Science.gov

Sample records for densitometers

  1. Impaction densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Parrington, Josef R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed is an impaction densitometer having a chamber configured to receive a particle; a beam generator configured to emit a beam; a detector configured to receive the beam and convert a change in intensity of the received beam into an electrical signal corresponding to a particle volume; an impact sensor positioned a known distance from the beam and configured to measure a particle momentum as a function of an impact energy transferred from the particle to the impact sensor; a velocity calculator configured to calculate a particle velocity based on a time it takes the particle to pass through the beam and strike the impact sensor; a mass calculator configured to calculate a particle mass as a function of the particle momentum and velocity; and a density calculator configured to calculate a particle density as a function of the particle mass and volume.

  2. MAGNETIC DENSITOMETER

    DOEpatents

    McCann, J.A.; Jones, R.H.

    1961-08-15

    A magnetic densitometer for locating defects and metallic inclusions in materials is described. The apparatus consists of two primary coils connected in series opposition and adapted te be placed in inductive relation to the material under test, a source of constant frequency alternating current coupled across the primary coil combination, a pick-up coil disposed in symmetrical inductive relationship with said primary coils, a phase-shifter coupled to the output of the energizing source. The output of the phase-shifter is coupled in series with the pick-up coil. An amplifier is provided selective to the third harmonic of the energizing source frequency. The series combination of the pick-up coil and the phase-shifter output are connected across the input of the amplifier, and an amplitude comparitor is coupled to the output of the amplifier and the energizing source for comparing the instantaneous amplitude of the amplifier output and the instantaneous output of the energizing source and producing an output proportional to the difference in amplitude. A recorder is coupled to the output of the amplitude comparison means to give an indication of the amplitude difference, thereby providing a permanent presentation of the character of the changes in characteristics exhibited by the material under test. (AEC)

  3. An optical heterodyne densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migdall, A. L.; Zheng, Ying Cong; Hardis, J.; Snyder, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers are developing an optical heterodyne densitometer with the potential to measure optical density over an unprecedented dynamic range with high accuracy and sensitivity. This device uses a Mach-Zender interferometer configuration with heterodyne detection to make direct comparisons between optical and RF attenuators. Researchers expect to attain measurements of filter transmittance down to 10 to the minus 12th power with better than 1 percent uncertainty. In addition, they intend to extend the technique to the problem of measuring low levels of light scattering from reflective and transmissive optics.

  4. Modified contour projector makes excellent contour densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.

    1965-01-01

    Thin glass beam splitter, densitometer head, and densitometer electronics are incorporated in a standard contour projector. The density contour of small areas of photographic film can be read. This instrument can be used as a research tool in process engineering.

  5. 21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone densitometer. 892.1170 Section 892.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone densitometer. 892.1170 Section 892.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone densitometer. 892.1170 Section 892.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone densitometer. 892.1170 Section 892.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1450 - Densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Densitometer. 870.1450 Section 870.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1450 Densitometer. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1450 - Densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Densitometer. 870.1450 Section 870.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1450 Densitometer. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1450 - Densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Densitometer. 870.1450 Section 870.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1450 Densitometer. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1450 - Densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Densitometer. 870.1450 Section 870.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1450 Densitometer. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1450 - Densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Densitometer. 870.1450 Section 870.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1450 Densitometer. (a) Identification. A...

  14. K-edge densitometer (KED)

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Hansen, W.J.

    1993-02-11

    In 1979, a K-edge densitometer (KED) was installed by the Safeguards Assay group from Los Alamos National Laboratory in the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai-mura, Japan. It uses an active nondestructive assay technique, KED, to measure the plutonium concentration of the product solution. The measurement uncertainty of an assay depends on the count time chosen, but can be 0.5% or better. The computer hardware and software were upgraded in 1992. This manual describes the operation of the instrument, with an emphasis on the user interface to the software.

  15. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  16. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... densitometer is a device intended for medical purposes to measure bone density and mineral content by x-ray or gamma ray transmission measurements through the bone and adjacent tissues. This generic type of device...

  18. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  19. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  20. Fast response densitometer for measuring liquid density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Densitometer was developed which produces linear voltage proportional to changes in density of flowing liquid hydrogen. Unit has fast response time and good system stability, statistical variation, and thermal equilibrium. System accuracy is 2 percent of total density span. Basic design may be altered to include measurement of other flowing materials.

  1. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

  2. Rapid scanning thermal lens/laser transmission densitometer.

    PubMed

    Peck, K; Demana, T; Morris, M D

    1988-01-01

    An automated densitometer based on the thermal lens principle is described. The apparatus also operates as a conventional laser transmission densitometer. Comparison of the performance in both modes shows that thermal lens densitometry provides lower detection limits, but that transmission densitometry is more satisfactory at high optical densities. The instrument is characterized with proteins separated by SDS-PAGE and stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250.

  3. Midplane Faraday Rotation: A densitometer for BPX

    SciTech Connect

    Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.

    1992-02-01

    The density in a high field, high density tokamak such as BPX can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 {mu}m laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n{sub e}(R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel version about the center line of the tokamak. For BPX operated at full field and density, the rotation angle would be quite large -- about 75{degrees} per pass. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 ``fringe,`` the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that BPX would be well served even at low densities by a Midplane Faraday Rotation densitometer of {approximately}64 channels. Both TFTR and PBX-M would be suitable test beds for the BPX system.

  4. Midplane Faraday Rotation: A densitometer for BPX

    SciTech Connect

    Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.

    1992-02-01

    The density in a high field, high density tokamak such as BPX can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 {mu}m laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n{sub e}(R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel version about the center line of the tokamak. For BPX operated at full field and density, the rotation angle would be quite large -- about 75{degrees} per pass. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 fringe,'' the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that BPX would be well served even at low densities by a Midplane Faraday Rotation densitometer of {approximately}64 channels. Both TFTR and PBX-M would be suitable test beds for the BPX system.

  5. Acceptance test report for the AY-102 ENRAF densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H.

    1998-03-23

    On February 11, 1998, the AY-1 02, Riser 15E ENRAF Densitometer was acceptance tested per HNF-SD-WM-ATP-077. The test was performed at the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, 200 East Area, building MO-407. The test validated the functionality of the Densitometer for use by project W-320, C-1 06 Retrieval. The purpose of the test procedure was to verify the functionality of the ENRAF Series 854 ATG densitometer. Typically, all ENRAF Series 854 ATGs are acceptance tested before transport to the field. The ATP, as performed for level gauges, sets default program values within the gauge and verifies the gauge`s force transducer calibration.

  6. Phosphorimager and PD densitometer imaging system network. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This document discusses the research projects undertaken as a result of the availability of the PhosphorImager and PD Densitometer Imaging System Network, at the University of Georgia`s Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. The benefit gained from the equipment is described for each project.

  7. Particle densitometer based on the acoustical resonance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, A.A.

    1990-10-01

    Work continued on development of a particle densitometer based on the Acoustical Resonance Measurement to monitor pneumatically conveyed particle mass loading. During this quarter, the closed-loop test system was used for testing and an open-loop test system was constructed. 3 figs.

  8. L/sub III/-edge densitometer operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Johnson, S.S.; Langner, D.G.; Russo, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes briefly the operation and maintenance of an L/sub III/-edge densitometer. The instrument is optimized for 50 g/l of special nuclear material, but yields better than 0.5% precision in 1000-s assays over a concentration range of 10 to 90 g/l. It can determine uranium and plutonium concentrations in a 2-ml sample cell and has been designed for both static and flowing solution measurements.

  9. A spectrophotometric microassay for sulfated glycosaminoglycans using a laser densitometer.

    PubMed

    Klompmakers, A A; Hendriks, T

    1986-02-15

    The absorption spectrum of the dye 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue shifts if complexed with sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The present method uses the decrease in A633 rather than the increase in A535, described in a recent method, to measure the sulfated glycosaminoglycan content of biological samples. A conventional spectrophotometer was used to estimate the levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in papain extracts from intestinal wall tissue, by measuring both the A535 and the A633 and comparing them with a chondroitin sulfate standard: a highly significant correlation (r = 0.974, n = 17) was obtained. Also, interference by substances like RNA, DNA, and hyaluronic acid was similar for both methods. These results allowed us to employ a laser densitometer with a helium/neon laser emitting at 633 nm to improve the sensitivity and the capacity of the assay. The combination of a small reaction volume and a high-intensity light source allows the detection of less than 0.1 microgram chondroitin sulfate, a 40-fold improvement in sensitivity as compared with the original method. A very significant correlation (r = 0.885, n = 17) existed between results obtained with the macroassay, using a spectrophotometer, and those found by employing the microassay, using the laser densitometer. The use of microtiter plates and the screening potential of the densitometer yields an assay which is fast, very sensitive, and suitable for processing large numbers of samples.

  10. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  11. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  12. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  13. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  14. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  15. A computerised dichromatic earpiece densitometer for the measurement of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P S; Crowther, A; Jenkins, B S; Webb-Peploe, M M; Coltart, D J

    1979-07-01

    This study assesses a precalibrated dichromatic earpiece densitometer and microprocessor for the measurement of cardiac output by indocyanine green dye dilution. The measured cardiac output is compared with values of cardiac output simultaneously determined using a cuvette densitometer. The microprocessor computation of cardiac output agreed very closely with the cardiac output determined by manual calculation from the same dye dilution curves (standard deviation +/- 1.47%). The reproducibility of the earpiece densitometer (standard deviation +/- 5.2%) was virtually identical to that of the cuvette densitometer (+/- 5.3%). In a comparison of earpiece and cuvette densitometers for 60 measurements of cardiac output following pulmonary arterial injection of dye and for 50 measurements following femoral venous injection of dye, correlation coefficients were 0.83 and 0.78 and the standard deviations of the differences of simultaneous measurements were 7.2% and 8.3% respectively. The instrument offers an accurate reproducible and relatively noninvasive technique for measuring cardiac output.

  16. Conversion of an infrared densitometer for radiochromic film analysis.

    PubMed

    Carolan, M G; Butson, M J; Herrmann, K; Mathur, J N; Metcalfe, P E

    1997-09-01

    By the simple incorporation of a high intensity red LED into a typical infrared film densitometer, radiochromic film can be analysed using existing detectors and scanning software. Results show an accurate dose measurement using radiochromic film and this system compared to conventional detectors for percentage depth dose and penumbral measurements in high and low energy x-ray beams. A small circuit including a red Light Emitting Diode (LED) was positioned inside the film densitometer which does not obscure the infrared source. The red and infrared diodes work independently. For 6 MV x-rays, the 80%/20% penumbral width at 15 mm depth for a 10 x 10 cm field at 100 cm SSD was measured to be 3.5 mm with radiochromic film as compared to 3.3 with corrected diode measurements. Percentage depth doses were measured to within +/- 3% of ionisation chamber data at 6MV and within +/- 2% for 250 kVp x-ray with the film placed parallel to the beam direction in both cases.

  17. Densitometer type and impact on risk assessment for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Asma; Salamoun, Mariana; Ballout, Hajar; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2005-01-01

    Studies have shown a high correlation between measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) obtained on differentdual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machines. Challenger osteodensitometers (Diagnostic Medical System [DMS],Montpellier, France) are becoming widely used but little is known about their clinical performance. The aim of this study was to compare BMD measurements and the resulting patient classification based on T-scores obtained on a DMS Challenger device to those obtained on Hologic 4500A (Bedford, MA) device. Fifty-three volunteers were studied. The BMD of the spine and of the hip were simultaneously measured on both densitometers. BMD values obtained on the Challenger were significantly higher than those obtained with the Hologic QDR4500 (p<0.001). The correlations coefficients between the Hologic QDR4500 and the DMS Challenger measured BMDs were r=0.70 at the femoral neck, r=0.70 at the trochanter, and r=0.83 at the spine (p<0.001). Among the 35 postmenopausal women, there was discordance in the WHO T-score-based classification in 28 subjects (80%) at the spine, 18 subjects (52%) at the femoral neck, and 14 subjects (42%) at the trochanter. The intermachine agreement was low: The kappa score was -0.10 at the spine, 0.2 at the femoral neck, and 0.3 at the trochanter. In conclusion, this study cautions against the use of non established densitometers that leads to underdiagnosis of patients and, subsequently, to inappropriate treatment strategies.

  18. A fiberoptic reflection densitometer with cardiac output calculator.

    PubMed

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1979-02-14

    A catheter-tip densitometer for indocyanine green is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, an incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the back-scattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. In the detection unit the light is measured by two silicium barrier layer photocells after it has been split into two beams by a beam splitter. In the measuring channel the light passes an 800 nm filter before reaching the photocell. When fiberoptic catheters with glass fibers are employed, the other channel, used for compensation of non-specific effects such as blood flow variations, contains no filter, thus measuring light in a broad spectral band. It is shown that in this way compensation of flow effects may be about two times better than when a 920 nm filter is used. When using plastic optical fibers a 950 nm filter must be used, because above lambda = 850 nm plastic fibers transmit only a band around that wavelength (950 nm). At zero dye concentration the densitometer output or ratio of compensating and measuring photocell output R/R800 is almost insensitive to changes in haemoglobin concentration. When the blood contains dye, however, the influence of haemoglobin concentration is considerable. The densitometer output R/R800 is linearly related to dye concentration up to 50 mg . 1-1, the output R920/R800 up to 30 mg . 1(-1). The output R/R800 decreases with decreasing oxygen saturation; the slope of the calibration line, however, appears to be unaffected. The processing unit also contains an analog cardiac output calculator consisting of an integrator and a divider. Central dye dilution curves recorded from the pulmonary artery after injection of dye into the right atrium or a caval vein come down to the baseline. At this moment the reading of a digital voltmeter displaying the divider output calibrated in 1

  19. Mechanical Design of Hybrid Densitometer for Laboratory Applications

    SciTech Connect

    G. Walton; P. J. Polk; S. -T. Hsue

    1999-01-01

    The hybrid K-edge densitometry (KED) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) densitometer is a unique nondestructive assay (NDA) technique to determine the concentrations of nuclear material (SNM) in solutions. The technique is ideally suited to assay the dissolver solutions as well as the uranium and plutonium product solutions from reprocessing It is an important instrument for safeguarding reprocessing; it is also a useful tool in analytical laboratories because of its capability of analyzing mixed solutions of SNM without chemical separation. Figure 1 shows the hardware of an hybrid system developed at Los Alamos. The hybrid densitometer employs a combination of two complimentary techniques: absorption KED and XRF. The KED technique measures the transmission of a tightly collimated photon beam through the sample; it is therefore quite insensitive to the radiation emitted by the sample material. Fission product level of {approximately}1 Ci/mL can be tolerated. The technique is insensitive to matrix variation. XRF measures the fluorescent x-rays from the same sample and can be used to determine the ratios of SNM. The technique can be applied to thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium concentration determination. The technique can also be applied to mixed solutions found in nuclear fuel cycle without separation: thorium-uranium, uranium-plutoniun neptunium-plutonium-americium. The design of the hybrid densitometer is shown schematically in Figs. 1 and 2; Fig. 1 shows the top view; Fig. 2 shows the side view. The heart of the design is the changer. The sample changer can accommodate a sample tray, which holds up to six samples. The samples can be a 2-cm path length cell, 4-cm path length cell, or a mixture of both sizes. The sample tray is controlled by a "Compumotor" which in turn is controlled by a computer. The absolute position of the sample cell can be reproduced to a standard deviation of 0.02 mm. The sample changer is housed inside square stainless steel

  20. Operational test report for the AY-102 Enraf densitometer control and acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H.

    1998-07-23

    On June 2 through June 10, 1998, the AY-102 Tank Densitometer Control and Acquisition System was operationally tested per OTP-320-01 O Revision A-O. The test was performed at the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, 200 East Area, 241-AY Tank Farm. The test validated the functionality of the Enraf 854 ATG Densitometer Gauge and Enraf Control Panel software for use by project W-320, Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The purpose of the test procedure was two fold: (1) to verify the functionality of the Enraf 854 ATG as a Densitometer and (2) to verify the functionality of the Enraf Control Panel Software density acquisition routines. The densitometer was previously acceptance tested per HNF-SD-WM-ATP-077. The software was previously acceptance tested per HNF-1991.

  1. Fiberoptic ear densitometer for measurement of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Sekelj, P; Retfalvi, S; Lavoie, A

    1978-02-01

    This study presents theory, operation, and evaluation of a new earpiece method for measurement of cardiac output using the multichannel fiberoptic system recently described. The system includes an earpiece of simple design and small size suitable for applications in all subjects regardless of their age or size. The method requires no withdrawal and analysis of blood samples for calibration. Compared with earlier techniques the present method, based on measurements in three distinct absorption bands in the infrared, provides an increase in accuracy of the estimations. This accuracy was tested in children undergoing routine cardiac catheterization. Comparisons were made in 39 instances (25 subjects) between simultaneously carried out determinations by the earpiece and cuvette densitometer methods. The agreement was good (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001), with a standard deviation of the differences of 0.479 litre/min, or 10.2% of the mean values derived from the cuvette curves. The regression equation describing the values derived from ear curves in terms of values from the cuvette curves differed only slightly from unity (Y = 0.167 + 0.985X). The usefulness of the fiberoptic earpiece technique both in clinical investigations and cardiovascular diagnosis was demonstrated.

  2. Midplane Faraday rotation: A densitometer for large tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobes, F. C.; Mansfield, D. K.

    1992-10-01

    The density in a large tokamak such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), or any of the proposed future US machines, can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 μm laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then ne(R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel inversion about the center line of the tokamak. For a large machine, operated at a full field of 30 T m and a density of 2×1020/m3, the rotation angle would be quite large-about 60° for two passes. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 ``fringe,'' the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that ITER, or any large tokamak, existing or proposed, would be well served even at low densities by a midplane Faraday rotation densitometer of ˜64 channels.

  3. Radiation safety analysis of the ISS bone densitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul

    A Bone Densitometer (BD) has been developed for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) with delivery by the Space-X Dragon spacecraft planned for mid 2014. After initial tests on orbit the BD will be used in longitudinal measurements of bone mineral density in experimental mice as a means of evaluating countermeasures to bone loss. The BD determines bone mineral density (and other radiographic parameters) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In a single mouse DEXA “scan” its 80 kV x-ray tube is operated for 15 seconds at 35 kV and 3 seconds at 80 kV in four repetitions, giving the subject a total dose of 2.5 mSv. The BD is a modification of a commercial mouse DEXA product known as PIXImus(TM). Before qualifying the BD for utilization on ISS it was necessary to evaluate its radiation safety features and any level of risk to ISS crew members. The BD design reorients the PIXImus so that it fits in an EXPRESS locker on ISS with the x-ray beam directed into the crew aisle. ISS regulation SSP 51700 considers the production of ionizing radiation to be a catastrophic-level hazard. Accidental exposure is prevented by three independent levels of on-off control as required for a catastrophic hazard. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle was applied to the BD hazard just as would be done on the ground, so deliberate exposure is limited by lead shielding according to ALARA. Hot spots around the BD were identified by environmental dosimetry using a Ludlum 9DP pressurized ionization chamber survey meter. Various thicknesses of lead were applied to the BD housing in areas where highest dose-per-scan readings were made. It was concluded that 0.4 mm of lead shielding at strategic locations, adding only a few kg of mass to the payload, would accomplish ALARA. With shielding in place the BD now exposes a crew member floating 40 cm away to less than 0.08 microSv per mouse scan. There is an upper limit of 20 scans per day, or 1.6 microSv per day

  4. Correcting the magnification error of fan beam densitometers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M R; Noakes, K A; Pocock, N A

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a narrow pencil-shaped X-ray beam coupled to a single detector, has been used extensively. More recently, DXA using a fan- shaped X-ray beam coupled to an array of detectors has been introduced. This new generation of scanners causes an inherent magnification of scanned structures as the distance from the X-ray source decreases. This magnification, which occurs in the medial-lateral direction but not in the craniocaudal direction, does not affect bone mineral density (BMD). There are, however, significant changes of bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, and parameters of hip geometry, with varying distance of the bone scanned from the X-ray source. Variability of soft tissue thickness in vivo, by altering the distance of the skeleton from the scanning table and X-ray source, may cause clinically significant errors of BMC, bone area, and proximal femur geometry when measured using fan-beam densitometers. We analyzed the geometry of Lunar and Hologic fan beam scanners to derive equations expressing the true width of scanned structures in terms of the apparent width and machine dimensions. We also showed mathematic ally that performing an additional scan, at a different distance from the X-ray source than the first scan, provides simultaneous equations that can be solved to derive the real width of a scanned bone. This hypothesis was tested on the Lunar Expert using aluminium phantoms scanned at different table heights. There was an excellent correlation, r = 0.99 (p < 0.001), between the predicted phantom width and the measured phantom width. In conclusion, this study shows that the magnification error of fan beam DXA can be corrected using a dual scanning technique. This has important implications in the clinical usefulness of BMC and geometrical measurements obtained from these scanners.

  5. A portable real-time ultrasonic bone densitometer.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jonathan J; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a novel ultrasound device to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) at the calcaneus. The device is entirely self-contained, portable (densitometers, but not nearly as good as the simulation results. Reasons for this have been identified (viz., errors in distance measurement and lack of coincidence between the DXA and ultrasound regions of interest), and a new device and experimental protocol to deal with these sources of error has been developed and is currently under clinical trials. It is expected that this should improve the correlation

  6. Densitometer-Specific Differences in the Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Lumbar Spine Trabecular Bone Score.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Gillian; Berger, Claudie; Leslie, William D; Hans, Didier; Langsetmo, Lisa; Hanley, David A; Kovacs, Christopher S; Prior, Jerrilyn C; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan R; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne N

    2016-12-26

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level texture measure derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images that predicts fractures independent of bone mineral density (BMD). Increased abdominal soft tissue in individuals with elevated body mass index (BMI) absorbs more X-rays during image acquisition for BMD measurement and must be accommodated by the TBS algorithm. We aimed to determine if the relationship between BMI and TBS varied between 2 major manufacturers' densitometers, because different densitometers accommodate soft tissues differently. We identified 1919 women and 811 men, participants of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, aged ≥40 yr with lumbar spine DXA scans acquired on GE Lunar (4 centers) or Hologic (3 centers) densitometers at year 10 of follow-up. TBS was calculated for L1-L4 (TBS iNsight® software, version 2.1). A significant negative correlation between TBS and BMI was observed when TBS measurements were performed on Hologic densitometers in men (Pearson r = -0.36, p <0.0001) and in women (Pearson r = -0.33, p <0.0001); significant correlations were not seen when TBS was measured on GE Lunar densitometers (Pearson r = 0.00 in men, Pearson r = -0.02 in women). Age-adjusted linear regression models confirmed significant interactions between BMI and densitometer manufacturer for both men and women (p < 0.0001). In contrast, comparable positive correlations were observed between BMD and BMI on both Hologic and GE Lunar densitometers in men and women. In conclusion, BMI significantly affects TBS values in men and women when measured on Hologic but not GE Lunar densitometers. This finding has implications for clinical and research applications of TBS, especially when TBS is measured sequentially on DXA densitometers from different manufacturers or when results from different machines are pooled for analysis.

  7. A Comparison of Radiographic Film Densitometry Using a New Computerized Tool with a Digital Densitometer

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar, Hoorieh Bashizadeh; Razavi, Elham Sadat Emadian; Soheilifar, Sepideh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new tool for radiographic densitometry by combining periapical films and aluminum step wedge. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 50 Kodak E-speed intraoral films. An aluminum step wedge consisting of 16 steps was constructed. Each step was 1mm×3m×10mm. The step wedge was exposed to varying exposure times, ranging from 0.05 second to 0.5 second, increasing in 0.05 second increments. Films were digitalized after processing and the MATLAB software algorithm was ran subsequently. Density of the films was measured again using a digital densitometer. In order to compare the two imaging techniques, three steps were selected. Output data from the MATLAB algorithm were compared with data obtained from the digital densitometer. Results: The new method could detect significant differences between subsequent exposure times in step 7, while the densitometer did that in steps 7 and 12. The new method’s sensitivity in determining density changes was 5.26%, 84.1% and 93.02% in steps 2, 7, and 12 respectively. Conclusions: Our new method has an acceptable sensitivity for determining density changes of at least 7 mmEq/Al. PMID:28127317

  8. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer having liquid/wedge and gas/wedge interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic liquid densitometer that uses a material wedge having two sections, one with a liquid/wedge interface and another with a gas/wedge interface. It is preferred that the wedge have an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the liquid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the liquid. Ultrasonic signals are internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a liquid is determined by immersing the wedge into the liquid and measuring reflections of ultrasound at the liquid/wedge interface and at the gas/wedge interface.

  9. Total dose incurred by patients and staff from BMD measurement using a new 2D digital bone densitometer.

    PubMed

    Boudousq, V; Kotzki, P O; Dinten, J M; Barrau, C; Robert-Coutant, C; Thomas, E; Goulart, D Mariano

    2003-05-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a widely used and precise technique for non-invasive assessment of bone mineral density. The DXA systems have evolved from pencil X-ray beam (single detector) to fan beam (linear array detector) and recently cone beam densitometers (bi-dimensional detector), allowing for an examination to occur without any scanning and with a short acquisition time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and staff dose from a new cone beam densitometer, the DMS Lexxos. Measurements were performed on a DMS Lexxos bone densitometer prototype. An anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to evaluate the effective dose. Ionization chambers and electronic personal dosimeters were used to evaluate the staff dose. The effective dose is 8.4 micro Sv for an anteroposterior spine examination and 4.8 micro Sv for a femoral neck in standard mode. The averaged scattered dose rate (ambient dose equivalent) at 1 m from the beam is evaluated at 226 micro Sv/h. Assuming six patients per hour with two views per patient, the time averaged dose rate is evaluated at 2.9 micro Sv/h. By the personal dosimeter, the staff dose (Hp 10) at 1 m from the beam is evaluated at 0.23 micro Sv per examination. For one examination, patient and staff dose from this new technology remains low: in the same range as the fan-beam densitometer.

  10. Pseudo Color Densitometer Analysis-the Apollo 17/Saturn V Exhaust Plume.

    PubMed

    Orville, R E; Helsdon, J H

    1974-10-01

    Spectra of the Apollo 17/Saturn V exhaust plume have been obtained in the uv (300ndash;400 nm), visible (400-650 nm), and ir (750-790 nm) regions. Analysis of these data with a pseudo color densitometer reveals (1) a standing wave pattern in the exhaust plume characterized by a wavelength of 9 m, (2) a region of intense continuum within 40 m of the exit plane which supports previous reports of a continuum blackbody source with a peak temperature near 2600 K, (3) a region of continuum emission beyond 40 m that is not blackbody, and (4) line emissions beyond 40 m attributed to the sodium D lines and potassium. It is suggested that an interference filter centered on the sodium D lines could be used on a high speed framing camera to study the turbulent structure of the plume in the nonblackbody region.

  11. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the DPX and DPX-IQ lunar densitometer systems following software upgrade.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joseph C H; Griffiths, Matthew R

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry research departments perform system and software upgrades infrequently in order to maintain high precision. This study compares the results obtained on a Lunar densitometer with DPX, and DPX-IQ installed to achieve year 2000 compliance. The DPX-IQ provides an improved femur edge detection algorithm with an expanded reference database. Two hundred data files for each measurement site acquired on DPX were reanalyzed on DPX-IQ. There was no change to the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), T-scores or Z-scores for the L2-L4 spine, radius (ultradistal and 33%), and total body. There was a significant high correlation for the femoral neck BMD (r = 0.98; p < 0.05). The mean differences in BMD, BMC, T-scores, and Z-scores at the femoral neck and Ward's and trochanteric regions were not significant (p > 0.05). The limits of agreement within the 95% confidence interval for the femoral neck BMD using the Bland and Altman method was between -0.057 and 0.063 g/cm(2). This order of magnitude magnifies the long-term precision error and alters the usual confidence limits for interpretation of true change in densitometry practice. Therefore, it is important for reanalysis of DPX data files with the DPX-IQ to be performed so that longitudinal changes in BMD can be accurately assessed.

  13. Measurement of blood oxygen saturation using a multichannel fiberoptic oximeter-densitometer.

    PubMed

    Sekelj, P; Retfalvi, S; Lavoie, A

    1977-06-01

    Design principles and performance of a new fiberoptic oximeter-densitometer for measurement of blood oxygen saturation are described. This instrument is capable of performing measurements using either an intravascular catheter, flow-through cuvette, or earpiece. The operations of the flow-through cuvette and earpiece are based on the principles of light transmission, that of the catheter on the principles of hemoreflection. The system incorporates five interference filters permitting the selection of a particular wavelength or combination of wavelengths to perform different modes of operation. Estimates using both catheter and cuvette appeared to be independent of variations over a wide range in hematocrit and flow rate. In the range from 20 to 100% saturation the standard deviation of the differences between the in vitro estimates by the catheter and (or) cuvette and the Van Slyke analyses were 1.62 and 1.73%, respectively. In 53 children with congenital heart disease (22 cyanotic) values calculated from readings by the earpiece were related to values of arterial oxygen saturation as measured by American Optical Company reflection oximeter at the time of cardiac catheterization. In the range from 50 to 100% saturation, the regression line between the two techniques was linear and the standard deviation of the differences was 2.89% (3.12% in cyanotic children alone). The method provides a high degree of compensation for variations in skin pigmentation.

  14. A prototype, glassless densitometer traceable to primary optical standards for quantitative radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, B. S. Hammer, C. G.; Kunugi, K. A.; DeWerd, L. A.; Soares, C. G.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a prototype densitometer traceable to primary optical standards and compare its performance to an EPSON Expression{sup ®} 10000XL flatbed scanner (the Epson) for quantitative radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry. Methods: A prototype traceable laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed to mitigate common film scanning artifacts, such as positional scan dependence and high noise in low-dose regions, by performing point-based measurements of RCF suspended in free-space using coherent light. The LDS and the Epson optical absorbance scales were calibrated up to 3 AU, using reference materials calibrated at a primary standards laboratory and a scanner calibration factor (SCF). Calibrated optical density (OD) was determined for 96 Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT3 film segments before and after irradiation to one of 16 dose levels between 0 and 10 Gy, exposed to {sup 60}Co in a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The sensitivity was determined at each dose level and at two rotationally orthogonal readout orientations to obtain the sensitometric response of each RCF dosimetry system. LDS rotational scanning dependence was measured at nine angles between 0°and 180°, due to the expected interference between coherent light and polarizing EBT3 material. The response curves were fit to the analytic functions predicted by two physical response models: the two-parameter single-hit model and the four-parameter percolation model. Results: The LDS and the Epson absorbance measurements were linear to primary optical standards to within 0.2% and 0.3% up to 2 and 1 AU, respectively. At higher densities, the LDS had an over-response (2.5% at 3 AU) and the Epson an under-response (3.1% and 9.8% at 2 and 3 AU, respectively). The LDS and the Epson SCF over the applicable range were 0.968% ± 0.2% and 1.561% ± 0.3%, respectively. The positional scan dependence was evaluated on each digitizer and shown to be mitigated on the LDS, as compared to the Epson. Maximum EBT3

  15. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography & gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-01

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil & gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil & gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 & 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 & 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  16. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-11

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  17. Measurement precision of body composition variables using the lunar DPX-L densitometer.

    PubMed

    Kiebzak, G M; Leamy, L J; Pierson, L M; Nord, R H; Zhang, Z Y

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the precision of total- and regional-body composition measurements from a total-body scan using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This is critical information necessary to determine the smallest change from baseline that could be detected with statistical significance when conducting longitudinal measurements of body composition variables in an individual. Twenty volunteers were scanned once each day for 4 consecutive days using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer and manufacturer-supplied software (version 1.3z). Coefficients of variation (CV, %) derived from data using the (preferred) extended research mode of analysis were 0.62, 1.89, 0.63, 2.0, 1.11, 1.10, and 1.09% for total-body bone mineral density (BMD), total percentage fat, total body tissue mass, fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and total bone calcium, respectively. Regional measurements (arm, leg, trunk, pelvis, and spine) were less precise than total body measurements, with CVs in the range of 1% to 3% (but fat mass for arms was 4.26%, trunk 3.08%, BMC 3.65%). Small but statistically significant differences in mean values for most body composition variables were found when data were compared between extended and standard modes of analysis. Inconsistent use of analysis mode in a cohort or when following a patient longitudinally may negatively affect precision. We conclude that the measurement precision of total and regional body composition variables was generally comparable to the precision limits typically associated with lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD data.

  18. The Shimadzu CS 920 densitometer: illumination of thin layer chromatograms with a parallel light beam and its effects on quantification.

    PubMed

    Huf, F A

    1984-02-24

    The Shimadzu CS 920 has shown to be an easy to handle flying-spot densitometer that enables rapid quantification of thin layer chromatograms. Linear calibration curves with a relative standard deviation of 3 to 4% in the slope can be obtained for Sudan Yellow on Merck H60 plates. However, contrary to the statements in the instrument manual, the 'linearizer' performance is not in agreement with the Kubelka and Munk theory. Consequently, the CS 920 can only be used after empirically determined adjustment of the 'linearizer'. Furthermore, errors in analysis can increase up to 30% by using TLC-plates with fluctuating layer thickness.

  19. Rodent bone densitometer on the International Space Station: Instrument design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul; Todd, Paul; Boland, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    The study of bone loss dynamics, mechanisms and countermeasures has been a publicly stated purpose of biomedical research aboard the International Space Station. Rodent research has always played a major role in terrestrial laboratories studying bone loss. The "gold standard" for assessing bone loss in human patients has been dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). DEXA is also widely applied to the study of bone loss in laboratory animals, so this technology has been added to the ISS inventory of analytical tools in the form of the ISS Bone Densitometer (BD) designed, constructed, tested and integrated by Techshot, Inc. (Greenville, Indiana, USA). The BD is a re-packaged COTS device known as PIXImus (GE-Lunar, USA), which was installed on ISS in November 2014 after launching on SpaceX-4. To facilitate operations in microgravity and to meet spaceflight facility and safety requirements the commercial x-ray source, control electronics and imaging system were modified and packaged by Techshot into a drawer that fits into a single EXPRESS Locker replacement. A space-rated "Exam Box" is also supplied for containment of the anesthetized subject during transfer into the BD and during exposure. The commercial software package controls four paired-energy exposures, 80 and 35 kV, and applies DEXA algorithms to the fluorescence images and displays bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, lean mass, fat mass, total mass and per cent fat. The BD is therefore also a means for measuring mass and body composition making it a versatile tool for many types of rodent studies on orbit. The BD has been operated multiple times on orbit, and its performance has not differed significantly from its performance on the ground. It has been shown to measure body mass with a precision of +/- 0.1 g and on-orbit accuracy of -0.3 g. It is expected to detect BMD losses of approximately 2%. The image data are stored in a manner that allows post-test data analysis especially including the

  20. Lifting Disabled Patients onto the Densitometer with a Ceiling Lift: Effect of the Sling on Measurement of BMD.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, LaTarsha G; McNamara, Elizabeth A; Malabanan, Alan O; Rosen, Harold N

    2014-08-01

    Lifting disabled patients onto a densitometer manually is dangerous for both the patient and the densitometry staff; using a ceiling lift is the preferred method of transfer. This system requires the use of a sling underneath the patient. Unless extra time is taken for its removal, the sling remains underneath the patient as bone mineral density (BMD) is measured. The aim of this study was to determine whether leaving this sling in place during scan acquisition affects the BMD measurement. Measurements were taken of a spine phantom 30 times by itself, 30 times with a standard sling underneath the spine phantom, and 16 times with a disposable sling underneath the spine phantom. We found that mean BMD was significantly different versus the phantom alone when a sling was used, due to differences in area, bone mineral content, or both. The disposable sling affected the mean BMD to a much greater extent than did the standard sling (+1.9% vs. -0.41%; P for the difference between slings <.001). The standard sling did not increase the variance in the BMD measurement compared with the spine phantom alone, whereas the disposable sling did increase the variance in the BMD measurements. Commercially available ceiling-lift slings affect BMD measurements of spine phantoms. This effect is expected to persist when BMD is measured in patients and suggests that when lifting a patient onto the densitometer using these slings, it is best to take the time to remove the sling from under the patient after transfer and before scanning.

  1. European semi-anthropomorphic phantom for the cross-calibration of peripheral bone densitometers: assessment of precision accuracy and stability.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J; Ruegsegger, P; Dequeker, J; Henley, M; Bright, J; Reeve, J; Kalender, W; Felsenberg, D; Laval-Jeantet, A M; Adams, J E

    1994-11-01

    A semi-anthropomorphic 'distal radius like' phantom, developed by Kalender and Ruegsegger for use in peripheral bone densitometry using single photon (DPA) dual X-ray (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) machines, has been studied with a view to cross-calibrating different types and brands of densitometers in current use. In the context of an EU 'Concerted Action' (second Framework Programme) the phantom was repeatedly measured on six SPA machines, three DXA machines and nine QCT machines (545 measurements). Linear regression equations were derived, individual to each machine, which allowed the derivation of 'standardized densities'. In this way we converted measurements made by machines of the same modality to a common scale of measurements. Two machines (one DXA, one SPA) showed statistically significant instability over time emphasising the need for rigorous quality control in the application of densitometry. In other respects these results provide an encouraging basis for the derivation of standardized normative ranges and the more effective use of peripheral densitometry in future clinical and epidemiological studies.

  2. Pulse densitometer indocyanine green dilution curves: a simple applicable and accurate method for determination of cardiac shunts.

    PubMed

    Bergstra, Arend; Hoendermis, Elke S; Talsma, Melle D; Mook, Gerrit A; Zijlstra, Willem G; Berger, Rolf M F

    2009-01-01

    Adequate hemodynamic evaluation is crucial in the management of patients with congenital heart disease. Although non-invasive diagnostic tools have reduced the need for invasive procedures, cardiac catheterization is still mandatory for absolute quantification of pressures, flows and vascular resistances in selected patients. We therefore investigated the feasibility of a new technique, non-invasive pulse densitometry (PD) in patients with intracardiac shunts and compared its results with the established standards: cuvette densitometry (CD) and oximetry (OX). Measurement method comparison study. In 12 patients with intracardiac shunt, dye dilution curves, using both pulse and cuvette densitometry, were recorded and oximetry was performed. Left-to-right shunt expressed as percentage of pulmonary blood flow Qp, was calculated from dye dilution and oximetry. In 4 patients with atrial septal defect, dye dilution curves were also recorded after closure of the defect with a device. The mean difference +/- SD between the shunt derived from PD and CD was 2.8 +/- 10.0% of Qp, 95% confidence interval -2.5 to 8.2. (Shunt-PD vs. Shunt-CD was 32.3 +/- 23.9% vs. 29.5 +/- 23.9% of Qp resp., n = 16). The mean difference +/- SD between the shunt derived from PD and OX was 0.8 +/- 9.8% of Qp, 95% confidence interval -5.4 to 7.0 (Shunt-PD vs. Shunt-OX was 41.5 +/- 20.3% vs. 40.7 +/- 19.7% of Qp resp., n = 12). Transcutaneous recording of dye dilution curves with a pulse dye densitometer allows easy and accurate quantification of intracardiac left-to-right shunt flows over a wide range in both children and adults with congenital heart diseases.

  3. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

  4. Pediatric in vivo cross-calibration between the GE Lunar Prodigy and DPX-L bone densitometers.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Nicola J; Shaw, N J; Boivin, C M; Oldroyd, B; Truscott, J G

    2005-12-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine cross-calibration is an important consideration when upgrading from old to new technology. In a recent cross-calibration study using adult subjects, close agreement between GE Lunar DPX-L and GE Lunar Prodigy scanners was reported. The aim of this work was to cross-calibrate the two machines for bone and body composition parameters for pediatrics from age 5 years onwards. One-hundred ten healthy volunteers aged 5-20 years had total body and lumbar spine densitometry performed on DPX-L and Prodigy densitometers. Cross-calibration was achieved using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. There was close agreement between the machines, with r2 ranging from 0.85 to 0.99 for bone and body composition parameters. Paired t-tests demonstrated significant differences between machines that were dependent on scan acquisition mode, with the greatest differences reported for the smallest children. At the lumbar spine, Prodigy bone mineral density (BMD) values were on average 1.6% higher compared with DPX-L. For the total body, there were no significant differences in BMD; however, there were significant differences in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area. For small children, the Prodigy measured lower BMC (9.4%) and bone area (5.8%), whereas for larger children the Prodigy measured both higher BMC (3.1%) and bone area (3.0%). A similar contrasting pattern was also observed for the body composition parameters. Prodigy values for lean body mass were higher (3.0%) for small children and lower (0.5%) for larger children, while fat body mass was lower (16.4%) for small children and higher (2.0%) for large children. Cross-calibration coefficients ranged from 0.84 to 1.12 and were significantly different from 1 (p<0.0001) for BMC and bone area. Bland-Altman plots showed that within the same scan acquisition modes, the magnitude of the difference increased with body weight. The results from this study suggest that the differences

  5. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  6. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

  7. Online capacitive densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Porges, K.G.

    1988-01-21

    This invention is an apparatus for measuring fluid density of mixed phase fluid flow. The apparatus employs capacitive sensing of the mixed phased flow combined with means for uniformizing the electric field between the capacitor plates to account for flow line geometry. From measurement of fluid density, the solids feedrate can be ascertained. 7 figs.

  8. Online capacitive densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Porges, Karl G.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for measuring fluid density of mixed phase fluid flow. The apparatus employs capacitive sensing of the mixed phased flow combined with means for uniformizing the electric field between the capacitor plates to account for flow line geometry. From measurement of fluid density, the solids feedrate can be ascertained.

  9. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Human bone density changes can be determined by a device originally developed for in-flight testing of astronauts' bones during extended space missions. Device is comparable in size, weight and power consumption to portable television set.

  10. Scanning Gamma Ray Densitometer System for Detonations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in loaded detonators and delays. The 317 KEV gamma rays from an Ir192 source were collimated into a beam of 0.002 by 0.100 inch. A scanning system...minus 3%. With Ir192 , density measurements on NOL-130 were reproduced to plus or minus 5%, and on RDX to plus or minus 16%. Based on gamma ray

  11. Miniature X-Ray Bone Densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Harry K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) project is to design, build, and test an advanced X-ray absorptiometry scanner capable of being used to monitor the deleterious effects of weightlessness on the human musculoskeletal system during prolonged spaceflight. The instrument is based on the principles of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and is designed not only to measure bone, muscle, and fat masses but also to generate structural information about these tissues so that the effects on mechanical integrity may be assessed using biomechanical principles. A skeletal strength assessment could be particularly important for an astronaut embarking on a remote planet where the consequences of a fragility fracture may be catastrophic. The scanner will employ multiple projection images about the long axis of the scanned subject to provide geometric properties in three dimensions, suitable for a three-dimensional structural analysis of the scanned region. The instrument will employ advanced fabrication techniques to minimize volume and mass (100 kg current target with a long-term goal of 60 kg) of the scanner as appropriate for the space environment, while maintaining the required mechanical stability for high precision measurement. The unit will have the precision required to detect changes in bone mass and geometry as small as 1% and changes in muscle mass as small as 5%. As the system evolves, advanced electronic fabrication technologies such as chip-on-board and multichip modules will be combined with commercial (off-the-shelf) parts to produce a reliable, integrated system which not only minimizes size and weight, but, because of its simplicity, is also cost effective to build and maintain. Additionally, the system is being designed to minimize power consumption. Methods of heat dissipation and mechanical stowage (for the unit when not in use) are being optimized for the space environment.

  12. Miniature X-Ray Bone Densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Harry K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) project is to design, build, and test an advanced X-ray absorptiometry scanner capable of being used to monitor the deleterious effects of weightlessness on the human musculoskeletal system during prolonged spaceflight. The instrument is based on the principles of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and is designed not only to measure bone, muscle, and fat masses but also to generate structural information about these tissues so that the effects on mechanical integrity may be assessed using biomechanical principles. A skeletal strength assessment could be particularly important for an astronaut embarking on a remote planet where the consequences of a fragility fracture may be catastrophic. The scanner will employ multiple projection images about the long axis of the scanned subject to provide geometric properties in three dimensions, suitable for a three-dimensional structural analysis of the scanned region. The instrument will employ advanced fabrication techniques to minimize volume and mass (100 kg current target with a long-term goal of 60 kg) of the scanner as appropriate for the space environment, while maintaining the required mechanical stability for high precision measurement. The unit will have the precision required to detect changes in bone mass and geometry as small as 1% and changes in muscle mass as small as 5%. As the system evolves, advanced electronic fabrication technologies such as chip-on-board and multichip modules will be combined with commercial (off-the-shelf) parts to produce a reliable, integrated system which not only minimizes size and weight, but, because of its simplicity, is also cost effective to build and maintain. Additionally, the system is being designed to minimize power consumption. Methods of heat dissipation and mechanical stowage (for the unit when not in use) are being optimized for the space environment.

  13. A PHOTOELECTRIC DENSITOMETER FOR USE WITH SUSPENSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Stier, T. J. B.; Arnold, W.; Stannard, J. N.

