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Sample records for density lipid profiles

  1. Lipid Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Lipid Profile Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... as: Lipid Panel; Coronary Risk Panel Formal name: Lipid Profile Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; ...

  2. Correlation of the Lipid Profile, BMI and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Balaban, Jagoda; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To the reduction of bone density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women contribute elevated lipid parameters and Body Mass Index (BMI). Goal: The goal of our study was to determine the correlation between lipid parameters, BMI and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study was carried out by matched type between experimental group and controls. The experimental group consisted of 100 females at postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was diagnosed osteoporosis at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age but without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (± 2 years). To all participants of the study were carried out biochemical analysis of blood, or the analysis of the lipid profile that included total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol, and was determined the values of BMI and waist circumference (WC). Results: Analysis of the data of our research shows that by the univariate logistic regression the values of lipid parameters total cholesterol (p=0.000), LDL (p=0.005) and TG (p=0.033) were significantly associated with osteoporosis, while in multivariate logistic model only total cholesterol (p= 0.018) was found as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. BMI values were not statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis (p=0.727). Conclusion: On the decrease in bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women influence many risk factors whose identification has the aim to develop more effective prevention of this disease in the elderly. PMID:28144189

  3. [Assessment of lipid profiles and bone mineral density in renal transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth; Peña Amaro, María Pilar; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael José

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism and bone mineral metabolism disturbances are common disorders among renal transplant patients, contributing to the apparition of oxidative metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that threaten the integrity of the graft. Describe and observe the evolution of alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) and lipid abnormalities in a population of kidney transplant patients. The samples consisted of 119 kidney transplant patients of both sexes, measurements were performed pretransplant and posttransplant for five years of biochemical parameters, anthropometric measurements and measurement of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femur and radioulnar. During the five years after transplantation a significant increase in biochemical parameters, BMI, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension occurs. At six months there is a high percentage of patients with pathologic BMD increase by 4.1% per year of transplantation. After kidney transplantation, a large increase of hyperlipidemia associated with a characteristic pattern of altered lipid with elevated total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and the resulting increase in triglycerides, occurs despite statin therapy, leading to an increase in risk factors for diabetes, hypertension, diseases and cardiovascualres further loss of bone mass which carries a high risk of serious fractures occurs, threatening kidney graft and quality of life of patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between thyroid function and lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and high-density lipoprotein function.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyong Yeun; Ahn, Hwa Young; Han, Sun Kyoung; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Bo Youn; Moon, Min Kyong

    2017-09-04

    Thyroid hormone regulates lipid metabolism. In particular, it has been reported to regulate plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the activity of molecules involved in HDL metabolism. We investigated changes in the concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins and in the function of HDL according to acute dynamic changes in thyroid function. Concentrations of plasma lipids and apolipoproteins, paraoxonase-1 activity, and cholesterol efflux were measured in 27 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment, at 3 distinct times: After surgery (baseline subclinical hyperthyroid state), on the day of undergoing RAI treatment (overt hypothyroid state), and 3 months post-RAI treatment (subclinical hyperthyroid state). The mean free T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 0.24 ± 0.06 ng/dL and 91.2 (77.8-118.2) μIU/mL, respectively, on the day of RAI treatment. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoB levels, and the apoA-I/II ratio were significantly increased in the overt hypothyroid state and recovered to baseline values with levothyroxine replacement. HDL-C and apoE levels were persistently elevated despite levothyroxine replacement. Paraoxonase-1 activity, corrected for apoA-I, decreased in the overt hypothyroid state but recovered with levothyroxine replacement (P = .009). Cholesterol efflux also decreased significantly in the overt hypothyroid state (21.5 ± 5.1% vs 18.9 ± 2.9%, P = .005), but remained low despite recovery of thyroid function. Changes in thyroid function are associated not only with changes in the concentrations of various plasma lipid components but also with changes in HDL function. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  6. Influence of lipid profile and fatty acid composition on the oxidation behavior of rat and guinea pig low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Merlos, M; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C

    1998-02-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is one of the first steps proposed for the development of atherosclerosis. Since lipid profile and fatty acid composition may affect this process, we studied the influence of these factors on the oxidation behavior of rat and guinea pig LDL. Marked compositional differences were observed. Thus, the main lipid carried by rat LDL was triglyceride (TG) (35.8 +/- 5.8%, w/w) whereas total cholesterol (TC) represented 23.8 +/- 3.0%. In contrast, guinea pig LDL contained 13.2 +/- 2% of TG and 44.8 +/- 4.5% of TC. Rat LDL contained higher 20:4(n-6) molar percentages than guinea pig LDL. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production (255 +/- 26 and 137 +/- 13 nmol malondialdehyde/mg prot. for rat and guinea pig LDL, respectively) and the maximum rate of conjugated dienes (CD) formation (485 +/- 93 and 77 +/- 11 nmol CD/min/mg protein for rat and guinea pig LDL, respectively) showed that rat LDL are less resistant to oxidation in vitro than guinea pig LDL. The higher oxidation rate of rat LDL seems to be related to its lipid profile, mainly to the high proportion of TG, and to the high content of 20:4(n-6), which is one of the fatty acids most prone to oxidation.

  7. Lipid, Fatty Acid and Energy Density Profiles of White Sharks: Insights into the Feeding Ecology and Ecophysiology of a Complex Top Predator

    PubMed Central

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Parrish, Christopher C.; Bruce, Barry D.; Young, Jock W.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5–3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51–81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g−1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g−1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

  8. Lipid, fatty acid and energy density profiles of white sharks: insights into the feeding ecology and ecophysiology of a complex top predator.

    PubMed

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Bruce, Barry D; Young, Jock W; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5-3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51-81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g-1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g-1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species.

  9. Comparative study of non-high density lipoproteins cholesterol level and lipid profile in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Firoz, C K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Khan, Mohammad S; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-04-01

    The present study compares the role and significance of non-high density lipoproteins (non-HDL) cholesterol level in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients. This study also compares non-HDL cholesterol level between males and females and with different age groups as well. An observational study was conducted among 3830 randomly selected individuals to envisage the association of non-HDL cholesterol and other lipid parameters with age, gender, and diabetic status. On the basis of health status, the subjects were classified as diabetic, pre-diabetic and normal. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed on Roche p-800 modular system. Total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and fasting triglycerides were also measured. From the above mentioned parameters, the level of non-HDL cholesterol level was also calculated. Significant association was observed with non-HDL cholesterol level and all other studied lipid parameters (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides) compared with age and gender of the subjects studied. Moreover, the calculated non-HDL level, total cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly co-related with diabetic status of the patients involved in the study. However, HDL and LDL values did not show any significant association with diabetic status of the patients. In this study, we found that age and gender of the studied subjects are associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Moreover, our data clearly indicates the positive association of non-HDL cholesterol level with pre-diabetic and diabetic status of the patients. Based on our study, we recommend estimation of non-HDL level in routine clinical practice to differentiate pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

  10. Relationship of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio to the remainder of the lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids-4 (VLDL-4) study.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Renato; Manalac, Raoul J; Faridi, Kamil F; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Nasir, Khurram; Virani, Salim S; Banach, Maciej; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    High levels of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. We evaluated variability in the remaining lipid profile, especially remnant lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and its components (very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol), with variability in the TG/HDL-C ratio in a very large study cohort representative of the general U.S. We examined data from 1,350,908 US individuals who were clinically referred for lipoprotein cholesterol ultracentrifugation (Atherotech, Birmingham, AL) from 2009 to 2011. Demographic information other than age and sex was not available. Changes to the remaining lipid profile across percentiles of the TG/HDL-C ratio were quantified, as well as by three TG/HDL-C cut-off points previously proposed in the literature: 2.5 (male) and 2 (female), 3.75 (male) and 3 (female), and 3.5 (male and female). The mean age of our study population was 58.7 years, and 48% were men. The median TG/HDL-C ratio was 2.2. Across increasing TG/HDL-C ratios, we found steadily increasing levels of RLP-C, non-HDL-C and LDL density. Among the lipid parameters studied, RLP-C and LDL density had the highest relative increase when comparing individuals with elevated TG/HDL-C levels to those with lower TG/HDL-C levels using established cut-off points. Approximately 47% of TG/HDL-C ratio variance was attributable to RLP-C. In the present analysis, a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increasingly atherogenic lipid phenotype, characterized by higher RLP-C along with higher non-HDL-C and LDL density. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of lipid profile parameters and oxidized low-density lipoprotein between normal and preeclamptic pregnancies in a tertiary care hospital in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Timalsina, Santosh; Gyawali, Prajwal; Bhattarai, Aseem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific complication that significantly contributes to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, even more so in developing countries such as Nepal. The potential contribution of dyslipidemia and elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the pathogenesis of preeclamptic pregnancies has been observed in several studies. The aim of this study was to compare the maternal lipid profile parameters and particularly oxLDL between preeclamptic and healthy pregnancies and also correlate oxLDL with other lipid profile parameters. Patients and methods A total of 54 preeclamptic women were selected as cases for this cross-sectional study. Age and gestational week-matched 60 pregnant women were enrolled as controls. Preeclampsia was defined as per Australasian Society Consensus Statement research definition. The serum lipid parameters were measured using automated enzymatic systems and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine oxLDL concentrations in the serum. Student’s t-test was used to compare oxLDL levels between preeclamptic and healthy pregnancies, and Pearson’s correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relation between oxLDL and other variables. Results The mean values of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-c) and oxLDL were significantly higher in the preeclamptic cases (P<0.01). However, the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and HDL-c) did not significantly differ between the two groups. oxLDL had a significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-c and non-HDL-c, and a negative correlation with HDL-c. Conclusion The atherogenic type of dyslipidemia and high oxLDL levels are associated with preeclamptic pregnancies. The lipid parameters, however, seem to be poor markers of the severity of preeclampsia. Further prospective studies are needed to

  12. [A severely disturbed lipid profile].

    PubMed

    Mignard, S; Calon, E; Hespel, J-P; Le Treut, A

    2004-01-01

    We report here the case of a 30-year-old woman presenting a disturbed lipid profile since her childhood. The rarity of this pathology (Anderson' disease or chylomicron retention disease) and its recent recognition explain its late detection in this case. The description of the biochemical profile is interesting especially the low level of vitamin A and E which explains the severity of the disease. A vitamin enriched-diet may be useful.

  13. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Rongtao; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Qi, Zhiming; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), and bone mineral density (BMD), making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis. Materials and methods A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years) were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Results The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001), and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001). People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that no association was found among total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, postprandial blood glucose and BMD. Conclusion The present study further confirmed that factors such as age, sex, weight, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes are significant predictors of osteoporosis in the Chinese people

  15. Changes in lipid density induce membrane curvature.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Armando J; Kastelowitz, Noah; Yin, Hang

    2013-09-07

    Highly curved bilayer lipid membranes make up the shell of many intra- and extracellular compartments, including organelles and vesicles. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that increasing the density of lipids in the bilayer membrane can induce the membrane to form a curved shape.

