and then attributed with unit descriptions. All of these processes potentially introduce small errors and distortions to the geography. The original map was produced at a scale of 1:7,500,000; this coverage is not as accurate, and should be used for broad-scale purposes only. It is not intended for any site-specific studies.

  6. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

  7. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foot. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  8. Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hip. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... the knee. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  9. Deciding to have knee or hip replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hip In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... the knee. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  10. Leg amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower extremity. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  11. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower extremity. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  12. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hip In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... the knee. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  13. Claw foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017: ... In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017: ...

  14. Targeted therapies for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/23589545 . Kummar S, Murgo AJ, Tomaszewski JE, Doroshow JH. Therapeutic targeting of cancer cells: Era of molecularly targeted agents. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, ...

  15. After chemotherapy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection in the patient with cancer. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, et al, eds. Abeloff's ... Hallemeier CL, Loprinzi CL. Oral complications. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, et al, eds. Abeloff's ...

  16. Heat Shock Protein 83 (Hsp83) Facilitates Methoprene-tolerant (Met) Nuclear Import to Modulate Juvenile Hormone Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    He, Qianyu; Wen, Di; Jia, Qiangqiang; Cui, Chunlai; Wang, Jian; Palli, Subba R.; Li, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) receptors, methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Germ-cell expressed (Gce), transduce JH signals to induce Kr-h1 expression in Drosophila. Dual luciferase assay identified a 120-bp JH response region (JHRR) in the Kr-h1α promoter. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that Met and Gce transduce JH signals to induce Kr-h1 expression through the JHRR. DNA affinity purification identified chaperone protein Hsp83 as one of the proteins bound to the JHRR in the presence of JH. Interestingly, Hsp83 physically interacts with PAS-B and basic helix-loop-helix domains of Met, and JH induces Met-Hsp83 interaction. As determined by immunohistochemistry, Met is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of fat body cells of the larval when the JH titer is low and JH induces Met nuclear import. Hsp83 was accumulated in the cytoplasm area adjunct to the nucleus in the presence of JH and Met/Gce. Loss-of-function of Hsp83 attenuated JH binding and JH-induced nuclear import of Met, resulting in a decrease in the JHRR-driven reporter activity leading to reduction of Kr-h1 expression. These data show that Hsp83 facilitates the JH-induced nuclear import of Met that induces Kr-h1 expression through the JHRR. PMID:25122763

  17. Activities of natural methyl farnesoids on pupariation and metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl farnesoate (MF) and juvenile hormone (JH III), which respectively bind to the receptors USP and MET, and bisepoxy JH III (bisJHIII) were assessed for several activities during Drosophila larval development, and during prepupal development to eclosed adults. Dietary MF and JH III were similar...

  18. Tunable wavelength filters using polymer long-period waveguide gratings based on metal-cladding directly defined technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-Hou; Chen, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Xi-Bin; Yi, Yun-Ji; Sun, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61575076, 61475061, and 61405070), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. JCKY-QKJC08), the Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province, China (Grant Nos. 20130522151JH, 20140519006JH, and 20160520091JH), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M571362).

  19. Juvenile hormone catabolism and oviposition in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, as functions of age, mating status, and hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Tracey J; Ramaswamy, Sonny B; Srinivasan, Asoka; Dorn, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    In vitro catabolism of juvenile hormone (JH) in haemolymph of adult female Cydia pomonella was ascribed mainly to juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) activity. No significant differences were noted between virgin and mated females 0-96 h post-emergence. Changes in JHE activity did not appear dependent upon fluctuations in JH titre; conversely, changes in JHE activity could not explain the changes in JH titres. Maximal JHE activity was recorded at 24 h (331.47 +/- 47.25 pmol/h/microl; 355.93 +/- 36.68 pmol/h/microl, virgin; mated insects, respectively) and preceded the peak in JH titres at 48 h. Topical application of JH II (10 ng-10 microg) or fenoxycarb (50 ng) enhanced JHE activity up to 640 and 56%, respectively. Treatment upon emergence with 10 microg JH II induced enzymic activity for less than 24 h, and when 10 microg JH II or 50 ng fenoxycarb were applied, circulating JH titres returned to control levels within 24 h. Oviposition was highly sensitive to exogenous JH and declined significantly with dosages >100 pg. To allow a degree of oocyte maturation before JH treatment, the hormone was administered at 6, 12, 24, or 48 h post-emergence and/or females were mated. Neither measure "protected" the system; oviposition declined immediately after JH application.

  20. The insulin/TOR signal transduction pathway is involved in the nutritional regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2013-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) levels must be modulated to permit the normal progress of development and reproductive maturation in mosquitoes. JH is part of a transduction system that assesses nutritional information and controls reproduction in mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes aegypti show nutritionally-dependent dynamic changes in corpora allata (CA) JH biosynthetic activities. A coordinated expression of most JH biosynthetic enzymes has been described in female pupae and adult mosquitoes; increases or decreases in transcript levels for all the enzymes were concurrent with increases or decreases in JH synthesis; suggesting that transcriptional changes are at least partially responsible for the dynamic changes of JH biosynthesis. The goal of the present study is to identify signaling network components responsible for the nutritional-dependent changes of JH synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes. The insulin/TOR signaling network plays a central role in the transduction of nutritional signals that regulate cell growth and metabolism in insects. These pathways have also been suggested as a link between nutritional signals and JH synthesis regulation in the CA of cockroaches and flies. We used a combination of in vitro studies and in vivo genetic knockdown experiments to explore nutritional signaling pathways in the CA. Our results suggest that the insulin/TOR pathway plays a role in the transduction of the nutritional information that regulates JH synthesis in mosquitoes. Transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding JH biosynthetic enzymes is at least partially responsible for these nutritionally modulated changes of JH biosynthesis.

  1. Metabolic analysis reveals changes in the mevalonate and juvenile hormone synthesis pathways linked to the mosquito reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Lamboglia, Ivanna; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates reproductive maturation in insects; therefore interruption of JH biosynthesis has been considered as a strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. The corpora allata (CA) from mosquitoes is highly specialized to supply variable levels of JH, which are linked to ovarian developmental stages and influenced by nutritional signals. However, very little is known about how changes in JH synthesis relate to reproductive physiology and how JH synthesis regulation is translated into changes in the CA machinery. With the advent of new methods that facilitate the analysis of transcripts, enzymes and metabolites in the minuscule CA, we were able to provide comprehensive descriptions of the mevalonic (MVA) and JH synthesis pathways by integrating information on changes in the basic components of those pathways. Our results revealed remarkable dynamic changes in JH synthesis and exposed part of a complex mechanism that regulates CA activity. Principal component (PC) analyses validated that both pathways (MVAP and JH-branch) are transcriptionally co-regulated as a single unit, and catalytic activities for the enzymes of the MVAP and JH-branch also changed in a coordinate fashion. Metabolite studies showed that global fluctuations in the intermediate pool sizes in the MVAP and JH-branch were often inversely related. PC analyses suggest that in female mosquitoes, there are at least 4 developmental switches that alter JH synthesis by modulating the flux at distinctive points in both pathways.

  2. Establishment of a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting chemicals with juvenile hormone activity using adult Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryoko; Watanabe, Haruna; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and JH agonists have been shown to induce male offspring production in various daphnids, including Daphnia magna using OECD TG211. The critical period (about 1h) for JH action on ova in the parent's ovary to induce male offspring is existing at 7-8h later from ovulation. Therefore, we considered that adult D. magna could be used to produce a short-term screening method for detecting JH analogs. Using this method, we successfully demonstrated male offspring induction in the second broods after exposure to JH or JH agonists. After investigating the exposure time, the number of repetitions and the exposure concentration, we established a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting JH analogs using adult D. magna. We examined positive and negative control chemicals using a previously developed method and verified the validity of our new testing method.

  3. [Role of DopR in the molecular mechanism of the dopamine control of juvenile hormone metabolism in female Drosophila].

    PubMed

    Karpova, E K; Bogomolova, E V; Romonova, I V; Gruntenko, N E; Raushenbakh, I Iu

    2012-08-01

    The effect of a decreased availability of the D1-like dopamine receptor (DopR) in Drosophila (caused by DopR antagonist added into food) on the juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis rate in young female D. melanogaster has been studied. The JH degradation rate and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) activities were used as indicators of the JH synthesis rate. Treatment of the flies with butaclamol, a specific DopR antagonist, has been demonstrated to increase the JH degradation rate, and the stress reactivity of the system of JH metabolism and decrease the ALP activity and stress reactivity, and increase the TDC activity and stress reactivity. As shown earlier, all this indicates a decrease in the JH synthesis rate in young female drosophila with a decreased DopR availability. It is concluded that the activating effect of dopamine on JH synthesis in Drosophila is mediated by D1-like receptors.

  4. Juvenile hormone regulation of an insect gene: a specific transcription factor and a DNA response element.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Saleh, D S; Wyatt, G R

    1996-08-30

    We have used locust fat body nuclear protein extracts and upstream DNA of the juvenile hormone (JH)-inducible locust gene, jhp21, to examine the regulation of specific transcription by JH. Promoter activity was assayed with G-free cassette reporter constructs. Nuclear extracts from adult female fat body, previously exposed to JH or an analog, actively transcribe from the jhp21 promoter and a control adenovirus major late (AdML) promoter, whereas extracts from JH-deprived female fat body, or other tissues, transcribe strongly from the AdML promoter but weakly or not at all from the jhp21 promoter. Transcription is enhanced by sequences between -140 and -211 nt from the jhp21 transcription start point (tsp), which include a CAAT box, and also by sequences between -1056 and -1200. A 15-nt partially palindromic sequence element found at -1152, resembling known hormone response elements, was shown to stimulate transcription when restored to truncated jhp21 DNA. Two very similar sequences occur further upstream. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), the same sequence element was shown to specifically bind a protein that was present in nuclear extracts from JH-exposed, but not from JH-deprived, fat body. Several lines of evidence suggest that the DNA element may be a JH response element (JHRE). The JH-induced protein that binds to it appears to be a transcription factor that activates the initiation of JH target gene (jhp21) transcription, and could be a JH receptor.

  5. Juvenile hormone counteracts the bHLH-PAS transcription factors MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent programmed cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Sheng, Zhentao; Liu, Hanhan; Wen, Di; He, Qianyu; Wang, Sheng; Shao, Wei; Jiang, Rong-Jing; An, Shiheng; Sun, Yaning; Bendena, William G; Wang, Jian; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Wilson, Thomas G; Song, Qisheng; Li, Sheng

    2009-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many developmental and physiological events in insects, but its molecular mechanism remains conjectural. Here we report that genetic ablation of the corpus allatum cells of the Drosophila ring gland (the JH source) resulted in JH deficiency, pupal lethality and precocious and enhanced programmed cell death (PCD) of the larval fat body. In the fat body of the JH-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice, two caspase genes that are crucial for PCD induced by the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), were significantly upregulated. These results demonstrated that JH antagonizes 20E-induced PCD by restricting the mRNA levels of Dronc and Drice. The antagonizing effect of JH on 20E-induced PCD in the fat body was further confirmed in the JH-deficient animals by 20E treatment and RNA interference of the 20E receptor EcR. Moreover, MET and GCE, the bHLH-PAS transcription factors involved in JH action, were shown to induce PCD by upregulating Dronc and Drice. In the Met- and gce-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice were downregulated, whereas in the Met-overexpression fat body, Dronc and Drice were significantly upregulated leading to precocious and enhanced PCD, and this upregulation could be suppressed by application of the JH agonist methoprene. For the first time, we demonstrate that JH counteracts MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent PCD in controlling fat body remodeling and larval-pupal metamorphosis in Drosophila.

  6. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in Insects: What Is New, What Do We Know, and What Questions Remain?

    PubMed

    Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of JH biosynthesis has significantly changed in the last years. In this review I would like to discuss the following topics: (1) the progresses in understanding the JH biosynthesis pathway. Access to genome sequences has facilitated the identification of all the genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and the completion of comprehensive transcriptional studies, as well as the expression and characterization of recombinant enzymes. Now the existence of different flux directionalites, feed-back loops and pathway branching points in the JH biosynthesis pathways can be explored; (2) the new concepts in the modulation of JH synthesis by allatoregulators. The list of putative JH modulators is increasing. I will discuss their possible role during the different physiological states of the CA; (3) the new theoretical and physiological frameworks for JH synthesis analysis. I will discuss the bases of the flux model for JH biosynthesis. JH plays multiple roles in the control of ovary development in female mosquitoes; therefore, the CA presents different physiological states, where JH synthesis is altered by gating the flux at distinctive points in the pathway; (4) in the final section I will identify new challenges and future directions on JH synthesis research.

  7. Comparative ovarian microarray analysis of juvenile hormone-responsive genes in water flea Daphnia magna: potential targets for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Williams, Timothy D; Sato, Tomomi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2017-03-01

    The freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna has been extensively employed in chemical toxicity tests such as OECD Test Guidelines 202 and 211. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the treatment of juvenile hormones (JHs) or their analogues to female daphnids can induce male offspring production. Based on this finding, a rapid screening method for detection of chemicals with JH-activity was recently developed using adult D. magna. This screening system determines whether a chemical has JH-activity by investigating the male offspring inducibility. Although this is an efficient high-throughput short-term screening system, much remains to be discovered about JH-responsive pathways in the ovary, and whether different JH-activators act via the same mechanism. JH-responsive genes in the ovary including developing oocytes are still largely undescribed. Here, we conducted comparative microarray analyses using ovaries from Daphnia magna treated with fenoxycarb (Fx; artificial JH agonist) or methyl farnesoate (MF; a putative innate JH in daphnids) to elucidate responses to JH agonists in the ovary, including developing oocytes, at a JH-sensitive period for male sex determination. We demonstrate that induction of hemoglobin genes is a well-conserved response to JH even in the ovary, and a potential adverse effect of JH agonist is suppression of vitellogenin gene expression, that might cause reduction of offspring number. This is the first report demonstrating different transcriptomics profiles from MF and an artificial JH agonist in D. magna ovary, improving understanding the tissue-specific mode-of-action of JH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  9. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis. PMID:26894583

  10. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway.

  11. Characterization of the Juvenile Hormone Pathway in the Viviparous Cockroach, Diploptera punctata

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F.; Tobe, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway. PMID:25706877

  12. Juvenile hormone esterase: biochemistry and structure

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Normal insect development requires a precisely timed, precipitous drop in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) titer. This drop occurs through a coordinated halt in JH biosynthesis and increase in JH metabolism. In many species, JH esterase (JHE) is critical for metabolism of the resonance-stabilized methyl ester of JH. JHE metabolizes JH with a high kcat/KM ratio that results primarily from an exceptionally low KM. Here we review the biochemistry and structure of authentic and recombinant JHEs from six insect orders, and present updated diagnostic criteria that help to distinguish JHEs from other carboxylesterases. The use of a JHE-encoding gene to improve the insecticidal efficacy of biopesticides is also discussed. PMID:23543805

  13. Antifungal Activity of a Synthetic Cationic Peptide against the Plant Pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and Three Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric T; Evans, Kervin O; Dowd, Patrick F

    2015-09-01

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 μg/ml, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 μg/ml of JH8944. Most conidia of Fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with 50 μg/ml of JH8944. Germinating F. graminearum conidia required 238 μg/ml of JH8944 for 90% growth inhibition. The peptide did not cause any damage to tissues surrounding maize leaf punctures when tested at a higher concentration of 250 μg/ml even after 3 days. Liposomes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol were susceptible to leakage after treatment with 25 and 50 μg/ml of JH8944. These experiments suggest this peptide destroys fungal membrane integrity and could be utilized for control of crop fungal pathogens.

  14. [Assessment of the quality of the newly developed rapid oscillometric blood pressure measurement].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Ruriko; Kimura, Sonoko; Kawagoe, Izumi; Kanai, Masanori; Mitsuhata, Hiromasa

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of the Fukuda Denshi DS-7000 noninvasive blood pressure measurement device equipped with two cuff deflation mode: a normal mode and quick mode. Twenty-one patients undergoing elective surgery were divided into two groups by using cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI): no atherosclerotic group and atherosclerotic group. During anesthesia, two modes of blood pressure measurements were examined with the normal mode followed by the quick mode. All the patients completed the study, resulting in a total of 1034 paired blood pressure measurements. In both no atherosclerotic group and atherosclerotic group, there were statistically significant correlations among systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in two modes. This results certified the accuracy of the quick mode measurement. The newly developed rapid oscillometric blood pressure measurement can be useful for perioperative management especially in atherosclerotic patients.

  15. Delta-Tocotrienol: Radiation Protection and Effects on Signal Transduction Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    101.3) Tween 80, Brij combinations Prodrugs 1. DT3 Glycinate (JH-V-91.2) 2. DT3 Succinate (JH-V-103.2) 3. DT3 Glucoside (JH-V-119) Rn DT3 Group Added...EM1 75 25 25 56 EM2 100 25 25 25 DT3 as Prodrugs Glycinate 225 6 6 19 Succinate 240 19 13 38 Glucoside 225 37* 38 44 (75) * contains 10% ethanol

  16. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis, oocyte growth and vitellogenin accumulation in Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Delisle, J; Cusson, M

    1999-06-01

    We assessed the effects of age and mating status on in vitro juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, oocyte growth, egg production and vitellogenin (Vg) accumulation in the tortricid moths, Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana. To determine whether vitellogenesis is dependent on the presence of JH, we also examined the effects of decapitation and JH analog treatments on egg production. In both species, the corpora allata (CA) of adult females released fmol quantities of JH, with JH II being the major homolog produced. The CA began producing detectable quantities of JH around the time of emergence. Full activation of the CA was observed a few hours sooner in C. fumiferana than in C. rosaceana. In pharate adults and young virgin females of both species, growth of the basal oocyte reflected changes in CA activity. Decapitation of newly emerged females significantly reduced egg production, but treatment of decapitated females with the JH analog methoprene resulted in egg production that was similar to (C. fumiferana) or greater than (C. rosaceana) that of controls, indicating that JH is required for oocyte maturation. Vg was first observed in the hemolymph before the presumptive time of CA activation, suggesting that the synthesis of this protein is not dependent on JH. The presence of normal quantities of Vg in the hemolymph of pupae decapitated before CA activation confirmed this hypothesis. The Vg titer underwent a transient decline following CA activation and was significantly lower in mated than in virgin females of both species 3 and 5 days after copulation. Since CA activation at emergence and mating are both expected to cause a rise in the JH titer, we suggest that the declines in the levels of Vg result from JH-enhanced Vg uptake by the developing oocytes. Mating induced a significant increase in egg production but had no measurable impact on rates of JH biosynthesis in vitro.

  17. The ectoparasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) uses instar-specific endocrine disruption strategies to suppress the development of its host Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, John P; Bell, Howard A; Audsley, Neil; Marris, Gay C; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne; Bryning, Gareth; Frisco, Caroline; Cusson, Michel

    2006-01-01

    To successfully complete its development, the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis must inhibit the moult of its host, Lacanobia oleracea. In the present study, we examined the possibility that moult- and metamorphosis-associated endocrine events may be disrupted in caterpillars parasitized as newly moulted last (sixth) instars. Juvenile hormone (JH) titres on days 2 and 5 of the final stadium were significantly higher (> 100 fold) in parasitized than in non-parasitized hosts, in which JH was essentially absent. Elevated JH levels were associated with reduced haemolymph JH esterase (JHE) activity (down by 99.8%) and enhanced in vitro JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) (up to 4.5 fold). Wasp adults and/or larvae, in which we measured high levels of JH III (up to 2.7 ng/g), but little or no JH I or JH II, were not seen as likely sources of JH in parasitized hosts, in which we found mostly JH I and JH II. In addition, removal of parasitoid eggs or larvae after oviposition did not prevent the rise in JH titres seen in parasitoid-laden hosts, suggesting that wasp venom may be responsible for the observed hormonal dysfunction. Host haemolymph 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) levels were largely unaffected by parasitism during the final stadium although they were observed to increase earlier and decrease more rapidly in parasitized insects. We compare these results with those reported earlier for L. oleracea larvae parasitized by E. pennicornis as penultimate (fifth) instars, which display significantly depressed 20-E titres relative to control larvae. We conclude that E. pennicornis employs host endocrine-disruption strategies that differ according to whether the host is parasitized as a penultimate or final-stadium larva.

  18. Identification of two juvenile hormone inducible transcription factors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Ueno, Chihiro; Nakamura, Yuki; Kinjoh, Terunori; Ito, Yuka; Shimura, Sachiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Shigeo; Mita, Kazuei; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kamimura, Manabu

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many physiological processes in insects. However, the signal cascades in which JH is active have not yet been fully elucidated, particularly in comparison to another major hormone ecdysteroid. Here we identified two JH inducible transcription factors as candidate components of JH signaling pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. DNA microarray analysis showed that expression of two transcription factor genes, E75 and Enhancer of split mβ (E(spl)mβ), was induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I) in NIAS-Bm-aff3 cells. Real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that expression of four E75 isoforms (E75A, E75B, E75C and E75D) and E(spl)mβ was 3-8 times greater after JH I addition. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide did not suppress JH-induced expression of the genes, indicating that they were directly induced by JH. JH-induced expression of E75 and E(spl)mβ was also observed in four other B. mori cell lines and in larval hemocytes of final instar larvae. Notably, E75A expression was induced very strongly in larval hemocytes by topical application of the JH analog fenoxycarb; the level of induced expression was comparable to that produced by feeding larvae with 20-hydroxyecdysone. These results suggest that E75 and E(spl)mβ are general and direct target genes of JH and that the transcription factors encoded by these genes play important roles in JH signaling.

  19. Juvenile hormone-activated phospholipase C pathway enhances transcriptional activation by the methoprene-tolerant protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengcheng; Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhu, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of a wide diversity of developmental and physiological events in insects. Although the intracellular JH receptor methoprene-tolerant protein (MET) functions in the nucleus as a transcriptional activator for specific JH-regulated genes, some JH responses are mediated by signaling pathways that are initiated by proteins associated with plasma membrane. It is unknown whether the JH-regulated gene expression depends on the membrane-mediated signal transduction. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we found that JH activated the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway and quickly increased the levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and intracellular calcium, leading to activation and autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). When abdomens from newly emerged mosquitoes were cultured in vitro, the JH-activated gene expression was repressed substantially if specific inhibitors of PLC or CaMKII were added to the medium together with JH. In newly emerged female mosquitoes, RNAi-mediated depletion of PLC or CaMKII considerably reduced the expression of JH-responsive genes, including the Krüppel homolog 1 gene (AaKr-h1) and the early trypsin gene (AaET). JH-induced loading of MET to the promoters of AaKr-h1 and AaET was weakened drastically when either PLC or CaMKII was inactivated in the cultured tissues. Therefore, the results suggest that the membrane-initiated signaling pathway modifies the DNA-binding activity of MET via phosphorylation and thus facilitates the genomic responses to JH. In summary, this study reveals an interplay of genomic and nongenomic signaling mechanisms of JH. PMID:25825754

  20. Wolbachia-induced paternal defect in Drosophila is likely by interaction with the juvenile hormone pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Ya; Xiong, En-Juan; Li, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Lin-Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2014-06-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many insect species. They can manipulate the host's reproduction to increase their own maternal transmission. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one such manipulation, which is expressed as embryonic lethality when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females. However, matings between males and females carrying the same Wolbachia strain result in viable progeny. The molecular mechanisms of CI are currently not clear. We have previously reported that the gene Juvenile hormone-inducible protein 26 (JhI-26) exhibited the highest upregulation in the 3rd instar larval testes of Drosophila melanogaster when infected by Wolbachia. This is reminiscent of an interaction between Wolbachia and juvenile hormone (JH) pathway in flies. Considering that Jhamt gene encodes JH acid methyltransferase, a key regulatory enzyme of JH biosynthesis, and that methoprene-tolerant (Met) has been regarded as the best JH receptor candidate, we first compared the expression of Jhamt and Met between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected fly testes to investigate whether Wolbachia infection influence the JH signaling pathway. We found that the expressions of Jhamt and Met were significantly increased in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting an interaction of Wolbachia with the JH signaling pathway. Then, we found that overexpression of JhI-26 in Wolbachia-free transgenic male flies caused paternal-effect lethality that mimics the defects associated with CI. JhI-26 overexpressing males resulted in significantly decrease in hatch rate. Surprisingly, Wolbachia-infected females could rescue the egg hatch. In addition, we showed that overexpression of JhI-26 caused upregulation of the male accessory gland protein (Acp) gene CG10433, but not vice versa. This result suggests that JhI-26 may function at the upstream of CG10433. Likewise, overexpression of CG10433 also resulted in paternal-effect lethality. Both JhI-26 and CG10433 overexpressing males

  1. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action. PMID:26927076

  2. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  3. Juvenile Hormone Enhances Aversive Learning Performance in 2-Day Old Worker Honey Bees while Reducing Their Attraction to Queen Mandibular Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees’ attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP’s effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  4. Methoprene-tolerant 1 regulates gene transcription to maintain insect larval status.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Liu, Chun-Yan; Liu, Wen; Wang, Di; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-08-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are regulated by two hormones: 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). The hormone 20E regulates gene transcription via the nuclear receptor EcR to promote metamorphosis, whereas JH regulates gene transcription via its intracellular receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) to prevent larval-pupal transition. However, the function and mechanism of Met in various insect developments are not well understood. We propose that Met1 plays a key role in maintaining larval status not only by promoting JH-responsive gene transcription but also by repressing 20E-responsive gene transcription in the Lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. Met1 protein is increased during feeding stage and decreased during molting and metamorphic stages. Met1 is upregulated by JH III and a low concentration of 20E independently, but is downregulated by a high concentration of 20E. Knockdown of Met1 in larvae causes precocious pupation, decrease in JH pathway gene expression, and increase in 20E pathway gene expression. Met1 interacts with heat shock protein 90 and binds to JH response element to regulate Krüppel homolog 1 transcription in JH III induction. Met1 interacts with ultraspiracle protein 1 (USP1) to repress 20E transcription complex EcRB1/USP1 formation and binding to ecdysone response element. These data indicate that JH via Met1 regulates JH pathway gene expression and represses 20E pathway gene expression to maintain the larval status.

  5. Juvenile hormone diol kinase. I. Purification, characterization, and substrate specificity of juvenile hormone-selective diol kinase from Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Robert A; Welch, William H; Schooley, David A

    2002-06-14

    Manduca sexta juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) catalyzes the conversion of juvenile hormone (JH) diol to JH diol phosphate. JHDK may be the first example of a phosphotransferase directly involved in the catabolism and inactivation of a lipid-soluble hormone. JHDK is an enzyme crucial for secondary metabolism of JH and possesses high specificity and catalytic efficiency for JH diol. In this study, the purification and characterization of native JHDK are described; its enzymatic properties are examined; and its role in cellular JH metabolism is explored. Using a variety of potential substrates, we show that JHDK has a preference for ATP, but will catalyze the formation of JH diol phosphate with GTP as the phosphate donor. JHDK has a nanomolar K(m) for JH I diol and a low micromolar value for MgATP. JH II and III diols also serve as phosphate acceptors with low micromolar K(m), whereas other diol derivatives of terpenoid esters structurally similar to JH metabolites are not phosphorylated. The reaction proceeds via a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. JHDK is active as a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 20 kDa. JHDK binds 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine and is inhibited by micromolar levels of Ca2+.

  6. Teaching Geography Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Jones, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    Twenty suggestions in five conceptual areas -- interdependence, population, pollution, resource utilization, land use -- are offered to teachers incorporating environmental studies into their social studies curricula. (JH)

  7. Juvenile Hormone Prevents 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced Metamorphosis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of a Newly Identified Broad Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5′-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  8. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Sources of propionate for the biogenesis of ethyl-braced insect juvenile hormones: role of isoleucine and valine

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, P.A.; Baker, F.C.; Tsai, L.W.; Reuter, C.C.; Schooley, D.A.

    1987-11-01

    Corpora allata from adult female Manduca sexta biosynthesis the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) III and the unusual ethyl-branched homologue JH II in vitro. The authors maintained corpora allata in medium 199 using (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as the source of the JH methyl ester moiety and as a mass marker. This allowed measurement of the relative contributions of /sup 14/C-labeled precursors to the biogenesis of JH II and III carbon skeletons. They showed efficient incorporation of a propionate equivalent, from isoleucine or valine catabolism, into the ethyl-branched portion of JH II, using double-label liquid scintillation counting of isolated JHs and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring of JH deuteromethoxyhydrin derivatives. Methionine was a poor source of propionate for JH II biosynthesis, while glucose, succinate, threonine, and ..beta..-alanine did not contribute propionate at all. Leucine, isoleucine, and glucose incorporated into JH III and the acetate-derivative portion of JH II.

  10. A coordinated expression of biosynthetic enzymes controls the flux of juvenile hormone precursors in the corpora allata of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nouzova, Marcela; Edwards, Marten J; Mayoral, Jaime G; Noriega, Fernando G

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of metamorphosis and ovarian development in mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes show developmental and dynamically regulated changes of JH synthesis. Newly emerged females have corpora allata (CA) with low biosynthetic activity, but they produce high amounts of JH a day later; blood feeding results in a striking decrease in JH synthesis, but the CA returns to a high level of JH synthesis three days later. To understand the molecular bases of these dynamic changes we combined transcriptional studies of 11 of the 13 enzymes of the JH pathway with a functional analysis of JH synthesis. We detected up to a 1000-fold difference in the levels of mRNA in the CA among the JH biosynthetic enzymes studied. There was a coordinated expression of the 11 JH biosynthetic enzymes in female pupae and adult mosquito. Increases or decreases in transcript levels for all the enzymes resulted in increases or decreases of JH synthesis; suggesting that transcript changes are at least partially responsible for the dynamic changes of JH biosynthesis observed. JH synthesis by the CA was progressively increased in vitro by addition of exogenous precursors such as geranyl-diphosphate, farnesyl-diphosphate, farnesol, farnesal and farnesoic acid. These results suggest that the supply of these precursors and not the activity of the last 6 pathway enzymes is rate limiting in these glands. Nutrient reserves play a key role in the regulation of JH synthesis. Nutritionally deficient females had reduced transcript levels for the genes encoding JH biosynthetic enzymes and reduced JH synthesis. Our studies suggest that JH synthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools, enzyme levels and external regulators such as nutrients and brain factors. Enzyme levels might need to surpass a minimum threshold to achieve a net flux of precursors through the biosynthetic

  11. Through-Bond Correlation of Sugar and Base Protons in Unlabeled Nucleic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Anh Tuân

    2001-12-01

    This work presents two methods for through-bond correlation between sugar and base protons in view of model-independent assignment in unlabeled or slightly enriched nucleic acids. Each method uses a combination of multiple-bond and one-bond heteronuclear J-couplings to the aromatic carbon C6 for pyrimidines (3JH1‧,C6 and 1JH6,C6) or C8 for purines (3JH1‧,C8 and 1JH8,C8). The techniques are demonstrated in the duplex [d(CGCGAATTCGCG)]2 and the dimeric G-quadruplex [d(GGGTTCAGG)]2 at natural abundance.

  12. "Feeling Books" Develop Social and Personal Sensitivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cianciolo, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    Professional educators should expose children to "feeling books" which will help children learn about ". . . people's motivations, their strengths and frailties, their sensitivities and their hopes and dreams." (JH)

  13. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    PubMed

    McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees.

  14. Vinyloxychloro-cyclotriphosphazenes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-06

    STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited. 17 . DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In...trans): 4.6 (m), JH-H (trans): 13.6, JH-H (gem)=2.2, 3JPH n 2.0; 6-P-0-CH-CH 2 (cis)-4.2 (m), JH-H (cis)-5.9, JH-H (gem) - 2.2, 4pH ’ 1.8; 6 -P(OCH-CH...920 (m, PN), 870 (m, PN), 810 (m), 770 (m), 695 (m). There are two possible routes of reaction for anambident enolate anion leading 17 to

  15. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Daphnia magna has been used extensively to evaluate organism- and population-level responses to pollutants in acute toxicity and reproductive toxicity tests. We have previously reported that exposure to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists results in a reduction of reproductive function and production of male offspring in a cyclic parthenogenesis, D. magna. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided tools to understand better the responses to pollutants in aquatic organisms, including D. magna. DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal daphnids exposed to JH agonists: methoprene (125, 250 and 500 ppb), fenoxycarb (0.5, 1 and 2 ppb) and epofenonane (50, 100 and 200 ppb). Exposure to these JH analogs resulted in chemical-specific patterns of gene expression. The heat map analyses based on hierarchical clustering revealed a similar pattern between treatments with a high dose of methoprene and with epofenonane. In contrast, treatment with low to middle doses of methoprene resulted in similar profiles to fenoxycarb treatments. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered as JH-responsive genes. These data suggest that fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism compared with other JH analogs, agreeing with data of previously reported toxicity tests. In conclusion, D. magna DNA microarray is useful for the classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes.

  16. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-02-26

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action.

  17. Teaching Geography Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Jones, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    Twenty suggestions in five conceptual areas -- interdependence, population, pollution, resource utilization, land use -- are offered to teachers incorporating environmental studies into their social studies curricula. (JH)

  18. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  19. Influence of juvenile hormone and mating on oogenesis and oviposition in the codling moth, cydia pomonella

    PubMed

    Webb; Shu; Ramaswamy; Dorn

    1999-01-01

    Oogenesis in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the role of juvenile hormones (JHs) were addressed. Rudimentary ovarian structures were recognisable in day 3-4 pupae, when haemolymph JH was still undetectable by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion mode (GC-MS/SIM). The presence of developing oocytes was observed by light microscopy on day 8, coincident with very low JH titres (0.74 +/- 0.05 ng/ml JH II). Chorionation was only evident upon emergence, following an increase in JH in the pharate adult (0h old: 4.71 +/- 0.34 ng/ml JH II). Analysis of haemolymph from virgin and mated females indicated that JH II was predominant, with approximately equal and lower quantities of JHs I and III (3.3- to 5.0-fold less). When pupae or newly emerged adults were treated with JH homologues, no alteration in ovarian protein content was apparent, but the JH mimetic, fenoxycarb, depressed the number of oocytes filling >/= 50% follicular volume. Chorion deposition was stimulated by JHs I, II, or III (10 &mgr;g), but not by fenoxycarb (0.05 &mgr;g, 10 &mgr;g). Mating provided correct stimuli for enhanced choriogenesis and egg laying, and, since haemolymph JH titres were concomitantly elevated (approximately 2-fold), it was postulated that the rise in JH elicited both these events. Application of JHs to virgin females, however, could not mimic mating; only increases in choriogenesis were induced: JH-treatment of virgins (or mated insects) significantly decreased oviposition rates over 24 and 48 h and markedly reduced the life-time total number of eggs. Arch. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Eng, W S; Robles, S; Vogt, R G; Wiśniewski, J R; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural 3H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated [125I]12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added 125I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of [125I]12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  1. Argonaute 1 is indispensable for juvenile hormone mediated oogenesis in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiasheng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2013-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is the primary hormone controlling vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, an evolutionarily primitive insect species with panoistic ovaries. However, molecular mechanisms of locust oogenesis remain unclear and the role of microRNA (miRNA) in JH mediated locust vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation has not been explored. Using miRNA sequencing and quantification with small RNA libraries derived from fat bodies of JH-deprived versus JH analog-exposed female adult locusts, we have identified 83 JH up-regulated and 60 JH down-regulated miRNAs. QRT-PCR validation has confirmed that transcription of selected miRNAs responded to JH administration and correlated with changes in endogenous hemolymph JH titers. Depletion of Argonaute 1 (Ago1), a key regulator of miRNA biogenesis and function by RNAi in female adult locusts dramatically decreased the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and severely impaired follicular epithelium development, terminal oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. Our data indicate that Ago1 and Ago1-dependent miRNAs play a crucial role in locust vitellogenesis and egg production.