    1934-01-01

    A device for quickly and accurately measuring the population density of a suspension of microorganisms, permitting the preparation of yeast suspensions of known density to within 1 per cent error, was constructed with two Visitron photoelectric cells, a single light of high intensity and a good Wheatstone bridge for balancing the currents from the two photoelectric cells. A large Pyrex milk culture tube holding the suspension is placed in the path of one beam of light coming through a small longitudinal slit and thence to one photocell; a second similar slit directs another beam of light upon the second photocell, thus causing dissimilar currents to flow, the ratio of whose magnitudes may be measured by the bridge resistances. A relation between these currents and the relative light intensities is shown, and the one significant unmeasurable variable (the characteristic constant of a photocell) is practically eliminated by the use of a method of ratios. After careful standardization of technique the apparatus proved more accurate than other methods available for the purpose indicated. In rapid use its accuracy may be put safely at 1 per cent for measuring the densities of cultures of approximately the same age and composed of cells having comparable optical characteristics. PMID:19872788

  14. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1988-11-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Midplane Faraday rotation: A tokamak densitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobes, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    The density in a tokamak can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then ne(R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel inversion about the center line of the tokamak. For a large machine, such as ITER, TPX, or JT-60, a 10.6 μm laser would be appropriate. If the machine operated at a full field of 10-50 T m and a peak density of 2.5×1020/m3, the rotation angle would be quite large—about 15°-75° per pass. An elegant measurement system can be made up from a single laser beam diffracted off a moving grating to form a fan of ˜10 probe beams. With the addition of a few optical components to the system, the return beams can be recombined and sent to a single detector. In the detector there is a separate frequency component for both the right and left hand component of each ray. These can be separated electronically to provide a reference and probe signal for each ray; the difference in phase between the two signals is twice the Faraday rotation angle.

  17. Liquid hydrogen densitometer utilizes open-ended microwave cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, J.; Wenger, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Open-ended microwave cavity directly measures the density of flowing liquid, gaseous, or two-phase hydrogen. Its operation is based on derived relations between the cavity resonant frequency and the dielectric constant and density of hydrogen.

  18. [Software Design for a Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiangjun; Ding, Jie; Xu, Shijie; Geng, Ruihua; He, Aijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ultrasound bone density measurement, we designed a sofware based on Visual Studio C+ + 2008. The software includes interface design, acquisition and control, data processing and parameter extraction, data storage and printing. Excellent human-computer interface (HCI) will give users a convenient experience. Auto gain control (AGC) and digital filter can improve the precision effectively. In addition, we can observe waveform clearly in real time. By using USB communication, we can send control commands to the acquisition and get data effectively, which can shorten the measuring time. Then we calculated the speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Patients' information can be accessed by using XML document. Finally, the software offers printing function.

  19. The Alara Metriscan phalangeal densitometer: evaluation and triage thresholds.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, J A; Steel, S A

    2008-10-01

    The Metriscan (Alara Inc, CA) is a compact digital radiographic absorptiometry device capable of determining phalangeal bone mineral density in arbitrary units (BMD(au)) from the second phalanges of the middle three digits. We have examined the utility and the in vitro and in vivo performances of the Metriscan, and established triage thresholds based on the UK's National Osteoporosis Society guidelines on peripheral densitometry. 170 white female participants (70 osteoporotic and 100 non-osteoporotic at the hip or spine) aged between 55 years and 70 years were recruited from patients attending for routine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. All participants underwent two scans of the non-dominant hand (with repositioning) and one of the dominant hand. An additional 10 participants were excluded owing to finger or hand deformities. Radiation exposure to the patient per scan was <0.1 microSv, and a controlled area of 1 m was established around the device. Phantom-based in vitro short-term precision (%CV) was 0.17% without, and 0.22% with, repositioning. Long-term in vitro precision was 0.31% over a 6-month period. In vivo short-term precision was 1.42% for the group as a whole, and 1.30% and 2.23% for the non-osteoporotic and osteoporotic groups, respectively. Triage thresholds for reassurance/referral or referral/treatment were 54.30 BMD(au) and 46.89 BMD(au), respectively, for the non-dominant hand, and 55.02 BMD(au) and 48.73 BMD(au) for the dominant hand. The dominant side proved superior for triage purposes, with a triage referral rate of 44%, compared with 48% for the non-dominant hand. The Metriscan is suitable for use on post-menopausal women in a community-based setting preferably in a triage role as an adjunct to axial BMD.

  20. Radiological assessment of a new bone densitometer--the Lunar EXPERT.

    PubMed

    Njeh, C F; Apple, K; Temperton, D H; Boivin, C M

    1996-04-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is one of the most widely used techniques in the management of osteoporosis and other skeletal diseases. Although patient doses from DXA are generally low, it is still necessary to measure them to assess the risk of radiation injury. We report on a study to estimate the effective dose (ED) to patients and staff from a new DXA scanner--the Lunar EXPERT, and make a comparison with a similar study carried out on a Lunar DPX-L. The entrance surface doses were measured to be 895 microGy and 10.25 microGy for the EXPERT and DPX-L, respectively. The EXPERT maximum EDs were calculated to be 74.7 microSv and 44.9 microSv for the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine and the proximal femur, respectively. More than 50% reduction in ED could be achieved by using a smaller scanning width. The maximum EDs for the DPX-L were calculated to be 0.21 microSv and 0.15 microSv for the AP lumbar spine and the proximal femur, respectively. The scattered dose rates (ambient dose equivalent) were measured to be less than 2 and less than 1 microSv h-1 at 50 cm and 100 cm, respectively, for the DPX-L, and the equivalent values for the EXPERT were 240 and 64 microSv h-1. Although both the patient dose and scattered dose rates are quite low relative to other radiological examinations, good practice aimed at dose reduction should still be implemented. Whilst protection for the operator is not needed for the DPX-L system, it may be (depending on the size of the room) for the EXPERT system.

  1. Production of Aflatoxin on Wheat and Oats: Measurement with a Recording Densitometer

    PubMed Central

    Stubblefield, R. D.; Shotwell, O. L.; Hesseltine, C. W.; Smith, M. L.; Hall, H. H.

    1967-01-01

    A method has been developed for the production of aflatoxin by growing Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3145 on solid substrate wheat. Optimal yields of 900 μg of aflatoxin G1 and 900 μg of aflatoxin B1 per g of substrate were obtained in 4 to 5 days at 28 C. A study of aflatoxin production on hulls and groats of oats and on whole oats by A. flavus strains NRRL 2999, NRRL 3000, and NRRL 3145 revealed that aflatoxin was produced on all three substrates, although production was very slight on hulls. Strain NRRL 3145 grown on solid substrate groats produced the largest amounts of aflatoxin: 580 μg of B1 and 450 μg of G1 per g of substrate. A densitometric method for reading thin-layer chromatographic plates is described; this is more objective and more accurate than the visual methods previously used for the determination of all four aflatoxins. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6031432

  2. Quantitative Determination of Photosynthetic Pigments in Green Beans Using Thin-Layer Chromatography and a Flatbed Scanner as Densitometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Juan; This, Herve; Vignolle, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the quantitative determination of photosynthetic pigments extracted from green beans using thin-layer chromatography is proposed. Various extraction methods are compared, and it is shown how a simple flatbed scanner and free software for image processing can give a quantitative determination of pigments. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    show the temporal evolution of the plasma long after the driving laser pulse has left. The method can be further improved by enclosing the probe beam...radiation4–9 and electrical discharges10–12 would depend critically on the evolution and structure of the free electron density. Current concepts to measure...phasefront map for f = 50 cm at varying energies In addition, by using a delay line in the path of the probe beam, one can image the evolution of the

  4. Operators manual for microdensitometer control program densitometer model PDS-1010G (modified). Program trace version 3B (section 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The PDS-1010G microdensitometer is run under the control of a PDP-11 program called TRACE. This program gives the operator vary flexible control over the machine functions. Most commands are passed to the computer through either the Tektronix 4010 terminal or the teletype, as selected by the position of the LOCAL/LINE rocker switch above the 4010 keyboard. (LINE places the 4010 in control; LOCAL transfers control to the teletype. In general, the teletype is used when the operator desires a permanent record of the operator-computer dialogue.) A small number of control functions are requested by setting switches on the computer front panel.

  5. Quantitative Determination of Photosynthetic Pigments in Green Beans Using Thin-Layer Chromatography and a Flatbed Scanner as Densitometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Juan; This, Herve; Vignolle, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the quantitative determination of photosynthetic pigments extracted from green beans using thin-layer chromatography is proposed. Various extraction methods are compared, and it is shown how a simple flatbed scanner and free software for image processing can give a quantitative determination of pigments. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. Microdensitometer errors: Their effect on photometric data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozyan, E. P.; Opal, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of densitometers used for photometric data reduction of high dynamic range electrographic plate material is analyzed. Densitometer repeatability is tested by comparing two scans of one plate. Internal densitometer errors are examined by constructing histograms of digitized densities and finding inoperative bits and differential nonlinearity in the analog to digital converter. Such problems appear common to the four densitometers used in this investigation and introduce systematic algorithm dependent errors in the results. Strategies to improve densitometer performance are suggested.

  7. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer

    PubMed Central

    Manousaki, D.; Rauch, F.; Chabot, G.; Dubois, J.; Fiscaletti, M.; Alos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. Subjects and methods: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. Results: BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (p<0.001). Volumetric BMD did not change with age. BMD and BMC correlated with age, weight and height (R2≥0.85 for all), with a maximum gain between the ages of 1 and 4 years, which did not follow the same pattern as height velocity. We did not find significant sex difference for any of the three measured parameters. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for lumbar spine densitometry of infants and young children using the Lunar Prodigy DXA system. PMID:27609039

  8. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Saarelainen, J.; Hakulinen, M.; Rikkonen, T.; Kröger, H.; Tuppurainen, M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Honkanen, R.; Hujo, M.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21–72 years) underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2–L4 (n = 72), proximal femur (n = 72), and total body (n = 62) measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r = 0.962–0.995; p < 0.0001). The average iDXA BMD values were 1.5%, 0.5%, and 0.9% higher than those of Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2–L4) (p < 0.0001), femoral neck (p = 0.048), and total hip (p < 0.0001), respectively. Total body BMD values measured with the iDXA were −1.3% lower (p < 0.0001) than those measured with the Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine. PMID:27239366

  9. BD Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-19

    iss052e004198 (June 19, 2017) ---- Astronaut Peggy Whitson changes out the Imaging Unit on the Bone Densitometer inside the Harmony module. The SpaceX Dragon is attached to the Earth-facing port of Harmony.

  10. A Technique to Measure the Volume of Elastomers as a Function of Temperature and Pressure with an Acoustic Pycnometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-28

    acoustic pycnometer used evolved from the work of Corsaro , Jarzynski, and Davis [5). These investigators describe the use of an acoustic densitometer to...sample can be measured accurately by means of an acoustic pycnometer. The background for the acoustic pycnometer used evolved from the work of Corsaro ...design will be discussed later. *The acoustic densitometer of Corsaro , Jarzynski, and Davis was obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington

  11. Indocyanine green densitometry in flowing blood compensated for background dye1

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ANTHONY W. T.; ISAACSON, JAMES; SUTTERER, WILLIAM F.; BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.; WOOD, EARL H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood is nonhomogeneous; hence, the relationship between light transmission and increasing concentration of dye in whole blood is never the perfect exponential curve predicted by Beer’s law. Instead, as the concentration of indocyanine green is increased to high levels (40 mg/liter) the light transmission decreases exponentially toward an asymptote at 6–8% transmission for nearly monochromatic densitometers (half-band width: 13–20 mμ), but at 30–40% for densitometers using light of wide-band width. Consequently, following recording of a dilution curve, circulating background dye reduces the change in transmission per unit increase in dye concentration in subsequent curves. This decrease in sensitivity cannot be compensated for by a simple increase in the sensitivity of the densitometer or in the intensity of its light source. Compensation can be attained, however, if increasing densitometer sensitivity is associated with the automatic scale expansion provided when a suppressed zero point is used. At correct zero suppression, the deflection for zero output of the densitometer coincides with the asymptotic transmission value mentioned above. PMID:14080764

  12. High-throughput film-densitometry: An efficient approach to generate large data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Typke, Dieter; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Jones, Arthur; Lee, Juyoung; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Downing, Kenneth H.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2004-07-14

    A film-handling machine (robot) has been built which can, in conjunction with a commercially available film densitometer, exchange and digitize over 300 electron micrographs per day. Implementation of robotic film handling effectively eliminates the delay and tedium associated with digitizing images when data are initially recorded on photographic film. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the commercially available densitometer is significantly worse than that of a high-end, scientific microdensitometer. Nevertheless, its signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is quite excellent, allowing substantial restoration of the output to ''near-to-perfect'' performance. Due to the large area of the standard electron microscope film that can be digitized by the commercial densitometer (up to 10,000 x 13,680 pixels with an appropriately coded holder), automated film digitization offers a fast and inexpensive alternative to high-end CCD cameras as a means of acquiring large amounts of image data in electron microscopy.

  13. Accommodating brightness and exposure levels in densitometry of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Han Yen; Ng, Tuck Wah; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-03-20

    Flatbed scanner densitometers can be operated under various illumination and recording exposure levels. In this work, we show that optical density measurement accuracy, sensitivity, and stability of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel densitometry are crucially dependent on these two factors (brightness and exposure level), notwithstanding that the source is monochromatic, spatially uniform, and the measurements are made using an accurately calibrated step wedge in tandem. We further outline a method to accommodate the intensity deviations over a range of illumination and exposure levels in order to maintain sensitivity and repeatability in the computed optical densities. Comparisons were also made with results from a commercial densitometer.

  14. Concordance of macular pigment measurements obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry, dual-wavelength autofluorescence, and single-wavelength reflectance.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Jessica L; Stack, Jim; Beatty, Stephen; Nolan, John M

    2013-11-01

    This study compares in vivo measurements of macular pigment (MP) obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP; Macular Metrics Densitometer(™)), dual-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Spectralis(®) HRA + OCT MultiColor) and single-wavelength fundus reflectance (Zeiss Visucam(®) 200). MP was measured in one eye of 62 subjects on each device. Data from 49 subjects (79%) was suitable for analysis. Agreement between the Densitometer and Spectralis was investigated at various eccentricities using a variety of quantitative and graphical methods, including: Pearson correlation coefficient to measure degree of scatter (precision), accuracy coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient (ccc), paired t-test, scatter and Bland-Altman plots. The relationship between max MP from the Visucam and central MP from the Spectralis and Densitometer was investigated using regression methods. Agreement was strong between the Densitometer and Spectralis at all central eccentricities (e.g. at 0.25° eccentricity: accuracy = 0.97, precision = 0.90, ccc = 0.87). Regression analysis showed a very weak relationship between the Visucam and Densitometer (e.g. Visucam max on Densitometer central MP: R(2) = 0.008, p = 0.843). Regression analysis also demonstrated a weak relationship between MP measured by the Spectralis and Visucam (e.g. Visucam max on Spectralis central MP: R(2) = 0.047, p = 0.348). MP values obtained using the Heidelberg Spectralis are comparable to MP values obtained using the Densitometer. In contrast, MP values obtained using the Zeiss Visucam are not comparable with either the Densitometer or the Spectralis MP measuring devices. Taking cHFP as the current standard to which other MP measuring devices should be compared, the Spectralis is suitable for use in a clinical and research setting, whereas the Visucam is not. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Digitalización de Espectros Fotográficos con el Microdensitómetro Grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareilles, F. A.; Morrel, N. I.

    A new software was developed to be used with the Grant densitometer at La Plata Observatory in order to obtain digital scans from photographic spectra. Data acquisition is done with a 12 bit A/D. The output is a FITS file containing the spectrum in a photographic density scale.

  16. System requirements for one-time-use ENRAF control panel software

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER, J.H.

    1999-08-19

    An Enraf Densitometer is installed on tank 241-AY-102. The Densitometer will frequently be tasked to obtain and log density profiles. The activity can be effected a number of ways. Enraf Incorporated provides a software package called ''Logger18'' to its customers for the purpose of in-shop testing of their gauges. Logger18 is capable of accepting an input file which can direct the gauge to obtain a density profile for a given tank level and bottom limit. Logger18 is a complex, DOS based program which will require trained technicians and/or tank farm entries to obtain the data. ALARA considerations have prompted the development of a more user-friendly, computer-based interface to the Enraf densitometers. This document records the plan by which this new Enraf data acquisition software will be developed, reviewed, verified, and released. This plan applies to the development and implementation of a one-time-use software program, which will be called ''Enraf Control Panel.'' The software will be primarily used for remote operation of Enraf Densitometers for the purpose of obtaining and logging tank product density profiles.

  17. Observed and theoretical spectra in the 10-100 A interval. [of solar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    The soft X-ray spectra recorded in two sounding-rocket flights in 1982 and 1985 are compared with predicted spectra. The processed densitometer trace of the full spectrum is presented, together with the new spectrum from the 1985 experiment. The intensities of the lines are then compared with predictions.

  18. Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.

  19. Use of a variable exposure photographic pyrometer to measure surface temperatures on a hemispherical-face model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantsios, A. G.; Henley, W. C., Jr.; Snow, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a photographic pyrometer for nonintrusive measurement of high temperature surfaces in a wind tunnel test is described. The advantages of the pyrometer for measuring surfaces whose unique shape makes use of thermocouples difficult are pointed out. The use of computer operated densitometers or optical processors for the data reduction is recommended.

  20. AN EVALUATION OF TWO GROUND-BASED CROWN CLOSURE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES COMPARED TO CROWN CLOSURE ESTIMATES DERIVED FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ground-based canopy closure estimation techniques, the Spherical Densitometer (SD) and the Vertical Tube (VT), were compared for the effect of deciduous understory on dominant/co-dominant crown closure estimates in even-aged loblolly (Pinus taeda) pine stands located in the N...

  1. AN EVALUATION OF TWO GROUND-BASED CROWN CLOSURE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES COMPARED TO CROWN CLOSURE ESTIMATES DERIVED FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ground-based canopy closure estimation techniques, the Spherical Densitometer (SD) and the Vertical Tube (VT), were compared for the effect of deciduous understory on dominantlco-dominant crown closure estimates in even-aged loblolly (Pinus taeda) pine stands located in the N...

  2. AN EVALUATION OF TWO GROUND-BASED CROWN CLOSURE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES COMPARED TO CROWN CLOSURE ESTIMATES DERIVED FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ground-based canopy closure estimation techniques, the Spherical Densitometer (SD) and the Vertical Tube (VT), were compared for the effect of deciduous understory on dominant/co-dominant crown closure estimates in even-aged loblolly (Pinus taeda) pine stands located in the N...

  3. Thermal Indicating Paints for Ammunition Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    storage and prolonged transportation make powered devices and electronics impractical. A cheap, easy, visible warning, requiring no power, which can...photochromic - light thermochromic – heat piezorochromic – pressure solvatechromic – liquid electrochromic – electricity/voltage An example...potential vulnerabilities. Furthermore, through the use of a hand held laser scanning device or an optical densitometer, surveillance personnel may

  4. Sounding rocket flight report, MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two-Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP is similar to the thermosphere probe, an ejectable instrument package for studying the variability of the earth's atmospheric parameters. The MUMP 9 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe, a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. These instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch.

  5. Cardiac output determinations with ear piece densitometry.

    PubMed

    Hedenstierna, G; Schildt, B

    1975-01-01

    The results of cardiac output determinations by a dye dilution technique were compared using (a) a dichromatic earpiece which was calibrated as a flow-through cuvette, but also permitted automatic computing by virtue of a pressure capsule, and (b) an ordinary flow-through densitometer. Eleven subjects, some with cardio-pulmonary disease, were investigated. Cardiac outputs were systematically overestimated when automatically computed. The results obtained by manual calculation with the ear-piece corresponded more nearly with those derived from the flow-through cuvette, but still with a deviation from the identity line and with a residual standard deviation of 0.8 l/min. Double determinations had a residual standard deviation of 0.7 l/min. Despite its ease of handling, an earpiece densitometer seems to be too unreliable to be suitable for routine use.

  6. Irradiance analyzer for high power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, R.W.

    1981-04-07

    An irradiance analysis system which includes an array of square rods that are joined together and have a flat entrance end and a polished flat exit end through which visible light is transmitted to a fresnel lens and focused to a particular area where the image focused is photographed so that when the various frames are developed they can be analyzed in a conventional film densitometer to yield quantative data on the temporal variation of laser beam irradiance distributions.

  7. Cryogenic Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-12-31

    Project Rover 60 3.3 Narmco Mechanical Properties Testing 60 Figure 17 - Perlite Insulated Tanks 20 0 K - 300 0 K 61 References 63 4. The Compilation...and a small depend- ence of the apparent conductivity on the thermal gradient was found. This was corrected by modifications to the guard system and... modifications and is now ready for further tests. An adiabatic compression test unit was fabricated, fabrication of a new densitometer was started and a

  8. Proposal to evaluate the use of ERTS-A imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills Region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. There appears to be a direct relationship between densitometry values obtained with MSS band 5 imagery and forage density for those range sites measured on the imagery, provided site category identification is indicated by other forms of imagery or ground truth. Overlap of density values for different site categories with differing forage condition classes does not allow assigning a given forage density value for a given densitometer value unless the range site category is known.

  9. Concordance of Macular Pigment Measurement Using Customized Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry and Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Beatty, Stephen; Stack, Jim; Peto, Tunde; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Power, Rebecca; Nolan, John M

    2015-12-01

    We compared macular pigment (MP) measurements using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Metrics Densitometer) and dual-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT MultiColor) in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Macular pigment was measured in 117 subjects with early AMD (age, 44-88 years) using the Densitometer and Spectralis, as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787). Baseline and 6-month study visits data were used for the analyses. Agreement was investigated at four different retinal eccentricities, graphically and using indices of agreement, including Pearson correlation coefficient (precision), accuracy coefficient, and concordance correlation coefficient (ccc). Agreement was poor between the Densitometer and Spectralis at all eccentricities, at baseline (e.g., at 0.25° eccentricity, accuracy = 0.63, precision = 0.35, ccc = 0.22) and at 6 months (e.g., at 0.25° eccentricity, accuracy = 0.52, precision = 0.43, ccc = 0.22). Agreement between the two devices was significantly greater for males at 0.5° and 1.0° of eccentricity. At all eccentricities, agreement was unaffected by cataract grade. In subjects with early AMD, MP measurements obtained using the Densitometer and Spectralis are not statistically comparable and should not be used interchangeably in either the clinical or research setting. Despite this lack of agreement, statistically significant increases in MP, following 6 months of supplementation with macular carotenoids, were detected with each device, confirming that these devices are capable of measuring change in MP within subjects over time. (http://www.controlled-trials.com number, ISRCTN13894787.).

  10. Enhanced Precision of the New Hologic Horizon Model Compared With the Old Discovery Model Is Less Evident When Fewer Vertebrae Are Included in the Analysis.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Kilim, Holly P; Malabanan, Alan O; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-07-12

    The International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines recommend using locally derived precision data for spine bone mineral densities (BMDs), but do not specify whether data derived from L1-L4 spines correctly reflect the precision for spines reporting fewer than 4 vertebrae. Our experience suggested that the decrease in precision with successively fewer vertebrae is progressive as more vertebrae are excluded and that the precision for the newer Horizon Hologic model might be better than that for the previous model, and we sought to quantify. Precision studies were performed on Hologic densitometers by acquiring spine BMD in fast array mode twice on 30 patients, according to International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. This was done 10 different times on various Discovery densitometers, and once on a Horizon densitometer. When 1 vertebral body was excluded from analysis, there was no significant deterioration in precision. When 2 vertebrae were excluded, there was a nonsignificant trend to poorer precision, and when 3 vertebrae were excluded, there was significantly worse precision. When 3 or 4 vertebrae were reported, the precision of the spine BMD measurement was significantly better on the Hologic Horizon than on the Discovery, but the difference in precision between densitometers narrowed and was no longer significant when 1 or 2 vertebrae were reported. The results suggest that (1) the measurement of in vivo spine BMD on the new Hologic Horizon densitometer is significantly more precise than on the older Discovery model; (2) the difference in precision between the Horizon and Discovery models decreases as fewer vertebrae are included; (3) the measurement of spine BMD is less precise as more vertebrae are excluded, but still quite reasonable even when only 1 vertebral body is included; and (4) when 3 vertebrae are reported, L1-L4 precision data can reasonably be used to report significance of changes in BMD. When 1 or 2 vertebrae are

  11. High spatial resolution photographs of the sun in L alpha radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Photographs of the sun in predominantly L alpha radiation (centered at 1215.67 A) with 3-sec spatial resolution were taken from an Aerobee rocket shortly after fourth contact by the moon on the eclipse day of July 10, 1972. This preliminary reporting of the results describes the instrument and shows two of the photographs taken. The supergranulation is manifest, and active regions and filaments are well resolved over the entire disk. Densitometer traces across the disk are presented, giving the flux incident on the earth from active regions, cell boundaries, and filaments.

  12. Method of high-precision microsampled blood and plasma mass densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of the mechanical oscillator technique for blood and plasma density measurements on samples of volumes less than 0.1 ml is examined, and a precision of 0.001 g/l is found if plasma-isodensic heparin solution and siliconized densitometers are employed. Sources of measurement errors in the density determinations include storage of plasma samples, inhomogeneity of blood samples, and density reading before adequate temperature equilibration. In tests of plasma sample storage, the best reproducibility was obtained with samples kept at 4 C. Linear correlations were found between plasma density and plasma protein concentration, blood density and blood hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte density and MCHC.

  13. Lessons Learned In Developing The VACIS™ Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphan, Victor J.

    2011-06-01

    SAIC's development of VACIS™ provides useful "lessons learned" in bridging the gap from an idea to a security or contraband detection product. From a gamma densitometer idea for solving a specific Customs Service (CS) requirement (detection of drugs in near-empty tanker trucks) in mid-1990's, SAIC developed a broad line of vehicle and cargo inspections systems (over 500 systems deployed to date) based on a gamma-ray radiographic imaging technique. This paper analyzes the reasons for the successful development of VACIS and attempts to identify "lessons learned" useful for future security and contraband detection product developments.

  14. Dye fading test for mission control operator console displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A dye fading test of 40 days duration was conducted to determine the effect of mission control operator console and ambient lighting effects on a series of photographic products under consideration for use in mission console operator consoles. Six different display samples, each containing 36 windows of several different colors, were prepared and placed in the mission control consoles for testing. No significant changes were recorded during the testing period. All changes were attributed to a mechanical problem with the densitometer. Detailed results are given in graphs.

  15. Comparison of planar chromatographic methods (TLC, OPLC, AMD) applied to essential oils of wild thyme and seven chemotypes of thyme.

    PubMed

    Pothier, J; Galand, N; El Ouali, M; Viel, C

    2001-01-01

    Essential oils analysis is more often realized by gas chromatography. However, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) remains the reference for Pharmacopoeia. Nevertheless classical TLC has its own limitations but it is always a good technique because it is simple, rapid and less expensive. Actually the reproducibility, the separation quality and the possibility to obtain good and reproducible quantitative determinations have been improved significantly with automated sample applicator, scanner densitometers and two new chromatographic planar methods: the optimum performance laminar chromatography (OPLC) and automated multiple development (AMD). In this work, we show and compare the performance of these methods and TLC through a study of seven thyme chemotypes and wild thyme essential oil.

  16. Laser Produced X-Ray for High Resolution Lithography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Neodymium Laser Pulse ....... ....................... ... 24 Figure 11. Densitometer Trace of Al X-Ray Spectrum ........... ... 26...typical x-ray lithography experiments, 100 joule light pulses with a nanosecond pulse width (full-width-half-maximum) were produced with a neodymium -doped...34."..’’’.. ’ ’.’/ .. ".-".’ ’ ’ . > . . ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ , ’ : . r "" ’ "" " " ". . . .;" 23 The Laser -, The laser used in prior research is a neodymium

  17. Moon Technology For A New Artform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The keystone of the density slicing process is an instrument called a densitometer, which can "see" many subtle gradations not visible to the human eye. This instrument was integrated into a computerized system which analyzed the tonal density of a moon photo, assigned a color code to each of the various shades, and created on a video monitor a new picture in which each color represented a particular measurement, such as height or depth. Density slicing, applied to telescopic photos and later to close-up views acquired by unmanned spacecraft, provided the foundation for NASA's extensive study and selection of safe Apollo landing sites.

  18. An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000.

    PubMed

    Loughman, James; Scanlon, Grainne; Nolan, John M; O'Dwyer, Veronica; Beatty, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Of the antioxidants found in the human retina, only the macular carotenoid quantities can be estimated noninvasively (albeit in a collective fashion), thus facilitating study of their role in that tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate concordance between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) values recorded on a commercially available instrument, the MPS 9000, with those of an already validated heterochromatic flicker photometry instrument. Also, we assessed and compared test-retest variability for each instrument. Macular pigment optical density at 0.5 retinal eccentricity was measured using two different heterochromatic flicker photometers, the MPS 9000 and the Macular Densitometer(TM), in 39 healthy subjects. Test-retest variability was evaluated separately for each instrument by taking three readings over a 1-week period in 25 subjects. There was a moderate positive correlation for MPOD at 0.5° of retinal eccentricity between the MPS 9000 and the Macular Densitometer described by the linear equation y = 0.763x + 0.172 (r = 0.68, p < 0.001, r(2) = 0.46); however, a paired-samples t-test showed a significant difference in terms of mean values, with a bias of lower MPOD values being yielded by the MPS 9000 (t = -4.103, p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis indicated only moderate agreement between the two instruments, reflected in 95% limits of agreement of 0.1 ± 0.27. Inter-sessional repeatability, expressed as a coefficient of repeatability, ranged from 0.18 to 0.21 [mean (±SD): 0.19 (0.02)] for the MPS 9000 and from 0.11 to 0.12 [mean (±SD): 0.12 (0.01)] for the Macular Densitometer. The results demonstrate that the MPS 9000 consistently yields MPOD readings, which are lower than that found with the Macular Densitometer, and exhibits substantial test-retest variability. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  19. Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, K.C.

    1980-09-01

    A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented piping spool pieces is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Results from application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data are shown. Results of the study are used to make recommendations regarding spool piece design, instrument selection, and data reduction methods to obtain more accurate measurements of two-phase flow parameters. 13 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  20. [Ultrasound densitometry of the heel bone in the diagnosis of osseous tissue metabolic abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Iakimenko, E A; Dets', V V; Tbileli, V V

    2001-01-01

    The implication was studied of such factors as occurrence of the affliction, sex, inflammation activity, joint functional inadequacies, intake of steroids in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Determined in the above patients were RRF, SOS, BUA with the aid of the ultrasonic densitometer UBIS 5000 of the DMS (FRANCIUM) firm. Of the 42 examined patients, osteoporosis was identified in 28.5 percent, osteopenia in 45.3 percent of cases, the degree associated with RA duration, inflammation activity, function disorders of the joints favored by intensification of processes of osteal resorption in rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Sensitivity of linear CCD array based film scanners used for film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Wang Yizhen; Tomic, Nada; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2006-11-15

    Film dosimetry is commonly performed by using linear CCD array transmission optical densitometers. However, these devices suffer from a variation in response along the detector array. If not properly corrected for, this nonuniformity may lead to significant overestimations of the measured dose as one approaches regions close to the edges of the scanning region. In this note, we present measurements of the spatial response of an AGFA Arcus II document scanner used for radiochromic film dosimetry. Results and methods presented in this work can be generalized to other CCD based transmission scanners used for film dosimetry employing either radiochromic or radiographic films.

  2. An evaluation of the use of a commercial scanner to obtain experimental data produced by gas-phase electron diffraction and recorded on photographic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarset, Kirsten; Hagen, Kolbjørn; Page, Elizabeth M.; Rice, David A.

    1999-03-01

    A commercial scanner (Agfa Arcus II) has been used to retrieve electron-diffraction data from photographic plates. The data thus obtained from five different molecules has been analysed and the results compared with the original published data. Excellent agreement was observed between bond distances and amplitudes obtained from refinements on data collected from this scanner, a similar scanner and a micro-densitometer. It is planned to use the Agfa Arcus II scanner for future measurement of electron-diffraction intensity data from photographic plates.

  3. Software for genome mapping by fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Sulston, J; Mallett, F; Staden, R; Durbin, R; Horsnell, T; Coulson, A

    1988-03-01

    A genome mapping package has been developed for reading and assembling data from clones analysed by restriction enzyme fragmentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The package comprises: data entry; matching; assembly; statistical analysis; modelling. Data entry can be either manual or by a semiautomatic system based on a scanning densitometer. The primary emphasis in the analytical routines is on flexibility and interactive convenience, so that the operator has full knowledge of and control over the growing map, but a variety of automatic options are included. The package continually grows to meet the needs of the Caenorhabditis project.

  4. Method of high-precision microsampled blood and plasma mass densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of the mechanical oscillator technique for blood and plasma density measurements on samples of volumes less than 0.1 ml is examined, and a precision of 0.001 g/l is found if plasma-isodensic heparin solution and siliconized densitometers are employed. Sources of measurement errors in the density determinations include storage of plasma samples, inhomogeneity of blood samples, and density reading before adequate temperature equilibration. In tests of plasma sample storage, the best reproducibility was obtained with samples kept at 4 C. Linear correlations were found between plasma density and plasma protein concentration, blood density and blood hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte density and MCHC.

  5. The use of infrared absorption to determine density of liquid hydrogen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unland, H. D.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Kropschot, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the use of infrared absorption for determining the density of liquid hydrogen, and discussion of the feasibility of an airborne densitometer based on this concept. The results indicate that infrared absorption of liquid hydrogen is highly sensitive to the density of hydrogen, and, under the operating limitations of the equipment and experimental techniques used, the determined values proved to be repeatable to an accuracy of 2.7%. The desiderata and limitations of an in-flight density-determining device are outlined, and some of the feasibility problems are defined.

  6. Scanners for analytic print measurement: the devil in the details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeise, Eric K.; Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.; Kress, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Inexpensive and easy-to-use linear and area-array scanners have frequently substituted as colorimeters and densitometers for low-frequency (i.e., large area) hard copy image measurement. Increasingly, scanners are also being used for high spatial frequency, image microstructure measurements, which were previously reserved for high performance microdensitometers. In this paper we address characteristics of flatbed reflection scanners in the evaluation of print uniformity, geometric distortion, geometric repeatability and the influence of scanner MTF and noise on analytic measurements. Suggestions are made for the specification and evaluation of scanners to be used in print image quality standards that are being developed.

  7. Efficacy of vital home bleaching.

    PubMed

    Simon, J F; Allen, H; Woodson, R G; Eilers, A S

    1993-01-01

    The nightguard vital bleaching technique has become a very common and accepted procedure for many dental practitioners. Much has been written about the procedure's history, safety and technique; little has been done to quantify the specific color changes of teeth resulting it. This clinical study attempted to give a numerical value to the color change through the use of a light transmission densitometer. The maxillary teeth of twenty-five patients were treated as the control. A significant whitening was observed for a majority of the patients during the four-week duration of the study.

  8. Annular flow of R-134a through a high aspect ratio duct: Local void fraction, droplet velocity and droplet size measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trabold, T.A.; Kumar, R.; Vassallo, P.F.

    1998-11-01

    Local measurements were made in annular flow of R-134a through a vertical duct. Using a gamma densitometer, hot-film anemometer and laser Doppler velocimeter, profiles of void fraction, liquid droplet frequency and droplet velocity were acquired across the narrow test section dimension. Based upon these results, data for liquid droplet size were obtained and compared to previous experimental results from the literature. These data are useful for developing an improved understanding of practical two-phase refrigerant flows, and for assessment of advanced two-fluid computer codes.

  9. Recognition of crops and soils by spot density measurements of imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    Computerized techniques and methods were used to conduct preliminary soil and crop identification experiments. The soil identification experiment was conducted by making densitometer measurements on Ektachrome infrared film exposed at 14,000 feet. The density measurements were analyzed by plotting sample probability density functions, two-dimensional scatter plots, and the use of K-class I to determine the complete set of classification results for one, two, three and four features. Due to the presence of nineteen classes, crop identification experiments were more difficult to formulate. Classes of corn, fallow, harvested wheat, roadways, trees and water were classified 75 percent correct.

  10. Experiment S007: Cloud top spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiedy, F.; Wark, D. Q.; Morgan, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    During the Gemini 5 mission, 26 spectrographic observations on various cloud types were obtained using the oxygen A band (7600 A). An example of the types of spectrum and photograph involved represents a cloud in the intertropical convergence zone. Densitometer traces of the spectra of three types of clouds (high, medium, and low) are shown. It was apparent qualitatively that radiation transmission in the oxygen band for a high cloud was much greater than that for a low cloud. The results proved the feasibility of cloud altitude measurements from a spacecraft by this method.

  11. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  12. Measurement of two-component flow using ultrasonic flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, J. C.; Eghbali, D. A.; Flitton, V. E.; Anderson, D. G.

    Calibration of transit-time and Doppler ultrasonic flowmeters under two-component flow conditions has been conducted on 400 mm (16-in.) pipe. Testing covered total flows of 0.19 to 1.89 m(exp 3)/s (3000 to 30,000 gpm) and void fractions up to 40 percent. Both flowmeter types accurately measured total volumetric flow over a portion of their ranges. Pipe average void fraction, based on a three-beam gamma densitometer, was used to determine water component flow under stratified flow conditions, with similar results.

  13. Simulation of Hanford Tank 241-C-106 Waste Release into Tank 241-Y-102

    SciTech Connect

    KP Recknagle; Y Onishi

    1999-05-19

    Waste stored in Hdord single-shell Tank 241-C-106 will be sluiced with a supernatant liquid from doubIe-shell Tank 241 -AY- 102 (AY-1 02) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Har@ord Site in Eastern Washington. The resulting slurry, containing up to 30 wtYo solids, will then be transferred to Tank AY-102. During the sluicing process, it is important to know the mass of the solids being transferred into AY- 102. One of the primary instruments used to measure solids transfer is an E+ densitometer located near the periphery of the tank at riser 15S. This study was undert.dcen to assess how well a densitometer measurement could represent the total mass of soiids transferred if a uniform lateral distribution was assumed. The study evaluated the C-1 06 slurry mixing and accumulation in Tank AY- 102 for the following five cases: Case 1: 3 wt'%0 slurry in 6.4-m AY-102 waste Case 2: 3 w-t% slurry in 4.3-m AY-102 waste Case 3: 30 wtYo slurry in 6.4-m AY-102 waste Case 4: 30 wt% slurry in 4.3-m AY-102 waste Case 5: 30 wt% slurry in 5. O-m AY-102 waste. The tirne-dependent, three-dimensional, TEMPEST computer code was used to simulate solid deposition and accumulation during the injection of the C-106 slurry into AY-102 through four injection nozzles. The TEMPEST computer code was applied previously to other Hanford tanks, AP-102, SY-102, AZ-101, SY-101, AY-102, and C-106, to model tank waste mixing with rotating pump jets, gas rollover events, waste transfer from one tank to another, and pump-out retrieval of the sluiced waste. The model results indicate that the solid depth accumulated at the densitometer is within 5% of the average depth accumulation. Thus the reading of the densitometer is expected to represent the total mass of the transferred solids reasonably well.

  14. Applications of densitometry in remote sensing learning experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of densitometry in remote sensing courses is provided. The use of a densitometer provides the student with a type of hands on experience in which direct manipulation of image products is involved, and the procedures are easily and quickly learned facilitating the collection and analysis of quantitative data on the radiometric properties of aerial photographs and satellite images. These data can then be used for examining relationships between image tones or colors and ground conditions. Suggestions regarding the selection of equipment and imagery are made.

  15. Slurry-based fabrication of chopped fiberglass composite preforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.A.; Johnson, R.W.; Landon, M.D.; Stoots, C.M.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    A water-based process for the fabrication of chopped fiberglass preforms is being developed in collaboration with the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC) and The Budd Company. This slurry process uses hydraulic pressure to form highly compacted fiberglass preforms on contoured, perforated metal screens. The preforms will be used in the development of structural automotive composites. A key objective is to produce preforms having uniform areal density. Computational simulation of variable open area screens, and areal density mapping using a gamma densitometer are discussed.

  16. The curvature of sensitometric curves for Kodak XV-2 film irradiated with photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H

    2006-07-01

    Sensitometric curves of Kodak XV-2 film, obtained in a time period of ten years with various types of equipment, have been analyzed both for photon and electron beams. The sensitometric slope in the dataset varies more than a factor of 2, which is attributed mainly to variations in developer conditions. In the literature, the single hit equation has been proposed as a model for the sensitometric curve, as with the parameters of the sensitivity and maximum optical density. In this work, the single hit equation has been translated into a polynomial like function as with the parameters of the sensitometric slope and curvature. The model has been applied to fit the sensitometric data. If the dataset is fitted for each single sensitometric curve separately, a large variation is observed for both fit parameters. When sensitometric curves are fitted simultaneously it appears that all curves can be fitted adequately with a sensitometric curvature that is related to the sensitometric slope. When fitting each curve separately, apparently measurement uncertainty hides this relation. This relation appears to be dependent only on the type of densitometer used. No significant differences between beam energies or beam modalities are observed. Using the intrinsic relation between slope and curvature in fitting sensitometric data, e.g., for pretreatment verification of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, will increase the accuracy of the sensitometric curve. A calibration at a single dose point, together with a predetermined densitometer-dependent parameter ODmax will be adequate to find the actual relation between optical density and dose.

  17. Bone and body composition measurements of small subjects: discrepancies from software for fan-beam dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Koo, Winston W K; Hammami, Mouhanad; Shypailo, Roman J; Ellis, Kenneth J

    2004-12-01

    A piglet model was used to determine the variations in measurements from different software algorithms used in the same type of dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments from the same manufacturer. Forty-one piglets (6190 +/- 5856g, mean +/- SD) were scanned in duplicate with a fan-beam densitometer (Hologic QDR4500A, Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA) in the infant whole body scan mode. The same scans were analyzed with two software versions: vKH6 (validated with carcass chemical measurement) and v11.2 (commercial software from the same densitometer manufacturer). All analysis values were highly correlated (r = 0.90 to 1.00) and DXA values for total weights were almost identical. However, v11.2 results consistently overestimated bone mineral content (49.3 +/- 23.4%, mean +/- SD), bone area (21.1 +/- 8.2%), bone mineral density (24.1 +/- 22.2%), and fat mass (160.9 +/- 71.7%) but underestimated lean mass (-14.3 +/- 5.5%) when compared to the values from vKH6. Differences between software versions increased with heavier piglets. The commercial software for fan-beam DXA measurement of piglets, matched for the size of human infants and young children, has major inaccuracies for bone mineral and body composition that become further exaggerated with increasing weight of the subject.

  18. Use of color, color infrared, black and white films, and video systems in detecting health, stress, and disease in vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.

    1991-02-01

    Ground and aerial experiments were conducted with color (NC) color infrared (CIR) and black and white film and video systems to compare the limitations! advantages of each method of image acquisition with photographs of natural vegetation including cypress stands wetlands and cultivated crops such as: tomatoes cucumbers and citrus. Image analysis with a Linear Measuring System (LMS) and a scanning densitometer were used to quantify healthy stressed and diseased foliage!canopy of each crop for comparisons with visual estimates. videography and photography were useful in delineating topographic features and location of vegetation. The NC video systems yielded images that distinctly separated healthy and dying foliage but did not compare with the CIR video or photography in outlining distinct areas of stress and disease. Aerial photography provided a synoptic view of the fields and cypress stands not otherwise possible. CIR images were easier to process with the LMS than NC video or photographic frames. CIR video and photographic systems produced clearer differences between healthy and stressed foliage. Spectral curves produced with the scanning densitometer correlated well with visual grading of health and stress. . 2.

  19. The measurements of ultrasound parameters on calcaneus by two-sided interrogation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pei-Jarn; Chen, Tainsong; Lu, Ming-Chang; Yao, Wei-Jen

    2005-06-01

    Recently, ultrasound techniques have become an important alternative in the assessment of osteoporosis. The speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) on calcaneus are commonly used in an ultrasound densitometer for osteoporosis evaluation. However, the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters provided by a densitometer using most commercial ultrasound instruments are based on the assumption of a fixed bone thickness. Information on bone thickness is a critical factor for accurate estimation of SOS through conventional approaches; yet, the thickness of bone tissue is not available through in vivo measurements and it is almost impossible to obtain the thickness of bone tissue via conventional approaches. Therefore, the SOS measurements will be incorrect. The purpose of this work is to develop a two-sided interrogation technique for the SOS measurements that is less susceptible to bone thickness. The results show that this proposed technique can obtain a better SOS estimation on bone tissue. Using bone phantoms that mimic actual tissue, the validity of the approach is confirmed with measurements showing high accuracy (>99%) and low standard deviation (<0.5%). Finally, the measurements of 14 healthy subjects are also reported. The results show that this technique can provide the bone thickness information to reduce the SOS estimation errors compared with the fixed bone thickness assumption.

  20. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with /sup 3/H-GDP binding

    SciTech Connect

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial /sup 3/H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27/sup 0/C although /sup 3/H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although /sup 3/H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria.

  1. CZT detector for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wear, James; Buchholz, Michael; Payne, Randall K.; Gorsuch, Darrell; Bisek, Joseph; Ergun, David L.; Grosholz, Joe; Falk, Ron

    2000-12-01

    A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector has been developed for a bone densitometer that uses dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to determine bone mineral density in vivo. A linear array of 16 discrete CZT detectors is used with a narrow fan-shaped x-ray beam to scan the patient. Each detector is 3 mm thick and 7 mm by 3 mm in area and has simple planar contacts. The x-ray beam has two broad energy lobes with effective energies of approximately 38 keV and approximately 65 keV. The energy sensitivity of the CZT detectors allows discrimination between low and high energy x-rays. Using DEXA, the relative difference in these two count rates permits a quantitative measurement of the real densities of bone mineral and soft tissue. The detectors demonstrate good performance characteristics and stable operation in a clinical environment. This paper discusses the suitability of CZT for use in DEXA applications and describes its successful implementation and performance in this bone densitometer.