  16. Markers of lutein and zeaxanthin status in two age groups of men and women: dietary intake, serum concentrations, lipid profile and macular pigment optical density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in retina (macular pigment). Their nutritional status can be assessed using dietary or biochemical markers and both have been associated with macular pigment optical density. We proposed to assess dietary and status markers of lutein and zeaxanthin in a group of healthy Spanish volunteers, considering the potential influence of age, gender and serum lipids to investigate the predictors of the macular pigment optical density. Methods Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, dietary intake and macular pigment optical density were determined in 108 healthy men and women (20–35 and 45–65 years), using high-performance liquid chromatography, 3-day food records and heterochromic flicker photometry, respectively. Mann–Whitney U-test, Spearman correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis were used for the statistical study. Results Serum concentrations and dietary intake of lutein plus zeaxanthin (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively) were higher in older vs younger subjects, whereas macular pigment optical density was lower (p = 0.038). The highest correlation coefficients between intake and serum were for fruit and serum lutein (ρ = 0.452, p < 0.0001) and for fruit and lutein + zeaxanthin (ρ = 0.431, p < 0.0001) in the younger group. Macular pigment optical density correlated with serum xanthophylls (ρ = 0.223, p = 0.02) and fruit and vegetable intake (ρ = 0.350, p = 0.0002), showing highest correlations when lutein and zeaxanthin were expressed in relation to serum lipids in older subjects (ρ = 0.262, p = 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis identified age and serum lutein as major predictors of macular pigment optical density (total sample), and a coefficient of determination of 29.7% for the model including lutein + zeaxathin/cholesterol + triglycerides, sex and fruit + vegetables in the older group. Conclusions The

  17. Analysis of lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Vikramsimha; Killampalli, Lakshmi Keerthana; Prakash, A Ravi; Naag, Sushma; Sreenath, G; Biraggari, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity. Lipid profile is a panel of blood tests that serve as an initial medical screening for abnormalities in lipids and approximate risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatitis, etc., The present study evaluates the alterations in lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers and aims to achieve a correlation between them. The study is an in vitro type of cross-sectional study with 25 oral cancer patients, 25 chronic smokers (habit persisting for 15 years or more), and 15 nonsmokers as control group. Blood samples had been collected, and triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed using a lipid profile kit and an autoanalyzer. The results were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and ANOVA test (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL and decrease in HDL in the smokers group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A significant increase in LDL, but a decrease in values of HDL, VLDL, TG, and TC was observed in the cancer patients group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). There is an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile in smokers and cancer patients. The decrease in lipid profile in cancer patients might be due to their increased utilization of lipids by neoplastic cells in membrane biogenesis. Therefore, a decrease in lipid profile in smokers can be assumed that they might be more prone to develop cancerous conditions.

  18. Analysis of lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Vikramsimha; Killampalli, Lakshmi Keerthana; Prakash, A. Ravi; Naag, Sushma; Sreenath, G.; Biraggari, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipids play an important role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity. Lipid profile is a panel of blood tests that serve as an initial medical screening for abnormalities in lipids and approximate risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatitis, etc., The present study evaluates the alterations in lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers and aims to achieve a correlation between them. Materials and Methods: The study is an in vitro type of cross-sectional study with 25 oral cancer patients, 25 chronic smokers (habit persisting for 15 years or more), and 15 nonsmokers as control group. Blood samples had been collected, and triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed using a lipid profile kit and an autoanalyzer. The results were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and ANOVA test (P < 0.05). Results: There was a significant increase in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL and decrease in HDL in the smokers group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A significant increase in LDL, but a decrease in values of HDL, VLDL, TG, and TC was observed in the cancer patients group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There is an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile in smokers and cancer patients. The decrease in lipid profile in cancer patients might be due to their increased utilization of lipids by neoplastic cells in membrane biogenesis. Therefore, a decrease in lipid profile in smokers can be assumed that they might be more prone to develop cancerous conditions. PMID:28182070

  19. Serum lipid profile of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Owiredu, W K B A; Donkor, S; Addai, B Wiafe; Amidu, N

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a comparative study to investigate the effect of lipid profile, oestradiol and obesity on the risk of a woman developing breast cancer. This study was carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Peace and Love Hospital, Oduom, Kumasi and Redeemed Clinic, Nima, Accra between May 2002 and March 2003. In this study, 200 consented women comprising 100 breast cancer patients (43 pre- and 57 post-menopausal) and 100 controls (45 pre- and 55 post-menopausal) with similar age range (25 to 80 years) were assessed for lipid profile, oestradiol and BMI. There was a significant increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) (p = 0.011), Total Cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.026) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) (p = 0.001) of the breast cancer patients compared to the controls. With the exception of oestradiol (EST) that decreased, the lipid profile generally increased with age in both subjects and controls with the subjects having a much higher value than the corresponding control. There was also a significant positive correlation between BMI and TC (r2 = 0.022; p = 0.002) and also between BMI and LDL-cholesterol (r2 = 0.031; p = 0.0003). Apart from EST and LDL-cholesterol that were increased significantly only in the postmenopausal phase in comparison to the controls, BMI, TC and TG were increased in both pre-menopausal and post menopausal phases with HDL-cholesterol remaining unchanged. This study confirms the association between dyslipidaemia, BMI and increased breast cancer risk.

  20. Study on Association Between Lipid Profile Values and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dharwadkar, Kavitarati; Motagi, Manjunath V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cholesterol is especially abundant in nervous system, where it plays important role in different aspects of cellular structure (e.g. fluidity of cell membranes) and function (e.g. membrane). Several studies showed that there may be a link between depression and low cholesterol because of altered central serotonergic functions. On the other hand, some studies also showed either no such association or yielded inconsistent results. However, many studies have related low cholesterol with different psychiatric disorders. Hence, we intend to see the possible link between the two. Aim: To study the association between lipid profile and psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients attending Amala Institute of medical science, Psychiatry clinic in the month of January 2013 and whose lipid profile data before the start of treatment is available. Design: Descriptive study. The patients were classified into Neurotic and Psychotic spectrum after being diagnosed with the psychiatric diseases based on International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD10) by a Psychiatrist. There lipid profile (Total cholesterol; LDL=Low Density Lipoprotein; HDL=High Density Lipoprotein; TAG=Triacylglycerol) were estimated before the initiation of anti-psychotic treatment. Results: The lipid profile values though showed some statistically significant association between the psychotic and neurotic spectrum, there was no statistical significance between the low lipid profile and different psychiatric diseases. Conclusion: We have found that there is no significant association between low lipid profile and any psychiatric diseases. PMID:25654015

  1. Effects of thyroid dysfunction on lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Rizos, C V; Elisaf, M S; Liberopoulos, E N

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction has a great impact on lipids as well as a number of other cardiovascular risk factors. Hypothyroidism is relatively common and is associated with an unfavorable effect on lipids. Substitution therapy is beneficial for patients with overt hypothyroidism, improving lipid profile. However, whether subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated or not is a matter of debate. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism can be associated with acquired hypocholesterolemia or unexplained improvement of lipid profile. Overall, thyroid dysfunction should be taken into account when evaluating and treating dyslipidemic patients.

  2. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  3. Density and viscosity of lipids under pressure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a lack of data for the viscosity of lipids under pressure. The current report is a part of the effort to fill this gap. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of vegetable oil (HOSuO) were investigated. Pressure–viscosity coefficients (PVC) of HOSuO at different tem...

  4. NMR-Based Lipid Profiling of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Healthy Subjects with Low, Normal, and Elevated HDL-Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kostara, Christina E; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Elisaf, Moses S; Bairaktari, Eleni T

    2017-04-07

    Recent studies suggest that the cholesterol content of HDL (high density lipoproteins) may provide limited information on their antiatherogenic properties and that the composition and particles' structure provide more information on their functionality. We used NMR-based (nuclear magnetic resonance-based) lipidomics to study the relationships of serum HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol) levels with the lipid composition of HDL particles in three groups of subjects selected on the basis of their HDL-C levels. Subjects with low and high HDL-C levels exhibited differences in HDL lipidome compared to those with normal HDL-C levels. In pattern recognition analysis, the discrimination power among all groups was of high significance. The low HDL-C group presented enrichment of the core in triglycerides and depletion in cholesterol esters, whereas the high HDL-C group showed a decrease in triglycerides content. Additionally, as HDL-C increases, all lipid classes are esterified with higher percentage of unsaturated than saturated fatty acids. In addition to the aforementioned differences, the surface layer is enriched in sphingomyelin and free cholesterol in the high HDL-C level group. NMR-based lipidomic analysis of HDL can be particularly useful since it provides insights into molecular features and helps in the characterization of the atheroprotective function of HDL lipoproteins and in the identification of novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

  5. Lipid profile parameters in Malaysian dyslipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Mohamed, Mohd Sapawi; Imran, Kamarul; Ibrahim, Suhairi; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Yusof, Zurkurnai

    2011-12-15

    The importance of serum lipids as cardiovascular risk factors is well recognized. However, most published studies have focused on western countries. The present study aimed to describe and analyze the lipid profile parameters in Malaysian dyslipidemic patients, and to identify concomitant clinical problems and risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among such patients. A retrospective record review was carried out at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The records were reviewed for 890 dyslipidemic patients who attended the hospital in 2007. Data were collected for age at time of presentation, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, pre-treatment lipid levels, and presence of associated illnesses. The study sample was classified according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III risk groups. The mean (SD) values for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were 6.4 (1.3), 4.1 (1.3), 1.4 (0.5) and 1.9 (1.2) mmol/l, respectively. Less than half of study sample (43.1%) had coronary heart disease and coronary heart diseases equivalents, 24.3% were at moderate risk, and 32.6% were at low risk. Hypertension was present in 79.9% of the study sample, while 27.5% were diabetics. Cardiovascular disease was reported among 17.9%. Logistic regression revealed that family history of premature cardiovascular disease, higher age risk group; ethnicity and total cholesterol were predictors for the development of cardiovascular disease. The present review showed that dyslipidemic patients had high total cholesterol levels, according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. They were clinically diagnosed at middle age. Hypertension and diabetes were the commonest associated clinical problems. A large proportion of the patients were within the coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk equivalent group. Family history of

  6. Evolution of lipid profiles after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marirrodriga, Ignacio; Amaya-Romero, Cesar; Ruiz-Diaz, Gabriel Patiño; Férnandez, Sandra; Ballesta-López, Carlos; Pou, Jose M; Romeo, June H; Vilahur, Gemma; Vilhur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina; Ybarra, Juan

    2012-04-01

    The most commonly encountered dyslipidemia in obese individuals is characterized by a cluster of interrelated plasma lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities including hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol values, and increased small, dense LDL cholesterol particles. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in lipid profiles at baseline (pre-operatively) and at follow-up (6, 12, and 18 months) after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). A retrospective observational study was performed involving all patients who consecutively underwent a LRYGBP between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009. Fasting lipids sub-fractions (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were measured and HOMA-IR calculated pre-operatively and at follow-up post-LRYGBP. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between excess weight loss (EWL) and lipid sub-fractions. ANOVA was used to assess the differences between each lipid sub-fraction at various time-points. One hundred twenty eight (N = 128) medical charts were reviewed, and those containing data on lipid fractions at the three follow-up time-points were analyzed. One hundred fourteen patients (N = 114), 84 of whom were women (73.7%), were finally included in the study. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR were significantly reduced after LRYGBP (P < 0.0005 for all). Inversely, HDL cholesterol disclosed a significant rise (P < 0.0005). Noteworthy significant associations between lipid subfractions and EWL were detected overall (P < 0.0005 for all). A gender effect was found since female patients displayed a milder association than male patients (P < 0.0005). LRYGBP-induced weight loss improves the lipid profile while reducing insulin resistance, with male patients showing a better profile than female patients.