  2. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  3. Military-Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Epidemiology, Immunology, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    November 2006-January 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2;56(4):73-6. Salazar MI, Richardson JH, Sanchez- Vargas I, Olson KE, Beaty BJ. 2007. Dengue...virus type 2: replication and tropisms in orally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. BMC Microbiol. 30;7(1):9 Richardson JH, Molina-Cruz A, Salazar

  4. Microarray Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Response in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was used to analyze the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on genome-wide gene expression. JH is a member of a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Altho...

  5. Juvenile Hormone Regulates the Expression of Drosophila Epac– a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rap1 Small GTPase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The juvenile hormones (JH) are a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Although well-studied from the physiological standpoint, the molecular actions of JH remain unclear. Using cDNA microchip array technology, we previously identifi...

  6. Antifungal activity of a synthetic cationic peptide against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and three Fusarium species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 µg ml 1, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 µg ml 1. Most conidia of Fusa...

  7. Methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression and juvenile hormone titers in the life cycle of a highly eusocial stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos Antônio Mendes; Silva, Renato Pereira; Borges, Naiara Araújo; de Carvalho, Washington João; Walter, S Leal; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile; Ueira Vieira, Carlos; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers. We confirmed that mfe is exclusively expressed in the corpora allata. The JH titer is high in the second larval instar, drops in the third, and rises again as the larvae enter metamorphosis. During the pupal stage, mfe expression is initialy elevated, but then gradually drops to low levels before adult emergence. No variation was, however, seen in the JH titer. In adult virgin queens, mfe expression and the JH titer are significantly elevated, possibly associated with their reproductive potential. For workers we found that JH titers are lower in foragers than in nurse bees, while mfe expression did not differ. Stingless bees are, thus, distinct from honey bee workers, suggesting that they have maintained the ancestral gonadotropic function for JH. Hence, the physiological circuitries underlying a highly eusocial life style may be variable, even within a monophyletic clade such as the corbiculate bees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A cumulative feeding threshold required for vitellogenesis can be obviated with juvenile hormone treatment in lubber grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, R B; Hatle, J D

    2008-01-01

    Developmental thresholds can ensure that an adequate condition has been attained to proceed through major transitions (e.g. initiation of reproduction, metamorphosis). Nutrition is critical to attaining most thresholds, because it is needed for both growth and storage. Attaining a threshold typically stimulates the release of hormones that commit the animal to the developmental transition, yet the relationships between the nutrition needed for developmental thresholds and these endocrine signals are poorly understood. Lubber grasshoppers require a cumulative feeding threshold to initiate vitellogenesis and potentially commit to oviposition. We tested the relative roles of the nutritional threshold and the major gonadotropin (juvenile hormone; JH) in initiating vitellogenesis and committing to oviposition. The source of JH was removed from all females, and then JH analog was applied after different amounts of feeding. Threshold feeding was not required to initiate vitellogenesis, suggesting that sub-threshold grasshoppers are competent to respond to JH. Further, sub-threshold grasshoppers went on to oviposit earlier than supra-threshold grasshoppers treated with JH at the same time. Hence, threshold feeding is required only to cause the production and release of JH. At the same time, we also found that individuals that were restored with JH late in life tended to favor current reproduction, at the expense of future reproduction. Both time to oviposition and vitellogenin profiles were consistent with this developmental allocation. Taken together, our results suggest that lubber grasshoppers adjust reproductive tactics primarily in response to nutrition (which only serves to release JH) and secondarily in response to age.

  9. The effect of juvenile hormone on Polistes wasp fertility varies with cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Sheehan, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Social insects provide good models for studying how and why the mechanisms that underlie reproduction vary, as there is dramatic reproductive plasticity within and between species. Here, we test how the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on fertility covaries with cooperative behavior in workers and nest-founding queens in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. P. metricus foundresses and workers appear morphologically similar and both are capable of reproduction, though there is variation in the extent of social cooperation and the probability of reproduction across castes. Do the endocrine mechanisms that mediate reproduction co-vary with cooperative behavior? We found dramatic differences in the effect of JH on fertility across castes. In non-cooperative nest-founding queens, all individuals responded to JH by increasing their fertility. However, in cooperative workers, the effect of JH on fertility varies with body weight; large workers increase their fertility in response to JH while small workers do not. The variation in JH response may be an adaptation to facilitate resource allocation based on the probability of independent reproduction. This work contrasts with previous studies in closely related Polistes dominulus paper wasps, in which both foundresses and workers form cooperative associations and both castes show similar, condition-dependent JH response. The variation in JH responsiveness within and between species suggests that endocrine responsiveness and the factors influencing caste differentiation are surprisingly evolutionarily labile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The stress of secondary school for vulnerable students.

    PubMed

    Safer, D J

    1986-10-01

    An assessment of the stress of junior high/middle school (JH/MS) can be made by comparing overall behavior and academic student patterns in JH/MS with those in elementary school (ES), and by evaluating the differential educational consequences experienced by JH/MS students who had varying degrees of maladjustment in ES. Specific numeric data indicate that the environment is far more open, combative, frightening, impersonal, and academically taxing in JH/MS than in the ES. Partly as a result, suspensions, unexcused absenteeism, and grade failure occur at a much greater overall rate in JH/MS. Also, the immediate aftermath of these school adversities is significantly more deleterious in JH/MS than in ES. An analysis of the differential outcome data reveals that JH/MS students who had prominent ES maladjustments have a 5-13-fold greater rate of grade failure, suspension, and undue absenteeism than do students without such ES difficulties, and that generally students without major ES malajustment patterns continue to perform well after their entry to secondary school. In effect, then, JH/MS is primarily a stressful environment for students who are vulnerable on entry.

  11. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  12. Precocene-I inhibits juvenile hormone biosynthesis, ovarian activation, aggression and alters sterility signal production in bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) workers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important regulator of development and physiology in insects. While in many insect species, including bumble bees, JH function as gonadotropin in adults, in some highly eusocial insects its role has shifted to regulate social behavior including division of labor, dominanc...

  13. Role of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in adult morphogenesis and in adult ecdysis of Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent.

  14. The pleiotropic allatoregulatory neuropeptides and their receptors: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Heleen; Gijbels, Marijke; Lismont, Els; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Marchal, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormones (JH) are highly pleiotropic insect hormones essential for post-embryonic development. The circulating JH titer in the hemolymph of insects is influenced by enzymatic degradation, binding to JH carrier proteins, uptake and storage in target organs, but evidently also by rates of production at its site of synthesis, the corpora allata (CA). The multiple processes in which JH is involved alongside the critical significance of JH in insect development emphasize the importance for elucidating the control of JH production. Production of JH in CA cells is regulated by different factors: by neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate, but also by allatoregulatory neuropeptides originating from the brain and axonally transported to the CA where they bind to their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Different classes of allatoregulatory peptides exist which have other functions aside from acting as influencers of JH production. These pleiotropic neuropeptides regulate different processes in different insect orders. In this mini-review, we will give an overview of allatotropins and allatostatins, and their recently characterized GPCRs with a view to better understand their modes of action and different action sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Juvenile Hormone Regulation of Drosophila Epac - A Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rap1 Small GTPase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we utilized a microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster to analyze the effect of (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH) on genome-wide gene expression in Drosophila S2 cells. Treatment with JH yielded a collection of 32 gene transcripts that demonstrated a ...

  16. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  17. Ligand-binding properties of a juvenile hormone receptor, Methoprene-tolerant

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Jean-Philippe; Iwema, Thomas; Epa, V. Chandana; Takaki, Keiko; Rynes, Jan; Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a sesquiterpenoid of vital importance for insect development, yet the molecular basis of JH signaling remains obscure, mainly because a bona fide JH receptor has not been identified. Mounting evidence points to the basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH)/Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the best JH receptor candidate. However, details of how Met transduces the hormonal signal are missing. Here, we demonstrate that Met specifically binds JH III and its biologically active mimics, methoprene and pyriproxyfen, through its C-terminal PAS domain. Substitution of individual amino acids, predicted to form a ligand-binding pocket, with residues possessing bulkier side chains reduces JH III binding likely because of steric hindrance. Although a mutation that abolishes JH III binding does not affect a Met–Met complex that forms in the absence of methoprene, it prevents both the ligand-dependent dissociation of the Met–Met dimer and the ligand-dependent interaction of Met with its partner bHLH-PAS protein Taiman. These results show that Met can sense the JH signal through direct, specific binding, thus establishing a unique class of intracellular hormone receptors. PMID:22167806

  18. Ligand-binding properties of a juvenile hormone receptor, Methoprene-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jean-Philippe; Iwema, Thomas; Epa, V Chandana; Takaki, Keiko; Rynes, Jan; Jindra, Marek

    2011-12-27

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a sesquiterpenoid of vital importance for insect development, yet the molecular basis of JH signaling remains obscure, mainly because a bona fide JH receptor has not been identified. Mounting evidence points to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the best JH receptor candidate. However, details of how Met transduces the hormonal signal are missing. Here, we demonstrate that Met specifically binds JH III and its biologically active mimics, methoprene and pyriproxyfen, through its C-terminal PAS domain. Substitution of individual amino acids, predicted to form a ligand-binding pocket, with residues possessing bulkier side chains reduces JH III binding likely because of steric hindrance. Although a mutation that abolishes JH III binding does not affect a Met-Met complex that forms in the absence of methoprene, it prevents both the ligand-dependent dissociation of the Met-Met dimer and the ligand-dependent interaction of Met with its partner bHLH-PAS protein Taiman. These results show that Met can sense the JH signal through direct, specific binding, thus establishing a unique class of intracellular hormone receptors.

  19. Role of Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Transterrin Response In Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-21

    for identifying dividing cells. Int. J. Cancer, 27::329-334. 13. Wrba, F., Ritzinger, E., Reiner, A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR...A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR) expression in breast carcinoma and its possible relationship to prognosis. An immunohistochemical

  20. Multidisciplinary Analysis and Control of High Performance Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-06

    Gaithersburg, MD, 163-168. PARK, J.H., and RIZZONI , G., 1994, A new interpretation of the fault-detection filter. 1: closed-form algorithm. International...Journal of Control, 60, 767-787. PARK, J.H., HALEVI, Y. and RIZZONI , G., 1994, A new interpretation of the fault-detection filter. 2: the optimal detection

  1. John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2015-11-23

    This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  2. Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile hormone-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shemshedini, L.; Wilson, T.G. )

    1990-03-01

    The Met mutant of Drosophila melanogaster is highly resistant to juvenile hormone III (JH III) or its chemical analog, methoprene, an insect growth regulator. Five major mechanisms of insecticide resistance were examined in Met and susceptible Met{sup +} flies. These two strains showed only minor differences when penetration, excretion, tissue sequestration, or metabolism of ({sup 3}H)JH III was measured. In contrast, when we examined JH III binding by a cytosolic binding protein from a JH target tissue, Met strains had a 10-fold lower binding affinity than did Met{sup +} strains. Studies using deficiency-bearing chromosomes provide strong evidence that the Met locus controls the binding protein characteristics and may encode the protein. These studies indicate that resistance in Met flies results from reduced binding affinity of a cytosolic binding protein for JH III.

  3. Hormonal control of sexual receptivity in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Schal, C; Chiang, A S

    1995-09-29

    Many animals exhibit specific behaviors associated with sexual receptivity only when they are reproductively competent. In insects with gonadal maturation cycles, these behaviors usually coincide with ovarian maturation. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), regulates female reproductive physiology. Various experimental manipulations, including ablation of the CA, therapy with JH analogs, CA denervation, ovariectomy, and changing nutrient quality, coupled with time-lapse video recording, support the hypothesis that JH also controls female sexual receptivity. A re-examination of the role of the CA in the maturation of male sexual readiness shows that, while sexual behavior develops in the absence of JH in both B. germanica and Supella longipalpa, JH accelerates the expression of sexual readiness.

  4. Coupling between H+ transport and anaerobic glycolysis in turtle urinary bladder: effect of inhibitors of H+ ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, P.R.; Husted, R.F.; Mueller, A.; Beauwens, R.

    1981-03-15

    The coupling between H+ transport (JH) and anaerobic glycolysis was examined in vitro in an anaerobic preparation of turtle urinary bladder. JH was measured as the short-circuit current after Na+ transport was abolished with ouabain and by pH stat titration. The media were gassed with N2 and 1% CO2 (PO2 less than 0.5 mm Hg) and contained 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, JH was not inhibited by 3 mM serosal (S) cyanide or by 0.1 mM mucosal (M) dinitrophenol. Control anaerobic lactate production (Jlac) of 47 bladders was plotted as a function of simultaneously measured JH. The slope of Jlac on JH was 0.58

  5. How does juvenile hormone control insect metamorphosis and reproduction?

    PubMed

    Riddiford, Lynn M

    2012-12-01

    In insects juvenile hormone (JH) regulates both metamorphosis and reproduction. This lecture focuses on our current understanding of JH action at the molecular level in both of these processes based primarily on studies in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The roles of the JH receptor complex and the transcription factors that it regulates during larval molting and metamorphosis are summarized. Also highlighted are the intriguing interactions of the JH and insulin signaling pathways in both imaginal disc development and vitellogenesis. Critical actions of JH and its receptor in the timing of maturation of the adult optic lobe and of female receptivity in Drosophila are also discussed.

  6. Behavioural effects of juvenile hormone and their influence on division of labour in leaf-cutting ant societies.

    PubMed

    Norman, Victoria C; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour in social insects represents a major evolutionary transition, but the physiological mechanisms that regulate this are still little understood. Experimental work with honey bees, and correlational analyses in other social insects, have implicated juvenile hormone (JH) as a regulatory factor, but direct experimental evidence of behavioural effects of JH in social insects is generally lacking. Here, we used experimental manipulation of JH to show that raised JH levels in leaf-cutting ants results in workers becoming more active, phototactic and threat responsive, and engaging in more extranidal activity - behavioural changes that we show are all characteristic of the transition from intranidal work to foraging. These behavioural effects on division of labour suggest that the JH mediation of behaviour occurs across multiple independent evolutions of eusociality, and may be a key endocrine regulator of the division of labour which has produced the remarkable ecological and evolutionary success of social insects.

  7. A mosquito hemolymph odorant-binding protein family member specifically binds juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Hwan; Pham, Van; Jablonka, Willy; Goodman, Walter G; Ribeiro, José M C; Andersen, John F

    2017-09-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of insect development and reproduction. In adult mosquitoes, it is essential for maturation of the ovary and normal male reproductive behavior, but how JH distribution and activity is regulated after secretion is unclear. Here, we report a new type of specific JH-binding protein, given the name mosquito juvenile hormone-binding protein (mJHBP), which circulates in the hemolymph of pupal and adult Aedes aegypti males and females. mJHBP is a member of the odorant-binding protein (OBP) family, and orthologs are present in the genomes of Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquito species. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that mJHBP specifically binds JH II and JH III but not eicosanoids or JH derivatives. mJHBP was crystallized in the presence of JH III and found to have a double OBP domain structure reminiscent of salivary "long" D7 proteins of mosquitoes. We observed that a single JH III molecule is contained in the N-terminal domain binding pocket that is closed in an apparent conformational change by a C-terminal domain-derived α-helix. The electron density for the ligand indicated a high occupancy of the natural 10R enantiomer of JH III. Of note, mJHBP is structurally unrelated to hemolymph JHBP from lepidopteran insects. A low level of expression of mJHBP in Ae. aegypti larvae suggests that it is primarily active during the adult stage where it could potentially influence the effects of JH on egg development, mating behavior, feeding, or other processes.

  8. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  9. Hairy and Groucho mediate the action of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant in gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Tusar T.; Shin, Sang Woon; Dou, Wei; Roy, Sourav; Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Li; Zou, Zhen; Girke, Thomas; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The arthropod-specific juvenile hormone (JH) controls numerous essential functions. Its involvement in gene activation is known to be mediated by the transcription factor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which turns on JH-controlled genes by directly binding to E-box–like motifs in their regulatory regions. However, it remains unclear how JH represses genes. We used the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, in which JH is necessary for reproductive maturation, to show that a repressor, Hairy, is required for the gene-repressive action of JH and Met. The RNA interference (RNAi) screen for Met and Hairy in the Aedes female fat body revealed a large cohort of Met- and Hairy-corepressed genes. Analysis of selected genes from this cohort demonstrated that they are repressed by JH, but RNAi of either Met or Hairy renders JH ineffective in repressing these genes in an in vitro fat-body culture assay. Moreover, this JH action was prevented by the addition of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) to the culture, indicating the existence of an indirect regulatory hierarchy. The lack of Hairy protein in the CHX-treated tissue was verified using immunoblot analysis, and the upstream regions of Met/Hairy-corepressed genes were shown to contain common binding motifs that interact with Hairy. Groucho (gro) RNAi silencing phenocopied the effect of Hairy RNAi knockdown, indicating that it is involved in the JH/Met/Hairy hierarchy. Finally, the requirement of Hairy and Gro for gene repression was confirmed in a cell transfection assay. Thus, our study has established that Hairy and its cofactor Gro mediate the repressive function of JH and Met. PMID:26744312

  10. Mechanistic insights into activation and SOCS3-mediated inhibition of myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated JAK2 mutants from biochemical and structural analyses

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Leila N.; Ungureanu, Daniela; Liau, Nicholas P. D.; Young, Samuel N.; Laktyushin, Artem; Hammaren, Henrik; Lucet, Isabelle S.; Nicola, Nicos A.; Silvennoinen, Olli; Babon, Jeffrey J.; Murphy, James M.

    2014-01-01

    JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) initiates the intracellular signalling cascade downstream of cell surface receptor activation by cognate haematopoietic cytokines, including erythropoietin and thrombopoietin. The pseudokinase (JH2) domain of JAK2 negatively regulates the catalytic activity of the adjacent tyrosine kinase (JH1) domain and mutations within the pseudokinase domain underlie human myeloproliferative neoplasms, including polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocytosis. To date, the mechanism of JH2-mediated inhibition of JH1 kinase activation as well as the susceptibility of pathological mutant JAK2 to inhibition by the physiological negative regulator, SOCS3, have remained unclear. Here, using recombinant, purified JAK2JH1-JH2 proteins, we demonstrate that, when activated, wild-type and myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated mutants of JAK2 exhibit comparable enzymatic activity and inhibition by SOCS3 in in vitro kinase assays. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) showed that JAK2JH1-JH2 exists in an elongated configuration in solution with no evidence for interaction between JH1 and JH2 domains in cis. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which JAK2’s pseudokinase domain binds and inhibits the activation of the tyrosine kinase domain of a neighbouring JAK2 molecule within a cytokine receptor complex, but does not influence the activity of JAK2 once it has been activated. Our data indicate that, in the absence of the N-terminal FERM domain and thus cytokine receptor association, the wild-type and pathological mutants of JAK2 are enzymatically equivalent and equally susceptible to inhibition by SOCS3. PMID:24354892

  11. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-05-17

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect's life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb'Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb'jhamt In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb'Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb'Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb'jhamt Gb'Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb'myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb'jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb'myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb'myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5-8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development.

  12. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect’s life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb’Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb’jhamt. In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb’Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb’Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb’jhamt. Gb’Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb’myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb’jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb’myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb’myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5–8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development. PMID:27140602

  13. Juvenile hormone facilitates the antagonism between adult reproduction and diapause through the methoprene-tolerant gene in the female Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Fen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In insects, the process whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates short-day (SD)-induced reproductive diapause has been previously investigated. However, we still do not understand the mechanism by which JH regulates long-day (LD)-induced reproductive diapause. In this study, we use a cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia capable of entering reproductive diapause under LD conditions, as a model to test whether JH regulates female reproductive diapause similar to the mechanism of SD-induced diapause. Our results showed that the JH analog (JHA) methoprene significantly induced ovarian development but inhibited lipid accumulation of diapause-destined adults. Meanwhile, the transcripts of the vitellogenin (Vg) genes were upregulated, whereas the expression of the fat synthesis and stress tolerance genes were downregulated. RNA interference of the JH candidate receptor gene methoprene-tolerant (Met) blocked JH-induced ovarian development and Vg transcription, suggesting a positive regulatory function for JH-Met signaling in reproduction. Furthermore, under reproduction-inducing conditions, Met depletion promoted a diapause-like phenotype, including arrested ovarian development and increased lipid storage, and stimulated the expression of diapause-related genes involved in lipid synthesis and stress tolerance, suggesting JH-Met signaling plays an important role in the inhibition of diapause. Accordingly, our data indicate that JH acts through Met to facilitate development of the reproductive system by upregulating Vg expression while inhibiting diapause by suppressing lipid synthesis and stress tolerance in the cabbage beetle. Combined with previous studies in SD-induced reproductive diapause, we conclude that JH may regulate female reproductive diapause using a conserved Met-dependent pathway, regardless of the length of the photoperiod inducing diapause in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic methanogen isolated from a volcanically active deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, You-Tae; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Park, Cheon-Seok; Holden, James F

    2015-04-01

    A hyperthermophilic methanogen, strain JH146(T), was isolated from 26 °C hydrothermal vent fluid emanating from a crack in basaltic rock at Marker 113 vent, Axial Seamount in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It was identified as an obligate anaerobe that uses only H2 and CO2 for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain is more than 97% similar to other species of the genus Methanocaldococcus . Therefore, overall genome relatedness index analyses were performed to establish that strain JH146(T) represents a novel species. For each analysis, strain JH146(T) was most similar to Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22, which can fix N2 and also comes from Marker 113 vent. However, strain JH146(T) differs from strain FS406-22 in that it cannot fix N2. The average nucleotide identity score for strain JH146(T) was 87%, the genome-to-genome direct comparison score was 33-55% and the species identification score was 93%. For each analysis, strain JH146(T) was below the species delineation cut-off. Full-genome gene synteny analysis showed that strain JH146(T) and strain FS406-22 have 97% genome synteny, but strain JH146(T) was missing the operons necessary for N2 fixation and assimilatory nitrate reduction that are present in strain FS406-22. Based on its whole genome sequence, strain JH146(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Methanocaldococcus for which the name Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens is proposed. The type strain is JH146(T) ( = DSM 27223(T) = KACC 18232(T)).

  15. Expressional and functional analysis of CYP15A1, a juvenile hormone epoxidase, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Ishii, Fumika; Washidu, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Akio; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Miura, Ken; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is synthesized and secreted by the corpora allata. In the final two steps of JH biosynthesis, farnesoic acid (FA) is converted to JH through methylation by JH acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT) and epoxidation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP15. In the present study, we identified a homolog of CYP15 from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TcCYP15A1), and analyzed its expression as well as its role in JH biosynthesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the level of TcCYP15A1 mRNA was high in the embryonic stage as well as in the middle of the final larval instar. In the embryonic stage, the transcript level of TcCYP15A1 started to increase 30h after egg laying (AEL), peaked 54-60h AEL, and was followed by an increase of TcJHAMT mRNA, suggesting that JH biosynthesis started at this time point. TcCYP15A1 mRNA was present, but not exclusively so in the larval corpora allata. The recombinant TcCYP15A1 protein epoxidized both FA and methyl farnesoate (MF) in highly stereo-specific manners. These results confirmed that TcCYP15A1 is involved in JH biosynthesis. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcCYP15A1 in the pre-final larval instar did not result in precocious metamorphosis to pupa, indicating that MF may exhibit JH-like activity in order to maintain the larval status. The double knockdown of TcJHAMT and TcCYP15A1 resulted in pupae and adults with shorter wings, suggesting that the precursors of JH, JH acid and MF, may be essential for wing expansion.

  16. No effect of juvenile hormone on task performance in a bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) supports an evolutionary link between endocrine signaling and social complexity.

    PubMed

    Shpigler, Hagai Y; Siegel, Adam J; Huang, Zachary Y; Bloch, Guy

    2016-09-01

    A hallmark of insect societies is a division of labor among workers specializing in different tasks. In bumblebees the division of labor is related to body size; relatively small workers are more likely to stay inside the nest and tend ("nurse") brood, whereas their larger sisters are more likely to forage. Despite their ecological and economic importance, very little is known about the endocrine regulation of division of labor in bumblebees. We studied the influence of juvenile hormone (JH) on task performance in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We first used a radioimmunoassay to measure circulating JH titers in workers specializing in nursing and foraging activities. Next, we developed new protocols for manipulating JH titers by combining a size-adjusted topical treatment with the allatotoxin Precocene-I and replacement therapy with JH-III. Finally, we used this protocol to test the influence of JH on task performance. JH levels were either similar for nurses and foragers (three colonies), or higher in nurses (two colonies). Nurses had better developed ovaries and JH levels were typically positively correlated with ovarian state. Manipulation of JH titers influenced ovarian development and wax secretion, consistent with earlier allatectomy studies. These manipulations however, did not affect nursing or foraging activity, or the likelihood to specialize in nursing or foraging activity. These findings contrast with honeybees in which JH influences age-related division of labor but not adult female fertility. Thus, the evolution of complex societies in bees was associated with modifications in the way JH influences social behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Juvenile hormone regulates vitellogenin gene expression through insulin-like peptide signaling pathway in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhentao; Xu, Jingjing; Bai, Hua; Zhu, Fang; Palli, Subba R

    2011-12-09

    Our recent studies identified juvenile hormone (JH) and nutrition as the two key signals that regulate vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Juvenile hormone regulation of Vg synthesis has been known for a long time in several insects, but the mechanism of JH action is not known. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of action of these two signals in regulation of Vg gene expression. Injection of bovine insulin or FOXO double-stranded RNA into the previtellogenic, starved, or JH-deficient female adults increased Vg mRNA and protein levels, thereby implicating the pivotal role for insulin-like peptide signaling in the regulation of Vg gene expression and possible cross-talk between JH and insulin-like peptide signaling pathways. Reduction in JH synthesis or its action by RNAi-mediated silencing of genes coding for acid methyltransferase or methoprene-tolerant decreased expression of genes coding for insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and influenced FOXO subcellular localization, resulting in the down-regulation of Vg gene expression. Furthermore, JH application to previtellogenic female beetles induced the expression of genes coding for ILP2 and ILP3, and induced Vg gene expression. FOXO protein expressed in baculovirus system binds to FOXO response element present in the Vg gene promoter. These data suggest that JH functions through insulin-like peptide signaling pathway to regulate Vg gene expression.

  18. Juvenile Hormone Regulates Vitellogenin Gene Expression through Insulin-like Peptide Signaling Pathway in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum*

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Zhentao; Xu, Jingjing; Bai, Hua; Zhu, Fang; Palli, Subba R.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent studies identified juvenile hormone (JH) and nutrition as the two key signals that regulate vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Juvenile hormone regulation of Vg synthesis has been known for a long time in several insects, but the mechanism of JH action is not known. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of action of these two signals in regulation of Vg gene expression. Injection of bovine insulin or FOXO double-stranded RNA into the previtellogenic, starved, or JH-deficient female adults increased Vg mRNA and protein levels, thereby implicating the pivotal role for insulin-like peptide signaling in the regulation of Vg gene expression and possible cross-talk between JH and insulin-like peptide signaling pathways. Reduction in JH synthesis or its action by RNAi-mediated silencing of genes coding for acid methyltransferase or methoprene-tolerant decreased expression of genes coding for insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and influenced FOXO subcellular localization, resulting in the down-regulation of Vg gene expression. Furthermore, JH application to previtellogenic female beetles induced the expression of genes coding for ILP2 and ILP3, and induced Vg gene expression. FOXO protein expressed in baculovirus system binds to FOXO response element present in the Vg gene promoter. These data suggest that JH functions through insulin-like peptide signaling pathway to regulate Vg gene expression. PMID:22002054

  19. Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis⋆

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, F.G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Koener, J.F.; Valenzuela, J.G.; Hernandez-Martinez, S.; Pham, V.M.; Feyereisen, R.

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared them with ESTs from the CA of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The predicted genes were analyzed according to their probable functions with the Gene Ontology classification, and compared to Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae genes. A large number of reciprocal matches in the cDNA libraries of cockroach and mosquito CA were found. These matches defined known and suspected enzymes of the JH biosynthetic pathway, but also several proteins associated with signal transduction that might play a role in the modulation of JH synthesis by neuropeptides. The identification in both cockroach and mosquito CA of homologs of the small ligand binding proteins from insects, Takeout/JH binding protein and retinol-binding protein highlights a hitherto unsuspected complexity of metabolite trafficking, perhaps JH precursor trafficking, in these endocrine glands. Furthermore, many reciprocal matches for genes of unknown function may provide a fertile ground for an in-depth study of allatal-specific cell physiology. PMID:16551550

  20. Fast induction of vitellogenin gene expression by juvenile hormone III in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Comas, D; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X

    1999-09-01

    The present paper describes the effect of juvenile hormone III (JH III) upon vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in cardioallatectomized females of Blattella germanica. Northern blot analyses of time course studies showed that Vg mRNA can be detected 2 h after the treatment with 1 microgram of JH III. Western blot analyses revealed that Vg protein is detectable 4 h after the same treatment. The study of the influence of the age showed that 48-h-old females seem more sensitive than 24-h-old females, whereas differences were less apparent between 48- and 72-h-old females. Dose-response studies indicated that 0.01 microgram of JH III is ineffective, whereas the doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 micrograms induced the synthesis of Vg in a dose-dependent fashion. Finally, the administration of three successive doses, of 0.01 microgram of JH III each, did not result in detectable Vg production, whereas two doses of 0.01 microgram followed by one of 1 microgram of JH III induced a greater response than that resulting from a sole dose of 1 microgram of JH III, which suggests that sub-effective doses of JH III elicit a priming effect on Vg production.

  1. Differential physiological responses of the German cockroach to social interactions during the ovarian cycle.

    PubMed

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2012-09-01

    In many animal species, social interactions can influence the morphology, physiology and behavior of individuals, including their rate of development and reproduction. Reproduction in cockroaches is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), and social interactions have been shown to accelerate female reproduction in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), by stimulating JH production. However, it is not clear in this or any other insect species whether social facilitation of the reproductive rate occurs throughout the ovarian cycle or only at certain stages. We compared the effects of social interactions during the pre-oviposition period (when JH production is high) and during gestation (when little JH is produced), as well as during the first ovarian cycle (when females are virgin) and the second ovarian cycle (after females had mated). Social interaction with one conspecific female was sufficient to accelerate JH production and oocyte maturation, but this effect was reversed by crowding. Social interactions also accelerated the onset of sexual receptivity in virgin females. However, social interactions failed to shorten gestation, suggesting that social cues stimulate JH production only when the corpora allata (CA) are active and not when CA activity is suppressed by the central nervous system. Females were most responsive to transient social isolation and transient social interactions when 2-3 days old, suggesting that they are particularly sensitive to social interactions when their CA become active. Overall, these results show that all JH-dependent events in the reproductive cycle of B. germanica females are under the strong influence of social interactions.

  2. Differential impacts of juvenile hormone, soldier head extract and alternate caste phenotypes on host and symbiont transcriptome composition in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ruchira; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Cai, Yunpeng; Sun, Yijun; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Boucias, Drion G; Scharf, Michael E

    2013-07-19

    Termites are highly eusocial insects and show a division of labor whereby morphologically distinct individuals specialize in distinct tasks. In the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Rhinotermitidae), non-reproducing individuals form the worker and soldier castes, which specialize in helping (e.g., brood care, cleaning, foraging) and defense behaviors, respectively. Workers are totipotent juveniles that can either undergo status quo molts or develop into soldiers or neotenic reproductives. This caste differentiation can be regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and primer pheromones contained in soldier head extracts (SHE). Here we offered worker termites a cellulose diet treated with JH or SHE for 24-hr, or held them with live soldiers (LS) or live neotenic reproductives (LR). We then determined gene expression profiles of the host termite gut and protozoan symbionts concurrently using custom cDNA oligo-microarrays containing 10,990 individual ESTs. JH was the most influential treatment (501 total ESTs affected), followed by LS (24 ESTs), LR (12 ESTs) and SHE treatments (6 ESTs). The majority of JH up- and downregulated ESTs were of host and symbiont origin, respectively; in contrast, SHE, LR and LS treatments had more uniform impacts on host and symbiont gene expression. Repeat "follow-up" bioassays investigating combined JH + SHE impacts in relation to individual JH and SHE treatments on a subset of array-positive genes revealed (i) JH and SHE treatments had opposite impacts on gene expression and (ii) JH + SHE impacts on gene expression were generally intermediate between JH and SHE. Our results show that JH impacts hundreds of termite and symbiont genes within 24-hr, strongly suggesting a role for the termite gut in JH-dependent caste determination. Additionally, differential impacts of SHE and LS treatments were observed that are in strong agreement with previous studies that specifically investigated soldier caste regulation. However, it is likely

  3. Nucleoporin Nup358 facilitates nuclear import of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in an importin β- and Hsp83-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    He, Qianyu; Zhang, Yuanxi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, DanDan; Dong, Wentao; Li, Sheng; Wu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The bHLH-PAS transcription factor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met)(1), functions as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor and transduces JH signals by directly binding to E-box like motifs in the regulatory regions of JH response genes. Nuclear localization of Met is crucial for its transcriptional activity. Our previous studies have shown that the chaperone protein Hsp83 facilitates JH-induced Met nuclear import in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of Met nuclear transport are not fully elucidated. Using DNA affinity chromatography, we have previously detected binding of the nucleoporin Nup358, in the presence of JH, to the JH response region (JHRR) sequences isolated from the Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) promoter. Here, we have demonstrated that Nup358 regulates JH-Hsp83-induced Met nuclear localization. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Nup358 expression in Drosophila fat body perturbs Met nuclear transport during the 3 h after initiation of wandering, when the JH titer is high. The accompanying reduced expression of the transport receptor importin β in Nup358 RNAi flies could be one of the reasons accounting for Met mislocalization. Furthermore, a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain at the N-terminal end of Nup358 interacts with Hsp83 and is indispensable for Met nuclear localization. Overexpression of the TPR domain in Drosophila fat body prevents Met nuclear localization resulting in a decrease in JHRR-driven reporter activity and Kr-h1 expression. These data show that Nup358 facilitates JH-induced Met nuclear transport in a manner dependent on importin β and Hsp83.