  2. Estimation of aroma glycosides of nutmeg and their changes during radiation processing.

    PubMed

    Ananthakumar, Arul; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2006-03-10

    Glycosidically bound volatile compounds of nutmeg were identified as glyco-conjugates of p-cymene-7-ol, eugenol, methoxyeugenol and alpha-terpineol. Using phenyl-beta-glucoside as external standard the contents of these glycosidic precursors were estimated based on the measurement of TLC spot density on a densitometer. p-Cymene-7-ol rutinoside was the major aroma glycoside (3.15 mg/100 g), followed by glucosides of methoxyeugenol (0.61 mg/100 g), eugenol (0.50 mg/100 g) and alpha-terpineol (0.51 mg/100 g). A dose-dependent breakdown of these glycosidic precursors was observed during gamma-radiation processing. Among the four glycosides, alpha-terpineol glucoside was the most sensitive to radiation while p-cymene-7-ol rutinoside was the least sensitive. A reduction in the content of total glycosides by almost 50% was noted at a dose of 5kGy. Partitioning of aroma glycoside into n-butanol from aqueous extracts was found to result in rapid isolation of aroma glycosides, avoiding time consuming pre-purification on Amberlite XAD-2 column. A routine method based on extraction into n-butanol and subsequent quantification of post-irradiation changes in aroma glycosides on a TLC plate using a densitometer is proposed.

  3. NOTE: Visible absorption properties of radiation exposed XR type-T radiochromic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butson, Martin J.; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2004-10-01

    The visible absorption spectra of Gafchromic XR type-T radiochromic film have been investigated to analyse the dosimetry characteristics of the film with visible light densitometers. Common densitometers can use photo-spectrometry, fluorescent light (broad-band visible), helium neon (632 nm), light emitting diode (LED) or other specific bandwidth spectra. The visible absorption spectra of this film when exposed to photon radiation show peaks at 676 nm and 618 nm at 2 Gy absorbed doses which shift to slightly lower wavelengths (662 nm and 612 nm at 8 Gy absorbed dose) at higher doses. This is similar to previous models of Gafchromic film such as MD-55-2 and HS but XR type-T also includes a large absorption at lower visible wavelengths due to 'yellow' dyes placed within the film to aid with visible recognition of the film exposure level. The yellow dye band pass is produced at approximately 520 nm to 550 nm and absorbs wavelengths lower than this value within the visible spectrum. This accounts for the colour change from yellow to brown through the added absorption in the red wavelengths with radiation exposure. The film produces a relatively high dose sensitivity with up to 0.25 OD units per Gy change at 672 nm at 100 kVp x-ray energy. Variations in dose sensitivity can be achieved by varying wavelength analysis.

  4. Measurement of cardiac output by earpiece dye-dilution method with automatic calibration of dye concentration.

    PubMed

    Katori, R; Hayashi, T; Kanamasa, K; Ishikawa, K

    1977-05-01

    A non-invasive method for measuring cardiac output by an earpiece dye densitometer was proposed. The densitometer is dichromatic and has an air capsule to make subject's ear bloodless by inflation, so that it can calibrate indocyanine green dye concentration without blood sampling. Duplicate measurements of cardiac output showed a good agreement in 40 cases (r = 0.97, standard deviation (S.D.) = 8.9%), which was comparable to the result of the cuvette method (r = 0.98, S.D. = 8.1%). Simultaneous measurements of cardiac output by the earpiece method (x) and the standard cuvette method (y) revealed a good agreement (r = 0.91, y = 0.96x+0.34, S.D. = 16.4%) in 52 measurements of 25 cases. A similarly good correlation was obtained between the two methods during ergometer exercise in supine position in 5 cases. These suggest that this earpiece dye-dilution method is reliable for cardiac output measurement and advantageous for clinical use because of non-invasive technique.

  5. Ultramicro-analysis by use of light-scanning photoacoustic densitometry for electrophoresed protein in human hair.

    PubMed

    Fukami, T; Uchiyama, K; Yoshimura, Y; Watanabe, T; Nakazawa, H

    1996-06-15

    A technique was developed for the ultramicro-analysis of proteins electrophoresed by Laemmli's method using a light-scanning photoacoustic densitometer. After electrophoresis, the proteins were blotted on a nitrocellulose membrane filter and colored by the avidin-biotin complex method. This filter was then measured using a photoacoustic densitometer. The optimal blotting time was 150 min. The relative standard deviation of four measurements was 3.89% for 200 ng bovine serum albumin (BSA). The limits of detection were 2.3, 0.69, 4.4, and 2.9 ng (S/N = 3) for BSA, ovalbumin, carbonic anhydrase, and alpha-Lactoalbum respectively. Proteins eluted from hair by various harmful agents, such as a surfactant and UV irradiation, were analyzed by the present method. Using 2-mercaptoethanol, the molecular weights of proteins in hair were in the range of 14,000-64,000. Maximal elution of protein was obtained at pH 8. More protein was eluted under alkaline conditions than under acidic conditions. A protein of Mr 68,000 was eluted from hair by oxidative treatment with either UV irradiation or sodium bromate.

  6. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-02-17

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  7. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components

    PubMed Central

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-01-01

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed. PMID:25083118

  8. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-02-01

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  9. Sounding rocket flight report: MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP 9 paylaod included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe (Spencer, Brace, and Carignan, 1962), a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch in January 1971. A general description of the payload kinematics, orientation analysis, and the technique for the reduction and analysis of the data is given.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  11. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  12. Prevalence of low bone health using quantitative ultrasound in Indian women aged 41-60 years: Its association with nutrition and other related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chawla, Jasmine Kaur; Gupta, Swati; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of low bone health conditions and assess associated nutritional and other risk factors in Indian women aged 41-60 years. A total of 1,911 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone health was assessed using an Omnisense multisite quantitative ultrasound bone densitometer on two sites (radius and tibia). Crude prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be 30.09% and 19.89%, respectively. The Indian women were deficient in a majority of nutrients. Postmenopause, hysterectomy, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypertension, low physical activity, low sun exposure, high stress levels, and low calcium levels were found to be independent risk factors of low bone health.

  13. Bubble behaviour and mean diameter in subcooled flow boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitoun, O.; Shoukri, M.

    1995-09-01

    Bubble behaviour and mean bubble diameter in subcooled upward flow boiling in a vertical annular channel were investigated under low pressure and mass flux conditions. A high speed video system was used to visualize the subcooled flow boiling phenomenon. The high speed photographic results indicated that, contrary to the common understanding, bubbles tend to detach from the heating surface upstream of the net vapour generation point. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the mean bubble diameter along the subcooled flow boiling region. Data on the axial area-averaged void fraction distributions were also obtained using a single beam gamma densitometer. Effects of the liquid subcooling, applied heat flux and mass flux on the mean bubble size were investigated. A correlation for the mean bubble diameter as a function of the local subcooling, heat flux and mass flux was obtained.

  14. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  15. Analysis of Monosodium l-Glutamate in Food Products by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Veni N; Karthika, D; Surya, Devi M; Rubini, Mf; Vishalini, M; Pradeepa, Yj

    2010-07-01

    A simple, fast, specific, and precise high-performance thin layer chromatography method has been developed for the estimation of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) in food products. Aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 GF(254)were used as stationary phase and a mixture of methanol-chloroform-formic acid in the ratio 5:5:1 (v/v) as mobile phase. Quantification was carried out by postchromatographic derivatization using 1% ninhydrin solution, and the developed spots were scanned by using a densitometer in absorbance mode at 485 nM. The R(f)value of MSG was 0.64. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by the recovery studies. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 400-1000 nG.

  16. Three-energy gamma-ray absorptiometer (TEGA) for nondestructive assay of plutonium and uranium in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Aparo, M.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental approach for the nondestructive characterization of plutonium and uranium solutions is presented. The technique relies on the transmission of photons of three different properly chosen energies, and allows an independent and simultaneous determination of plutonium and uranium by the different absorption of the two elements in the range of K-edge energies. The performances achievable have been evaluated through measurement of a set of solutions using the hardware of the compact K-edge densitometer. The plutonium and uranium concentrations ranged from 50 to 150 g/l. In this concentration range, the relative precision is below 3.0% for uranium assay and below 6% for plutonium assay. Further improvements of the performances of the technique are discussed. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Recent development of radiation measurement instrument for industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Sueki; Ohmori, Koichi; Mito, Yoshio; Tanoue, Toshiya; Yano, Shigeki; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Kanda, Shigenobu

    2001-02-01

    Recently, computer imaging technology has developed very high-quality image and fast processing time. X-rays have been used for many purposes such as medical diagnosis and analyzing the structure of industrial materials. However, as X-rays are hazardous to the human body, it is desirable to reduce its exposed dose to a minimum. For this purpose, it is necessary to use a semiconductor radiation detector with a high efficiency for X-rays. We have developed photon-counting CdTe array detector system for medical and industrial use. The bone densitometer for Dual Energy X-ray Absorptometry (DEXA) has been developed to make diagnosis of osteoporosis, and it is developed to analyze a material element for industrial use. Recently, we have developed a monochromatic X-ray CT using a 256 ch CdTe array detector. We found that the array detector systems are very useful for medical and industrial applications.

  18. The limitation of DEXA analysis for bone mass determination in mice.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Glenn R; Luczak, Mirosław; Włodarski, Krzysztof H

    2004-01-01

    An increase in femoral and tibio/fibular bone mass following periosteal membrane stimulation by Moloney sarcoma virus inoculation into thigh muscles of mice was measured in situ on formalin fixed excised hind limbs using a Hologic 4500A Fan Beam X-ray bone densitometer adapted for small bone samples. These results were verified by measurements of constant dry bone mass of the same bones liberated from soft limb tissues by NaOH hydrolysis. There was no consistent data correlation found between the DEXA scan and dry bone mass evaluations. It is concluded that the sensitivity of the DEXA measurement is unsuitable when assessing very small bone samples, weighing merely 20-30 mg.

  19. Blowdown heat transfer separate-effects program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Craddick, W.G.; Anklam, T.M.; Bohanan, R.E.; Felde, D.K.; Flanders, R.M.; Hagar, R.C.; Hyman, C.R.; Mailen, G.S.; Mullins, C.B.; Ott, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    Six additional bundle uncovery/recovery tests were performed in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility during January, bringing the total number of these tests to eight. Data taken during the tests were found to be contaminated by numerous spurious spikes. Work to remove the spurious spikes is under way. Posttest analysis of the tests is approx.20% completed. The recovery portion of one of the tests will be analyzed by COBRA/TRAC, currently being developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). Work to debug the code for this application is in progress at PNL. The uncovery/recovery tests apparently caused damage to the 0-rings that form part of the loop pressure boundary. Refurbishment of the 0-ring seal system is being performed concurrently with scheduled loop modifications that include installation of ten in-bundle differential pressure instruments. Design, procurement, and fabrication of the in-bundle gamma densitometer system are continuing on schedule.

  20. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar and planetary exploration has required the development of new techniques of cartographic portrayal. Conventional photo-interpretive methods employing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer-processed satellite television images. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The portrayal of tonal densities in a relief illustration is performed using a unique airbrush technique derived from hill-shading of contour maps. The control of tone and line quality is essential because the mid-gray to dark tone densities must be finalized prior to the addition of highlights to the drawing. This is done with an electric eraser until the drawing is completed. The drawing density is controlled with a reflectance-reading densitometer to meet certain density guidelines. The versatility of planetary photo-interpretive methods for airbrushed map portrayals is demonstrated by the application of these techniques to the synthesis of nonrelief data.

  1. Effects of detector threshold, location of the sun, and flight altitude upon spectral variations in remote sensing over water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Photographic flights with Hasselblad cameras were flown on August 28, 1975, at altitudes from 2.66 and 5.3 kilometers over an ocean acid waste dump site while acid dumping was in progress. Repeated flights resulted in broadband spectral radiance data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles that varied from 26 to 48 degrees, and at all sun azimuth angles over the range of off-nadir angles from 0 to 35 degrees. From film densitometer data, it is shown that before spectral variations in remotely sensed data can be used to quantify substances in water, the longer wavelength data must be above the detection level of the detector, radiance data between + or - 45 degrees in the direction of the sun must be avoided, and off-nadir camera correction factors must be applied to the observed radiance data.

  2. The use of near-infrared photography for biodegradable pollution monitoring of tidal rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.; Lear, D. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    On October 2, 1972, a pattern of chlorophyll a containing phytoplankton (algae) was detected from 3-km altitude in a series of near-infrared photographs of the Potomac River 'Salt Wedge Area.' Densitometer traces over the film images, related to in situ measurements of chlorophyll a concentrations that varied from 4 to more than 3000 micrograms/liter, revealed a phytoplankton 'bloom' threshold in the near infrared between the concentration of 34 and 51 micrograms/liter. The photography also revealed bottom features through two meters of water and made it possible to integrate chlorophyll a concentrations over a 16 sq km area to demonstrate this remote sensing technique for biodegradable pollution monitoring.

  3. The utilization of false color aerial photography for macrophyte biomass estimation in the Oosterschelde (the Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulstee, C.; Vanstokkom, H.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between the biomass of sea grass and seaweed samples in a sidebranch of the Oosterschelde delta (Netherlands) and density ratios of this area on color infrared aerial photographs was investigated. As the Oosterschelde will become more divided from the North Sea after pier dam completion, an increase of macrophytes is expected. In an area where the weeds Ulva, Cheatomorpha, Entermorpha, Cladophora, Fucus vesuculosis, and the grasses Zostera noltii and Zostera marina are found, 53 biomass samples of a 0.054 sq m surface each were collected. The relation between covering degree and biomass was estimated. Using a transmission-densitometer adjusted to 3 to 1 mm, densities on 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scale photographs were measured. A gage line was determined in a density-biomass diagram. The method is shown to be useful for an efficient, accurate biomass determination in the Oosterschelde.

  4. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Santa Barbara Channel the effect of the California and the Anacapa Currents are clearly seen in image 1109-18073M. The large triangular shaped lobe of suspended particulate matter that stretches almost to Anacapa Island from the Ventura River area is disrupted approximately midchannel by the east-moving Anacapa Current. In the Point Conception area a lobe of suspended material approximately 20 miles long can be seen moving eastward as a result of the California Current. In the San Francisco Bay area the major results include the detection and delineation of the San Francisco Bay, the location and vector of suspended sediment in the San Francisco Bay, and the ability to differentiate morphologic units within the San Francisco Bay tidelands. Several densitometer line traces seaward of the Golden Gate Bridge on image 1075-18173-4 outline the San Francisco Bay and give evidence of good water penetration.

  5. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100° C, 1300° C and 1500° C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2° C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  6. The earth resources technology satellite - Photographic facility quality control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the quality control program used in the photographic laboratory of the NASA-ERTS Ground Data Handling System. The product response variables measured include tone reproduction, resolution, and low spatial frequency noise. In addition to product response variables, certain performance parameters of the laboratory printers and processors are frequently measured in order to produce consistent duplications of archival photography. A description is given of the operation and use of a densitometer/computer interface which is used to calculate three tone reproduction response variables - film speed, average gradient, and base plus fog density. This procedure eliminates the need for any hand plotting of D log E curves to manually determine response variables.

  7. Stiles—Crawford effect and the bleaching of cone pigments

    PubMed Central

    Coble, J. R.; Rushton, W. A. H.

    1971-01-01

    1. The efficiency of light entering the eye through various points in the pupil (Stiles—Crawford effect) was studied using two criteria: (a) visual brightness judged by flicker fusion and (b) the rate of cone pigment bleaching measured by reflexion densitometry. 2. Both measurements were made in the same apparatus with the same geometry of presentation and both gave the same Stiles—Crawford effect. 3. This suggests that the densitometer measures pigment deep in the outer segments of the cones where light is absorbed for vision. 4. Foveal cones seem all to point in the same direction, since the fraction of pigment bleached by light entering the pupil at any one point is the same when measured by light entering anywhere. PMID:5571926

  8. LANDSAT applications to wetlands classification in the upper Mississippi River Valley. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A 25% improvement in average classification accuracy was realized by processing double-date vs. single-date data. Under the spectrally and spatially complex site conditions characterizing the geographical area used, further improvement in wetland classification accuracy is apparently precluded by the spectral and spatial resolution restrictions of the LANDSAT MSS. Full scene analysis of scanning densitometer data extracted from scale infrared photography failed to permit discrimination of many wetland and nonwetland cover types. When classification of photographic data was limited to wetland areas only, much more detailed and accurate classification could be made. The integration of conventional image interpretation (to simply delineate wetland boundaries) and machine assisted classification (to discriminate among cover types present within the wetland areas) appears to warrant further research to study the feasibility and cost of extending this methodology over a large area using LANDSAT and/or small scale photography.

  9. The use of near-infrared photography for biodegradable pollution monitoring of tidal rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.; Lear, D. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    On October 2, 1972, a pattern of chlorophyll a containing phytoplankton (algae) was detected from 3-km altitude in a series of near-infrared photographs of the Potomac River 'Salt Wedge Area.' Densitometer traces over the film images, related to in situ measurements of chlorophyll a concentrations that varied from 4 to more than 3000 micrograms/liter, revealed a phytoplankton 'bloom' threshold in the near infrared between the concentration of 34 and 51 micrograms/liter. The photography also revealed bottom features through two meters of water and made it possible to integrate chlorophyll a concentrations over a 16 sq km area to demonstrate this remote sensing technique for biodegradable pollution monitoring.

  10. An Evaluation of Four Experimental Methods for Measuring Mean Properties of a Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nothwang, George J

    1957-01-01

    Surveys were made through a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate by means of a pitot probe, an x-ray densitometer, and hot-wire and cold-wire probes. Results from these surveys were analyzed to determine (a) the reliability of the basic data and hence the methods by which they were obtained, and (b) how well the actual distributions of properties in the boundary layer compare with those commonly assumed in semiempirical and theoretical analyses. All surveys were made at the same longitudinal station on the flat plate. The tests were conducted in a an 8- by 8-inch supersonic nozzle. The free-stream Mach number was 3.03 and the Reynolds number was approximately 210,000 based on boundary-layer thickness.

  11. Comparison of conventional and digital radiography for radiometric differentiation of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Baksi, B Güniz; Ermis, R Banu

    2007-10-01

    To test the efficacy of conventional radiometry with indirect digital image analysis in the assessment of the relative radiopacity of dental cements used as liners or bases compared to human enamel and dentin. Disks of 15 different dental cements, 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were exposed to radiation together with 2-mm-thick disks of enamel and dentin and an aluminum step wedge. Density was evaluated by digital transmission densitometry and with the histogram function of an image analysis program following digitization of the radiographs with a flatbed scanner. A higher number of dental cements were discriminated from both dentin and enamel with conventional radiographic densitometer. All the cements examined, except Ionoseal (Voco) and Ionobond (Voco), were more radiopaque than dentin. With both methods, Chelon-Silver (3M ESPE) had the highest radiopacity and glass-ionomer cements the lowest. Radiodensity of dental cements can be differentiated with a high probability with the conventional radiometric method.

  12. Remote sensing of effects of land-use practices on water quality. [environmental surveys using Landsat satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Research efforts are presented for the use of remote sensing in environmental surveys in Kentucky. Ground truth parameters were established that represent the vegetative cover of disturbed and undisturbed watersheds in the Cumberland Plateau of eastern Kentucky. Several water quality parameters were monitored of the watersheds utilized in the establishment of ground truth data. The capabilities of multistage-multispectral aerial photography and satellite imagery were evaluated in detecting various land use practices. The use of photographic signatures of known land use areas utilizing manually-operated spot densitometers was studied. The correlation of imagery signature data to water quality data was examined. Potential water quality predictions were developed from forested and nonforested watersheds based upon the above correlations. The cost effectiveness of predicting water quality values was evaluated using multistage and satellite imagery sampling techniques.

  13. NOTE: Use of a blood glucose meter for radiochromic film analysis in blood irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2002-10-01

    The use of a diabetic blood glucose meter for radiochromic film dosimetry in blood irradiation using x-ray beams on a medical linear accelerator has been investigated. The glucose meter provides optical density analysis in the visible and infrared region using a reflectance measurement technique. By comparing the 'blood sugar' level output with standard calibration gafchromic films a calibration curve is produced for quantitative analysis. Results show that a reproducible dose to meter output curve can be fitted using a second order polynomial function and that blood irradiation doses in vitro were measured to within 7.9% mean error (as compared to ionization chamber results) using the blood glucose meter. This level of accuracy falls below that measured with a standard densitometer (4.3%) however, results show that the blood glucose meter, which would be available in any haematology department, produces an adequate measure of gafchromic film optical density for blood irradiation dosimetry.

  14. The measurement of capsule heat transfer gaps using neutron radiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaler, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    The use of neutron radiographs to determine dimensional changes of heat transfer gaps in cylindrical nuclear fueled capsules is described. A method was developed which involves scanning a very fine grained neutron radiograph negative with a recording microdensitometer. The output of the densitometer is recorded on graph paper and the heat transfer gap is plotted as a well-defined optical density change. Calibration of the recording microdensitometer ratio arms permits measurements to be made of the heat transfer optical density change from the microdensitometer trace. Total heat transfer gaps, measured by this method, agree with the physical measurements within plus or minus 0.005 cm over a range of gaps from 0.061 to 0.178 cm.

  15. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-05-20

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 {mu}m measurements can be recorded with less than {+-}5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  16. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This report contains the techniques used for enhancing and analyzing nearshore processes from ERTS-1 and aircraft data. Four California nearshore sites are used as test cells including the San Francisco area, Monterey Bay, Santa Barbara Channel, and Los Angeles area. Techniques used for analyzing the test cells included direct photographic processing, computer compatible tape gain change enhancement, discrete point density analysis and plotting, and densitometer enhancement. Using these methods, it is possible to measure the seaward extent of the suspended sediment transport and to differentiate sediment levels within the individual sediment lobes. The movement of riverine discharged suspensates and coastal sediments by currents was an intricate part of the sediment transport analysis. The larger estuaries in the test cell areas were also studied for flushing characteristics.

  17. Integrated X-ray detection system for determination of nuclear material concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Sung-Woo Kwak; Jung-Ki Shin; Seunghoon Park

    2015-07-01

    An integrated system of X-ray Absorption Spectrometry (XAS), also called L-edge densitometry for uranium (LED) and X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is designed using Monte Carlo simulation for determining concentration of uranium and minor actinides for safeguard. The system can be useful to determination uranium and minor actinide, such as plutonium, neptunium, and etc., concurrently. The equipment is compact compared to the K-edge densitometer with high purity germanium detector which needs liquid nitrogen cooling since a low energy X-ray source is used. The system has been validated from simulation and analysis of the transmitted and reflected spectrum. The concentrations of nuclear material samples are obtained from this study. (authors)

  18. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The microdensitometer will be used to analyze data acquired by ERTS-1 imagery. The classification programs and software packages have been acquired and are being prepared for use with the information as it is received. Photo and digital tapes have been acquired for coverage of virtually 100 percent of the test site areas. These areas are located in South Dakota, Idaho, Missouri, and Kansas. Hass 70mm color infrared, infrared, black and white high altitude aerial photography of the test sites is available. Collection of ground truth for updating the data base has been completed and a computer program written to count the number of fields and give total acres by size group for the segments in each test site. Results are given of data analysis performed on digitized data from densitometer measurements of fields of corn, sugar, beets, and alfalfa in Kansas.

  19. Analysis of compounds with phytoestrogenic activity in dietary supplements with use of HPTLC-densitometry method.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Strzemski, Maciej; Rokicka, Kamila; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Soy (Glycine max L., Fabaceae) and soy products are becoming more popular because of their low toxicity and therapeutic effects. Soy possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties, however, the most important is its estrogenic activity associated with occurrence of phytoestrogens. Isoflavones with phytoestrogenic effects were determined in four commercially available soya formulations. Analyses were performed with the use of high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with densitometry. The compounds were extracted, hydrolyzed in order to obtain aglycone forms and separated on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with the use of mobile phase consisting of chloroform--ethyl acetate--formic acid 4:6:0.1 (v/v/v). After drying, the spots on the plates were determined in absorbance/reflectance mode at a wavelength of 260 nm using a computer-controlled densitometer Desaga CD 60.

  20. Thermal indicating paints for ammunition health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, James L., III; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-04-01

    Thermochromic semiconductive polymers that change color in response to external stimuli, such as heat and radiation, can be utilized to monitor the temperature range and elapsed time profiles of stored and prepositioned munitions. These polymers are being tailored to create paints and coatings that will alert Army logistic staff of dangerous temperature exposures. Irreversible indication via color change in multiple thermal bands, 145 F - 164 F (63o-73°C), 165 F - 184 F (74° - 84° C) and over 185 F (>85°C) are possible with these thermochromic polymers. The resulting active coating can be visually inspected to determine if safe temperatures were exceeded. More detailed information, including cumulative time of exposure in certain temperature bands through changes in optical chromaticity describing the vividness or dullness of a color, can be assessed using a hand-held optical densitometer.

  1. Monitoring the growth or decline of vegetation on mine dumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbertson, B. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following signficant results. It was established that particular mine dumps throughout the entire test area can be detected and identified. It was also established that patterns of vegetative growth on the mine dumps can be recognized from a simple visual analysis of photographic images. Because vegetation tends to occur in patches on many mine dumps, it is unsatisfactory to classify complete dumps into categories of percentage vegetative cover. A more desirable approach is to classify the patches of vegetation themselves. The coarse resolution of conventional densitometers restricts the accuracy of this procedure, and consequently a direct analysis of ERTS CCT's is preferred. A set of computer programs was written to perform the data reading and manipulating functions required for basic CCT analysis.

  2. Differences by sex and handedness in right and left femur bone mineral densities.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ali; Dane, Senol; Seven, Bedri; Akar, Sedat; Yildirim, Serap

    2009-12-01

    Left-handedness was reported to be a risk factor for accident-related injuries, head injuries, traumatic brain injuries, sport-related injuries, and bone breaks and fractures. As decreased bone mineral density is a good marker of bone fractures, the femoral bone mineral densities of normal left-handed university students were compared with those of right-handed students. Hand preference of 66 men and 47 women was assessed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measures of bone mineral density with a Hologic QDR-4500W (S/N 48403) densitometer showed bone mineral densities of both right and left proximal femur regions were higher in right-handed than in left-handed students. These results are consistent with the claim that left-handed participants had higher trauma and injury risk. Also, these results may explain the sex-related differences by handedness for susceptibility in accident-related injuries such as bone fractures.

  3. PC-Based Process Distribution to Solve Iterative Monte Carlo Simulations in Physical Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, A.; Sánchez-Doblado, F.; Perucha, M.; Rincón, M.; Arrans, R.; Bernal, C.; Carrasco, E.

    A distribution model to simulate physical dosimetry measurements with Monte Carlo (MC) techniques has been developed. This approach is indicated to solve the simulations where there are continuous changes of measurement conditions (and hence of the input parameters) such as a TPR curve or the estimation of the resolution limit of an optical densitometer in the case of small field profiles. As a comparison, a high resolution scan for narrow beams with no iterative process is presented. The model has been installed on a network PCs without any resident software. The only requirement for these PCs has been a small and temporal Linux partition in the hard disks and to be connecting by the net with our server PC.

  4. [Differential proteins analysis among human nasal inverted papilloma and nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-shu; Jin, Sheng; Zhang, Qiu-hang; Zhang, Man

    2010-04-01

    Proteomics-based approach was applied to analyze and compare the difference of proteins among human nasal inverted papilloma (NIP), nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa, in order to screen different proteins as marker. The total proteins of NIP, nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Protein image obtained by using the gel of Calibrated GS-800 Densitometer system, and determined different protein spots. Six differential proteins between NIP and nasal polyp tissue were identified, which were galectin-1, Manganese-superoxide dismutase, galectin-7, trichostatin A, prohibitin and transferring. All of them were increased in NIP. Six differential proteins were possibly involved in NIP, which provided a new way for discriminating NIP from nasal polyposis. The data would be good for the establishment of NIP protein 2-DE map.

  5. Application of reconstructive tomography to the measurement of density distribution in two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fincke, J.R.; Berggren, M.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of average density and density distribution in multiphase flows. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model independent method of obtaining flow field density information. The unique features of interest in application of a practical tomographic densitometer system are the limited number of data values and the correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid (0.5 by 0.5 cm). These features were studied both experimentally, through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically, through computer generation of simulated data. Prototypical data were taken on phantoms constructed of Plexiglas and laminated Plexiglas, wood, and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data were compared with reconstructions from the simulated data.

  6. Computed tomographic and densitometric analysis of tibiotarsal bone mineral density and content in postnatal Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) as influenced by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Charuta, A; Cooper, R G

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density BMD and content BMC were analysed in the tibiotarsal bones of ducks in the postnatal development as influenced by age and sex. One hundred birds from the nesting till the slaughtering maturity were included in the experiment. The analysis was conducted using a densitometer, Norland - Excell Plus and pQCT computed tomography, XCT Research SA Plus. The statistical analysis was conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (age) and the U-Mann -Withney test (sex). All calculations were performed in Statistica 9.0 (StatSoft, Inc. Tulsa, USA), at P < or = 0.05. Two-factor analysis of variance ANOVA was applied and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. The densitometer research showed that BMD and BMC increased in the postnatal development for both sexes. The volumetric bone mineral density vBMD analysis using computed tomography showed that volumetric bone mineral density vBMD of the middle of the diaphyses in situ gradually attenuated during the postnatal development both in males and females, i.e. from 620 mg/cm3 (2 wk) to 500 mg/cm3 (8 wk). The biggest vBMD loss was observed in the diaphyses of females in 4 and 6 wk (r = -0.63 and r = -0.79; P > or = 0.05). The BMC decrease was observed in the proximal metaphyses between 4 and 6 wk for both sexes, r = -0.52 (males), r = -0.53 (females); P < or = 0.05. The gradual loss may be the cause of deformities and fractures of the tibiotarsal bones observed from 4 wk in particular bone sections of both sexes. The achieved results may constitute a helpful source of information for water poultry breeders to prevent limb diseases.

  7. Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis. First quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The PFTNA experimental arrangement effectively utilizes in its measurements a given volume of coal, irrespective of the amount of coal contained in it. Coal shipped from the mines to coal preparation plants and coal-fired power plants, varies in size between 7.5 cm and dust. Thus, the measured volume can contain different amounts of coal depending on the size and the gravity settling of the measured coal sample. To compensate for changes in coal density within the measured coal volume, a gamma ray based densitometer was designed, utilizing the transmission through coal of a 662 keV {sup 137}Cs gamma ray. A narrowly collimated {sup 137}Cs source is placed on the one side of the coal sample, and the transmitted gamma rays are detected with a collimated 5.1cm x5.1cm NaI(TI) detector. For the 662 keV gamma ray, the absorption takes place primarily through the Compton effect, which has a Z/A dependence. Since for most of the elements contained in coal the Z/A ratio is nearly the same (except for H), the effective Z/A ratio in coal is constant, irrespective of changes that can occur in the elemental composition of coal. This premise was tested for various coal samples, whose elemental composition was established through independent ASTM-based analyses. Using several of the coal samples, a densitometer calibration was established. The sample density was varied by using crushed coal, compacted by various amounts.

  8. Quality assurance of beam accuracy for Leksell Gamma Unit.

    PubMed

    Yu, C; Petrovich, Z; Luxton, G

    2000-01-01

    For the acceptance test and annual quality assurance of the Leksell Gamma Unit, measurement of the beam accuracy, defined as a distance between mechanical and radiological isocenters, poses a challenge to medical physicists. The specification for the beam accuracy is within 0.5 mm for the 4-mm collimator helmet. In this report, we introduce a simple technique to analyze the beam accuracy by using a conventional film densitometer plus mathematical modeling. A small piece of film was placed inside the film cassette containing a sharp needle. The needle is located such that its tip is exactly positioned at the mechanical isocenter. Before exposure, the film was pierced by the needle. Density profile was measured by using a densitometer with a spatial resolution of 0.8 mm. The profile was then fitted to a model of the two Gaussian functions. One is for the radiation field profile, the other for a dip caused by the narrow hole. The difference between the centers of the two Gaussian functions defines the deviation of the beam accuracy from the mechanical center of the unit. The deviations for x, y, and z directions from one of our annual measurements are 0.032, 0.054, and 0.195 mm, respectively. The combined deviation is 0.20 mm, which is well within the specification and in excellent agreement with the results from the manufacture's laser measurement. This technique provides a simple, accurate and practical tool for measurement of the beam accuracy in the acceptance test and annual quality assurance of the Leksell Gamma Unit.

  9. Precautions and strategies in using a commercial flatbed scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paelinck, L.; DeNeve, W.; DeWagter, C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of a commercially available flatbed scanner for film dosimetry with radiochromic film for external radiotherapy. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner was examined as a densitometer for two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film. An accurate and efficient scanning procedure was established. Possible drift and warm-up effects of the scanner were studied and the direct physical influence of the scanner light on the radiochromic film was assessed. Next, we investigated the scan field uniformity. Also, we examined if the accuracy of radiochromic film was improved by subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the optical density of the irradiated film. To assess the accuracy of Gafchromic EBT film when the EPSON scanner was used as a densitometer, the depth dose of a 2 × 15 cm2 field and the in-plane and cross-plane profiles of a 15 × 15 cm2 field were measured and compared with diamond detector measurements. When taking consecutive scans, we found that the optical density taken from the first scan was about 1% higher than the optical density taken from subsequent scans. We attribute this to the warming up of the lamp of the scanner. Longer-term drift of the scanner was found to be absent. We found that the use of a correction matrix was necessary to correct for the non-uniform scanner response over the scan field. Subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the irradiated film improves the precision of the Gafchromic EBT film. Depth dose and profile measurements with Gafchromic EBT film and the diamond detector are in agreement within 2.5%. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner is an excellent tool for accurate two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film provided that some precautions and corrections are taken into account.

  10. Precautions and strategies in using a commercial flatbed scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Paelinck, L; De Neve, W; De Wagter, C

    2007-01-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of a commercially available flatbed scanner for film dosimetry with radiochromic film for external radiotherapy. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner was examined as a densitometer for two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film. An accurate and efficient scanning procedure was established. Possible drift and warm-up effects of the scanner were studied and the direct physical influence of the scanner light on the radiochromic film was assessed. Next, we investigated the scan field uniformity. Also, we examined if the accuracy of radiochromic film was improved by subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the optical density of the irradiated film. To assess the accuracy of Gafchromic EBT film when the EPSON scanner was used as a densitometer, the depth dose of a 2 x 15 cm(2) field and the in-plane and cross-plane profiles of a 15 x 15 cm(2) field were measured and compared with diamond detector measurements. When taking consecutive scans, we found that the optical density taken from the first scan was about 1% higher than the optical density taken from subsequent scans. We attribute this to the warming up of the lamp of the scanner. Longer-term drift of the scanner was found to be absent. We found that the use of a correction matrix was necessary to correct for the non-uniform scanner response over the scan field. Subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the irradiated film improves the precision of the Gafchromic EBT film. Depth dose and profile measurements with Gafchromic EBT film and the diamond detector are in agreement within 2.5%. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner is an excellent tool for accurate two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film provided that some precautions and corrections are taken into account.

  11. Important considerations for radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanners and EBT GAFCHROMIC film.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Bart D; Kozelka, Jakub; Ranade, Manisha K; Li, Jonathan G; Simon, William E; Dempsey, James F

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we present three significant artifacts that have the potential to negatively impact the accuracy and precision of film dosimetry measurements made using GAFCHROMIC EBT radiochromic film when read out with CCD flatbed scanners. Films were scanned using three commonly employed instruments: a Macbeth TD932 spot densitometer, an Epson Expression 1680 CCD array scanner, and a Microtek ScanMaker i900 CCD array scanner. For the two scanners we assessed the variation in optical density (OD) of GAFCHROMIC EBT film with scanning bed position, angular rotation of the film with respect to the scan line direction, and temperature inside the scanner due to repeated scanning. Scanning uniform radiochromic films demonstrated a distinct bowing effect in profiles in the direction of the CCD array with a nonuniformity of up to 17%. Profiles along a direction orthogonal to the CCD array demonstrated a 7% variation. A strong angular dependence was found in measurements made with the flatbed scanners; the effect could not be reproduced with the spot densitometer. An IMRT quality assurance film was scanned twice rotating the film 90' between the scans. For films scanned on the Epson scanner, up to 12% variation was observed in unirradiated EBT films rotated between 0 degrees and 90 degrees, which decreased to approximately 8% for EBT films irradiated to 300 cGy. Variations of up to 80% were observed for films scanned with the Microtek scanner. The scanners were found to significantly increase the film temperature with repeated scanning. Film temperature between 18 and 33 degrees C caused OD changes of approximately 7%. Considering these effects, we recommend adherence to a strict scanning protocol that includes: maintaining the orientation of films scanned on flatbed scanners, limiting scanning to the central portion of the scanner bed, and limiting the number of consecutive scans to minimize changes in OD caused by film heating.

  12. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (P<0.05) digestible lysine intake by 26%, estimated nitrogen excretion by 30% and feeding costs by US$7.60/pig (-10%) relative to group feeding. Precision feeding is an effective approach to make pig production more sustainable without compromising growth performance.

  13. SU-D-213-07: Initial Characterization of a Gel Patch Dosimeter for in Vivo Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matrosic, C; Culberson, W; Rosen, B; Madsen, E; Frank, G; Bednarz, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In vivo dosimetry, despite being the most direct method for monitoring the dose delivered during radiation therapy and being recommended by several national and international organizations (AAPM, ICRU, NACP), is underutilized in the clinic due to issues associated with dose sensitivity, feasibility, and cost. Given the increasing complexity of radiation therapy modern treatments, there is a compelling need for a robust, affordable in vivo dosimetry option. In this work we present the initial characterization of a novel gel patch in vivo dosimeter. Methods: DEFGEL (6%T) was used to make 1-cm thick small cylindrical patch dosimeters. The optical density of each dosimeter was read before and after irradiation by an in-house laser densitometer. The dosimeters were irradiated using a Varian Clinac EX linac. Three separate batches of gel patches were used to create dose response curves and evaluate repeatability. The development time of the dosimeter was also evaluated. Results: The dose response of the dosimeter was found to be linear from a range of approximately 1-Gy to 20-Gy, which is a larger window of linearity compared to other in vivo dosimeters. At doses below 1-Gy, the cumulative uncertainties were on the order of the measured data. When compared, the three batches demonstrated repeatability from 1-Gy to approximately 13-Gy, with some variation at higher doses. For doses of >8-Gy, the dosimeter reached full optical density after 4-hours, whereas low doses developed within an hour. Conclusion: Initial results indicate that the gel patch dosimeter is a reliable and simple way to measure a large range of doses, including high doses such as those delivered during hypofractionated treatments (e.g. SBRT or MR-guided radiotherapy). The simple fabrication method for the dosimeter and the use of a laser densitometer would allow for the dosimeter to used and read in-house, cheaply and easily.

  14. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, J F; Low, D A; Mutic, S; Markman, J; Kirov, A S; Nussbaum, G H; Williamson, J F

    2000-10-01

    We present an evaluation of the precision and accuracy of image-based radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry performed using a commercial RCF product (Gafchromic MD-55-2, Nuclear Associates, Inc.) and a commercial high-spatial resolution (100 microm pixel size) He-Ne scanning-laser film-digitizer (Personal Densitometer, Molecular Dynamics, Inc.) as an optical density (OD) imaging system. The precision and accuracy of this dosimetry system are evaluated by performing RCF imaging dosimetry in well characterized conformal external beam and brachytherapy high dose-rate (HDR) radiation fields. Benchmarking of image-based RCF dosimetry is necessary due to many potential errors inherent to RCF dosimetry including: a temperature-dependent time evolution of RCF dose response; nonuniform response of RCF; and optical-polarization artifacts. In addition, laser-densitometer imaging artifacts can produce systematic OD measurement errors as large as 35% in the presence of high OD gradients. We present a RCF exposure and readout protocol that was developed for the accurate dosimetry of high dose rate (HDR) radiation sources. This protocol follows and expands upon the guidelines set forth by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 55 report. Particular attention is focused on the OD imaging system, a scanning-laser film digitizer, modified to eliminate OD artifacts that were not addressed in the AAPM Task Group 55 report. RCF precision using this technique was evaluated with films given uniform 6 MV x-ray doses between 1 and 200 Gy. RCF absolute dose accuracy using this technique was evaluated by comparing RCF measurements to small volume ionization chamber measurements for conformal external-beam sources and an experimentally validated Monte Carlo photon-transport simulation code for a 192Ir brachytherapy source. Pixel-to-pixel standard deviations of uniformly irradiated films were less than 1% for doses between 10 and 150 Gy; between 1% and 5% for lower

  15. Initial characterization of a gel patch dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Matrosic, C; Culberson, W; Rosen, B; Madsen, E; Frank, G; Bednarz, B

    2016-05-21

    In vivo dosimetry is a greatly underutilized tool for patient safety in clinical external beam radiotherapy treatments, despite being recommended by several national and international organizations (AAPM, ICRU, IAEA, NACP). The reasons for this underutilization mostly relate to the feasibility and cost of in vivo dosimetry methods. Due to the increase in the number of beam angles and dose per fraction in modern treatments, there is a compelling need for a novel dosimeter that is robust and affordable while able to operate properly in these complex conditions. This work presents a gel patch dosimeter as a novel method of in vivo dosimetry. DEFGEL, a 6% T normoxic polyacrylamide gel, was injected into 1 cm thick acrylic molds to create 1 cm thick small cylindrical patch dosimeters. To evaluate the change in optical density due to radiation induced polymerization, dosimeters were scanned before and after irradiation using an in-house developed laser densitometer. The dose-responses of three separate batches of gel were evaluated and compared to check for linearity and repeatability. The response development time was evaluated to ensure that the patch dosimeter could be high throughput. Additionally, the potential of this system to be used as an in vivo dosimeter was tested with a clinically relevant end-to-end in vivo phantom test. All irradiations were performed with a Varian Clinac 21EX at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center (UWMRRC). The dose-response of all three batches of gel was found to be linear within the range of 2-20 Gy. At doses below 0.5 Gy the statistical uncertainties were prohibitively large to make quantitative assessments of the results. The three batches demonstrated good repeatability in the range of 2 Gy to up to 10 Gy, with only slight variations in response at higher doses. For low doses the dosimeter fully developed within an hour while at higher doses they fully developed within four hours. During the in vivo

  16. Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between quantitative ultrasound and bone mineral density measurements: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Howard, G M; Nguyen, T V; Harris, M; Kelly, P J; Eisman, J A

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation and covariation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements and their relationships to bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-nine monozygotic (MZ) and 44 dizygotic (DZ) female twins between 20 and 83 years of age (53 +/- 13 years, mean +/- SD) were studied. Digital (phalangeal) QUS (speed of sound [SOS]) and calcaneal QUS (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and velocity of sound [VOS]) were measured using a DBM Sonic 1200 ultrasound densitometer and a CUBA ultrasound densitometer, respectively. Femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and total body (TB) BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Familial resemblance and hence heritability (proportion of variance of a trait attributable to genetic factors) were assessed by analysis of variance, univariate, and multivariate model-fitting genetic analyses. In both QUS and BMD parameters, MZ twins were more alike than DZ pairs. Estimates of heritability for age- and weight-adjusted BUA, VOS, and SOS were 0.74, 0.55, and 0.82, respectively. Corresponding indices of heritability for LS, FN, and TB BMD were 0.79, 0.77, and 0.82, respectively. In cross-sectional analysis, both BUA and SOS, but not VOS, were independently associated with BMD measurements. However, analysis based on intrapair differences suggested that only BUA was related to BMD. Bivariate genetic analysis indicated that the genetic correlations between BUA and BMD ranged between 0.43 and 0.51 (p < 0.001), whereas the environmental correlations ranged between 0.20 and 0.28 (p < 0.01). While the genetic correlations within QUS and BMD measurements were significant, factor analysis indicates that common genes affect BMD at different sites. Also, individual QUS measurements appear to be influenced by some common sets of genes rather than by environmental factors. Significant environmental correlations were only found for BMD

  17. Initial characterization of a gel patch dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosic, C.; Culberson, W.; Rosen, B.; Madsen, E.; Frank, G.; Bednarz, B.

    2016-05-01

    In vivo dosimetry is a greatly underutilized tool for patient safety in clinical external beam radiotherapy treatments, despite being recommended by several national and international organizations (AAPM, ICRU, IAEA, NACP). The reasons for this underutilization mostly relate to the feasibility and cost of in vivo dosimetry methods. Due to the increase in the number of beam angles and dose per fraction in modern treatments, there is a compelling need for a novel dosimeter that is robust and affordable while able to operate properly in these complex conditions. This work presents a gel patch dosimeter as a novel method of in vivo dosimetry. DEFGEL, a 6% T normoxic polyacrylamide gel, was injected into 1 cm thick acrylic molds to create 1 cm thick small cylindrical patch dosimeters. To evaluate the change in optical density due to radiation induced polymerization, dosimeters were scanned before and after irradiation using an in-house developed laser densitometer. The dose-responses of three separate batches of gel were evaluated and compared to check for linearity and repeatability. The response development time was evaluated to ensure that the patch dosimeter could be high throughput. Additionally, the potential of this system to be used as an in vivo dosimeter was tested with a clinically relevant end-to-end in vivo phantom test. All irradiations were performed with a Varian Clinac 21EX at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center (UWMRRC). The dose-response of all three batches of gel was found to be linear within the range of 2-20 Gy. At doses below 0.5 Gy the statistical uncertainties were prohibitively large to make quantitative assessments of the results. The three batches demonstrated good repeatability in the range of 2 Gy to up to 10 Gy, with only slight variations in response at higher doses. For low doses the dosimeter fully developed within an hour while at higher doses they fully developed within four hours. During the in vivo

  18. Spatial distribution of Guaiacum sanctum (Zygophyllaceae) seedlings and saplings relative to canopy cover in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Eric J; Robles, Tatiana; Hamrick, James L

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of individuals is a fundamental property of most species and constitutes essential information for the development of restoration and conservation strategies, especially for endangered plant species. In this paper we describe the spatial distribution of different size classes of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum and the effect of canopy cover on spatial aggregation. Adult G. sanctum were located and mapped in a 50 ha plot in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica. Seedlings, saplings and juveniles were mapped to the nearest centimetre and permanently marked in three 50 x 50 m subplots. Within each subplot spatial aggregation was assessed using Ripley's K statistic and canopy opening readings were performed every 5 m using a densitometer. Kriging spatial interpolation and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if average canopy cover differed among size classes. Individuals of G. sanctum were spatially aggregated at all size classes with seedlings being the most frequent size class in all subplots. Seedlings were found predominantly in areas with significantly higher canopy cover. In contrast, juveniles were more likely found in areas with higher light availability. The high number of seedlings, saplings, and juveniles relative to adults suggests that populations of G. sanctum in PVNP are expanding. Light availability and canopy structure are important factors shaping the spatial distribution of this species. The contemporary demographic structure of G. sanctum is dependent on forest gap dynamics and changes in human disturbance during the past 25 years.