  7. Lipid Profile Components and Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z.; Xu, Qiang; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Paik, Myunghee C.; Moon, Yeseon Park; Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between lipid profile components and incident ischemic stroke in a stroke-free prospective cohort. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Northern Manhattan, New York. Patients Stroke-free community residents. Intervention As part of the Northern Manhattan Study, baseline fasting blood samples were collected on stroke-free community residents followed up for a mean of 7.5 years. Main Outcome Measures Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lipid profile components and ischemic stroke after adjusting for demographic and risk factors. In secondary analyses, we used repeated lipid measures over 5 years from a 10% sample of the population to calculate the change per year of each of the lipid parameters and to impute time-dependent lipid parameters for the full cohort. Results After excluding those with a history of myocardial infarction, 2940 participants were available for analysis. Baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels were not associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were associated with a paradoxical reduction in risk of stroke. There was an interaction with use of cholesterol-lowering medication on follow-up, such that LDL-C level was only associated with a reduction in stroke risk among those taking medications. An LDL-C level greater than 130 mg/dL as a time-dependent covariate showed an increased risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.53–9.51). Conclusions Baseline lipid panel components were not associated with an increased stroke risk in this cohort. Treatment with cholesterol-lowering medications and changes in LDL-C level over time may have attenuated the risk in this population, and lipid measurements at several points may be a better marker of

  8. Effectiveness of ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy in modifying lipid profiles and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment in patients of different races and ethnicities: a substudy of the Ezetimibe add-on to statin for effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Thomas A; Denke, Margo A; McBride, Patrick E; Battisti, Wendy P; Gazzara, Russell A; Brady, William E; Palmisano, Joanne

    2006-09-01

    To examine whether the improvements in lipid profiles and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment found in the Ezetimibe Add-On to Statin for Effectiveness trial occurred equally in the black, Hispanic, and white patient populations enrolled in the study. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were recruited from 299 community-based practices across the United States (January to August 2003). Patients with, hypercholesterolemia and LDL-C levels exceeding National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III goals were randomized (2:1) to receive either ezetimibe (10 mg/d) or placebo in addition to their ongoing statin therapy for 6 weeks. A total of 5802 patients were screened at baseline for the Ezetimibe Add-On to Statin for Effectiveness study. Of these, 2772 were excluded, and the remaining 3030 eligible patients were randomized. Ezetimibe, compared with placebo, added to statin therapy significantly reduced LDL-C levels from statin-treated baseline by 23.0% (white patients), 23.0% (black patients), and 21.0% (Hispanic patients). This effect was consistent across race and ethnicity groups (P > .50 for treatment-by-race interactions). Ezetimibe added to statin therapy also statistically significantly (P < .001) increased the percentage of patients attaining their LDL-C goal for their National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III risk category in black (63.0%), Hispanic (64.8%), and white (72.3%) patients compared with placebo plus statin (32.9% black patients, 19.0% Hispanic patients, and 19.7% white patients). Ezetimibe treatment improved other lipid parameters across groups, including triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density ilpoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels. Finally, the addition of ezetimibe reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels overall, and no significant interaction of treatment by race occurred (P = .83), Indicating a consistent

  9. Lifestyle Factors, Body Mass Index, and Lipid Profile in Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Patrice G.; Llabre, Maria M.; Goldberg, Ronald; McCalla, Judith R.; Schneiderman, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Objective and methods A model specifying body mass index (BMI) as mediating the relationship between lifestyle factors (aerobic fitness determined by peak oxygen consumption; physical activity by 7-day physical activity recall; diet by 24 hr dietary recall), and lipid profile were tested in a sample of 205 adolescents (73% boys), who were on average at risk of overweight, aerobically unfit, and from ethnic minority groups. Results In this well-fitting model, consuming a diet low in fat and cholesterol, and being aerobically fit predicted lower BMI, which together resulted in increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases in triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Being physically active, predicted greater aerobic fitness. Conclusions In addition to furthering understanding of the interrelationships among predisposing, major, and conditional coronary heart disease risk factors in adolescents, these data suggest that improving diet and aerobic fitness will reduce BMI and result in a better lipid profile. PMID:18024982

  10. Proteomic Profiling of Detergent Resistant Membranes (Lipid Rafts) of Prostasomes.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Louise; Ronquist, Karl K Göran; Ek, Bo; Ronquist, Gunnar; Larsson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Prostasomes are exosomes derived from prostate epithelial cells through exocytosis by multivesicular bodies. Prostasomes have a bilayered membrane and readily interact with sperm. The membrane lipid composition is unusual with a high contribution of sphingomyelin at the expense of phosphatidylcholine and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are dominant. Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered domains that are more tightly packed than the surrounding nonraft phase of the bilayer. Lipid rafts are proposed to be highly dynamic, submicroscopic assemblies that float freely within the liquid disordered membrane bilayer and some proteins preferentially partition into the ordered raft domains. We asked the question whether lipid rafts do exist in prostasomes and, if so, which proteins might be associated with them. Prostasomes of density range 1.13-1.19g/ml were subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation in sucrose fabricated by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% Triton X-100 with capacity for banding at 1.10 g/ml, i.e. the classical density of lipid rafts. Prepared prostasomal lipid rafts (by gradient ultracentrifugation) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The clearly visible band on top of 1.10g/ml sucrose in the Triton X-100 containing gradient was subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem MS and more than 370 lipid raft associated proteins were identified. Several of them were involved in intraluminal vesicle formation, e.g. tetraspanins, ESCRTs, and Ras-related proteins. This is the first comprehensive liquid chromatography-tandem MS profiling of proteins in lipid rafts derived from exosomes. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002163.

  11. Lipid profiles of persons with paraplegia and tetraplegia: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas; Knöebber, Judith; Vogt, Stefan; König, Daniel; Deibert, Peter; Bültermann, Dirk; Heinrich, Lothar; Baumstark, Manfred W; Berg, Aloys; Storch, Max-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    To examine the lipoprotein profiles of men and women with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Impairment of the sympathetic nervous system (dependent on the level of injury) and the extent of physical capacity and activity were correlated with the lipid profile in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sex-related differences of the lipoprotein profiles could be found in nondisabled and premenopausal women with SCI mainly because of the different effects of sexual hormones. Lipoprotein profiles of 112 participants with SCI (32 premenopausal women, 80 men) were analyzed and correlated to sex, lesion level, and physical performance capacity. Women with tetraplegia or paraplegia showed significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein and lower ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with men with corresponding lesion levels, without a difference in peak oxygen consumption. Concentrations of very-low-density lipoproteins were lower in women with paraplegia than in men with paraplegia; no differences were found in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Sex-independent elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were associated with paraplegia, and sex-independent elevations in triglyceride levels were associated with tetraplegia. Persons with SCI showed sex-related differences in their lipoprotein profiles. Independent of physical fitness, the lipoprotein profile of premenopausal women with SCI did not exhibit the adverse lipoprotein characteristics observed in men with SCI, probably because of the influence of sexual hormones independent of lesion level.

  12. Lipid Profile of Children with Malaria by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Rosa Maria; Cabral, Bianca da Conceição; da Silva, Isameriliam Rosaulem Pereira; Brasil, Laelia Maria Barra Feio; Araújo, Eliete da Cunha; de Andrade, Marcieni Ataíde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Changes in lipid profile are commonly reported in adult patients with malaria. However, a few studies evaluated lipid abnormalities in children continuously exposed to P. vivax. Objective. To evaluate lipid abnormalities in children with P. vivax infection and to assess if parasite count or the history of malaria correlates with lipid levels at admission. Methods. A total of 75 children were included in the study, from which 43 were slide confirmed infection by P. vivax. Serial blood samples were collected at admission and, on days 7 and 14, evaluated for the colorimetric measurements of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Results. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were significantly lower in malaria cases. The levels of VLDL and triglycerides were significantly higher in children with malaria. Such changes were transient and were not associated with parasite counting as well as with the history of malaria of patients. Conclusion. There are significant lipid abnormalities in children with low level of P. vivax infection and mild signs and symptoms of the disease, which are not associated with parasitaemia and previous episodes of disease. PMID:28050172

  13. Lipid profile in an apparently healthy Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Emma-Okon, B O; Onayade, A A; Adegoke, A O; Soyinka, J O; Ademigbuji, E A

    2014-12-01

    To describe the pattern of lipid profile of members of staff of a tertiary education institution in South-West Nigeria with a view to assessing risk of cardiovascular disease among them. One hundred and ninety three (193) members of staff of the Institution were involved in the study. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics and medical history of respondents. Weight, height and blood pressure of participants were measured and the Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated. Fasting plasma lipid profile parameters--Total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) , Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Triglycerides (TG)) were also determined in all the participants using standard assay methods. Mean TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG were 4.04 mmol/L, 1.63 mmol/L, 1.98 mmol/L and 0.92 mmol/L respectively . Mean BMI was 25.98 kg/m2. Twenty-eight (14.5%) participants had mean cholesterol values e" 5.2 mM/L, 19 men had HDL values<1.0 mM/L and 28 women had HDL values<1.3 mM/L (making a total of 24.3% of the study population). Twenty (10.4%) had LDL cholesterol e"3.3 mM/L, while 14 (7.3 %) had triglyceride valuese" 1.7 mM/L. One hundred and thirty one (67.8%) participants had values of all lipid parameters within reference range while 62 (32.8%) had abnormality in 1 or more of the parameters. Sixty two participants (32.1%) were overweight while 45 (23.3%) were obese. Statistically significant differences were found when TG and BMI levels of male participants were compared with those of their female counterparts. Abnormalities in lipid profile parameters were found mostly in participants who were 40 years and above. Age of participants correlated positively with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels while LDL-C levels correlated negatively with HDL levels. A significant proportion of the population had abnormality in one or more Lipid profile parameters, the most common being low HDL cholesterol levels. A

  14. Genotype specific peripheral lipid profile changes with hepatitis C therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Mark R; Patel, Amit; Backstedt, David; Choi, Myunghan; Seetharam, Anil B

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate magnitude/direction of changes in peripheral lipid profiles in patients undergoing direct acting therapy for hepatitis C by genotype. METHODS Mono-infected patients with hepatitis C were treated with guideline-based DAAs at a university-based liver clinic. Patient characteristics and laboratory values were collected before and after the treatment period. Baseline demographics included age, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, treatment regimen, and fibrosis stage. Total cholesterol (TCHOL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and liver function tests were measured prior to treatment and ETR. Changes in lipid and liver function were evaluated by subgroups with respect to genotype. Mean differences were calculated for each lipid profile and liver function component (direction/magnitude). The mean differences in lipid profiles were then compared between genotypes for differences in direction/magnitude. Lipid profile and liver function changes were evaluated with Levene’s test and student’s t test. Mean differences in lipid profiles were compared between genotypes using ANOVA, post hoc analysis via the Bonferroni correction or Dunnett T3. RESULTS Three hundred and seventy five patients enrolled with 321 (85.6%) achieving sustained-viral response at 12 wk. 72.3% were genotype 1 (GT1), 18.1% genotype 2 (GT2), 9.7% genotype 3 (GT3). Baseline demographics were similar. Significant change in lipid profiles were seen with GT1 and GT3 (ΔGT1, p and ΔGT3, p), with TCHOL increasing (+5.3, P = 0.005 and +16.1, P < 0.001), HDL increasing (+12.5, P < 0.001 and +7.9, P = 0.038), LDL increasing (+7.4, P = 0.058 and +12.5, P < 0.001), and TG decreasing (-5.9, P = 0.044 and -9.80 P = 0.067). Among genotypes (ΔGT1 v. ΔGT2 v. ΔGT3, ANOVA), significant mean differences were seen with TCHOL (+5.3 v. +0.1 v. +16.1, P = 0.017) and HDL (+12.3 v. +2 v. +7.9, P = 0.040). Post-hoc, GT3 was associated with a

  15. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  16. Serum lipid profile in oral cancer and leukoplakia: correlation with tobacco abuse and histological grading.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Priya; Augustine, J; Urs, Aadithya B; Arora, Shelly; Gupta, Shalini; Mohanty, Vikrant R

    2012-01-01

    Role of alterations in serum lipid profile in oral cancer remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the implications of altered serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer (OC), oral leukoplakia (OLP), and tobacco habits. Thirty patients with OC, 30 with OLP, 30 tobacco abusers (TAs), and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides (Tg) were evaluated using a fully automatic Biochemistry analyzer. Difference in lipid profile in various types of TA, that is, smokeless tobacco (SLT), smoking tobacco (ST), and a combination (Comb) usage of both forms were also analyzed. TC, HDL, and LDL were much lower in the OC group compared with control. Although these parameters were low in the OPC group compared with controls, the difference was not significant. On histological analysis, TC and HDL were found to decrease marginally with loss of tumor differentiation in OC. No correlation was found between the mean serum lipid profiles and degree of dysplasia in OLP. TC and HDL were significantly lesser in all forms of TA when compared with control. There may be an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile and OC. No significant reduction in lipid profile was observed in the OLP group. This may indicate that hypolipidemia is a late change occurring during carcinogenesis or is an effect rather than the cause of cancer.