  4. Function of Phe-259 and Thr-314 within the Substrate Binding Pocket of the Juvenile Hormone Esterase of Manduca sexta†

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Wogulis, Mark D.; Law, Christopher S.; Morisseau, Christophe; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Huang, Huazhang; Wilson, David K.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect developmental hormone that is found at low nanomolar levels in larval insects. The methyl ester of JH is hydrolyzed in many insects by an esterase that shows high specificity for JH. We have previously determined a crystal structure of the JH esterase (JHE) of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (MsJHE) [Wogulis, M., Wheelock, C. E., Kamita, S. G., Hinton, A. C., Whetstone, P. A., Hammock, B. D., and Wilson, D. K. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 4045-4057]. Our molecular modeling indicates that JH fits very tightly within the substrate binding pocket of MsJHE. This tight fit places two non-catalytic amino acid residues, Phe-259 and Thr-314, within the appropriate distance and geometry to potentially interact with the α,β-unsaturated ester and epoxide, respectively, of JH. These residues are highly conserved in numerous biologically active JHEs. Kinetic analyses of mutants of Phe-259 or Thr-314 indicate that these residues contribute to the low KM that MsJHE shows for JH. This low KM, however, comes at the cost of reduced substrate turnover. Neither nucleophilic attack of the resonance stabilized ester by the catalytic serine nor the availability of a water molecule for attack of the acyl-enzyme intermediate appear to be a rate-determining step in the hydrolysis of JH by MsJHE. We hypothesize that the release of the JH acid metabolite from the substrate binding pocket limits the catalytic cycle. Our findings also demonstrate that chemical bond strength does not necessarily correlate with how reactive the bond will be to metabolism. PMID:20307057

  5. Recombination events near the immunoglobulin Cmu gene join variable and constant region genes, switch heavy-chain expression, or inactivate the locus.

    PubMed

    Cory, S; Webb, E; Gough, J; Adams, J M

    1981-04-28

    Immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression is initiated by recombination between a variable region (VH) gene and one of several joining region (JH) genes located near the mu constant region (Cmu) gene, and the active VH gene can subsequently switch to another CH gene. That the general mechanism for CH switching involves recombination between sites within the JH-Cmu intervening sequence and the 5' flanking region of another CH gene is supported here by Southern blot hybridization analysis of eight IgG- and IgA-secreting plasmacytomas. An alternative model requiring successive VH linkage to similar JH clusters near each CH gene is shown to be very unlikely since the mouse genome appears to contain only one complement of the JH locus and no JH gene was detectable within large cloned sequences flanking germline C gamma 3 and C gamma 1 genes. Thus, VH-JH joining and CH switching are mediated by separate regions of "the joining-switch" or J-S element. In each plasmacytoma examined, the J-S element had undergone recombination within both the JH locus and the switch region and was shown to be linked to the functional CH gene in an IgG3, and IgG1, and three IgA secretors. Both JH joining and CH switching occurred by deletion of DNA. Switch recombination occurred at more than one site within the J-S element in different lines, even for recombination with the same CH gene. Significantly, although heavy-chain expression is restricted to one allele ("allelic exclusion"), all rearranged in each plasmacytoma. Some rearrangements were aberrant, involving, for example, deletion of all JH genes from the allele. Hence, an error-prone recombination machinery may account for allelic exclusion in many plasmacytomas.

  6. The hormone-dependent function of Hsp90 in the crosstalk between 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone signaling pathways in insects is determined by differential phosphorylation and protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Feng-Xia; Cai, Mei-Juan; Zhao, Wen-Li; Li, Xiang-Ru; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2013-11-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) interacts with steroid hormone receptors, signaling kinases, and various transcription factors. However, the mechanism by which Hsp90 interacts with different proteins in various pathways remains unclear. Western blot was used to study Hsp90 expression profile in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera). RNA interference was performed to investigate the function of Hsp90 in 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) signal pathways. The binding of Hsp90 to the transcription factor ultraspiracle protein (USP1) and JH candidate receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met1) was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation. Phospho-(Ser) PKC substrate antibody was used to detect Hsp90 phosphorylation. Hsp90 participated in 20E- or JH-induced gene expression. 20E induced the interaction between Hsp90 and USP1, whereas JH III and methoprene induced the interaction between Hsp90 and Met1, respectively. 20E and JH counteracted each other for these protein interactions. Both JH III and methoprene induced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of Hsp90. This process could be inhibited by phospholipase C (PLC) and PKC inhibitors. 20E suppressed JH III- or methoprene-induced PKC phosphorylation of Hsp90. 20E maintained the non-PKC-phosphorylation status of Hsp90. Hsp90 interacted with USP1 to induce gene expression in the 20E pathway. JH regulated the PKC-phosphorylation status of Hsp90. Hsp90 also interacted with Met1 to induce gene expression in the JH pathway. Our study describes a novel mechanism of Hsp90 action by altering phosphorylation and protein interaction in various hormonal signaling pathways. © 2013.

  7. [Hypothesis of parasitic stress in parasitized insects caused by microsporidia].

    PubMed

    Seleznev, K V; Raushenbakh, I Iu

    2003-01-01

    Pathological alterations being similar to those that can be seen while hormonal dysbalance, particularly the increase of juvenile hormone (JH) titre, is one of the consequences of microsporidian infections. Though the increase of JH in insects infected with microsporidia has not been shown directly, there are many indirect proofs of this. It has been believed that JH is produced by microsporidia. But this has not been shown for microsporidia or for other endoparasites. In this article we want to propose another hypothesis. We suppose that during microsporidiosis the following events develop: exhaustion of host nutrition stores and other destructive consequences of microsporidian dwelling in host cells lead to the decrease of host biosynthetical and reparation activity in the infected cells and then to destructive alterations that can be seen by electro-microscopic methods. The infected cells are stressed and then the typical answer for many physiological stresses follows. Secretion of prothoracicotropic hormone by brain neurosecretory cells is inhibited and as a result the production and release of ecdysone is also inhibited and ecdysteroid titre decreases. The activity of JH-esterases is decreased and as a result the JH titre is increased. If microsporidian infection causes the stress in the host cells, the endocrine system will undoubtedly answer to this stress and this answer will definitely be the same as for all other stresses. Thus, in any case JH titre will be increased in infected insects independently of whether microsporidia produce JH or not. So, hormonal alterations in infected insects should be the consequence not of the microsporidian JH production but of the host response reaction to infection. We suppose that microsporidia do not differ from other parasites of insects and that they can not produce JH.

  8. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the mosquito corpora allata.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. JH titer decreases in the last instar larvae allowing pupation and metamorphosis to progress. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which plays an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) prepares the pupae for ecdysis, and would be an ideal candidate to direct a developmental program in the CA of the pharate adult mosquito. In this study, we provide evidence that 20E acts as an age-linked hormonal signal, directing CA activation in the mosquito pupae. Stimulation of the inactive brain-corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex (Br-CA-CC) of the early pupa (24 h before adult eclosion or -24 h) in vitro with 20E resulted in a remarkable increase in JH biosynthesis, as well as increase in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). Addition of methyl farnesoate but not farnesoic acid also stimulated JH synthesis by the Br-CA-CC of the -24 h pupae, proving that epoxidase activity is present, but not JHAMT activity. Separation of the CA-CC complex from the brain (denervation) in the -24 h pupae also activated JH synthesis. Our results suggest that an increase in 20E titer might override an inhibitory effect of the brain on JH synthesis, phenocopying denervation. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that 20E acts as a developmental signal that ensures proper reactivation of JH synthesis in the mosquito pupae.

  9. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

  10. Juvenile hormone titers, ovarian status and epicuticular hydrocarbons in gynes and workers of the paper wasp Belonogaster longitarsus.

    PubMed

    Kelstrup, Hans C; Hartfelder, Klaus; Esterhuizen, Nanike; Wossler, Theresa C

    2017-04-01

    The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation. JH levels have long been inferred to be low in gynes but this has never been tested. In what is the first study to measure JH in gyne-containing colonies of a temperate paper wasp, and the first to incorporate hormone assays in Belonogaster, our results show that the JH titer positively correlates with gyne-specific traits (including oocyte length and a low frequency of foraging trips) in B. longitarsus, a South African paper wasp. Measures of dominance correlated with oocyte length, but not all dominant females possessed activated ovaries. The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of gynes and workers were distinct, with oocyte length and JH titer showing a positive association with longer-chain methyl-branched alkanes. Nonetheless, evidence for a role of JH in dominance was inconclusive. Finally, the range of JH titers among gynes, and the positive association of JH titers with ovarian status and prospective fertility signals, makes it unlikely that the gyne phenotype is maintained by low JH levels.

  11. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again “competent” to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes. PMID:25257939

  12. Juvenile hemochromatosis locus maps to chromosome 1q in a French Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Sylvain R; Lanzara, Carmela; Grimard, Doria; Carella, Massimo; Simard, Hervey; Ficarella, Romina; Simard, Raynald; D'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Férec, Claude; Camaschella, Clara; Mura, Cathrine; Roetto, Antonella; De Braekeleer, Marc; Bechner, Lucien; Gasparini, Paolo

    2003-08-01

    Juvenile hemochromatosis (JH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that causes iron overload. In the French Canadian region of Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean the worldwide largest cohort of JH cases has been identified. Here, we report the mapping of this large cohort of cases to the HFE2 locus on chromosome 1q. A maximum multipoint location score of 7.02 was observed with marker D1S2344. A common ancestral haplotype, showing the presence of a founder effect, was identified. The analysis of recombinants allowed us to confirm the JH candidate region.

  13. The Trace Metal Geochemistry of Suspended Oceanic Particulate Matter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Martin, J.H. (1981) Phosphorus- cadmium cycling in northeast Pacific waters. J. Mar. Res. 39, 65-78. Knauer, G.A., Martin, J.H. and Gordon, R.M. (1982...Sampling and analytical methods for the determination of copper, cadmium , zinc, and nickel at the nanogram per liter level in sea water, Anal. Chim...1988. 69. G.A. Knauer and J.H. Martin, Phosphorus- cadmium cycling in northeast Pacific waters, J. Mar. Res. 39, 65-78, 1981. 70. I.N. McCave, Vertical

  14. Self, memory, and imagining the future in a case of psychogenic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, Clare J; Ellis, Judi A; Baker, Ian; Butler, Chris R

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of psychogenic amnesia and examine the relationships between autobiographical memory impairment, the self, and ability to imagine the future. Case study JH, a 60-year-old male, experienced a 6-year period of pervasive psychogenic amnesia covering all life events from childhood to the age of 53. JH was tested during his amnesic period and again following hypnotherapy and the recovery of his memories. JH's amnesia corresponded with deficits in self-knowledge and imagining the future. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory and processes involving remembering and imagining.

  15. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M.; Mitchell, Robert D.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  16. Inter-Annual Variation of Gravity Waves in the Arctic and Antarctic Winter Middle Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    mls.jpl.nasa.gov (J.H. Jiang). www.elsevier.com/locate/asr Advances in Space Research 38 (2006) 2418–2423 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...inter-annual variations, Fig. 4 plots hemispheric maps of stratospheric gravity wave J.H. Jiang et al. / Advances in Space Research 38 (2006) 2418–2423...MLS measurement days that went into this variance map. No UKMO wind data available at 80 km. 2420 J.H. Jiang et al. / Advances in Space Research 38

  17. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M; Mitchell, Robert D; Bissinger, Brooke W; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  18. Direct means of obtaining CAVI0-a corrected cardio-ankle vascular stiffness index (CAVI)-from conventional CAVI measurements or their underlying variables.

    PubMed

    Spronck, Bart; Mestanik, Michal; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Jurko, Alexander; Jurko, Tomas; Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark

    2017-09-21

    Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as measured using the VaSera device (CAVIVS, Fukuda Denshi), has been proposed as a stiffness index that does not depend on blood pressure. We have recently shown theoretically that CAVIVS still exhibits blood pressure dependence, and proposed the corrected index CAVI0. The present study aims to establish a method of calculating [Formula: see text] either (i) from VaSera-reported values of cardiac-brachial and brachial-ankle pulse transit times (tb and tba, respectively) and blood pressure, or (ii) directly from CAVIVS. To derive this method, the relationship among CAVIVS and its scale constants a and b, tb, tba, and blood pressure has to be established. From data of 497 subjects, eight candidate CAVI parameters were defined and calculated, containing all combinations of left or right tb/tba/blood pressure. Candidates were evaluated through correlation with measured left and right CAVIVS. Correlations were compared statistically. Once the correct candidates were determined, two constants (a and b) required for converting CAVIVS to CAVI0 were estimated through linear regression. Left and right CAVIVS are calculated using left and right tba; however, both left and right CAVIVS are calculated using right brachial blood pressures and right tb. Constants a and b for conversion of CAVIVS to CAVI0 were estimated to be 0.842 [0.836 0.848] and 0.753 [0.721 0.786] (mean [95%CI]), respectively. Equations to estimate CAVI0 from CAVIVS, and to directly calculate CAVI0 from the VaSera output are provided in this paper, as well as in a directly usable spreadsheet supplement. Our results permit straightforward calculation of [Formula: see text] during a study, as well as retrospective estimation of [Formula: see text] from CAVIVS in already published studies or where the original transit time values are not available, paving the way for thorough comparison of CAVI0 to CAVIVS in clinical and research settings. Novelty and significance Cardio

  19. The Yugoslav Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denes, Oto

    1974-01-01

    Within the realization that the development of Third World countries is essential to the productive forces of the industrialized ones, Yugoslav aid has been channeled particularly toward a cooperative effort to educate and train personnel to facilitate development. (JH)

  20. A Bibliography for Historians of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersman, Elinor Mondale

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of journal articles is arranged by journal, the article, under the major headings of educational experience in the United States; the educational experience of women; educational experience in other countries, and historiography and bibliography. (JH)

  1. Utopia and Methodology: Uses of Fiction in American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Kenneth M.

    1975-01-01

    A look at utopian literature, 1888-1900, typifies the problems of approaching literature as a vehicle for American studies. The problems, however, do not excuse the greater fault of omitting literature altogether. (JH)

  2. DAMASCUS ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FERGUSON, CHARLES A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AS A TEXTBOOK FOR AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN THE SPOKEN ARABIC LANGUAGE OF DAMASCUS, SYRIA. CONTAINED IN THE TEXT ARE DETAILED GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION, STRUCTURAL AND PRONUNCIATION INFORMATION, AND A CUMULATIVE ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. (JH)

  3. Classroom Production of an Historical Film Essay: Reflections and Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, John G.; Tracy, Raymond

    1974-01-01

    Guidelines for classroom production of an historical film are suggested on the basis of the author's experience with college students who developed a film on America in the fifties. Technical and procedural suggestions are emphasized. (JH)

  4. Recent Growth of Aerial Photographic Interpretation/Remote Sensing in Geography in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, John E.; Thaman, Konai

    1974-01-01

    This paper traces the history and growth of air photo interpretation and remote sensing within the field of geography. Courses offered in these fields, factors influencing growth, research findings, and professional geographic interest are discussed. (JH)

  5. The Indians of New Mexico: Apache, Navaho, Pueblo, Ute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Robert G., Ed.

    Brief descriptions of American Indians inhabiting New Mexico give current and historical information on geographical location, population, language, cultural background, and income sources. Eighteen pueblo communities and four Federal Indian reservations are discussed. (JH)

  6. Endoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et al, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... of arthroscopy. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  7. Ankle arthroscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankle - arthroscopy; Surgery - ankle - arthroscopic References Cerrato R, Campbell J, Triche R. Ankle arthroscopy. In: Miller MD, ... and ankle. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  8. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    Miller RH III, Azar FM, Throckmorton TW. Shoulder and elbow injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ... Krishnan SG. Rotator cuff and impingement lesions. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  9. ARC-1943-A93-0074-8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-06-02

    Navy Naval Air Station Moffett Field Public works Serial 1514 - Contract NOy-5604, Earl W. Heple & J.H. Pomeroy contractors NAS Air station Moffett Field, three quarter view of Hanger 2 from North West Corner

  10. ARC-1943-A93-0074-3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-04-29

    Navy Naval Air Station Moffett Field Public works Serial 1514 - Contract NOy-5604, Earl W. Heple & J.H. Pomeroy contractors NAS Moffett Field: full view of Traveler, looking north, showing end towers Hanger 2

  11. ARC-1943-A93-0074-5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-05-19

    Navy Naval Air Station Moffett Field Public works Serial 1514 - Contract NOy-5604, Earl W. Heple & J.H. Pomeroy contractors NAS Moffett Field: Aerial view of new Hangar2 & Hangar 3 construction at alt 200 ft from north end.

  12. Teaching American Environmental History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  13. Influence of age and juvenile hormone on brain dopamine level in male honeybee (Apis mellifera): association with reproductive maturation.

    PubMed

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Masami

    2008-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a major functional biogenic amine in insects and has been suggested to regulate reproduction in female honeybees. However, its function has not been investigated in male drones. To clarify developmental changes of DA in drones, brain DA levels were investigated at various ages and showed a similar pattern to the previously reported juvenile hormone (JH) hemolymph titer. The DA level was lowest at emergence and peaked at day 7 or 8, followed by decline. Application of JH analog increased brain DA levels in young drones (2-4-days-old), suggesting regulation of DA by JH in drones. In young drones, maturation of male reproductive organs closely matched the increase in brain DA. The dry weight of testes decreased and that of seminal vesicles increased from emergence to day 8. The dry weight of mucus glands increased up to day 4. Consequently, DA regulated by JH might have reproductive behavior and/or physiological functions in drones.

  14. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Crohn disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... an affected family member is a significant risk factor for the disease. Related ... Bernard EJ, Mei L, Nicolae DL, Regueiro M, Schumm LP, Steinhart AH, Rotter JI, Duerr RH, Cho JH, Daly MJ, Brant SR. Genome-wide ...

  16. 76 FR 22749 - Camden & Southern Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Camden Area Industrial Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Industrial Development Corporation Camden & Southern Railroad, Inc. (C&S), a noncarrier, has filed a verified... Area Industrial Development Corporation (CAIDC), located at Zone JH482, Yard 06, opposite milepost 463...

  17. Paradoxes of Plenty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quine, Willard

    1974-01-01

    Prodigality of funds in academic channels has led to unexpected results: while some improved scholarship has been accomplished, mass subsidy has changed the tone of the university and the attitudes and activities of its participants. (JH)

  18. Selected Resource Materials for Teaching Urban Geography in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, M. H.; Deer, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    This discussion of non-book materials available in Australia for secondary instruction in urban geography emphasizes their suitability for conveying particular concepts as well as appropriateness at particular curricular levels. (JH)

  19. VIPoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... SJ, Jaume JC, Chen H. Cancer of the endocrine system. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... tumors. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  20. Delinquency: How Do We Snap the Chain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Philip B.; Miller, Neal

    1974-01-01

    Pretrial Diversion, the act of taking an accused offender out of the usual criminal court sequence (trial, sentencing, jail) before the trial actually happens, is exemplified by Project Crossroads in Washington, D. C. (Author/JH)

  1. You're on Your Own!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Douglas

    1978-01-01

    The author directs comments to first-year vocational agricultural teachers: importance of personal interest, developing a teaching philosophy and teaching techniques, being ambitious, and using good judgment. (JH)

  2. Tort Liability of School Districts, Officers, and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Lee O.; Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.

    1970-01-01

    This chapter, which reviews recent court decisions affecting all segments of school liability, includes discussion of the effect of recent decisions on the common law doctrine of sovereign immunity. (JH)

  3. Scrotal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shaida N, Berman L. Male genitourinary tract. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  4. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  5. Paper-making in Schools in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kenneth

    1974-01-01

    Making paper becomes a means for overcoming lack of money in a rural community: Students make money and gain scientific knowledge and practice learning skills by implementing paper-making technology. (JH)

  6. The New Religious Consciousness and the Secular University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    1974-01-01

    Talcott Parson's concept of cognitive rationality as the main purpose of the university is considered and juxtaposed with a new religious conciousness, born of the critical intellect and housed in the contemporary university. (JH)

  7. The Indians of New Mexico: Apache, Navaho, Pueblo, Ute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Robert G., Ed.

    Brief descriptions of American Indians inhabiting New Mexico give current and historical information on geographical location, population, language, cultural background, and income sources. Eighteen pueblo communities and four Federal Indian reservations are discussed. (JH)

  8. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  9. On the Teaching of Irish Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Daniel J.

    1974-01-01

    The Irish Republic as a laboratory for teachers of comparative politics has potential in the areas of revolution, culture, economic development, and general problem solving as illustrated by this article and its references. (JH)

  10. 9. Charles B. Wheelock, Photographer ca. 1890 'VIEW OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Charles B. Wheelock, Photographer ca. 1890 'VIEW OF WEST AUSTIN TAKEN FROM CAPITOL DOME' SHOWING J.H. HOUGHTON HOUSE WITH TAYLOR-HUNNICUTT HOUSE JUST BEHIND - John H. Houghton House, 307 West Twelfth Street, Austin, Travis County, TX

  11. Some Reflections on the Crisis of the University Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Gabriel A.

    1974-01-01

    Specialization and reductionism are characteristics of higher education which can not be ignored but which must be related and interpreted in a higher order of disciplined sysnthesis and speculation. (Author/JH)

  12. The University, the City, and the Arts. (Part of a Symposium: Government and the Arts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, William O.

    1970-01-01

    The university must devote increased, multidisciplinary attention to urban needs in order to train urban administrators effectively. Significant progress can thus be made toward revitalization of the arts, the university, and the city. (JH)

  13. Do Principals' Interpersonal Attitudes Agree with Those of Teachers and Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Albert H.

    1970-01-01

    This study of interpersonal relationships between teachers, principals, and students finds that attitudes of teachers and principals toward children are correlated positively although pupils' and principals' ratings of teachers lack significant correlation. (JH)

  14. An Evaluation Procedure for a New Program To Prepare Administrator Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Larry W.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    This article describes a new program directed toward preparing principals to function as change agents in elementary and secondary schools in Appalachia. Program evaluation procedures that include cost effectiveness analysis based on Bayesian statistics are described in detail. (JH)

  15. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  16. A Hierarchy of Basic Organizational Needs in Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Hugh L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study, designed to test the hypothesis that decision making in formal organizations is related to a hierarchy of needs, gained empirical support for the hypothesis from the results of a sampling of 139 private liberal arts college presidents. (JH)

  17. Food and History: Teaching Social History Through the Study of Cuisine Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bertram M.

    1974-01-01

    Some interesting relationships between food and history -- working women and convenience food, exploration and the importation of new vegetables, reliance on potatoes and Irish emigration -- are suggested to indicate the usefulness of exploring history through eating habits. (JH)

  18. FISICA observations of the starburst galaxy, NGC 1569

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.; Hull-Allen, C. G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Thompson, K.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.; Myrick, B.

    2006-06-01

    Using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) we obtained observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. We present our JH band spectra, particularly noting the existence of extended emission in Paschen β and He I.

  19. Headaches - danger signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... TJ, Robertson CE, Smith JH. Headache and other craniofacial pain. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  20. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  1. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  2. Aging changes in the face

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  3. Some Reflections on the Crisis of the University Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Gabriel A.

    1974-01-01

    Specialization and reductionism are characteristics of higher education which can not be ignored but which must be related and interpreted in a higher order of disciplined sysnthesis and speculation. (Author/JH)

  4. Geographic Education for Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachford, Kevin

    1974-01-01

    Six unsatisfactory ways of approaching geographic concepts in the classroom are presented. An alternative that would promote global-mindedness and the development of accurate mental maps in students is discussed in terms of teaching techniques. (JH)

  5. Effect of Open Book Examinations of Test Performance in an Undergraduate Child Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to determine experimentally if the use of a textbook for reference during examinations, along with requiring test performance to a criterion, facilitates learning and retention. (JH)

  6. Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement, and the Open Admissions Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronzaft, Arline L.; Epstein, Guilda F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction that among male college students, the relationship between test anxiety and college achievement would be greater for socially mobile than for socially stable students is not borne out in this study at Lehman College. (Author/JH)

  7. "Roots" Touched Children: Planned or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathouse, Betty

    1977-01-01

    Explores children's reactions to the televised version of Alex Haley's "Roots" through interviews with thirty 8-year-old third-graders (10 Black, 10 Mexican-American, 10 White) from two classrooms in South Phoenix, Arizona. (BF/JH)

  8. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  9. "Roots" Touched Children: Planned or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathouse, Betty

    1977-01-01

    Explores children's reactions to the televised version of Alex Haley's "Roots" through interviews with thirty 8-year-old third-graders (10 Black, 10 Mexican-American, 10 White) from two classrooms in South Phoenix, Arizona. (BF/JH)

  10. Methods and Materials for Teaching Occupational Survival Skills. Module Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This document contains twelve sixteen-item multiple choice tests and answer keys for the modules in the Occupational Survival Skills series (CE 018 557-568.) (CE 018 556 describes the series and its development.) (JH)

  11. The New Religious Consciousness and the Secular University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    1974-01-01

    Talcott Parson's concept of cognitive rationality as the main purpose of the university is considered and juxtaposed with a new religious conciousness, born of the critical intellect and housed in the contemporary university. (JH)

  12. Recent Growth of Aerial Photographic Interpretation/Remote Sensing in Geography in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, John E.; Thaman, Konai

    1974-01-01

    This paper traces the history and growth of air photo interpretation and remote sensing within the field of geography. Courses offered in these fields, factors influencing growth, research findings, and professional geographic interest are discussed. (JH)

  13. Secondary Education in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucius

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the development of education in Nepal from its beginnings in indigenous education associated with Hindu and Buddhist religions to the present democratic period, which began in 1971 and entails a reform in curriculum and school organization. (JH)

  14. Bridging the Theory-Practice Gap in Humanities Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Nancy Ellen

    1974-01-01

    Suggestions are made for realizing the essense of a culture, the general spirit premeating and expressing a era, and an event in time that must be explored -- all within the walls of a classroom. (Author/JH)

  15. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Padley SPG, Lazoura O. Pulmonary neoplasms. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM , ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  16. Metopic ridge

    MedlinePlus

    ... A, Gunny RS, Chong WK. Paediatric neuroradiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  17. Strong Men of the Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allmendinger, David F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Nicholas Murray Butler, G. Stanley Hall, Charles W. Eliot, the respective subjects of three biographies reviewed here, were university presidents whose personal dominance has too often impeded the biographer in his task of objective historical inquiry. (JH)

  18. The Humanities at Pine Crest School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Phillip L.

    1974-01-01

    This secondary humanities curriculum is based on four assumptions: humanities are for all students, must be interdisciplinary as well as presented through multimedia, deal with real issues affectively as well as cognitively, involve value judgements and decision making. (JH)

  19. Halo brace

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 12. Warner WC. Pediatric cervical spine. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Spine Injuries and Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  20. Food and History: Teaching Social History Through the Study of Cuisine Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bertram M.

    1974-01-01

    Some interesting relationships between food and history -- working women and convenience food, exploration and the importation of new vegetables, reliance on potatoes and Irish emigration -- are suggested to indicate the usefulness of exploring history through eating habits. (JH)

  1. Non-Sexist Education: A New Focus for Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprung, Barbara

    1977-01-01

    Describes the Women's Action Alliance Non-Sexist Child Development Project designed to help parents, teachers, aides and school administrators combat sex role stereotyping in the preschool classroom. (BF/JH)

  2. Very Didactic Simulation: Workshops in the Plains Pioneer Experience at the Stuhr Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, Roger L.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes an effort in cooperative sponsorship that produces workshops using the facilities of the Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer, Grand Island, Nebraska, for simulated experiences in pioneer living. (JH)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 Sources for This Page Austin ED, Loyd JE. The genetics of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circ Res. ... Gräf S, Hinderhofer K, Humbert M, Keiles SB, Loyd JE, Morrell NW, Newman JH, Soubrier F, Trembath RC, ...

  4. Immunotherapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... system . Accessed August 5, 2016. Pardoll D. Cancer Immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 6.

  5. Existentialism in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David R.

    1974-01-01

    An existential approach to geographic education refers to the individual's ability to conceive of and experience geographic phenomena; implies a responsibility toward, as well as appreciation of, spatially defined phenomena; and leads to aesthetic and advocacy geography. (JH)

  6. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... JH, Chung FF, et al; American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for postanesthetic care: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Postanesthetic Care. Anesthesiology . 2013;118( ...

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): J. H. Baxter Superfund site, Weed, CA. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-27

    The J.H. Baxter site is in Weed Siskiyou County, north-central California, and consists of the 33-acre J.H. Baxter facility and the adjacent 870-acre Roseburg Forest Products facility. Since 1937, wood treatment operations at the site have involved a variety of chemicals including ammonical copper-zinc-arsenate, creosote, and PCP. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, ground water, and surface water are organics including PAHs and dioxins; and metals including arsenic.

  8. Data-driven Techniques to Estimate Parameters in the Homogenized Energy Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    sensor. volume 79781K. Proceedings of the SPIE 7978, 2011. [9] D.J. Hartl, D.C. Lagoudas, F.T. Calkins , and J.H. Mabe. Use of a ni60ti shape memory...D.C. Lagoudas, F.T. Calkins , and J.H. Mabe. Use of a ni60ti shape memory alloy for active jet engine chevron application: II. experimentally validated

  9. Cluster Formation and Evolution on Semiconductor and Insulator Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Abrupt, Defect-Free Interfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1568-1572 (1989). 40. T.J. Wagener, Yongjun Hu, Y. Gao, M.B. Jost, J.H. Weaver, N. Spencer, and...Monmouth, New Jersey, May 1988. 9. Yongjun Hu, T.J. Wagener, Y. Gao, and J.H. Weaver, "Cluster Growth and the Evolution of Empty Electronic States," 35th

  10. Actinomadura jiaoheensis sp. nov. and Actinomadura sporangiiformans sp. nov., two novel actinomycetes isolated from muddy soil and emended description of the genus Actinomadura.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; Sun, Pengyu; Han, Chuanyu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Yunxi; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-12-01

    Two novel actinomycetes, designated strains NEAU-Jh1-3(T) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T), were isolated from muddy soil collected from a riverbank in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, north China. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two novel isolates exhibited 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and that they are closely related to Actinomadura viridis IFO 15238(T) (99.6, 99.6 %) and Actinomadura vinacea IFO 14688(T) (99.3, 99.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two cultures clustered together and formed a cluster with A. viridis IFO 15238(T), A. vinacea IFO 14688(T) and Actinomadura rugatobispora IFO 14382(T). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains NEAU-Jh1-3(T) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T) was 63.6 %, and the values between the two strains and their close phylogenetic relatives were also below 70 %. With reference to phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization results, the two strains can be distinguished from each other and their close phylogenetic relatives. Thus, strains NEAU-Jh1-3(T) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T) represent two novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the names Actinomadura jiaoheensis sp. nov. and Actinomadura sporangiiformans sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-Jh1-3(T) (=CGMCC 4.7197(T) = JCM 30341(T)) and NEAU-Jh2-5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7211(T) = JCM 30342(T)), respectively.