  19. The effects of +Gz force on the bone mineral density of fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Naumann, F L; Bennell, K L; Wark, J D

    2001-03-01

    Bone is a metabolically active tissue which responds to high strain loading. The purpose of this study was to examine the bone response to high +Gz force loading generated during high performance flying. The bone response to +Gz force loading was monitored in 10 high performance RAAF pilots and 10 gender-, age-, height-, weight-matched control subjects. The pilots were stationed at the RAAF base at Pearce, Western Australia, all completing the 1-yr flight training course. The pilots flew the Pilatus PC-9 aircraft, routinely sustaining between 2.0 and 6.0 +Gz. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured at baseline and 12 mo, using the Hologic QDR 2000+ bone densitometer. After controlling for change in total body weight and fat mass, the pilots experienced a significant increase in BMD and BMC for thoracic spine, pelvis, and total body, in the magnitude of 11.0%, 4.9%, and 3.7%, respectively. However, no significant changes in bone mineral were observed in the pilots lumbar spine, arms or legs. The control group experienced a significant decrease in pelvic BMC, with no other bone mineral changes observed at any site. These findings suggest that site specific BMD is increased in response to high +Gz forces generated during high performance flying in a PC-9.

  20. Nucleus fingerprinting for the unique identification of Feulgen-stained nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, David; Brozio, Matthias; Bell, André; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Böcking, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    DNA Image Cytometry is a method for non-invasive cancer diagnosis which measures the DNA content of Feulgen-stained nuclei. DNA content is measured using a microscope system equipped with a digital camera as a densitometer and estimating the DNA content from the absorption of light when passing through the nuclei. However, a DNA Image Cytometry measurement is only valid if each nucleus is only measured once. To assist the user in preventing multiple measurements of the same nucleus, we have developed a unique digital identifier for the characterization of Feulgen-stained nuclei, the so called Nucleus Fingerprint. Only nuclei with a new fingerprint can be added to the measurement. This fingerprint is based on basic nucleus features, the contour of the nucleus and the spatial relationship to nuclei in the vicinity. Based on this characterization, a classifier for testing two nuclei for identity is presented. In a pairwise comparison of ~40000 pairs of mutually different nuclei, 99.5% were classified as different. In another 450 tests, the fingerprints of the same nucleus recorded a second time were in all cases judged identical. We therefore conclude that our Nucleus Fingerprint approach robustly prevents the repeated measurement of nuclei in DNA Image Cytometry.

  1. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  2. The HSP expression of passive repetitive plyometric trained skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Huang, Mao-Shung; Chen, Chuan-Show; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang; Wang, Chiou-Huey; Chen, Tzuping; Su, Borcherng

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of ten-week passive repetitive plyometric (PRP) training on human skeletal muscle and the application of PRP training for performance. Vastus lateralis of nine candidates were aspirated before (pre) and after (post) PRP training. Histochemical approaches with regular hematoxylene-eosin (HE) and Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH) stains were used to demonstrate the changes of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical studies with heat shock protein (anti-hsp72, Stressgen, Canada) were employed to display cellular activities. Each set of slides was quantitatively analyzed by using a modified morphometric method (Russ and Dehoff, 1999) on a Nikon ECLIPSE 80i microscope, equipped with an Evolution VF COOLED color video camera, and the Image-Pro Plus software (5.0 for Win; Media Cybernetics, USA). Finally, hsp72 mRNAs of both pre-PRP and post-PRP specimens were amplified through RT-PCR. Signal intensities were read by a densitometer and analyzed through the SPSS (11.0 for Win) statistically. Post-PRP muscle cells demonstrated hypertrophic change with increased cellular content and a narrowed inter-cellular space according to both HE and PTAH profiles. Post-PRP cellular hsp72 proteins were higher by up to five percent, as measured by a gray-scale reading. Further, after a training period of 10 weeks, hsp72 mRNA expression was several times higher.

  3. X-ray scatter correction for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: compensation of patient's lean/fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Darboux, Michel; Bordy, Thomas; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Gonon, Georges

    2004-05-01

    At CEA-LETI, a DEXA approach for systems using a digital 2D radiographic detector has been developed. It relies on an original X-rays scatter management method, based on a combined use of an analytical model and of scatter calibration data acquired through different thicknesses of Lucite slabs. Since Lucite X-rays interaction properties are equivalent to fat, the approach leads to a scatter flux map representative of a 100% fat region. However, patients" soft tissues are composed of lean and fat. Therefore, the obtained scatter map has to be refined in order to take into account the various fat ratios that can present patients. This refinement consists in establishing a formula relating the fat ratio to the thicknesses of Low and High Energy Lucite slabs leading to same signal level. This proportion is then used to compute, on the basis of X-rays/matter interaction equations, correction factors to apply to Lucite equivalent X-rays scatter map. Influence of fat ratio correction has been evaluated, on a digital 2D bone densitometer, with phantoms composed of a PVC step (simulating bone) and different Lucite/water thicknesses as well as on patients. The results show that our X-rays scatter determination approach can take into account variations of body composition.

  4. Five-year DEXA study of 88 hips with cemented femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Digas, Georgios; Kärrholm, Johan

    2009-12-01

    We performed repeated dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements over five years in a homogeneous patient population to study the effect of a cemented stem on proximal femoral bone remodelling. Data from 88 patients (88 hips) implanted with total hip arthroplasty (THA) prostheses were extracted from three randomised studies. Femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using a Lunar DPX-IQ densitometer for five years postoperatively. At one year the BMD changes had decreased between -2.0% [region of interest (ROI) 1] and -11.5% (ROI 7). During the follow-up period the BMD initially increased during the second year and thereafter decreased again in ROIs 5, 6 and 7. The loss of BMD at five years was more pronounced in region 7 (12.9%) and decreased with increasing age, total hip replacement (THR) on the right side and decreasing weight of the patient. We found that after the initial phase of early bone loss a period of recovery follows. Thereafter the BMD decreases again, which probably reflects the normal ageing of bone after uncomplicated cemented THA.

  5. Variation between femurs as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

    PubMed

    Hall, M L; Heavens, J; Ell, P J

    1991-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that there is minimal variation between the hips in an individual, but is densitometry of one femur representative of the other? We performed bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of both hips using a Hologic QDR 1000 densitometer. There were 110 patients, all of whom were right handed, and three main groups of subjects: (1) normal volunteers (n = 36); (2) subjects with known hip pathology (n = 36); (3) subjects with medical conditions not affecting the hip (n = 38). The mean age of the subjects was 46 (21-87) years and a standard analysis protocol was followed in all patients. The coefficient of variation (COV) for femurs was 0.9-3%, depending upon the region studied and the BMD. The left femur had a greater BMD 48% of the time and there were variable differences between femurs in each group studied. While the greatest differences were found in people with unilateral hip pathology, all groups had mean differences greater than the COV. It may be acceptable to study only one hip, but the large variation between femurs in individuals should be borne in mind when interpreting data.

  6. PDS SHRINK. PDS SHRINK

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    1991-12-15

    This code enables one to display, take line-outs on, and perform various transformations on an image created by an array of integer*2 data. Uncompressed eight-bit TIFF files created on either the Macintosh or the IBM PC may also be read in and converted to a 16 bit signed integer image. This code is designed to handle all the formats used for PDS (photo-densitometer) files at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These formats are all explained by the application code. The image may be zoomed infinitely and the gray scale mapping can be easily changed. Line-outs may be horizontal or vertical with arbitrary width, angled with arbitrary end points, or taken along any path. This code is usually used to examine spectrograph data. Spectral lines may be identified and a polynomial fit from position to wavelength may be found. The image array can be remapped so that the pixels all have the same change of lambda width. It is not necessary to do this, however. Lineouts may be printed, saved as Cricket tab-delimited files, or saved as PICT2 files. The plots may be linear, semilog, or logarithmic with nice values and proper scientific notation. Typically, spectral lines are curved.

  7. Enhancement of Dose Response and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Image of PAGAT Polymer Gel Dosimeter by Adding Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sabbaghizadeh, Rahim; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Deyhimihaghighi, Najmeh; Sedghi, Arman

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the normoxic polyacrylamide gelatin and tetrakis hydroxy methyl phosphoniun chloride (PAGAT) polymer gel dosimeters were synthesized with and without the presence of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The amount of Ag nanoparticles varied from 1 to 3 ml with concentration 3.14 g/l, thus forming two types of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeters before irradiating them with 6 to 25 Gy produced by 1.25-MeV 60Co gamma rays. In this range, the predominant gamma ray interaction with matter is by Compton scattering effect, as the photoelectric absorption effect diminishes. MRI was employed when evaluating the polymerization of the dosimeters and the gray scale of the MRI film was determined via an optical densitometer. Subsequent analyses of optical densities revealed that the extent of polymerization increased with the increase in the absorbed dose, while the increase of penetration depth within the dosimeters has a reverse effect. Moreover, a significant increase in the optical density-dose response (11.82%) was noted for dosimeters containing 2 ml Ag nanoparticles. PMID:28060829

  8. Concentration of chosen oxycholesterols in plasma of pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bodzek, Piotr; Janoszka, Beata; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Bodzek, Danuta; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2002-02-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was applied for isolation of oxycholesterols from plasma lipid extract from pregnant women with hypertension and from a control group. Separation of oxycholesterols fraction was performed in an SD II horizontal chamber (Chromdes, Poland) using silica gel and octadecyl RPC18 silica gel TLC plates (Merck and Machery Nagel). Visualization was carried out under UV light after Liebermann-Burchard reaction specific for cholesterol and its derivatives. The oxycholesterols (5-cholestene-3beta-ol-7-one, sum of 5-cholestene-3beta, 7beta-diol and 5-cholestene-3beta, 7alpha-diol and sum of 5alpha,6alpha-epoxycholestan-3beta-ol and 5beta, 6beta-epoxycholestan-3beta-ol) were quantified by chromatograms scanning in reflectance and fluorescence mode using a CS 9301 densitometer (Shimadzu). The total concentration of the investigated oxycholesterols in the plasma of pregnant women was up to 5000 ng/mL and was statistically significantly higher in women with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).

  9. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 in stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Prado, G; Madeira, J E G Cruz; Morais, V A D; Oliveira, M S; Souza, R A; Peluzio, J M; Godoy, I J; Silva, J F M; Pimenta, R S

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a toxigenic and carcinogenic compound produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. To inhibit aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, seeds of two peanut breeds, IAC Caiapó and IAC Runner 886, were inoculated with A. parasiticus (1.0 × 10(6) spores per ml) and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3.2 × 10(7) cells per ml) and incubated at 25°C for 7 and 15 days. Two experiments were conducted for each incubation period separately. The treatments were completely randomized, with three replications per treatment. Treatments included the two cultivars and three types of inoculation (pathogen alone, yeast and pathogen, and yeast 3 h before pathogen). Aflatoxin B(1) was quantified with a densitometer at 366 nm after thin layer chromatography. Aflatoxin B(1) contamination in peanuts was reduced after the addition of S. cerevisiae. The concentration of aflatoxin B(1) decreased by 74.4 and 55.9% after 7 and 15 days, respectively. The greatest aflatoxin reduction was observed when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 3 h before the pathogen in IAC Caiapó seeds and incubated for 7 days at 25°C. The use of S. cerevisiae is a promising strategy for biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts.

  10. Recognizing Banknote Fitness with a Visible Light One Dimensional Line Image Sensor.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2015-08-27

    In general, dirty banknotes that have creases or soiled surfaces should be replaced by new banknotes, whereas clean banknotes should be recirculated. Therefore, the accurate classification of banknote fitness when sorting paper currency is an important and challenging task. Most previous research has focused on sensors that used visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light. Furthermore, there was little previous research on the fitness classification for Indian paper currency. Therefore, we propose a new method for classifying the fitness of Indian banknotes, with a one-dimensional line image sensor that uses only visible light. The fitness of banknotes is usually determined by various factors such as soiling, creases, and tears, etc. although we just consider banknote soiling in our research. This research is novel in the following four ways: first, there has been little research conducted on fitness classification for the Indian Rupee using visible-light images. Second, the classification is conducted based on the features extracted from the regions of interest (ROIs), which contain little texture. Third, 1-level discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used to extract the features for discriminating between fit and unfit banknotes. Fourth, the optimal DWT features that represent the fitness and unfitness of banknotes are selected based on linear regression analysis with ground-truth data measured by densitometer. In addition, the selected features are used as the inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for the final classification of banknote fitness. Experimental results showed that our method outperforms other methods.

  11. Sensitivity and comparison evaluation of Saturn 5 liquid penetrants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a sensitivity and comparison evaluation performed on six liquid penetrants that were used on the Saturn 5 vehicle and other space hardware to detect surface discontinuities are described. The relationship between penetrant materials and crack definition capabilities, the optimum penetrant materials evaluation method, and the optimum measurement methods for crack dimensions were investigated. A unique method of precise developer thickness control was envolved, utilizing clear radiographic film and a densitometer. The method of evaluation included five aluminum alloy, 2219-T87, specimens that were heated and then quenched in cold water to produce cracks. The six penetrants were then applied, one at a time, and the crack indications were counted and recorded for each penetrant for comparison purposes. Measurements were made by determining the visual crack indications per linear inch and then sectioning the specimens for a metallographic count of the cracks present. This method provided a numerical approach for assigning a sensitivity index number to the penetrants. Of the six penetrants evaluated, two were not satisfactory (one was not sufficiently sensitive and the other was to sensitive, giving false indications). The other four were satisfactory with approximately the same sensitivity in the range of 78 to 80.5 percent of total cracks detected.

  12. Precocious Ossification of the Tympanoperiotic Bone in Fetal and Newborn Dolphins: An Evolutionary Adaptation to the Aquatic Environment?

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Vaccaro, Calogero; Poggi, Roberto; Mazzariol, Sandro; Huggenberger, Stefan; Zotti, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The present study, performed with a dual-energy X-ray (DXA) bone densitometer on a series of fetal and newborn striped and short-beaked common dolphins, shows that the bone density of the area of the tympanic bulla within the tympanoperiotic complex starts with 0.483 g cm(-2) in 5- to 6-month-old specimens of striped (or common) dolphin fetuses and reaches 1.841 g cm(-2) in newborn striped dolphins, with values consistently higher than in other parts of the skull or elsewhere in the skeleton. The same results apply to the common bottlenose dolphins, in which the area of the tympanic bulla has a density of 0.312 g cm(-2) in 5-month-old specimens and becomes four times as much in newborns. Regardless of the areal bone density results correlated to the DXA-technique, comparisons with DXA-bone density data in the literature referred to other mammals emphasize the presence of very high mineral deposition in the area of the tympanoperiotic bone in fetal and newborn dolphins and the most dense part of it belongs to the tympanic bulla. The early osseous maturation of the tympanic bulla area may be compared to what described in fin whales and may represent an unique ontogenetic and phylogenetic feature of cetaceans, possibly related to the development of essential acoustic sense and establishment of immediate post-natal mother-calf relationship. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  14. Electrophoretic Porosimetry of Sol-Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. A.; Smith, D. D.; Sibille, L.; Hunt, A. J.; Ng, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that gravity has an effect on the formation and resulting microstructure of sol-gels. In order to more clearly resolve the effect of gravity, pores may be non-destructively analyzed in the wet gel, circumventing the shrinkage and coarsening associated with the drying procedure. We discuss the development of an electrophoretic technique, analogous to affinity chromatography, for the determination of pore size distribution and its application to silica gels. Specifically a monodisperse charged dye is monitored by an optical densitometer as it moves through the wet gel under the influence of an electric field. The transmittance data (output) represents the convolution of the dye concentration profile at the beginning of the run (input) with the pore size distribution (transfer function), i.e. linear systems theory applies. Because of the practical difficulty in producing a delta function input dye profile we prefer instead to use a step function. Average pore size is then related to the velocity of this dye front, while the pore size distribution is related to the spreading of the front. Preliminary results of this electrophoretic porosimetry and its application to ground and space-grown samples will be discussed.

  15. Radiation exposure of the hands and thyroid gland during percutaneous wiring of wrist and hand procedures.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Syah; Morris, Seamus; Broe, David; Taylor, Colm; Lenehan, Brian; McElwain, John

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation exposure of the hands and thyroid glands of orthopaedic surgeon and assistant during procedures involving percutaneous wiring of the hand and wrist. The radiation dose to the hand and thyroid glands was prospectively studied from a total of 30 percutaneous hand and wrist procedures. Four thermolucent densitometers were used to measure the radiation exposure. Cases were divided depending on fracture location (ie. wrist, metacarpal, phalangeal) and surgical experience (i.e. Senior House Officer, Registrar, Consultant). Mean radiation exposure in the hand for the surgeon was 0.80 mSv and 0.87 mSv for the assistant. There was a significant difference in the unshielded thyroid group compared to the shielded thyroid group (p < 0.05). The duration and number of exposure decreases with increasing experience. We also found a trend whereas we operate from proximal to distal (wrist to phalangeal), the total direct hand exposure increases. Radiation exposure in the hands and thyroid glands during percutaneous wiring of hand and wrist procedures were within the recommended limit. However, for the junior orthopaedic trainee, the risk of over radiating oneself is higher as the duration and number of exposure increases. We recommended the use of thyroid shield and adherence to the ALARA principle in any fluoroscopic assisted procedures. Routine monitoring of radiation exposure is essential in preventing radiation related disease.

  16. Geographic applications of ERTS-A imagery to rural landscape change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The study area, centered on Knoxville, Tennessee, encompasses nearly 20,000 square miles. The Knoxville Test Site, an 11 x 21 mile area over the city of Knoxville and the western portion of Knox County, has been chosen for the analysis of landscape change detection associated with urban growth. The second area, the Cumberland Plateau Test Site, exhibits landscape change through forest alterations and landform disturbances associated with strip mining in the area and was so chosen for its sharp contrasts in physical and human phenomena as well as its change dynamics. Accomplishments since reception of ERTS-1 imagery include: (1) basic cataloging and classifying of the data into a filling system; (2) a densitometer analysis; (3) first look analysis; and (4) preparation of results from the project. Examples of all four bands of the MSS have been received and analyses reveal distinctive positive and negative reactions. Band 5 has been found to be best for landscape analysis of contrasts between urban and rural landscapes, and band 7 for topographic features and water surfaces. Preliminary results are summarized.

  17. Effect of nitroimidazoles on glucose utilization and lactate accumulation in mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, C.F.; Subjeck, J.R.; Brody, H.; Shen, J.; Johnson, R.J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sensitizers misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) can produce central and peripheral neuropathy in patients and laboratory animals. Nitroimidazoles can also interfere with glycolysis in vitro under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the present work, the authors studied the effect of MISO or DMM on lactate production and glucose utilization in mouse brain. It is observed that these compounds result in a 25% inhibition of lactate production in brain slices relative to the control at a 10 mM level. Additionally, MISO (1.0 mg/g/day) or DMM (1.4 mg/g/day) were administered daily (oral) for 1, 4, 7, or 14 days to examine the effect of these two drugs on the regional glucose utilization in C3Hf mouse brain. Five microcuries of 2-deoxy(/sup 14/C)glucose was given following the last drug dose and autoradiographs of serial brain sections were made and analyzed by a densitometer. Following a single dose of either MISO or DMM, no significant differences in glucose uptake were observed when compared with controls. However, following 4, 7, and 14 doses the rate of glucose utilization was significantly reduced in the intoxicated animals. Larger reductions were measured in specific regions including the posterior colliculus, cochlear nuclei, vestibular nuclei, and pons with increasing effects observed at later stages. These results share a degree of correspondence with the regional brain pathology produced by these nitroimidazoles.

  18. National protocol for quality assurance in DXA-bone densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavchev, A.; Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Vassileva, J.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis becomes largely one of the most important socially significant and costly diseases. Modern techniques (DXA, US) are applied for bone densitometry. The paper presents a protocol for quality assurance especially of DXA-bone densitometers including quality control made in compliance with international standards (ISCD, IOF). The methodology has been tested in practice by measurements on site-functional assessment, entrance dose, radiation protection, calibration, in-vitro precision. It is expected to raise the quality of the diagnostic process in concert with the EU Medical Directive 97/43 particularly for population screening and sensitive groups. The protocol is an essential part of the National Program for constraining osteoporosis which has been elaborated at the Ministry of Health and at present under implementation throughout the country. It aims at reducing the risk, factors spreading, at diminishing the fracture risk the morbidity and the mortality from osteoporosis. An integral multidisciplinary approach to the problem solving is applied as well as training on three levels — doctors, patients, population, which effectively will contribute for obtaining real results in preventing osteoporosis.

  19. Enhancement of Dose Response and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Image of PAGAT Polymer Gel Dosimeter by Adding Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sabbaghizadeh, Rahim; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Deyhimihaghighi, Najmeh; Sedghi, Arman

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the normoxic polyacrylamide gelatin and tetrakis hydroxy methyl phosphoniun chloride (PAGAT) polymer gel dosimeters were synthesized with and without the presence of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The amount of Ag nanoparticles varied from 1 to 3 ml with concentration 3.14 g/l, thus forming two types of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeters before irradiating them with 6 to 25 Gy produced by 1.25-MeV 60Co gamma rays. In this range, the predominant gamma ray interaction with matter is by Compton scattering effect, as the photoelectric absorption effect diminishes. MRI was employed when evaluating the polymerization of the dosimeters and the gray scale of the MRI film was determined via an optical densitometer. Subsequent analyses of optical densities revealed that the extent of polymerization increased with the increase in the absorbed dose, while the increase of penetration depth within the dosimeters has a reverse effect. Moreover, a significant increase in the optical density-dose response (11.82%) was noted for dosimeters containing 2 ml Ag nanoparticles.

  20. Fabric dependence of wave propagation in anisotropic porous media

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Current diagnosis of bone loss and osteoporosis is based on the measurement of the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) or the apparent mass density. Unfortunately, in most clinical ultrasound densitometers: 1) measurements are often performed in a single anatomical direction, 2) only the first wave arriving to the ultrasound probe is characterized, and 3) the analysis of bone status is based on empirical relationships between measurable quantities such as Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and the density of the porous medium. However, the existence of a second wave in cancellous bone has been reported, which is an unequivocal signature of poroelastic media, as predicted by Biot’s poroelastic wave propagation theory. In this paper the governing equations for wave motion in the linear theory of anisotropic poroelastic materials are developed and extended to include the dependence of the constitutive relations upon fabric - a quantitative stereological measure of the degree of structural anisotropy in the pore architecture of a porous medium. This fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic approach is a theoretical framework to describe the microarchitectural-dependent relationship between measurable wave properties and the elastic constants of trabecular bone, and thus represents an alternative for bone quality assessment beyond BMD alone. PMID:20461539

  1. Recognizing Banknote Fitness with a Visible Light One Dimensional Line Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2015-01-01

    In general, dirty banknotes that have creases or soiled surfaces should be replaced by new banknotes, whereas clean banknotes should be recirculated. Therefore, the accurate classification of banknote fitness when sorting paper currency is an important and challenging task. Most previous research has focused on sensors that used visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light. Furthermore, there was little previous research on the fitness classification for Indian paper currency. Therefore, we propose a new method for classifying the fitness of Indian banknotes, with a one-dimensional line image sensor that uses only visible light. The fitness of banknotes is usually determined by various factors such as soiling, creases, and tears, etc. although we just consider banknote soiling in our research. This research is novel in the following four ways: first, there has been little research conducted on fitness classification for the Indian Rupee using visible-light images. Second, the classification is conducted based on the features extracted from the regions of interest (ROIs), which contain little texture. Third, 1-level discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used to extract the features for discriminating between fit and unfit banknotes. Fourth, the optimal DWT features that represent the fitness and unfitness of banknotes are selected based on linear regression analysis with ground-truth data measured by densitometer. In addition, the selected features are used as the inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for the final classification of banknote fitness. Experimental results showed that our method outperforms other methods. PMID:26343654

  2. Bone mineral density of skeletal remains: Discordant results between chemical analysis and DXA method.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Boric, Igor; Sliskovic, Livia; Popovic, Marijana; Knezovic, Zlatka; Nikolic, Ivana; Vucinovic, Ana; Vucinovic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is a gold standard for bone mineral density measurement and diagnosis of primary and secondary osteoporosis in living persons. DXA is becoming widespread when analysing archaeological material, and is considered to provide an accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis in skeletal samples. The aim of this study was to explain the differences in results between bone mineral density (obtained with DXA) and chemical determination of calcium and phosphorus concentrations in skeletal remains. We examined bone mineral density (BMD) and mineral content of femoral bone samples exhumed from mass graves of the Second World War. BMD was determined by Hologic QDR 4500 C (S/N 48034) Bone Densitometer. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined with AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy) and UV/VIS (Ultraviolet-visible) spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study do not support the hypothesis according to which BMD measured by DXA scan has positive correlation with chemically determined concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in bones, especially in acidic soils where there was significant impact of diagenesis observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population.

  4. [High prevalence of osteoporosis in asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche women].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.

  5. Possibility of tree selection and breeding for genetic improvement of wood properties of Gmelina arborea

    SciTech Connect

    Akachuku, A.E.

    1984-06-01

    Wood samples of Gmelina arborea were collected from Nigerian plantations. The wood density was measured with an X-ray densitometer. Fiber length was measured with a modified map measurer. Fiber proportion was determined with a modification of Ladell's (1959) randomized dot technique. Considerable between-tree differences were observed in wood density, fiber length, fiber proportion, and sizes of trees of the same age, planted at the same spacing within the same environment. The magnitude of within-tree variations in these wood properties was different in trees within the same plot. Some individual trees combined comparatively high density, fiber length, and fiber proportion with fast growth rate and uniform wood. There was sufficient phenotypic variation to encourage genetic improvement of the wood properties and growth rate by selecting and breeding trees with higher values of these traits. Tree selection should be based on a preliminary screening for tree form and volume growth followed by a second selection for the desired wood properties.

  6. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  7. Changes of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA synthesis in rats infected with Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jun Kyong; Kwon, Hye Soo; Joo, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Joon Sang

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the expression level of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats infected with Paragonimus westermani were analyzed by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by southern blot. The template RNA was extracted from the splenocytes of rats infected with 20 metacercariae of P. westermani. The products of competitive RT-PCR were subjected to southern blot and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL), and analyzed with a densitometer. In comparison with that of uninfected control rat splenocytes (value of 1), the levels of mRNA expression of IFN-γ had changed to 0.747 at 1 week post infection (PI), 0.00175 at 2 week PI, 0.0217 at 3 week PI, 0.194 at 4 week PI and then to 0.537 at 5 week PI. The level at 7 week PI had returned to 1.25, comparable with that of uninfected rats. These results show that, when infected with P. westermani, the levels of IFN-γ mRNA of SD rat splenocytes were remarkably reduced by more than 500 times at 2 week PI and restored to normal level at 7 week PI. PMID:10634046

  8. Densitometric HPTLC method for qualitative, quantitative analysis and stability study of Coenzyme Q10 in pharmaceutical formulations utilizing normal and reversed-phase silica gel plates.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad; Alam, Prawez; Alqasoumi, Saleh Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Two simple, precise and stability-indicating densitometric HPTLC method were developed and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Coenzyme Q10 in pharmaceutical formulations using normal-phase (Method I) and reversed phase (Method II) silica gel TLC plates. Both methods were developed and validated with 10×20 cm glass-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of either silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) using hexane-ethyl acetate (8.5:1.5 v/v) as developing system (Method I) or RP-18 silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) using methanol-acetone (4:6 v/v) as mobile phase (Method II). Both analyses were scanned with a densitometer at 282 nm. Linearity was found in the ranges 50-800 ng/spot (r(2)=0.9989) and 50-800 ng/spot (r(2)=0.9987) for Method I and Method II respectively. Stability of Coenzyme Q10 was explored by the two methods using acid, base, hydrogen peroxide, temperature and different solvents. Due to the efficiency of the method in separating Coenzyme Q10 from other ingredients including its degradation products, it can be applied for quality control, standardization of different pharmaceutical formulations and stability study.

  9. Estimation of In vivo Cancellous Bone Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Takahiko; Mano, Isao; Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tadahito; Teshima, Ryota; Naka, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    The effect of decreasing bone density (a symptom of osteoporosis) is greater for cancellous bone than for dense cortical bone, because cancellous bone is metabolically more active. Therefore, the bone density or bone mineral density of cancellous bone is generally used to estimate the onset of osteoporosis. Elasticity or elastic constant is a fundamental mechanical parameter and is directly related to the mechanical strength of bone. Accordingly, elasticity is a preferable parameter for assessing fracture risk. A novel ultrasonic bone densitometer LD-100 has been developed to determine the mass density and elasticity of cancellous bone with a spatial resolution comparable to that of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone density and bone elasticity are evaluated using ultrasonic parameters based on fast and slow waves in cancellous bone by modeling the ultrasonic wave propagation path. Elasticity is deduced from the measured bone density and the propagation speed of the fast wave. Thus, the elasticity of cancellous bone is approximately expressed by a cubic equation of bone density.

  10. Oligosaccharides in several Philippine indigenous food legumes: determination, localization and removal.

    PubMed

    Revilleza, M J; Mendoza, E M; Raymundo, L C

    1990-01-01

    The oligosaccharide profile of raw mature seeds of seven different legumes indigenous to the Philippines was measured in 70% ethanol extracts of the seeds by thin layer chromatography using HPTLC plates and quantified by a densitometer. Based on the results, the legumes could be ranked according to decreasing oligosaccharide content or flatulence potential as follows: Sam-samping (Clitoria ternatea) greater than hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab) greater than sabawel (Mucuna pruriens) greater than lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) greater than swordbean (Canavalia gladiata) greater than rice bean (Vigna umbellata) greater than jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Sam-samping had 4.79% total oligosaccharides and hyacinth bean or batao, 3.66%. A jack bean accession had 1.79% oligosaccharides. Simple processing methods were tested to detoxify the oligosaccharides. Soaking the batao seeds had no effect while boiling even resulted in a net 23-31% increase in the levels of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose. On the other hand, two min of dry roasting resulted in complete removal of oligosaccharides whereas germination resulted in about 30-40% decrease after 1 and 2 days, respectively.

  11. A microgravity boiling and convective condensation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachnik, Leo; Lee, Doojeong; Best, Frederick; Faget, Nanette

    1987-01-01

    A boiling and condensing test article consisting of two straight tube boilers, one quartz and one stainless steel, and two 1.5 m long glass-in-glass heat exchangers, on 6 mm ID and one 10 mm ID, was flown on the NASA KC-135 0-G aircraft. Using water as the working fluid, the 5 kw boiler produces two phase mixtures of varying quality for mass flow rates between 0.005 and 0.1 kg/sec. The test section is instrumented at eight locations with absolute and differential pressure transducers and thermocouples. A gamma densitometer is used to measure void fraction, and high speed photography records the flow regimes. A three axis accelerometer provides aircraft acceleration data (+ or - 0.01G). Data are collected via an analog-to-digital conversion and data acquisition system. Bubbly, annular, and slug flow regimes were observed in the test section under microgravity conditions. Flow oscillations were observed for some operating conditions and the effect of the 2-G pullout prior to the 0-G period was observed by continuously recording data throughout the parabolas. A total fo 300 parabolas was flown.

  12. A microgravity boiling and convective condensation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachnik, Leo; Lee, Doojeong; Best, Frederick; Faget, Nanette

    1987-12-01

    A boiling and condensing test article consisting of two straight tube boilers, one quartz and one stainless steel, and two 1.5 m long glass-in-glass heat exchangers, on 6 mm ID and one 10 mm ID, was flown on the NASA KC-135 0-G aircraft. Using water as the working fluid, the 5 kw boiler produces two phase mixtures of varying quality for mass flow rates between 0.005 and 0.1 kg/sec. The test section is instrumented at eight locations with absolute and differential pressure transducers and thermocouples. A gamma densitometer is used to measure void fraction, and high speed photography records the flow regimes. A three axis accelerometer provides aircraft acceleration data (+ or - 0.01G). Data are collected via an analog-to-digital conversion and data acquisition system. Bubbly, annular, and slug flow regimes were observed in the test section under microgravity conditions. Flow oscillations were observed for some operating conditions and the effect of the 2-G pullout prior to the 0-G period was observed by continuously recording data throughout the parabolas. A total fo 300 parabolas was flown.

  13. Radiopacity of different resin-based and conventional luting cements compared to human and bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Gürel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-02-03

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different resin-based luting materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disc specimens (N=130, n=10 per group) (diameter: 6 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared from 10 resin-based and 3 conventional luting cements. Human canine dentin (n=10), bovine enamel (n=10), bovine dentin (n=10) and Aluminium (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted and equivalent Al thickness values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The radiopacity values of conventional cements and two resin luting materials (Rely X Unicem and Variolink II), were significantly higher than that of bovine enamel that could be preferred for restorations cemented on enamel. Since all examined resin-based luting materials showed radiopacity values equivalent to or greater than that of human and bovine dentin, they could be considered suitable for the restorations cemented on dentin.

  14. Safety basis for the 241-AN-107 mixer pump installation and caustic addition

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1994-10-05

    This safety Basis was prepared to determine whether or not the proposed activities of installing a 76 HP jet mixer pump and the addition of approximately 50,000 gallons of 19 M (50:50 wt %) aqueous caustic are within the safety envelope as described by Tank Farms (chapter six of WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001, Rev. 0). The safety basis covers the components, structures and systems for the caustic addition and mixer pump installation. These include: installation of the mixer pump and monitoring equipment; operation of the mixer pump, process monitoring equipment and caustic addition; the pump stand, caustic addition skid, the electrical skid, the video camera system and the two densitometers. Also covered is the removal and decontamination of the mixer pump and process monitoring system. Authority for this safety basis is WHC-IP-0842 (Waste Tank Administration). Section 15.9, Rev. 2 (Unreviewed Safety Questions) of WHC-IP-0842 requires that an evaluation be performed for all physical modifications.

  15. The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M.; Pugh, E. N.

    1974-01-01

    1. The visual pigment in a 5° circular patch of the living human retina 18° temporal from the fovea was studied with the Rushton retinal densitometer. The measuring light (570 nm) was selected to obviate artifacts from colour photoproducts. 2. The action spectrum of a 10% bleach agrees well with the action spectrum at absolute threshold for the same patch of retina. The quantized C.I.E. scotopic spectral sensitivity curve is a good description of both spectra. Therefore, the visual pigment studied must be human rhodopsin. 3. Its density has been estimated in five different ways. The results are in reasonable agreement. The optical density of human rhodopsin in vivo is about 0·35 (common logarithmic units) at its γmax. 4. The photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in vivo was determined by studying its rate of bleaching in response to steps of monochromatic light exposed to the dark adapted eye, by measuring the amount bleached in the steady state by monochromatic lights as well as the amount bleached by 10 sec flashes of white light. 5. The results obtained by the different methods are in good agreement with each other and with previous estimates made by others using white light. 6. The photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in vivo [εγmax = 62,000 to 120,000 l./cm mole] is much higher than expected from in vitro measurements. PMID:4825455

  16. Rapid and automated characterisation of seed genotype using Micrograd electrophoresis and pattern-matching software.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, C W; Batey, I L; Bekes, F; Gore, P J; Margolis, J

    1992-01-01

    New precast microgels are described for use in quickly identifying seed of cereal varieties by determining protein composition within an hour. For example, gliadin proteins are extracted from crushed wheat grain, wheatmeal or flour with ethylene glycol (centrifugation not necessary) and 5 microliters extract is applied to a Micrograd gel (3-15% gel gradient) for ten minutes' electrophoresis at 300 volts in sodium lactate buffer (pH 3.1). Alternatively, precast gels are available for SDS gel electrophoresis for examining a different aspect of grain composition as a means of identification. To further expedite identification, software packages have been developed to match the protein pattern for an unknown sample against those of authentic samples, thus to provide quick and definite identity, based on electrophoretic banding, densitometer scan, HPLC profile, multiple antibody reaction or RFLP pattern (PatMatch program). Furthermore, the program WhatWheat offers advice on the best combination of methods to use for a specific task of identification.

  17. Development of rocket electrophoresis technique as an analytical tool in preformulation study of tetanus vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Ahire, V J; Sawant, K K

    2006-08-01

    Rocket Electrophoresis (RE) technique relies on the difference in charges of the antigen and antibodies at the selected pH. The present study involves optimization of RE run conditions for Tetanus Toxoid (TT). Agarose gel (1% w/v, 20 ml, pH 8.6), anti-TT IgG - 1 IU/ml, temperature 4-8 degrees C and run duration of 18 h was found to be optimum. Height of the rocket-shaped precipitate was proportional to TT concentration. The RE method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 2.5 to 30 Lf/mL. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, and reproducible when analyzed statistically using student's t-test. RE was used as an analytical method for analyzing TT content in plain and marketed formulations as well as for the preformulation study of vaccine formulation where formulation additives were tested for compatibility with TT. The optimized RE method has several advantages: it uses safe materials, is inexpensive, and easy to perform. RE results are less prone to operator's bias as compared to flocculation test and can be documented by taking photographs and scanned by densitometer; RE can be easily standardized for the required antigen concentration by changing antitoxin concentration. It can be used as a very effective tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis and in preformulation studies of antigens.

  18. Bone mineral density assessment using the EOS low-dose X-ray device: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sapin, E; Briot, K; Kolta, S; Gravel, P; Skalli, W; Roux, C; Mitton, D

    2008-11-01

    To predict bone strength in the case of osteoporosis, it could be a real benefit to assess the three-dimensional (3D) geometry and the bone mineral density (BMD) with a single low-dose X-ray device, such as the EOS system (Biospace Med, Paris, France). EOS 3D reconstructions of the spine have already been validated. Thus, this study aims at evaluating the accuracy of this low-dose system as a densitometer first ex vivo. The European Spine Phantom (ESP) (number 129) was scanned ten times using both the EOS and a Hologic device (Hologic, Inc., Massachusetts, USA). Accuracy was given by the sum of the systematic error (difference between BMDs assessed and true values given by the phantom manufacturer) and the random error (coefficient of variation). EOS BMDs and Hologic BMDs of 41 ex-vivo vertebrae were calculated and compared. The reproducibility of the method evaluating the EOS BMD was assessed giving the coefficient of variation of three measurements of the 41 vertebrae. The accuracy of the EOS system is below 5.2 per cent, versus 7.2 per cent for the Hologic system in the same conditions. EOS BMDs are significantly higher than Hologic BMDs, but they are strongly correlated. The reproducibility of the method of assessment is equal to 0.95 per cent. The EOS system is accurate for ex-vivo BMD assessments, which is promising regarding the use of this new system to predict vertebral strength.

  19. Factors associated with low bone density among women with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih; Wang, Chao-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that depression might be associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in women with depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the BMD of women with major depressive disorder and correlated factors. This prospective cross-sectional study explored the association between bone density and major depressive disorder in women. One hundred women diagnosed with major depressive disorder were enrolled. The diagnoses were made by board-certificated psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered. The bone density of the hip was measured with dual X-ray densitometry (DEXA) using a Hologic Delphi QDR-2000 densitometer. We found age, family history of osteoporosis, consumption of coffee, and consumption of tea to be associated with low BMD in single-variate analysis. Depression was also related to BMD, in that the worse the depression, the lower the BMD. Multi-variate analysis by linear regression revealed an equation of BMD = 0.91 - 0.004 x (severity of depression) + 0.07 x (tea consumption)--0.06 x (family history of osteoporosis)--0.04 x age. These results suggest that depression is associated with lower BMD, and the associated factors should be considered in depressive women. The findings of this research may be useful for improving the care of women with major depressive disorder in terms of developing appropriate and effective care plans.

  20. Characterization of drug authenticity using thin-layer chromatography imaging with a mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hojeong; Le, Huy M; Kaale, Eliangiringa; Long, Kenneth D; Layloff, Thomas; Lumetta, Steven S; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-06-05

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has a myriad of separation applications in chemistry, biology, and pharmacology due to its simplicity and low cost. While benchtop laboratory sample application and detection systems for TLC provide accurate quantitation of TLC spot positions and densities, there are many applications where inexpensive and portable instruments would greatly expand the applicability of the technology. In this work, we demonstrate identity verification and concentration determination of pharmaceutical compounds via TLC using a custom 3D-printed cradle that interfaces with an ordinary mobile phone. The cradle holds the mobile phone's internal, rear-facing camera in a fixed position relative to a UV lamp and a TLC plate that includes a phosphor in the stationary phase. Analysis of photographs thus reveals the locations and intensities of principal spots of UV--absorbing drugs. Automated image analysis software determines the center location and density of dark spots, which, using integrated calibration spots of known drug compounds and concentrations, can be used to determine if a drug has been diluted or substituted. Two independent image processing approaches have been developed that may be selected based upon the processing capabilities of the smartphone. Each approach is able to discern 5% drug concentration differences. Using single-component solutions of nevirapine, amodiaquine, and paracetamol that have been manually applied, the mobile phone-based detection instrument provides measurements that are equivalent to those obtained with a commercially available lab-based desktop TLC densitometer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The comparative radiopacity of Fuji IX-GP, an intermediate restorative material.

    PubMed

    DuBois, D J; Reichl, R B; Hondrum, S O

    2000-04-01

    The radiopacity of intermediate restorative materials should be sufficient to enable the clinician to distinguish the material from normal and decalcified tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative radiopacities of intermediate restorative materials, including a newly introduced high-viscosity, self-cured, condensable glass ionomer material. Radiographs were made of six intermediate restorative materials: two reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol materials (IRM and Zinroc), a conventional glass ionomer material (Ketac-fil), a synthetic resin material (Cavit), a eugenol-free zinc oxide material (Tempit), and a new, general-purpose, condensable glass ionomer material (Fuji IX-GP). Optical density was measured using a densitometer. The optical density of dentin and enamel were used for radiographic comparison. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among materials: Cavit = IRM = Tempit > Zinroc = Fuji IX-GP > Ketac-fil = enamel > dentin (where > indicates a statistical difference at p < or = 0.05). Although not as radiopaque as some other intermediate materials tested, the radiopacity of Fuji IX-GP appears sufficient to aid diagnosis.

  2. PDS SHRINK. PDS SHRINK

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    1993-09-01

    This code enables one to display, take line-outs on, and perform various transformations on an image created by an array of integer*2 data. Uncompressed eight-bit TIFF files created on either the Macintosh or the IBM PC may also be read in and converted to a 16 bit signed integer image. This code is designed to handle all the formats used for PDS (photo-densitometer) files at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These formats are all explained by the application code. The image may be zoomed infinitely and the gray scale mapping can be easily changed. Line-outs may be horizontal or vertical with arbitrary width, angled with arbitrary end points, or taken along any path. This code is usually used to examine spectrograph data. Spectral lines may be identified and a polynomial fit from position to wavelength may be found. The image array can be remapped so that the pixels all have the same change of lambda width. It is not necessary to do this, however. Lineouts may be printed, saved as Cricket tab-delimited files, or saved as PICT2 files. The plots may be linear, semilog, or logarithmic with nice values and proper scientific notation. Typically, spectral lines are curved.

  3. PDS SHRINK

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D. )

    1991-12-15

    This code enables one to display, take line-outs on, and perform various transformations on an image created by an array of integer*2 data. Uncompressed eight-bit TIFF files created on either the Macintosh or the IBM PC may also be read in and converted to a 16 bit signed integer image. This code is designed to handle all the formates used for PDS (photo-densitometer) files at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These formats are all explained by the application code. The image may be zoomed infinitely and the gray scale mapping can be easily changed. Line-outs may be horizontal or vertical with arbitrary width, angled with arbitrary end points, or taken along any path. This code is usually used to examine spectrograph data. Spectral lines may be identified and a polynomial fit from position to wavelength may be found. The image array can be remapped so that the pixels all have the same change of lambda width. It is not necessary to do this, however. Lineouts may be printed, saved as Cricket tab-delimited files, or saved as PICT2 files. The plots may be linear, semilog, or logarithmic with nice values and proper scientific notation. Typically, spectral lines are curved. By identifying points on these lines and fitting their shapes by polyn.