  17. The role of developing breast cancer in alteration of serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Kamal Eldin A.; Hassan, Ikhlas K.; Sadig, Isam A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The major aim of this study is to examine the role of alterations in lipid profile in women developing breast cancer. This study was carried out between May 2009 and December 2010. Background: The relationship between lipids and breast cancer is undistinguished. Until now, conflicting results have been reported on the association between lipids and risk of breast cancer development in women. Materials and Methods: Plasma lipids (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides [TG] were analyzed from 60 controls and 120 untreated breast cancer patients with clinical and histopathological evidence, under aseptic conditions. Venous blood was drawn from the cases and controls and estimations of lipid profile were done utilizing the standard procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent sample t-test to compare the mean serum levels of lipid profile and TC/HDL ratio between patients and controls. Results: A significant rise in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol values, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected significantly by the breast cancer. Conclusions: The developing breast cancer might be considered as one of the factors in alterations in lipid profile levels. PMID:23626635

  18. Lipid Profiles of Persons With Paraplegia and Tetraplegia: Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas; Knöebber, Judith; Vogt, Stefan; König, Daniel; Deibert, Peter; Bültermann, Dirk; Heinrich, Lothar; Baumstark, Manfred W; Berg, Aloys; Storch, Max-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: To examine the lipoprotein profiles of men and women with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Impairment of the sympathetic nervous system (dependent on the level of injury) and the extent of physical capacity and activity were correlated with the lipid profile in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sex-related differences of the lipoprotein profiles could be found in nondisabled and premenopausal women with SCI mainly because of the different effects of sexual hormones. Methods: Lipoprotein profiles of 112 participants with SCI (32 premenopausal women, 80 men) were analyzed and correlated to sex, lesion level, and physical performance capacity. Results: Women with tetraplegia or paraplegia showed significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein and lower ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with men with corresponding lesion levels, without a difference in peak oxygen consumption. Concentrations of very-low-density lipoproteins were lower in women with paraplegia than in men with paraplegia; no differences were found in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Sex-independent elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were associated with paraplegia, and sex-independent elevations in triglyceride levels were associated with tetraplegia. Conclusions: Persons with SCI showed sex-related differences in their lipoprotein profiles. Independent of physical fitness, the lipoprotein profile of premenopausal women with SCI did not exhibit the adverse lipoprotein characteristics observed in men with SCI, probably because of the influence of sexual hormones independent of lesion level. PMID:18795478

  19. Lipid profile analysis in school children.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Carlos; Magalhães, Cyntia Karla; Malheiros, Waldir

    2007-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization, coronary atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. The INTERHEART study demonstrated that dyslipidemia is one of the most important independent risk factors for AMI. To evaluate the lipid profile and blood pressure of school children attending private (paid) and public/philanthropic (free) schools. Blood samples from 343 children were tested and correlated with their lifestyle. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Student's t-test for independent samples to compare the means, and the chi-square test (c2) to compare proportions. The significance level was set at 5%. Total cholesterol and its HDL and LDL fractions, as well as the Castelli Index I, were higher among private school students, with statistical significance for both genders, except for HDL in boys. Blood pressure was higher in the same group, but without reaching statistical significance. Twenty-three percent of private school students had total cholesterol > 190 mg/d, as compared to 4% of those attending public/philanthropic institutions. When the dietary and physical activity surveys were compared and correlated with the lipid profile, a clear association was found between daily physical activity and nutritional guidance among those of lower socioeconomic status. This study demonstrated the positive correlation of total cholesterol and its LDL fraction with eating habits and more intense and regular physical activity, benefiting the most needy children, compared to those enrolled in private schools.

  20. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Kamrun Nahar; Mainuddin, AKM; Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, accounting for the highest morbidity and mortality among the Bangladeshi population. The objective of this study was to determine the association between serum lipid profiles in hypertensive patients with normotensive control subjects in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 234 participants including 159 hypertensive patients and 75 normotensive controls from January to December 2012 in the National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Results The mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the participants were 137.94±9.58 and 94.42±8.81, respectively, which were higher in the hypertensive patients (P<0.001). The serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL were higher while HDL levels were lower in hypertensive subjects compared to normotensives, which was statistically significant (P<0.001). Age, waist circumference, and body mass index showed significant association with hypertensive patients (P<0.001) but not with normotensives. The logistic regression analysis showed that hypertensive patients had 1.1 times higher TC and TG, 1.2 times higher LDL, and 1.1 times lower HDL than normotensives, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Hypertensive patients in Bangladesh have a close association with dyslipidemia and need measurement of blood pressure and lipid profile at regular intervals to prevent cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other comorbidities. PMID:25061312

  1. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on gene expression of lipoprotein(a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Elham; Samimi, Mansooreh; Ebrahimi, Faraneh Afshar; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Aghadavod, Esmat; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-01-05

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on gene expression of lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done on 68 women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-Linolenic acid plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 34) or placebo (n = 34) for 12 weeks. Lp(a) and Ox-LDL mRNA levels were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PCOS women with RT-PCR method. Lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress were quantified at the beginning of the study and after 12-week intervention. Quantitative results of RT-PCR demonstrated that compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation downregulated expressed levels of Lp(a) mRNA (P < 0.001) and Ox-LDL mRNA (P < 0.001) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of women with PCOS. In addition, compared to the placebo group, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (-22.1 ± 22.3 vs. +7.7 ± 23.6 mg/dL, P < 0.001), VLDL- (-4.4 ± 4.5 vs. +1.5 ± 4.7 mg/dL, P < 0.001), total- (-20.3 ± 16.6 vs. +12.2 ± 26.1 mg/dL, P < 0.001), LDL- (-16.7 ± 15.3 vs. +11.9 ± 26.1 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and total-/HDL-cholesterol (-0.5 ± 0.6 vs. +0.4 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). There were a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (+89.4 ± 108.9 vs. +5.9 ± 116.2 mmol/L, P = 0.003) and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels (-0.3 ± 0.4 vs. -0.008 ± 0.6 μmol/L, P = 0.01) by combined omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E intake compared with

  2. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  3. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  4. Lipid profile of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Naz, F; Jyoti, S; Akhtar, N; Afzal, M; Siddique, Y H

    2012-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most popular type of birth control pills. The study was designed to examine the biochemical changes which occur due to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs). The study was based on the questionnaire for having the information of any reproductive history fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding, disease etc and blood profiling for biochemical analysis of the women includes high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Lipid profiling was carried out by using a commercially available diagnostic test kits. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results showed statistically significant differences among users of OCs compared to non-users. Total cholesterol (242.92 +/- 2.842 mg dL(-1)), HDL-C (58.65 +/- 1.098 mg dL(-1)), LDL-C (115.84 +/- 1.266 mg dL(-1)) and triglycerides (105.56 +/- 2.341 mg dL(-1)) were significantly higher compared to the non-users (Total cholesterol 218.49 +/- 1.762, HDL-C 48.17 +/- 0.543, LDL-C 100.321 +/- 0.951 and triglycerides 83.77 +/- 2.299 mg dL(-1)). The result suggests that OCs increase the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG).

  5. Alteration in plasma lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Amit; Sankhla, Bharat; Naraniya, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lipids are major cell membrane components essential for various biological functions including cell growth and division of normal and malignant tissue. They are also required for maintenance of structural and functional integrity of all biological membranes. Alteration in the plasma lipid profile has been associated with a variety of cancers and precancerous conditions including those of the head and neck region. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the alteration in plasma lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study, 20 with oral submucous fibrosis and 10 healthy controls. Fasting plasma lipid profile including Total Cholesterol (TC), Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and Tri-Glycerides (TG) were measured using semiautomatic analyser. The data obtained were analysed using independent sample ‘t’ test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, LDL and HDL was observed in patients with OSMF as compared to the controls, but it was not statistically significant for VLDL and TG values. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is an inverse relationship between lipid profile and the presence of oral submucous fibrosis. Hence, alteration in plasma lipid profile may have a diagnostic role in the future and can be used as a biochemical indicator to detect the initial changes seen in the neoplastic process. PMID:24455599

  6. Proatherogenic Lipid Profile in Early Childhood: Association with Weight Status at 4 Years and Parental Obesity.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Valvi, Damaskini; Vrijheid, Martine; Tardón, Adonina

    2017-08-01

    To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined in children and lipid ratios were calculated. A proatherogenic lipid profile was defined as having the 3 lipid ratios in the third tertile. A total of 12.9% of children were overweight and 6.4% were obese. Weight status at 4 years of age was related to maternal prepregnancy body mass index, paternal body mass index, gestational diabetes, and birth weight, but not with other sociodemographic characteristics of the mother. We found no association with gestational age, sex of the child, or breastfeeding. The risk of overweight/obesity was increased 4.17-fold if mothers were overweight/obese (95% CI 1.76-9.88) and 5.1-fold (95% CI 2.50-10.40) if both parents were overweight/obese. There were 133 children (22.8%) with a proatherogenic lipid profile. The risk of a proatherogenic lipid profile was increased 2.44-fold (95% CI 1.54-3.86) if they were overweight/obese at 4 years of age and 2-fold if the father was overweight/obese (95% CI 1.22-3.35). Four-year-old overweight/obese children have higher lipid risk profiles. Offspring of overweight/obese parents have an increased risk for obesity and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg; Gochev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell-cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure-distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces.

  8. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  9. A simple and sensitive method for lipoprotein and lipids profiles analysis of individual micro-liter scale serum samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Fan, Baoyan; Yang, Kangmin; Zhu, Haibo

    2012-02-01

    A simple and sensitive method to determine lipoprotein and lipids profiles in micro-liter scale individual serum sample is not presently available. Traditional lipoprotein separation techniques either by ultra-centrifugation or by liquid chromatography methods have their disadvantages in both lipoprotein separation and lipids component quantification. In this study we used small volume needing size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography to separate different lipoprotein subclasses in 50μL serum. And lipids contents, such as cholesterol, cholesterol ester and triacylglycerol, were measured by using two different fluorescence-based lipid detection methods. With this method, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein could be easily separated, and follow-up lipid detection was completed by simple kinds of reactions. Serum lipoprotein and lipids profiling from C57BL/6 mice (n=5) and human (n=5) were analyzed. The elution profiles of five individuals were highly reproducible, and there were lipoprotein and lipids distribution variations between C57BL/6 mice and human beings. In conclusion, this method which combined small volume needing size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography and fluorescence-based lipids measurement, provided a simple, efficient, integrity and reproducible procedure for determining serum lipoprotein and lipids profiles in micro-liter scale levels. It becomes possible that determination of lipoprotein profiles and gaining information of lipids in different lipoproteins can be accomplished simultaneously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Universal density profile for cosmic voids.