  11. A Study of the Structure of the Near-Coastal Zone Water Column Using Numerical Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    email: koseff@stanford.edu Joel H . Ferziger Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-3030 phone: (650) 725...Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering , Stanford University. Garg, R.P., Ferziger , J.H., and S.G. Monismith, 1994. “ Numerical Simulation of...Koseff, J.R., and J.H. Ferziger , 1992. “A numerical study of the evolution and structure of homogeneous stably stratified sheared turbulence.” J

  12. Muscle Contraction During Electro-Muscular Incapacitation: A Comparison Between Square-Wave Pulses and the Taser (registered trademark) X26 Electronic Control Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Dayton TE, Ross JA, Johnson LR, Kuhnel CT , Fines DA, Theis CF. An evaluation of the electrical properties and bio-behavioral effects of four commercially...unlimited. 10. Rogers WR, Merritt JH, Comeaux JA Jr, Kuhnel CT , Moreland DF, Teltschik DG, Lucas JH, Mur- phy MR. Strength-duration curve for an...Suh HJ, Batt J, Lawson D, Hernandez V, Abdo A, Yang TN, Mendoza E, Collins K, Laymon M. Estimation of the distribution of intramuscular current

  13. Depletion of juvenile hormone esterase extends larval growth in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Liu, Xiaojing; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Wang, Zhisheng; Xu, Xia; Huang, Yongping; Li, Muwang; Li, Kai; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-02-01

    Two major hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), regulate insect growth and development according to their precisely coordinated titres, which are controlled by both biosynthesis and degradation pathways. Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) is the primary JH-specific degradation enzyme that plays a key role in regulating JH titers, along with JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and JH diol kinase (JHDK). In the current study, a loss-of-function analysis of JHE in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was performed by targeted gene disruption using the transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases) system. Depletion of B. mori JHE (BmJHE) resulted in the extension of larval stages, especially the penultimate and ultimate larval stages, without deleterious effects to silkworm physiology. The expression of JHEH and JHDK was upregulated in mutant animals, indicating the existence of complementary routes in the JH metabolism pathway in which inactivation of one enzyme will activate other enzymes. RNA-Seq analysis of mutant animals revealed that genes involved in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and in amino acid metabolism were affected by BmJHE depletion. Depletion of JHE and subsequent delayed JH metabolism activated genes in the TOR pathway, which are ultimately responsible for extending larval growth. The transgenic Cas9 system used in the current study provides a promising approach for analysing the actions of JH, especially in nondrosophilid insects. Furthermore, prolonging larval stages produced larger larvae and cocoons, which is greatly beneficial to silk production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental link between sex and nutrition; doublesex regulates sex-specific mandible growth via juvenile hormone signaling in stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Sugime, Yasuhiro; Emlen, Douglas J; Lavine, Laura C; Miura, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in trait expression are widespread among animals and are especially pronounced in ornaments and weapons of sexual selection, which can attain exaggerated sizes. Expression of exaggerated traits is usually male-specific and nutrition sensitive. Consequently, the developmental mechanisms generating sexually dimorphic growth and nutrition-dependent phenotypic plasticity are each likely to regulate the expression of extreme structures. Yet we know little about how either of these mechanisms work, much less how they might interact with each other. We investigated the developmental mechanisms of sex-specific mandible growth in the stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, focusing on doublesex gene function and its interaction with juvenile hormone (JH) signaling. doublesex genes encode transcription factors that orchestrate male and female specific trait development, and JH acts as a mediator between nutrition and mandible growth. We found that the Cmdsx gene regulates sex differentiation in the stag beetle. Knockdown of Cmdsx by RNA-interference in both males and females produced intersex phenotypes, indicating a role for Cmdsx in sex-specific trait growth. By combining knockdown of Cmdsx with JH treatment, we showed that female-specific splice variants of Cmdsx contribute to the insensitivity of female mandibles to JH: knockdown of Cmdsx reversed this pattern, so that mandibles in knockdown females were stimulated to grow by JH treatment. In contrast, mandibles in knockdown males retained some sensitivity to JH, though mandibles in these individuals did not attain the full sizes of wild type males. We suggest that moderate JH sensitivity of mandibular cells may be the default developmental state for both sexes, with sex-specific Dsx protein decreasing sensitivity in females, and increasing it in males. This study is the first to demonstrate a causal link between the sex determination and JH signaling pathways, which clearly interact to determine the

  15. Developmental Link between Sex and Nutrition; doublesex Regulates Sex-Specific Mandible Growth via Juvenile Hormone Signaling in Stag Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Sugime, Yasuhiro; Emlen, Douglas J.; Lavine, Laura C.; Miura, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in trait expression are widespread among animals and are especially pronounced in ornaments and weapons of sexual selection, which can attain exaggerated sizes. Expression of exaggerated traits is usually male-specific and nutrition sensitive. Consequently, the developmental mechanisms generating sexually dimorphic growth and nutrition-dependent phenotypic plasticity are each likely to regulate the expression of extreme structures. Yet we know little about how either of these mechanisms work, much less how they might interact with each other. We investigated the developmental mechanisms of sex-specific mandible growth in the stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, focusing on doublesex gene function and its interaction with juvenile hormone (JH) signaling. doublesex genes encode transcription factors that orchestrate male and female specific trait development, and JH acts as a mediator between nutrition and mandible growth. We found that the Cmdsx gene regulates sex differentiation in the stag beetle. Knockdown of Cmdsx by RNA-interference in both males and females produced intersex phenotypes, indicating a role for Cmdsx in sex-specific trait growth. By combining knockdown of Cmdsx with JH treatment, we showed that female-specific splice variants of Cmdsx contribute to the insensitivity of female mandibles to JH: knockdown of Cmdsx reversed this pattern, so that mandibles in knockdown females were stimulated to grow by JH treatment. In contrast, mandibles in knockdown males retained some sensitivity to JH, though mandibles in these individuals did not attain the full sizes of wild type males. We suggest that moderate JH sensitivity of mandibular cells may be the default developmental state for both sexes, with sex-specific Dsx protein decreasing sensitivity in females, and increasing it in males. This study is the first to demonstrate a causal link between the sex determination and JH signaling pathways, which clearly interact to determine the

  16. Seasonal Variation of Gravity Wave Sources From Satellite Observation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Advances in Space Research 35 (2005) 1925–1932 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...white contours are UKMO winds at about the same altitudes and averaged over MLS measurement days. 1926 J.H. Jiang et al. / Advances in Space Research 35...measurement days. J.H. Jiang et al. / Advances in Space Research 35 (2005) 1925–1932 1927 longwave radiation) data, the CMAP index is a good

  17. Nutrient limitation results in juvenile hormone-mediated resorption of previtellogenic ovarian follicles in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Noriega, Fernando G

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a central hormonal regulator of previtellogenic development in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. JH levels are low at eclosion and increase during the first day after adult emergence. This initial rise in JH is essential for female reproductive maturation. After previtellogenic maturation is complete, the mosquito enters a 'state-of-arrest' during which JH synthesis continues at a slower pace and further ovary development is repressed until a blood meal is taken. By examining the relationships between juvenile hormone, follicular resorption and nutrition in A. aegypti, we were able to define a critical role of JH during the previtellogenic resting stage. The rate of follicular resorption in resting stage mosquitoes is dependent on nutritional quality. Feeding water alone caused the rate of follicular resorption to reach over 20% by day 7 after emergence. Conversely, feeding a 20% sucrose solution caused resorption to remain below 5% during the entire experimental period. Mosquitoes fed 3% sucrose show rates of resorption intermediate between water and 20% sucrose and only reached 10% by day 7 after emergence. Follicular resorption is related to JH levels. Ligated abdomens separated from a source of JH (the corpora allata) showed an increase in resorption comparable to similarly aged starved mosquitoes (16%). Resorption in ligated abdomens was reduced to 6% by application of methoprene. The application of methoprene was also sufficient to prevent resorption in intact mosquitoes starved for 48 h (14% starved vs. 4% starved with methoprene). Additionally, active caspases were localized to resorbing follicles indicating that an apoptotic cell-death mechanism is responsible for follicular resorption during the previtellogenic resting stage. Taken together, these results indicate that JH mediates reproductive trade-offs in resting stage mosquitoes in response to nutrition.

  18. Nutrient limitation results in juvenile hormone-mediated resorption of previtellogenic ovarian follicles in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a central hormonal regulator of previtellogenic development in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. JH levels are low at eclosion and increase during the first day after adult emergence. This initial rise in JH is essential for female reproductive maturation. After previtellogenic maturation is complete, the mosquito enters a ‘state-of-arrest’ during which JH synthesis continues at a slower pace and further ovary development is repressed until a blood meal is taken. By examining the relationships between juvenile hormone, follicular resorption and nutrition in A. aegypti, we were able to define a critical role of JH during the previtellogenic resting stage. The rate of follicular resorption in resting stage mosquitoes is dependent on nutritional quality. Feeding water alone caused the rate of follicular resorption to reach over 20% by day 7 after emergence. Conversely, feeding a 20% sucrose solution caused resorption to remain below 5% during the entire experimental period. Mosquitoes fed 3% sucrose show rates of resorption intermediate between water and 20% sucrose and only reached 10% by day 7 after emergence. Follicular resorption is related to JH levels. Ligated abdomens separated from a source of JH (the corpora allata) showed an increase in resorption comparable to similarly aged starved mosquitoes (16%). Resorption in ligated abdomens was reduced to 6% by application of methoprene. The application of methoprene was also sufficient to prevent resorption in intact mosquitoes starved for 48 hours (14% starved vs. 4% starved with methoprene). Additionally, active caspases were localized to resorbing follicles indicating that an apoptotic cell-death mechanism is responsible for follicular resorption during the previtellogenic resting stage. Taken together, these results indicate that JH mediates reproductive trade-offs in resting stage mosquitoes in response to nutrition. PMID:21708165

  19. The glutathione-related detoxication responses to juvenile and ecdysone hormones in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Leman; Kayalı, Hülya Ayar; Karacali, Sabire

    2013-08-01

    The effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) on the glutathione pathway of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined by investigating glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities as well as reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) content with respect to developmental stage. The continuous decreases of GSH-Px and GST activities dependent on the growth period of G. mellonella occurred in JH and 20E groups over and under their controls, respectively. While the GR activities of G. mellonella showed increases in young pupa (YP) for both control and in old larvae (OL) for the 20E groups after the minimum at these periods, they also increased after old pupa (OP) for the JH group with a maximum in OL period. Although GR activity levels in the JH group were significantly higher compared with controls and 20E groups up to OP period, the activity levels for the control and 20E groups were higher than those of the JH group at adult (AD) and old pupa (OP) periods, respectively. In spite of increases in the GR activity of 20E and control groups of G. mellonella, decreased GSH and increased GSSG levels were observed at aging period. GSH levels in the JH group reached a maximum at prepupa (PP) and then decreased with non-significant changes from OL to AD period. According to the results, GSH and GSSG levels, as well as GSH/GSSG ratios, were below and over control levels in 20E and JH groups, respectively, during all of the investigated developmental stages. On the contrary, the LPO levels were higher than the control for 20E and lower for the JH groups during the developmental period. These results show that while ecdysone hormone has a negative effect on the glutathione-related detoxication capacity of G. mellonella, the juvenile hormone has a positive effect on this process.

  20. Hormonal Interference with Pheromone Systems in Parasitic Acarines, Especially Ixodid Ticks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    variabilis hemolynph .................................... 10 2 Effects of treatment of D. variabilis nynphs with , natural tick extracts an? authentic...fractions at RT (retention times) 2.88 and 3.12 are radioimmunoassay positive. Fraction 5 represents natural 20-OH ecdysone co-eluting with the authentic...Experimental methods were used to determine JH esterase activity in tick hemolymnph, a finding which would imply the presence of natural JH. Studies to develop

  1. A cumulative feeding threshold required for vitellogenesis can be obviated with juvenile hormone treatment in lubber grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Fronstin, R. B.; Hatle, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Developmental thresholds can ensure that an adequate condition has been attained to proceed through major transitions (e.g. initiation of reproduction, metamorphosis). Nutrition is critical to attaining most thresholds, because it is needed for both growth and storage. Attaining a threshold typically stimulates the release of hormones that commit the animal to the developmental transition, yet the relationships between the nutrition needed for developmental thresholds and these endocrine signals are poorly understood. Lubber grasshoppers require a cumulative feeding threshold to initiate vitellogenesis and potentially commit to oviposition. We tested the relative roles of the nutritional threshold and the major gonadotropin (juvenile hormone; JH) in initiating vitellogenesis and committing to oviposition. The source of JH was removed from all females, and then JH analog was applied after different amounts of feeding. Threshold feeding was not required to initiate vitellogenesis, suggesting that sub-threshold grasshoppers are competent to respond to JH. Further, sub-threshold grasshoppers went on to oviposit earlier than supra-threshold grasshoppers treated with JH at the same time. Hence, threshold feeding is required only to cause the production and release of JH. At the same time, we also found that individuals that were restored with JH late in life tended to favor current reproduction, at the expense of future reproduction. Both time to oviposition and vitellogenin profiles were consistent with this developmental allocation. Taken together, our results suggest that lubber grasshoppers adjust reproductive tactics primarily in response to nutrition (which only serves to release JH) and secondarily in response to age. PMID:18083735

  2. Juvenile hormone titer in capped worker brood of Apis mellifera and reproduction in the bee mite Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, P; Rachinsky, A; Strambi, A; Strambi, C; Röpstorf, P

    1990-05-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) titers were recorded from fifth instar worker larvae of Apis mellifera carnica, Apis mellifera lamarckii, and Africanized honeybees kept under temperate and tropical climatic conditions. No differences in hormone titer according to honeybee race or climatic conditions were determined. However, the rate of reproduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni, on larvae of the different honeybee races was highly variable. The possible role of honeybee JH in control of the parasite's reproduction is discussed.

  3. Generation of antibody- and B cell-deficient pigs by targeted disruption of the J-region gene segment of the heavy chain locus.

    PubMed

    Mendicino, M; Ramsoondar, J; Phelps, C; Vaught, T; Ball, S; LeRoith, T; Monahan, J; Chen, S; Dandro, A; Boone, J; Jobst, P; Vance, A; Wertz, N; Bergman, Z; Sun, X-Z; Polejaeva, I; Butler, J; Dai, Y; Ayares, D; Wells, K

    2011-06-01

    A poly(A)-trap gene targeting strategy was used to disrupt the single functional heavy chain (HC) joining region (J(H)) of swine in primary fibroblasts. Genetically modified piglets were then generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and bred to yield litters comprising J(H) wild-type littermate (+/+), J(H) heterozygous knockout (±) and J(H) homozygous knockout (-/-) piglets in the expected Mendelian ratio of 1:2:1. There are only two other targeted loci previously published in swine, and this is the first successful poly(A)-trap strategy ever published in a livestock species. In either blood or secondary lymphoid tissues, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and ELISA detected no circulating IgM(+) B cells, and no transcription or secretion of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. Histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies failed to detect lymph node (LN) follicles or CD79α(+) B cells, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. T cell receptor (TCR)(β) transcription and T cells were detected in J(H) -/- pigs. When reared conventionally, J(H) -/- pigs succumbed to bacterial infections after weaning. These antibody (Ab)- and B cell-deficient pigs have significant value as models for both veterinary and human research to discriminate cellular and humoral protective immunity to infectious agents. Thus, these pigs may aid in vaccine development for infectious agents such as the pandemic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H1N1 swine flu. These pigs are also a first significant step towards generating a pig that expresses fully human, antigen-specific polyclonal Ab to target numerous incurable infectious diseases with high unmet clinical need.

  4. Cyclic Dinitroureas As Self-Remediating Munition Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-26

    Heteroatom Chem. 1991, 2, 313. 9 Vedachalam, M.; Ramakrishnan, V.T.; Boyer, J.H.; Dagley, I.J.; Nelson, K.A.; Adolph, H.G.; Gilardi, R.; George, C...Ramakrishnan, V.T.; Boyer, J.H. Heteroatom Chem. 1991, 2, 313. 15 Dagley, I.J.; Flippen-Anderson, J.L. Aust. J. Chem. 1994, 47, 2033. 7 Figure 3

  5. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF) is a stage-specific suppressor for juvenile hormone biosynthesis by corpora allata, and a critical factor for the initiation of insect metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-15

    Molting and metamorphosis are essential events for arthropod development, and juvenile hormone (JH) and its precursors play critical roles for these events. We examined the regulation of JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in Bombyx mori, and found that intact brain-corpora cardiaca (CC)-CA complexes produced a smaller amount of JH than that in CC-CA complexes and CA alone throughout the 4th and 5th (last) instar stadium. The smaller amount of synthesis was due to allatostatin-C (AST-C) produced by the brain. The CC synthesized short neuropeptide F (sNPF) that also suppressed the JH synthesis, but only in day 3 4th stadium and after the last larval ecdysis. For the suppression, both peptides prevented the expression of some of the distinct JH biosynthetic enzymes in the mevalonate pathway. Allatotropin (AT) stimulated sNPF expression in the CC of day 1 5th instar stadium, not of day 3 4th; therefore the stage-specific inhibition of JH synthesis by sNPF was partly due to the stimulative action of AT on the sNPF expression besides the stage-specific expression of the sNPF receptors in the CA, the level of which was high in day 2 4th and day 0 5th instar larvae. The cessation of JH biosynthesis in the last instar larvae is a key event to initiate pupal metamorphosis, and both sNPF and AST-C are key factors in shutting down JH synthesis, along with the decline of ecdysone titer and dopamine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between bioenergetics responses and organic pollutants in the giant mussel, Choromytilus chorus (Mollusca: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Toro, Beatriz; Navarro, Jorge M; Palma-Fleming, Hernán

    2003-05-08

    Samples of Choromytilus chorus (giant mussel) were collected at three sampling stations exposed to different degrees of pollution along the south-central portion of the Chilean coast in spring 1998 and summer 1999. Measurements were carried out on clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and oxygen consumption of the mussels under controlled laboratory conditions, and related to analytical data on organic pollutants in their tissues. Scope for growth (SFG) was employed as a physiological index to evaluate stress produced by pollutants existing at each sampling site. Individuals from San Vicente bay (highly polluted) showed negative SFG values in spring (-4.6 J/h per g) and summer (-3.5 J/h per g). These results indicated severe stress related to the accumulation of toxic compounds in their tissues. Specimens from Corral bay (medium level of pollution) gave a SFG of 15.5 J/h per g in spring and 6.5 J/h per g in summer, while those from Yaldad bay (low pollution) presented an inverse situation was observed with SFG values of 6.2 J/h per g in spring which was lower than the summer value of 25.7 J/h per g. There was a significant negative correlation between the SFG of the different populations of C. chorus and the concentrations of organochlorines (OChs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their tissues.

  7. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult Blattella germanica requires nuclear receptors Seven-up and FTZ-F1

    PubMed Central

    Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L.; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David

    2017-01-01

    In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood. PMID:28074850

  8. Effect of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene on H-fibroin regulation during the last instar larval development of Corcyra cephalonica.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, R K; Sridevi, P; Senthilkumaran, B; Dutta Gupta, Aparna

    2013-01-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), co-ordinately orchestrate insect growth and development. The process of silk synthesis and secretion in lepidopteran insects is known to be under hormonal control. However, the role of JH in this process has not been demonstrated hitherto. The present study is aimed to elucidate the role of JH in H-fibroin regulation in Corcyra cephalonica, a serious lepidopteran pest. Reiterated amino acid stretches and the large molecular weight of H-fibroin render its cloning and characterization cumbersome. To address this, a commercially synthesized short amino acid peptide conjugated with a carrier protein was used to generate antibodies against the N-terminal region of H-fibroin. ELISA and immunoblot experiments demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of antibody. Further, immunohistochemical analyses revealed the antibody's cross-reactivity with H-fibroins of C. cephalonica and Bombyx mori in the silk gland lumen. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the tissue-specificity and developmental expression of H-fibroin. Hormonal studies revealed that JH alone does not alter the expression of H-fibroin. However, in the presence 20E, JH reverses the declined expression caused by 20E administration to normal levels. This study provides molecular evidence for the regulation of H-fibroin by the cumulative action of JH and 20E.

  9. Homeodomain Protein Scr Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in the Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Meng; Liu, Chun; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Qian, Heying; Tian, Ling; Li, Jiarui; Dai, Dandan; Xu, Anying; Li, Sheng; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

    2015-01-01

    The silkworm Dominant trimolting (Moltinism, M3) mutant undergoes three larval molts and exhibits precocious metamorphosis. In this study, we found that compared with the wild-type (WT) that undergoes four larval molts, both the juvenile hormone (JH) concentration and the expression of the JH-responsive gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) began to be greater in the second instar of the M3 mutant. A positional cloning analysis revealed that only the homeodomain transcription factor gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is located in the genomic region that is tightly linked to the M3 locus. The expression level of the Scr gene in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (Br-CC-CA) complex, which controls the synthesis of JH, was very low in the final larval instar of both the M3 and WT larvae, and exhibited a positive correlation with JH titer changes. Importantly, luciferase reporter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the Scr protein could promote the transcription of genes involved in JH biosynthesis by directly binding to the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of homeodomain protein on their promoters. These results conclude that the homeodomain protein Scr is transcriptionally involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis in the silkworm. PMID:26540044

  10. Interruption of progerin–lamin A/C binding ameliorates Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Jin; Jung, Youn-Sang; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kang, So-mi; Oh, Ah-Young; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Jun, So-Young; Woo, Tae-Gyun; Chun, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang Kyum; Chung, Kyu Jin; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Kyeong; Jin, Guanghai; Na, Min-Kyun; Ha, Nam Chul; Bárcena, Clea; Freije, José M.P.; López-Otín, Carlos; Song, Gyu Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease that is caused by a silent mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C (lamin A/C). The G608G mutation generates a more accessible splicing donor site than does WT and produces an alternatively spliced product of LMNA called progerin, which is also expressed in normal aged cells. In this study, we determined that progerin binds directly to lamin A/C and induces profound nuclear aberrations. Given this observation, we performed a random screening of a chemical library and identified 3 compounds (JH1, JH4, and JH13) that efficiently block progerin–lamin A/C binding. These 3 chemicals, particularly JH4, alleviated nuclear deformation and reversed senescence markers characteristic of HGPS cells, including growth arrest and senescence-associated β-gal (SA–β-gal) activity. We then used microarray-based analysis to demonstrate that JH4 is able to rescue defects of cell-cycle progression in both HGPS and aged cells. Furthermore, administration of JH4 to LmnaG609G/G609G-mutant mice, which phenocopy human HGPS, resulted in a marked improvement of several progeria phenotypes and an extended lifespan. Together, these findings indicate that specific inhibitors with the ability to block pathological progerin–lamin A/C binding may represent a promising strategy for improving lifespan and health in both HGPS and normal aging. PMID:27617860

  11. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult Blattella germanica requires nuclear receptors Seven-up and FTZ-F1.

    PubMed

    Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David

    2017-01-11

    In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood.

  12. Juvenile hormone and allatostatins in the German cockroach embryo.

    PubMed

    Maestro, José L; Pascual, Núria; Treiblmayr, Karl; Lozano, Jesús; Bellés, Xavier

    2010-09-01

    Levels of juvenile hormone III (JH), FGLamide allatostatin peptides (ASTs), ASTs precursor (preproAST) mRNA and methyl farnesoate epoxidase (CYP15A1) mRNA were measured in embryos of the cockroach Blattella germanica. JH starts to rise just after dorsal closure, reaches maximal levels between 60% and 80% of embryogenesis, and decrease subsequently to undetectable levels. ASTs show low levels during the first two thirds of embryogenesis, increase thereafter and maintain high levels until hatching. PreproAST mRNA shows quite high levels during the two days following oviposition, thus behaving as a maternal transcript, the levels then become very low until mid embryogenesis, and increase afterwards, peaking towards the end of embryo development. CYP15A1 transcripts were detected around 25% embryogenesis and the levels tended to increase through embryogenesis, although differences amongst the days studied were not statistically significant. The opposite patterns of JH and AST towards the end of embryo development, along with the detection of AST immunoreactivity in corpora allata from late embryos, suggest that JH decline is caused by the increase of AST. Moreover, the uncorrelated patterns of JH concentration and CYP15A1 mRNA levels suggest that CYP15A1 expression does not modulate JH production.

  13. Function, diversity, and application of insect juvenile hormone epoxidases (CYP15).

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) represent a family of sesquiterpenoid hormones in insects, and they play a key role in regulating development, metamorphosis, and reproduction. The last two steps of the JH biosynthetic pathway, epoxidation and methyl esterification of farnesoic acid to JH, are insect specific, and thus have long been considered a promising target for biorational insecticides. Recently, the enzymes involved in the last two steps have been molecularly identified: JH acid methyltransferase catalyzes the esterification step and the cytochrome P450 CYP15 enzyme catalyzes the epoxidation step. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the characterization of JH biosynthetic enzymes, with special focus on the function and diversity of the CYP15 family. CYP15 genes have evolved lineage-specific substrate specificity and regulatory mechanisms in insects, which appear to be associated with the lineage-specific acquisition of unique JH structure and function. In addition, the lack of CYP15 genes in crustacean (Daphnia pulex) and arachnid (Tetranychus urticae) species, whose genomes have been fully sequenced, may imply that CYP15 enzymes are an evolutionary innovation in insects to use the epoxide forms of methylated farnesoid molecules as their principal JHs. Molecular identification and characterization of CYP15 genes from broad taxa of insects have paved the way to the design of target-specific, biorational anti-JH agents. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Juvenile hormone receptors in insect larval epidermis: Identification by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Palli, S.R.; Osir, E.O.; Edwards, M.; Hiruma, K.; Riddiford, L.M. ); Eng, W.; Boehm, M.F.; Kulscar, P.; Ujvary, I.; Prestwich, G.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated photoaffinity analogs of the natural lepidopteran juvenile hormones, JH I and II (epoxy({sup 3}H)bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate (({sup 3}H)EHDA) and epoxy({sup 3}H)homofarnesyl diazoacetate (({sup 3}H)EHDA)), and of the JH analog methoprene (({sup 3}H)methoprene diazoketone (({sup 3}H)MDK)) were synthesized and used to identify specific JH binding proteins in the larval epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). EBDA and EHDA specifically photolabeled a 29-kDa nuclear protein (pI 5.8). This protein and a second 29-kDa protein (pI 6.0) were labeled by MDK, but excess unlabeled methoprene or MDK only prevented binding to the latter. These 29-kDa proteins are also present in larval fat body but not in epidermis from either wandering stage or allatectomized larvae, which lack high-affinity JH binding sites. A 29-kDa nuclear protein with the same developmental specificity as this JH binder bound the DNA of two larval endocuticle genes. A 38-kDa cytosolic protein was also specifically photolabeled by these photoaffinity analogs. The 29-kDa nuclear protein is likely the high-affinity receptor for JH that mediates its genomic action, whereas the 38-kDa cytosolic protein may serve as an intracellular carrier for these highly lipophilic hormones and hormone analogs.

  15. Effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on female reproduction and juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Geister, Thorin L; Lorenz, Matthias W; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Fischer, Klaus

    2008-05-01

    Apart from regulating insect development, juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in insect reproduction, where they initiate vitellogenin synthesis and regulate the uptake of yolk by the ovary. JH synthesis is a tightly regulated process controlled by neurons and peptidergic neurosecretory cells. One of the known stimulatory regulators of JH biosynthesis is glutamate, and its N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been recently found in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. In this study we demonstrate a strong reduction in reproductive output in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana and the Mediterranean field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus caused by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Such inhibiting effects on reproduction could be overruled by the application of JH mimics. In G. bimaculatus, MK-801 inhibits in vitro JH biosynthesis in the corpora allata and reduces in vivo JH haemolymph titres in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that JH biosynthesis in the corpora allata is at least in part controlled by an NMDA receptor with Ca2+ as a second level messenger. Based on our findings we consider NMDA receptor antagonists as important tools for manipulating juvenile hormone biosynthesis and therefore for gaining a better understanding of the mechanistic basis of reproduction.

  16. Interruption of progerin-lamin A/C binding ameliorates Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Jin; Jung, Youn-Sang; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kang, So-Mi; Oh, Ah-Young; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Jun, So-Young; Woo, Tae-Gyun; Chun, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang Kyum; Chung, Kyu Jin; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Kyeong; Jin, Guanghai; Na, Min-Kyun; Ha, Nam Chul; Bárcena, Clea; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Song, Gyu Yong; Park, Bum-Joon

    2016-10-03

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease that is caused by a silent mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C (lamin A/C). The G608G mutation generates a more accessible splicing donor site than does WT and produces an alternatively spliced product of LMNA called progerin, which is also expressed in normal aged cells. In this study, we determined that progerin binds directly to lamin A/C and induces profound nuclear aberrations. Given this observation, we performed a random screening of a chemical library and identified 3 compounds (JH1, JH4, and JH13) that efficiently block progerin-lamin A/C binding. These 3 chemicals, particularly JH4, alleviated nuclear deformation and reversed senescence markers characteristic of HGPS cells, including growth arrest and senescence-associated β-gal (SA-β-gal) activity. We then used microarray-based analysis to demonstrate that JH4 is able to rescue defects of cell-cycle progression in both HGPS and aged cells. Furthermore, administration of JH4 to LmnaG609G/G609G-mutant mice, which phenocopy human HGPS, resulted in a marked improvement of several progeria phenotypes and an extended lifespan. Together, these findings indicate that specific inhibitors with the ability to block pathological progerin-lamin A/C binding may represent a promising strategy for improving lifespan and health in both HGPS and normal aging.

  17. Glutamate-gated chloride channels inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Ping; Lin, Shu-Chen; Lin, Chi-Yen; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2005-11-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized and released from endocrine gland corpus allatum (CA) plays an important role in insect metamorphosis, vitellogenesis and reproduction. Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the nervous system and its activated receptors possess excitatory and inhibitory forms in muscle fibers of invertebrates. Previously, we have shown that the rise of intracellular calcium through excitatory glutamate receptors, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA-type channels stimulates JH synthesis in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of inhibitory chloride permeable glutamate (GluCl) receptors on CA cell membranes. Application of the GluCl channel activators, ibotenic acid (Ibo) and ivermectin, but not gamma-aminobutyric acid caused a decline in JH synthesis in glands of either high or low activity during the gonadotrophic cycle. Also, while recording the membrane potential of the isolated whole CA glands intracellularly, Ibo induced a hyperpolarizated response. Both changes in the membrane potential and inhibition of JH synthesis could be abolished by the application of the chloride channel blocker picrotoxin. Finally, we found both excitatory and inhibitory glutamate receptors cause antagonistic effects on rates of JH synthesis. These results indicate a novel function of GluCl channels in the inhibition of JH synthesis that could be a potential pathway for developing a new generation of insecticides.

  18. Juvenile hormone receptors in insect larval epidermis: identification by photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, S R; Osir, E O; Eng, W; Boehm, M F; Edwards, M; Kulcsar, P; Ujvary, I; Hiruma, K; Prestwich, G D; Riddiford, L M

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated photoaffinity analogs of the natural lepidopteran juvenile hormones, JH I and II [epoxy[3H]bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate ([3H]EBDA) and epoxy[3H]homofarnesyl diazoacetate ([3H]EHDA)], and of the JH analog methoprene [[3H]methoprene diazoketone ([3H]MDK)] were synthesized and used to identify specific JH binding proteins in the larval epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). EBDA and EHDA specifically photolabeled a 29-kDa nuclear protein (pI 5.8). This protein and a second 29-kDa protein (pI 6.0) were labeled by MDK, but excess unlabeled methoprene or MDK only prevented binding to the latter. These 29-kDa proteins are also present in larval fat body but not in epidermis from either wandering stage or allatectomized larvae, which lack high-affinity JH binding sites. A 29-kDa nuclear protein with the same developmental specificity as this JH binder bound the DNA of two larval endocuticle genes. A 38-kDa cytosolic protein was also specifically photolabeled by these photoaffinity analogs. The 29-kDa nuclear protein is likely the high-affinity receptor for JH that mediates its genomic action, whereas the 38-kDa cytosolic protein may serve as an intracellular carrier for these highly lipophilic hormones and hormone analogs. Images PMID:11607060

  19. Feasibility of a wireless gamma probe in radioguided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-01

    Radioguided surgery through the use of a gamma probe is an established practice, and has been widely applied in the case of sentinel lymph node biopsies. A wide range of intraoperative gamma probes is commercially available. The primary characteristics of the gamma probes include their sensitivity, spatial resolution, and energy resolution. We present the results obtained from a prototype of a new wireless gamma probe. This prototype is composed of a 20 mm thick cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG) inorganic scintillation crystal from Furukawa Denshi and a Hamamatsu S12572-100C multi-pixel photon counter equipped with a designed electronics. The measured performance characteristics include the energy resolution, energy linearity, angular aperture, spatial resolution and sensitivity. Measurements were carried out using 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, and 137Cs sources. The energy resolutions for 0.122 and 0.511 MeV were 17.2% and 6.9%, respectively. The designed prototype consumes an energy of approximately 4.4 W, weighs about 310 g (including battery) having a dimension of 20 mm (D)  ×  130 mm (L).

  20. Detection of anti-heart antibody in sera from patients with myocarditis or myocardiopathy by use of microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Shingu, M; Shingu, M

    1990-09-01

    Circulating autoantibodies have been commonly demonstrated in patients with viral heart disease. However, most of the previously established methods are limited to detection of circulating autoantibodies in sera, and the results correlate poorly with each other and with disease activity. Therefore, there is a need for new methods which can be used to study the resulting cellular effects after binding of autoantibodies to cell surface receptors and to correlate serum autoantibodies with disease activity. A microcalorimetric method was applied to detect circulating autoantibodies by measuring heat production of a line of cells from human embryo heart tissue. The instrument used was a thermoactive cell analyzer ESCO-3000 (Denshi kagaku Co, Musashino-shi, Tokyo). With the microcalorimeter, decreased heat production by cultured cells was demonstrated after admixture of anti-cellular antibody in vitro. Cardiac-specific autoantibodies were found in 53% of patients with viral heart disease. The microcalorimetric method of measuring anti-cellular antibody by monitoring heat production can be very useful and informative.

  1. Knockdown of the juvenile hormone receptor gene inhibits soldier-specific morphogenesis in the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Isoptera: Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Yaguchi, Hajime; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2015-09-01

    The Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein has been established as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. Knockdown of the Met gene caused precocious metamorphosis and suppression of ovarian development. However, the function of Met in caste development of social insects is unclear. In termites, JH acts as a central factor for caste development, especially for soldier differentiation, which involves two molts from workers via a presoldier stage. Increased JH titer in workers is needed for the presoldier molt, and the high JH titer is maintained throughout the presoldier period. Although presoldiers have the fundamental morphological features of soldiers, the nature of the cuticle is completely different from that of soldiers. We expected that JH signals via Met are involved in soldier-specific morphogenesis of the head and mandibles during soldier differentiation, especially in the presoldier period, in natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we focused on soldier differentiation in an incipient colony of the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Met homolog (ZnMet) expression in heads increased just after the presoldier molt. This high expression was reduced by ZnMet double stranded (dsRNA) injection before the presoldier molt. Although this treatment did not cause any morphological changes in presoldiers, it caused strong effects on soldiers, their mandibles being significantly shorter and head capsules smaller than those of control soldiers. Injection of ZnMet dsRNA throughout the presoldier stage did not affect the formation of soldier morphology, including cuticle formation. These results suggested that the rapid increase in ZnMet expression and subsequent activation of JH signaling just after the presoldier molt are needed for the formation of soldier-specific weapons. Therefore, besides its established role in insect metamorphosis, the JH receptor signaling also underlies soldier development in termites.

  2. Juvenile hormone and methyl farnesoate production in cockroach embryos in relation to dorsal closure and the reproductive modes of different species of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi

    2007-12-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), is first detectable after dorsal closure, a conspicuous event in embryogenesis. The present research found that the timing of dorsal closure was consistently at about 45% of the total embryonic development time across most of the oviparous and ovoviviparous cockroach species examined. These included the ovoviviparous cockroaches Blaberus discoidalis, Byrsotria fumigata, Rhyparobia maderae, Nauphoeta cinerea, Phoetalia pallida, Schultesia lampyridiformis, and Panchlora nivea, as well as the oviparous cockroaches Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, Eurycotis floridana, and Supella longipalpa. However, the only known viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata completed dorsal closure at 20.8% of embryo development time. Methyl farnesoate (MF), the immediate precursor of JH III, is considered a functional molecule in crustaceans; however, in insects its function is still unclear. To understand the role of JH and MF in cockroach embryos, I compared JH and MF biosynthesis and release in several cockroach species of known phylogenetic relationships. Using a radiochemical assay, the present research showed that cockroach embryos representing all three reproductive modes produced and released both JH and MF, as previously shown for B. germanica, N. cinerea, and D. punctata. Members of a pair of embryonic CA from B. discoidalis, B. fumigata, R. maderae, and D. punctata were incubated with and without farnesol. MF accumulated in large amounts only in CA of R. maderae in the presence of farnesol, which indicates that control of the last step of biosynthesis of JH, conversion of MF into JH by MF epoxidase, is probably a rate-limiting step in this species.