  4. Monitoring of multiphase flows for superconducting accelerators and others applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Yu. P.; Kakorin, I. D.; Kovrizhnykh, A. M.; Miklayev, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a review on implementation of measuring systems for two-phase helium, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and oil-formation/salty water flows. Two types of such systems are presented. The first type is based on two-phase flow-meters combining void fraction radio-frequency (RF) sensors and narrowing devices. They can be applied for superconducting accelerators cooled with two-phase helium, refueling hydrogen system for space ships and some applications in oil production industry. The second one is based on combination of a gamma-densitometer and a narrowing device. These systems can be used to monitor large two-phase LNG and oil-formation water flows. An electronics system based on a modular industrial computer is described as well. The metrological characteristics for different flow-meters are presented and the obtained results are discussed. It is also shown that the experience gained allows separationless flow-meter for three-phase oil-gas-formation water flows to be produced.

  5. Effect of topically applied sphingomyelin-based liposomes on the ceramide level in a three-dimensional cultured human skin model.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Raina; Yokote, Takeshi; Todo, Hiroaki; Hada, Nobuko; Kon, Tatsuhiko; Yasuda, Junko; Hayashi, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Fumie; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2010-03-01

    Sphingomyelin-based liposomes were prepared and applied to the stratum corneum side or basal layer side of a three-dimensional (3D) cultured human skin model, and the increase in the type II ceramide (ceramide II) content of the cultured skin model was evaluated. The sphingomyelin-based liposomes were prepared by a high-pressure emulsification method, and the obtained liposomes were characterized; the particle diameter and zeta potential of the liposomes were 155.3 nm and -11.4 mV, respectively. Their spherical shape and lamella structure were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The sphingomyelin-based liposomes or saline were applied to the cultured skin model, and ceramide II was extracted from the skin model. The extracted ceramide II was separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and quantified by a densitometer. The amount of ceramide II in the cultured skin model was significantly increased by the application of the sphingomyelin-based liposomes, compared with the nonapplication group. Thus, sphingomyelin-based liposomes are useful for enriching the ceramide level in 3D cultured skin models.

  6. Bone mineral density changes in lactating adolescent mothers during the first postpartum year.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Gallegos, Ana Cristina; Cabrera, Rosa María; Quihui, Luis; Zozaya, Ramón; Morales, Gloria G; Valencia, Mauro E; Méndez, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare changes in whole body bone mineral density (wbBMD) during the first postpartum year in adolescent mothers with those of nulliparous adolescents. The study included 21 adolescent mothers and 16 nulliparous adolescent non-indigenous Mexican women (State of Sonora) from a low income level. All mothers were assessed at 15 days (0.5 months), 3 months, and 6 months postpartum; 16 were measured at 12 months postpartum. Nulliparous adolescents were assessed in the same periods. Multiple regression models was used to assess adjusted associations of changes in wbBMD (by DPX-MD+ densitometer) with dietary calcium and physical activity assessments (estimated using pre-tested questionnaires), post menarche years, and number of breast feedings. At baseline, no differences were observed between nulliparous and adolescent mothers regarding age, post-menarche years, or BMD values. Changes in wbBMD of -0.56% and 0.77% were observed in mothers and nulliparous adolescents, respectively, after the first 3 months (P = 0.006). Changes in wbBMD in mothers were associated with number of breast feedings and changes in BMI. At 12 months postpartum, the BMD of adolescent mothers was similar to that of nulliparous adolescents. At 1 year postpartum, adolescent mothers exhibited BMD similar to those of nulliparous adolescents. This result is likely attributable to the breastfeeding practices adopted by mothers during late adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Rapid laboratory detection of antigens of infective agents of infections and technical means for their realization].

    PubMed

    Kal'noĭ, S M

    2003-01-01

    A system of new accelerated and rapid methods for the detection of the antigens of the infective agents of plague, cholera, tularemia and brucellosis were developed on the basis of solid phase immunosuspension tests: the passive hemagglutination (PHA) test and the latex agglutination (LA) test. The immunological and physico-chemical properties of suspensions in the PHA and LA tests made it possible to use extraneous sources of energy (centrifugal acceleration and the electric field) to accelerate these tests. The results of the PHA and LA tests were registered with the use of a densitometer, model Ultrascan 2202, and a tester, model C 34014.2. To apply centrifugal acceleration and the electric field, a laboratory centrifuge and an electrophoretic microchamber were designed. Densitometry was carried out on modified plates and conductometry, with the use of modified electrodes. The time of obtaining the results of the PHA and LA tests was 15-30 minutes with the use of centrifugation and 2-5 minutes in the electric field, which made it possible to regard these tests as rapid.

  8. Electrophoretic Porosimetry of Sol-Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. A.; Smith, D. D.; Sibille, L.; Hunt, A. J.; Ng, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that gravity has an effect on the formation and resulting microstructure of sol-gels. In order to more clearly resolve the effect of gravity, pores may be non-destructively analyzed in the wet gel, circumventing the shrinkage and coarsening associated with the drying procedure. We discuss the development of an electrophoretic technique, analogous to affinity chromatography, for the determination of pore size distribution and its application to silica gels. Specifically a monodisperse charged dye is monitored by an optical densitometer as it moves through the wet gel under the influence of an electric field. The transmittance data (output) represents the convolution of the dye concentration profile at the beginning of the run (input) with the pore size distribution (transfer function), i.e. linear systems theory applies. Because of the practical difficulty in producing a delta function input dye profile we prefer instead to use a step function. Average pore size is then related to the velocity of this dye front, while the pore size distribution is related to the spreading of the front. Preliminary results of this electrophoretic porosimetry and its application to ground and space-grown samples will be discussed.

  9. Behavior of Drag Disc Turbine Transducers in Steady-State Two-Phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbrig, C. W.; Reimann, J.

    1980-08-01

    Many experiments being conducted to investigate the hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in nuclear power plants involve the measurement of two-phase flow. This paper describes an experiment conducted to determine the behavior of a drag-disc turbine transducer (DTT) in a high pressure, high temperature, steam-water steady state environment. DTTs have been used extensively to measure mass flow rates in the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) experiments. Drag discs and turbines have been used in many other safety related facilities. However, the performance of these instruments is highly dependent on flow regime and void fraction and this dependence makes data analysis difficult. Experiments conducted in separated flow are described in this paper. The results show the measured mass flow rates can be corrected if a three-beam gamma densitometer is available, if the calculated density ratio correction is less than three, and if the velocity measured by the turbine is greater than 2 m/ s. The results also suggest that the turbine and drag disc measure local mass average quantities averaged over the area of the DTT.

  10. TLC--densitometric method for qualitative analysis of betamethasone and its related compounds in pharmacautical preparations.

    PubMed

    Dolowy, Małgorzata; Pyka, Alina

    2014-01-01

    A new simple and rapid TLC-densitometric procedure for the separation and identification of betamethasone and its related substances, betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate, betamethasone-17-valerate, betamethasone-21-valerate and also betamethasone disodium phosphate was developed. One of the chromatographic systems proposed in this study, which has been satisfactory applied in separation of four pairs of examined compounds was silica gel 60F254 (E. Merck, Art. 1.05554) and a mixture containing chloroform-methanol-acetic acid (99.5%) in volume composition 28:5:0.5. Densitometric measurements were done using densitometer TLC Scanner 3 at 246 nm. The proposed method was checked in terms of its specificity for the determination of betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate and betamethasone disodium phosphate in commercially available products containing both compounds, separately, as active ingredients. The results showed that the method is suitable for qualitative analysis of betamethasone derivatives in simple and combined pharmaceuticals in various dosage forms e.g., lotion and injection solution. It also can be applied in quality control of pharmaceutical formulations of betamethasone and its related compounds in form of salts and esters.

  11. Model of Close Packing for Determination of the Major Characteristics of the Liquid Dispersions Components

    PubMed Central

    Kolikov, Kiril Hristov; Hristozov, Dimo Donchev; Koleva, Radka Paskova; Krustev, Georgi Aleksandrov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a close packing model of the particles from the disperse phase of a liquid dispersion. With this model, we find the sediment volumes, the emergent, and the bound dispersion medium. We formulate a new approach for determining the equivalent radii of the particles from the sediment and the emergent (different from the Stokes method). We also describe an easy manner to apply algebraic method for determining the average volumetric mass densities of the ultimate sediment and emergent, as well as the free dispersion medium (without using any pycnometers or densitometers). The masses of the different components and the density of the dispersion phase in the investigated liquid dispersion are also determined by means of the established densities. We introduce for the first time a dimensionless scale for numeric characterization and therefore an index for predicting the sedimentation stability of liquid dispersions in case of straight and/or reverse sedimentation. We also find the quantity of the pure substance (without pouring out or drying) in the dispersion phase of the liquid dispersions. PMID:25136673

  12. Quantitative characterizations of phasic structure developments by local measurement methods in two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.S.; Leung, W.H.; Wu, Q.; Ueno, T.; Ishii, M.

    1995-06-01

    An experimental study on the internal structure an a out in a 25.4 mm ID pipe. The local void fraction and interfacial area concentration were measured by a double-sensor probe. The flow structure development was visualized by measuring the radial distribution of these two parameters at three axial, locations (L/D = 12, 62, and 112). A more detailed study on the fully developed flow structure was conducted at L/D = 120. The interfacial structure were measured by the double- and four-sensor probes. A bubbly to-=slug transition region was defined according to the local data.The area-averaged void fraction measurements were given by a gamma densitometer. Other parameters such as the Taylor bubble film thickness, bubble length and slug unit length in slug flow were measured by a film robe. The redundant measurements were made to calibrate the local probe measurements. The quantitative representation of the phasic structure can then be used for modeling.

  13. Zymography in Multiwells for Quality Assessment of Proteinases.

    PubMed

    Mechoor, Ambili; Madanan, Madathiparambil G

    2017-01-01

    Zymography is a well-standardized protocol for the qualitative assessment and analysis of proteinases under specified conditions. However, analysis of a large number of samples simultaneously becomes a challenge when the zymography is carried out by the usual protocol of electrophoresis. This can be overcome by assaying the matrix-degrading proteinases in substrate-impregnated gels in multiwells. Enzymes are copolymerized with 300 mL of 10% acrylamide impregnated with gelatin substrate and incubated for 16 h. The gels are then stained with Coomassie blue, destained with water, and visualized with the naked eye. The intensity; if needed can be measured with a densitometer or gel documentation system. This method has been tested for bacterial collagenases as well as some matrix-degrading metalloproteinases that were purified from rat mammary gland. It can also be used to characterize the enzymes with respect to the type and concentration of the cations required for activity and the role of other regulatory molecules that may affect the enzyme activity. The added advantage of this method is that the electrophoresis set up and electricity is not needed for the procedure.

  14. Density Measurement of Ethanol Blended Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, John

    Density measurements for petro-ethanol blended fuels of various mixture ratios were conducted at temperatures from 5°C to 40°C using an oscillatory densitometer at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA). The petrol and ethanol fuels used for the preparation of samples of ethanol blends were supplied directly from a local petroleum refinery. Results were within the lower end of 0.06% repeatability and 0.3% reproducibility of the ASTM D4052-2011 method. The volume correction factors (VCF) for petrol and ethanol obtained from the measurement results agreed to within 0.1% and 0.01% of the values calculated as per American Petroleum Institute Standard 2540 Chapter 11.1 and 11.3.3 respectively. Based on a simple volume-mixture model, an equation was derived to calculate the VCF for petrol-ethanol blends. The measured and calculated values of VCF were in agreement within 0.1%. This paper presents the measurement method, results and the development of an equation for calculation of VCF for petro-ethanol blends. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  15. Hormone replacement therapy and prevention of osteoporosis: risk assessment and practical advice.

    PubMed

    Balogh, A; Bettembuk, P

    1997-02-01

    A review of the Debrecen Regional Osteoporosis Program (DROP) in Hungary is given, with special reference to the detection of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and its treatment by hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The new definition of osteoporosis by focusing on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements has the major advantage of practical usefulness. The algorithm of managing osteoporotic patients can be easily constructed from the result of bone densitometry as the primary diagnostic tool. The DROP serves a total population of 550,000, is equipped with a DXA bone densitometer, a bone metabolism laboratory and backed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians from gynecology, radiology, rheumatology, internal medicine, and orthopedic surgery. In 1995 the total number of patients undergoing densitometry was 3170. In 2045 patients T scores of -1 or below were found. From this total number, 348 patients received HRT for 1 year or longer. The results of the treatment showed a positive response (i.e. no bone loss, or net gain) in 65%, while half of the 'non responders' proved in fact non compliant. The contradiction between risk assessment and early diagnosis is explained and replacing 'risk assessment' by 'selection criteria for bone densitometry' is proposed. 'Prevention of osteoporosis' is also to be replaced by 'prevention of complications', i.e. osteoporotic fractures. One of these measures is HRT. Its rational use in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and its relation to other treatment methods in the authors' own experience is discussed.

  16. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  17. Salivary proteins associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hang Haw; Rahim, Zubaidah H A; Jessie, Kala; Hashim, Onn H; Taiyeb-Ali, Tara B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800(TM) Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p < 0.01304). This implies that the proteins may have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the prediction of T2DM patients who may be prone to periodontitis.

  18. Salivary Proteins Associated with Periodontitis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hang Haw; Rahim, Zubaidah H. A.; Jessie, Kala; Hashim, Onn H.; Taiyeb-Ali, Tara B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800TM Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p < 0.01304). This implies that the proteins may have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the prediction of T2DM patients who may be prone to periodontitis. PMID:22606001

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Spook site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings 48 mi northeast of Casper, in Converse County, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 187,000 tons of tailings at the Spook site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover makes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation.

  20. [Effectiveness of intranasal salmon calcitonin treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, M

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical efficacy of intranasal salmon calcitonin (Miacalcic, Novartis pharma) treatment in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. 30 women of the main group with established postmenopausal osteoporosis(T-score < -2,5) were treated with intranasal salmon calcitonin: 200 IU daily for 2 months with subsequent pause of 2 months (3 cycles), 12 months in total. Age matched control group was formed by 25 postmenopausal women with similar clinical status. SOS (speed of sound) of cortical bone was measured in the middle of the tibia by ultrasound densitometer--Sound Scan Compact (Myriad-Israel). Patients of both groups received 500 mg Ca and 200 IU vit.D3 (CaD3 Nycomed) two times daily in the same regimen (two months treatment--two months pause). Our results showed that intranasal treatment with 200 IU daily effectively influence the back pain, reduces bone turnover and significantly increases cortical BMD. Significant changes were not observed in patients of the control group, who received only CaD3 Nycomed, that showed that Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is more effective for prevention of bone lose in postmenopausal women, rather for treatment of established osteoporosis.

  1. Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress (OxS) has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ≥60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer®. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p < 0.01); in addition, the SOD/GPx ratio was significantly higher in the group of individuals with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, we found OxS to be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08–7.23; p = 0.034). Conclusion Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio. PMID:18088440

  2. [Synthesis and characterization of mixed metal oxide pigments].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Yue, Shi-juan; Liu, Cui-ge; Wei, Yong-ju; Meng, Tao; Jiang, Han-jie; Shi, Yong-zheng; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Yu, Jiang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, aluminum chloride and various soluble salts of doping ions were dissolved in water. In addition, urea and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were also dissolved in the above aqueous solution under supersonic treatments. Then the solutions were heated to induce the hydrolysis of urea so that soluble aluminum and doping ions convert into insoluble hydroxide or carbonate gels. After calcinations, the obtained gels change to mixed metal oxide pigments whose color is related to type and concentrations of the doping ions. XRD characterization demonstrates that the diffraction patterns of the products are the same as that of alpha-alumina. Diffuse reflectance spectra of samples of the samples in UV-Vis regions show that the absorption bands for d-d transitions of the doping ions undergo considerable change as the coordinate environments change. In addition, L*, a* and b* values of the pigments were measured by using UV-Vis densitometer. SEM results indicate that the size of the pigment powders is in the range 200-300 nm. The pigments are quite stable since no evidence of dissolution was observed after the synthesized pigment is soaked for 24 hours. ICP test shows that very little amount of doped metal occurs in the corresponding filtrate. The above results suggest that these new kinds of mixed metal oxide pigments are stable, non-toxic, environmental friendly and they may be applicable in molten spinning process and provide a new chance for non-aqueous printing and dyeing industry.

  3. Macular pigment optical density in a South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Raman, Rajiv; Rajan, Rajni; Biswas, Sayantan; Vaitheeswaran, Kulothungan; Sharma, Tarun

    2011-10-07

    PURPOSE. To estimate the normal value of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in an adult south Indian sample. METHODS. Three hundred eyes of 161 healthy volunteers (30 men and 30 women in each of the age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥60 years) underwent MPOD measurement with a macular densitometer. Thirty-two eyes were also checked for intersession variability. RESULTS. The mean MPODs in the Indian sample were 0.64 ± 0.23 log unit at 0.25° eccentricity, 0.50 ± 0.21 log unit at 0.5°, 0.37 ± 0.19 log unit at 1.00°, and 0.21 ± 0.16 log unit at 1.75°. At all the foveal eccentricities, the MPOD showed an increase from 20 to 29 to 30 to 39 years of age and thereby showed a decrease with age. The men aged 40 to 49 years had significantly higher MPOD than did the women (0.75 vs. 0.62 log unit, P = 0.039), and the women aged 50 to 59 years had higher MPOD than did the men (0.71 vs. 0.57 log unit, P = 0.019). There was no significant intersession or interocular variation. CONCLUSIONS. This study establishes the MPOD normogram in an adult Indian sample.

  4. Arterial input function of an optical tracer for dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can be determined from pulse oximetry oxygen saturation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Wright, Eric A.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2012-12-01

    In many cases, kinetic modeling requires that the arterial input function (AIF)—the time-dependent arterial concentration of a tracer—be characterized. A straightforward method to measure the AIF of red and near-infrared optical dyes (e.g., indocyanine green) using a pulse oximeter is presented. The method is motivated by the ubiquity of pulse oximeters used in both preclinical and clinical applications, as well as the gap in currently available technologies to measure AIFs in small animals. The method is based on quantifying the interference that is observed in the derived arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) following a bolus injection of a light-absorbing dye. In other words, the change in SaO2 can be converted into dye concentration knowing the chromophore-specific extinction coefficients, the true arterial oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration. A simple error analysis was performed to highlight potential limitations of the approach, and a validation of the method was conducted in rabbits by comparing the pulse oximetry method with the AIF acquired using a pulse dye densitometer. Considering that determining the AIF is required for performing quantitative tracer kinetics, this method provides a flexible tool for measuring the arterial dye concentration that could be used in a variety of applications.

  5. The ISCD and Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Vokes, Tamara; Lentle, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Some 30 years ago the diagnosis of osteoporosis relied primarily on the measurement of bone mineral density by DXA. More recently, however, it was recognized that vertebral fractures are an important predictor of future fractures and that they reflect some aspect of bone fragility not captured by BMD measurement. In response to that, DXA manufacturers developed VFA, spine imaging on the densitometer, which allowed integration of BMD with information on vertebral fractures obtained at the same visit. ISCD has been instrumental in several aspects of VFA use such as developing and teaching courses for VFA or more broadly, for recognition of vertebral fractures; in developing guidelines for performance, interpretation and reporting of the VFA; and in advocating for reimbursement for VFA tests performed in the clinical practice. ISCD is poised to continue as a leader in vertebral fracture recognition and application of VFA to clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement in oil recovery using cosolvents with CO sub 2 gas floods

    SciTech Connect

    Raible, C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of investigations to improve oil recovery using cosolvents in CO{sub 2} gas floods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the application and selection of cosolvents as additives to gas displacement processes. A cosolvent used as a miscible additive changed the properties of the supercritical gas phase. Addition of a cosolvent resulted in increased viscosity and density of the gas mixture, and enhanced extraction of oil compounds into the CO{sub 2} rich phase. Gas phase properties were measured in an equilibrium cell with a capillary viscometer and a high pressure densitometer. A number of requirements must be considered in the application of a cosolvent. Cosolvent miscibility with CO{sub 2}, brine solubility, cosolvent volatility and relative quantity of the cosolvent partitioning into the oil phase were factors that must be considered for the successful application of cosolvents. Coreflood experiments were conducted with selected cosolvents to measure oil recovery efficiency. The results indicate lower molecular weight additives, such as propane, are the most effective cosolvents to increase oil recovery.

  7. Improvement in oil recovery using cosolvents with CO{sub 2} gas floods

    SciTech Connect

    Raible, C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of investigations to improve oil recovery using cosolvents in CO{sub 2} gas floods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the application and selection of cosolvents as additives to gas displacement processes. A cosolvent used as a miscible additive changed the properties of the supercritical gas phase. Addition of a cosolvent resulted in increased viscosity and density of the gas mixture, and enhanced extraction of oil compounds into the CO{sub 2} rich phase. Gas phase properties were measured in an equilibrium cell with a capillary viscometer and a high pressure densitometer. A number of requirements must be considered in the application of a cosolvent. Cosolvent miscibility with CO{sub 2}, brine solubility, cosolvent volatility and relative quantity of the cosolvent partitioning into the oil phase were factors that must be considered for the successful application of cosolvents. Coreflood experiments were conducted with selected cosolvents to measure oil recovery efficiency. The results indicate lower molecular weight additives, such as propane, are the most effective cosolvents to increase oil recovery.

  8. Void fraction measurement in subcooled forced convective boiling with refrigerant 12

    SciTech Connect

    Stangl, G.; Mayinger, F. )

    1990-01-01

    This article presents investigations and results of void fraction and pressure drop of dichlordifluomethane (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}) in forced convective, subcooled boiling. The data were taken at different heat fluxes in a 12- to 25-bar pressure range, the mass fluxes have been varied from 500 to 3000 kg/m{sup 2}s with an inlet subcooling in the range from 10 to 50 K. The experiments have been conducted in an annular test channel with a 0.016-m inner diameter and a 0.03-m outer diameter. The inner tube of the annulus was heated by direct current. The void fraction data were gauged with a {gamma}-densitometer and a specially designed impedance void meter. The experimental results reveal that the void fraction is nearly constant from the onset of nucleation boiling to subcooling of about {Delta}T = 10 K. A method for predicting the void fraction based on the drift flux model is presented.

  9. A comparison of bone mineral densities and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Jingjing; Lu, Haili; Guan, Liping; Teng, Zhihai; Gao, Shangzhi; Li, Mingyi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMDs) and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students, in order to provide a certain reference enhancing college students' physical fitness.A total of 1694 Chinese college students (294 men and 1400 women, aged 18-22 years) and 250 Southeast Asia college students (148 men and 102 women, aged 19-22 years) were included in the study. Weight, height, and body mass index were measured anthropometrically. BMD values were determined by ultrasound bone densitometer and body composition was determined by body composition analyzer.Southeast Asia college students were overweight than Chinese college students (250 vs 1694) (P < 0.05). Chinese college students had a significantly lower body weight, fat mass, lean tissue mass, lean body weight, estimation of bone mass, protein, and metabolic rate but higher BMD at the calcaneus compared with Southeast Asia college students (P < 0.05 for all parameters). However, body water, intracellular fluid, and extracellular fluid were not significantly different between Chinese college students and Southeast Asia college students (P > 0.01 for all parameters).The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that Chinese college students had a higher BMD but lower body composition than Southeast Asia college students, which may be associated with genes, diet, exercise, and other factors.

  10. Excretion rate and composition of skin surface lipids on the foreheads of adult males with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Güldür, Tayfun; Bayraktar, Nihayet; Kaynar, Ozgür; Beker, Gülçin; Koçer, Muzaffer; Ozcan, Hamdi

    2007-01-01

    Most of the lipids of the skin surface come from sebaceous glands secretions, called sebum. Some of the sebum lipids are synthesized by sebaceous cells while some are reportedly derived from the plasma. Role of blood lipoproteins in sebum secretion rate and composition is unclear. To this end, excretion rate and composition of skin surface lipids of normo- and type IV hyperlipoproteinemic subjects were compared. Quantitative analysis of skin surface lipids was performed by three successive sampling on left, middle, and right zones of the forehead with a sebumeter. Skin surface lipid samples for the compositional analysis were collected from the forehead, extracted into n-hexane, and analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). HPTLC plates were scanned with a densitometer for the quantification of the lipids. Skin surface lipids from type IV hyperlipoproteinemic subjects contained higher proportion of wax ester + cholesterol ester compared with that from normolipoproteinemic subjects. However, skin surface lipid excretion rates of normo- and hyperlipoproteinemic subjects were found to be similar. Plasma lipid/lipoprotein concentration may be a determinant factor in sebum lipid composition.

  11. Direct ray aberration estimation in Hartmanngrams by use of a regularized phase-tracking system.

    PubMed

    Servin, M; Cuevas, F J; Malacara, D; Marroquin, J L

    1999-05-01

    The Hartmann test is a well-known technique for testing large telescope mirrors. The Hartmann technique samples the wave front under analysis by use of a screen of uniformly spaced array of holes located at the pupil plane. The traditional technique used to gather quantitative data requires the measurement of the centroid of these holes as imaged near the paraxial focus. The deviation from its unaberrated uniform position is proportional to the slope of the wave-front asphericity. The centroid estimation is normally done manually with the aid of a microscope or a densitometer; however, newer automatic fringe-processing techniques that use the synchronous detection technique or the Fourier phase-estimation method may also be used. Here we propose a new technique based on a regularized phase-tracking (RPT) system to detect the transverse aberration in Hartmanngrams in a direct way. That is, it takes the dotted pattern of the Hartmanngram as input, and as output the RPT system gives the unwrapped transverse ray aberration in just one step. Our RPT is compared with the synchronous and the Fourier methods, which may be regarded as its closest competitors.

  12. Identification of chemical-specific protein profiles in Daphnia magna using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Iamonte, T.; Broadt, T.; Bradley, B.

    1995-12-31

    One dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed on whole-animal homogenates of 10 Daphnia magna exposed for 48 hours to one toxic and one non-toxic concentration of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium pentachlorophenate, two uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation; malathion, an organophosphate; and permethrine, a pyrethroid, along with culture water and solvent controls, as appropriate. Ten randomized complete block exposures were conducted to minimize among-cohort variability. The 10-animal samples were gel electrophoresed, visualized using neutral silver staining and digitized with a Molecular Dynamics personal laser densitometer equipped with ImageQuant software. Densitometric data were used in a commercial neural network software package to construct a learning set, or database, of the protein profiles induced by the known chemical treatments. Novel data sets were then presented to the neural network program for assignment to treatment categories. Although no differences in protein profile between controls and chemical treatments and among chemical treatments could be detected visually in one dimensional gels, the neural network was able to correctly assign each sample to the appropriate learned treatment category about 70 percent of the time. Key proteins used by the neural network software to learn the protein profile of each chemical were identified by molecular weight and assigned a relative importance for identification of that chemical.

  13. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [Cascade Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Snowlines on a small drainage basin were accurately identified on bulk ERTS-1 images without use of digital processing, and results checked with high altitude and ground-based photography. The area and approximate shape of snow patches as small as 20,000 sq m could be correctly identified with a magnifying scanning densitometer. The resolution of ERTS is more than ample for most snow mapping needs. Mount Baker, Washington, has a large crater south of the summit and an area north of the summit which emit considerable geothermal heat in the form of fumaroles and hot ground. Temperatures are being monitored using an ERTS DCS. Debris flows are occassionally released from the crater due to water saturation at the base of a heavy snowpack lying on hydrothermally altered hot ground. These debris flows present a possible hazard to life and property, as they are discharged down the Boulder Glacier toward Baker Lake, the upper of two major hydroelectric power reservoirs which are situated above the populated Skagit River Valley. ERTS-1 images show that the most recent debris flow (20-21 August 1973) can be clearly discerned and mapped. ERTS images provide another important tool for monitoring this potential hazard.

  14. Solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Final technical report, September 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.; Ettehadieh, B.; Lin, C.; Goyal, A.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to develop an experimentally verified hydrodynamic model to predict solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Hydrodynamic models of fluidization use the principles of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. To account for unequal velocities of solid and fluid phases, separate phase momentum balances are developed. Other fluid bed models used in the scale-up of gasifiers do not employ the principles of conservation of momentum. Therefore, these models cannot predict fluid and particle motion. In such models solids mixing is described by means of empirical transfer coefficients. A two dimensional unsteady state computer code was developed to give gas and solid velocities, void fractions and pressure in a fluid bed with a jet. The growth, propagation and collapse of bubbles was calculated. Time-averaged void fractions were calculated that showed an agreement with void fractions measured with a gamma ray densitometer. Calculated gas and solid velocities in the jet appeared to be reasonable. Pressure and void oscillations also appear to be reasonable. A simple analytical formula for the rate of solids circulation was developed from the equations of change. It agrees with Westinghouse fluidization data in a bed with a draft tube. One dimensional hydrodynamic models were applied to modeling of entrained-flow coal gasification reactors and compared with data. Further development of the hydrodynamic models should make the scale-up and simulation of fluidized bed reactors a reality.

  15. Macular pigment optical density measured by heterochromatic modulation photometry.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlomberg, Juliane; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Pokorny, Joel; Kremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    To psychophysically determine macular pigment optical density (MPOD) employing the heterochromatic modulation photometry (HMP) paradigm by estimating 460 nm absorption at central and peripheral retinal locations. For the HMP measurements, two lights (B: 460 nm and R: 660 nm) were presented in a test field and were modulated in counterphase at medium or high frequencies. The contrasts of the two lights were varied in tandem to determine flicker detection thresholds. Detection thresholds were measured for different R:B modulation ratios. The modulation ratio with minimal sensitivity (maximal threshold) is the point of equiluminance. Measurements were performed in 25 normal subjects (11 male, 14 female; age: 30 ± 11 years, mean ± sd) using an eight channel LED stimulator with Maxwellian view optics. The results were compared with those from two published techniques - one based on heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Densitometer) and the other on fundus reflectometry (MPR). We were able to estimate MPOD with HMP using a modified theoretical model that was fitted to the HMP data. The resultant MPODHMP values correlated significantly with the MPODMPR values and with the MPODHFP values obtained at 0.25° and 0.5° retinal eccentricity. HMP is a flicker-based method with measurements taken at a constant mean chromaticity and luminance. The data can be well fit by a model that allows all data points to contribute to the photometric equality estimate. Therefore, we think that HMP may be a useful method for MPOD measurements, in basic and clinical vision experiments.

  16. Increase in ceramide level after application of various sizes of sphingomyelin liposomes to a cultured human skin model.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Y; Jinno, M; Todo, H; Kon, T; Sugibayashi, K; Hashimoto, F

    2011-01-01

    Sphingomyelin-based liposomes (SPM-L) that were sized (or not) by extrusion through a filter with pores of 100, 200, or 400 nm were applied to a three-dimensional cultured human skin model in order to evaluate which size of SPM-L was most effective at increasing its ceramide level. The diameters of the SPM-L in PBS were 102.7, 181.0, 224.0, and 380.1 nm. The diameters of the liposomes in the culture medium were 117.5, 199.2, 242.1, and 749.8 nm. The diameter of the small liposomes (<200 nm in diameter) did not change much, at least for 7 days. SPM-L in saline or culture medium were applied to the basal layer side or stratum corneum side of the cultured skin model, and ceramide II, III, V, and VI were then extracted from it. The extracted ceramide molecules were separated by HPTLC, and the concentration of each type of ceramide was quantified using a densitometer. When the small SPM-L (110 or 190 nm in diameter) were applied to the basal layer side, the levels of ceramide III and V were increased. When they were applied to the stratum corneum side, the levels of ceramide II, III, V, and VI were significantly increased compared to those of the PBS group, especially after the application of the small SPM-L (110 nm in diameter). Thus, the application of small SPM-L was useful for increasing the ceramide II, III, V, and VI levels of a cultured human skin model.

  17. Osteoporosis and osteopenia in adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Conway, S; Morton, A; Oldroyd, B; Truscott, J; White, H; Smith, A; Haigh, I

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have many risk factors for reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in a large cross section of patients and to identify risk factors.
METHODS—All patients attending the regional centre were invited to participate in the study. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and for total body with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Multiple indices of disease severity were investigated, and liver and thyroid function, blood calcium, phosphate, 25-OH vitamin D, follicle stimulating and luteinising hormone, oestradiol, and testosterone levels were measured. Patients completed a four day prospective dietary diary. Exercise was assessed by a seven day activity recall questionnaire. Sexual development and treatment histories were obtained. The relationship between all these variables and BMD measurements was analysed.
RESULTS—Sixty six percent of 114 patients assessed had osteopenia or osteoporosis. The Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) clinical score (higher score = less severe disease) correlated significantly with BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and with total body BMD (p<0.001). There was a predicted increase of 0.0032 g/cm2 in lumbar spine BMD for every unit increase in the SK score. Oral steroid use was significantly associated with reduced BMD at the lumbar spine (p = 0.017) and femoral neck (p = 0.027).
CONCLUSIONS—Osteopenia and osteoporosis are common findings in a heterogeneous population of adults with CF. Patients at most risk are those with severe disease and those who have used corticosteroids.

 PMID:10950902

  18. Osteoporosis and osteopenia in adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Conway, S P; Morton, A M; Oldroyd, B; Truscott, J G; White, H; Smith, A H; Haigh, I

    2000-09-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have many risk factors for reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in a large cross section of patients and to identify risk factors. All patients attending the regional centre were invited to participate in the study. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and for total body with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Multiple indices of disease severity were investigated, and liver and thyroid function, blood calcium, phosphate, 25-OH vitamin D, follicle stimulating and luteinising hormone, oestradiol, and testosterone levels were measured. Patients completed a four day prospective dietary diary. Exercise was assessed by a seven day activity recall questionnaire. Sexual development and treatment histories were obtained. The relationship between all these variables and BMD measurements was analysed. Sixty six percent of 114 patients assessed had osteopenia or osteoporosis. The Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) clinical score (higher score = less severe disease) correlated significantly with BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and with total body BMD (p<0.001). There was a predicted increase of 0.0032 g/cm(2) in lumbar spine BMD for every unit increase in the SK score. Oral steroid use was significantly associated with reduced BMD at the lumbar spine (p = 0.017) and femoral neck (p = 0.027). Osteopenia and osteoporosis are common findings in a heterogeneous population of adults with CF. Patients at most risk are those with severe disease and those who have used corticosteroids.

  19. Prevalence of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities and Factors Affecting Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Sathish Kumar; Gopal, Gopinath Kango; Rangasami, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease of wasting with airflow limitation, associated with a variety of systemic manifestations such as reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD). There is a paucity of Indian studies on the effects of COPD on BMD. Aim This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in COPD patients and the correlation between bone density and severity of COPD classified according to GOLD Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD). Materials and Methods A prospective study of 60 patients diagnosed to have COPD, was conducted in the outpatient department of Respiratory Medicine, at a tertiary care hospital in Southern India, between September 2012 and September 2013. BMD was measured using ultrasound bone densitometer (ACHILLES GE HEALTH CARE). Patients with a T-score between -1 and -2.5 were considered to be osteopenic while patients with a T score less than -2.5 were considered to be osteoporotic (WHO criteria). Results Overall, 40 (67%) patients had an abnormal bone mineral density. A total of 21 (35%) patients were osteoporotic while 19 (33%) were osteopenic. BMD levels correlated with severity of obstruction (p<0.001), smoking status (p=0.02), age (p=0.05) and number of pack years (p=0.001). Conclusion Patients with COPD are at an increased risk for lower BMD and osteoporotic fractures and the risk appears to increase with disease severity. Further studies are required to assess whether routine BMD measurements in COPD patients is beneficial to diagnose osteoporosis and reduce morbidity. PMID:27790490

  20. Chronic lead poisoning magnifies bone detrimental effects in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching Ming; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; Bozzini, Clarisa; Piñeiro, Adriana Emilce; Conti, María Inés; Martínez, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is mainly stored in bones being an important source of endogenous lead exposure during periods of increased bone resorption as occurs in menopause. As no evidence exists of which bone biomechanical properties are impaired in those elderly women who had been exposed to Pb during their lifetime, the aim of the present study is to discern whether chronic lead poisoning magnifies the deterioration of bone biology that occurs in later stages of life. We investigated the effect of Pb in the femora of ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats who had been intoxicated with 1000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water for 8 months. Structural properties were determined using a three-point bending mechanical test, and geometrical and material properties were evaluated after obtaining the load/deformation curve. Areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated using a bone densitometer. Femoral histomorphometry was carried out on slices dyed with H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin). Pb and OVX decreased all structural properties with a higher effect when both treatments were applied together. Medullar and cortical area of femurs under OVX increased, allowing the bone to accommodate its architecture, which was not observed under Pb intoxication. Pb and OVX significantly decreased BMD, showing lead treated ovariectomized rats (PbOVX) animals the lowest BMD levels. Trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV%) was decreased in OVX and PbOVX animals in 54% compared to the control animals (p<0.001). Pb femurs also showed 28% less trabeculae than the control (p<0.05). We demonstrated that Pb intoxication magnifies the impairment in bone biomechanics of OVX rats with a consequent enhancement of the risk of fracture. These results enable the discussion of the detrimental effects of lead intoxication in bone biology in elderly women.

  1. Development of an experimental data base and theories for prediction of thermodynamic properties of aqueous electrolytes and nonelectrolytes of geochemical significance at supercritical temperatures and pressures. Annual performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.H.; Hnedkovsky, L.; Lin, Ching Lung; Shock, E.L.

    1992-02-24

    This project is divided into method experimental measurements, theoretical development, and geochemical applications. We have completed experimental volumetric measurements on aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and B(OH){sub 3} at 25 to 432{degree}C and 280 and 350 bar. A vibrating tube densitometer that allows density measurements near bubble point and also measures the bubble pressure was developed and used to measure densities and bubble pressures of aqueous Co{sub 2}. Heat capacity measurements should be completed by the end of the grant period. Simulations of models for methane in water at temperatures to 1000{degrees}C are in progress. In order to facilitate these free energy calculations the possible errors associated with the calculations have been explored in two papers (Wood, 1991; Wood et al., 1991) and methods of controlling and estimating these errors have been developed. Applications of the new data to geochemical processes is now possible. Efforts have focussed on extracting equilibrium constants for carbonic acid dissociation at supercritical condition from published experiments on mineral equilibria in H{sub 2}0-CO{sub 2} fluids (Boehlke and Shock, 1990; and in prep.). As a result, estimates of pKa for carbonic acid are now available at temperatures from 300 to 750{degrees}C and pressures from 1 to 7 kilobars. They will be combined with {bar V}{sup {degree}} and {bar C}p{sup {degree}} data for CO{sup 2}(aq) to improve geochemical calculations.

  2. Development of an experimental data base and theories for prediction of thermodynamic properties of aqueous electrolytes and nonelectrolytes of geochemical significance at supercritical temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.H.; Hnedkovsky, L.; Lin, Ching Lung . Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry); Shock, E.L. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1992-02-24

    This project is divided into method experimental measurements, theoretical development, and geochemical applications. We have completed experimental volumetric measurements on aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and B(OH){sub 3} at 25 to 432{degree}C and 280 and 350 bar. A vibrating tube densitometer that allows density measurements near bubble point and also measures the bubble pressure was developed and used to measure densities and bubble pressures of aqueous Co{sub 2}. Heat capacity measurements should be completed by the end of the grant period. Simulations of models for methane in water at temperatures to 1000{degrees}C are in progress. In order to facilitate these free energy calculations the possible errors associated with the calculations have been explored in two papers (Wood, 1991; Wood et al., 1991) and methods of controlling and estimating these errors have been developed. Applications of the new data to geochemical processes is now possible. Efforts have focussed on extracting equilibrium constants for carbonic acid dissociation at supercritical condition from published experiments on mineral equilibria in H{sub 2}0-CO{sub 2} fluids (Boehlke and Shock, 1990; and in prep.). As a result, estimates of pKa for carbonic acid are now available at temperatures from 300 to 750{degrees}C and pressures from 1 to 7 kilobars. They will be combined with {bar V}{sup {degree}} and {bar C}p{sup {degree}} data for CO{sup 2}(aq) to improve geochemical calculations.

  3. Effect of High Impact or Non-impact Loading Activity on Bone Bending Stiffness and Mineral Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.; Arnnud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles R.; Moreno, Alexjandro

    2003-01-01

    Material properties of conical bone, including mineral density (BMD) and its geometry is closely related to its load-carrying capacity. These two primary components determine the strength of conical bone. High impact loading involving acceleration and deceleration movements used in gymnastics induce higher BMD of the affected bone compared to the non-impact acceleration and deceleration movements used in swimming. Study of these two groups of athletes on bone bending stiffness has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in bone bending stiffness and BMD between competitive female synchronized swimmers and female gymnasts. Thirteen world class female synchronized swimmers (SYN) and 8 female gymnasts (GYM), mean age 21 +/- 2.9 yr. were recruited for this study. We used a mechanical response tissue analyzer (Gaitscan, NJ) to calculate EI, where E is Young's modulus of elasticity and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia. EI was obtained from tissue response to a vibration probe placed directly on the skin of the mid-region of tibia and ulna. BMD of the heel and wrist were measured with a probe densitometer (PIXI, Lunor, WI). The SYN were taller than (p < 0.05) the GYM but weighed the same as the GYM. EI obtained from tibia and ulna of the SYN (291 +/- 159 and 41 +/- 19.4, respectively) were not significantly different from thc GYM (285 +/- 140 and 44 +/- 18.3, respectively). BMD of the heel and wrist in GYM were higher than in SYN (p < 0.001). High impact weight-bearing activities promote similar bone strength but greater BMD response than non-impact activities performed in a buoyant environment.

  4. Does Visceral Fat Estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Independently Predict Cardiometabolic Risks in Adults?

    PubMed

    Sasai, Hiroyuki; Brychta, Robert J; Wood, Rachel P; Rothney, Megan P; Zhao, Xiongce; Skarulis, Monica C; Chen, Kong Y

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal visceral fat, typically measured by computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been shown to correlate with cardiometabolic risks. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a newly developed and validated visceral fat measurement from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides added predictive value to the cross-sectional differences of cardiometabolic parameters beyond the traditional anthropometric and DXA adiposity parameters. A heterogeneous cohort of 194 adults (81 males and 113 females) with a BMI of 19 to 54 kg/m(2) participated in this cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured with a DXA densitometer. Visceral fat was then computed with a proprietary algorithm. Insulin sensitivity index (SI, measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test), blood pressures, and lipid profiles, and peak oxygen uptake were also measured as cardiometabolic risk parameters. DXA-estimated visceral fat mass was associated with HDL cholesterol (regression coefficient [β] = -5.15, P < .01, adjusted R(2) = .21), triglyceride (β = 26.01, P < .01, adjusted R(2) = .14), and peak oxygen uptake (β = -3.15, P < .01, adjusted R(2) = .57) after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. A subanalysis stratifying gender-specific BMI tertiles showed visceral fat, together with ethnicity, was independently associated with SI in overweight men and moderately obese women (second tertile). Without requiring additional CT or MRI-based measurements, visceral fat detected by DXA might offer certain advantages over the traditional DXA adiposity parameters as means of assessing cardiometabolic risks. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  6. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in amnion and decidua following spontaneous labor.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, A; Spaziani, E P; O'Brien, W F

    1996-10-01

    Prostaglandins production rises dramatically during term and preterm labor. The source of this production is thought to be the fetal membranes and maternal decidua. The enzyme responsible for the conversion of arachidonic acid to the prostaglandins and related endoperoxides is variously known as prostaglandin synthase or cyclooxygenase (COX). An inducible form of this enzyme, COX-2, has been described in several tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible role for COX-2 in labor by comparing the COX-2 content in amnion and decidua from laboring and non-laboring patients. Fetal membranes from seven normal labor and ten elective cesarean sections at term were collected immediately following delivery. The maternal age and gravity were similar between the groups. The amnion and decidua were identified, washed in sterile saline, frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored in -70 degrees C. COX-2 expression was determined using Western Blot analysis with a purified COX-2 antibody. A scanning densitometer was used to quantify the bands. Results were expressed as mean +/-S.D. ng/50 micrograms protein. The concentration of COX-2 in amnion of laboring women showed a twofold increase (240.0 +/- 17.6 vs. 120.7 +/- 5.1) compared to the non-labored group (p < 0.05). The concentration in the decidua showed no significant increase during labor (38.1 +/- 7.5 vs. 26.4 +/- 2.1, p > 0.05). We evaluated the role of COX-2 in normal labor. Our study demonstrates that COX-2 is significantly induced in the amnion following spontaneous labor. These findings suggest that the induction of amnion COX-2 may be involved in the process of human labor.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  8. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2016-04-01

    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) for analysis of red, green and blue colors (RGB values). Urinary creatinine is used as a model analyte to represent a sample in complicated biological matrices. Separation was carried out on a silica gel plate using a butanol-NH4OH-H2O (40 : 10 : 50, v/v) mobile phase with a 6-cm solvent front. It is important that the TLC plate be stained evenly and with sufficient staining time. Staining the TLC plate in a 23.4 × 18.8 × 6.8 cm chamber containing about 70 g iodine crystals yielded comparable results for the staining times of 30-60 min. The Green value offered the best results in the linear working range (0.0810-0.9260 mg/mL) and precision (2.03% RSD, n = 10). The detection limit was found to be 0.24 µg per 3 µL spot. Urinary creatinine concentrations determined by TLC-digital image analysis using the green value calibration graph agree well with results obtained from high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  9. Clinical utility of dual-energy vertebral assessment (DVA).