    PubMed

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P M; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2014-06-27

    We present a simple empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function is universal across void size and redshift, accurately describing a large radial range of scales around void centers with only two free parameters. In analogy to halo density profiles, these parameters describe the scale radius and the central density of voids. While we initially start with a more general four-parameter model, we find two of its parameters to be redundant, as they follow linear trends with the scale radius in two distinct regimes of the void sample, separated by its compensation scale. Assuming linear theory, we derive an analytic formula for the velocity profile of voids and find an excellent agreement with the numerical data as well. In our companion paper [Sutter et al., arXiv:1309.5087 [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published)

  11. Nutritional status and lipid profile of young children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joilane Alves; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Lemos, Jesuana Oliveira; de Oliveira, Ellaine; Rocha, Cinthya; Hipólito, Thiago

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status and lipid profile of young children from an urban Brazilian region. Cross-sectional study involving a representative sample of 472 children aged 5-8 years from Jundiai city. The nutritional status was assessed by the body mass index for age. Total cholesterol and fractions (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglycerides concentrations were determined by automated enzymatic methods. The results were analyzed by the student t-test and Fisher exact test. Overweight/obesity was observed in 22% of the children and thinness in 3.2%. Girls presented a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (24.0%) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22.8%) compared with boys (19.7% and 10.6%), respectively (p < 0.001). The prevalence of children with elevated and borderline total cholesterol was 32.8% and 26.7%, respectively, although 82.8% had desirable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia observed in these children is a matter of concern considering the age group evaluated.

  12. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-08-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R{sub sun} and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R{sub sun} than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  13. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes and the bone mineral density and serum lipid profiles in postmenopausal Japanese women taking hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jinhua; Yahata, Tetsuro; Tamura, Nozomi; Nagata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    The genetic variations of the genes encoding cytochrome P-450 enzymes are considered to play an important role in the metabolism of estradiol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytochrome P-450 genes, lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), and serum lipids and to determine the effects of hormone therapy (HT). The participants were 124 Japanese women who had been diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis and were taking HT for 12 months. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes were characterized. Lumbar BMD and the levels of serum lipids were measured before and after HT. A single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 3 of CYP1B1 was found to be significantly associated with the effect of HT on BMD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol both in univariate and multivariate analyses. In the women with the GG genotype of L432V, the responses to HT of BMD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol markedly decreased. The serum follicle-stimulating hormone level after HT was significantly higher in the women with the GG genotype of L432V. These results suggest that the L432V polymorphism in the CYP1B1 gene could therefore be used to predict the effect of HT on lumbar BMD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Japanese women.

  14. Lean red meat consumption and lipid profiles in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Bradlee, M. Loring; Singer, Martha R.; Moore, Lynn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of red meat consumption often fail to distinguish between leaner and fattier or processed cuts of meat. Red meat has also been frequently linked with less healthy diet patterns. Data exploring health effects of lean red meat in younger individuals, particularly in the context of a healthy diet, are sparse. This study examined the effects of lean red meat in combination with higher intakes of fruit/non-starchy vegetables on lipid profiles in older adolescent girls. Methods Data from 1,461 girls followed for 10 years starting at 9-10 years of age in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study were used. Diet was assessed using multiple sets of 3-day records collected over eight exam cycles. Outcome measures included fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides at ages 18-20 years. Results After adjusting for age, race, SES, height, activity level, hours of television/day, and intakes of whole grains and dairy foods using multivariable modeling, girls consuming ≥6 oz lean red meat/wk combined with ≥2 servings of fruit/non-starchy vegetables/day had LDL levels about 6-7 mg/dL lower (p<0.05) than girls with lower intakes of lean red meat and fruit/non-starchy vegetables. In addition, girls with higher intakes of both were 33% less likely (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94) to have an LDL-C ≥110 mg/dL and 41% less likely (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83) to have an elevated LDL:HDL ratio (≥2.2) at the end of adolescence. Conclusion These analyses suggest that lean red meat may be included in a healthy adolescent diet without unfavorable effects on lipid values. PMID:23663235

  15. Blood lipid profile and BMI-Z-score in adolescents with hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, M J; Wasilewska, N; Wicklund-Liland, L I; Wasilewska, A

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration (SUA) is correlated with lipid profile in hypertensive or obese patients. However, the relationship between serum uric acid levels and lipid profile in non-obese late adolescent population was not examined before. In this study we decided to assess the potential relationship between SUA and lipid profile, according to gender in adolescents with HU. The study group comprises 607 Polish adolescents (474 males, 133 females) with HU. Retrospective analysis included demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Lipid profile was assessed including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (TC/HDL-C). In the examined group 187/607 (31%) of teenagers were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Median BMI-Z-score was 1.11 Q1-Q3: (-0.02-2.03) and both females and males in the upper tertile of SUA had statistically significant higher BMI-Z-score. The males in the upper tertile of serum uric acid levels also had higher values of TG and lower of HDL-C. In females, we have not found significant differences in lipid profile. Multiple regression analyses indicated that male gender, BMI-Z-score, and presence of hypertension correlated significantly with serum uric acid concentration. In summary, the results of our study confirm higher prevalence of hyperuricemia in males when compared to females and a stronger association of HU with BMI-Z-score and lipid profile in male adolescents. Nevertheless, multiple regression does not confirm the independent association of SUA with lipid profile.

  16. Lipid profile in neonates and its relation with birth weight and gestational age.

    PubMed

    Ramaraj, Savitha Mysore; Bharath, A P; Sanjay, K M

    2015-04-01

    This study was undertaken to compare lipid profile of small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. A total of 103 neonates were included; of which 63 were AGA and 40 SGA. Venous blood (2 ml) was obtained 2 h after the previous feed between 8 and 10 am on Day 3 or Day 4 of life and lipid profile was done. In AGA neonates, mean TC (total cholesterol), LDL (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglycerides were 103.92 ± 47.79, 51.70 ± 23.03, 23.35 ± 11.41 and 187.62 ± 144.44 mg/dl respectively. AGA neonates had more TC and LDL than SGA neonates (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in mean lipid profile between preterm and term neonates. Thus, normal lipid profiles in neonates in the index study are higher than that of the neonates from other parts of the world. The authors recommend further studies in India to outline normal values of lipid profile across various gestations and birth weights.

  17. Electron density profiles from ionograms - Comparisons with rocket profiles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. W.; Paul, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    From a series of ten rocket flights at Wallops Island conducted by the University of Illinois, detailed electron density profiles are available in the altitude range 60-120 km. Concurrent ionograms from a nearby conventional ionosonde of good sensitivity and precision, have been reduced to N(h) profiles by the NOAA methods. Special attention is given to the needs for accurate ionosonde calibration, proper ionogram interpretation, and corrections for underlying ionization, 'valley' ionization, and effects of lateral-gradients. Proper corrections in the present cases yield profiles by ionogram inversion which agree to within a few percent in density, and a few hundred meters or less in height, with the rocket results.

  18. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  19. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    SONG, JIAN; PING, LING-YAN; DUONG, DUC M.; GAO, XIAO-YAN; HE, CHUN-YAN; WEI, LEI; WU, JUN-ZHU

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell-mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native-LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL-stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label-free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native-LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native-LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation. PMID:26781977

  20. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Ping, Ling-Yan; Duong, Duc M; Gao, Xiao-Yan; He, Chun-Yan; Wei, Lei; Wu, Jun-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell‑mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native‑LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL‑stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label‑free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native‑LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native‑LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation.

  1. [Lipid and lipoprotein profile in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Deiana, L; Pes, G M; Carru, C; Tidore, M; Cherchi, G M

    1992-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common relapsing dermatosis characterized by an increased epidermal cell proliferation. In this work we studied the lipid and lipoprotein pattern in 17 patients affected by long-standing psoriasis and in 20 normal controls. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and Apolipoprotein AI and B levels were measured; VLDL, LDL and HDL chemical composition was assessed by preparative ultracentrifugation. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were significantly lower in the patient group; chemical analysis of the main lipoprotein classes showed compositional abnormalities consistent with an accelerated turnover of these particles. We believe that epidermal cell proliferation can play a role in determining these changes.

  2. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile and offspring's lipids and glycaemic control at age 5-6 years: The ABCD study.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Noekie; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2016-10-15

    Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile might influence offspring's lipids and glycaemic control, through an increased offspring's fat percentage. This explorative study investigates whether maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipids and glycaemic control independently of offspring's fat percentage and if these associations are mediated by offspring's fat percentage. Possible sex differences in these associations are also examined. 1133 mother-child pairs of the prospective ABCD-study were included. Maternal non-fasting lipids were collected in early pregnancy: triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and free fatty acids (FFA). Fasting triglycerides, TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and C-peptide were assessed in offspring aged 5-6 years and HOMA2-IR was calculated. After adjustment for covariates, strongest associations were found between maternal TC and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.141 (0.074-0.207); girls β(95%CI) = 0.268 (0.200; 0.336)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.114 (0.052; 0.176); girls β(95%CI) = 0.247 (0.181-0.312)), maternal ApoB and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.638 (0.311-0.965); girls β(95%CI) = 1.121 (0.766-1.475)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.699 (0.393-1.005); girls β(95%CI) = 1.198 (0.868-1.529)), and maternal ApoA1 and offspring's HDL (only boys β(95%CI) = 0.221 (0.101-0.341)). No significant association was found between maternal lipids and offspring's glycaemic control, and offspring's fat percentage played no mediating role. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipid profile in childhood, with overall stronger associations in girls. This study provides further evidence that lowering lipid levels during pregnancy might be beneficial for the long term health of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  3. Alterations of Plasma lipid profile patterns in oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, N; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rajesh, Amudala; Babu, P Ravisekhar; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is associated initially by the presence of pre-malignant lesions or pre-malignant conditions. Oral Leukoplakia is one of the best-known pre-malignant lesions in the oral cavity that have the highest rate of malignant transformation. Numerous studies have shown an altered lipid profile in various cancers including head and neck cancers. An inverse relationship between plasma lipid profiles has been seen in oral cancer and pre-cancerous subjects. The present study evaluated the plasma lipid profiles in oral leukoplakia and controls. Materials & Methods: This study was done in department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sibar dental College and Konacc diagnostics. 30 patients were included in the study (15 patients with oral leukoplakia (histo-pathologically proven) and 15 patients for comparison of results as controls). Patients with cardiovascular diseases, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, acute hepatitis and nephrosis were excluded from the sample and lipid profile assay was done by fully automated biochemistry analyser (EM–360). Paired-t and Scheffe tests were used to find statistical significance between two groups. Results: The plasma lipid levels were estimated in between the two groups by arithmetic mean along with standard deviation. The lipid parameters included were Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Triglycerides. The lipid parameters of the patients in between the two groups were compared and analysed. Conclusion: In this study TC, HDL, LDL, Triglyceride level analysis showed slightly lower levels in oral leukoplakia patients than that of the controls. Higher VLDL levels were observed in leukoplakia than the control group. How to cite the article: Mahesh N, Rahamthullah SA, Naidu GM, Rajesh A, Babu PR, Reddy JM. Alterations of Plasma lipid profile patterns in oral leukoplakia. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):78-84. PMID:24653608

  4. Electron Density Profiles of the Topside Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xue-Qin; Reinsch, Bodo W.; Bilitza, Dieter; Benson, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    The existing uncertainties about the electron density profiles in the topside ionosphere, i.e., in the height region from h,F2 to - 2000 km, require the search for new data sources. The ISIS and Alouette topside sounder satellites from the sixties to the eighties recorded millions of ionograms but most were not analyzed in terms of electron density profiles. In recent years an effort started to digitize the analog recordings to prepare the ionograms for computerized analysis. As of November 2001 about 350000 ionograms have been digitized from the original 7-track analog tapes. These data are available in binary and CDF format from the anonymous ftp site of the National Space Science Data Center. A search site and browse capabilities on CDAWeb assist the scientific usage of these data. All information and access links can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/isis/isis- status.htm1. This paper describes the ISIS data restoration effort and shows how the digital ionograms are automatically processed into electron density profiles from satellite orbit altitude (1400 km for ISIS-2) down to the F peak. Because of the large volume of data an automated processing algorithm is imperative. The TOPside Ionogram Scaler with True height algorithm TOPIST software developed for this task is successfully scaling - 70% of the ionograms. An <> is available to manually scale the more difficult ionograms. The automated processing of the digitized ISIS ionograms is now underway, producing a much-needed database of topside electron density profiles for ionospheric modeling covering more than one solar cycle.