  3. Methoprene-Tolerant (Met) Knockdown in the Adult Female Cockroach, Diploptera punctata Completely Inhibits Ovarian Development

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F.; Huang, Juan; Pang, Zhenguo; Stay, Barbara; Tobe, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Independent of the design of the life cycle of any insect, their growth and reproduction are highly choreographed through the action of two versatile hormones: ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JH). However, the means by which JH can target tissues and exert its pleiotropic physiological effects is currently still not completely elucidated. Although the identity of the one JH receptor is currently still elusive, recent evidence seems to point to the product of the Methoprene-tolerant gene (Met) as the most likely contender in transducing the action of JH. Studies on the role of this transcription factor have mostly been focused on immature insect stages. In this study we used the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata, a favorite model in studying JH endocrinology, to examine the role of Met during reproduction. A tissue distribution and developmental profile of transcript levels was determined for Met and its downstream partners during the first gonadotropic cycle of this cockroach. Using RNA interference, our study shows that silencing Met results in an arrest of basal oocyte development; vitellogenin is no longer transcribed in the fat body and no longer taken up by the ovary. Patency is not induced in these animals which fail to produce the characteristic profile of JH biosynthesis typical of the first gonadotropic cycle. Moreover, the ultrastructure of the follicle cells showed conspicuous whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum and a failure to form chorion. Our study describes the role of Met on a cellular and physiological level during insect reproduction, and confirms the role of Met as a key factor in the JH signaling pathway. PMID:25197795

  4. Active H+ transport in the turtle urinary bladder. Coupling of transport to glucose oxidation

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The turtle urinary bladder acidifies the contents of its lumen by actively transporting protons. H+ secretion by the isolated bladder was measured simultaneously with the rate of 14CO2 evolution from [14C]glucose. The application of an adverse pH gradient resulted in a decline in the rate of H+ secretion (JH) and in the rate of glucose oxidation (JCO2). The changes in JH and JCO2 were linear functions of the pH difference across the membrane. Hence, JH and JCO2 were linearly related to each other. The slope, deltaJH/deltaJCO2 was found to be similar in half-bladders from the same animal but was seen to vary widely in a population of turtles. To investigate the effect of pH gradients on deltaJH/deltaJCO2, two experiments were performed in each of 14 hemibladders. In one, JH and JCO2 were altered by changing the luminal pH. In the other, they were altered by changing the ambient pCO2 while the luminal pH was kept constant. The average slope, deltaJH/deltaJCO2, in the presence of pH gradients was 14.45 eq-mol-1. In the absence of gradients in the same hemibladders it was 14.72, delta = 0.27 +/- 1.46. The results show that H+ transport is organized in such a way that leaks to protons in parallel to the pump are negligible. Analysis of the transport system by use of the Essig-Caplan linear irreversible thermodynamic formalism shows that the system is tightly coupled. The degree of coupling, q, given by that analysis was measured and found to be at or very near the maximum theoretical value. PMID:11270

  5. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O.; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis. PMID:28158248

  6. Light exposure leads to reorganization of microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies and influences juvenile hormone levels in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Christina; Wang, Ying; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Amdam, Gro V; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees show a remarkable behavioral plasticity at the transition from nursing inside the hive to foraging for nectar and/or pollen outside. This plasticity is important for age-related division of labor in honeybee colonies. The behavioral transition is associated with significant volume and synaptic changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain centers for sensory integration, learning, and memory. We tested whether precocious sensory exposure to light leads to changes in the density of synaptic complexes [microglomeruli (MG)] in the MBs. The results show that exposure to light pulses over 3 days induces a significant decrease in the MG density in visual subregions (collar) of the MB. Earlier studies had shown that foragers have increased levels of juvenile hormone (JH) co-occurring with a decrease of vitellogenin (Vg). Previous work further established that RNAi-mediated knockdown of vg and ultraspiracle (usp) induced an upregulation of JH levels, which can lead to precocious foraging. By disturbing both Vg and JH pathways using gene knockdown of vg and usp, we tested whether the changes in the hormonal system directly affect MG densities. Our study shows that MG numbers remained unchanged when Vg and JH pathways were perturbed, suggesting no direct hormonal influences on MG densities. However, mass spectrometry detection of JH revealed that precocious light exposure triggered an increase in JH levels in the hemolymph (HL) of young bees. This suggests a dual effect following light exposure via direct effects on MG reorganization in the MB calyx and a possible positive feedback on HL JH levels.

  7. ATP Dependence of Na+-Driven Cl–HCO3 Exchange in Squid Axons

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Bruce A.; Hogan, Emilia M.; Russell, John M.; Boron, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    Squid giant axons recover from acid loads by activating a Na+-driven Cl–HCO3 exchanger. We internally dialyzed axons to an intracellular pH (pHi) of 6.7, halted dialysis and monitored the pHi recovery (increase) in the presence of ATP or other nucleotides, using cyanide to block oxidative phosphorylation. We computed the equivalent acid-extrusion rate (JH) from the rate of pHi increase and intracellular buffering power. In experimental series 1, we used dialysis to vary [ATP]i, finding that Michaelis-Menten kinetics describes JH vs. [ATP]i, with an apparent Vmax of 15.6 pmole cm−2 s−1 and Km of 124 µM. In series 2, we examined ATPγS, AMP-PNP, AMP-PCP, AMP-CPP, GMP-PNP, ADP, ADPβS and GDPβS to determine if any, by themselves, could support transport. Only ATPγS (8 mM) supported acid extrusion; ATPγS also supported the HCO3−-dependent 36Cl efflux expected of a Na+-driven Cl–HCO3 exchanger. Finally, in series 3, we asked whether any nucleotide could alter JH in the presence of a background [ATP]i of ~230 µM (control JH = 11.7 pmol cm−2 s−1). We found JH was decreased modestly by 8 mM AMP-PNP (JH = 8.0 pmol cm−2 s−1) but increased modestly by 1 mM ADPβS (JH = 16.0 pmol cm−2 s−1). We suggest that ATPγS leads to stable phosphorylation of the transporter or an essential activator. PMID:18478173

  8. Krüppel Homolog 1 Inhibits Insect Metamorphosis via Direct Transcriptional Repression of Broad-Complex, a Pupal Specifier Gene.

    PubMed

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Nagamine, Keisuke; Ito, Yuka; Nishita, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2016-01-22

    The Broad-Complex gene (BR-C) encodes transcription factors that dictate larval-pupal metamorphosis in insects. The expression of BR-C is induced by molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)), and this induction is repressed by juvenile hormone (JH), which exists during the premature larval stage. Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1) has been known as a JH-early inducible gene responsible for repression of metamorphosis; however, the functional relationship between Kr-h1 and repression of BR-C has remained unclear. To elucidate this relationship, we analyzed cis- and trans elements involved in the repression of BR-C using a Bombyx mori cell line. In the cells, as observed in larvae, JH induced the expression of Kr-h1 and concurrently suppressed 20E-induced expression of BR-C. Forced expression of Kr-h1 repressed the 20E-dependent activation of the BR-C promoter in the absence of JH, and Kr-h1 RNAi inhibited the JH-mediated repression, suggesting that Kr-h1 controlled the repression of BR-C. A survey of the upstream sequence of BR-C gene revealed a Kr-h1 binding site (KBS) in the BR-C promoter. When KBS was deleted from the promoter, the repression of BR-C was abolished. Electrophoresis mobility shift demonstrated that two Kr-h1 molecules bound to KBS in the BR-C promoter. Based on these results, we conclude that Kr-h1 protein molecules directly bind to the KBS sequence in the BR-C promoter and thereby repress 20E-dependent activation of the pupal specifier, BR-C. This study has revealed a considerable portion of the picture of JH signaling pathways from the reception of JH to the repression of metamorphosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The POU factor ventral veins lacking/Drifter directs the timing of metamorphosis through ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, CeCe; Ko, Amy; Chaieb, Leila; Koyama, Takashi; Sarwar, Prioty; Mirth, Christen K; Smith, Wendy A; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2014-06-01

    Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl)/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3). In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3), were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm) and spook (spo) were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation.

  10. Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Konopova, Barbora; Smykal, Vlastimil; Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly). In either case juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C) in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis.

  11. Do thyroid hormones function in insects?

    PubMed

    Davey, K G

    2000-01-01

    Earlier work demonstrated that phenoxy-phenyl compounds such as fenoxycarb and thyroxine mimicked the effects of JH III in causing a reduction in volume of the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria. While these compounds were only moderately effective, a derivative of thyroxine, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) was as effective as JH III, and T3 has been shown to bind to the same membrane receptor and activate the same pathway as JH III. The current paper shows that other thyroxine derivatives vary in activity. 3,3', 5'-Triiodothyronine (reverse T3) is inactive. 3,5-Diiodothyronine (T2) is more active than JH III, while its relatives (iodines at 3', 5' or at 3,3') are inactive. When follicles are exposed in vitro to rhodamine conjugated T3, the fluorescent compound can be seen to enter the cells and accumulate there: this process is inhibited by cycloheximide or by a temperature of 0 degrees C. The accumulation is antagonised by JH III but not JH I (which does not bind to the JH III membrane receptor) and by an antiserum raised against the putative membrane receptor protein. The action of T3, but not T2, is inhibited by 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil or by aurothioglucose, both known to inhibit deiodinases. The activity of T3, but not of T2, increases with time of exposure to the follicle cells. These facts suggest that T3 enters the cells by receptor mediated endocytosis and is converted to a more active compound. Immunoreactivity to T3, but not thyroxine, can be detected in the haemolymph of locusts, and the titre varies slightly with the gonotrophic cycle. The food shows immunoreactivity for both thyroxine and T3. These findings suggest that thyroid hormones are ingested by locusts and have the potential to be used as hormonal signals in the control of egg production.

  12. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  13. Roles of ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone in vitellogenesis in an endoparasitic wasp, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheng-zhang; Ye, Gong-yin; Guo, Jian-yang; Hu, Cui

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the endocrine regulation of vitellogenesis in an endoparastic wasp (Pteromalus puparum), the titers of ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone (JH) from the whole bodies are measured using the method of radioimmunoassay and GC-MS, and compared with the levels of vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA in the fat bodies, hemolymph Vg and ovarian vitellin (Vt), respectively. The results show that the ecdysteroid titer and fat body Vg mRNA level have a similar dynamics tendency, and the peak titer is at adult eclosion. The titer of JH III and ovarian Vt also have a similar dynamics tendency, and the peak titer is at 48h after eclosion. The profiles of hemolymph Vg, Vg mRNA in fat bodies and ovarian Vt, are also measured in the wasps after treated with different amounts of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE) or JH III in female pupa and adults. The results show that 20HE stimulates Vg synthesis in the fat bodies and its release into the hemolymph, and that JH III only accelerates Vg sequestration in the oocytes. Decapitation, which is believed to terminate synthesis of JH in insects, can not inhibit vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in P. puparum. Furthermore, Vg gene is expressed with a lower titer of JH and depressed by a higher titer of JH III. These studies suggest that ecdysteroids play a role in Vg synthesis and believed to be the dominant hormones in regulation of vitellogenesis in P. puparum, and JHs are not the essential factors to female reproduction in this wasp.

  14. Common and Distinct Roles of Juvenile Hormone Signaling Genes in Metamorphosis of Holometabolous and Hemimetabolous Insects

    PubMed Central

    Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly). In either case juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C) in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis. PMID:22174880

  15. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis.

  16. Molecular mechanism underlying juvenile hormone-mediated repression of precocious larval–adult metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Jouraku, Akiya; Ito, Yuka; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval–pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we found that JH suppressed ecdysone-inducible E93 expression in the epidermis of the silkworm Bombyx mori and in a B. mori cell line. Reporter assays in the cell line revealed that the JH-dependent suppression was mediated by Kr-h1. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis identified a consensus Kr-h1 binding site (KBS, 14 bp) located in the E93 promoter region, and EMSA confirmed that Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS. Moreover, we identified a C-terminal conserved domain in Kr-h1 essential for the transcriptional repression of E93. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism in which JH-inducible Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS site upstream of the E93 locus to repress its transcription in a cell-autonomous manner, thereby preventing larva from bypassing the pupal stage and progressing to precocious adult development. These findings help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating the metamorphic genetic network, including the functional significance of Kr-h1, BR-C, and E93 in holometabolous insect metamorphosis. PMID:28096379

  17. Juvenile Hormone Differentially Regulates Two Grp78 Genes Encoding Protein Chaperones Required for Insect Fat Body Cell Homeostasis and Vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Maowu; Li, Dong; Wang, Zhiming; Guo, Wei; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2017-03-29

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has a well-known role in stimulating insect vitellogenesis (i.e. yolk deposition) and oocyte maturation, but the molecular mechanisms of JH action in insect reproduction are unclear. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (Grp78) is a heat shock protein 70 kDa family member and one of the most abundant chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it helps fold newly synthesized peptides. Because of its prominent role in protein folding and also ER stress, we hypothesized that Grp78 might be involved in fat body cell homeostasis and vitellogenesis and a regulatory target of JH. We report here that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria possesses two Grp78 genes that are differentially regulated by JH. We found that Grp78-1 is regulated by JH through Mcm4/7-dependent DNA replication and polyploidization, whereas Grp78-2 expression is directly activated by the JH-receptor complex comprising Methoprene-tolerant and Taiman proteins. Interestingly, Grp78-2 expression in the fat body is about 10-fold higher than that of Grp78-1 Knockdown of either Grp78-1 or Grp78-2 significantly reduced levels of vitellogenin (Vg) protein, accompanied by retarded maturation of oocytes. Depletion of both Grp78-1 and Grp78-2 resulted in ER stress and apoptosis in the fat body and in severely defective Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation. These results indicate a crucial role of Grp78 in JH-dependent vitellogenesis and egg production. The presence and differential regulation of two Grp78 genes in L. migratoria likely help accelerate the production of this chaperone in the fat body to facilitate folding of massively synthesized Vg and other proteins.

  18. The FOXO transcription factor controls insect growth and development by regulating juvenile hormone degradation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Baosheng; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jun; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-07-14

    Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect. The BmFOXO mutant (FOXO-M) exhibited growth delays from the first larval stage and showed precocious metamorphosis, pupating at the end of the fourth instar (trimolter) rather than at the end of the fifth instar as in the wild-type (WT) animals. However, different from previous reports on precocious metamorphosis caused by juvenile hormone (JH) deficiency in silkworm mutants, the total developmental time of the larval period in the FOXO-M was comparable with that of the WT. Exogenous application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or of the JH analog rescued the trimolter phenotype. RNA-seq and gene expression analyses indicated that genes involved in JH degradation but not in JH biosynthesis were up-regulated in the FOXO-M compared with the WT animals. Moreover, we identified several FOXO-binding sites in the promoter of genes coding for JH-degradation enzymes. These results suggest that FOXO regulates JH degradation rather than its biosynthesis, which further modulates hormone homeostasis to control growth and development in B. mori In conclusion, we have uncovered a pivotal role for FOXO in regulating JH signaling to control insect development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Microarray Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Response in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Willis, David K.; Wang, Jun; Lindholm, Joliene R.; Orth, Anthony; Goodman, Walter G.

    2010-01-01

    A microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was used to analyze the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on genome-wide gene expression. JH is a member of a group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Total RNA was isolated from Drosophila S2 cells after 4 hours treatment with 250 ng/ml (10R) JH III or 250 ng/ml methyl linoleate. A collection of 32 known or putative genes demonstrated a significant change with JH III treatment (r > 2.0, P ≤ 0.005). Of these, the abundance of 13 transcripts was significantly increased and 19 decreased. The expression of a subset of these loci was analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Three loci that exhibited constant expression in the presence and absence of JH III (RP49 [FBgn0002626], FBgn0023529, and FBgn0034354) were evaluated and found to be reliable invariant reference transcripts for real-time RT-qPCR analysis using BestKeeper and geNorm software. Increased expression in presence of JH III was confirmed by real-time RTqPCR analysis. However, only one of five loci that exhibited reduced expression on microarrays could be confirmed as significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05). Among the confirmed JH III up-regulated genes were two loci of unknown function (FBgn0040887 and FBgn0037057) and Epac, an exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1 small GTPase. PMID:20672983

  20. Molecular Determinants of Juvenile Hormone Action as Revealed by 3D QSAR Analysis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Beňo, Milan; Farkaš, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH). While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 Å or longer than 13.5 Å, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. Conclusions/Significance The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions. PMID:19547707

  1. The POU Factor Ventral Veins Lacking/Drifter Directs the Timing of Metamorphosis through Ecdysteroid and Juvenile Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Koyama, Takashi; Sarwar, Prioty; Mirth, Christen K.; Smith, Wendy A.; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl)/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3). In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3), were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm) and spook (spo) were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation. PMID:24945490

  2. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Range, Sebastian; Oeh, Uwe; Lorenz, Matthias W; Etzel, Winfried; Nauen, Ralf; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2002-05-01

    The in vitro production of juvenile hormones (JH) was investigated by using corpora allata (CA) of larvae and corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (CC-CA) complexes of adult females of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. In female moths, JH release was high compared to that in 5th and 6th instar larvae. Concentrations of 0.11-0.12 mM methionine, 180-200 mM Na(+), 5.8-8.3 mM K(+), 10-50 mM Ca(2+) and a pH range of 5.7-6.3 yielded optimal incorporation of L-[methyl-(3)H] methionine in vitro by CC-CA complexes. The highest hourly incorporation occurred during a 9-h incubation period following a 1.5-h lag-phase. JH release from CC-CA complexes of adult females was shown to be age-dependent with a peak value on day 2 (approx. 4 pmol h(-1) CA(-1)). By a combination of reversed phase (RP)- and normal phase (NP)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), two major labelled products released by the complex were separated. One compound co-migrated with chemically synthesized JH II diol, the second compound with JH III diol. Only traces of JH II and III could be detected in some samples. Gland extracts also contained both the major radiolabelled products. Double labelling experiments using [3H]methionine and [14C]acetate confirmed their de novo synthesis in CC-CA complexes of female moths. The nature of chemically synthesized reference JH III diol was proved by LC-MS (ESI mass spectrometry) and 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy).

  3. Evolutionary Endocrinology of Hormonal Rhythms: Juvenile Hormone Titer Circadian Polymorphism in Gryllus firmus.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Daily rhythms for hormonal traits are likely widespread and important aspects of organismal (e.g., life history) adaptation. Yet they remain substantially understudied, especially with respect to variable rhythms within species. The cricket, Gryllus firmus, exhibits a genetically polymorphic circadian rhythm for the blood titer of the key hormone, juvenile hormone (JH). Gryllus firmus is also wing-polymorphic, consisting of a dispersing morph that delays reproduction and a flightless morph with substantially enhanced egg production. JH circadian phenotype strongly covaries with morph type: The blood JH titer is strongly rhythmic in multiple populations artificially-selected for the dispersing morph (LW(f) = long wings with functional flight muscles) and is essentially arrhythmic in populations selected for the SW (short-winged) morph. Association between JH titer cycle and LW(f) morph is also found in natural populations of G. firmus and in several related species in the field. This is one of the very few studies of endocrine titer variation in natural populations of an insect. The morph-specific cycle is underlain by a circadian rhythm in hormone biosynthesis, which in turn is underlain by a rhythm in a brain neuropeptide regulator of JH biosynthesis. The morph-specific JH titer circadian cycle is also strongly correlated with a morph-specific daily rhythm in global gene expression. This is currently the only example of a genetically-variable hormone circadian rhythm in both the laboratory and field that is strongly associated with an ecologically important polymorphism. The extensive information on the underlying causes of the morph-specific JH titer rhythm, coupled with the strong association between the JH circadian rhythm and wing polymorphism makes this system in G. firmus an exceptional experimental model to investigate the mechanisms underlying circadian hormonal adaptations. Genetic polymorphism for the JH titer circadian rhythm in G. firmus is discussed

  4. Energization of sodium absorption by the H(+)-ATPase pump in mitochondria-rich cells of frog skin.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B J

    1992-11-01

    The frog skin in vivo is capable of active transepithelial H+ secretion (JH) which is matched by Na+ absorption (JNa). Studies in vitro demonstrate that JH is generated by an H(+)-ATPase pump localized in apical membranes of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells, whereas JNa occurs through an amiloride-sensitive pathway in principal (P) cells. The H+ pump is sensitive to inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (e.g. acetazolamide) and to specific inhibitors of mitochondrial F1F0 H(+)-ATPase (oligomycin) and vacuolar (V)-type H(+)-ATPase (N-ethylmaleimide) and to inhibitors of both these types of H(+)-ATPases (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, DCCD). JH is independent of external K+, which differentiates it from gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase and is strictly dependent on aerobic metabolism. The proton pump is primarily implicated in whole-body acid-base regulation. Acute stimulation of JH in response (seconds-minutes) to an acid load involves insertion of H+ pumps (exocytosis) from a cytosolic pool into the apical membrane. The chronic response (days) to metabolic acid load involves morphological changes (increased apical membrane surface area and number of MR cells). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of membrane capacitance and current fluctuations from MR cells demonstrate that a respiratory acid load and aldosterone produce rapid exocytotic insertion of DCCD-sensitive conductive membrane. A secondary role of the H+ pump is to energize sodium absorption (JNa) via principal cells from dilute solutions in the absence of a permeant anion under open-circuit conditions. The apparent 1:1 stoichiometry between JH and JNa is a result of transepithelial electrical coupling between these electrogenic fluxes. The H+ pump in MR cells generates a transepithelial current (serosa to apical) which acts as a physiological voltage-clamp to hyperpolarize the apical membrane of P cells. This hyperpolarization can facilitate passive Na+ entry across the apical membrane against a threefold chemical gradient. Since

  5. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-03-28

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.

  6. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The “target of rapamycin” (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens. PMID:27043527

  7. The Drosophila Juvenile Hormone Receptor Candidates Methoprene-tolerant (MET) and Germ Cell-expressed (GCE) Utilize a Conserved LIXXL Motif to Bind the FTZ-F1 Nuclear Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Travis J.; Dubrovsky, Edward B.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has been implicated in many developmental processes in holometabolous insects, but its mechanism of signaling remains controversial. We previously found that in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells, the nuclear receptor FTZ-F1 is required for activation of the E75A gene by JH. Here, we utilized insect two-hybrid assays to show that FTZ-F1 interacts with two JH receptor candidates, the bHLH-PAS paralogs MET and GCE, in a JH-dependent manner. These interactions are severely reduced when helix 12 of the FTZ-F1 activation function 2 (AF2) is removed, implicating AF2 as an interacting site. Through homology modeling, we found that MET and GCE possess a C-terminal α-helix featuring a conserved motif LIXXL that represents a novel nuclear receptor (NR) box. Docking simulations supported by two-hybrid experiments revealed that FTZ-F1·MET and FTZ-F1·GCE heterodimer formation involves a typical NR box-AF2 interaction but does not require the canonical charge clamp residues of FTZ-F1 and relies primarily on hydrophobic contacts, including a unique interaction with helix 4. Moreover, we identified paralog-specific features, including a secondary interaction site found only in MET. Our findings suggest that a novel NR box enables MET and GCE to interact JH-dependently with the AF2 of FTZ-F1. PMID:22249180

  8. The Genetic, Morphological, and Physiological Characterization of a Dark Larval Cuticle Mutation in the Butterfly, Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2010-01-01

    Studies on insect melanism have greatly contributed to our understanding of natural selection and the ultimate factors influencing the evolution of darkly pigmented phenotypes. Research on several species of melanic lepidopteran larvae have found that low levels of circulating juvenile hormone (JH) titers are associated with a melanic phenotype, suggesting that genetic changes in the JH biosynthetic pathway give rise to increased deposition of melanin granules in the cuticle in this group. But does melanism arise through different molecular mechanisms in different species? The present study reports on a Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) dark larvae single locus mutation, in which larvae exhibit a darker cuticle relative to wild type. Unlike other lepidopteran melanic larvae mutations, this one is autosomal recessive and does not appear to involve a deficiency in JH titers. Unlike JH deficiency mutants, dark larvae mutants display similar growth rates and sexual behaviors as wild type, and topical application of a JH analogue failed to rescue the wild type cuticular coloration. Finally, transmission electron microscopy showed that sclerotization or deposition of diffuse melanin, rather than deposition of melanin granules, produces the dark coloration found in the cuticle of this species. We conclude that different molecular mechanisms underlie larval melanism in different species of Lepidoptera. PMID:20644735

  9. Apis mellifera ultraspiracle: cDNA sequence and rapid up-regulation by juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Barchuk, A R; Maleszka, R; Simões, Z L P

    2004-10-01

    Two hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are key regulators of insect development including the differentiation of the alternative caste phenotypes of social insects. In addition, JH plays a different role in adult honey bees, acting as a 'behavioural pacemaker'. The functional receptor for 20E is a heterodimer consisting of the ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle (USP) whereas the identity of the JH receptor remains unknown. We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding Apis mellifera ultraspiracle (AMUSP) and examined its responses to JH. A rapid, but transient up-regulation of the AMUSP messenger is observed in the fat bodies of both queens and workers. AMusp appears to be a single copy gene that produces two transcripts ( approximately 4 and approximately 5 kb) that are differentially expressed in the animal's body. The predicted AMUSP protein shows greater sequence similarity to its orthologues from the vertebrate-crab-tick-locust group than to the dipteran-lepidopteran group. These characteristics and the rapid up-regulation by JH suggest that some of the USP functions in the honey bee may depend on ligand binding.

  10. A comparison of reactive strength index-modified between six U.S. Collegiate athletic teams.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Sole, Christopher J; Bailey, Christopher A; Grazer, Jacob L; Beckham, George K

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in reactive strength index-modified (RSImod), jump height (JH), and time to takeoff (TTT) between 6 U.S. collegiate sport teams. One hundred six male and female Division I collegiate athletes performed unloaded (<1 kg) and loaded (20 kg) countermovement jumps as part of an ongoing athlete monitoring program. Reactive strength index-modified, JH, and TTT values for each team were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. Statistically significant differences in RSImod (p < 0.001), JH (p < 0.001), and TTT (p = 0.003) existed between teams during the unloaded jumping condition. Similarly, statistically significant differences in RSImod (p < 0.001), JH (p < 0.001), and TTT (p = 0.028) existed between teams during the loaded jumping condition. Men's soccer and baseball produced the greatest RSImod values during both the unloaded and loaded jumping conditions followed by women's volleyball, men's tennis, women's soccer, and women's tennis. The greatest JH during unloaded and loaded jumping conditions was produced by men's baseball followed by men's soccer, women's volleyball, men's tennis, women's soccer, and women's tennis. Men's soccer produced shorter TTT compared with men's baseball (12.7%) and women's soccer (13.3%) during the unloaded and loaded jumping conditions, respectively. Collegiate sport teams exhibit varying reactive strength characteristics during unloaded and loaded jumping conditions. Understanding the differences in RSImod between sports may help direct the creation of training and monitoring programs more effectively for various sports.

  11. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with RNA interference against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Powell, Charles A; Shatters, Robert G; Borovsky, Dov

    2014-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction in adults and metamorphism in larval mosquitoes. This report describes an approach to control Aedes aegypti using RNAi against JH acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III that converts JH acid III (JHA III) into JH III. In female A. aegypti that were injected or fed jmtA dsRNA targeting the AeaJHAMT gene (jmtA) transcript, egg development was inhibited in 50% of the treated females. In mosquito larvae that were fed transgenic Pichia pastoris cells expressing long hair pin (LHP) RNA, adult eclosion was delayed by 3 weeks causing high mortality. Northern blot analyses and qPCR studies show that jmtA dsRNA causes inhibition of jmtA transcript in adults and larvae, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of egg maturation and larval development. Taken together, these results suggest that jmtA LHP RNA expressed in heat inactivated genetically modified P. pastoris cells could be used to control mosquito populations in the marsh.

  12. Juvenile hormone III suppresses forkhead of transcription factor in the fat body and reduces fat accumulation in the diapausing mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Sim, Cheolho; Denlinger, David L

    2013-02-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls diverse physiological and developmental events including diapause and nutrient metabolism. The focal point of endocrine regulation in adult reproductive diapause is initiated by a halt of JH synthesis. In diapausing females of the mosquito Culex pipiens, the other key molecular event is the signalling pathway from insulin to forkhead of transcription factor (FOXO). We hypothesized that a halt of JH synthesis is related to activation of FOXO, which results in increasing lipid reserves in the fat body at the onset of the diapause programme. In this study, the full-length sequence of the foxo gene in C. pipiens was characterized, and the protein abundance pattern of the foxo gene product was analyzed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. FOXO was much more abundant in the fat body of diapausing females than in the fat body of nondiapausing females; much lower levels were present in other adult tissues. When we topically applied JH III to diapause-destined females, FOXO was suppressed, and fat accumulation was reduced, suggesting an interaction between JH synthesis and FOXO that is critical for expression of the diapause phenotype. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Synchronous vitellogenin expression and sexual maturation during migration are negatively correlated with juvenile hormone levels in Mythimna separata

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246

  14. Diverse organization of immunoglobulin VH gene loci in a primitive vertebrate.

    PubMed Central

    Kokubu, F; Litman, R; Shamblott, M J; Hinds, K; Litman, G W

    1988-01-01

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain variable (VH) gene family of Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a phylogenetically distant vertebrate, is unique in that VH, diversity (DH), joining (JH) and constant region (CH) gene segments are linked closely, in multiple individual clusters. The V regions of 12 genomic (liver and gonad) DNA clones have been sequenced completely and three organization patterns are evident: (i) VH-D1-D2-JH-CH with unique 12/22 and 12/12 spacers in the respective D recombination signal sequences (RSSs); VH and JH segments have 23 nucleotide (nt) spacers, (ii) VHDH-JH-CH, an unusual germline configuration with joined VH and DH segments and (iii) VHDHJH-CH, with all segmental elements being joined. The latter two configurations do not appear to be pseudogenes. Another VH-D1-D2-JH-CH gene possesses a D1 segment that is flanked by RSSs with 12 nt spacers and a D2 segment with 22/12 spacers. Based on the comparison of spleen, VH+ cDNA sequences to a germline consensus, it is evident that both DH segments as well as junctional and N-type diversity account for Ig variability. In this early vertebrate, the Ig genes share unique properties with higher vertebrate T-cell receptor as well as with Ig and may reflect the structure of a common ancestral antigen binding receptor gene. Images PMID:3145194

  15. A new method of detecting hormone-binding proteins electroblotted onto glass fiber filter: juvenile hormone-binding proteins from grasshopper hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, L S; Roberts, P E

    1990-03-01

    We have developed a new method to identify juvenile hormone (JH)-binding proteins blotted onto glass fiber filter (GFF) after electrophoretic separation. Insect JH regulates reproduction in the two-striped grasshopper, Melanoplus bivittatus. A number of proteins are involved in the delivery of JH from its site of synthesis to the nuclei of fat body cells where it acts to induce vitellogenesis. To identify JH binding proteins, hemolymph was separated by PAGE, electroblotted onto GFF, and incubated in [10-3H]JH-III. The amount of hormone bound by blotted proteins increased with the amount of protein on the filter, was competitively displaced by excess non-labeled hormone, and was affiliated with individual bands on fluorograms of proteins blotted after electrophoretic separation. GFF etched with trifluoroacetic acid was better than nitrocellulose, Zeta Probe, cellulose acetate or unetched GFF. Phosphate (pH 6.0-7.3) or Tris buffers (pH 7.3-8.0) worked equally well for the procedure. Unbound hormone was easily removed by short washes in buffer, and adequate binding for detection was achieved in a 15 min incubation. Preliminary data suggest that this technique may be used to detect receptors, carriers, and binding proteins of steroid hormones.

  16. Genetic Architecture of a Hormonal Response to Gene Knockdown in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Ying; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several other traits cosegregate with these behavioral phenotypes, comprising the pollen hoarding syndrome (PHS) one of the best-described animal behavioral syndromes. Genotype differences in responsiveness of JH to Vg are a potential mechanistic basis for the PHS. Here, we reduced Vg expression via RNA interference in progeny from a backcross between 2 selected lines of honey bees that differ in JH responsiveness to Vg reduction and measured JH response and ovary size, which represents another key aspect of the PHS. Genetic mapping based on restriction site-associated DNA tag sequencing identified suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ovary size and JH responsiveness. We confirmed genetic effects on both traits near many QTL that had been identified previously for their effect on various PHS traits. Thus, our results support a role for endocrine control of complex traits at a genetic level. Furthermore, this first example of a genetic map of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in a social insect helps to refine the genetic understanding of complex behaviors and the physiology that may underlie behavioral control in general. PMID:25596612

  17. Juvenile hormone-binding proteins of Melanoplus bivittatus identified by EFDA photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Proteins that bind juvenile hormone in the hemolymph and fat body of the grasshopper, Melanoplus bivittatus were identified by photoaffinity labeling with radiolabeled epoxyfarnesyl diazoacetate ({sup 3}H-EFDA), and were characterized by electrophoretic analysis. A protocol was developed which allowed detection of {sup 3}H-EFDA that was covalently linked to proteins upon exposure to ultraviolet light at 254 nm. Quantification of protein-linked {sup 3}H-EFDA by liquid scintillation spectrometry took advantage of the differential solubility of unlinked {sup 3}H-EFDA in toluene alone, and of the protein-linked {sup 3}H-EFDA in toluene plus the detergent, Triton X-100. Competition between EFDA and juvenile hormone (JH) for binding to JH-specific binding sites was measured by hydroxyapatite protein binding assays in the presence of radiolabeled JH or EFDA and competing non-radiolabeled hormone. The protein-linked EFDA was detected on fluorograms of SDS or nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels (PAGE), and by liquid scintillation spectrometry of membranes to which the proteins had been electrophoretically transferred. Proteins which specifically bound JH were identified by photolabeling proteins in the presence and absence of nonlabeled JH-III.

  18. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation.