    PubMed

    Vokes, Tamara J; Dixon, Larry B; Favus, Murray J

    2003-11-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical utility of DVA, a system for imaging the lateral spine on the Lunar Prodigy densitometer. DVA images were obtained and bone density of the lumbar spine and proximal femur measured in 297 subjects (272 women), aged 64+/-13 years. The images were classified as: normal (N) if no fractures were detected and all vertebrae between T6 and L4 were visualized, fracture (F) if any vertebra had a fracture (defined as 25% or more reduction in the vertebral height) even if some of the other vertebrae could not be visualized, and un-interpretable (U) if at least one of the vertebra between T6 and L4 could not be classified and no fractures were detected in the visualized vertebrae. A subset of 66 patients also had standard radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Compared to radiographs, DVA had a 95% sensitivity to detect fractures and 82% specificity (to exclude them). Among all 297 subjects studied, DVAs were interpretable in 87%. They were classified as N in 204 (68%), F in 55 (19%) and U in 38 (13%). The reasons for un-interpretability were: scoliosis, scapular or rib shadow, severe arthritic changes and multiple vertebral compression fracture with severe spinal deformities. Only 11% of F subjects gave a history of a vertebral fracture, and only 56% of F subjects met the BMD criteria for osteoporosis (T score <-2.5). These results indicate that adding DVA, a low radiation and relatively low cost "point of service" procedure, to BMD measurement provides the clinician with a more comprehensive fracture risk assessment than that afforded by clinical evaluation and BMD measurement alone.

  10. Importance of bioavailable calcium drinking water for the maintenance of bone mass in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Costi, D; Calcaterra, P G; Iori, N; Vourna, S; Nappi, G; Passeri, M

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the importance of calcium intake through mineral water on vertebral bone density in women. To this purpose, we examined 255 women divided into two groups: those regularly drinking a high calcium content mineral water (group A; no.=175) and those using different type of water with a lower calcium content (group B; no.=80). Their dietary daily calcium intake was determined by means of a validated questionnaire (N.I.H. Consensus statement) and vertebral bone density was measured by Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry (Unigamma-plus ACN densitometer). Women in group A ingested a significantly higher quantity of calcium in water than women in group B (mean difference 258 mg; 95% confidence limits: 147-370 mg). The average bone density values were slightly but significantly higher in group A as compared to group B (mean+/-SD: 1.044+0,15 vs 1.002+0,14; p=0.03). In addition to age, BMI and menopausal status, calcium intake was a significant predictor of spinal BMD. These 4 variables explained about 35% of the spinal BMD variance. When the analysis was repeated separately for pre- and post-menopausal subjects, calcium remained a significant predictor in post-menopausal women (t=2.28; p=0.02), but not in premenopausal women. These results underline the importance of a lifelong daily calcium intake, resulting by the regular drinking of high bioavailable calcium water, in order to maintain bone mass after the menopause, in comparison to the use of a lower content calcium water.

  11. Osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Rezqi, Asmaa; El Mrahi, Salwa; Sadni, Siham; Ghozlani, Imad; Mounach, Aziza

    2014-12-10

    The combined effect of the metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors on bone health has led to controversial results and it is still not clear whether this effect is protective or detrimental. The study aimed to examine the association between MS and bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, and vertebral fractures (VFs) among ambulatory older postmenopausal women. 270 post-menopausal women with a mean age of 61.0 years ± 7.8 (50 to 90) with no prior known diagnosis of osteoporosis were recruited. BMD and Lateral vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) images were obtained using a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy densitometer. VFs were defined using a combination of Genant semiquantitative approach and morphometry. The MS as defined by the NCEP-ATP III was present in 62 women (23.0%). According to the WHO classification, 82 had osteoporosis at any site (30.4%). VFs were identified in 116 (43.0%): 80 (29.6%) had grade 1 and 36 (13.3%) had grade 2 or 3. Women with MS had a significantly higher BMD and lower prevalence of osteoporosis (17.7% vs. 34.1%) than those without MS. No significant statistical difference was noted in prevalence of VFs (14.5 vs. 13.0%). There were significantly less women with MS among the group of osteoporotic women (13% vs. 27%; p = 0.018). Conditional regression binary analysis assessing the presence of osteoporosis as the dependent variable showed that women with a MS had a significant 71% decrease in the odds of being osteoporotic by BMD compared with women who had not MS accounting for age, BMI, number of parities and years since menopause. Women with MS had higher BMD at the hip and spine, suggesting a protective effect of MS on bone. However, the prevalence of VFs was similar between women with or without MS.

  12. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2016-01-01

    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) for analysis of red, green and blue colors (RGB values). Urinary creatinine is used as a model analyte to represent a sample in complicated biological matrices. Separation was carried out on a silica gel plate using a butanol–NH4OH–H2O (40 : 10 : 50, v/v) mobile phase with a 6-cm solvent front. It is important that the TLC plate be stained evenly and with sufficient staining time. Staining the TLC plate in a 23.4 × 18.8 × 6.8 cm chamber containing about 70 g iodine crystals yielded comparable results for the staining times of 30–60 min. The Green value offered the best results in the linear working range (0.0810–0.9260 mg/mL) and precision (2.03% RSD, n = 10). The detection limit was found to be 0.24 µg per 3 µL spot. Urinary creatinine concentrations determined by TLC-digital image analysis using the green value calibration graph agree well with results obtained from high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:26657734

  13. Is bone microarchitecture status of the lumbar spine assessed by TBS related to femoral neck fracture? A Spanish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, L M; Winzenrieth, R; Cormier, C; Di Gregorio, S

    2013-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) constitutes the gold standard for osteoporosis diagnosis. However, DXA does not take into account bone microarchitecture alterations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of trabecular bone score (TBS) at lumbar spine to discriminate subjects with hip fracture. We presented a case-control study of 191 Spanish women aged 50 years and older. Women presented transcervical fractures only. BMD was measured at lumbar spine (LS-BMD) using a Prodigy densitometer. TBS was calculated directly on the same spine image. Descriptive statistics, tests of difference and univariate and multivariate backward regressions were used. Odds ratio (OR) and the ROC curve area of discriminating parameters were calculated. The study population consisted of 83 subjects with a fracture and 108 control subjects. Significant lower spine and hip BMD and TBS values were found for subjects with fractures (p < 0.0001). Correlation between LS-BMD and spine TBS was modest (r = 0.41, p < 0.05). LS-BMD and TBS independently discriminate fractures equally well (OR = 2.21 [1.56-3.13] and 2.05 [1.45-2.89], respectively) but remain lower than BMD at neck or at total femur (OR = 5.86 [3.39-10.14] and 6.06 [3.55-10.34], respectively). After adjusting for age, LS-BMD and TBS remain significant for transcervical fracture discrimination (OR = 1.94 [1.35-2.79] and 1.71 [1.15-2.55], respectively). TBS and LS-BMD combination (OR = 2.39[1.70-3.37]) improved fracture risk prediction by 25 %. This study shows the potential of TBS to discriminate subjects with and without hip fracture. TBS and LS-BMD combination improves fracture risk prediction. Nevertheless, BMD at hip remains the best predictor of hip fracture.

  14. Scanner-based image quality measurement system for automated analysis of EP output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipman, Yair; Mehta, Prashant; Johnson, Kate

    2003-12-01

    Inspection of electrophotographic print cartridge quality and compatibility requires analysis of hundreds of pages on a wide population of printers and copiers. Although print quality inspection is often achieved through the use of anchor prints and densitometry, more comprehensive analysis and quantitative data is desired for performance tracking, benchmarking and failure mode analysis. Image quality measurement systems range in price and performance, image capture paths and levels of automation. In order to address the requirements of a specific application, careful consideration was made to print volume, budgetary limits, and the scope of the desired image quality measurements. A flatbed scanner-based image quality measurement system was selected to support high throughput, maximal automation, and sufficient flexibility for both measurement methods and image sampling rates. Using an automatic document feeder (ADF) for sample management, a half ream of prints can be measured automatically without operator intervention. The system includes optical character recognition (OCR) for automatic determination of target type for measurement suite selection. This capability also enables measurement of mixed stacks of targets since each sample is identified prior to measurement. In addition, OCR is used to read toner ID, machine ID, print count, and other pertinent information regarding the printing conditions and environment. This data is saved to a data file along with the measurement results for complete test documentation. Measurement methods were developed to replace current methods of visual inspection and densitometry. The features that were being analyzed visually could be addressed via standard measurement algorithms. Measurement of density proved to be less simple since the scanner is not a densitometer and anything short of an excellent estimation would be meaningless. In order to address the measurement of density, a transfer curve was built to translate the

  15. Amelioration of osteoporosis and hypovitaminosis D by sunlight exposure in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Honda, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A high incidence of fractures, particularly of the hip, represents an important problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who are prone to falls and have osteoporosis. We previously showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) deficiency due to sunlight deprivation with compensatory hyperparathyroidism causes reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly patients with PD. The present study was undertaken to address the possibility that sunlight exposure may maintain BMD and reduce the incidence of hip fracture in elderly patients with PD. In a prospective study, PD patients were assigned to regular sunlight exposure (n=162) or usual lifestyle (n=162), and followed for 2 years. BMD of the second metacarpal bone was measured using a computed X-ray densitometer. Incidence of hip fracture in the two patient groups during the 2 year follow-up period was assessed. At baseline, patients of both groups showed vitamin D deficiency due to sunlight deprivation with compensatory hyperparathyroidism. The exposed group patients were exposed to sunlight (3231 min/year). BMD increased by 3.8% in the sunlight-exposed group and decreased by 2.6% in the usual lifestyle group (p<.0001). Serum 25-OHD level increased from 27 nmol/L to 52 nmol/L in the sunlight-exposed group. Eleven patients sustained hip fracture in the normal lifestyle group, and 3 fractures occurred among the sunlight-exposed group (p=.03; odds ratio=2.4). Sunlight exposure can increase the BMD of vitamin D deficient bone by increasing 25-OHD concentration and leads to the prevention of hip fracture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Obesity, bone status and dietary intake of Palauan elderly congregating in a Senior Citizen's Center.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Yuko; Muto, Shimako; Fujikura, Junko; Sakuma, Mituru; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Otto, Caleb T O; Nakamura, Lillian

    2005-03-01

    A health survey of obesity and bone density measured by an Achilles Ultrasound bone densitometer (Lunar, USA) and nutritional intake was carried out for 15 male and 30 female Palauan elderly persons congregating in a Senior Citizens' Center. The subjects had high obesity values with mean BMI of 27.0 in males and 28.9 in females, and with mean body fat % of 22.3 in males and 39.8 in females (p < 0.01). The females showed a great decline in bone density from 60 to 70 years of age, with mean Stiffness index of 65.0 compared with that of 80.0 for males of the same age group. The subjects have all undergone a certain acculturation in their dietary habits, influenced by traditional Palauan, East-Asian, and Western food and dietary patterns. While all subjects had high carbohydrate intakes, and males had significantly greater intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B1 and niacin than females. To determine the association of nutritional intake with obesity and Stiffness index, principal component analysis was carried out for amounts of intake of each food group. Correlation analysis between the scores of each principal food component and the body fat %, the BMI and the stiffness index was done. The score of the fourth principal component named "greater variety of food intake" was found to have significant positive correlation with body fat %. However, between the nutritional intake and body fat %, only a relationship could be identified. The findings indicate a need develop appropriate nutrition education and, particularly to address the problem of obesity.

  17. Estimation of the prevalence of low bone density in Canadian women and men using a population-specific DXA reference standard: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Tenenhouse, A; Joseph, L; Kreiger, N; Poliquin, S; Murray, T M; Blondeau, L; Berger, C; Hanley, D A; Prior, J C

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a prospective cohort study which will measure the incidence and prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures, and the effect of putative risk factors, in a random sample of 10,061 women and men aged > or = 25 years recruited in approximately equal numbers in nine centers across Canada. In this paper we report the results of studies to establish peak bone mass (PBM) which would be appropriate reference data for use in Canada. These reference data are used to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in Canadian women and men aged > or = 50 years. Participants were recruited via randomly selected household telephone listings. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using Hologic QDR 1000 or 2000 or Lunar DPX densitometers. BMD results for lumbar spine and femoral neck were converted to a Hologic base. BMD of the lumbar spine in 578 women and 467 men was constant to age 39 years giving a PBM of 1.042 +/- 0.121 g/cm2 for women and 1.058 +/- 0.127 g/cm2 for men. BMD at the femoral neck declined from age 29 years. The mean femoral neck BMD between 25 and 29 years was taken as PBM and was found to be 0.857 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for women and 0.910 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for men. Prevalence of osteoporosis, as defined by WHO criteria, in Canadian women aged > or = 50 years was 12.1% at the lumbar spine and 7.9% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 15.8%. In men it was 2.9% at the lumbar spine and 4.8% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 6.6%.

  18. The effect of vehicle on physical properties and aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromoglycate microparticles spray dried alone or with L-leucine.

    PubMed

    Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Gilani, Kambiz; Barghi, Mohammadali; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2004-11-05

    The aim of this study was to improve the aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromogycate (DSCG), using spray drying technique. The effect of vehicle on the drug particle properties was investigated. L-leucine was selected as a natural antiadherent amino acid to improve the deagglomeration of DSCG particles. Spray dried samples of DSCG alone or with L-leucine were prepared from water and ethanol under the same conditions. The powder properties of the samples were examined by laser diffraction, helium densitometer, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The in vitro deposition was determined, using an Andersen cascade impactor with a Spinhaler at a flow rate of 60 l/min. An amorphous form of the drug was obtained when water was used. However, crystal transformation of original DSCG in the presence of ethanol during spray drying resulted in production of elongated particles. These particles exhibited improved aerodynamic properties, compared to the amorphous and commercial materials. Significant differences in fine particle fraction were observed using the two vehicles. Co-spray drying of DSCG and L-leucine improved the deposition profiles of the drug. These results indicated that the change in crystal structure of DSCG during spray drying process was susceptible to the nature of the vehicle. A crystalline form of DSCG with good aerodynamic properties was achieved during spray drying process. In addition, the processing of DSCG with L-leucine in a single step using ethanol resulted in an improvement in dispersion properties of the drug particles. copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Levels of DKK1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction and response to atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Pérez Castrillón, José Luis; San Miguel, Angel; Vega, Gemma; Abad, Laura; Andres Domingo, María; Gonzalez Sagredo, Manuel; de Luis, Daniel; Duenas-Laita, Antonio

    2010-11-05

    The Wnt-LPR5 signalling pathway plays an important role in skeletal homeostasis, especially in regulating osteoblastic activity. Activation of this pathway is regulated by various inhibitors, including DKK1. The objective of this study was to evaluate DKK1 levels in patients with ischemic heart disease, the response to atorvastatin and the relationship with bone mass. Twenty-one patients with acute myocardial infarction and twenty-three controls with a mean age of 61 ± 9 years with acute coronary syndrome were included. Patients were allocated to low (10-20mg) and high doses (40-80 mg) of atorvastatin according to baseline levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and the index of vascular risk. Patients were studied at hospital admission (baseline) and at 12 months of follow up. DKK1 was determined in all patients at baseline and at 12 months of follow up. Densitometric studies were conducted in the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the femoral neck and trochanter using an X-ray densitometer. Patients had higher levels of DKK1 than controls, (111 ± 41 nmol/l versus 84 ± 27 nmol/l, p=0.014). Osteoporotic patients had higher levels of DKK1 (137.5 ± 33 nmol/l versus 95.4 ± 36 nmol/l, p=0.021). Analysis of the response to atorvastatin showed reduced DKK1 levels. In conclusion, in patients with acute coronary syndrome, atorvastatin decreases DKK1 levels. This may be a previously unreported mechanism of action of atorvastatin on bone, stimulating the Wnt signalling pathway and increasing bone mass.

  20. HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS FOR SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT ALSO INCLUDES THE QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD 01/01/1997 - 03/31/1997.

    SciTech Connect

    DIMITRI GIDASPOW

    1997-08-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) three phase model. It predicts the gas, liquid and solid hold-ups (volume fractions) and flow patterns in the industrially important bubble-coalesced (churn-turbulent) regime. The input into the model can be either particulate viscosities as measured with a Brookfield viscometer or effective restitution coefficient for particles. A combination of x-ray and {gamma}-ray densitometers was used to measure solid and liquid volume fractions. There is a fair agreement between the theory and the experiment. A CCD camera was used to measure instantaneous particle velocities. There is a good agreement between the computed time average velocities and the measurements. There is an excellent agreement between the viscosity of 800 {micro}m glass beads obtained from measurement of granular temperature (random kinetic energy of particles) and the measurement using a Brookfield viscometer. A relation between particle Reynolds stresses and granular temperature was found for developed flow. Such measurement and computations gave a restitution coefficient for a methanol catalyst to be about 0.9. A transient, two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for production of methanol from syn-gas in an Air Products/DOE LaPorte slurry bubble column reactor was developed. The model predicts downflow of catalyst at the walls and oscillatory particle and gas flow at the center, with a frequency of about 0.7 Hertz. The computed temperature variation in the rector with heat exchangers was only about 5 K, indicating good thermal management. The computed slurry height, the gas holdup and the rate of methanol production agree with LaPorte's reported data. Unlike the previous models in the literature, this model computes the gas and the particle holdups and the particle rheology. The only adjustable parameter in the model is the effective particle restitution coefficient.

  1. Effect of High Impact or Non-impact Loading Activity on Bone Bending Stiffness and Mineral Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.; Arnnud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles R.; Moreno, Alexjandro

    2003-01-01

    Material properties of conical bone, including mineral density (BMD) and its geometry is closely related to its load-carrying capacity. These two primary components determine the strength of conical bone. High impact loading involving acceleration and deceleration movements used in gymnastics induce higher BMD of the affected bone compared to the non-impact acceleration and deceleration movements used in swimming. Study of these two groups of athletes on bone bending stiffness has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in bone bending stiffness and BMD between competitive female synchronized swimmers and female gymnasts. Thirteen world class female synchronized swimmers (SYN) and 8 female gymnasts (GYM), mean age 21 +/- 2.9 yr. were recruited for this study. We used a mechanical response tissue analyzer (Gaitscan, NJ) to calculate EI, where E is Young's modulus of elasticity and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia. EI was obtained from tissue response to a vibration probe placed directly on the skin of the mid-region of tibia and ulna. BMD of the heel and wrist were measured with a probe densitometer (PIXI, Lunor, WI). The SYN were taller than (p < 0.05) the GYM but weighed the same as the GYM. EI obtained from tibia and ulna of the SYN (291 +/- 159 and 41 +/- 19.4, respectively) were not significantly different from thc GYM (285 +/- 140 and 44 +/- 18.3, respectively). BMD of the heel and wrist in GYM were higher than in SYN (p < 0.001). High impact weight-bearing activities promote similar bone strength but greater BMD response than non-impact activities performed in a buoyant environment.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF PASSIVE TOBACCO EXPOSURE AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON BONE TISSUE OF YOUNG RATS

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Regina Celi Trindade; Costalonga, Regiane Rocha; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Camargo, José Carlos Silva; Urban, Jacqueline Bexiga

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of passive smoking during pregnancy and associated with swimming on bone area growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC). Methods: The offspring was grouped by control matrices (G1) and passive smokers (G2). The offspring was regrouped in eight subgroups, with exposure to smoking (2x/day) and physical exercise (1 session/day), respecting the group of matrices in: sedentary control (G1CS and G2CS), swimming control (G1CN and G2CN), sedentary passive smoker (G1FS and G2FS), and passive smoker swimmer (G1FN and G2FN). The area, BMD and BMC were measured by the tibia and femur and analyzed by densitometer. The results were analyzed by One-Way ANOVA test with Tukey post-test, with a significance level of 5%. Results: In the tibia BMC study, a better rate was observed in G2CN group when compared to G1CS, G1CN and G1FN (p ≤ 0.023). When assessing BMD in the femur, a higher density ratio was observed in G1FS group when compared to G2CS, G2CN, G2FS and G2FN (p<0.008). In the tibia study, the animals of the G1FS group had higher rates when compared to G2CS and G2FN groups (p≤0.007). Conclusions: The model of male offspring exposed to passive smoking during fetal development showed a strong decrease in the analyzed parameters. Level of Evidence I, Randomized High Quality Clinical Trial With or Without Statistically Significant Difference, But Narrow Confidence Intervals. PMID:28642655

  3. Clinical comparison of a novel breast DXA technique to mammographic density

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, John A.; Herve, Lionel; Landau, Jessie; Fan Bo; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steve R.

    2006-05-15

    We compare mammography breast density (BD{sub MD}) to the measure of breast composition using a clinical dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) system (BD{sub DXA}) calibrated to measure breast density. A DXA scanning protocol was developed to scan breasts isolated in the DXA scan field in either a prone pendulous or decubitus mediolateral position. A total of 17 participants were recruited among women undergoing clinical mammography examinations. Each participant had duplicate DXA scans and duplicate craniocaudal-view mammograms of their right breast with repositioning between each scan and one DXA and one craniocaudal-view mammogram of their left breast. The in vivo repeatability (RMS SD) of BD{sub DXA} and BD{sub MD} on duplicate scans was found to be 1.2% for BD{sub DXA} and 1.4% for BD{sub MD} when repeat BD{sub MD} measures were made on the same day. When repeat BD{sub MD} measures of the same breast were made more than 50 days apart, the repeatability decreased to 5.5%. Left and right breast measurements were highly correlated with both techniques at r{sup 2}=0.98 for BD{sub DXA} and r{sup 2}=0.86 for BD{sub MD}. Moderate correlation (r{sup 2}=0.52) was found between BD{sub DXA} and BD{sub MD} measurements. However, after recalibrating the DXA system to mammography reference materials, negative percent fibroglandular values were measured for the most fatty breasts. Thus, our results are reproducible and accurate to common mammography tissue standards, but did not accurately reflect true percent fibroglandular levels and further development of phantom standards are necessary. We conclude that breast composition can be precisely evaluated and assessed with clinical DXA densitometers at a lower dose than with mammographic breast density methods.

  4. New approach to probability estimate of femoral neck fracture by fall (Slovak regression model).

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2009-01-01

    3,216 Slovak women with primary or secondary osteoporosis or osteopenia, aged 20-89 years, were examined with the bone densitometer DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, GE, Prodigy - Primo), x = 58.9, 95% C.I. (58.42; 59.38). The values of the following variables for each patient were measured: FSI (femur strength index), T-score total hip left, alpha angle - left, theta angle - left, HAL (hip axis length) left, BMI (body mass index) was calculated from the height and weight of the patients. Regression model determined the following order of independent variables according to the intensity of their influence upon the occurrence of values of dependent FSI variable: 1. BMI, 2. theta angle, 3. T-score total hip, 4. alpha angle, 5. HAL. The regression model equation, calculated from the variables monitored in the study, enables a doctor in praxis to determine the probability magnitude (absolute risk) for the occurrence of pathological value of FSI (FSI < 1) in the femoral neck area, i. e., allows for probability estimate of a femoral neck fracture by fall for Slovak women. 1. The Slovak regression model differs from regression models, published until now, in chosen independent variables and a dependent variable, belonging to biomechanical variables, characterising the bone quality. 2. The Slovak regression model excludes the inaccuracies of other models, which are not able to define precisely the current and past clinical condition of tested patients (e.g., to define the length and dose of exposure to risk factors). 3. The Slovak regression model opens the way to a new method of estimating the probability (absolute risk) or the odds for a femoral neck fracture by fall, based upon the bone quality determination. 4. It is assumed that the development will proceed by improving the methods enabling to measure the bone quality, determining the probability of fracture by fall (Tab. 6, Fig. 3, Ref. 22). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  5. Does Visceral Fat Estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Independently Predict Cardiometabolic Risks in Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Hiroyuki; Brychta, Robert J.; Wood, Rachel P.; Rothney, Megan P.; Zhao, Xiongce; Skarulis, Monica C.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal visceral fat, typically measured by computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been shown to correlate with cardiometabolic risks. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a newly developed and validated visceral fat measurement from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides added predictive value to the cross-sectional differences of cardiometabolic parameters beyond the traditional anthropometric and DXA adiposity parameters. Method: A heterogeneous cohort of 194 adults (81 males and 113 females) with a BMI of 19 to 54 kg/m2 participated in this cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured with a DXA densitometer. Visceral fat was then computed with a proprietary algorithm. Insulin sensitivity index (SI, measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test), blood pressures, and lipid profiles, and peak oxygen uptake were also measured as cardiometabolic risk parameters. Results: DXA-estimated visceral fat mass was associated with HDL cholesterol (regression coefficient [β] = −5.15, P < .01, adjusted R2 = .21), triglyceride (β = 26.01, P < .01, adjusted R2 = .14), and peak oxygen uptake (β = −3.15, P < .01, adjusted R2 = .57) after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. A subanalysis stratifying gender-specific BMI tertiles showed visceral fat, together with ethnicity, was independently associated with SI in overweight men and moderately obese women (second tertile). Conclusions: Without requiring additional CT or MRI-based measurements, visceral fat detected by DXA might offer certain advantages over the traditional DXA adiposity parameters as means of assessing cardiometabolic risks. PMID:25802470

  6. Relations between quantitative ultrasound assessment of calcaneus and grip and key pinch power in Japanese mountain village residents.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ayako; Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Takagishi, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It seems to be important to recognize bone health condition using a simple method in Japanese super-aged society. The aim of our study was to investigate whether grip and key pinch strength were associated with bone quality. Medical examinations were conducted of 337 adult residents (123 men, 214 women; average age of 64.7 years) of a mountain village. Bilateral grip and key pinch strength were measured. The sound of speed (SOS) of calcaneus was assessed using an ultrasound bone densitometer. Study participants were divided into non-osteoporotic and osteoporotic groups according to the relevant WHO classification to evaluate statistical significance by age-adjusted analysis. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify the predictor of SOS using the following factors as explanatory variables: age, height, weight BMI, grip and key pinch power strength in bilateral side. A P value of < .05 was regarded as statistically significant. In age-adjusted analysis, significant associations were found between osteoporosis and BMI (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.80-0.95), gender (OR 3.21, 95%CI 1.83-5.62), grip strength (right side:, OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98; left side: OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and key pinch strength (right side: OR 0.76, 95%CI 0.65-0.88; left side: OR 0.79, 95%CI 0.68-0.91). In stepwise linear regression, age and left key pinch strength were predictors of calcaneal SOS (age β coefficient = -0.46, P = .00; left key pinch strength β coefficient = 0.17, P = .0049). Key pinch strength assessment might be useful to predict calcaneal SOS in general population.

  7. Proximal Cadaveric Femur Preparation for Fracture Strength Testing and Quantitative CT-based Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Rezaei, Asghar; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Rossman, Timothy; Bronk, James T; Bolander, Mark; Lambert, Vincent; McEligot, Sean; Entwistle, Rachel; Giambini, Hugo; Jasiuk, Iwona; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2017-03-11

    Cadaveric fracture testing is routinely used to understand factors that affect proximal femur strength. Because ex vivo biological tissues are prone to lose their mechanical properties over time, specimen preparation for experimental testing must be performed carefully to obtain reliable results that represent in vivo conditions. For that reason, we designed a protocol and a set of fixtures to prepare the femoral specimens such that their mechanical properties experienced minimal changes. The femora were kept in a frozen state except during preparation steps and mechanical testing. The relevant clinical measures of total hip and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were obtained with a clinical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone densitometer, and the 3D geometry and distribution of bone mineral were obtained using CT with a calibration phantom for quantitative estimations based on the greyscale values. Any possible bone disease, fracture, or the presence of implants or artifacts affecting the bone structure, was ruled out with X-ray scans. For preparation, all bones were carefully cleaned of excess soft tissue, and were cut and potted at the internal rotation angle of interest. A cutting fixture allowed the distal end of the bone to be cut off leaving the proximal femur at a desired length. To allow positioning of the femoral neck at prescribed angles during later CT scanning and mechanical testing, the proximal femoral shafts were potted in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using a fixture designed specifically for desired orientations. The data collected from our experiments were then used for validation of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element analysis (FEA), as described in a different protocol. In this manuscript, we present the protocol for the precise bone preparation for mechanical testing and subsequent QCT/FEA modeling. The current protocol was successfully applied to prepare about 200 cadaveric femora over a 6-year time period.

  8. Mixed donor chimerism in non-malignant haematological diseases after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shamshad, Ghassan Umair; Ahmed, Suhaib; Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Ali, Nadir

    2012-12-01

    To determine the frequency of mixed donor chimerism in patients of non-malignant haematological diseases after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. A cross-sectional, observational study. Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to June 2011. Donor chimerism was assessed in patients of aplastic anaemia and beta-thalassaemia major who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Peripheral blood samples were used to assess chimerism status by analysis of short tandem repeats (STR). In patients where pre-transplant blood sample was not available, swab of buccal mucosa was used for pre-transplant STR profile. A standard set of primers for STR markers were used and the amplified DNA was resolved by gel electrophoresis and stained with silver nitrate. The percentage of donor origin DNA was estimated by densitometer. Out of 84 patients, 52 (62%) were males, while 32 (38%) were females. In patients of beta-thalassaemia major, 31 (62%) developed mixed donor chimerism (MC), 13 (26%) developed complete donor chimerism (CC) and 6 (12%) had graft failure. In aplastic anaemia, 17 patients (50%) achieved MC, 13 (38.2%) had CC and 4 (11.8%) developed graft failure. The combined frequency of mixed donor chimerism for both the diseases was 58.3%. D3S1358 was the most informative STR marker in these patients. Majority of the studied patients developed mixed donor chimerism following bone marrow transplantation, whereas only a minor percentage of the patients had graft failure. Analysis of D3S1358 was the most informative in assessing donor chimerism in patients who underwent BMT.

  9. Radiopacity of different shades of resin-based restorative materials compared to human and bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Gurel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different shades of resin-based restorative materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disk specimens 6 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick (N = 220, n = 10) were prepared from the following restorative materials: · eight shades of nanofilled composite (Aelite Aesthetic Enamel), · seven shades of nanohybrid composite (Grandio Universal), · six shades of photopolymerized polyacid modified compomer (Glasiosite), and · one shade of hybrid composite (X-tra fil U). Human canine dentin (n = 10), bovine enamel (n = 10), and an aluminum (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted, and equivalent Al thickness (eq Al) values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The data were analyzed using a non-parametric one-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis), and multiple comparisons were made with a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (a = 0.05). Different shades of resin-based restorative materials tested did not reveal statistically significant differences within each material group (p > 0.05). Radiopacity values of the resin-based restorative materials investigated varied depending on their types; however, within different shades of one material type, radiopacity values were comparable. Every shade of nanocomposite material other than Aelite Aesthetic Enamel Incisal LT Gray showed comparable radiopacity to human dentin. Other materials tested demonstrated higher radiopacity compared to human dentin and bovine enamel.

  10. Distribution of withaferin A, an anticancer potential agent, in different parts of two varieties of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. grown in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardane, A S; Dharmadasa, R M; Samarasinghe, Kosala

    2013-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g) of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC) of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1) mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at lambda(max) = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (R(f) 0.14) than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm) was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm). According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf > bark > stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots.

  11. Detection of Aortic Calcification during Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) Compared to Digital Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Schousboe, John T.; Wilson, Kevin E.; Hangartner, Thomas N.

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality among post-menopausal women. Our objective was to determine whether or not lateral spine images obtained on a bone densitometer to detect prevalent vertebral fracture can also accurately detect radiographic abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of clinical risk factors. Methodology/Principal Findings One hundred seventy four postmenopausal women had bone densitometry, lateral spine densitometry imaging (called vertebral fracture assessment, or VFA), and lateral spine digital radiographs. Radiographs and VFA images were scored for AAC using a previously validated 24 point scale and a simplified, new 8 point scale (AAC-8). One hundred fifty six (90%) of the VFA images were evaluable for AAC. The non-parametric intraclass correlation coefficient between VFA and radiographic 24 point and AAC-8 readings, respectively, were 0.80 (95% C.I. 0.68–0.87) and 0.76 (95% C.I. 0.65–0.84). Areas under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for VFA to detect those with a radiographic 24-point AAC score ≥5 were 0.86 (95% C.I. 0.77–0.94) using the 24 point scale and 0.84 (95% C.I. 0.76–0.92) using the AAC-8 scale. Conclusion/Significance VFA imaging intended to detect prevalent vertebral fracture can also detect radiographic AAC, an important cardiovascular disease risk factor. Since bone densitometry is recommended for all women age 65 and older, VFA imaging at the time of bone densitometry offers an opportunity to assess this risk factor in the post-menopausal female population at very little incremental time and expense. PMID:17684561

  12. Changes in Major Peanut Allergens Under Different pH Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Jeongok; Seo, Won Hee; Ahn, Kangmo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2012-01-01

    Regional dietary habits and cooking methods affect the prevalence of specific food allergies; therefore, we determined the effects of various pH conditions on major peanut allergens. Peanut kernels were soaked overnight in commercial vinegar (pH 2.3) or acetic acid solutions at pH 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0. Protein extracts from the sera of seven patients with peanut-specific IgE levels >15 kUA/L were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunolabeling. A densitometer was used to quantify and compare the allergenicity of each protein. The density of Ara h 1 was reduced by treatment with pH 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0 acetic acid, or commercial vinegar. Ara h 2 remained largely unchanged after treatment with pH 5.0 acetic acid, and was decreased following treatment with pH 1.0, 2.3, or 3.0 acetic acid. Ara h 3 and Ara h 6 appeared as a thick band after treatment with pH 1.0 acetic acid and commercial vinegar. IgE-binding intensities to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 were significantly reduced after treatment with pH 1.0 acetic acid or commercial vinegar. These data suggest that treatment with acetic acid at various pH values affects peanut allergenicity and may explain the low prevalence of peanut allergy in Korea. PMID:22548209

  13. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  14. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (P<0.05 vs. baseline). This loss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (P<0.05). Bone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  15. Semiautomatic x-ray inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amladi, Nandan G.; Finegan, Michael K., Jr.; Wee, William G.

    1991-08-01

    Inspection of industrial images can be a laborious task. Automating the inspection using image processing techniques works effectively only with an appropriate human interface. This paper describes a semi-automatic aircraft engine component motion registration system. Manual inspection of aircraft engine x-ray data was replaced by the use of several interactive programs running on a personal computer. This system allowed the inspector to digitize, process, tabulate, and document test image sequences without requiring image processing experience. The new environment also provided a digital replacement for the analog densitometer previously used, as well as enabling the extraction of digital templates of arbitrary size. Once two masks were selected, measurements could be performed by correlating the pair with a sequence of images, in a batch process. Calibrated measurement results were sent automatically to file, printer, or screen; hardcopy output of found templates, superimposed on individual test images was used for visual verification. Several image processing techniques for performing correlation were surveyed and three of them were implemented. Complexity, speed, and accuracy of each are presented. The methods implemented were direct normalized cross-correlation, hierarchical normalized spatial cross-correlation, and Fourier transform based cross-correlation (using an array processor). Extensions for scale and rotational invariance are also discussed. Attempts were made to fully automate the process, replacing the human expert with equivalent image understanding routines. The methods used by the expert to select templates were criteria such as edge detail, contrast, and local histograms. These strategies were applied to automatically selected templates containing desired measurement points. Results and limitations are discussed.

  16. Stochastic predictors from the DXA scans of human lumbar vertebrae are correlated with the microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Tvinnereim, Amy; Lowe, Timothy; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to provide a novel stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) from the Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans of human lumbar vertebrae and identify the stochastic predictors that were correlated with the microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone. Eighteen human lumbar vertebrae with intact posterior elements from 5 cadaveric spines were scanned in the posterior-anterior projection using a Hologic densitometer. The BMD map of human vertebrae was obtained from the raw data of DXA scans by directly operating on the transmission measurements of low- and high-energy X-ray beams. Stochastic predictors were calculated by fitting theoretical models onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map, rather than grayscale images, from DXA scans. In addition, microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone were measured from the 3D images of human vertebrae acquired using a Micro-CT scanner. Significant correlations were observed between stochastic predictors and microarchitecture parameters. The sill variance, representing the standard deviation of the BMD map to some extent, had significantly positive correlations with bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and connectivity density. The sill variance was also negatively associated with bone surface to volume ratio and trabecular separation. This study demonstrates that the stochastic assessment of the inhomogeneous distribution of BMD from DXA scans of human lumbar vertebrae can reveal microarchitecture information of trabecular bone. However, future studies are needed to examine the potential of stochastic predictors from routine clinical DXA scans in providing bone fragility information complementary to BMD.

  17. The criteria for measuring average density by x-ray attenuation: The role of spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, W.

    1999-07-29

    It is well known that the attenuation of X-rays as they pass through a material can be used to quantify the amount of matter in their path. This is the basis for the gamma ray densitometer which can measure the amount of material on a moving conveyor belt. It is also the rationale for using X-rays for medical imaging as the attenuation can discriminate between tissue of different density and composition, yielding images of great diagnostic utility. Spatial resolution is obviously important with regard to detecting small features. However, it is less obvious that it plays an important role in obtaining quantitative information from the X-ray transmission data since the spatial resolution of the instrument can affect the accuracy of those measurements. This problem is particularly severe in the case of computed tomography where the accuracy of the reconstruction is dependent on the accuracy of the initial projection data. It should be noted that spatial resolution is not a concern for the case where the material is uniform. Here uniform is defined by small variations related to either the scale size of the resolution element in the detector, or to the size of a collimated X-ray beam. However, if the material has non-homogeneous composition or changes in density on the scale size of the systems spatial resolution, then there can be effects that will compromise the transmission data before it is acquired and these errors can not be corrected by any subsequent data processing. A method is presented for computing the density measurement error which parameterizes the effect in terms of the actual modulation on the face of the detector and the attenuation in the material. For cases like stacks of lead plates the errors can exceed 80%.

  18. A unique alpha dosimetry technique using Gafchromic EBT3® film and feasibility study for an activity calibrator for alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Yaser H; Bhonsle, Uday; Hentschel, Reinhard; Khachan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop an alpha dosimetry technique for activity calibration of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals using the Gafchromic® EBT3 (Gaf-EBT3) radiochromic film (International Speciality product, Wayne, NJ). Methods: The Gaf-EBT3 has a tissue equivalent radiosensitive layer (approximately 28 μm) sandwiched between two 100-μm thick polyester sheaths, thereby making it insensitive to alpha particles. We have split a Gaf-EBT3 sheet using a surgical scalpel to remove one of the polyester protective layers and covered the radiosensitive layer with thin Mylar® foil (Goodfellow Cambridge Limited, Huntingdon, UK) (2.5 μm). Small pieces of modified film were exposed at contact with a 560-Bq thin 241Am source for 5, 10, 24 and 94 h. The optical density of the films was evaluated using an optical densitometer. The alpha energy spectra of the 241Am source were recorded using a Si(Li) surface barrier detector. Results: Time-integrated specific alpha surface activity (kBq cm−2 h) was represented as a function of optical density. Conclusion: By removing one of the 100 μm thick polyester protective layers, the authors have modified the Gaf-EBT3 film to a sensitive alpha dosemeter. The calibration function relevant to a 241Am reference source was evaluated from the optical densities of the dosemeter foils. Furthermore, calibration functions for important alpha emitters such as 223Ra, 225Ac or 210Bi were parameterized from the 241Am reference data. Advances in knowledge: The authors have developed and tested the principle of a clinical alpha dosemeter using Gaf-EBT3 radiochromic films originally developed for photon dosimetry. This novel, user-friendly technique could be implemented in quality assurance and calibration procedures of important alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals prior to their clinical applications. PMID:26440547

  19. Identification of differential proteins in colorectal cancer cells treated with caffeic acid phenethyl ester.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Jun; Li, Wan-Ling; Liu, Bao-Hua; Dong, Hui; Mou, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2014-09-07

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). Protein profiles of human colorectal cancer SW480 cells treated with or without CAPE were analysed using a two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis gel-based proteomics approach. After electrophoresis, the gels were stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250. Digital images were taken with a GS-800 Calibrated Densitometer, and image analysis was performed using PDQuest 2-D Analysis software. The altered proteins following CAPE treatment were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry following a database search. The identified proteins were validated by Western blot and immunofluorescence assay. CAPE induced human colorectal cancer cell apoptosis. Four up-regulated proteins and seven down-regulated proteins in colorectal cancer cells treated with CAPE were found. The identified down-regulated proteins in CAPE-treated colorectal cancer cells were Triosephosphate Isomerase (Tim), Proteasome subunit alpha 4 (PSMA4) protein, Guanine nucleotide binding protein beta, Phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), PSMA1, Myosin XVIIIB and Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Notably, CAPE treatment led to the down-regulation of PSAT1 and PSMA1, two proteins that have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The identified up-regulated proteins were Annexin A4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 1 (GNPDA1), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1). Based on high match scores and potential role in cell growth control, PSMA1, PSAT1, GNPDA1 and GPX-1 were further validated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. PSMA1 and PSAT1 were down-regulated, while GNPDA1 and GPX-1 were up-regulated in CAPE-treated colorectal cancer cells. These differentiated proteins in colorectal cancer cells following CAPE treatment, may be potential molecular targets of CAPE and involved in the anti-cancer effect

  20. Application of the Minkowski-functionals for automated pattern classification of breast parenchyma depicted by digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Fischer, Tanja; Riosk, Dororthea; Britsch, Stefanie; Reiser, Maximilian

    2008-03-01

    With an estimated life-time-risk of about 10%, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in western societies. Extensive mammography-screening programs have been implemented for diagnosis of the disease at an early stage. Several algorithms for computer-aided detection (CAD) have been proposed to help radiologists manage the increasing number of mammographic image-data and identify new cases of cancer. However, a major issue with most CAD-solutions is the fact that performance strongly depends on the structure and density of the breast tissue. Prior information about the global tissue quality in a patient would be helpful for selecting the most effective CAD-approach in order to increase the sensitivity of lesion-detection. In our study, we propose an automated method for textural evaluation of digital mammograms using the Minkowski Functionals in 2D. 80 mammograms are consensus-classified by two experienced readers as fibrosis, involution/atrophy, or normal. For each case, the topology of graylevel distribution is evaluated within a retromamillary image-section of 512 x 512 pixels. In addition, we obtain parameters from the graylevel-histogram (20th percentile, median and mean graylevel intensity). As a result, correct classification of the mammograms based on the densitometic parameters is achieved in between 38 and 48%, whereas topological analysis increases the rate to 83%. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Compared to features obtained from graylevel histograms and comparable studies, we draw the conclusion that the presented method performs equally good or better. Our future work will be focused on the characterization of the mammographic tissue according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Moreover, other databases will be tested for an in-depth evaluation of the efficiency of our proposal.

  1. Approach to the Child with Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the child with fractures is challenging, as no clear guidelines exist to distinguish traumatic from pathological fractures. Although most fractures in childhood are benign, recurrent fractures may be associated with a wide variety of primary skeletal diseases as well as secondary causes, necessitating a careful history and physical exam to guide the evaluation. There is no “gold standard” for the evaluation and treatment of children with fractures and low bone mineral density (BMD); therefore, the diagnosis of osteoporosis in a pediatric patient should be made using a combination of clinical and radiographic features. Interpretation of bone densitometry in growing patients presents a unique set of challenges because areal BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry depends on multiple dynamic variables. Interpretation of pediatric dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry should be based on Z-scores (sd scores compared to age, sex, and ethnicity-matched controls), using normative databases specific to the brand of densitometer and the patient population. Given the skeleton's ability to recover from low BMD through modeling and remodeling, optimizing management of underlying conditions leading to bone fragility is the initial step. Conservative measures including calcium and vitamin D supplementation and weight-bearing physical activity are important interventions that should not be overlooked. The use of bisphosphonates in children and adolescents is controversial due to lack of long-term efficacy and safety data and should be limited to clinical trials and compassionate therapy in children with significantly compromised quality of life. Close monitoring is required, and further study is necessary to assess their long-term safety and efficacy in children. PMID:21734001

  2. DXA: Technical aspects and application.

    PubMed

    Bazzocchi, Alberto; Ponti, Federico; Albisinni, Ugo; Battista, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The key role of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the management of metabolic bone diseases is well known. The role of DXA in the study of body composition and in the clinical evaluation of disorders which directly or indirectly involve the whole metabolism as they may induce changes in body mass and fat percentage is less known or less understood. DXA has a range of clinical applications in this field, from assessing associations between adipose or lean mass and the risk of disease to understanding and measuring the effects of pathophysiological processes or therapeutic interventions, in both adult and paediatric human populations as well as in pre-clinical settings. DXA analyses body composition at the molecular level that is basically translated into a clinical model made up of fat mass, non-bone lean mass, and bone mineral content. DXA allows total and regional assessment of the three above-mentioned compartments, usually by a whole-body scan. Since body composition is a hot topic today, manufacturers have steered the development of DXA technology and methodology towards this. New DXA machines have been designed to accommodate heavier and larger patients and to scan wider areas. New strategies, such as half-body assessment, permit accurate body scan and analysis of individuals exceeding scan field limits. Although DXA is a projective imaging technique, new solutions have recently allowed the differential estimate of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral fat. The transition to narrow fan-beam densitometers has led to faster scan times and better resolution; however, inter- or intra-device variation exists depending on several factors. The purposes of this review are: (1) to appreciate the role of DXA in the study of body composition; (2) to understand potential limitations and pitfalls of DXA in the analysis of body composition; (3) to learn about technical elements and methods, and to become familiar with biomarkers in DXA. Copyright © 2016

  3. Skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in obese patients: functional evaluation by knee-extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Salvadego, Desy; Porcelli, Simone; Rejc, Enrico; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro; Grassi, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized, in a group of obese women (OB), a more significant impairment of aerobic metabolism during knee extension (KE) exercise vs. that described during cycle ergometer exercise, lending support to the role of skeletal muscles in limiting exercise tolerance in OB. Eleven OB (age 29.5 ± 5.5 years, body mass index 43.2 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) and 10 non-obese controls (CTRL) women were tested. Fat-free mass of a lower-limb (FFMLL) was assessed by a densitometer. Heart rate (HR) and pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) were determined during incremental exercise tests to voluntary exhaustion carried out on a custom-built KE ergometer and on a cycle ergometer (CE). FFMLL and maximal isometric force of KE muscles were higher in OB vs. CTRL (+42.4 and +46.2 %, respectively). Peak work rate was significantly lower in OB (-18.4 %) vs. CTRL in CE, but not in KE. Expressed in mL min(-1), peak VO2 was not different in OB vs. CTRL in CE and in KE. After it was divided per unit of FFM involved in the exercises, peak VO2 was significantly lower in OB vs. CTRL, both for CE (-19 %) and KE (-33 %). Expressed per unit of exercising muscle mass, peak oxidative function is impaired in OB. The impairment is more pronounced after limitations related to cardiovascular O2 delivery are reduced. In OB muscle hypertrophy and the increased muscle force allow to preserve exercise tolerance during aerobic exercises carried out by relatively small muscle masses.