  5. Electron Density Profiles of the Topside Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xue-Qin; Reinsch, Bodo W.; Bilitza, Dieter; Benson, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    The existing uncertainties about the electron density profiles in the topside ionosphere, i.e., in the height region from h,F2 to - 2000 km, require the search for new data sources. The ISIS and Alouette topside sounder satellites from the sixties to the eighties recorded millions of ionograms but most were not analyzed in terms of electron density profiles. In recent years an effort started to digitize the analog recordings to prepare the ionograms for computerized analysis. As of November 2001 about 350000 ionograms have been digitized from the original 7-track analog tapes. These data are available in binary and CDF format from the anonymous ftp site of the National Space Science Data Center. A search site and browse capabilities on CDAWeb assist the scientific usage of these data. All information and access links can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/isis/isis- status.htm1. This paper describes the ISIS data restoration effort and shows how the digital ionograms are automatically processed into electron density profiles from satellite orbit altitude (1400 km for ISIS-2) down to the F peak. Because of the large volume of data an automated processing algorithm is imperative. The TOPside Ionogram Scaler with True height algorithm TOPIST software developed for this task is successfully scaling - 70% of the ionograms. An <> is available to manually scale the more difficult ionograms. The automated processing of the digitized ISIS ionograms is now underway, producing a much-needed database of topside electron density profiles for ionospheric modeling covering more than one solar cycle.

  6. Predicting temperature and density profiles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Kinsey, J.E.; Redd, A.J.; Weiland, J.

    1998-05-01

    A fixed combination of theory-based transport models, called the Multi-Mode Model, is used in the BALDUR [C. E. Singer {ital et al.}, Comput. Phys. Commun. {bold 49}, 275 (1988)] transport simulation code to predict the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. The choice of the Multi-Mode Model has been guided by the philosophy of using the best transport theories available for the various modes of turbulence that dominate in different parts of the plasma. The Multi-Mode model has been found to provide a better match to temperature and density profiles than any of the other theory-based models currently available. A description and partial derivation of the Multi-Mode Model is presented, together with three new examples of simulations of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [K. M. McGuire {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 2176 (1995)]. The first simulation shows the strong effect of recycling on the ion temperature profile in TFTR supershot simulations. The second simulation explores the effect of a plasma current ramp{emdash}where the plasma energy content changes slowly on the energy confinement time scale. The third simulation shows that the Multi-Mode Model reproduces the experimentally measured profiles when tritium is used as the hydrogenic isotope in L-mode (low confinement mode) plasmas. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. ?Linear Gas Jet with Tailored Density Profile"

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNAN, Mahadevan

    2012-12-10

    Supersonic, highly collimated gas jets and gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are two primary targets of choice for Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPA) . Present gas jets have lengths of only 2-4 mm at densities of 1-4E19 cm-3, sufficient for self trapping and electron acceleration to energies up to ~150 MeV. Capillary structures 3 cm long have been used to accelerate beams up to 1 GeV. Capillary discharges used in LPAs serve to guide the pump laser and optimize the energy gain. A wall-stabilized capillary discharge provides a transverse profile across the channel that helps guide the laser and combat diffraction. Gas injection via a fast nozzle at one end provides some longitudinal density control, to improve the coupling. Gas jets with uniform or controlled density profiles may be used to control electron bunch injection and are being integrated into capillary experiments to add tuning of density. The gas jet for electron injection has not yet been optimized. Our Ph-I results have provided the LPA community with an alternative path to realizing a 2-3GeV electron bunch using just a gas jet. For example, our slit/blade combination gives a 15-20mm long acceleration path with tunable density profile, serving as an alternative to a 20-mm long capillary discharge with gas injection at one end. In Ph-II, we will extend these results to longer nozzles, to see whether we can synthesize 30 or 40-mm long plasma channels for LPAs.

  8. Lipoprotein lipase gene sequencing and plasma lipid profile[S

    PubMed Central

    Pirim, Dilek; Wang, Xingbin; Radwan, Zaheda H.; Niemsiri, Vipavee; Hokanson, John E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Barmada, M. Michael; Demirci, F. Yesim; Kamboh, M. Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism by hydrolyzing triglyceride (TG)-rich particles and affecting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In this study, the entire LPL gene plus flanking regions were resequenced in individuals with extreme HDL-C/TG levels (n = 95), selected from a population-based sample of 623 US non-Hispanic White (NHW) individuals. A total of 176 sequencing variants were identified, including 28 novel variants. A subset of 64 variants [common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNP) and selected rare variants] were genotyped in the total sample, followed by association analyses with major lipid traits. A gene-based association test including all genotyped variants revealed significant association with HDL-C (P = 0.024) and TG (P = 0.006). Our single-site analysis revealed seven independent signals (P < 0.05; r2 < 0.40) with either HDL-C or TG. The most significant association was for the SNP rs295 exerting opposite effects on TG and HDL-C levels with P values of 7.5.10−4 and 0.002, respectively. Our work highlights some common variants and haplotypes in LPL with significant associations with lipid traits; however, the analysis of rare variants using burden tests and SKAT-O method revealed negligible effects on lipid traits. Comprehensive resequencing of LPL in larger samples is warranted to further test the role of rare variants in affecting plasma lipid levels. PMID:24212298

  9. Skin lipid profiling in normal and seborrhoeic shih tzu dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Seon; Nishifuji, Koji; Ishioroshi, Sinpei; Ide, Kaori; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2013-02-01

    Seborrhoea is a clinical condition resulting in excessive lipid and/or scale on the skin and is a common and important skin disease of dogs. However, there is little information on the skin surface lipid composition of dogs with seborrhoea. To compare skin surface lipid profiles in normal and seborrhoeic shih tzu dogs. Fourteen client-owned dogs (seven seborrhoeic and seven normal) were investigated. Lipids in sebaceous glands (SGs) were extracted from homogenized tissues of SG hyperplasia. Surface lipid was collected by tape stripping [stratum corneum (SC)-enriched fraction] and acetone-wetted cotton swab (acetone-extracted fraction). Lipids in SGs, SC-enriched fractions and acetone-extracted fractions were evaluated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Lipids in SGs mainly consisted of cholesterol esters, wax esters and triglycerides, whereas lipids in the SC-enriched fraction mainly consisted of ceramides. The acetone-extracted fraction contained a mixture of lipid classes recognized in SG- and SC-enriched fractions. In seborrhoeic dogs, concentrations of wax esters and triglycerides in the acetone-extracted fraction were significantly higher than in control dogs (P = 0.0285). Amounts of total ceramides (in micrograms) per milligram of SC were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.5204). Interestingly, two unknown ceramide fractions, which accounted for 20% of the total ceramides, were recognized exclusively in seborrhoeic dogs. These results provide evidence that the skin surface lipid profiles are altered in shih tzu dogs with seborrhoea. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L; Sivamani, Raja K; Newman, John W

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30-C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc HSD). No differences in oxylipins and endocannabinoids were observed between study groups. Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs.

  11. Density profile of pyrolitic lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinmyo, R.; Hirose, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Density profile of pyrolite at lower mantle high-pressure (P) and -temperature (T) conditions was investigated by using laser-heated diamond-anvil cell up to 117 GPa and 2800 K. The density was determined from chemical composition and unit-cell volume of each constituent mineral (MgSiO3-rich perovskite, ferropericlase and CaSiO3-rich perovskite). The chemical compositions of coexisting phases were analyzed by transmission electron microscope, and their volumes were obtained by in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements. To avoid extensive chemical segregation during laser-heating, sample was coated by gold that worked as a laser absorber (Sinmyo and Hirose 2010 PEPI). Results of chemical analyses show that Mg-Fe (total Fe) partitioning coefficient between MgSiO3-rich perovskite and ferropericlase [K* = (Fe*/Mg)Pv/(Fe*/Mg)Fp] is about 0.6, slightly higher than the value previously reported in the pyrolitic bulk composition (Murakami et al. 2005 GRL). The lower K* value in the previous study may be attributed to the chemical heterogeneity in the sample induced by strong temperature gradient during laser heating. The calculated density profile of pyrolite is indeed in good agreement with the PREM model within experimental errors, in contrast with the mismatch reported by the previous study (Ricolleau et al. 2009 GRL). Our results support the lower mantle has pyrolitic bulk composition, and thus it is not necessary to suppose the chemically stratification in the lower mantle.

  12. [The lipid profile in children with nephrosis].

    PubMed

    Mena-Castro, E; López-Rivera, M; Pérez-Alcántara, H; Ramírez-Zapata, E; de Luna, E

    1991-06-01

    The serum lipid levels of 25 children with SNI of LGM were quantified. All cases showed total cholesterol and triglyceride levels above the 95% percentile for both their age and sex (417 +/- 119 mg/dL and 448 +/- 313 mg/dL respectively). Ninety-two percent of the children showed LBD above the 95 percentile for their and sex (307 +/- 108 mg/dL) and 72% showed LAD in the normal lower limit, under the fifth percentile for their age and sex (26.9 +/- 13.7 mg/dL). A important percentage of the patients showed elevated LMBD (90.8 +/- 61.0 mg/dL). A direct proportional relationship occurred between total cholesterol and LBD (r = + 0.854), yet, an inverted relationship was not seen between total cholesterol and LAD (r = -0.315) nor between total cholesterol and serum albumin (r = -0.248).

  13. Density Profile of Spherical Polymer Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, S.; Wenz, E.; Lindner, P.

    1996-07-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements were made on a series of block copolymer micelles that represent model systems for spherical polymer brushes. We find hyperbolic density profiles of the form r-α with values of α between 1.05 and 1.35. This as well as the scaling of the brush height with the aggregation number f are in agreement with the model proposed by Daoud and Cotton [J. Phys. (Paris) 43, 531 (1982)] for unswollen and swollen spherical polymer brushes.