  19. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  20. Public health-specific National Incident Management System trainings: building a system for preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Sivan; Barnett, Daniel J; Galastri, Costanza; Semon, Natalie L; Links, Jonathan M

    2010-01-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) are at the hub of the public health emergency preparedness system. Since the 2003 issuance of Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, LHDs have faced challenges to comply with a new set of all-hazards, 24/7 organizational response expectations, as well as the National Incident Management System (NIMS). To help local public health practitioners address these challenges, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness (JH-CPHP) created and implemented a face-to-face, public health-specific NIMS training series for LHDs. This article presents the development, evolution, and delivery of the JH-CPHP NIMS training program. In this context, the article also describes a case example of practice-academic collaboration between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and JH-CPHP to develop public health-oriented NIMS course content.

  1. Impact of Wetting/Oven-Drying Cycles on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Birch Plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooru, M.; Kasepuu, K.; Kask, R.; Lille, H.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore some physical and mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of birch (Betula sp.) nine-ply veneers glued with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) after 10 cycles of soaking/oven-drying. The properties to be determined were bending strength (BS), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), Janka hardness (JH) and thickness swelling (TS), which were tested according to the European Standards (EN). An analytical equation was used for approximation of the change in the physical and mechanical properties of the samples depending on the number of cycles. It was shown that the values of the studied properties were affected most by the first soaking and drying cycles after which BS and MOE decreased continuously while the values of JH and TS stabilized. After 10 cycles the final values of BS, MOE, JH and TS accounted for 75-81%, 95%, 82% and 98.5% of the initial values, respectively.

  2. Downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity increases the gustatory responsiveness of honey bee workers (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Amdam, Gro V.; Norberg, Kari; Page, Robert E.; Erber, Joachim; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2008-01-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), young workers usually perform tasks in the nest while older workers forage in the field. The behavioral shift from nest-task to foraging activity is accompanied by physiological and sensory changes so that foragers can be characterized by a higher juvenile hormone (JH) level, a lower vitellogenin protein titer, and an increased responsiveness to water and sucrose stimuli. JH was hypothesized to be the key mediator of behavioral development, physiology, and sensory sensitivity in honey bee workers. Recent research, however, has shown that JH is controlled by the hemolymph vitellogenin level, which implies that the fat body specific vitellogenin gene can be a key regulator of behavioral change. Here, we show that downregulation of vitellogenin activity by RNA interference (RNAi) causes an increase in the gustatory responsiveness of worker bees. Our observations suggest that vitellogenin is an important regulator of long-term changes in honey bee behavior. PMID:16466813

  3. Sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on juvenile hormone levels and mRNA expression of JHAMT and FPPS genes in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Nan; Miao, Lijun; Cai, Jingxuan; Lu, Mingxing; Du, Yuzhou; Wang, Jianjun

    2017-10-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates the development and reproduction of insects. The sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on JH levels and mRNA expression of JH acid methyltransferase gene (CsJHAMT) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase genes (CsFPPS1 and CsFPPS2) in Chilo suppressalis (Walker) were investigated. Exposure of sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole (LC10 and LC30 ) to the third instar larvae of C. suppressalis significantly increased the JH levels in all developmental stages investigated including larvae 72 h after treatment, the first, third and fifth day of female pupae, as well as newly emerged, 12-h-old and 24-h-old female adults. A general trend of increased mRNA expression levels of CsJHAMT, CsFPPS1and CsFPPS2 was also observed in LC10 and LC30 treatment groups. Notably, the mRNA expression level of CsJHAMT significantly increased by 7.46-fold in the larvae 72 h after LC30 treatment. A significant increase of the mRNA expression levels of CsFPPS2 was also observed in the fifth day female pupae of LC10 and LC30 treatment groups (2.60-fold and 2.62-fold, respectively) as well as in 12-h-old female adults of the LC30 treatment group (3.45-fold). Sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole might upregulate the expression of JH biosynthesis genes and in turn result in an increase of JH level in C. suppressalis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The inverse microconglomerate test: Definition and application to the preservation of Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Rory; Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Dare, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic field test, the inverse microconglomerate test. In contrast with traditional conglomerate tests, which target specimens that might preserve primary magnetizations, the inverse microconglomerate test focuses on magnetic carriers having unblocking temperatures less than peak metamorphic temperatures. These mineral carriers are expected to carry a consistent direction of remagnetization. Hence, the inverse microconglomerate test evaluates whether coherent magnetizations are retained on a grain/mineral scale in a given sedimentary rock sample. By defining the remagnetization direction, it also serves as a benchmark for comparison of magnetizations from other grains/minerals having unblocking temperatures higher than peak metamorphic conditions (i.e., potential primary magnetizations). We apply this new test to sediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. For the JH sediments we focus on fuchsite, a secondary Cr-mica that contains relict Cr-Fe spinels capable of recording remanent magnetizations. We find that JH fuchsite grains retain consistent magnetic directions at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340 oC, which defines a positive test. This direction does not reproduce a nominal 1078-1070 Ma remagnetization reported by Weiss et al. (EPSL, 2015) that we interpret as an artifact of inappropriate use of averaging and statistics. The thermochemical remanent magnetization recorded by the fuchsite was most likely imparted during peak JH metamorphic conditions at ˜2650 Ma. Our inverse microconglomerate test complements a positive microconglomerate test and large scale positive conglomerate test conducted on JH cobbles (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013), further supporting evidence that JH zircons record Paleoarchean to Hadean primary magnetizations at high (greater than 550 oC) unblocking temperatures (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). More generally, the new inverse microconglomerate test may aid in

  5. Two Leptinotarsa uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases are specialized for chitin synthesis in larval epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Fu, Jia; Mu, Li-Li; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine-pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is involved in the biosynthesis of chitin, an essential component of the epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix (PM) in insects. In the present paper, two putative LdUAP genes were cloned in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In vivo bioassay revealed that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide activated the expression of the two LdUAPs, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and a 20E signaling gene LdFTZ-F1 repressed the expression. Juvenile hormone (JH), a JH analog pyriproxyfen and an increase in JH by RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C downregulated LdUAP1 but upregulated LdUAP2, whereas a decrease in JH by silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT had converse effects. Thus, expression of LdUAPs responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdUAP1 reduced chitin contents in whole larvae and integument samples, thinned tracheal taenidia, impaired larval-larval molt, larval-pupal ecdysis and adult emergence. In contrast, silencing of LdUAP2 significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut samples, damaged PM, and retarded larval growth. The resulting larvae had lighter fresh weights, smaller body sizes and depleted fat body. As a result, the development was arrested. Combined knockdown of LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 caused an additive negative effect. Our data suggest that LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 have specialized functions in biosynthesizing chitin in the epidermal cuticle and PM respectively in L. decemlineata.

  6. Evaluation of the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of Justicia hypocrateriformis.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Longo, Frida; Makong, Estelle A; Tarkang, Protus Arrey

    2014-09-01

    Justicia hypocrateriformis Vahl (Acanthaceae) is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhea in Cameroon folk medicine. This study evaluates the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of J. hypocrateriformis (JH). Preliminary phytochemical screening and an acute toxicity testing of the extract were carried out. The antidiarrheal activity of JH extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was assessed at curative and preventive levels in castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content, and radical scavenging activity. A high lethal dose (LD50) of 14.35 g/kg obtained in acute toxicity implies the extract is not toxic. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, and anthocyanins. JH showed a significant protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea as evidenced by a decrease in the number of defecation and wet stool. JH (100-500 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a non-significant dose-dependent decrease in castor oil-induced intestinal transit in the preventive study. In the curative and in healthy mice study, the decrease was only significant at 500 mg/kg. JH possessed a radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 9.93 mg/ml compared to 4.90 mg/ml for catechin. JH FRAP of 2703.77 ± 0 mg/g (catechin equiv) and phenolic concentration of 14 169.99 ± 612.39 mg/g (catechin equiv) were also obtained. Justicia hypocrateriformis extract possesses antidiarrheal activity supported by its antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents.

  7. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) mediates juvenile hormone action during metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) given at pupariation inhibits bristle formation and causes pupal cuticle formation in the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster due to its prolongation of expression of the transcription factor Broad (BR). In a microarray analysis of JH-induced gene expression in abdominal integument, we found that Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) was up-regulated during most of adult development. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that Kr-h1 up-regulation began at 10h after puparium formation (APF), and Kr-h1 up-regulation occurred in imaginal epidermal cells, persisting larval muscles, and larval oenocytes. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 in abdominal epidermis using T155-Gal4 to drive UAS-Kr-h1 resulted in missing or short bristles in the dorsal midline. This phenotype was similar to that seen after a low dose of JH or after misexpression of br between 21 and 30 h APF. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 prolonged the expression of BR protein in the pleura and the dorsal tergite. No Kr-h1 was seen after misexpression of br. Thus, Kr-h1 mediates some of the JH signaling in the adult abdominal epidermis and is upstream of br in this pathway. We also show for the first time that the JH-mediated maintenance of br expression in this epidermis is patterned and that JH delays the fusion of the imaginal cells and the disappearance of Dpp in the dorsal midline.

  8. Comparative metabolism of branched-chain amino acids to precursors of juvenile hormone biogenesis in corpora allata of lepidopterous versus nonlepidopterous insects

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, P.A.; Schooley, D.A.; Tsai, L.W.; Baker, F.C.

    1988-08-05

    Comparative studies were performed on the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis using several lepidopterous and nonlepidopterous insects. Corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes (CC-CA, the corpora allata being the organ of JH biogenesis) were maintained in culture medium containing a uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled BCAA, together with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as mass marker for JH quantification. BCAA catabolism was quantified by directly analyzing the medium for the presence of /sup 14/C-labeled propionate and/or acetate, while JHs were extracted, purified by liquid chromatography, and subjected to double-label liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that active BCAA catabolism occurs within the CC-CA of lepidopterans, and this efficiently provides propionyl-CoA (from isoleucine or valine) for the biosynthesis of the ethyl branches of JH I and II. Acetyl-CoA, formed from isoleucine or leucine catabolism, is also utilized by lepidopteran CC-CA for biosynthesizing JH III and the acetate-derived portions of the ethyl-branched JHs. In contrast, CC-CA of nonlepidopterans fail to catabolize BCAA. Consequently, exogenous isoleucine or leucine does not serve as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of JH III by these glands, and no propionyl-CoA is produced for genesis of ethyl-branched JHs. This is the first observation of a tissue-specific metabolic difference which in part explains why these novel homosesquiterpenoids exist in lepidopterans, but not in nonlepidopterans.

  9. Potentiation Effects of Half-Squats Performed in a Ballistic or Nonballistic Manner.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Sato, Kimitake; DeWeese, Brad H; Ebben, William P; Stone, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    This study examined and compared the acute effects of ballistic and nonballistic concentric-only half-squats (COHSs) on squat jump performance. Fifteen resistance-trained men performed a squat jump 2 minutes after a control protocol or 2 COHSs at 90% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) COHS performed in a ballistic or nonballistic manner. Jump height (JH), peak power (PP), and allometrically scaled peak power (PPa) were compared using three 3 × 2 repeated-measures analyses of variance. Statistically significant condition × time interaction effects existed for JH (p = 0.037), PP (p = 0.041), and PPa (p = 0.031). Post hoc analysis revealed that the ballistic condition produced statistically greater JH (p = 0.017 and p = 0.036), PP (p = 0.031 and p = 0.026), and PPa (p = 0.024 and p = 0.023) than the control and nonballistic conditions, respectively. Small effect sizes for JH, PP, and PPa existed during the ballistic condition (d = 0.28-0.44), whereas trivial effect sizes existed during the control (d = 0.0-0.18) and nonballistic (d = 0.0-0.17) conditions. Large statistically significant relationships existed between the JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat 1RM (r = 0.520; p = 0.047) and relative COHS 1RM (r = 0.569; p = 0.027) during the ballistic condition. In addition, large statistically significant relationship existed between JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat strength (r = 0.633; p = 0.011), whereas the moderate relationship with the subject's relative COHS strength trended toward significance (r = 0.483; p = 0.068). Ballistic COHS produced superior potentiation effects compared with COHS performed in a nonballistic manner. Relative strength may contribute to the elicited potentiation response after ballistic and nonballistic COHS.

  10. Evidence for differential biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (and related) sesquiterpenoids in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bendena, William G; Zhang, Jinrui; Burtenshaw, Sally M; Tobe, Stephen S

    2011-05-15

    Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that biosynthesis and regulation of juvenile hormone bisepoxide (JHB(3)) may not be coordinated with that of juvenile hormone (JH III). In this study, we have used the radiochemical assay to confirm the coordinated developmental sesquiterpenoid profile during adult life and analyze the effect of farnesol and farnesoic acid addition on methyl farnesoate, JH III and JHB(3) production by isolated ring glands of Drosophila third instar larvae or corpora allata of adult females. Application of exogenous farnesol or farnesoic acid to glands in vitro stimulated MF and JH III biosynthesis in both larvae and adults. Farnesol and farnesoic acid were inhibitory to JHB(3) biosynthesis in larvae. N-acetyl-geranyl-L-cysteine (NAGC) and S-farnesyl-thioacetic acid (SFTA) are farnesyl pyrophosphatase inhibitors that have specificity towards two different ring gland phosphatases. NAGC and SFTA had no effect on MF or JH III biosynthesis, whereas SFTA inhibited JHB(3) biosynthesis. SFTA shows specificity for a ring gland phosphatase, Phos2680, which has not been previously implicated as a contributor to JHB(3) biosynthesis. This finding suggests that farnesol production occurs in two alternate pools; one pool utilized for MF and JH III production and the other for JHB(3) production. Finally, we have used the UAS-GAL4 system in Drosophila to express juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) in vivo. In contrast to in vitro studies, JHAMT expression had no effect on MF or JH III biosynthesis but stimulated JHB(3) in both larvae and adults.

  11. [Production of L-lactic acid from pentose by a genetically engineered Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinfang; Xu, Liyuan; Wang, Yongze; Zhao, Xiao; Wang, Jinhua

    2013-04-04

    In this study, we constructed a recombinant Escherichia coli strain for the production of high-purity L-lactic acid, using a homoethanol fermenting mutant E. coli SZ470 (deltafrdBC deltaldhA deltaackA deltafocA-pflB deltapdhR: :pflBp6-pflBrbs-aceEF-lpd) as the starting strain. By using homologous recombination, we deleted the adhE gene from SZ470 to obtain a mutant Escherichia coli JH01, which could not grow under anaerobic conditions. Then we cloned the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) of Pediococcus acidilactici and inserted it into the chromosome of JH01 via electroporation to obtain a recombinant strain Escherichia coli JH12. We evaluated the L-lactic acid production of the recombinant strain in a 15 L fermenter. In 10 L LB medium supplemented with 6% glucose, JH12 maintained maximal cell growth and an efficient L-lactic acid production rate for 36 h. Glucose consumption rate achieved was 1.46 g/(L x h) and L-lactic acid production rate was 1.14 g/(L x h). The results also show that 41.13 g/L lactic acid was produced, achieving a purity of 95.69% (based on total fermentation products). Xylose consumption rate was 0.88 g/(L x h) and L-lactic acid production rate was 0.60 g/(L x h). The production of lactic acid was 34.73 g/L, achieving a purity of 98%. There were no succinic acid and formic acid detected and only little amount of acetic acid generated during the fermentation. We constructed a homolactic acid fermentation strain E. coli JH12, which could efficiently convert glucose and xylose into high-purity L-lactic acid. JH12 could have great potential in industrial fermentation for L-lactic acid production.

  12. John Henryism, socioeconomic position, and blood pressure in a multi-ethnic urban community.

    PubMed

    LeBrón, Alana M W; Schulz, Amy Jo; Mentz, Graciela; White Perkins, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The John Henryism (JH) hypothesis suggests that, under adverse social and economic conditions, high-effort coping styles that reflect hard work and determination may contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results from tests of this hypothesis have been mixed, with variations by region, urban versus rural areas, race, gender, and age. The majority of studies reporting that socioeconomic position modifies associations between JH and blood pressure have been for non-Latino Blacks in rural communities. In contrast, most studies conducted in urban areas report little support for the JH hypothesis. Few studies have been conducted in samples that include Latinos. We extend previous research by testing the JH hypothesis in a multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income urban community. We used multivariate linear regression to test the hypothesis that associations between JH and blood pressure were modified by income, education, or labor force status in a multi-ethnic (non-Latino Black, Latino, non-Latino White) sample (N=703) in Detroit, Michigan. The outcome measures were systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). John Henryism was associated with higher SBP (β=3.92, P=.05), but not DBP (β=1.85, P=.13). These associations did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results did not differ by race or ethnicity. John Henryism is positively associated with SBP in this multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income sample. This association did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results are consistent with studies conducted in urban communities, finding limited evidence that associations between JH and blood pressure vary by socioeconomic position.

  13. JOHN HENRYISM, SOCIOECONOMIC POSITION, AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN A MULTI-ETHNIC URBAN COMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    LeBrón, Alana M. W.; Schulz, Amy Jo; Mentz, Graciela; Perkins, Denise White

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The John Henryism (JH) hypothesis suggests that, under adverse social and economic conditions, high-effort coping styles that reflect hard work and determination may contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results from tests of this hypothesis have been mixed, with variations by region, urban versus rural areas, race, gender, and age. The majority of studies reporting that socioeconomic position modifies associations between JH and blood pressure have been for non-Latino Blacks in rural communities. In contrast, most studies conducted in urban areas report little support for the JH hypothesis. Few studies have been conducted in samples that include Latinos. We extend previous research by testing the JH hypothesis in a multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income urban community. Design We used multivariate linear regression to test the hypothesis that associations between JH and blood pressure were modified by income, education, or labor force status in a multi-ethnic (non-Latino Black, Latino, non-Latino White) sample (N=703) in Detroit, Michigan. The outcome measures were systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results John Henryism was associated with higher SBP (β=3.92, P=.05), but not DBP (β=1.85, P=.13). These associations did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results did not differ by race or ethnicity. Conclusions John Henryism is positively associated with SBP in this multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income sample. This association did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results are consistent with studies conducted in urban communities, finding limited evidence that associations between JH and blood pressure vary by socioeconomic position. PMID:25812248

  14. A role for juvenile hormone in the prepupal development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Riddiford, Lynn M; Truman, James W; Mirth, Christen K; Shen, Yu-Chi

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate the role of juvenile hormone (JH) in metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, the corpora allata cells, which produce JH, were killed using the cell death gene grim. These allatectomized (CAX) larvae were smaller at pupariation and died at head eversion. They showed premature ecdysone receptor B1 (EcR-B1) in the photoreceptors and in the optic lobe, downregulation of proliferation in the optic lobe, and separation of R7 from R8 in the medulla during the prepupal period. All of these effects of allatectomy were reversed by feeding third instar larvae on a diet containing the JH mimic (JHM) pyriproxifen or by application of JH III or JHM at the onset of wandering. Eye and optic lobe development in the Methoprene-tolerant (Met)-null mutant mimicked that of CAX prepupae, but the mutant formed viable adults, which had marked abnormalities in the organization of their optic lobe neuropils. Feeding Met(27) larvae on the JHM diet did not rescue the premature EcR-B1 expression or the downregulation of proliferation but did partially rescue the premature separation of R7, suggesting that other pathways besides Met might be involved in mediating the response to JH. Selective expression of Met RNAi in the photoreceptors caused their premature expression of EcR-B1 and the separation of R7 and R8, but driving Met RNAi in lamina neurons led only to the precocious appearance of EcR-B1 in the lamina. Thus, the lack of JH and its receptor Met causes a heterochronic shift in the development of the visual system that is likely to result from some cells 'misinterpreting' the ecdysteroid peaks that drive metamorphosis.

  15. Distinct Roles of Met and Interacting Proteins on the Expressions of takeout Family Genes in Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinda; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    The takeout family genes encode relatively small proteins that are related to olfaction and are regulated by juvenile hormone (JH). The takeout genes modulate various physiological processes, such as behavioral plasticity in the migratory locust Locusta migraloria and feeding and courtship behaviors in Drosophila. Therefore, to understand the regulatory mechanism of these physiological processes, it is important to study the expressions of the takeout genes that are regulated by JH signaling. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) to study the role of JH signaling in the regulation of the takeout family genes in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens) through the application of Juvenile hormone III (JHIII) and the down-regulation of key genes in the JH signaling pathway. The topical application of JHIII induced the expressions of most of the takeout family genes, and their expressions decreased 2 and 3 days after the JHIII application. Down-regulating the brown planthopper JH receptor NlMethoprene-tolerant (NlMet) and its interacting partners, NlTaiman (NlTai) and Nlß-Ftz-F1 (Nlß-Ftz), through RNAi, exhibited distinct effects on the expressions of the takeout family genes. The down-regulation of NlMet and NlKrüppel-homolog 1 (NlKr-h1) increased the expressions of the takeout family genes, while the down-regulation of the Met interacting partners NlTai and Nlß-Ftz decreased the expressions of most of the takeout family genes. This work advanced our understanding of the molecular function and the regulatory mechanism of JH signaling. PMID:28270774

  16. Hormonal regulation and developmental role of Krüppel homolog 1, a repressor of metamorphosis, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Murata, Mika; Kobayashi, Isao; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Okada, Chieko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Tamura, Toshiki; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has an ability to repress the precocious metamorphosis of insects during their larval development. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-inducible gene that mediates this action of JH; however, the fine hormonal regulation of Kr-h1 and the molecular mechanism underlying its antimetamorphic effect are little understood. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the hormonal regulation and developmental role of Kr-h1. We found that the expression of Kr-h1 in the epidermis of penultimate-instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori was induced by JH secreted by the corpora allata (CA), whereas the CA were not involved in the transient induction of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage. Tissue culture experiments suggested that the transient peak of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage is likely to be induced cooperatively by JH derived from gland(s) other than the CA and the prepupal surge of ecdysteroid, although involvement of unknown factor(s) could not be ruled out. To elucidate the developmental role of Kr-h1, we generated transgenic silkworms overexpressing Kr-h1. The transgenic silkworms grew normally until the spinning stage, but their development was arrested at the prepupal stage. The transgenic silkworms from which the CA were removed in the penultimate instar did not undergo precocious pupation or larval-larval molt but fell into prepupal arrest. This result demonstrated that Kr-h1 is indeed involved in the repression of metamorphosis but that Kr-h1 alone is incapable of implementing normal larval molt. Moreover, the expression profiles and hormonal responses of early ecdysone-inducible genes (E74, E75, and Broad) in transgenic silkworms suggested that Kr-h1 is not involved in the JH-dependent modulation of these genes, which is associated with the control of metamorphosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    PubMed

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  18. A potential insect growth regulator for cockroach control: design, synthesis and bioactivity of N-terminal-modified allatostatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Meizi; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhe; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Tobe, Stephen S

    2017-03-01

    The FGLa-allatostatins (ASTs) are a family of neuropeptides that can inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in vitro, and therefore they are regarded as insect growth regulator (IGR) candidates for pest control. In our previous studies, an AST mimic, H17, was found to have a significant effect on JH biosynthesis by cockroach CA, both in vitro and in vivo. To discover new potential mimics and explore the substituent effect on the inhibition of JH biosynthesis, 30 analogues, modified with various substituents on the benzene ring at the N-terminus of lead compound H17, were designed and synthesised. Their bioactivity in inhibiting JH biosynthesis by the CA of Diploptera punctata and the potency of M9, M10 and M11 in activation of Dippu-AstR were evaluated. All the analogues showed an effect on JH biosynthesis by CA in vitro. M9, M10 and M11 can activate the Dippu-AstR, albeit with much lower potency than that of AST 1. M11 also exhibited improved in vitro activity (IC50 6.98 nm) in comparison with the lead compound H17 (IC50 29.5 nm). In particular, M11 displayed good in vivo activity in inhibiting JH biosynthesis and basal oocyte growth. The structure-activity relationship studies suggest that different positions of substituents on the benzene ring of the cinnamic acid can lead to different activities. The para-substitution on the benzene ring plays an important role in inhibiting JH biosynthesis in vitro. Moreover, M11 is considered to be a potential IGR for cockroach control. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Juvenile hormone and insulin suppress lipolysis between periods of lactation during tsetse fly pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Aaron A; Benoit, Joshua B; Michalkova, Veronika; Mireji, Paul O; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Moulton, John K; Wilson, Thomas G; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-06-15

    Tsetse flies are viviparous insects that nurture a single intrauterine progeny per gonotrophic cycle. The developing larva is nourished by the lipid-rich, milk-like secretions from a modified female accessory gland (milk gland). An essential feature of the lactation process involves lipid mobilization for incorporation into the milk. In this study, we examined roles for juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/IGF-like (IIS) signaling pathways during tsetse pregnancy. In particular, we examined the roles for these pathways in regulating lipid homeostasis during transitions between non-lactating (dry) and lactating periods. The dry period occurs over the course of oogenesis and embryogenesis, while the lactation period spans intrauterine larvigenesis. Genes involved in the JH and IIS pathways were upregulated during dry periods, correlating with lipid accumulation between bouts of lactation. RNAi suppression of Forkhead Box Sub Group O (FOXO) expression impaired lipolysis during tsetse lactation and reduced fecundity. Similar reduction of the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant (Met), but not its paralog germ cell expressed (gce), reduced lipid accumulation during dry periods, indicating functional divergence between Met and gce during tsetse reproduction. Reduced lipid levels following Met knockdown led to impaired fecundity due to inadequate fat reserves at the initiation of milk production. Both the application of the JH analog (JHA) methoprene and injection of insulin into lactating females increased stored lipids by suppressing lipolysis and reduced transcripts of lactation-specific genes, leading to elevated rates of larval abortion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to address the molecular physiology of JH and IIS in a viviparous insect, and specifically to provide a role for JH signaling through Met in the regulation of lipid metabolism during insect lactation.

  20. Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: A key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Tetsuro; Itoyama, Kyo

    2003-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) is an enzyme that converts JH acids or inactive precursors of JHs to active JHs at the final step of JH biosynthesis pathway in insects. By fluorescent mRNA differential display, we have cloned a cDNA encoding JHAMT from the corpora allata (CA) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (BmJHAMT). The BmJHAMT cDNA encodes an ORF of 278 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 32,544 Da. The predicted amino acid sequence contains a conserved S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif found in the family of SAM-dependent methyltransferases. Purified N-terminal 6×His-tagged recombinant BmJHAMT protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed conversion of farnesoic acid and JH acids I, II, and III to their cognate methyl esters in the presence of SAM, confirming that this cDNA encodes a functional JHAMT. Putative orthologs, DmJHAMT and AgJHAMT, were identified from the genome sequence of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and a malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, respectively. Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that the BmJHAMT gene was expressed specifically in the CA throughout the third and fourth instar. At the beginning of the last (fifth) instar, the expression level of BmJHAMT declined rapidly and became undetectable by day 4 and remained so until pupation. Correlation of the BmJHAMT gene expression and the JH biosynthetic activity in the CA suggests that the transcriptional suppression of the BmJHAMT gene is crucial for the termination of JH biosynthesis in the CA, which is a prerequisite for the initiation of metamorphosis. PMID:14530389

  1. Cyp15F1: a novel cytochrome P450 gene linked to juvenile hormone-dependent caste differention in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Coy, Monique R; Scharf, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that jointly utilize juvenile hormone (JH), pheromones, and other semiochemicals to regulate caste differentiation and achieve caste homeostasis. Prior EST sequencing from the symbiont-free gut transcriptome of Reticulitermes flavipes unexpectedly revealed a number of unique cytochrome P450 (Cyp) transcripts, including fragments of a Cyp15 family gene (Cyp15F1) with homology to other insect Cyp15s that participate in JH biosynthesis. The present study investigated the role of Cyp15F1 in termite caste polyphenism and specifically tested the hypothesis that it plays a role in JH-dependent caste differentiation. After assembling the full-length Cyp15F1 cDNA sequence, we (i) determined its mRNA tissue expression profile, (ii) investigated mRNA expression changes in response to JH and the caste-regulatory primer pheromones γ-cadinene (CAD) and γ-cadinenal (ALD), and (iii) used RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with caste differentiation bioassays to investigate gene function at the phenotype level. Cyp15F1 has ubiquitous whole-body expression (including gut tissue); is rapidly and sustainably induced from 3 h to 48 h by JH, CAD, and ALD; and functions at least in part by facilitating JH-dependent soldier caste differentiation. These findings provide the second example of a termite caste regulatory gene identified through the use of RNAi, and significantly build upon our understanding of termite caste homeostatic mechanisms. These results also reinforce the concept of environmental caste determination in termites by revealing how primer pheromones, as socioenvironmental factors, can directly influence Cyp15 expression and caste differentiation.

  2. A cytochrome P450 terpenoid hydroxylase linked to the suppression of insect juvenile hormone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, T D; Unnithan, G C; Andersen, J F; Evans, P H; Murataliev, M B; Szabo, L Z; Mash, E A; Bowers, W S; Feyereisen, R

    1998-10-27

    A cDNA encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme was isolated from a cDNA library of the corpora allata (CA) from reproductively active Diploptera punctata cockroaches. This P450 from the endocrine glands that produce the insect juvenile hormone (JH) is most closely related to P450 proteins of family 4 and was named CYP4C7. The CYP4C7 gene is expressed selectively in the CA; its message could not be detected in the fat body, corpora cardiaca, or brain, but trace levels of expression were found in the midgut and caeca. The levels of CYP4C7 mRNA in the CA, measured by ribonuclease protection assays, were linked to the activity cycle of the glands. In adult females, CYP4C7 expression increased immediately after the peak of JH synthesis, reaching a maximum on day 7, just before oviposition. mRNA levels then declined after oviposition and during pregnancy. The CYP4C7 protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal His-tagged recombinant protein. In a reconstituted system with insect NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5, and NADPH, the purified CYP4C7 metabolized (2E,6E)-farnesol to a more polar product that was identified by GC-MS and by NMR as (10E)-12-hydroxyfarnesol. CYP4C7 converted JH III to 12-trans-hydroxy JH III and metabolized other JH-like sesquiterpenoids as well. This omega-hydroxylation of sesquiterpenoids appears to be a metabolic pathway in the corpora allata that may play a role in the suppression of JH biosynthesis at the end of the gonotrophic cycle.

  3. Identification of a locus within the hydrogenase gene cluster involved in intracellular nickel metabolism in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Changlin Fu; Maier, R.J. )

    1991-12-01

    A 0.6-kb fragment of DNA involved in intracellular Ni metabolism was isolated and cloned from a cosmid containing 23.2 kb of hydrogenase-related genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. This locus is located 8.3 kb upstream of the hydrogenase structural genes. The hydrogenase activity of a mutant with a gene-directed mutation at this locus (strain JHK7) showed dependency on nickel provided during hydrogenase depression. The hydrogenase activity was only 20% of that in the wild-type strain, JH, at a concentration of 0.5 {mu}M NiCl{sub 2}. The hydrogenase activity in JH reached its maximum at 3 {mu}M NiCl{sub 2}, whereas the mutant (JHK7) reached wild-type levels of hydrogenase activity when derepressed in 50 {mu}M NiCl{sub 2}. Studies with the hup-lacZ transcriptional fusion plasmid pSY7 in JHK7 showed that the mutant JHK7 expressed less promoter activity under low-nickel conditions than did strain JH. The mutant accumulated less nickel during a 45-h hydrogenase under low-nickel conditions than did strain JH. The mutant accumulated less nickel during a 45-h hydrogenase derepression period than did the wild type. However, both JHK7 and the JH wild-type strain had the same short-term Ni transport rates, and the K{sub m}s for Ni of both strains were about 62 {mu}M. When incubated under non-hydrogenase-derepression conditions, the mutant accumulated Ni at the same rate as strain JH. However, this stored source of nickel was unable to restore hydrogenase expression ability of the mutant to wild-type levels during derepression without nickel. The results that the locus identified in B. japonicum is not involved in nickel-specific transport.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND HORMONE INDUCTION OF PUTATIVE CHITIN SYNTHASE GENES AND SPLICE VARIANTS IN Leptinotarsa decemlineata (SAY).

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Mu, Li-Li; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Chitin synthase (ChS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In this study, two ChS genes (LdChSA and LdChSB) were identified in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdChSA contains two splicing variants, LdChSAa and LdChSAb. Within the first, second, and third larval instars, the mRNA levels of LdChSAa, LdChSAb, and LdChSB coincide with the peaks of circulating 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). In vitro culture of midguts and an in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide stimulated the expression of the three LdChSs. Conversely, a reduction of 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD repressed the expression of these LdChSs, and ingestion of halofenozide by LdSHD RNAi larvae rescued the repression. Moreover, disruption of 20E signaling by RNAi of LdEcR, LdE75, LdHR3, and LdFTZ-F1 reduced the expression levels of these genes. Similarly, in vitro culture and an in vivo bioassay showed that exogenous JH and a JH analog methoprene activated the expression of the three LdChSs, whereas a decrease in JH by RNAi of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT downregulated these LdChSs. It seems that JH upregulates LdChSs at the early stage of each instar, whereas a 20E pulse triggers the transcription of LdChSs during molting in L. decemlineata.