  4. Demonstration of a combined filter to improve the field uniformity of a 90 kV superficial X-ray therapy machine for different treatment field sizes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J; Mills, J A

    1997-02-01

    The field uniformity of a superficial X-ray machine operating at 90 kV, 10 mA and filtered with a 1.1 mm aluminium beam hardening filter was investigated at a depth of 1 cm below the surface. Uniformity measurements were carried out using films and a densitometer to detect the relative absorbed dose across the field. Film dosimetry was assessed by comparison with ionization chamber dosimetry in a water tank. The original flat hardening aluminium filter was replaced by a combined, profiled filter to improve the uniformity across field sizes 20 cm, 5 cm and 2 cm diameter as well as hardening the beam. Flatness of the beam profile was improved for the 20 cm field size from +/-7.5% to +/-1.3% across the anode/cathode direction and from +/-7.9% to +/-4.7% in the anode/cathode direction. For the 5 cm field size the improvement was from +/-4% to +/-3% and from +/-5.3% to +/-3.6% and for 2 cm field size from +/-3.4% to +/-2.8% and from 10.5% to +/-9.7% in the same directions, respectively. Beam quality measurements were made and the original half-value-layer was reduced from 2.21 +/- 0.09 mm to 2.07 +/- 0.09 mm. The project demonstrated that it was possible to build a filter capable of flattening the beam profile for different sized applicators without significantly changing the penetrating ability of the beam.

  5. Optical characterization of a radiochromic film by total reflectance and transmittance measurements.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Franco; Mercatelli, Luca; Marconi, Giacomo; Cuttone, Giacomo; Romano, Giovanni

    2004-07-01

    The GafChromic film (GCF) MD-55-2, a radiochromic material, was examined for its optical properties through total reflectance and transmittance measurements in visible spectrum (400-700 nm). By using a multilayer model of the film and Kubelka-Munk's (KM) theory, absorption and scattering coefficients of the film sensitive layer (K and S, respectively) were obtained from measurements of irradiated and nonirradiated slides. This has allowed calculation of the absorbance A(KM) of the sensitive layer of the GCF. The model easily splits scattering from absorption. Unlike absorption, scattering is essentially insensitive to irradiation dose and decreases slowly as the wavelength increases. The scattering effect is predominant over absorption in the 400-500 nm range, while beyond 600 nm absorption prevails. The A(KM) absorbance of the sensitive layer was calculated using the K coefficient and compared with the optical densities (OD) measured considering only ballistic photons (as in a standard spectrophotometer) as well as the optical densities measured collecting all the transmitted photons (as in many densitometers). The values of A(KM) found were always lower than OD measured by the other methods and they had the best linearity on the whole visible range. These data support the hypothesis that the sensitive layer reacts to irradiation more linearly than that shown by measurements using standard commercial devices. However, in the 600-680 nm range, correction is not very important because absorption is predominant over scattering. When GCF is used for imaging, scattering produces a loss of spatial information. Consequently, it is necessary to collect only ballistic photons and to correct absorbance by K and S coefficients.

  6. Bone density and fragility fractures in patients with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Leslie, W D; Pahlavan, P S; Roe, E B; Dittberner, K

    2009-03-01

    We investigated prior fractures, osteoporosis risk factors, and bone mineral density (BMD) in 107 institutionalized adults with developmental disabilities. We found a very high prevalence of BMD in the osteoporotic range and a significant correlation between lower BMD and prior fragility fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors contributing to osteoporosis and fragility fractures among developmentally disabled adults. Adults from a residential center participated in a prospective study in which bone mineral density (BMD) at the forearm and heel were measured with a portable X-ray densitometer. Prior fragility fractures were identified from chart review. Among 107 participants, 84 (78.5%) had a measurement within the osteoporotic range. The heel was more severely abnormal (mean T-score -3.1 +/- 1.5) than the forearm (-1.6 +/- 1.3, p < .0.0001). Radiographically confirmed prior fragility fractures (17 [16.3%]) were associated with lower heel (p = 0.0155) and forearm (p = 0.0172) T-scores. In multiple regression analysis, there were independent associations between forearm BMD and prior fragility fractures (p = 0.0126) and between heel BMD and prior fragility fractures (p = 0.0291). The odds ratio for prior fracture increased by 2.02 (95% CI 1.12-3.64) for each standard deviation (SD) decrease in heel T-score and by 2.39 (95% CI 1.08-5.32) for each SD decrease in forearm T-score. We found a very high prevalence of osteoporotic BMD measurements in institutionalized adults with developmental disabilities. Lower heel and forearm BMD measurements were significantly and independently associated with prior fragility fractures in this population.

  7. [Evaluation of preexposed step wedges in acceptance tests of film processing in mammography].

    PubMed

    Blendl, C

    2003-03-01

    It was tested with 5 different types of mammography films in which manner the values of "Lightspeed" (LS) and "Lightcontrast" (LC), according DIN V 6868-55 will be changed, when preexposed film strips are used, stored at different climates and spaces of time in comparison to strips, which are exposed immediately before processing. It was proved, that the value LS of preexposed film strips in general will be lowered with increasing storage time compared to freshly exposed film strips, when both strips are processed simultaneously. This drift will be enhanced with increasing rel.humidity levels during storage. The value of LC increases in general with longer storage time and higher rel.humidity levels. The tested film types have all individual drifts in LS and LC. The precision of a single measurement using preexposed film strips was established over all different types of films at in about: Delta LS=0.06 and Delta LC (%)=16% [in the borders of 2 sigma (sigma)]. This uncertainty includes solely the precision of sensitometer, densitometer, the method to establish sensitometric values and unavoidable statistical fluctuations. Even when the systematic drift of the used film type is well established, the required precision, restricted to the listed items and prescribed in DIN V 6868-55, table D.1 to determine the values of LS with Delta LS=0.039 and the values of LC with Delta LC=7.2% is overstepped in so far, that it is impossible to draw a precise conclusion from the measured values to the performance of the subsystem film and processing. If any exceeding of the dose in image receptor plane is monitored, there is no tracking possible to a misadjustment of the subsystem film and processing.

  8. Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms: progress, problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D; Leitch, I J

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. 1998-2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many densitometers used to measure DNA C-values proved less serious than feared, owing to the development of relatively inexpensive flow cytometers and computer-based image analysis systems. New uses of the term genome (e.g. in 'complete' genome sequencing) can cause confusion. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative C-value for Arabidopsis thaliana (125 Mb) was a gross underestimate, and an exact C-value based on genome sequencing alone is unlikely to be obtained soon for any angiosperm. Lack of this expected benchmark poses a quandary as to what to use as the basal calibration standard for angiosperms. The next decade offers exciting prospects for angiosperm genome size research. The database (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage) should become sufficiently representative of the global flora to answer most questions without needing new estimations. DNA amount variation will remain a key interest as an integrated strand of holistic genomics.

  9. Estrogen-related genes and postmenopausal osteoporosis risk.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, N; Quereda, F; Presa, J; Salamanca, A; Sánchez-Borrego, R; Vázquez, F; Martínez Astorquiza, T

    2012-12-01

    To date, more than 150 candidate genes related to osteoporosis have been described, but osteoporosis has increasingly been considered a polygenic disease modulated by environmental factors. It is thought that osteoporosis predisposition, pathology, and treatment response depend on the interaction between different genes or between genes and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen metabolic pathway and the development of osteoporosis and to determine whether this relationship is monogenic or whether interactions between genes exist. A multicentric study with 1980 postmenopausal Spanish women in five Spanish communities was conducted. The women completed a specific questionnaire that inquired about risk factors for osteoporosis. Data on participants' bone mineral density were obtained with dual-energy X-ray densitometers, and genetic data were obtained from frozen peripheral blood. The digenic protection combinations indicated involvement of the wild-type genotype (WT) of the 3'UTR marker for the CYP19A1 gene, the IVS4 marker of the same gene, and the BMP15 and FSHR genes. Among patients who carried two or more of the genotypes considered 'risky', the triple combination among markers of the ESR2 and NRIP1 genes with any of the two mutations of the analyzed markers of the BMP15 gene gave a mean T-score value of -2.32±0.91 (p = 0.02). Variants of the new candidate genes (NRIP and BMP15) can predispose patients to osteoporosis.

  10. Monitoring gas retention and slurry transport during the transfer of waste from Tank 241-C-106 to Tank 241-AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Erian, F.F.; Meyer, P.A.

    1997-07-01

    The retained gas volume can be estimated by several methods. All of these methods have significant uncertainties, but together they form a preponderance of evidence that describes the gas retention behavior of the tank. The methods are (1) an increase in nonconvective layer thickness; (2) a waste surface level rise (surface level effect [SLE] model); (3) the barometric pressure effect (BPE model); (4) direct void measurement; and (5) the consequences of the transfer process. The nonconvective layer thickness can be determined with sufficient accuracy to describe the overall waste configuration by means of temperature profiles or densitometer indications. However, the presence of a nonconvective layer does not necessarily indicate significant gas retention, and small changes in layer thickness that could quantify gas retention cannot be detected reliably with the methods available. The primary value of this measurement is in establishing the actual {open_quotes}fluffing factor{close_quotes} for thermal calculations. Surface level rise is not a useful measure of gas retention in Tank 241-C-106 (C-106) since the waste level fluctuates with regular makeup water additions. In Tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) with the existing ventilation system it should be possible to determine the gas retention rate within 30-60% uncertainty from the surface level rise, should a significant rise be observed. The planned ventilation system upgrades in AY- 102 will greatly reduce the exhaust flow and the headspace humidity, and the evaporation rate should be significantly lower when transfers begin. This could reduce the uncertainty in gas retention rate estimates to around {+-} 10%.

  11. Effects of a curcumin-based supplementation in asymptomatic subjects with low bone density: a preliminary 24-week supplement study.

    PubMed

    Riva, A; Togni, S; Giacomelli, L; Franceschi, F; Eggenhoffner, R; Feragalli, B; Belcaro, G; Cacchio, M; Shu, H; Dugall, M

    2017-04-01

    Osteopenia is a chronic bone condition characterized by decreased calcification, density, or bone mass that, if untreated, can lead to osteoporosis and bone fractures. Although its increasing prevalence, nowadays osteopenia is not adequately prevented and managed. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy, in term of changes in bone density, and safety of an oral formulation based on turmeric phytosome (Meriva®), in subjects suffering from low bone density. 57 otherwise healthy subjects with low bone density were enrolled in this pilot, supplement study. Informed participants freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) to control low bone density (control group=28) or SM associated with a curcumin-based oral supplementation (supplement group=29). The bone densities of heel, small finger and upper jaw were evaluated at inclusion and at different time points during the observational period (4, 12 and 24 weeks), in all subjects. The bone density of the heel measured by the Sahara densitometer remarkably improved in the Meriva®-supplemented group, with a significant decrease of ultrasounds transmission values at week 12 (-18.4%) and at week 24 (-21.0%), compared with baseline values. The bone densities of small finger and upper jaw also significantly increased during the study in supplemented subjects, reaching +7.1% and +4.8%, respectively, at week 24, with respect to values at inclusion. Noteworthy, no significant changes of heel, small finger and upper jaw densities were observed in the control group. Last, no safety and tolerability issues were reported during the observational period. This preliminary study suggests that a curcumin-based supplementation in combination with an appropriate lifestyle could be beneficial in the prevention and management of osteopenia.

  12. Predictors of the effects of 4 years of growth hormone replacement on bone mineral density in patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency – a KIMS database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tritos, Nicholas A.; Hamrahian, Amir H.; King, Donna; Greenspan, Susan L.; Cook, David M.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria; Biller, Beverly M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Growth hormone (GH) replacement may increase bone mineral density (BMD) in GH-deficient (GHD) adults. The goal of this study was to identify predictors of BMD response to GH replacement in GH na ve adults. Design and measurements This was a retrospective analysis of data extracted from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database), an international pharmacoepidemiological survey of adult GHD patients from 31 countries. Patients A total of 231 GH naive adults were identified (115 women and 116 men) who had BMD measured on the same densitometer in the lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) both at baseline and after 4 years of GH replacement. Results After 4 years, there was a median (10th, 90th percentile) 4.6% (−5.2%, 12.2%) increase in LS BMD over baseline (P = 00001). There was a positive correlation between per cent change in LS BMD and age at the onset of pituitary disease (r = 025, P = 0001). There was no change in FN BMD over baseline [0.0% (−7.3%, 8.5%)]. On multivariate analysis, older age at the onset of pituitary disease predicted a greater increase in LS BMD on GH replacement (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001). Conclusions In a population of GH na ve adults, GH replacement led to a significant increase in LS BMD over baseline, but no change in FN BMD. The potential for greater BMD improvement on GH replacement therapy in adults with disease of later onset should be considered when making treatment decisions in this patient population. PMID:23278636

  13. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  14. Myosin isoforms in female human detrusor.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, M P; Manaves, V; Martin, A F; Shott, S; Brubaker, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the relative proportions of two isoforms of myosin heavy chain in detrusor smooth muscle of women with detrusor overactivity and in asymptomatic controls. Women aged 35-65 with documented detrusor overactivity and without a history of neurologic disease, prior incontinence surgery, elevated post-void residual urine volume, or indwelling urinary catheter were eligible for the study. Full-thickness biopsies of extraperitoneal bladder dome were obtained at the time of laparotomy in six patients with documented detrusor overactivity and in a control group of eight continent patients. Biopsies were frozen in liquid nitrogen, crushed with a frozen mortar and pestle at -80 degrees C, and homogenized in buffer, and the extracts were electrophoresed on 6% polyacrylamide sodium dodecyl sulfate gels and stained with Coomassie blue. The gels were de-stained and then the protein bands were scanned with a densitometer. The mean patient age was 48 years (range, 36-59). Seven patients were Caucasian and seven patients were African American. Detrusor smooth muscle contains a mean of 34% (range, 27-43%) SM1 and 66% (range, 57-73%) SM2 isoforms. There was no difference in isoform composition when patients were compared according to urogynecologic diagnosis or according to race. In detrusor biopsies from women, approximately 34% of myosin is of the SM1 isoform and approximately 66% is of the SM2 isoform. This ratio is relatively constant in the two races studied and unchanged in women with detrusor overactivity. Animal models utilizing outlet obstruction of the bladder to provoke detrusor instability and detrusor hypertrophy are known to alter myosin isoform distribution and may not be appropriate models of detrusor instability in human females.

  15. Accuracy of measurements of small changes in soft tissue mass by use of dual-photon absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Lands, L C; Heigenhauser, G J; Gordon, C; Jones, N L; Webber, C E

    1991-08-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) has recently been applied to the assessment of body composition. To evaluate the accuracy of DPA in detecting small changes in the lean soft tissue mass, we performed DPA with the use of the Norland 2600 Dichromatic densitometer on six healthy adult males before and after a 30-ml/kg transfusion of saline and before and after exercise in a warm environment, resulting in a greater than or equal to 1-kg weight loss. Absolute weight [baseline pretransfusion r2 = 0.999, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 590 g; posttransfusion r2 = 0.999, SEE = 300 g; baseline pretranspiration r2 = 0.999, SEE = 230 g; posttranspiration r2 = 0.999, SEE = 240 g] was accurately reflected in DPA total mass. Weight changes due to transfusion were poorly reflected by changes in DPA total mass (r2 = 0.417, SEE = 404 g). However, changes posttranspiration were accurately reflected in the DPA total mass (r2 = 0.886, SEE = 106 g posttranspiration). Similarly, weight changes due to transfusion were poorly measured by changes in DPA soft mass (r2 = 0.478, SEE = 365 g), but changes posttranspiration were highly correlated with DPA soft mass changes (r2 = 0.909, SEE = 92 g). Weight changes were not reflected by changes in the DPA lean soft tissue mass (r2 = 0.006, SEE = 1,737 posttransfusion, r2 = 0.094, SEE = 1,038 g posttranspiration). DPA-derived nonfat mass was highly correlated with skinfold-derived nonfat mass (r2 = 0.96, SEE = 2,400 g). Accuracy of total and soft tissue measurements implied correct mineral mass assessment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. A unique alpha dosimetry technique using Gafchromic EBT3(®) film and feasibility study for an activity calibrator for alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Gholami, Yaser H; Bhonsle, Uday; Hentschel, Reinhard; Khachan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To develop an alpha dosimetry technique for activity calibration of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals using the Gafchromic(®) EBT3 (Gaf-EBT3) radiochromic film (International Speciality product, Wayne, NJ). The Gaf-EBT3 has a tissue equivalent radiosensitive layer (approximately 28 μm) sandwiched between two 100-μm thick polyester sheaths, thereby making it insensitive to alpha particles. We have split a Gaf-EBT3 sheet using a surgical scalpel to remove one of the polyester protective layers and covered the radiosensitive layer with thin Mylar(®) foil (Goodfellow Cambridge Limited, Huntingdon, UK) (2.5 μm). Small pieces of modified film were exposed at contact with a 560-Bq thin (241)Am source for 5, 10, 24 and 94 h. The optical density of the films was evaluated using an optical densitometer. The alpha energy spectra of the (241)Am source were recorded using a Si(Li) surface barrier detector. Time-integrated specific alpha surface activity (kBq cm(-2) h) was represented as a function of optical density. By removing one of the 100 μm thick polyester protective layers, the authors have modified the Gaf-EBT3 film to a sensitive alpha dosemeter. The calibration function relevant to a (241)Am reference source was evaluated from the optical densities of the dosemeter foils. Furthermore, calibration functions for important alpha emitters such as (223)Ra, (225)Ac or (210)Bi were parameterized from the (241)Am reference data. The authors have developed and tested the principle of a clinical alpha dosemeter using Gaf-EBT3 radiochromic films originally developed for photon dosimetry. This novel, user-friendly technique could be implemented in quality assurance and calibration procedures of important alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals prior to their clinical applications.

  17. Characteristics of Gafchromic XR-RV2 radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Blair, Andrew; Meyer, Juergen

    2009-07-01

    Gafchromic XR-RV2 is a revised version of the obsolete Gafchromic XR-R-type radiochromic film. This article investigates the dose response, energy response, postexposure growth, and polarizing effects of this film after exposure to ionizing radiation in the diagnostic energy range. The effect of bit depth on scanning was also investigated. Films were scanned using an Epson Expression 10000XL document scanner or an X-Rite model 301 spot densitometer. Color channel analysis was performed. The film showed usable response in the air kerma range of 1-1000 cGy, although by 1500 cGy the film appeared saturated when using the red color channel on a document scanner. The film response varied by 11% between 60 and 96 kVp and 3.5% between 96 and 125 kVp for doses above 1 Gy. Postexposure growth was found to be approximately logarithmic and fairly stable after 24 h. Films stored under office lighting exhibited around twice the density growth compared with film stored in a dark environment. The film showed strong orientation dependence when scanned using a polarized light source. A 48 bit scan provided no increase in sensitivity over 24 bits. Gafchromic XR-RV2 film is a radiochromic film ideally suited for measurement of wide dose ranges at diagnostic energies. The energy dependence of this film limits its accuracy for dosimetry of unknown energy beams. For the document scanners used in this study a 24 bit scan was more than sufficient compared to a 48 bit scan. This is likely to be the case for most document scanners where electrical noise prevents higher bit depths from increasing the sensitivity of measurements.

  18. The Maria Mitchell Observatory and its Digitized Plate Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnitski, V.

    2009-08-01

    The Maria Mitchell Observatory (MMO), located on Nantucket Island, possesses a collection of over 8,000 wide-field (13° x 16°) photographic plates obtained with the MMO 7.5-inch (19-cm) Cooke/Clark camera, from 1913 to 1995. The collection is relatively rich for three areas of the sky in Scutum, Cygnus and Sagittarius. The catalog of the plates is available online. In 2000-2002, all the plates were digitized with an AgfaScan T5000 commercial scanner, using both low (840 dpi) and high (2,500 dpi) resolution and the 8 bit gray scale resolution. The image files are stored on CDs and on hard drive RAID-protected storage devices, and copies (on CDs or DVDs) are available on order. Comparison of the images scanned with the AgfaScan T5000 and those scanned with the STScI high-precision GAMMA laser densitometer reveals a characteristic additional noise of up to ≈0.05 mag on the AgfaScan T5000 scans. It is considerably lower than the typical uncertainty of ±0.1-0.2 mag for stellar photometry on the original MMO plates. Several successful projects using the scanned copies of the plates confirm the adequacy of the copies for stellar photometry. Considering that the high-resolution scanning on AgfaScan T5000 was eight times faster than that with the GAMMA, we conclude that scanning the plates of this quality with a commercial scanner of the AgfaScan T5000 class is a reasonable compromise between the quality and the time and cost of scanning.

  19. Rib fractures in chronic alcoholic men: Relationship with feeding habits, social problems, malnutrition, bone alterations, and liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, Emilio; García-Valdecasas-Campelo, Elena; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Milena-Abril, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eva; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Pérez-Ramírez, Alina; Alemán-Valls, María Remedios

    2005-10-01

    Rib fractures are common in alcoholics. This high prevalence might be due to ethanol-associated malnutrition, bone disease, liver dysfunction, or the peculiar lifestyle of the alcoholic with frequent trauma and altercations. In this study we try to discern the role of these factors on rib fracture (assessed on a plain thoracic X-ray film) in 81 consecutive alcoholic patients, 25 of them cirrhotics. Serum albumin, prothrombin aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, insulin growth factor 1, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, estradiol, free testosterone, and corticosterone were measured, and the patients also underwent assessment of bone mineral density by a HOLOGIC QDR-2000 bone densitometer (Waltham, MA, USA). Body mass index, triceps skinfold, and brachial perimeter were also determined, and the patients and their families were asked about tobacco consumption, social and familial links, consumption of ethanol by other members of the family, kind of job, and feeding habits. Forty-two male nondrinker sanitary workers of similar age served as controls. Forty of the 81 patients showed rib fractures. There was a statistically significant association between rib fractures and disruption of social and familial links, irregular feeding habits (in bars or pubs, not at home), ethanol consumption by close relatives, and intensity of tobacco consumption, but not between rib fractures and liver function tests, nutritional parameters, or bone mineral density, besides a nearly significant trend (p = .053) with the presence of osteopenia at the femoral neck. Patients with major withdrawal symptoms at admission also presented more frequent rib fractures. We conclude that rib fractures in alcoholics are related to the peculiar lifestyle of these patients rather than to bone alterations, liver dysfunction, or nutritional status.

  20. Microvascular flow distribution and transcapillary diffusion at the forefoot in patients with peripheral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jünger, M; Frey-Schnewlin, G; Bollinger, A

    1989-02-01

    Transcapillary diffusion of Na-fluorescein injected by the intravenous route was measured by a videomicroscopy system in the skin of the dorsum of the forefoot in healthy controls (n = 21) and in patients with moderate (n = 35) and severe (n = 29) ischemia secondary to lower extremity arterial occlusive disease. Systolic ankle blood pressure and transcutaneous PO2 at the forefoot were significantly decreased in both groups of patients according to the severity of ischemic disease (p less than 0.001). The difference of the mean filling times between the first and last capillaries was used as a parameter for inhomogenous microvascular perfusion. It was significantly increased in moderate and severe ischemia (p less than 0.05). Transcapillary diffusion measured with a large window densitometer in a skin area of 2.8 mm2 was significantly enhanced in both groups of patients. The increase was more pronounced in the patients with severe ischemia (p less than 0.001) than in those with moderate ischemia (p less than 0.05). Among the patients with severe ischemia the diabetics exhibited significantly higher mean values of pericapillary fluorescence light intensity than the non-diabetics (p less than 0.001). At high magnification (550 times) distinct sites of increased transcapillary diffusion were detected in both groups of patients. They were most often localized at the apex of the capillary loops ("candle light phenomenon") and were more frequent in patients with severe than with moderate ischemia. In conclusion microvascular blood flow distribution is inhomogeneous and transcapillary diffusion increases at the level of single capillaries and skin areas in patients with moderate and especially severe foot ischemia.

  1. TU-F-201-03: Applications in Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trichter, S.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  2. Application of glucosylceramide-based liposomes increased the ceramide content in a three-dimensional cultured skin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Y; Endo, M; Hashimoto, F

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide is an intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum and is one of the most important components of the epidermal permeability barrier. Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a ceramide precursor, was applied to three-dimensional skin culture to regulate ceramide. GlcCer/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) = 4/4 (molar ratio and GlcCer/DMPC/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) = 4/4/1(molar ratio) liposomes were prepared by the thin-layer method. The particle diameters of GlcCer/DMPC and GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG liposomes were 124.0 ± 0.6 and 119.3 ± 18.9 nm, and the zeta potentials were 1.3 ± 0.3 and -19.9 ± 0.3 mV, respectively. Stability of these GlcCer liposomes was measured by transmission light scattering. Transmission light scattering of neutrally charged GlcCer (GlcCer/DMPC) liposomes increased in a time dependent manner. In contrast, negatively charged GlcCer (GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG) liposomes were not changed. β-Glucocerebrosidase activity was measured in a cultured human skin model. Results confirmed that the cultured human skin model has β-glucocerebrosidase activity. GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG liposomes were applied to the three-dimensional cultured human skin model, and ceramide NS, NP, AS, and AP were extracted from it. The various extracted ceramides were separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and quantified by a densitometer. The amount of ceramide AS only in the cultured skin model was significantly higher with the application of GlcCer-based liposomes than that of the nonapplication group, and was also dose dependent. Thus, GlcCer-based liposomes are useful for enriching the ceramide AS levels in a three-dimensional cultured skin model. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Evaluation of GAFCHROMIC registered EBT film for CyberKnife registered dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Ellen E.; Daskalov, George M.

    2007-06-15

    External beam therapy (EBT) GAFCHROMIC registered film is evaluated for dosimetry and characterization of the CyberKnife registered radiation beams. Percentage depth doses, lateral beam profiles, and output factors are measured in solid water using EBT GAFCHROMIC registered film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ) for the 6 MV radiation beams of diameter 5 to 60 mm produced by the CyberKnife registered (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). The data are compared to those measured with the PTW 60008 diode and the Wellhofer CC01 ion chamber in water. For the small radiation field sizes used in stereotactic radiosurgery, lateral electronic disequilibrium and steep dose gradients exist in a large portion of these fields, requiring the use of high-resolution measurement techniques. For small beams, the detector size approaches the dimensions of the beam and adversely affects measurement accuracy in regions where the gradient varies across the detector. When film is the detector, the scanning system is usually the resolution-limiting component. Radiographic films based upon silver halide (AgH) emulsions are widely used for relative dosimetry of external radiation treatment beams in the megavoltage energy range, because of their good spatial resolution and capability to provide integrated dosimetry over two dimensions. Film dosimetry, however, has drawbacks due to its steep energy dependence at low photon energies as well as film processor and densitometer artifacts. EBT radiochromic film, introduced in 2004 specifically for IMRT dosimetry, may be a detector of choice for the characterization of small radiosurgical beams, because of its near-tissue equivalence, radiation beam energy independence, high spatial resolution, and self developing properties. For radiation beam sizes greater than 10 mm, the film measurements were identical to those of the diode and ion chamber. For the smaller beam diameters of 7.5 and 5 mm, however, there were differences in the data measured with

  4. Intracellular molecular effects of insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Data obtained from muscle biopsies have demonstrated altered insulin signaling (IS) in patients with MetS. The IS regulates critical cell functions including molecular-regulated cellular metabolite fluxes, protein and energetic metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis with consequent regulation of cell life including endothelial homeostasis and blood coagulation. However, little is known about blood cell IS in MetS patients. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate IS in peripheral lymphocytes to identify altered intracellular molecules in patients with MetS to use as risk biomarkers of vascular thrombosis. Patients and Methods We investigated 40 patients with MetS and 20 controls. MetS was defined according to guidelines from the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Blood samples were taken from all participants. Total mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation. IS molecules were evaluated using Western blot analysis followed by computer-assisted densitometer evaluation. Results Lymphocytes of MetS patients showed a reduced mTOR expression (the mammalian target of rapamycin) which is a fundamental molecule of IS. Major impairment of IS was confirmed by reduced upstream and downstream mTOR molecules which regulate fundamental cells metabolic functions. Conclusions In patients with MetS, we found a reduction of mTOR and other mTOR-related molecules involved in insulin resistance, cell repair, coagulation and vasculogenesis. A reduced expression of mTOR may reflect an increased risk of vascular thrombosis. PMID:20809949

  5. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Bandirali, Michele; Di Leo, Giovanni; Messina, Carmelo; Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Mai, Alessandro; Ulivieri, Fabio M; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 × CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm(-1)) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤ 2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable.

  6. [Body profile and physical and cognitive function by age in ambulatory elderly women from the city of Córdoba].

    PubMed

    Asaduroglu, Ana V; Tablada, M; Cosiansi Bai, J; Carrillo, M; Canale, M; Gallerano, R

    2015-01-01

    Aging produces body changes such as redistribution of fat and loss of muscle mass and strength, predisposing to fragility, functional impairment and disability. To analyze the relationship between body profile and physical and cognitive function by age in in ambulatory elderly women from the city of Córdoba. 178 healthy older women (OW) ≥60 years free living were evaluated attending centers of retirees and day homes in the city of Córdoba. We evaluated body profile from: skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI), relative body adiposity (RBA) -dual X-ray absorptiometry- and muscle strength (MS) -dynamometry-. Categories: normal/(N) sarcopenia/(SP), obesity/(OB), sarcopenic obesity/(SO); Physical function: with/without physical limitation (PL); cognitive function: with/without cognitive impairment (CI). Lunar Prodigy Densitometer and Smedley dynamometer, Lawton and Brody and Minimental Examination of Folstein scales. SO prevailed and increased with age, contrary to OB. Most of the OW did not PL or CI. Only 2.25% had low SMMI and 48.3% dynapenia. 76.97% had elevated RBA. The SP - obese or not - had greater PL and CI. CI frequency doubled to PL (15.17% versus 6.74%). We found negative correlations and significant associations between age and MS (r= -0.279; p=0.0001), physical function (r=-0.164; p=0.0283) and cognitive function (r=-0.028; p=0.0002). In this group of healthy OW the dynapenia was responsible for the observed SP, not low SMMI. The OW with SP had more PL and CI, and increased with age.

  7. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  8. TU-F-201-01: General Aspects of Radiochromic Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  9. TU-F-201-00: Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Update

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  10. TU-F-201-04: Applications in Small Fields and Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Das, I.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  11. TU-F-201-02: Applications in SRS, SBRT, IMRT, VMAT, and KV Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu-Tsao, S.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  12. Effect of denture cleansers, surface finish, and temperature on Molloplast B resilient liner color, hardness, and texture.

    PubMed

    Tan, H; Woo, A; Kim, S; Lamoureux, M; Grace, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare color, texture, and Shore A hardness of a resilient silicone denture liner with as-polymerized, roughened, or pumiced surfaces after treatment with perborate-, persulfate-, or hypochlorite-containing denture cleansers at 25 degrees or 55 degrees. Fifty-eight specimens that each exhibited an as-polymerized, a roughened, and a pumiced area were exposed to 5 different commercially available perborate-, persulfate-, or hypochlorite-containing denture cleansers at 25 degrees or 55 degrees continuously for 4 (1/2) months. The solutions were replaced twice a day. Control specimens were soaked in water with no cleanser. Before and after the 4 (1/2) -month cleaning regimen, the color, hardness, and texture of resilient liner surfaces were evaluated using a color densitometer, a Shore A durometer (Shore Instrument & Mfg Co, Freeport, NY), and a surface profilometer, respectively. Differences among groups after the cleanser treatment were determined using a repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) and a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference post hoc test. Roughened specimen surfaces after 25 degrees or 55 degrees cleanser treatment exhibited significant color loss with some perborate-containing cleansers compared with the control. Roughened specimens treated at 55 degrees with perborate-containing cleansers also exhibited significantly greater color loss than those treated with the persulfate-containing cleanser. With roughened surfaces, significantly greater hardness was found with some perborate-containing cleanser compared with a hypochlorite-containing cleanser after treatment at 25 degrees. No differences were observed in surface texture based upon cleanser treatment. After silicone resilient denture liner treatment with certain perborate-containing denture cleansers, a greater amount of components could leach from the liner leading to a loss of color if the liner surface is rough. Copyright 2000 by the American

  13. Macular Pigment Optical Density Measured by Heterochromatic Modulation Photometry

    PubMed Central

    Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlomberg, Juliane; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Pokorny, Joel; Kremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To psychophysically determine macular pigment optical density (MPOD) employing the heterochromatic modulation photometry (HMP) paradigm by estimating 460 nm absorption at central and peripheral retinal locations. Methods For the HMP measurements, two lights (B: 460 nm and R: 660 nm) were presented in a test field and were modulated in counterphase at medium or high frequencies. The contrasts of the two lights were varied in tandem to determine flicker detection thresholds. Detection thresholds were measured for different R:B modulation ratios. The modulation ratio with minimal sensitivity (maximal threshold) is the point of equiluminance. Measurements were performed in 25 normal subjects (11 male, 14 female; age: 30±11 years, mean ± sd) using an eight channel LED stimulator with Maxwellian view optics. The results were compared with those from two published techniques – one based on heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Densitometer) and the other on fundus reflectometry (MPR). Results We were able to estimate MPOD with HMP using a modified theoretical model that was fitted to the HMP data. The resultant MPODHMP values correlated significantly with the MPODMPR values and with the MPODHFP values obtained at 0.25° and 0.5° retinal eccentricity. Conclusions HMP is a flicker-based method with measurements taken at a constant mean chromaticity and luminance. The data can be well fit by a model that allows all data points to contribute to the photometric equality estimate. Therefore, we think that HMP may be a useful method for MPOD measurements, in basic and clinical vision experiments. PMID:25354049

  14. Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels in relation to bone mineral density in apparently healthy Syrian adults.

    PubMed

    Sayed-Hassan, Rima; Abazid, Nizar; Koudsi, Abir; Alourfi, Zaynab

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in this study. More than half of the participants with vitamin D level less than 5 ng/mL had secondary hyperparathyroidism, which implicated a major bone health concern. After adjustment for potential predictors, parathyroid hormone (PTH) explained about 3 % of the variance in total hip bone mineral density (BMD). Bone mineral density (BMD) is known to be influenced by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. The relationship between 25OHD and PTH with BMD has not been well documented in Syrian adults. We aimed to determine how differences in serum 25OHD and PTH levels impacted hip and lumbar spine BMD among apparently healthy Syrian adults. 25OHD and PTH were measured in 156 participants aged 18-53 years from Damascus and its surroundings. Lumbar spine and hip BMD measurements were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using Hologic Discovery Wi densitometer. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between 25OHD, PTH, and BMD. All participants, except one male, had 25OHD <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L), and 89.1 % of them had 25OHD levels less than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was significantly more prevalent in the lowest 25OHD quartile compared to that in the highest quartile (59 vs. 10.3 %, p < 0.0001). Mean bone mineral density at all sites in our participants was lower when compared to that of their Caucasian counterparts in Europe and North America. No significant correlation was found between 25OHD and BMD either at hip or at lumbar spine. In the multivariate analyses, after adjustment for potential predictors, PTH explained about 3 % of the variation in total hip BMD. Low BMD was relatively frequent at all measured sites. PTH, but not 25OHD, was a predictor for total hip BMD in a young population.

  15. Significant Differences in UK and US Female Bone Density Reference Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Noon, Edward; Singh, Shalini; Cuzick, Jack; Spector, Tim D; Williams, Frances MK; Frost, Michelle L; Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle; Eastell, Richard; Coleman, Robert E; Fogelman, Ignac; Blake, Glen M

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the United Kingdom (UK) T- and Z-scores are usually calculated using reference ranges derived from United States (US) populations. In the UK arm of a recent randomised trial (IBIS-II) substantially fewer women than expected were recruited into the osteopenic (-2.5 < T-score < −1.0) and osteoporotic (T-score < −2.5) arms of the study. Comparison with data from two independent studies showed that UK women aged > 45 years with a typical body mass index of 28 kg m−2 have spine and hip BMD 0.6 SD higher than their US counterparts. Introduction Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and to investigate the effect of pharmacological treatments on bone mineral density (BMD). In both routine and research settings it is important that DXA results are correctly interpreted. Methods Z-scores for the first 650 UK Caucasian women enrolled in the IBIS-II study were compared with data from two independent studies of unrelated, unselected UK Caucasian women: (1) 2382 women aged 18 to 79 recruited to the Twins UK adult twin registry; (2) 431 women aged 21 to 84 with no risk factors for osteoporosis recruited at Guy’s Hospital. All DXA measurements were performed on Hologic densitometers. Subjects were divided into six age bands and Z-scores calculated using the manufacturer’s US reference range for the spine and the NHANES III reference range for the femoral neck and total hip. Results The overall mean Z-scores for the IBIS-II, Twin and Guy’s groups were: spine: 0.61, 0.29, 0.33; femoral neck: 0.42, 0.36, 0.45; total hip: 0.65, 0.38, 0.39 (all p < 0.001 compared with the expected value of 0). The mean body weight of subjects in the three studies was 74.4, 65.5 and 65.4 kg respectively. Analysis revealed a highly significant relationship between Z-score and weight at each BMD site with a slope of 0.03 kg−1. Conclusions In general US spine and hip reference ranges are not suitable for the calculation of Z

  16. Altered body composition in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Heshka, Stanley; Ruggiero, Andrea; Bray, George A.; Foreyt, John; Kahn, Stephen E.; Lewis, Cora E.; Saad, Mohammed; Schwartz, Ann V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in amount and distribution of fat and lean soft tissue in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes and to determine whether any differences are affected by race/ethnicity or sex. Design Overweight and obese (body mass index, BMI≥25 kg/m2) Black, White and Hispanic men (490) and women (825) with type 2 diabetes ([mean±SD] age 58.5±6.6; BMI 35.3±5.3) who had a baseline dual energy x-ray absorptiometry whole body scan at the time of enrollment in the Look Ahead clinical trial, and 242 healthy controls, 91 males and 151 females (age 55.3±8.6 y, BMI 30.7±4.2 kg/m2) who were participating in unrelated research and were scanned on the same densitometers. Results Adjusted for covariates, total fat mass was smaller in persons with type 2 diabetes than in controls (−1.4±0.3[SE]; 34.5 vs 35.8 kg, p<0.001) while trunk fat was larger (1.3±0.2[SE]; 19.9 vs 18.6 kg, p<0.001) and leg fat was smaller (−1.5±0.2[SE]; 10.7 vs 12.3 kg, p<0.001). The arms of subjects with type 2 diabetes did not have significantly less fat compared to controls. Adjusted trunk lean mass was larger in type 2 diabetes by 0.6 kg (28.4 vs 27.8 kg, p<0.001) while leg lean was smaller by 0.5 kg (18.1 vs 18.6 kg, p<0.001). Conclusions Type 2 diabetes is associated with less total fat, leg fat and leg lean mass and more truncal fat and lean mass than controls. The physiological processes producing these deviations in tissue distribution and their metabolic significance warrant further investigation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00017953) PMID:18227843

  17. UCLA Molecular Instrumentation Center—Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yan, W.; Alvarado, R.J.; Khitrov, G.A.; Czerwieniec, G.; Strouse, J.; Sondej, M.

    2011-01-01

    The UCLA Molecular Instrumentation Center (MIC) is a state-of-the-art campus-wide facility dedicated to enabling the use of modern instrumentation in molecular characterizations (www.mic.ucla.edu). The UCLA Molecular Instrumentation Center is housed within and managed through the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and is composed of five divisions: J.D. McCullough Laboratory of X-ray Crystallography, Magnetic Resonance Facility, Materials Characterization lab, W. M. Keck Proteomics Center and Mass Spectrometry (MS) Laboratory. The MIC operates as an open access center where qualified users are encouraged to perform their own sample analysis under the training and guidance of the MIC personnel and is available to researchers at UCLA, other academic institutions and commercial enterprises. The UCLA Proteomics Center and Mass Spectrometry Laboratories have five Ph.D. level staff members who are experts in sample preparation, 2-D gel and other electrophoresis techniques, bioinformatics, and mass spectrometry. The equipment for the UCLA Proteomics Center includes Bio-Rad electrophoresis cells for running 1- and 2-D gels; Bio-Rad Fx Fluorescence Imager and GS-800 Densitometer for imaging; DIGILAB Genomic Solutions ProPicII spot cutter; Thermo LTQ FT MS with Eksigent NanoLC-2D HPLC; Thermo LTQ Orbitrap XL MS with Eksigent NanoLC-2D HPLC and a Bruker SolariX-hybrid Qq-FTMS equipped with a 15 Tesla Magnet System. Our Bioinformatics resource center hosts a number of qualitative and quantitative software for 2-D gel and mass spectrometry data analysis and hardware such as a linux cluster and servers for MS database searching and data storage. The MS Laboratory is located next door and works closely with the Proteomics Center. Their mass spectrometers includes Applied Biosystems-MDS Sciex 4000 Q Trap with Autosampler; Applied Biosystems Q-Star Elite Quad-TOF Hybrid LC/MS/MS system; Applied Biosystems Voyager-DE STR MALDI-TOF; Thermo Finnigan LCQ Deca Ion Trap MS with

  18. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    PubMed

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  19. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=-0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=-0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=-0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography.

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  1. Pressure drop, flow pattern and local water volume fraction measurements of oil-water flow in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, W. A. S.; Halvorsen, B. M.; Melaaen, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    Oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes was investigated. The experimental activities were performed using the multiphase flow loop at Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, Norway. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density of 790 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.64 mPa s) and water (density of 996 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.00 mPa s) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination was changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. Mixture velocity and inlet water cut vary up to 1.50 m s-1 and 0.975, respectively. The time-averaged cross-sectional distributions of oil and water were measured with a single-beam gamma densitometer. The pressure drop along the test section of the pipe was also measured. The characterization of flow patterns and identification of their boundaries are achieved via visual observations and by analysis of local water volume fraction measurements. The observed flow patterns were presented in terms of flow pattern maps for different pipe inclinations. In inclined flows, dispersions appear at lower mixture velocities compared to the horizontal flows. Smoothly stratified flows observed in the horizontal pipe disappeared in upwardly inclined pipes and new flow patterns, plug flow and stratified wavy flow were observed. The water-in-oil dispersed flow regime slightly shrinks as the pipe inclination increases. In inclined flows, the dispersed oil-in-water flow regime extended to lower mixture velocities and lower inlet water cuts. The present experimental data were compared with the results of a flow-pattern-dependent prediction model, which uses the area-averaged steady-state two-fluid model for stratified flow and the homogeneous model for dispersed flow. The two-fluid model was able to predict the pressure drop and water hold-up for stratified flow. The homogeneous model was not able to predict the pressure profile of dispersed oil-water flow at higher water

  2. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. This report

  3. Validation of Long Bone Mechanical Properties from Densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, R.; Katz, B.; Cleek, T.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether cross-sectional areal properties, calculated from densitometry, correlate to the true flexural properties. Right and left male embalmed tibiae were used in the study. Prior to scanning, the proximal end of each tibia was potted in a fixture with registration pins, flushed thoroughly with water under pressure to remove trapped air, and then placed in a constant thickness water bath attached to a precision indexer. Two sets of three scans of the entire tibia were taken with an Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer at rotations of 0, 45, and 90 degrees about the tibia long axis. An aluminum step phantom and a bone step phantom, machined from bovine cortical bone, were also in the bath and scanned separately. Pixel attenuation data from the two sets of scans were averaged to reduce noise. Pixel data from the high energy beam were then converted to equivalent thicknesses using calibration equations. Cross-sectional areal properties (centroid, principal area moments and principal angle) along the length were computed from the three registered scans using methods developed in our laboratory. Flexural rigidities. Four strain gages were bonded around the circumference of each of 5 cross-sections encompassing the entire diaphysis. A known transverse load was then applied to the distal end and the bone was rotated 360 degrees in eight increments of 45 degrees each. Strains from the eight orientations were analyzed along with the known applied bending moments at each section to compute section centroids, curvatures, principal flexural rigidities and principal angle. Reference axes between the two methods were maintained within +/- 0.5 degrees using an electronic inclinometer. Principal angles (flexural - areal) differed by -2.0 +/- 4.0 degrees, and 1.0 +/- 2.5 degrees for the right and left tibia, respectively. Section principal flexural rigidities were highly correlated to principal areal moments (right: r(sup 2)= 0.997; left: r

  4. The effect of glucocorticoid replacement therapy on bone mineral density in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Semra; Kara, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    1) To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) doses on bone mineral density (BMD) in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 2) Investigate other factors influencing BMD. Twenty-six children with CAH and 11 healthy controls included in the study. All of the patients were examined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer. The metabolic control state, age at diagnosis GC dose (mg/m2/day), pubertal status, 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17 OHP) levels, bone age (BA), and lumber BMD were evaluated in all cases. BMD (g/cm2), BMD z-score corrected to National Standards (cNS-BMD z-score), BMD z-score corrected to BA (cBABMD), bone mineral content (BMC), BMC corrected to puberty (cPBMC), and bone area (BAR) values were determined. Patients were grouped according to mean on-therapy serum 17 OHP levels as tight control (17 OHP<10 nmol/L) (n:13) and poor control (17 OHP>10 nmol/L) (n:13). All groups were compared with each other. The age range was 2.1-15.7 years and the mean age (+/- SD) 9.3 (+/- 3.5) years. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of GC doses, lumbar BMD values [BMD (g/cm2), BMD z-score corrected to National Standards (cNS-BMD z-score), BMD z-score corrected to BA (cBABMD), bone mineral content (BMC), BMC corrected to puberty (cPBMC), and bone area (BAR)]. However, the BMI value was higher in children with CAH than normal healthy controls. The BA of the poor control, late diagnosed groups and male patients were higher than tight control, early diagnosed group and female patients, respectively. BMC and BA were lower than the control group in tight control with early diagnosed patients. The cBABMD z-score was lower in males with poor control than males with tight control. There were no similar results in female patients. Although GC treatment seems not to influence BMD in CAH patients in our study, further studies are needed to additionally evaluate daily calcium (Ca) intake

  5. Correlations between the MR Diffusion-weighted Image (DWI) and the bone mineral density (BMD) as a function of the soft tissue thickness-focus on phantom and patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Sam; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Cheol-Soo; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Yeo, Hwa-Yeon

    2013-02-01

    In this study we used lumbar phantoms to determine if the BMD (bone mineral density) changes when only the thickness of soft tissue is increased. Second, we targeted osteoporosis patients to analyze the dependences of the changes in the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) on changes in T-score. We used a bone mineral densitometer, phantoms such as an aluminum spine phantom (ASP), a Hologic spine phantom (HSP), and a European spine phantom (ESP), five sheets of acrylic panel, and a water bath to study the effects of changes in the thickness of soft tissue. First, we measured the ASP, the HSP and the ESP. For the measurement of the ASP, we filled it with water to increase the height by 0.5 cm starting from the baseline height. We then did three measurements for each height. For the measurements of the HSP and the ESP, we placed an acrylic panel on the phantom and then did three measurements at each height. We used the ASP to calculate the degree of precision of the standard mode and the thick mode at the maximum height of the water bath. To assess the degree of precision in the measurements of the three types of phantoms, we calculated precision errors and analyzed the correlation between the change in the thickness of soft tissue and the variables of the BMD. Using DWIs (diffusion weighted images), we targeted 30 healthy persons without osteoporosis and 30 patients with a finding of osteoporosis and measured the T-scores for the L1 — L4 (lumbar spine) segments of by the spine using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before classifying the measurement at each part of the spine as osteopenia or osteoporosis. We measured the signal intensity on all four parts of L1-L4 in the DWIs obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner and measured the ADC in the ADC map image. We compared changes in the SNR and the ADC for each group. The study results confirmed that an increase in the thickness of the soft tissue had a significant correlation

  6. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  7. The effect of the Oxford uncemented medial compartment arthroplasty on the bone mineral density and content of the proximal tibia.