  14. Prolonged duration of breastfeeding does not affect lipid profile in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayosh, Ofri; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Lahat, Sharon; Marom, Ronella; Lubetzky, Ronit

    2015-05-01

    The Hertfordshire study suggested that age of weaning and methods of infant feeding may influence adult serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and mortality from ischemic heart disease in men. Although breastfeeding <1 year appeared to be protective compared with formula, prolonged breastfeeding (>1 year) was associated with increased LDL-C and mortality. This study tested the effect of breastfeeding duration on lipid profile in young adults. Adult volunteers whose mothers could recall the age at which their child was weaned were recruited. We excluded patients with known dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia in a first-degree relative, obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m(2)), pregnant or within 3 months of a previous pregnancy, subjects taking medications that may affect lipid profile, or subjects with a chronic medical condition. Nutritional questionnaires and number of weekly hours of exercise were recorded. Lipid profiles were obtained after a night fast. The three groups (no breastfeeding, breastfeeding 0-6 months, or breastfeeding >9 months) did not differ in terms of age, gender, BMI, level of education, amount of exercise, and dietary style. By stepwise background multiple regression analysis taking into account exercise, nutritional habitus, age, BMI, gender, and socioeconomic status, blood lipids were not affected by duration of breastfeeding. Duration of breastfeeding does not affect lipid profiles in young adults. These findings do not support negative messages on the long-term effect of prolonged lactation generated by the Hertfordshire study.

  15. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  16. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions. PMID:28570611

  17. [Anthropometrical measurements as predictor of serum lipid profile in adolescents with Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ordóiez-Munoz, Francisco Javier; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Rosety-Rodríguez, Jesús María; Rosety-Plaza, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Current findings suggest that more attention needs to be given to the increase in body mass being achieved by disabled populations in general and individuals with mental retardation in particular, to minimize long-term negative health consequences. Given that physical activity programs have been reported as one of the most effective ways of improving the health of individuals with Down syndrome, it would be of interest facilitate different tools to contribute to their clinical follow-up. Consequently, this study was designed to assess the correlation between anthropometrical parameters and lipid profile in adolescents with Down syndrome. Anthropometric variables such as body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as well as serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total-cholesterol/high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured in 21 male adolescents (16.3 +/- 1.1 years) with Down syndrome. Anthropometric parameters presented a positive association with serum lipids except for high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol that was negative. It should be emphasized the strongest association of waist-to-hip ratio to total cholesterol/high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (r = 0.48; p < 0.05). It is concluded waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio may be highly recommended in clinical practice as appropriate anthropometric predictors of lipid profile in adolescents with Down syndrome. Further studies are required to assess their behavior during physical activity programs as well as to determine more correlations in these individuals.

  18. Managing the lipid profile of coronary heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Drakopoulou, Maria; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Synetos, Andreas; Trantalis, George; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    Lipid profile management is even more critical in patients treated for secondary prevention, since patients with established coronary heart disease are at higher risk of developing events. Current guidelines encourage lifestyle modification and patient engagement in disease prevention. However, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines seem to differ considerably from their predecessors, having an impact on clinical practice of lipid management. Area covered: This review article discusses and provides a summary of the current recommendations for lipid profile management in patients with coronary heart disease, with a view to present lifestyle modification and novel treatment strategies, and to indicate areas of dispute among recent guidelines. Expert commentary: Existing controversies between current guidelines concerning treatment goals and therapeutic decisions may have potential implications on the clinical management of patients. In the meantime, we eagerly wait for the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating promising, potent, safe and prolonged drugs that are in progress.

  19. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  20. Mammographic density, blood telomere length and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Natalie J; Harrington, Lea A; Martin, Lisa J

    2017-07-19

    Extensive mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but may also be an indicator of biological age. In this study we examined whether mammographic density is related to blood telomere length, a potential marker of susceptibility to age-related disease. We measured mammographic density by a computer assisted method and blood telomere length using a validated PCR method. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured in 24 hour urine collections. In the 342 women examined telomere length was negatively correlated with age, was lower in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women and in smokers compared to non-smokers, and was positively correlated with urinary MDA. Telomere length was not associated with percent mammographic density or dense area, before or after adjustment for risk factors and MDA. However, there was a significant interaction between telomere length and MDA in their association with mammographic density. At lower levels of MDA, mammographic density and telomere length were inversely associated; while at high levels of MDA, there was evidence of a J-shaped association between mammographic density and telomere length. Further work is need to replicate these results and to examine the association of mammographic density with age-related chronic disease and mortality.

  1. Lean red meat consumption and lipid profiles in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Bradlee, M L; Singer, M R; Moore, L L

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption often fail to distinguish between leaner and fattier or processed cuts of meat. Red meat has also been frequently linked with less healthy diet patterns. Data exploring the health effects of lean red meat in younger individuals are scarce, particularly in the context of a healthy diet. The present study examined the effects of lean red meat in combination with higher intakes of fruit/nonstarchy vegetables on lipid profiles in older adolescent girls. Data from 1461 girls who were followed for 10 years, starting at 9-10 years of age, in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were used. Diet was assessed using multiple sets of 3-day records collected over eight examination cycles. Outcome measures included fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C and triglycerides at age 18-20 years. After adjusting for age, race, socioeconomic status, height, activity level, hours of television per day, and intakes of whole grains and dairy foods using multivariable modelling, girls consuming ≥6 oz lean red meat per week combined with two or more servings of fruit/nonstarchy vegetables per day had LDL-C levels approximately 6-7 mg dL(-1) lower (P < 0.05) than girls with lower intakes of lean red meat and fruit/nonstarchy vegetables. In addition, girls with higher intakes of both were 33% less likely (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.94) to have an LDL-C ≥110 mg dL(-1) and 41% less likely (odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.83) to have an elevated LDL : HDL ratio (≥2.2) at the end of adolescence. These analyses suggest that lean red meat may be included in a healthy adolescent diet without unfavourable effects on lipid values. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    PubMed

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P < .05 as significant level. Relative risks were calculated with confidence interval 95%. The means of lipid profiles were in normal ranges. The relative risks for triglycerides more than 200 mg/dL was 1.57 (1.02-2.42) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) more than 130 mg/dL was 14.54 (3.54-59.65) in group 1. The relative risks for high density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 45 mg/dL was 14.61 (8.31-25.68) in group 1 and 16.00 (8.30-30.83) in group 3. After multinomial logistic regression they had significant differences. Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  3. Interrelationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and lipid profiles in premenopausal Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal A.; Patel, Prerna P.; Mughal, Zulf; Padidela, Raja; Patel, Ashish D.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, and observational studies have associated it with an atherogenic lipid profile. Aim: To determine the interrelationship between Vitamin D and lipid profile in apparently healthy premenopausal Indian women, considering confounding factors such as lifestyle that independently influence lipids. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty healthy premenopausal women (20–45 year) were recruited from Gujarat, India. Data were collected on anthropometry, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and diet. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone, and lipid profile. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive correlation between serum 25[OH]D concentrations and serum lipids. Results: Ninety-three percent women showed Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D < 20 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed significant inverse correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r = −0.202, P = 0.027), triglycerides (TG) (r = −0.284, P = 0.002), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.184, P = 0.044) and positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.250, P = 0.006). On dichotomizing the population according to median 25(OH)D concentration (11.1 ng/dl), no significant differences were observed between the groups for anthropometry, sunlight exposure, and lifestyle. Serum lipid profiles were significantly different, above median serum 25(OH)D concentration group showed favorable serum lipids (TC: 179.3 ± 30 vs. 191.8 ± 31.7 mg/dl; TG: 140 ± 39.1 vs. 165.5 ± 53.4 mg/dl; LDL-C: 100 ± 30.2 vs. 112 ± 32 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 14 vs. 47.6 ± 9.3 mg/dl)(P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that association of 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile even after considering lifestyle factors which independently influence lipids

  4. Olive and sesame oil effect on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic patients, which better?

    PubMed

    Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Kaseb, Fatemeh; Lesan, Soheila

    2013-09-01

    The study on natural substances especially, dietary components such as liquid oils affecting cholesterol can be important for therapeutic propose. Sesame seeds with various biomedical actions can be control the hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand, olive oil has a wide range of therapeutic effect on lipid profile in human. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare lipid profile changes after olive and sesame oils consumption in hypercholesterolemia. This study was a clinical randomized trial that was performed via parallel design on 48 patients. The patients were randomly allocated in to two groups: A: olive oil and B: sesame oil. After 1 month prescription of Step I National Cholesterol Education Program diet, patients consumed 4 table spoons aprox. 60 g) of refined olive or sesame oil daily as an exchange of other oils, for 1 month. Lipid profiles The P < 0.05 was considered as significant difference. Out of 48 patients, 24 (50%) were men. The mean age was 41.7 ± 8.3 years. The mean of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, before oil consumption was 224.5 ± 22, 256 ± 132, 132.6 ± 9, and 44.5 ± 11 mg/dl. After olive oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, weight, waist and BMI were decreased and HDL-C was increased. After sesame oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C were significantly decreased. Weight, waist were decreased and HDL-C was increased (P > 0.05). Sesame oil had equivalent effect on lipid profile in comparison olive oil and lipid profile improvement was better in sesame oil in LDL-C and TG.

  5. Lipid profile in cirrhotic patients and its relation to clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Boemeke, Laura; Bassani, Lilian; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Gottschall, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of hepatitis C virus have lower levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol and triglycerides compared to uninfected patients. With the progression of liver disease, the values ​​for cholesterol and its fractions reduce linearly, with reduction ratio of lipid profile and markers Child-Pugh and MELD. To determine the relationship between decrease dlipid profile with clinical outcome presented (liver transplantation or death pre-transplant). Was conducted a cross sectional analytical study of a follow-up study performed by reviewing medical records. Cirrhotic patients treated at theClinic of Gastroenterology from a large tertiary hospital with cirrhosis of viral etiology and/or alcohol were studied. The clinical characteristics (gender, age and etiology of cirrhosis) and lipid profile data from150 patients were collected in the year 2010.To analyze the occurrence of clinical outcomes (liver transplantation or death pre-transplant) patients were evaluated after four years. The prevalent cause was hepatitis C virus (53,3%), followed by alcohol (32%) and hepatitis C and alcohol (14,6%). Males represented 62% of the sample and the average age was 63.1±9.11 years. The prevalent lipid changes were hypocholesterolemia associated with hypotriglyceridemia (36,6%) and isolated hypocholesterolemia (34,6%). Analyzing groups of patients that showed abnormalities related to lipid profile, was identified a significant association between isolated hypocholesterolemia and clinical outcome-liver transplant(p <0.025) and 18% probability of performing liver transplantation in this group of patients. There was no association between decreased lipid profile and death. Isolated hypocholesterolemia contributes to assess the progression of liver disease, because of the association between lowering cholesterol and its fractions and the clinical outcome - liver transplant.