  5. Proof-of-Principle High Speed Electronic Imaging System. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Z𔃽H - X𔃽H TAN 0 ’H (49) Line rH = vIH - v2H (50) Line ell = hilH - h2H (51) Line JH hlH - h3H (52) Line k H VIH - V3H (53) Line gH = jH + H (54...Geometry, Revised Edition, Ginn and Co., 1956. 7. Wemer Frei Associates, Imagelab TM Model 100, Santa Monica, California 1986. 1 8. R.L. Kittyle, J.D

  6. Production, fertility, survival, and body measurements of Montbéliarde-sired crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins during their first 5 lactations.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Seykora, A J; Hansen, L B

    2014-01-01

    Two-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Holstein (MO × HO) as well as 3-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Jersey/Holstein (MO × JH) were compared with pure Holstein (HO) cows for production, somatic cell score (SCS), fertility, survival to subsequent calving, mortality, and body measurements during their first 5 lactations. Cows calved for the first time between 2005 and 2010 and were housed in either a confinement herd or a herd that had access to pasture for 165d of the year in the north central region of the United States. Body, hoof, and udder measurements of cows were also objectively measured. The MO × HO crossbred cows were not different from pure HO cows for fat-plus-protein production during any lactation. However, the MO × JH crossbred cows had 5% lower fat-plus-protein production compared with pure HO cows in the confinement herd. On the other hand, the MO × JH crossbred cows were not different for fat-plus-protein production in the third to fifth lactation compared with pure HO cows in the seasonal pasture herd. Across the 2 herds, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows had 21% higher first-service conception rate, 41 fewer days open, and 12% higher pregnancy rate compared with the pure HO cows. Furthermore, the MO × HO (5%) and MO × JH (12%) crossbred cows had lower mortality rates than the pure HO cows (18%). Because of superior fertility and lower mortality rates, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows, combined, had greater survival to second (+13%), third (+24%), fourth (+25%), and fifth (+17%) lactation compared with pure HO cows. For body measurements, MO × HO were similar to pure HO cows for hip height and heart girth, but MO × HO cows had more body condition and greater body weight (+39kg) across the first 5 lactations. The MO × JH cows had more body condition but 5cm shorter hip height and 28kg less body weight than pure HO cows across the first 5 lactations. Foot angle was steeper and hoof length was shorter for MO × HO

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Macroscopic Measures and Physical Processes Occurring during N00014-89-J-1708.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    The following personnel have worked on the project A. Principal Investigators 1. Stephen D. Antolovich Fracture Mechanics analytical studies...Physical Processes of Crack Closure of Al-Li Alloy 2090," T.M. Breunig, S.R. Stock, S.D. Antolovich , J.H. Kinney, W.N. Massey and M.C. Nichols, to appear in...Relating Macroscopic Measures and Physical Processes of Crack Closure of Al-Li Alloy 2090," T.M. Breunig, S.R. Stock, S.D. Antolovich , J.H. Kinney, W.N

  8. Japanese Aircraft Cameras

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-09-01

    Caiaara« by P. S^nosr R.A.3. Ref: JH.3O0J/V93 The note ooiqpriaes a general description of ten different types of Japanese aircraft oamsras. The...5 6 7 9 11 11 U I A 2 3 4*5 6 7 8,9.10 II £ 12 13 1U 15 MB • Keport No. tA.Ztfö Technioal ibte It i. JH.331 1 General ...safety covers to prevent damago to the film during stowage in the aircraft» The general characteristics of the oamera era oe follows:- (a) Siso

  9. Biosynthesis of the Juvenile Hormones of Manduca sexta: Labeling Pattern from Mevalonate, Propionate, and Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, David A.; Judy, Kenneth J.; Bergot, B. John; Hall, M. Sharon; Siddall, John B.

    1973-01-01

    Using organ culture, high-resolution liquid chromatography, and microchemical techniques, we demonstrated the efficient incorporation in vitro of several radiolabeled precursors into the two juvenile hormones of Manduca sexta. JH II, a homosesquiterpene hormone, reported from M. sexta as well as several other insects, incorporates radiolabel from acetate, mevalonate, and propionate. JH III, a sesquiterpene hormone recently reported as a natural product of M. sexta, incorporates label from acetate and mevalonate, but not from propionate. Based on the position of the labeled atoms in the precursors and upon the position of incorporation obtained from label-distribution data, a scheme for juvenile hormone biosynthesis is advanced. PMID:16592112

  10. Dystocia, stillbirth, gestation length, and birth weight in Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal crosses from a planned experiment.

    PubMed

    Olson, K M; Cassell, B G; McAllister, A J; Washburn, S P

    2009-12-01

    Holstein and Jersey cows were mated to 4 Holstein (H) bulls and 4 Jersey (J) bulls to create HH, HJ, JH, and JJ genetic groups (sire breed listed first) in a diallele crossbreeding scheme. Calvings (n = 756) occurred in research herds in Virginia, Kentucky, and North Carolina with 243, 166, 194, and 153 calvings in the HH, HJ, JH, and JJ groups, respectively. Birth weights (BW), dystocia scores (0 for unassisted and 1 for assisted), and stillbirth (0 for alive or 1 for dead within 48 h) were recorded at calving. Gestation lengths (GL) were determined from breeding dates. An animal model was used to analyze BW and GL, and an animal model with logistic regression was used for dystocia and stillbirth. Fixed effects considered for model inclusion were genetic group, herd-year-season, sex, parity (primiparous or multiparous), twin status, and gestation length. Genetic group and effects significant in the model building process were kept in the final model for each trait. Heifer calves had lower BW, shorter GL, and had a lower odds ratio (0.53) for dystocia than bull calves. Twins had lower BW, shorter GL, were 3.86 times more likely to experience dystocia, and 7.80 times more likely to be stillborn than single births. Primiparous cows had calves with lower BW, shorter GL, were 2.50 times more likely to require assistance at birth, and were 2.35 times more likely to produce stillborns than calves from multiparous cows. Genetic group did not affect GL. Least squares means (kg) for BW were 37.7 +/- 1.1, 29.1 +/- 1.1, 30.3 +/- 1.0, and 22.5 +/- 1.3 for HH, HJ, JH, and JJ, respectively. Animals in HH weighed more than animals of other genetic groups; the JJ group had the smallest BW, with no differences for BW between HJ and JH. Probability of dystocia in JJ and JH were 5.73% and 18.98% of HH. Calves in HJ and HH were not different for dystocia. Calves in HJ were 3.38 times more likely to be stillborn than calves in JH, but no other genetic group differences were significant

  11. Evaluation of Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging in Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    four regions are selected: • In order to minimize directional bias for the chosen Ndir sets to the tensor direction in each ROI, eight maximally...Orig17min1: Nbval = 5 (b = 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 s/mm2), Ndir = 30 (~17m Orig7min2: Nbval = 2 (b = 1000, 2000 s/mm2), Ndir = 30 (~7min) 1 Jensen JH...et al. 2005; 2Jensen JH & Helpern JA. 2010. Gold Standard: Full data (Nbval = 5, Ndir = 64, average of 4 repeats) 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

  12. Simulation Based Performance Comparison of Transistors Designed using Standard Photolithographic and Coarse Printing Design Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Vornbrock, V . Subramanian, San Francisco, CA, December 13–15, 2004, International Electron Device Meeting Technical Digest, 2004, p. 1072. [22] S . Jeong, D...Kim, J. Moon, J. Phys. Chem. C 112 (2008) 5245. [23] S . Vaidyanathan , F. Dötz, H.E. Katz, U. Lawrentz, J. Granstrom, E. Reichmanis, Chem. Mater. 19...J.B. Lee, V . Subramanian, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52 (2005) 269. [26] J.-H. Park, J.-H. Kwon, S . Chang, H. Seo, B.-H. Choi, M.-J. Ji, J. Choi, J.J

  13. The mevalonate pathway and the synthesis of juvenile hormone in insects.

    PubMed

    Bellés, Xavier; Martín, David; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2005-01-01

    The mevalonate pathway in insects has two important peculiarities, the absence of the sterol branch and the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH), that may have influenced the mechanisms of regulation. The data available on these mechanisms indicate that cholesterol does not play a regulatory role and that JH modulates transcript levels of a number of genes of the mevalonate pathway or can influence the translatability and/or stability of the transcripts themselves. These data suggest that the mevalonate pathway in insects can best be interpreted in terms of coordinated regulation, in which regulators act in parallel to a number of enzymes, as occurs in the cholesterol-driven pathway in vertebrates.

  14. The Arms Control and Crisis Management Potential of the Proposed International Satellite Monitoring Agency (ISMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    standard, some 20% over the 35,000-ton limit. As the recent biographer of the -86 - great wartime Director of Nav-1 Intelligence, Admiral S J.H. Godfrey , put...the dangers of relying on one’s "experts" and of the folly of trusting to the good faith of foreigners.-3 Admiral Godfrey himself summed up the three...Negotiations for Arms Con- trol. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1961. Beesley, Patrick. Ygr -Spe Admiral-, The Life of Admi/- J.H. Godfrey . CB

  15. Random Choice Solutions for Weak Spherical Shock-Wave Transitions of N-Waves in Air with Vibrational Excitation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    lit,- shol f ront. The rronsttit in- Tritlie, fill Icdis--ri-cd watc - Pci’. I JhV - Yi- ’sLi c1 iictct Itlcthat Tt risc- timc-s of wetik shock couild...FORMAT(// JH 9’KJ1:’,13,’, NMAX=1,139’, NNfl:’o 00510 3* 129𔄃 ID=’,13,𔄃 INC=’,12,’, NGQ:’, 00520 if 139’’ NPRINT:’,12,/1H ,’ESSz’,F7959’, XFAC:’, 00530 3

  16. Recent advances in understanding haemochromatosis: a transition state

    PubMed Central

    Robson, K; Merryweather-Clar..., A; Cadet, E; Viprakasit, V; Zaahl, M; Pointon, J; Weatherall, D; Rochette, J

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the hepcidin gene HAMP and the hemojuvelin gene HJV have recently been shown to result in juvenile haemochromatosis (JH). Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide that plays a key role in regulating intestinal iron absorption. Hepcidin levels are reduced in patients with haemochromatosis due to mutations in the HFE and HJV genes. Digenic inheritance of mutations in HFE and HAMP can result in either JH or hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) depending upon the severity of the mutation in HAMP. Here we review these findings and discuss how understanding the different types of haemochromatosis and our increasing knowledge of iron metabolism may help to elucidate the host's response to infection. PMID:15466004

  17. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  18. When It Is Best to Develop the Motor Capabilities of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbitsky, G. I.

    1974-01-01

    Research data indicates that adolescents in early stages of development of secondary sexual features show a higher rate of increase in speed-strength qualities than any other stage of puberty, regardless of age. Opinion exists that it is best to develop physical capabilities during the period of their significant increase. (Author/JH)

  19. An isoform of Taiman that contains a PRD-repeat motif is indispensable for transducing the vitellogenic juvenile hormone signal in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiming; Yang, Libin; Song, Jiasheng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2017-03-01

    Taiman (Tai) has been recently identified as the dimerizing partner of juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met). However, the role of Tai isoforms in transducing vitellogenic signal of JH has not been determined. In this study, we show that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria has two Tai isoforms, which differ in an INDEL-1 domain with the PRD-repeat motif rich in histidine and proline at the C-terminus. Tai-A with the INDEL-1 is expressed at levels about 50-fold higher than Tai-B without the INDEL-1 in the fat body of vitellogenic adult females. Knockdown of Tai-A but not Tai-B results in a substantial reduction of vitellogenin expression in the fat body accompanied by the arrest of ovarian development and oocyte maturation, similar to that caused by depletion of both Tai isoforms. Either Tai-A or Tai-B combined with Met can induce target gene transcription in response to JH, but Tai-A appears to mediate a significantly higher transactivation. Our data suggest that the INDEL-1 domain plays a critical role in Tai function during reproduction as Tai-A appears be more active than Tai-B in transducing the vitellogenic JH signal in L. migratoria.

  20. Accountants and Teachers: Education Aims Are Similar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Robert J.; Limberg, Steven T.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of accounting instructors and practicing accountants indicates that both groups agree on the emphasis instructors should place on course content items. The results also indicate that the Q-sort is a powerful tool for assessing certain aspects of occupational curricula. (Author/JH)

  1. Addendum to: Implications of the measurements of B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing on SUSY models

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.; Park, Jae-hyeon

    2010-12-01

    This is an addendum to the previous publication, [P. Ko and J.-h. Park, Phys. Rev. D 80, 035019 (2009).]. The semileptonic charge asymmetry in B{sub s} decays is discussed in the context of the general minimal supersymmetric standard model with gluino-mediated flavor and CP violation in light of the recent measurements at the Tevatron.

  2. Definition of the interferon-alpha receptor-binding domain on the TYK2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Yan, H; Piazza, F; Krishnan, K; Pine, R; Krolewski, J J

    1998-02-13

    Interferons and cytokines modulate gene expression via a simple, direct signaling pathway containing receptors, JAK tyrosine kinases, and STAT transcription factors. The interferon-alpha pathway is a model for these cascades. Two receptors, IFNaR1 and IFNaR2, associate exclusively in a constitutive manner with two JAK proteins, TYK2 and JAK1, respectively. Defining the molecular interface between JAK proteins and their receptors is critical to understanding the signaling pathway and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutics. This report defines the IFNaR1 interaction domain on TYK2. In vitro binding studies demonstrate that the amino-terminal half of TYK2, which is approximately 600 amino acids long and contains JAK homology (JH) domains 3-7, comprises the maximal binding domain for IFNaR1. A fragment containing amino acids 171-601 (JH3-6) also binds IFNaR1, but with reduced affinity. Glutathione S-transferase-TYK2 fusion proteins approximating either the JH6 or JH3 domain affinity-precipitate IFNaR1, suggesting that these are major sites of interaction within the larger binding domain. TYK2 amino acids 1-601 act in a dominant manner to inhibit the transcription of an interferon-alpha-dependent reporter gene, presumably by displacing endogenous TYK2 from the receptor. This same fragment inhibits interferon-alpha-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of TYK2, STAT1, and STAT2.

  3. The role of juvenile hormone and insulin/TOR signaling in the growth of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Nicole E; Wang, Zhou; Nave, Keelin B; Koyama, Takashi; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2015-06-25

    In many insect species, fitness trade-offs exist between maximizing body size and developmental speed. Understanding how various species evolve different life history strategies requires knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of body size and developmental timing. Here the roles of juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the regulation of the final body size were examined in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Feeding rapamycin to wild-type larvae decreased the growth rate but did not alter the peak size of the larvae. In contrast, feeding rapamycin to the JH-deficient black mutant larvae caused the larvae to significantly increase the peak size relative to the DMSO-fed control animals by lengthening the terminal growth period. Furthermore, the critical weight was unaltered by feeding rapamycin, indicating that in Manduca, the critical weight is not influenced by insulin/TOR signaling. In addition, post-critical weight starved black mutant Manduca given rapamycin underwent metamorphosis sooner than those that were fed, mimicking the "bail-out mechanism". Our study demonstrates that JH masks the effects of insulin/TOR signaling in the determination of the final body size and that the critical weights in Drosophila and Manduca rely on distinct mechanisms that reflect different life history strategies. Our study also suggests that TOR signaling lengthens the terminal growth period in Manduca as it does in Drosophila, and that JH levels determine the relative contributions of nutrient- and body size-sensing pathways to metamorphic timing.

  4. A Novel Role for Integrin Linked Kinase in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Gooch, W.M. III. Neoplasms associated with the Beckwith- Wiedemann Syndrome. Perspect. Pediatr. Pathol. 3: 255-272, 1976. 18. Dedhar, S., Williams, B., and...Nabel EG. Nabel GJ . The p21 5. Lee JH, Miele ME, Hicks DJ, Phillips KK, Trent JM, Weissman BE. cyclis-dependent kinase inhibitor suppresses

  5. Memory Strategies Used by Young Normal and Retarded Children in a Directed Forgetting Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Norman W.; Ferguson, Robert P.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that normal children (sixteen 6- to 7-year-olds) and retarded children (sixteen 9- to 10-year-olds) equated for immediate memory performance may not use effective strategies to eliminate interference from irrelevant information in memory. (Author/JH)

  6. Identifying Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in a Rat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    engineered mice. Am J Pathol 2002;161:727-35. [13] Weisburger JH, Rivenson A, Reinhardt J, Braley J, Pittman B, Zang E. On the occurrence of...relatively large patch of Leydig cells ( Ley ) adjacent to two seminiferous tubules (Tub). Borowsky, et al. PhIP Rat Prostate 15 Figure 1

  7. Identifying Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in a Rat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    at the 65-week time point. This example shows a relatively large patch of Leydig cells ( Ley ) adjacent to two seminiferous tubules (Tub). PhIP Rat...9, 2006 [16] Weisburger JH, Rivenson A, Reinhardt J, Braley J, Pittman B, and Zang E (2002). On the occurrence of Leydig cell tumors in the F344 rat

  8. Back Pain and Endurance Training of Back Muscles: Justification for Further Study in Helicopter Pilots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    FR, Bendix T, Skov P, Jensen CV, Kristensen JH, Krohn L, Schoeler H. Intensive, dynamic back-muscle exercises, conventional physiotherapy , or...quantitative measurement of abdominal and back muscle strength. Spine 1980;5:143-148. 31. Hayne CR. Ergonomics and back pain. Physiotherapy 1984 Jan;70

  9. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y

    2016-07-26

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication.

  10. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  11. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects.

  12. 78 FR 60297 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings... . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience Integrated Review Group; Diseases and..., jh377p@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience Integrated Review...

  13. Studies of Chlordane Availability and Volatility in Air Force Soils and Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    chlordane contamination in houses treated for termites at a Midwestern Air Force Base. Brooks AFB, TX: Air Force Occupational and Environmental Health...SPME. Chemosphere 61: 85-91. Vinopal, J.H., and K.L. Olds. 1977. Investigation of suspected nonoccupational human intoxication/chlordane termite

  14. Socio-Economic Influences on School Attendance: A study of a Canadian Country in 1871

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Frank T.; George, Peter J.

    1974-01-01

    Cross-section regression techniques are applied to census data from the year 1871 in Wentworth County, Ontario, to ascertain the influence of variables such as age, origin, locale -- urban or rural -- and family size on school attendance among children 10-16. (JH)

  15. Tailoring Software for Multiple Processor Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    the DSN/SPICE Group at Carnegie-Mellon University. [137) W.E. Riddle, J.H. Sayler , A.R. Segal, A.M. Stavely, J.C. Wileden. A Description Scheme to Aid...IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., 1982. To be published. [146) Gary H. Sockut and Robert P. Goldberg. Database Reorganization- Principles and Practice. Journal

  16. DOSIMETRY MODELING OF INHALED FORMALDEHYDE: BINNING NASAL FLUX PREDICTIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry Modeling of Inhaled Formaldehyde: Binning Nasal Flux Predictions for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Kimbell, J.S., Overton, J.H., Subramaniam, R.P., Schlosser, P.M., Morgan, K.T., Conolly, R.B., and Miller, F.J. (2001). Toxicol. Sci. 000, 000:000.

    Interspecies e...

  17. Biodegradation of Guanidinium Ion in Aerobic Soil Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Frederick. Maryland 21701 The manufacture of several munitions, polymeric resins , flame retardants, and pharmaceuticals utilizes guanidine salts as... Melamines and Guanidines. J Sci Soil Manure Jpn 15:569-574 Lees H, Quastel JH (1947) Biochemistry of Nitrification in Soil. III. Nitrification of Various

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT AND MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1Lau, C., 1J.M. Rogers, 1R.G. Hanson*, 1B.D. Barbee*, 1M.G. Narotsky, 1J.E. Schmid* and 2J.H. Richards*. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, and 2Environmental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Developmental toxicity of Perfluorooctane ...

  19. Jejuia marina nov., isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyangmi; Yang, Jae-Hyung; Cha, Hyung-Kee; Lee, Jae-Bong; Suh, Seok-Jong; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Doo-Sang

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, JH03(T), was isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod shaped. The ranges of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration for growth of the bacterium were 10-45 °C, pH 6.0-9.5 and 0.5-5.0 % (w/v), respectively. The major fatty acids of the bacterium were iso-C(15:0) (15.4 %), iso-C(15:1) G (14.1 %), iso-C(16:0) 3-OH (14.1 %), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (11.5 %) and anteiso-C(15:0) (11.3 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified amino lipids and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JH03(T) was most closely related to Jejuia pallidilutea EM39(T) (96.5 % sequence similarity). Based on the polyphasic analysis, strain JH03(T) is a novel species of the genus Jejuia, for which the name Jejuia marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JH03(T) (= KCTC 42342(T) = JCM 30601(T)).

  20. Directory of Organizations, Investigators, Sponsors, and Programs in Rapid Solidification Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Kushnick (201) 455-2361 Dr. J. Dickson (201) 455-2504 Programs: I. Alloy development of ferromagnetic metallic glasses 2. Process development for...Armament R&D Command (9) Kurup, M., University of Connecticut (30) Kushnick , J.H., Allied Chemical Corporation (3) Lane, J.M., Army Applied Technology Lab

  1. Portrait of a Discipline: The American Political Science Community, Part i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Everett Carll; Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1974-01-01

    Based on data gathered under the sponsorship of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education in 1969, the political science community and its components -- faculty and undergraduate and graduate students -- are compared demographically and professionally with other discipline communities and the general academic population. (JH)

  2. Formation of Defect-Free Metal/Semiconductor Contacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-15

    Benning, Yongjun Hu, TJ. Wagener, M.B. Jost, and J.H. Weaver, "Thermally-Reversible Band Bending for BiIGaAs(1 10): Photoemission and Inverse...34Schottky Barrier Formation at Au/ZnSe(100) Interfaces," 35th National Symposium of the American Vacuum Society, Atlanta, October 1988. 14. Yongjun Hu

  3. Identification of plant compounds that disrupt the insect juvenile hormone receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Fang, Ying; An, Saes-Byeol; Park, Doo-Sang; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Seonghyun; Kim, Namjung; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Je, Yeon Ho; Shin, Sang Woon

    2015-01-01

    Insects impact human health through vector-borne diseases and cause major economic losses by damaging crops and stored agricultural products. Insect-specific growth regulators represent attractive control agents because of their safety to the environment and humans. We identified plant compounds that serve as juvenile hormone antagonists (PJHANs). Using the yeast two-hybrid system transformed with the mosquito JH receptor as a reporter system, we demonstrate that PJHANs affect the JH receptor, methoprene-tolerant (Met), by disrupting its complex with CYCLE or FISC, formation of which is required for mediating JH action. We isolated five diterpene secondary metabolites with JH antagonist activity from two plants: Lindera erythrocarpa and Solidago serotina. They are effective in causing mortality of mosquito larvae at relatively low LD50 values. Topical application of two diterpenes caused reduction in the expression of Met target genes and retardation of follicle development in mosquito ovaries. Hence, the newly discovered PJHANs may lead to development of a new class of safe and effective pesticides. PMID:25624480

  4. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialyl Tn-antigens and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Li, Yanhong; Muthana, Saddam; Wang, Junru; Chen, Xi

    2011-08-14

    An N-terminal and C-terminal truncated recombinant α2-6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium sp. JH-ISH-224, Psp2,6ST(15-501)-His(6), was shown to be an efficient catalyst for one-pot three-enzyme synthesis of sialyl Tn (STn) antigens and derivatives containing natural and non-natural sialic acid forms.

  5. Elements of Warfare in the Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enokhovich, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical movement, pressure, floating bodies, heat phenomena, electrical phenomena, when applied to military problems "for the patriotic edification and military instruction of the children" excite interest and place theory on concrete foundations. Examples of applied physical concepts follow in this article. (Author/JH)

  6. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  7. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  8. Stability and Change in the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Talcott

    1974-01-01

    The core structure of the university has remained intact through the storm of the sixties. Alterations with respect to governance and to minority groups appear to be a part of previously established developmental trends as well as functions of the period of turbulence. (JH)

  9. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication. PMID:27402762

  10. Discrimination Against the Aged in Young Childre's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Phyllis Winet

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a study which analyzed 100 books for children (preschool through grade three) and judged them by three criteria: frequency of occurrence of old people (65 and older) in text and illustrations, nature of their social participation, and their behavioral traits. (BF/JH)

  11. Improving the Performance of Perfectly Matched Layers by Means of hp-Adaptivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of electromagnetic waves, J. Comput. Phys. 114 (1994), 185–200. [4] P. Bettess, Infinite elements, Penshaw Press, 1992. [5] J.H. Bramble and J.E...Computation, (In press), (2006). Preprint available at : http://www.math.tamu.edu/~ bramble /papers.html [6] W.C. Chew, Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media

  12. A new variety of Declieuxia cucuminis (Rubiaceae) from the state of Tocantins, Brazil, and a review of the varieties recognized in the species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new variety of Declieuxia cacuminis Müll. Arg. is described and illustrated, D. cacuminis var. tocantinensis Delprete & J.H. Kirkbr. The new variety is endemic to the Brazilian state of Tocantins, and has been reported from cerrado vegetation in the southeastern corner of the state....

  13. Thinking about Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Donald, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Research and teaching do not integrate easily. There have been alternate models for higher education which did not rely on this combination. Restructuring the academic professions to conform with the reality of academic life can be accomplished by accepting an alternate model such as that of the good undergraduate teacher. (JH)

  14. Reflections on Student Unrest, Institutional Response, and Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Michael R.

    1974-01-01

    The curriculum of the future must take into consideration the fragmentation of knowledge and the altered position of the United States as a world power. The last decade has brought largely superficial, adaptive institutional adjustments whereas universities must undertake a new organon for comprehending global society. (Author/JH)

  15. Modelling of U-tube Tanks for ShipMo3D Ship Motion Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    official languages unless the text is bilingual .) Ship roll motions in waves can be significant due to small roll damping and the proximity of ship... first ...John Duncan Head of Simulation Based Acquisition Defence Equipment and Support Abbey Wood Mail Point 8014 BRISTOL BS34 8JH UK DRDC

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT AND MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1Lau, C., 1J.M. Rogers, 1R.G. Hanson*, 1B.D. Barbee*, 1M.G. Narotsky, 1J.E. Schmid* and 2J.H. Richards*. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, and 2Environmental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Developmental toxicity of Perfluorooctane ...

  17. A novel cell penetrating peptide carrier for the delivery of nematocidal proteins drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jea Hyun

    Nematodes have recently become a primary source of harmful diseases to the environment that inflict harsh damages to pine trees and marine species. However, nematodes cannot be killed by normal pesticides or chemicals due to their thick outer protective layer mainly composed of collagen and cuticles. Thus, a novel approach to trigger intracellular delivery of chemicals through the layers of nematodes is required. In this study, the selection of the novel CPP was carefully progressed through protein database and serial digested fragmentation, internalization of each amino sequence was analyzed through flow cytometry and confocal microscope. As one of the most effective CPP material, JH 1.6 was compared with other major CPPs and its cellular toxicity was investigated. Furthermore, JH 1.6 was attached to various RNA, DNA, and proteins and internalization efficiency was evaluated for mammalian cells. To examine its effects on nematodes in vivo, JH 1.6 was conjugated with nematocidal protein - botulinum neurotoxin (BnT) and treated in C.elegans as a model animal. The results showed that JH 1.6 had high relative internalization rate and low cellular toxicity compared to other major CPP such as TAT and GV1001 peptides.

  18. OVERVIEW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSENBERG, SHELDON

    THIS OVERVIEW CHAPTER INTRODUCES THE FORTHCOMING "DEVELOPMENTS IN APPLIED PSYCHOLINGUISTICS RESEARCH," S. ROSENBERG AND J.H. KOPLIN, EDITORS, WHICH WILL BE PUBLISHED IN 1968 BY MACMILLAN COMPANY. IT WAS DESIGNED TO SERVE AN INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION--TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THE MAJOR IDEAS AND CONCERNS OF THE CONTRIBUTORS, TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THEIR…

  19. Norepinephrine induces Na+-H+ and Cl -HCO3 exchange in Amphiuma intestine: locus and response to amiloride.

    PubMed

    White, J F; Hinton, C F

    1988-07-01

    Catecholamines stimulate Na+-dependent acid secretion by Amphiuma small intestine. Studies were undertaken to localize the response within the mucosa and characterize the effect on Na+ and Cl- transport. Stripped segments of jejunum were mounted in tissue chambers that permitted isolation of villus or intervillus epithelium. In Cl-free medium, norepinephrine (NE) stimulated the transepithelial voltage (Vms) in both villus and intervillus epithelium, whereas galactose and valine elevated Vms predominately in the villus. Paired segments of whole mucosa were maintained under short circuit while the rate of acid secretion (JH) was measured by titration of the unbuffered serosal medium and unidirectional fluxes of Na+ were measured by 22Na. NE significantly stimulated net Na+ absorption (JNanet), short circuit current (Isc), and JH. Amiloride reduced JH and Isc in NE-stimulated tissues and blocked the stimulation of JNanet by NE. The NE-induced current was nearly completely and reversibly inhibited by replacement of luminal medium HCO3- or CO2. NE significantly stimulated net Cl- absorption without changing Isc or JH. It is concluded that cells throughout the mucosa respond to catecholamines with enhanced Na+ and Cl- absorption, possibly through induction or stimulation of Na+-H+ and Cl- -HCO3- exchange.

  20. Thinking about Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Donald, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Research and teaching do not integrate easily. There have been alternate models for higher education which did not rely on this combination. Restructuring the academic professions to conform with the reality of academic life can be accomplished by accepting an alternate model such as that of the good undergraduate teacher. (JH)

  1. Identification of methyl farnesoate from the hemolymph of insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juvenile hormones (JH) have been a focal point of study in insect endocrinology for more than 80 years and are implicated in regulation of more physiological and behavioral functions than any other insect hormone. Indeed, evidence has suggested that JHs are the only sesquiterpene hormone products s...

  2. Kinematic analysis of volleyball spike jump.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Tilp, M; von Duvillard, S P; Mueller, E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of upper and lower extremity movements on the volleyball spike jump (SJ) and how this movement may differ from the standing vertical jumps due to its asymmetry. The 3-D kinematics of body segments were measured in 16 experienced volleyball players with a VICON motion capture system. The jump heights (JH) of counter-movement (CM) and SJ were determined utilizing a force platform. A significant correlation was found between the JH during the SPJ and the maximal horizontal velocity of the center of mass (CoM) (r=0.71, p=0.002), the minimum height of the CoM (r=-0.68, p=0.004), the JH during CMJ (r=0.66, p=0.006) and SJ (r=0.74, p=0.001), the range of movement of right knee flexion-extension (r=0.76, p=0.001) and the angular velocity of left shoulder hyperextension (r=0.72, p=0.002). The asymmetry of the SJ revealed differences in angles, angular velocities of the right and left legs and arms, and a significant difference (p=0.001) between the distances of the left and right foot center to the CoM. Results of our study suggest the importance of optimal approach technique to reach a maximal JH in the volleyball SJ. The SJ movement is influenced by general jumping ability. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  3. Definition of Procedures for Chronic Exposure of Cancer-Prone Mice to Low-Level 2,450-MHz Radiofrequency Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    et al. ’s work yielded two positive correlations between microwave exposure and cancer: (1) The incidence of benign pheochromocytomas of the adrenal...Radiat Environ Biophys 28:67-77 (1989a). Frei, M.R., Jauchem, J.R., Padilla, J.M., and Merritt, J.H. Thermal and physiological responses of rats exposed

  4. METAL-INDUCED LATE PULMONARY INJURY IS REDUCED BY OZONE (O3) COEXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    METAL-INDUCED LATE PULMONARY INJURY IS REDUCED BY OZONE (O3) COEXPOSURE. UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, PA Evansky, ER Lappi, G Ross, JH Richards, and DL Costa. NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.
    Ambient ...

  5. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joan; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Pezzat, Elías; Saubi, Narcís; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Mothe, Beatriz; Gatell, Josep Maria

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261) and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222). Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261) colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222) colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors. PMID:20617151

  6. Mode of action of allatostatins in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Zels, Sven; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Tobe, Stephen S

    2014-11-01

    The FGLamide allatostatins (FGL/ASTs) are a family of neuropeptides with pleiotropic functions, including the inhibition of juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, vitellogenesis and muscle contraction. In the cockroach, Diploptera punctata, thirteen FGLa/ASTs and one allatostatin receptor (AstR) have been identified. However, the mode of action of ASTs in regulation of JH biosynthesis remains unclear. Here, we determined the tissue distribution of Dippu-AstR. And we expressed Dippu-AstR in vertebrate cell lines, and activated the receptor with the Dippu-ASTs. Our results show that all thirteen ASTs activated Dippu-AstR in a dose dependent manner, albeit with different potencies. Functional analysis of AstR in multiple cell lines demonstrated that activation of the AstR receptor resulted in elevated levels of Ca(2+) and cAMP, which suggests that Dippu-AstR can act through the Gαq and Gαs protein pathways. The study on the target of AST action reveals that FGL/AST affects JH biosynthesis prior to the entry of acetyl-CoA into the JH biosynthetic pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping with Modernization in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1975-01-01

    A study of Japanese ways of coping with pollution, urbanization, and industrialization offers an opportunity for the social studies student to gain intercultural perspectives on the continuing problems of a modernizing society. Three perspectives on ways of coping are presented to illustrate the concept. (Author/JH)

  8. Making Economics Relevant: A Project for Measuring Price Discrimination in Supermarkets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, William F.

    1974-01-01

    This note describes a supermarket discrimination study which involves students in a controversial question of concern to them and their community, requiring the application of economic principles to achieve a basic understanding of the meaning and implications of the problem and thus providing students with "relevant" economics education. (JH)

  9. The Synthesis of Artificial Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    important advance, and it was built upon in our Research Proposal. 0 I JH2-S NS-C 2 C,, HO~-’ Sherin Halfon has published a study of the factors that make...this modified DNA piece. Sherin Halfon has made a very interesting molecule in which a cyclodextrin dimer carries not only a metal binding group but also

  10. Dynamics of dissolved organic matter during four storm events in two forest streams: source, export, and implications for harmful disinfection byproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyang; Hur, Jin; Lee, Sonmin; Chang, Soon-Woong; Shin, Hyun-Sang

    2015-06-01

    Dynamics of river dissolved organic matter (DOM) during storm events have profound influences on the downstream aquatic ecosystem and drinking water safety. This study investigated temporal variations in DOM during four storm events in two forest headwater streams (the EH and JH brooks, South Korea) and the impacts on the disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formation potential. The within-event variations of most DOM quantity parameters were similar to the flow rate in the EH but not in the larger JH brook. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) showed clockwise and counterclockwise hysteresis with the flow rate in the EH and JH brooks, respectively, indicating the importance of both flow path and DOM source pool size in determining the effects of storm events. The stream DOM became less aromatic/humified from the first to the last event in both brooks, probably due to the increasing fresh plant pool and the decreasing leaf litter pool during the course of rainy season. The DOC export during each event increased 1.3-2.7- and 1.1-7.0-fold by stormflows in the EH and JH brooks, respectively. The leaf litter and soil together was the major DOM source, particularly during early events. The enhanced DOM export probably increases the risks of DBPs formation in disinfection, as indicated by a strong correlation observed between DOC and trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP). High correlations between two humic-like fluorescent components and THMFP further suggested the potential of assessing THMFP with in situ fluorescence sensors during storms.