    PubMed

    Hooper, G J; Gilchrist, N; Maxwell, R; March, R; Heard, A; Frampton, C

    2013-11-01

    We studied the bone mineral density (BMD) and the bone mineral content (BMC) of the proximal tibia in patients with a well-functioning uncemented Oxford medial compartment arthroplasty using the Lunar iDXA bone densitometer. Our hypothesis was that there would be decreased BMD and BMC adjacent to the tibial base plate and increased BMD and BMC at the tip of the keel. There were 79 consecutive patients (33 men, 46 women) with a mean age of 65 years (44 to 84) with a minimum two-year follow-up (mean 2.6 years (2.0 to 5.0)) after unilateral arthroplasty, who were scanned using a validated standard protocol where seven regions of interest (ROI) were examined and compared with the contralateral normal knee. All had well-functioning knees with a mean Oxford knee score of 43 (14 to 48) and mean Knee Society function score of 90 (20 to 100), showing a correlation with the increasing scores and higher BMC and BMD values in ROI 2 in the non-implanted knee relative to the implanted knee (p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively). The absolute and percentage changes in BMD and BMC were decreased in all ROIs in the implanted knee compared with the non-implanted knee, but this did not reach statistical significance. Bone loss was markedly less than reported losses with total knee replacement. There was no significant association with side, although there was a tendency for the BMC to decrease with age in men. The BMC was less in the implanted side relative to the non-implanted side in men compared with women in ROI 2 (p = 0.027), ROI 3 (p = 0.049) and ROI 4 (p = 0.029). The uncemented Oxford medial compartment arthroplasty appears to allow relative preservation of the BMC and BMD of the proximal tibia, suggesting that the implant acts more physiologically than total knee replacement. Peri-prosthetic bone loss is an important factor in assessing long-term implant stability and survival, and the results of this study are encouraging for the long-term outcome of this arthroplasty.

  8. Biomedical image processing.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed. Two current federally funded research projects in heart imaging, the dynamic spatial reconstructor and the dynamic cardiac three-dimensional densitometer, should bring some fruitful results in the near future. Miscrosopic imaging technique is very different from the radiological imaging technique in the sense that

  9. The dense gas mass fraction in the W51 cloud and its protoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Youngblood, Allison; Darling, Jeremy; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor; Lebrón Santos, Mayra E.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The density structure of molecular clouds determines how they will evolve. Aims: We map the velocity-resolved density structure of the most vigorously star-forming molecular cloud in the Galactic disk, the W51 giant molecular cloud. Methods: We present new 2 cm and 6 cm maps of H2CO, radio recombination lines, and the radio continuum in the W51 star forming complex acquired with Arecibo and the Green Bank Telescope at ~ 50″ resolution. We use H2CO absorption to determine the relative line-of-sight positions of molecular and ionized gas. We measure gas densities using the H2CO densitometer, including continuous measurements of the dense gas mass fraction (DGMF) over the range 104cm-3 104cm-3, while it is low, f< 20%, in W51 B. We did not detect any H2CO emission throughout the W51 GMC; all gas dense enough to emit under normal conditions is in front of bright continuum sources and therefore is seen in absorption instead. Conclusions: (1) The dense gas fraction in the W51 A and B clouds shows that W51 A will continue to form stars vigorously, while star formation has mostly ended in W51 B. The lack of dense, star-forming gas around W51 C indicates that collect-and-collapse is not acting or is inefficient in W51. (2) Ongoing high-mass star formation is correlated with n ≳ 1 × 105cm-3 gas. Gas with n> 104cm-3 is weakly correlated with low and moderate mass star formation, but does not strongly correlate with high-mass star formation. (3) The nondetection of H2CO emission implies that the emission detected in other galaxies, e.g. Arp 220, comes from high-density gas that is not directly affiliated with already-formed massive stars. Either the non-star-forming ISM of these galaxies is very dense, implying the star formation density threshold is higher, or H ii regions

  10. Objective evaluation of slanted edge charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung, Harvey (.

    2015-01-01

    Camera objective characterization methodologies are widely used in the digital camera industry. Most objective characterization systems rely on a chart with specific patterns, a software algorithm measures a degradation or difference between the captured image and the chart itself. The Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) method, which is part of the ISO 122331 standard, is now very commonly used in the imaging industry, it is a very convenient way to measure a camera Modulation transfer function (MTF). The SFR algorithm can measure frequencies beyond the Nyquist frequency thanks to super-resolution, so it does provide useful information on aliasing and can provide modulation for frequencies between half Nyquist and Nyquist on all color channels of a color sensor with a Bayer pattern. The measurement process relies on a chart that is simple to manufacture: a straight transition from a bright reflectance to a dark one (black and white for instance), while a sine chart requires handling precisely shades of gray which can also create all sort of issues with printers that rely on half-toning. However, no technology can create a perfect edge, so it is important to assess the quality of the chart and understand how it affects the accuracy of the measurement. In this article, I describe a protocol to characterize the MTF of a slanted edge chart, using a high-resolution flatbed scanner. The main idea is to use the RAW output of the scanner as a high-resolution micro-densitometer, since the signal is linear it is suitable to measure the chart MTF using the SFR algorithm. The scanner needs to be calibrated in sharpness: the scanner MTF is measured with a calibrated sine chart and inverted to compensate for the modulation loss from the scanner. Then the true chart MTF is computed. This article compares measured MTF from commercial charts and charts printed on printers, and also compares how of the contrast of the edge (using different shades of gray) can affect the chart MTF

  11. Optimised microcomputer-guided quantitative microradiography on dental mineralised tissue slices.

    PubMed

    de Josselin de Jong, E; ten Bosch, J J; Noordmans, J

    1987-07-01

    It is well realised that the contact microradiographic method is the most direct method that gives position-dependent information on the mineral content of calcified tissue and its loss. We developed a microcomputer-guided microradiographic system which features fast operation by the experimenter with a low appearance of errors. Tooth tissue slices of 75 micron thickness are cut with a sawing machine. Images (Cu K alpha radiation) of the tooth slice and an aluminium step wedge (exposure 10-15 s) are made on film (Kodak SO-253). The images of step wedge and tooth slice are scanned in a densitometer (1 micron X 30 microns slit), which is fitted with an XY table (0.5 micron steps). A microcomputer (Apple IIe) is programmed to control the XY table and to record the optical film transmission. Scans of the images are plotted on the computer screen. The calibration step optical film transmission values are determined by the operator by adjusting a computer-generated bar onto the individual steps shown on the screen. The dose-density relation of the film is approximated by the program by a fourth-degree polynomial using the step-wedge data. The resulting curve is used to convert the tooth-slice data into a mineral volume percentage. To enable the calculation of total mineral loss (in kg m-2) (loss integrated over depth), the operator adds the assumed diagram for sound enamel onto the display. This is done by adjusting computer-generated bars to the scan of the tooth slice shown on the screen. The resolving power in the image made by the microradiographic system is 3 microns X 30 microns. On the basis of the analysis of random errors and a comparison with chemical analysis of tooth slices we claim that the error in mineral volume percentage amounts to 4% of its value. Starting with a microradiographic image of a tooth slice 5 min are required to obtain a microradiographic curve on paper and to obtain a value for mineral loss.

  12. A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Dubose, Ryan S.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F.

    2008-02-15

    . The RCF rotated by 90 deg. showed no measurable orientation effect. A scan of a 15x15 cm{sup 2} area with 1 mm resolution required 22 min to acquire. The LED densitometer provides an accurate film dosimetry system with 1 mm or better resolution. The scanner eliminates the orientation dependence of RCF dosimetry that was previously reported with commercial flatbed scanners.

  13. Alendronate reduces the daily consumption of insulin (DCI) in patients with senile type I diabetes and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, D; Panebianco, P; Rosso, D; Calanna, A; Speciale, S; Santangelo, A; Rizza, I; Motta, M; Lentini, A; Malaguarnera, M

    2002-01-01

    The use of Alendronate for the treatment of senile diabetes with osteopenia or osteoporosis is a common practice today, although the reasons for the success of this treatment are not completely understood. We investigated 40 elderly female patients, over 70 years of age, divided in two Groups (A and B) 20 cases of each, with insulin-dependent senile diabetes and fair metabolic balance, with an average disease duration of 30 +/- 4 years. They all had osteoporosis shown by the mean T-score of bone mineral densitometry. The Groups were treated as follows, Group A with 10 mg/day of Alendronate per os, with morning fasting plus a supplementation of calcium and vitamin D3, while the Group B received only calcium and vitamin D3 per os. Bone mineral density (BMD) expressed in mg/cm2, and in terms of T-score and Z-score at the spine (L1-L4) was monitored over time after 12 and 24 months, using dexa technique with a Lunar DPX densitometer. Moreover, the variation of daily consumption of insulin (DCI) of all the study population was calculated 12 and 24 months after the start of treatments. The data of Group A showed an improvement of osteoporosis, as evidenced by the increase of BMD at both times of measurement, accompanied by a significant reduction in the DCI (-21.6% by the 12th month, and -36.2% by the end of the observation period). In the Group B only small, statistically insignificant changes were observed in both the BMD and DCI. The most plausible explanation of reduction of DCI in Group A seems to be that Alendronate has improved the clinical symptoms of osteoporosis (pain, rigidity, and reduction of movements) through its action on the bone mass recovery and slowing down the bone turnover and under these conditions the diabetic patients improved their own physical performance. The better and more extensive movements certainly produced a reduction in the DCI, since a correct and adequate physical activity does contribute to an improved glucose metabolism.

  14. Visceral fat reference values derived from healthy European men and women aged 20-30 years using GE Healthcare dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Kucharski, Robert; Sołtysiak, Marta; Taszarek, Aleksandra; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Widecka, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique used in clinical and research settings to evaluate total and regional fat. Additionally, recently developed software allow to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE Healthcare DXA systems for VAT. The aim of this study was to develop reference values for VAT in healthy European adults aged 20–30 years using a GE Healthcare Prodigy densitometer along with the dedicated CoreScan application. We also assessed the associations of VAT with traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. In 421 participants (207 men; 214 women), we performed DXA whole-body scans and calculated total body fat (BF) and VAT (in gender-specific percentiles). We also measured blood pressure and fasting glucose, insulin, and blood lipids. Males, in comparison with females, had 2-fold greater VAT both in units of mass (542 ± 451 g; 95% CI: 479.6‒605.1 g vs. 258 ± 226 g; 95% CI: 226.9‒288.6 g) and volume (570 ± 468 cm3; 95% CI: 505.1‒635.2 cm3 vs. 273 ± 237 cm3; 95% CI: 240.6‒305.3 cm3). They also had significantly higher the VAT/BF ratio. VAT showed a stronger positive correlation than BF with blood pressure, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index and a stronger negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol. Among these variables, VAT had the highest area under the curve for triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL (0.727 in males and 0.712 in females). In conclusion, we provide reference values for VAT obtained from healthy adults using the GE Healthcare DXA. These values may be useful in the diagnosis of visceral obesity, for identifying subjects with high obesity-related risks, in epidemiological studies, as a target for therapies, and in physically trained individuals. In both genders, VAT was associated with traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:28683146

  15. Intra-annual variability of anatomical structure and δ13C values within tree rings of spruce and pine in alpine, temperate and boreal Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vaganov, Eugene A.; Skomarkova, Marina V.; Knohl, Alexander; Brand, Willi A.; Roscher, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Tree-ring width, wood density, anatomical structure and 13C/12C ratios expressed as δ13C-values of whole wood of Picea abies were investigated for trees growing in closed canopy forest stands. Samples were collected from the alpine Renon site in North Italy, the lowland Hainich site in Central Germany and the boreal Flakaliden site in North Sweden. In addition, Pinus cembra was studied at the alpine site and Pinus sylvestris at the boreal site. The density profiles of tree rings were measured using the DENDRO-2003 densitometer, δ13C was measured using high-resolution laser-ablation-combustion-gas chromatography-infra-red mass spectrometry and anatomical characteristics of tree rings (tracheid diameter, cell-wall thickness, cell-wall area and cell-lumen area) were measured using an image analyzer. Based on long-term statistics, climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit, explained <20% of the variation in tree-ring width and wood density over consecutive years, while 29–58% of the variation in tree-ring width were explained by autocorrelation between tree rings. An intensive study of tree rings between 1999 and 2003 revealed that tree ring width and δ13C-values of whole wood were significantly correlated with length of the growing season, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The δ13C-values were not correlated with precipitation or temperature. A highly significant correlation was also found between δ13C of the early wood of one year and the late wood of the previous year, indicating a carry-over effect of the growing conditions of the previous season on current wood production. This latter effect may explain the high autocorrelation of long-term tree-ring statistics. The pattern, however, was complex, showing stepwise decreases as well as stepwise increases in the δ13C between late wood and early wood. The results are interpreted in the context of the biochemistry of wood formation and its linkage

  16. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts

    1999-05-27

    The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination

  17. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  18. Advanced radiochromic film methodologies for quantitative dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Benjamin S.

    Radiotherapy treatments with small and nonstandard fields are increasing in use as collimation and targeting become more advanced, which spare normal tissues while increasing tumor dose. However, dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields is more difficult than that of conventional fields due to loss of lateral charged-particle equilibrium, tight measurement setup requirements, source occlusion, and the volume-averaging effect of conventional dosimeters. This work aims to create new small and nonstandard field dosimetry protocols using radiochromic film (RCF) in conjunction with novel readout and analysis methodologies. It also is the intent of this work to develop an improved understanding of RCF structure and mechanics for its quantitative use in general applications. Conventional digitization techniques employ white-light, flatbed document scanners or scanning-laser densitometers which are not optimized for RCF dosimetry. A point-by-point precision laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed for this work to overcome the film-scanning artifacts associated with the use of conventional digitizers, such as positional scan dependence, off-axis light scatter, glass bed interference, and low signal-to-noise ratios. The LDS was shown to be optically traceable to national standards and to provide highly reproducible density measurements. Use of the LDS resulted in increased agreement between RCF dose measurements and the single-hit detector model of film response, facilitating traceable RCF calibrations based on calibrated physical quantities. GafchromicRTM EBT3 energy response to a variety of reference x-ray and gamma-ray beam qualities was also investigated. Conventional Monte Carlo methods are not capable of predicting film intrinsic energy response to arbitrary particle spectra. Therefore, a microdosimetric model was developed to simulate the underlying physics of the radiochromic mechanism and was shown to correctly predict the intrinsic response relative to a

  19. Intra-annual variability of anatomical structure and delta(13)C values within tree rings of spruce and pine in alpine, temperate and boreal Europe.

    PubMed

    Vaganov, Eugene A; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Skomarkova, Marina V; Knohl, Alexander; Brand, Willi A; Roscher, Christiane

    2009-10-01

    Tree-ring width, wood density, anatomical structure and (13)C/(12)C ratios expressed as delta(13)C-values of whole wood of Picea abies were investigated for trees growing in closed canopy forest stands. Samples were collected from the alpine Renon site in North Italy, the lowland Hainich site in Central Germany and the boreal Flakaliden site in North Sweden. In addition, Pinus cembra was studied at the alpine site and Pinus sylvestris at the boreal site. The density profiles of tree rings were measured using the DENDRO-2003 densitometer, delta(13)C was measured using high-resolution laser-ablation-combustion-gas chromatography-infra-red mass spectrometry and anatomical characteristics of tree rings (tracheid diameter, cell-wall thickness, cell-wall area and cell-lumen area) were measured using an image analyzer. Based on long-term statistics, climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit, explained <20% of the variation in tree-ring width and wood density over consecutive years, while 29-58% of the variation in tree-ring width were explained by autocorrelation between tree rings. An intensive study of tree rings between 1999 and 2003 revealed that tree ring width and delta(13)C-values of whole wood were significantly correlated with length of the growing season, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The delta(13)C-values were not correlated with precipitation or temperature. A highly significant correlation was also found between delta(13)C of the early wood of one year and the late wood of the previous year, indicating a carry-over effect of the growing conditions of the previous season on current wood production. This latter effect may explain the high autocorrelation of long-term tree-ring statistics. The pattern, however, was complex, showing stepwise decreases as well as stepwise increases in the delta(13)C between late wood and early wood. The results are interpreted in the context of the biochemistry

  20. Visceral fat reference values derived from healthy European men and women aged 20-30 years using GE Healthcare dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Miazgowski, Tomasz; Kucharski, Robert; Sołtysiak, Marta; Taszarek, Aleksandra; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Widecka, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique used in clinical and research settings to evaluate total and regional fat. Additionally, recently developed software allow to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE Healthcare DXA systems for VAT. The aim of this study was to develop reference values for VAT in healthy European adults aged 20-30 years using a GE Healthcare Prodigy densitometer along with the dedicated CoreScan application. We also assessed the associations of VAT with traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. In 421 participants (207 men; 214 women), we performed DXA whole-body scans and calculated total body fat (BF) and VAT (in gender-specific percentiles). We also measured blood pressure and fasting glucose, insulin, and blood lipids. Males, in comparison with females, had 2-fold greater VAT both in units of mass (542 ± 451 g; 95% CI: 479.6‒605.1 g vs. 258 ± 226 g; 95% CI: 226.9‒288.6 g) and volume (570 ± 468 cm3; 95% CI: 505.1‒635.2 cm3 vs. 273 ± 237 cm3; 95% CI: 240.6‒305.3 cm3). They also had significantly higher the VAT/BF ratio. VAT showed a stronger positive correlation than BF with blood pressure, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index and a stronger negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol. Among these variables, VAT had the highest area under the curve for triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL (0.727 in males and 0.712 in females). In conclusion, we provide reference values for VAT obtained from healthy adults using the GE Healthcare DXA. These values may be useful in the diagnosis of visceral obesity, for identifying subjects with high obesity-related risks, in epidemiological studies, as a target for therapies, and in physically trained individuals. In both genders, VAT was associated with traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. Gene-gene interaction between CD40 and CD40L reduces bone mineral density and increases osteoporosis risk in women.

    PubMed

    Pineda, B; Tarín, J J; Hermenegildo, C; Laporta, P; Cano, A; García-Pérez, M Á

    2011-05-01

    We have analysed the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD40 and CD40L genes with bone mineral density (BMD) in our women. Results showed that women with TT genotype for rs1883832 (CD40) and for rs1126535 (CD40L) SNPs displayed reduced BMD and increased risk for osteopenia/osteoporosis. Our data notwithstanding, the results need to be replicated. Recent data have revealed that the CD40/CD40L system can be implicated in bone metabolism regulation. Moreover, we previously demonstrated that rs1883832 in the CD40 gene was significantly associated with BMD and osteoporosis risk. The objective of the present work was to determine whether polymorphisms in CD40 and CD40L genes are associated with BMD and osteoporosis risk. We conducted an association study of BMD values with SNPs in CD40 and CD40L genes in a population of 811 women of which 693 and 711 had femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) densitometric studies, respectively. Women with the TT genotype for rs1883832 (CD40) showed a reduction in FN-BMD (P = 0.005) and LS-BMD (P = 0.020) when compared with women with the CC/CT genotype. Moreover, we found that rs1126535 (CD40L) was significantly associated with LS-BMD so that women with the TT genotype displayed lower BMD (P = 0.014) than did women with the CC/CT genotype. Interestingly, we have found a strong interaction between polymorphisms in these genes. Thus, women with the TT genotype for both rs1883832 and rs1126535 SNPs (TT + TT women) showed a lower age-adjusted BMD (Z-score) for FN (P = 0.0007) and LS (0.007) after adjusting by years since menopause, body mass index, smoking and menopausal status, densitometer type, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and HRT duration and after making the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons than did the remaining women. Logistic regression analysis adjusted by these covariates showed that TT + TT women had increased risk for FN (odds ratio (OR) = 2.76; P = 0.006) and

  2. Measuring and mapping forest wildlife habitat characteristics using LiDAR remote sensing and multi-sensor function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Peter

    Managing forests for multiple, often competing uses is challenging; managing Sierra National Forest's fire regime and California spotted owl habitat is difficult and compounded by lack of information about habitat quality. Consistent and accurate measurements of forest structure will reduce uncertainties regarding the amount of habitat reduction or alteration that spotted owls can tolerate. Current methods of measuring spotted owl habitat are mostly field-based and emphasize the important of canopy cover. However, this is more because of convenience than because canopy cover is a definitive predictor of owl presence or fecundity. Canopy cover is consistently and accurately measured in the field using a moosehorn densitometer; comparable measurements can be made using airphoto interpretation or from examining satellite imagery, but the results are not consistent. LiDAR remote sensing can produce consistent and accurate measurements of canopy cover, as well as other aspects of forest structure (such as canopy height and biomass) that are known or thought to be at least as predictive as canopy cover. Moreover, LiDAR can be used to produce maps of forest structure rather than the point samples available from field measurements. However, LiDAR data sets are expensive and not available everywhere. Combining LiDAR with other, remote sensing data sets with less expensive, wall-to-wall coverage will result in broader scale maps of forest structure than have heretofore been possible; these maps can then be used to analyze spotted owl habitat. My work consists of three parts: comparison of LiDAR estimates of forest structure with field measurements, statistical fusion of LiDAR and other remote sensing data sets to produce broad scale maps of forest structure, and analysis of California spotted owl presence and fecundity as a function of LiDAR-derived canopy structure. I found that LiDAR was able to replicate field measurements accurately. Additionally, I was able to

  3. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  4. High pressure annular two-phase flow in a narrow duct. Part 1: Local measurements in the droplet field, and Part 2: Three-field modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Trabold, T.A.; Kumar, R.

    1999-07-01

    In Part 1, detailed measurements were made in a high pressure, adiabatic (boiled at the inlet) annular flow in a narrow, high aspect ratio duct using a gamma densitometer, hot-film anemometer and high-speed video photography. Measurements of void fraction, droplet frequency, velocity, drop size, and interfacial area concentration have been made to support the three field computational capability. An important aspect of this testing is the use of a modeling fluid (R-134a) in a vertical duct which permits visual access in annular flow. This modeling fluid accurately simulates the low liquid-to-vapor density ratio of steam-water flows at high pressures. These measurements have been taken in a narrow duct of hydraulic diameter 4.85 mm, and a cross-section aspect ratio of 22.5. However, the flow displays profiles of various shapes not only in the narrow dimension, but also in the width dimension. In particular, the shape of the droplet profiles depends on the entrained droplet flux from the edges in the vapor core. The average diameter from these profiles compare well with the models developed in the literature. Interfacial area concentration for these low density ratio flows is higher than the highest concentration reported for air-water flows. Video records show that along with the bow-shaped waves, three-dimensional {lambda}-shaped waves appear in annular flows for high flow rates. Part 2 outlines the development of a three-field modeling approach in annular flow and the predictive capability of an analysis code. Models have been developed here or adapted from the literature for the thin film near the wall as well as the droplets in the vapor core, and have been locally applied in a fully developed, two-phase adiabatic boiling annular flow in a duct heated at the inlet at high pressure. Numerical results have been obtained using these models that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. The two-dimensional predictions are compared with

  5. [Effect of electroacupuncture of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) on Wnt-β-catenin signaling in osteoporosis rats].

    PubMed

    Fan, Huai-ling; Ji, Feng; Lin, Ying; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) on bone miner density, bone biomechanics, serum osteocalcin (BGP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) contents, and femoral osteoblastic Wnt-β-catenin signaling in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) rats. Forty female SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham), model, EA-CV 4, and EA-non-acupoint (below the costal region) groups (n = 10 in each group). The PMOP model was established by performing an ovariectomy in the rats of the later 3 groups. EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to CV 4 for 20 min, once daily for one month, with one day's break between every 10 days. After the treatment, serum BGP and ALP contents were detected using ELISA, the right femoral bone miner density and biomechanics (maximum load, breakage load) were measured using a Dual Energy X-Ray Bone Densitometer and a Universal Material Testing Instrument, respectively. The expression levels of Wnt 3 a mRNA, β-catenin mRNA and the bone-specific factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx 2) mRNA of the femoral bone tissue were determined by real time RT-PCR. HE staining results suggested EA of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) can improve the morphological changes (trabeculae) of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Compared with the control group, femoral maximum load and breakage load, bone density and serum BGP and ALP contents, femoral Wnt 3 a mRNA, β-catenin and Runx 2 mRNA expression levels, and femoral Wnt 3 a.and β-catenin immunoactivity were significantly down-regulated in the ovariectomized rats (model group) (P < 0.05). Following EA treatment, all the decreased levels of femoral maximum load and breakage load, bone density and serum BGP and ALP, femoral Wnt 3 a mRNA and protein, β-catenin mRNA and protein and Runx 2 mRNA expression were obviously reversed in the EA-CV 4 group (P < 0.05) rather than in the non-acupoint group (P > 0.05). EA of CV 4 can improve the femoral biomechanics, increase bone density in OVX rats, which

  6. Influence of duration of total breast-feeding on bone mineral density in a Turkish population: does the priority of risk factors differ from society to society?

    PubMed

    Dursun, N; Akin, S; Dursun, E; Sade, I; Korkusuz, F

    2006-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on risk factors for osteoporosis the effect of breast-feeding on bone mineral density (BMD) is unclear. In this study our aim was to determine the influence of total duration of breast-feeding on BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. A total of 1,486 postmenopausal women over the age of 40 were included in the study. Women with diseases or who were under drug treatments known to affect bone metabolism were excluded. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique, using either the Norland XA-26 or Lunar DPX-IQ densitometers and were transferred to standard values. Patients were placed in groups of five with respect to the duration of their breast-feeding as never, 1-12 months, 12-24 months, 24-60 months, >60 months. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference between the lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD of these groups of women (p<0.001, p<0.001). Post hoc Bonferroni correction revealed that both the lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD results of women with longer duration of total breast-feeding were significantly lower than those of women with less duration of total breast-feeding. In subsequent analysis other potential risk factors were also considered in a multiple linear stepwise regression model. Years since menopause (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), total duration of breast-feeding (p<0.001), and body mass index (p=0.001) were found to be the most important predictors for lumbar spine BMD; and age (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), years since menopause (p<0.001), and total duration of breast-feeding (p<0.001) for femoral neck BMD. This study showed significant associations between total duration of breast-feeding and BMD. In conclusion, total duration of breast-feeding might be an important risk factor besides age, weight, and years since menopause in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Effect of in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol on lumbar and femoral bone, articular cartilage, and the intervertebral disc in male and female adult mice progeny with and without swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Rowas, Sora Al; Haddad, Rami; Gawri, Rahul; Al Ma'awi, Abdul Aziz; Chalifour, Lorraine E; Antoniou, John; Mwale, Fackson

    2012-01-23

    Developmental exposure to estrogens has been shown to affect the musculoskeletal system. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that environmental exposure to estrogen-like compounds is much higher than originally anticipated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a well-known estrogen agonist, on articular cartilage, intervertebral disc (IVD), and bone phenotype. C57Bl/6 pregnant mice were dosed orally with vehicle (peanut oil) or 0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg/day of DES on gestational days 11 to 14. Male and female pups were allowed to mature without further treatment until 3 months of age, when swim and sedentary groups were formed. After euthanasia, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), and trabecular bone area (TBA) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur were measured by using a PIXImus Bone Densitometer System. Intervertebral disc proteoglycan was measured with the DMMB assay. Histologic analysis of proteoglycan for IVD and articular cartilage was performed with safranin O staining, and degeneration parameters were scored. The lumbar BMC was significantly increased in female swimmers at both the highest and lowest dose of DES, whereas the femoral BMC was increased only at the highest. The males, conversely, showed a decreased BMC at the highest dose of DES for both lumbar and femoral bone. The female swim group had an increased BA at the highest dose of DES, whereas the male counterpart showed a decreased BA for femoral bone. The TBA showed a similar pattern. Proteoglycan analysis of lumbar IVDs showed a decrease at the lowest doses but a significant increase at the highest doses for both males and females. Histologic examination showed morphologic changes of the IVD and articular cartilage for all doses of DES. DES significantly affected the musculoskeletal system of adult mice. Results suggest that environmental estrogen contaminants can have a detrimental effect on the developmental lumbar

  8. RIKEN integrated sequence analysis (RISA) system--384-format sequencing pipeline with 384 multicapillary sequencer.

    PubMed

    Shibata, K; Itoh, M; Aizawa, K; Nagaoka, S; Sasaki, N; Carninci, P; Konno, H; Akiyama, J; Nishi, K; Kitsunai, T; Tashiro, H; Itoh, M; Sumi, N; Ishii, Y; Nakamura, S; Hazama, M; Nishine, T; Harada, A; Yamamoto, R; Matsumoto, H; Sakaguchi, S; Ikegami, T; Kashiwagi, K; Fujiwake, S; Inoue, K; Togawa, Y

    2000-11-01

    The RIKEN high-throughput 384-format sequencing pipeline (RISA system) including a 384-multicapillary sequencer (the so-called RISA sequencer) was developed for the RIKEN mouse encyclopedia project. The RISA system consists of colony picking, template preparation, sequencing reaction, and the sequencing process. A novel high-throughput 384-format capillary sequencer system (RISA sequencer system) was developed for the sequencing process. This system consists of a 384-multicapillary auto sequencer (RISA sequencer), a 384-multicapillary array assembler (CAS), and a 384-multicapillary casting device. The RISA sequencer can simultaneously analyze 384 independent sequencing products. The optical system is a scanning system chosen after careful comparison with an image detection system for the simultaneous detection of the 384-capillary array. This scanning system can be used with any fluorescent-labeled sequencing reaction (chain termination reaction), including transcriptional sequencing based on RNA polymerase, which was originally developed by us, and cycle sequencing based on thermostable DNA polymerase. For long-read sequencing, 380 out of 384 sequences (99.2%) were successfully analyzed and the average read length, with more than 99% accuracy, was 654.4 bp. A single RISA sequencer can analyze 216 kb with >99% accuracy in 2.7 h (90 kb/h). For short-read sequencing to cluster the 3' end and 5' end sequencing by reading 350 bp, 384 samples can be analyzed in 1.5 h. We have also developed a RISA inoculator, RISA filtrator and densitometer, RISA plasmid preparator which can handle throughput of 40,000 samples in 17.5 h, and a high-throughput RISA thermal cycler which has four 384-well sites. The combination of these technologies allowed us to construct the RISA system consisting of 16 RISA sequencers, which can process 50,000 DNA samples per day. One haploid genome shotgun sequence of a higher organism, such as human, mouse, rat, domestic animals, and plants, can be

  9. RIKEN Integrated Sequence Analysis (RISA) System—384-Format Sequencing Pipeline with 384 Multicapillary Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayoshi; Aizawa, Katsunori; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Sasaki, Nobuya; Carninci, Piero; Konno, Hideaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Nishi, Katsuo; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Tashiro, Hideo; Itoh, Mari; Sumi, Noriko; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Shin; Hazama, Makoto; Nishine, Tsutomu; Harada, Akira; Yamamoto, Rintaro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Sumito; Ikegami, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Katsuya; Fujiwake, Syuji; Inoue, Kouji; Togawa, Yoshiyuki; Izawa, Masaki; Ohara, Eiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Ozawa, Kaori; Tanaka, Takumi; Matsuura, Shuji; Kawai, Jun; Okazaki, Yasushi; Muramatsu, Masami; Inoue, Yorinao; Kira, Akira; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2000-01-01

    The RIKEN high-throughput 384-format sequencing pipeline (RISA system) including a 384-multicapillary sequencer (the so-called RISA sequencer) was developed for the RIKEN mouse encyclopedia project. The RISA system consists of colony picking, template preparation, sequencing reaction, and the sequencing process. A novel high-throughput 384-format capillary sequencer system (RISA sequencer system) was developed for the sequencing process. This system consists of a 384-multicapillary auto sequencer (RISA sequencer), a 384-multicapillary array assembler (CAS), and a 384-multicapillary casting device. The RISA sequencer can simultaneously analyze 384 independent sequencing products. The optical system is a scanning system chosen after careful comparison with an image detection system for the simultaneous detection of the 384-capillary array. This scanning system can be used with any fluorescent-labeled sequencing reaction (chain termination reaction), including transcriptional sequencing based on RNA polymerase, which was originally developed by us, and cycle sequencing based on thermostable DNA polymerase. For long-read sequencing, 380 out of 384 sequences (99.2%) were successfully analyzed and the average read length, with more than 99% accuracy, was 654.4 bp. A single RISA sequencer can analyze 216 kb with >99% accuracy in 2.7 h (90 kb/h). For short-read sequencing to cluster the 3′ end and 5′ end sequencing by reading 350 bp, 384 samples can be analyzed in 1.5 h. We have also developed a RISA inoculator, RISA filtrator and densitometer, RISA plasmid preparator which can handle throughput of 40,000 samples in 17.5 h, and a high-throughput RISA thermal cycler which has four 384-well sites. The combination of these technologies allowed us to construct the RISA system consisting of 16 RISA sequencers, which can process 50,000 DNA samples per day. One haploid genome shotgun sequence of a higher organism, such as human, mouse, rat, domestic animals, and plants, can

  10. The utility of using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP) to measure macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Stringham, J M; Hammond, B R; Nolan, J M; Wooten, B R; Mammen, A; Smollon, W; Snodderly, D M

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and validity of using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in patients with intermediate stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The measurement procedure was optimized to accommodate individual differences in temporal vision related to age, disease, or other factors. The validity criteria were based on the similarity of the spectral absorption curves to ex vivo curves of lutein and zeaxanthin and the similarity of spatial density profiles to those measured in subjects without retinal disease. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) spatial profiles were measured with an LED-based macular densitometer; spectral absorption curves were measured with a 3-channel Maxwellian view system including a monochromator. All patients were characterized via clinical exams and all but 2 subjects from whom data were obtained had masked grading of color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Most of the patients were in AREDS category 2 (27%) or 3 (57%). Patients with visual acuity as poor as 20/80 were included, and could perform the task as long as they could see the stimulus. Eighty-one percent of the patients screened were able to perform the cHFP task, and data were obtained from 30 AMD patients. Spatial profiles of MPOD were measured in 19 subjects who could see the stimulus at all tested loci. These profiles were highly similar to those that have been measured with HFP in subjects without retinal disease. The average shape of the spectral absorption curves for the AMD subjects corresponded well to an ex vivo template. These data support both the utility and validity of the cHFP method for measuring MPOD in subjects with intermediate stages of AMD. The ability to measure the retinal response to nutritional intervention is of practical importance for monitoring patients being supplemented with lutein and

  11. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms: Progress, Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    BENNETT, M. D.; LEITCH, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    densitometers used to measure DNA C-values proved less serious than feared, owing to the development of relatively inexpensive flow cytometers and computer-based image analysis systems. New uses of the term genome (e.g. in ‘complete’ genome sequencing) can cause confusion. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative C-value for Arabidopsis thaliana (125 Mb) was a gross underestimate, and an exact C-value based on genome sequencing alone is unlikely to be obtained soon for any angiosperm. Lack of this expected benchmark poses a quandary as to what to use as the basal calibration standard for angiosperms. The next decade offers exciting prospects for angiosperm genome size research. The database (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage) should become sufficiently representative of the global flora to answer most questions without needing new estimations. DNA amount variation will remain a key interest as an integrated strand of holistic genomics. PMID:15596457

  12. Damping and fluidelastic instability in two-phase cross-flow heat exchanger tube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Joaquin E.

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate damping and fluidelastic instability in tube arrays subjected to two-phase cross-flow. The purpose of this research was to improve our understanding of these phenomena and how they are affected by void fraction and flow regime. The model tube bundle had 10 cantilevered tubes in a parallel-triangular configuration, with a pitch ratio of 1.49. The two-phase flow loop used in this research utilized Refrigerant 11 as the working fluid, which better models steam-water than air-water mixtures in terms of vapour-liquid mass ratio as well as permitting phase changes due to pressure fluctuations. The void fraction was measured using a gamma densitometer, introducing an improvement over the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) in terms of void fraction, density and velocity predictions. Three different damping measurement methodologies were implemented and compared in order to obtain a more reliable damping estimate. The methods were the traditionally used half-power bandwidth, the logarithmic decrement and an exponential fitting to the tube decay response. The decay trace was obtained by "plucking" the monitored tube from outside the test section using a novel technique, in which a pair of electromagnets changed their polarity at the natural frequency of the tube to produce resonance. The experiments showed that the half-power bandwidth produces higher damping values than the other two methods. The primary difference between the methods is caused by tube frequency shifting, triggered by fluctuations in the added mass and coupling between the tubes, which depend on void fraction and flow regime. The exponential fitting proved to be the more consistent and reliable approach to estimating damping. In order to examine the relationship between the damping ratio and mass flux, the former was plotted as a function of void fraction and pitch mass flux in an iso-contour plot. The results showed that damping is not independent of mass

  13. Solvent-efficient thin-layer chromatographic method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in corn and peanut products: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Park, D L; Trucksess, M W; Nesheim, S; Stack, M; Newell, R F

    1994-01-01

    An interlaboratory study of a solvent-efficient thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was conducted in laboratories located in the United States, France, Tunisia, and Denmark. Eighteen artificially contaminated samples plus blanks of raw peanuts and peanut butter and corn containing varying amounts of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were distributed to participating laboratories. The method consists of elements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Contaminants Branch (CB) (AOAC Method 968.22) and FDA, Best Foods (BF) (AOAC Method 970.45) methods with reduced requirements for solvents. Participating laboratories used either visual or densitometric techniques during the final determinative step. Statistical analysis of the data was performed to determine or confirm outliers and to compute repeatability and reproducibility of the method using either visual or densitometric techniques for the determinative step. Reported results from laboratories using a densitometer showed that, for corn, the relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) for aflatoxin B1 ranged from 56.6 to 41.7% for contamination levels ranging from 5 to 50 ng/g. For raw peanuts and peanut butter, the RSDr values for aflatoxin B1 ranged from 21.3 to 37.3% and 65.9 to 42.1%, respectively, for the contamination levels ranging from 5 to 25 ng/g. RSDr ranges for aflatoxins B2, G1, and G2 were similar. For reproducibility (R), the RSDR ranges for aflatoxin B1 were 41.7-56.6%, 56.6-84.8%, and 26.4-37.3% for corn, peanut butter, and raw peanuts, respectively. Average recoveries for all aflatoxins at all levels were 95.3, 139.0, and 95.6% for corn, peanut butter, and raw peanuts, respectively. When analysts determined aflatoxin concentrations in corn by visual comparison to standards, the RSDr values for aflatoxin B1 were 47.8-11.4% for contamination levels ranging from 5 to 50 ng/g. For raw peanuts and peanut butter, the RSDr values

  14. An evaluation of sex and body weight determination from the proximal femur using DXA technology and its potential for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Bruce P

    2005-01-29

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a rarely used technology in forensic anthropology. These densitometers quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and thus introduce new variables which are important for the application of forensic anthropology. This study investigates the importance of these variables and of this technology using bone scans of the proximal femur in sex and body weight determination. Two data sets from studies conducted at the University of Alabama at Birmingham were examined. The first study had 41 White patients, of which there were 17 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 61 to 79 years and in weight from 99 to 242 lb. The following variables were utilized from the DXA scans: BMD in the femoral neck, greater trochanter and in Ward's triangle. A manual ruler in the software facilitated measurements on the minimum neck diameter and shaft diameter just below the lesser trochanter from each scan. The second study had 128 female patients, 71 of which were Black and 57 were White. They ranged in age from 23 to 47 1/2 years and they weighed between 31 1/2 and 98 1/4 kg. The same variables were examined on these DXA scans as in the first study, with the addition of BMC of the femoral neck and the deletion of the minimum shaft diameter below the lesser trochanter. The first study showed statistically significant sex determination relationships (p < 0.02, t-tests for equality of means) at the supero-inferior femoral neck and lesser trochanter diameters, and from BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified sex over 92% of the original grouped cases using these variables. Multiple regression analysis using body weight as the dependent variable and various measures of the proximal femur as independent variables shows that while they are statistically significant and they have reasonably high R2 values up to 0.49; nevertheless, their standard errors of the

  15. COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, TJ

    2003-10-22

    A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement

  16. New Carriers and Sensors for Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romstedt, J.; Schiele, A.; Boudin, N.; Coste, P.; Lindner, R.

    performance. An alternative payload element for the payload cabin is an extremely small Laser Mass Spectrometer (LMS). A breadboard of this instrument is currently part of an extensive 1 test and evaluation campaign. Also this instrument will be re-designed to fit into the Nanokhod modular payload suite. The Instrumented Mole System (IMS) is based on a device that penetrates regolith down to a depth of 5 meter. The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3 ) demonstrates that a scientifically meaningful payload can be integrated into the payload compartment. This package comprises an active temperature measurement module, a densitometer to determine the density of the penetrated regolith and a device to determine the precise location of the mole. An alternative instrument is based on an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) infrared spectrometer. It will observe and analyse through a window all material adjacent to the hull of the payload compartment within the penetration hole. A newly implemented project is the design and fabrication of a melting probe. This probe enables the subsurface exploration of icy layers. It will be capable to carry scientific instrumentation into depth and decipher the stratigraphy of ice and dust deposition on planetary bodies. The overall goal of all support activities is to analyse, design and built all critical components of a technologies which has no space application so far. Once all technical hurdles have been overcome by the breadboard development, a given instrumentation can rapidly be inserted into a flight model programme. 2

  17. Utilization of DXA Bone Mineral Densitometry in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Issue Systematic reviews and analyses of administrative data were performed to determine the appropriate use of bone mineral density (BMD) assessments using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the associated trends in wrist and hip fractures in Ontario. Background Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Bone Mineral Density Assessment Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry bone densitometers measure bone density based on differential absorption of 2 x-ray beams by bone and soft tissues. It is the gold standard for detecting and diagnosing osteoporosis, a systemic disease characterized by low bone density and altered bone structure, resulting in low bone strength and increased risk of fractures. The test is fast (approximately 10 minutes) and accurate (exceeds 90% at the hip), with low radiation (1/3 to 1/5 of that from a chest x-ray). DXA densitometers are licensed as Class 3 medical devices in Canada. The World Health Organization has established criteria for osteoporosis and osteopenia based on DXA BMD measurements: osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that is >2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD for normal young adults (i.e. T-score <–2.5), while osteopenia is defined as BMD that is more than 1 standard deviation but less than 2.5 standard deviation below the mean for normal young adults (i.e. T-score< –1 & ≥–2.5). DXA densitometry is presently an insured health service in Ontario. Clinical Need   Burden of Disease The Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) found that 16% of Canadian women and 6.6% of Canadian men have osteoporosis based on the WHO criteria, with prevalence increasing with age. Osteopenia was found in 49.6% of Canadian women and 39% of Canadian men. In Ontario, it is estimated that nearly 530,000 Ontarians have some degrees of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis-related fragility fractures occur most often in the wrist, femur and pelvis. These fractures, particularly those in the hip, are associated with increased