  11. Errors in Human Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-15

    Instructional system, Including the works of Burton & -77 -;:-7 Final Report 3951 Brown (1979), Miller (1979), Goldstein (1979), and Stevens and Collins...rea-daAm i_=E1jJh. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1967. LaBerge , D., & Samuels, S. J. Toward a theory of automatic information processing

  12. Improving Performance Efficiency in the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Product, LHRH-(1-5). Endocrinology 146:280-286. 9 Eddington , D.O., E.L. Baldwin, J.H. Segars, T.J. Wu* (2006) Steroid hormone...Wu, D.O. Eddington , T.J. Wu* Immunocytochemical localization of Brx in the mouse brain. Brain Research (In preparation) 3 Woller, M.J., M.G

  13. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations: A Military Leader’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    this type of debriefing9. Scientific research into single session debriefing also raised questions on some types of debriefing10 11. The debriefers...Fighting for Peace (In Dutch). 10 .Emmerik, A.A.P. van, Kamphuis, J.H., Hulsbosch,A.M., Emmelkamp, P.M.G (2002): Single session debriefing after

  14. Leg or foot amputation

    MedlinePlus

    Gittler M. Lower limb amputations. In: Frontera, WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 119. Toy PC. General principles of amputations.In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, ...

  15. DOSIMETRY MODELING OF INHALED FORMALDEHYDE: BINNING NASAL FLUX PREDICTIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry Modeling of Inhaled Formaldehyde: Binning Nasal Flux Predictions for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Kimbell, J.S., Overton, J.H., Subramaniam, R.P., Schlosser, P.M., Morgan, K.T., Conolly, R.B., and Miller, F.J. (2001). Toxicol. Sci. 000, 000:000.

    Interspecies e...

  16. Good Things to Color and Draw. Cosas Buenas para Colorear y Dibujar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton.

    Personal hygiene and self care skills are emphasized in a coloring book for bilingual students. This teaching aid is produced with Spanish and English captions or with only English captions. Opportunity for composing pictures by connecting dots and for freehand drawing as directed by captions is provided. (JH)

  17. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB(R))

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone (JH) analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations fr...

  18. Dynamics and Modeling of Turbulent Mixing in Oceanic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    295. Shih, L.H., Koseff, J.R., Ferziger , J.H., & Rehmann, C.R. (2000). Scaling and parameterization of stratified homogeneous turbulent shear flow...homogeneous stably stratified turbulence”, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, doi:10.1029/2009GL041514 Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Koseff, J. R., Ferziger , J. H., and

  19. Education and Culture in Africa; A Contribution to the Revision of the Addis Ababa Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamian, Bakari

    1974-01-01

    African education -- past and present -- is surveyed and suggestions are made to ensure that African national educational systems meet the needs of a modern world while fostering the full development of African culture and helping to satisfy the material and spiritual needs of the in people. (JH)

  20. The Loss of China: A Selected Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettig, David; Pozzetta, George E.

    1974-01-01

    This bibliographic review of books discussing the events involved in the loss of China to communism in the five years after World War II identifies basic resources on China, works mostly from the American point of view owing to the lack of availability of objective Chinese Scholarship. (JH)

  1. The Adaptation of Cultural Ties to Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Charles R.

    1974-01-01

    Examples of culture as a determinant of peoples' ability to respond to modernization, for instance, the ability of various Nigerian groups to benefit from Western education as a means of economic improvements, support the author's theory of the preeminence of cultural factors in economic and political modernization. (JH)

  2. The Need for Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Social studies in Nigerian schools would improve student's appreciation of their culture and instill a sense of national citizenship as well as broaden their interests and promote international understanding. Attempts are being made to replace the inadequate instruction of history and geography with a social studies component. (JH)

  3. Induction in the New Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Richard

    1973-01-01

    The philosophical problem of "how one knows," using inductive reasoning and the use of inductive reasoning in four new social studies programs are discussed in order to promote an awareness among students and teachers of the complexity of the methodological problem. (JH)

  4. Telemedicine Evaluation - Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    resource is more severely taxed (see Polzella & Reid, 1987 and Vidulich & Wickens, 1986, for contrasting views). If an unacceptably high workload is...Philipp, U., Reiche, D., & Kirchner, J.-H. (1971). The use of subjective ratings. Ergonomics, 14, 611-616. Polzella , D. J., & Reid, G. B. (1987). A

  5. Immigrations into Industrialized Countries. The Education of Migrant Workers -- Where Do We Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Alain

    1974-01-01

    The social and economic implications of migration for both the countries of arrival and the countries of departure are discussed. The right of the immigrant and his children to education is viewed as a "constant", despite political of economic policy. (JH)

  6. Novelty and Familiarity as Redundant Cues in Retardate Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Daryl B.

    1976-01-01

    Forty retarded children, a Low Mental Age (MA) Group (mean MA 3-3 years) and a High MA Group (mean MA 5-7 years) were trained on 120 different two-choice visual discrimination problems. Initial performance differences were interpreted as a differential preference for novel and familiar stimuli. (JH)

  7. Technological Revolutions: Some Implications for the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Paul W.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of a social studies program, centered on the various technological revolutions -- human, agricultural, urban, industrial, and humanizing -- are a multi-disciplinary approach, the use of inquiry skills, wide coverage of history and nations through a framework of concepts, and discussion of ethnocentrism. (JH)

  8. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  9. Characterization of four esterase genes and esterase activity from the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four esterase genes and general esterase activity were investigated in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Two genes (RfEst1 and RfEst2) share significant translated identity with a number of insect JH esterases. The two remaining genes (RfEst3 and RfEst4) apparently code for much shorte...

  10. Stability and Change in the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Talcott

    1974-01-01

    The core structure of the university has remained intact through the storm of the sixties. Alterations with respect to governance and to minority groups appear to be a part of previously established developmental trends as well as functions of the period of turbulence. (JH)

  11. Sinus x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH Schaefer- ...

  12. Examination of the Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Prostate Cancer Using the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    S141-144, 2001. 54. Nelson, E. C., Cambio , A. J., Yang, J. C., Ok, J. H., Lara, P. N., Jr., and Evans, C. P. Clinical implications of...2001;12 Suppl 2:S141-4. 46. Nelson EC, Cambio AJ, Yang JC, Ok JH, Lara PN, Jr., Evans CP. Clinical implications of neuroendocrine differentiation in

  13. Vertical Cities of the Future: Implications for the Study and Teaching of Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael L.

    1974-01-01

    The implications of a vertical city, of which the John Hancock Center in Chicago is a prototype, should be considered by teachers of urban studies. Questions clustering around nine discussion areas indicate the kinds of expanded, critical, and interdisciplinary thinking that planning and teaching for the future require. (JH)

  14. Modeling Atmospheric Effects on Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    i.e., scintillation . He also describes the effects on propagation if lateral homogeneity is assumed but does not exist. • Myers (1999) compares...Ashville, NC, 54 pp. 52 Hitney, Herbert V, J.H. Richter, R.A. Pappert, K.D. Anderson, G.B. Baumgartner Jr, 1985. Tropospheric radio propagation

  15. A Literature Review on the Mechanism of Action of Sulphur and Nitrogen Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    adenosine 3,5i-monophosphate phosphodiesterase (Tisdale and Phillips, 1975a). ’In sensitive cells, this enzyme is inhibited by treatment with chlorambucil ...Biochemistry 51, 61-87. 75. Linford, J.H., Hryniuk, W. and lasmels, L.G. (1969). Adsorption to human red blood cells of chlorambucil and other

  16. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  17. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  18. [Effects of inter-row economic crop planting on soil moisture in a rain-fed jujube orchard in loess hilly region, China].

    PubMed

    Ling, Qiang; Zhao, Xi-ning; Gao, Xiao-dong; Li, Lu-sheng; Li, Hong-chen; Sun, Wen-hao

    2016-02-01

    Soil moisture variation in dryland sloping jujube. orchard was investigated after introducing two economic crops, i.e., feed Brassica napus (JR) and Hemerocallis fulva (JH) planted between jujube rows. Jujube tree without inter-row crop was set as control (CK). The results showed that mean soil moisture for JR and JH in the 0-180 cm soil layer increased by 6.2% and 10.1% compared with CK, respectively. Soil moisture changed mainly in the 0-60 cm soil layer in growth stage of Jujube trees. Soil moisture in JR and JH treatments significantly increased in the 0-60 cm soil layer, which could meet the demand in water resource of jujube plantation. The water consumption of jujube trees also mainly concentrated in the 0-60 cm soil layer. There was a significant decay exponential relationship between the soil moisture in the 0-20 cm layer and the drought duration after rainfall. During the 18-day dry period after rain, the soil moisture contents of JR and JH were apparently higher than that of CK. In conclusion, the jujube-crop intercropping system improved the soil moisture condition. It was an effective measure to overcome the seasonal drought in jujube orchards on the loess hilly region.

  19. Community Education: An Amalgam of Many Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minzey, Jack

    1972-01-01

    Community education is an educational philosophy, which holds that the school is responsible for all aspects of education. The promise of that philosophy lies in its potential for involving people in the identification and solution of their problems. (Author/JH)

  20. Novel E-O Polymers: NLO Materials with Superior Temporal Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Warfare Center, July, 1991. 13. Mai Chen et al., American Chemical Society 24(19), p.5421, 1991. 14. Schaffner, J.H. and R.R Hayes, Integrated Photonics Research, 1991. 15. C. C. Teng, AppL Phys. Lett, 6Q, (1992) 1538. 19

  1. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples.

  2. DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL THROUGH INDUSTRIAL ARTS, ADDRESSES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL ARTS ASSOCIATION (27TH, TULSA, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    SPEECHES PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE ARE INCLUDED--(1) "TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE" BY J.H. HOLLOMON, (2) "DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL IN SPACE" BY J.F. SHEA, (3) "CURRICULUM--INNOVATIONS AND ISSUES, 1965" BY K. WILES, (4) "OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION" BY W.C. MEIERHENRY, AND (5) "AND AFTER THE…

  3. Public Policy and Private Enterprise in the Development of Flood Plains: A Laboratory Exercise in Physical Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnally, Nelson R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This activity is designed to introduce college students to the concept of floods as natural hazards, to flood frequency analysis, to hazard adjustment, and to the mechanics of public policy formulation through a six hour laboratory exercise, culminating in a simulation game. (JH)

  4. Cyclic stress induced phase transformation in super-bainitic microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Wencui; Han, Ying; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Hua; Liu, Yunxu

    2017-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51171030 and 51604034), the Scientific and Technological Planning Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150520030JH), and the Scientific and Technological Research Fund of Jilin Provincial Education Department during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period, China (Grant No. 2015-95).

  5. Two Approaches to Educational Planning: Conflict and Complementarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Bikas C.

    1973-01-01

    The author writes in favor of gearing educational systems to long-term manpower requirements as he responds to Professor Mark Blaug's article ("Prospects" v2, n4, Winter 1973) which advocates cost-benefit analysis as a tool for educational planning. (JH)

  6. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinical Update Recommendations for Identification Treatment Infection Control Q&A for Healthcare Personnel Q&A for ... EK, Deweber K, Berry JW, Wilckens JH. Cutaneous infections in wrestlers. Sports health ... W. Epidemiology and public health significance of ringworm in animals. ...

  7. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-05-17

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs.

  8. The Self, Political Socializatioon, and Education: Kenya as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Richard L.

    1973-01-01

    The political socialization of various African Kenyan leaders is used to illustrate the author's belief in H. G. Barnett's theory that the individual exerts an influence on the process of cultural change which is in opposition to Gabriel Almond's view that the individual is only a passive participant in society. (JH)

  9. Ligand binding pocket function of drosophila USP is necessary for metamorphosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The widely accepted paradigm that epoxidized methyl farnesoates (“juvenile hormones,” JHs) are the principle sesquiterpenoid hormones regulating insect metamorphosis was assessed in Drosophila melanogaster. GC-MS analysis showed that methyl farnesoate, rather than methyl epoxyfarnesoate (= JH III), ...

  10. Innovative Strategy for Treatment of Lung Cancer: Inhalatory Codelivery of Anticancer Drugs and siRNA for Suppression of Cellular Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    survive for five years, and the majority die within two years ( Minna 2008; Youlden et al. 2008). One of the main reasons for the poor survival rates...cancer. Curr Drug Targets 5:389-406. Minna JD, Schiller, JH. 2008. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill. 551-562. Molina JR, Yang PG

  11. Religious Alienation and "Homosexual Consciousness" in "City of Night" and "Go Tell it on the Mountain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, James R.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of the works of two homosexual authors, John Rechy and James Baldwin, reveals similarities--the hating father, an oppressive religion--but also differences in the extent to which the two authors come to terms with themselves. (JH)

  12. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, THE ANDERSONS TURF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... refu~=,~~ t~e=~:ri:!Jh~~~ra9Y :~~' ~I:~==~nn;~=h!!'r~~·. • I rPu~:~!! rp~~!J~nagL~~~~~ere dchon

  13. Engineered Two-Dimensional Ising Interactions on a Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulator with Hundreds of Spins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Today 60, 16 (2007). [19] J. S. Helton, K. Matan, M. P. Shores, E. a. Nytko, B. M. Bartlett , Y. Yoshida, Y. Takano, A. Suslov, Y. Qiu, J.-H. Chung, D. G...M. O Neil , Reviews of Modern Physics 71, 87 (1999). [33] D. Porras and J. I. Cirac, Physical Review Letters 92, 1 (2004). [34] I. Buluta, M. Kitaoka

  14. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB(R))

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone (JH) analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations fr...

  15. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Cells in Tissue Culture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-31

    gravity sedimentation, 0.7 ml of lymphocyte-rich serum was added to McCoy’s 5A chromsome medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum, phytohemaglutinin, and...tissue culture chromsomes . Proc. USNC/URSI, 102. Harrington, R.F. (1961). "Time-harmonic Electromagnetic Field", pp. 480, McGraw Hill, New York. Hell, J.H

  16. The molecular site of action of juvenile hormone and juvenile hormone insecticides during metamorphosis: how these compounds kill insects.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    Studies in a variety of insects during the past four decades has deepened our understanding of juvenile hormone (JH) physiology, but how this hormone works at the molecular level remains elusive. Similarly, the mechanism of toxicity of JH analogue insecticides is still in question. There is much evidence from laboratory usage that JHAs act as JH agonists and generally show the highest toxicity when applied at the onset of metamorphosis. A physiological basis for the toxicity and morphogenetic effects has been suggested by recent work linking these effects with interference with the expression or action of certain genes, particularly the Broad-Complex (BR-C) transcription factor gene, that direct metamorphic change. Misexpressed BR-C then leads to improper expression of one or more downstream effector genes controlled by BR-C gene products, resulting in abnormal developmental and physiological changes that disrupt metamorphosis. Therefore, JH is a necessary molecule at certain times in insect development but becomes toxic when present during metamorphosis.

  17. Texture Gradient Registration and the Development of Slant Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Douglas; Rosinski, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects at each of four grade levels (first, third, fifth, and college) made judgments of physical slant of surfaces with three levels of variability. Absolute error of judgment decreased with age, but texture variability had no effect at any grade level. (JH)

  18. Texture Gradient Effectiveness in the Perception of Surface Slant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Richard R.; Levine, Nancy Parker

    1976-01-01

    To assess the development of monocular slant perception as well as the relative effectiveness of different sources of information, 90 children in first, third, and fifth grades and 30 college adults were asked to make judgments of surface slant on the basis of monocular texture gradient information. (Author/JH)

  19. Thermal Fronts and Cross-Frontal Heat Flux in the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    lateral eddy diffusivity HTA are 12 expressed by 13 2 2 2 , , V T VH TT T TvT A z y T TA A z y...Korea Strait in early winter. J. Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 19(1), 56-67. 22 31 Lee, J.-H., H.-J. Lie, and C.-H. Cho (2003) The structure of ocean

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects. PMID:27581362

  1. Venom of Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) induced endocrine changes in the hemolymph of its host, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ye, Gong-Yin; Dong, Sheng-Zhang; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2009-05-01

    Pteromalus puparum is a predominant endoparasitoid wasp of Pieris rapae. Its venom is the only active factor injected into host associated with oviposition. In this report, we explored whether the venom alone from this wasp affects the endocrine system of its host or not. We monitored the changes of hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH; only JH III detected), ecdysteroid, and juvenile hormone esterase activity (JHE) over 72 h in parasitized and venom-microinjected P. rapae pupae. Non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected P. rapae served as controls. Results showed that JH titers were significantly higher in parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae than that in control pupae during 24 to 72 h. After 12 h, JH titers were significantly promoted by parasitization and venom microinjection. JHE activities of non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae were significantly higher than that of parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae, which was with a peak at 12 h (parasitized pupae) or 24 h (venom-microinjected pupae) during 6 to 48 and 12 to 36 h, respectively. The hemolymph titers of ecdysteroid in non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae increased rapidly during 12 to 36 h with a peak at 36 h, and were higher than treatments before 48 h, while presenting a significant difference at 24 to 48 h between the treatments and controls. The results demonstrate that venom alone of this parasitoid wasp can disrupt its host's endocrine system.

  2. METAL-INDUCED LATE PULMONARY INJURY IS REDUCED BY OZONE (O3) COEXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    METAL-INDUCED LATE PULMONARY INJURY IS REDUCED BY OZONE (O3) COEXPOSURE. UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, PA Evansky, ER Lappi, G Ross, JH Richards, and DL Costa. NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.
    Ambient ...

  3. Structure-activity studies of allatostatin 4 on the inhibition of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by corpora allata: the importance of individual side chains and stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Hayes, T K; Guan, X C; Johnson, V; Strey, A; Tobe, S S

    1994-01-01

    The production of juvenile hormone III (JH III) by the corpora allata of the cockroach Diploptera punctata is regulated in part by peptides originating from the brain. One group of these peptides, termed allatostatins, reversibly inhibits the biosynthesis of JH in vitro. Allatostatin 4 (AST4: Asp-Arg-Leu-Tyr-Ser-Phe-Gly-Leu-amide) is the smallest member of the AST family yet defined and was used as the benchmark peptide for these initial structure-activity studies. Two initial analog series of AST4 were examined for the ability of each analog to inhibit JH biosynthesis by corpora allata in vitro. Each analog series consisted of analogs that contained a single amino acid change from the native AST4 sequence. The first series contained Ala replacement analogs and the second contained analogs with D-amino acid replacements. The first analog series used Ala replacements to help indicate which amino acid side chains were most important for inhibition of JH biosynthesis. The most important side chain appeared to be Leu8 followed by Phe6 and Tyr4. Additionally, the D-amino acid series suggested that a secondary structural element(s) at the C-terminus of AST4 could be important to the biological activity.

  4. REPORTING PUPIL PROGRESS IN A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL. COMMITTEE REPORT, ANNUAL SUMMER WORKSHOP (VAIL, COLORADO, JUNE 7-11, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIMNIGHT, GLEN; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES THE RATIONALE OF A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS GRADING AND REPORTING SYSTEM, AND PRESENTS EXAMPLES OF THE PROPOSED REPORTING FOR A NONGRADED SYSTEM, BOTH INDIVIDUAL REPORT FORMS AND CUMULATIVE RECORD FORMS, WITH INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE THEM, ARE PRESENTED. (JH)

  5. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  6. Stability of Dilute Tabun (GA) Solutions in Various Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Board for Disarmament, Helsinki, 1977. 2. Larson L. The hydrolysis of dimethylamido-ethoxy-phosphoryl cyanide (Tabun), Acta Chim.Scand. 1953; 7: 306... intoxicated guinea pigs. Epilepsy Research 2000; 38: 1-14. 7. McDonough JH, McMonagle J, Copeland T, Zoeffel D, Shih T-M. A comparative evaluation of

  7. Vehicle-Snow Interaction: Modeling, Testing and Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-12

    Pressure *J.H. Lee, J. of Terramechanics (2009) Three zones: I: Elastic II: Hardening (via cavity expansion theory and Drucker - Prager criterion) III...Densification (via upper bound theory and Drucker - Prager criterion) UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release Potential Deformation Mechanisms A

  8. Freedom to Make Choices for Health: Plus 40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2010-01-01

    In the 1969 inaugural issue of the "School Health Review", Douglass J.H. examined four major issues he felt were central to the question of choices one has about health: (1) problems with health care delivery methods; (2) persistent poverty in our population and its impact on health; (3) systemic problems inherent in social and institutional…

  9. Effect of the Ionosphere on Radiowave Systems (Based on Ionospheric Effects Symposium)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-30

    Arecibo and the Satellite Power Station", Journal of Ceophys Res., Apr. 1, 1978, 83, 1161-1123 (No. A4). 2. T. 8. Jones, K. Davies, B. Weider ...claracterizing the continuous aurora may generally _ represented by a MaxwelItan distribution abrve a few hundred eV of the form J(h)-( Joe / a )Ee where

  10. Allatostatin-C reversibly blocks the transport of citrate out of the mitochondria and inhibits juvenile hormone synthesis in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-02-01

    Aedes aegypti allatostatin-C (AeaAST-C or PISCF-AST) is a strong and fast reversible inhibitor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) synthesis by the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes; however, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. AeaAST-C showed no inhibitory activity in the presence of any of the intermediate precursors of JH III indicating that the AeaAST-C target is located before the entry of acetyl-CoA in the pathway. Stimulation experiments using different sources of carbon (glucose, pyruvate, acetate and citrate) suggest that AST-C acts after pyruvate is transformed to citrate in the mitochondria. In vitro inhibition of the citrate mitochondrial carrier (CIC) mimicked the effect of AeaAST-C, and was overridden by addition of citrate or acetate. Our results provide compelling evidence that AeaAST-C inhibits JH III synthesis by blocking the CIC carrier that transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytosol, obstructing the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA that sustains JH III synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Neuromorphic-Vision Object Recognition Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Malibu Canyon Rd, Malibu, CA 90265, USA Lior Elazary, Randolph C. Voorhies, Daniel F. Parks, Laurent Itti University of Southern California 3641...and Pattern Recognition, CVPR’07, pp. 1-8. [12] Carpenter , G., Grossberg, S. and Reynolds. J.H. (1991), “ARTMAP: Supervised real-time learning and

  12. Lecture vs. Laboratory Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oomes, Fred W.; Jurshak, Steve

    1978-01-01

    The effects of lecture versus laboratory method of teaching on the achievement of forty-six students enrolled in a unit on soil and water management (surveying) were studied. Results indicated no significant differences between groups as measured by cognitive and motor skill tests. (JH)

  13. Louisbourg: An Experiment in Confluent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cato, Dennis

    1974-01-01

    Eight secondary seniors participated in an archaeological excavation, an experience in confluent learning, that is, an attempt to duplicate real life in the context of an education discipline. The three week experience gave the students an exciting sense of history, archaeological skills, and a feeling of camaraderie among new friends. (JH)

  14. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

  15. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  16. The Self, Political Socializatioon, and Education: Kenya as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Richard L.

    1973-01-01

    The political socialization of various African Kenyan leaders is used to illustrate the author's belief in H. G. Barnett's theory that the individual exerts an influence on the process of cultural change which is in opposition to Gabriel Almond's view that the individual is only a passive participant in society. (JH)

  17. A World-Wide Overview of Migratory Movements. The Education of Migrant Workers -- Where Do We Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Francis

    1974-01-01

    A survey of world migration patterns prefaces a declaration of educational problems and ways of solving them as viewed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The problems are conceptualized on the socio-cultural and occupational levels and involve both the worker and his family. (JH)

  18. The Relationship Between Economic Understanding and the Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Edward; Tocco, Thomas S.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the contribution made by the social studies curriculum, in general, and the Americanism vs. Communism course in particular, to the development of overall economic understanding among high school seniors in Southwest Florida. (Author/JH)

  19. Effect of low doses of precocene on reproduction and gene expression in green peach aphid.

    PubMed

    Ayyanath, Murali-Mohan; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Insect reproduction can be stimulated by exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide that kill the same insects at high doses. This bi-phasic dose response to a stressor is known as hormesis and has been demonstrated with many different insect-insecticide models. The specific mechanisms of the increased reproduction in insects following sublethal pesticide exposure are unknown, but may be related to juvenile hormone (JH), which has a major role in regulation of metamorphosis and reproductive development in insects. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of precocene, an antagonist of JH, would not result in stimulated reproductive outputs in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, as can be demonstrated with many neurotoxic insecticides. We also measured JH titers and the expression of various developmental (FPPS I), stress response (Hsp60), and dispersal (OSD, TOL and ANT) genes in aphids following exposure to the same precocene treatments. We found that when aphid nymphs were treated with certain sublethal concentrations of precocene, 1.5- to 2-fold increased reproductive stimulation occurred when they became adults, but this effect subsided in the following generation. Precocene treatments to nymphs resulted in no measurable effects on JH levels in subsequent reproducing adults. Although we detected major effects on gene expression following some precocene treatments (e.g. 100- to 300-fold increased expression of some genes), there were no clear relationships between gene expression and reproductive responses for a given treatment.

  20. Production of male neonates in Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) exposed to juvenile hormones and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2005-12-01

    We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) to either juvenile hormone I (JH I), juvenile hormone II (JH II), or the juvenile hormone-mimicking insecticides kinoprene, hydroprene, epofenonane, or fenoxycarb. By 21-day reproduction tests, we investigated the effects on the number of neonates born per female and the offspring sex ratio. All six chemicals induced D. magna to produce male neonates; the male sex ratio of the offspring increased as the chemical concentration increased. EC50 values for production of male neonates were estimated as 400 (JH I), 410 (JH II), 190 (kinoprene), 2.9 (hydroprene), 64 (epofenonane), and 0.92 (fenoxycarb) microg/l. The number of neonates produced was reduced with all chemicals at the concentrations investigated. At the EC50 for male production, five of the six chemicals reduced the reproductive rate to less than 50%; the exception was epofenonane, which caused only a slight reduction in reproductive rate. These results were similar to those obtained for five juvenoids studied previously, one of which was studied here again. There are now 10 chemical substances--all juvenile hormones or their analogs-that are known to induce D. magna to produce male neonates. This suggests that juvenile hormone is involved in initiating male production followed by sexual reproduction in D. magna, and probably in most cladocerans that exhibit cyclic parthenogenesis.

  1. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-15

    Sadler M, Vollmer RT, Lobaugh B, Drezner MK, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N. Vitamin D and prostate cancer: a prediagnostic study with stored sera. Cancer ... Epidemiology , Biomarkers & Prevention 2:467-472,1993. 6. Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF, Stone BJ. Geographic patterns of breast cancer in the United States. J

  2. Imaging Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    gelatin cleavage sites. Biochemistry . 2008; 47: 1076-86. 9. Scanlan MJ, Raj BK, Calvo B, Garin-Chesa P, Sanz-Moncasi MP, Healey JH, Old LJ, Rettig WJ...acetyl-peptide libraries and quantum dots to probe deacetylase specificity. Biochemistry . 2006; 45: 94-101. 24. Comellas G, Kaczmarska Z, Tarrago T

  3. The Use of the Cumulative Rehearsal Strategy: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Judith P.; Siegel, Alexander W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-eight children at each of five grade levels (nursery-1, 3, and 5) were tested in a serial-position recall task. Stimuli were pictures of common objects and animals whose labels were one or two syllables in length. Following testing, children were asked to report the memory strategy used. (JH)

  4. The mode of action of juvenile hormone and ecdysone: towards an epi-endocrinological paradigm?

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold; Boerjan, Bart; Ernst, Ulrich R; Schoofs, Liliane

    2013-07-01

    In some insect species, two sites of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis have been reported: the very well documented corpora allata that secrete JH for "general use", and the reproductive system, in particular the male accessory glands, in which the function of the sometimes huge amounts of JH (e.g. in Hyalophora cecropia) remains to be clarified. A recent finding in Schistocerca gregaria, namely that suppression of the ecdysteroid peak preceding a molt by RNAi of the Halloween genes spook, phantom and shade does not impede normal molting, challenges the (never experimentally proven) classical concept that such a peak is causally linked to a molt. Recent developments in epigenetic control of gene expression in both the honey bee and in locusts suggest that, in addition to the classical scheme of hormone-receptor (membrane- and/or nuclear) mode of action, there may be a third way. Upon combining these and other orphan data that do not fit in the commonly accepted textbook schemes, we here advance the working hypothesis that both JH and ecdysone might be important but overlooked players in epigenetic control of gene expression, in particular at extreme concentrations (peak values or total absence). In this review, we put forward how epi-endocrinology can complement classical arthropod endocrinology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  6. Genetic heterogeneity in the cysA-fus region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome: identification of the hos gene.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, S; Kobayashi, Y

    1985-01-01

    We identified a new gene, hos, which exerts different sporulation phenotypes in Bacillus subtilis strains with different genetic backgrounds. The hos+ gene showed normal sporulation in the genetic background of JH642 but showed temperature-sensitive sporulation in that of the Tano-oka W. The hos gene was mapped between cysA and rpoB. PMID:3922952

  7. Organized Physical Education and Sports Popularized on the Mass Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlov, S.

    1974-01-01

    The important place of physical culture and sports within the daily lives of the people is described in this article. The GTO Physical Culture Complex, a set of exercises and activities with precise standards, used as a normative test for school children and adults is given particular attention. (JH)

  8. Potential of novel antimicrobial peptide P3 from bovine erythrocytes and its analogs to disrupt bacterial membranes in vitro and display activity against drug-resistant bacteria in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Yanzhao; Wang, Qing; Hang, Bolin; Sun, Yawei; Wei, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Jianhe

    2015-05-01

    With the emergence of many antibiotic-resistant strains worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are being evaluated as promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics. P3, a novel hemoglobin peptide derived from bovine erythrocytes, exhibited modest antimicrobial activity in vitro. We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of P3 and an analog, JH-3, both in vitro and in vivo. The MICs of P3 and JH-3 ranged from 3.125 μg/ml to 50 μg/ml when a wide spectrum of bacteria was tested, including multidrug-resistant strains. P3 killed bacteria within 30 min by disrupting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and disturbing the intracellular calcium balance. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry showed that P3 assumed an α-helical conformation in bacterial lipid membranes, which was indispensable for antimicrobial activity. Importantly, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of JH-3 was 180 mg/kg of mouse body weight after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, and no death was observed at any dose up to 240 mg/kg body weight following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, JH-3 significantly decreased the bacterial count and rescued infected mice in a model of mouse bacteremia. In conclusion, P3 and an analog exhibited potent antimicrobial activities and relatively low toxicities in a mouse model, indicating that they may be useful for treating infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria.

  9. The Relationship Between Economic Understanding and the Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Edward; Tocco, Thomas S.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the contribution made by the social studies curriculum, in general, and the Americanism vs. Communism course in particular, to the development of overall economic understanding among high school seniors in Southwest Florida. (Author/JH)

  10. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

  11. Pointing to Parallels in Ability-Related Differences in the Use of Metacognition in Academic and Psychomotor Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Rose; Shore, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the use of metacognition by proficient and poor performers in academic and psychomotor tasks as well as highlights the parallels and provides directions for future research. Metacognition is knowledge about one's own cognitive processes [Flavell, J.H. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area…

  12. Estimation of the Yield Strength of Metals from Crystal Defect Energies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    have been gathered and tabulated in a review by Inman and Tipler (18). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 1 shows the observed variation between w, and S...Metal- lography, ASTM STP 839, J.L. McCall and J.H. Steele, Jr., Eds., ASTM, Philadelphia. 1984. pp. 85-131. 18. M.C. Inman and H.R. Tipler : Metall. Rev

  13. Experience-Expectant Plasticity in the Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Fahrbach, Susan E.; Moore, Darrell; Capaldi, Elizabeth A.; Farris, Sarah M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    1998-01-01

    Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) were reared in social isolation in complete darkness to assess the effects of experience on growth of the neuropil of the mushroom bodies (MBs) during adult life. Comparison of the volume of the MBs of 1-day-old and 7-day-old bees showed that a significant increase in volume in the MB neuropil occurred during the first week of life in bees reared under these highly deprived conditions. All regions of the MB neuropil experienced a significant increase in volume with the exception of the basal ring. Measurement of titers of juvenile hormone (JH) in a subset of bees indicated that, as in previous studies, these rearing conditions induced in some bees the endocrine state of high JH associated with foraging, but there was no correlation between JH titer and volume of MB neuropil. Treatment of another subset of dark-reared bees with the JH analog, methoprene, also had no effect of the growth of the MB neuropil. These results demonstrate that there is a phase of MB neuropil growth early in the adult life of bees that occurs independent of light or any form of social interaction. Together with previous findings showing that an increase in MB neuropil volume begins around the time that orientation flights occur and then continues throughout the phase of life devoted to foraging, these results suggest that growth of the MB neuropil in adult bees may have both experience-expectant and experience-dependent components. PMID:10454376

  14. MIZMAS: Modeling the Evolution of Ice Thickness and Floe Size Distributions in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    loss is becoming more zonally uniform (Figure 7). This also holds for the Date of ice Retreat (DOR, defined as the final day when concentration falls...refereed]. Peralta-Ferriz, C., J.H. Morrison, J.M. Wallace, J.A. Bonin, and J. Zhang, Arctic Ocean circulation patterns revealed by GRACE, J. Climate, 27

  15. Caregiver-Infant Interaction and Early Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Leila; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Caregiver-infant transactions with 51 premature infants were studied in naturalistic observations in the home when the infants were aged 1, 3, and 8 months. Gesell developmental schedules and a sensorimotor scale were administered at 9 months. (Author/JH)

  16. Significance of ERa and c-Src Interaction in the Progression of Hormone Independent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    1998). Interestingly, the region of the kinase domain of ErbB-2 that correlates with c-Src association, referred to as TK2 ( Segatto et al., 1991...Biol., 17, 5410–5425. Di Fiore PP, Segatto O, Taylor WG, Aaronson SA and Pierce JH. (1990). Science, 248, 79–83. Fincham VJ, James M, Frame MC and

  17. Early Development of Preterm and Full-Term Infants: Exploratory Behavior in Eight-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marian

    1976-01-01

    Preference for novelty, as measured with an exploratory behavior paradigm, was compared in 8-month-old full-term and preterm infants of matched conceptional age. Subjects were 64 infants, 32 full term and 32 preterm, with 16 males and 16 females in each group. (Author/JH)

  18. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  19. Techniques for Planning--and Running--Better Training Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Eleven tips for planning and running better training meetings are provided. Topics include some of the following: preparing to speak, using visuals more effectively, traveling with film, setting the time of the meeting, using a college campus as a meeting site, and getting going after a break. (JH)

  20. Control of Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures is Critical for Neuroprotection and Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    have recently completed a study on the effectiveness of several anticholinergic (atropine sulfate, biperiden HCl, or trihexyphenidyl HCl) and...anticholinergic drug atropine sulfate, biperiden HCl, trihexyphenidyl HCl, or the benzodiazepine drug diazepam or midazolam were given...Behav 64: 147-153. Shih T-M, McDonough JH (2000) Efficacy of biperiden and atropine as anticonvulsant treatment for organophosphorus nerve agent