  6. Lipid profile in cirrhotic patients and its relation to clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    BOEMEKE, Laura; BASSANI, Lilian; MARRONI, Cláudio Augusto; GOTTSCHALL, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta

    2015-01-01

    Background Carriers of hepatitis C virus have lower levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol and triglycerides compared to uninfected patients. With the progression of liver disease, the values ​​for cholesterol and its fractions reduce linearly, with reduction ratio of lipid profile and markers Child-Pugh and MELD. Aim To determine the relationship between decrease dlipid profile with clinical outcome presented (liver transplantation or death pre-transplant). Methods Was conducted a cross sectional analytical study of a follow-up study performed by reviewing medical records. Cirrhotic patients treated at theClinic of Gastroenterology from a large tertiary hospital with cirrhosis of viral etiology and/or alcohol were studied. The clinical characteristics (gender, age and etiology of cirrhosis) and lipid profile data from150 patients were collected in the year 2010.To analyze the occurrence of clinical outcomes (liver transplantation or death pre-transplant) patients were evaluated after four years. Results The prevalent cause was hepatitis C virus (53,3%), followed by alcohol (32%) and hepatitis C and alcohol (14,6%). Males represented 62% of the sample and the average age was 63.1±9.11 years. The prevalent lipid changes were hypocholesterolemia associated with hypotriglyceridemia (36,6%) and isolated hypocholesterolemia (34,6%). Analyzing groups of patients that showed abnormalities related to lipid profile, was identified a significant association between isolated hypocholesterolemia and clinical outcome-liver transplant(p <0.025) and 18% probability of performing liver transplantation in this group of patients. There was no association between decreased lipid profile and death. Conclusion Isolated hypocholesterolemia contributes to assess the progression of liver disease, because of the association between lowering cholesterol and its fractions and the clinical outcome - liver transplant PMID

  7. [Correlation of lipid profiles and anthropometric variables with serum lipoprotein(a) levels in childhood].

    PubMed

    Sáez Meabe, Y; Lafita Bernar, M; Sáez de Lafuente Chivite, J P; Narváez Gofinondo, I; Vacas Rius, M; Magro López, A M; Sagastagoitia Gorostiza, J D; Molinero de Miguel, E; Iriarte Ezkurdia, J A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate lipoprotein(a) distribution in children and to assess its association with lipid profile and anthropometric variables. We studied 98 children (44 girls and 54 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 7 years, who were included in an epidemiological study on the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in children in the province of Biscay. The following parameters were determined: weight and height, body mass index, lipoprotein(a), and lipid profile. Lipid profile included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein A1. The mean and median serum lipoprotein(a) levels were 13.07 and 5.56 mg/dl respectively and were 11.43 and 3.92 mg/dl for boys and 15.09 and 8.32 mg/dl for girls. Lipoprotein(a) concentrations > 30 mg/dl were found in 7.4% of the boys and in 11.4% of the girls. The mean values and prevalences of lipoprotein(a) > 30 mg/dl were lower in boys than in girls but these differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation was found between lipid profile (LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol index) and lipoprotein(a) levels. When evaluating anthropometric variables, we found a statistically significant inverse correlation between weight and lipoprotein(a). In view of the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors and the results of this study, we believe that lipoprotein(a) determination should be considered in children with an unfavorable lipid profile.

  8. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  9. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Through Drinking Water Alters Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Status in Rats.

    PubMed

    Waghe, Prashantkumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kandasamy, Kannan; Choudhury, Soumen; Gupta, Priyanka; Harikumar, Sankarankutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic is a groundwater pollutant and can cause various cardiovascular disorders in the exposed population. The aim of the present study was to assess whether subchronic arsenic exposure through drinking water can induce vascular dysfunction associated with alteration in plasma electrolytes and lipid profile. Rats were exposed to arsenic as 25, 50, and 100 ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. On the 91st day, rats were sacrificed and blood was collected. Lipid profile and the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride) were assessed in plasma. Arsenic reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio, but increased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and electrolytes. The results suggest that the arsenic-mediated dyslipidemia and electrolyte retention could be important mechanisms in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder.

  10. Lipid Profile among Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ali A Muttalib

    2014-12-01

    Associations between hearing and blood lipids have been the focus of scientific inquiry for more than 50 years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between hyperlipidaemia among patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss compared to normal controls. A case control study concerned with 22 patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who underwent lipid profile evaluation. The lipid profile of these patients was compared with corresponding results of 55 age matched persons (volunteers) with normal hearing. These patients were collected from the Out Patient Department of ENT at Al-Jamhory Teaching Hospital, Mosul/Iraq and private clinic of the author for the period from February 2011 to July 2013. The average age of patients was 44.7 years with a range of 26-65 years. The peak age incidence was in the 5(th) decade of life. The study included 11 male patients (50 %) and 11 females (50 %). Meanwhile, the average age of the control group was 41.7 years with 25 (45.5 %) males and 30 (54.5 %) females. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between the means of lipid profile and blood sugar of the patients and the control group apart from HDL where there was no significant difference. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia seems to be significantly associated with the occurrence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss according to this study.

  11. Relation between copper, lipid profile, and cognition in elderly Jordanians.

    PubMed

    Al-khateeb, Eman; Al-zayadneh, Ebaa; Al-dalahmah, Osama; Alawadi, Zeinab; khatib, Faisal; Naffa, Randa; Shafagoj, Yanal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of serum copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups: 52 dementia patients and 50 control subjects. All individuals were screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test. Serum copper and lipid profile were also assessed. Results were statistically evaluated at p < 0.05 level of significance. The dementia group had 10.1% higher copper level than control subjects that was not statistically significant. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in lipid profile levels. There was no significant correlation between serum copper, lipid profile, and cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicated that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p = 0.026) and 6.29 fold (p = 0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. Coffee intake demonstrated a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.

  12. An adverse lipid profile is associated with disability and progression in disability, in people with MS.

    PubMed

    Tettey, Prudence; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce; Blizzard, Leigh; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kostner, Karam; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    There is accumulating data suggesting an association between serum lipids, apolipoproteins and disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the associations between serum lipids, apolipoproteins and disability in MS. A cohort of 178 participants with clinically-definite MS in southern Tasmania, Australia were prospectively followed from 2002 - 2005, and serum samples were obtained at study entry and at each biannual review, to measure lipid profile and apolipoprotein levels. Associations with disability and annual change in disability were evaluated using linear regression and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. In the unadjusted analyses, nearly all lipid-related variables were positively associated with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). After adjustment for confounders, total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.037), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) (p = 0.003), and the apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A-I ratio (ApoB/ApoA-I ratio) (p = 0.018) were independently associated with a higher EDSS. Higher body mass index (BMI) was also independently associated with higher EDSS (p = 0.013). With the progression analysis, the total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (TC/HDL ratio) (p = 0.029) was prospectively associated with subsequent change in EDSS. In this prospective population-based cohort study, an adverse lipid profile was associated with high levels of MS disability and disease progression. Improving serum lipids may be beneficial for MS patients, to potentially improve clinical outcomes and vascular comorbidities. © The Author(s), 2014.

  13. Polar Lipid Profile of Nannochloropsis oculata Determined Using a Variety of Lipid Extraction Procedures.

    PubMed

    Servaes, K; Maesen, M; Prandi, B; Sforza, S; Elst, K

    2015-04-22

    Lipid compositions obtained from microalgae species are affected by both the cultivation conditions and the extraction method used. In this study, the extraction of lipids from Nannochloropsis oculata using traditional and modern extraction technologies with several solvents has been compared. Because important polyunsaturated fatty acids are bound to polar lipids, these polar lipids were the main focus of this study. The dominant compounds in the glycolipid fractions were monogalactosyldiglycerides and digalactosyldiglycerides bearing fatty acid chains containing at least one site of unsaturation. Phosphatidylcholine and trimethylhomoserines were detected in the phospholipid fractions. The fatty acid profile comprised large fractions of C16:0, C16:1, C20:5, and C18:3. Extraction of specific compounds was determined by extraction efficiency as well as differences in the selectivity of the method used. The composition derived from a glycolipid fraction was observed to be affected by the method used to a greater extent than the phospholipid fraction.

  14. Lipid profiling of polarized human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Burke, J Rafael; Sutton, Jessica A; Rogers, Lisa M; Milne, Ginger L; McLean, John A; Aronoff, David M

    2016-12-01

    The highly orchestrated transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming during activation drastically transforms the main functions and physiology of human macrophages across the polarization spectrum. Lipids, for example, can modify protein function by acting remotely as signaling molecules but also locally by altering the physical properties of cellular membranes. These changes play key roles in the functions of highly plastic immune cells due to their involvement in inflammation, immune responses, phagocytosis and wound healing processes. We report an analysis of major membrane lipids of distinct phenotypes of resting (M0), classically activated (M1), alternatively activated (M2a) and deactivated (M2c) human monocyte derived macrophages from different donors. Samples were subjected to supercritical fluid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry analysis, which allowed separations based on lipid class, facilitating the profiling of their fatty acid composition. Different levels of arachidonic acid mobilization as well as other fatty acid changes were observed for different lipid classes in the distinct polarization phenotypes, suggesting the activation of highly orchestrated and specific enzymatic processes in the biosynthesis of lipid signaling molecules and cell membrane remodeling. Thromboxane A2 production appeared to be a specific marker of M1 polarization. These alterations to the global composition of lipid bi-layer membranes in the cell provide a potential methodology for the definition and determination of cellular and tissue activation states.

  15. A Test in Context: Lipid Profile, Fasting Versus Nonfasting.

    PubMed

    Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-09-26

    Fasting for >8 h, as previously required for lipid profiles, normally only occurs a few hours before breakfast. By contrast, the nonfasting state predominates most of a 24-h cycle and better captures atherogenic lipoprotein levels. Plasma contains atherogenic lipoproteins of hepatic origin in the fasting state and additionally those of intestinal origin in the nonfasting state. Maximal mean changes for random, nonfasting versus fasting levels are +26 mg/dl for triglycerides, -8 mg/dl for total cholesterol, -8 mg/dl for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, +8 mg/dl for remnant cholesterol, and -8 mg/dl for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein B, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are largely unaffected. For patients, laboratories, and clinicians alike, nonfasting lipid profiles represent a simplification without negative implications for prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic options for cardiovascular disease prevention. Several societies' guidelines and statements in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada, Brazil, and the United States endorse nonfasting lipid profiles. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary quality among Tehranian adults in relation to lipid profile: findings from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseni-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Mehran, Mahya; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidaemia has been increasing in developing countries that are undergoing nutrition transition. However, the association of diet quality and lipid profile has not been well-understood in these countries. The aim of the current study was to compare the ability of three diet quality indices--the Mediterranean diet scale (MDS), healthy eating index-2005 (HEI-2005), and diet quality index-international (DQI-I) in relation to changes in lipid profile between baseline and 6.7 years of follow-up. Baseline data from two 24-hour dietary recalls provided by 469 adults with mean age of 38.7 +/- 12.3 years, who were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, were analyzed to describe dietary intakes. Data on anthropometry, sociodemography, physical activity, and other lifestyle variables were recorded, and a comparison of baseline and follow-up data revealed changes in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-G), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A general linear model was used in assessing changes in lipid profile depending on adherence to diet quality indices at baseline, after adjustment for age, smoking status, waist-circumference, body mass index, physical activity, and energy intake. A significant interaction was observed between scores and sex, and upon stratification, males in the highest quartile score of the HEI-2005 had significantly lower TG changes than those in the lowest quartile, after adjusting for confounders (-8.8 vs 2.9, p = 0.038). No association was apparent in females (-0.2 vs 11.2, p = 0.297). In addition, a positive association was found between DQI-I and HDL-C (Q1-0.6 vs Q4 = -2.0, p = 0.044) in males. In both sexes, all these indices were weakly associated with TC while none was associated with LDL-C. It is concluded: adherence to the HEI-2005 recommendations was weakly associated with reduced TG concentration in an urban Iranian adult

  17. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  18. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  19. Alteration of serum lipid profile and its prognostic value in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Da, Mingjie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Heming; Ye, Jinhai; Chen, Jie; Ma, Lu; Gu, Ning; Wu, Yunong; Song, Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Several serum lipid components have been implicated in the development of cancer. However, the prognostic significance of serum lipid components in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is unknown. Here, we investigated the predictive value of serum lipid profile at diagnosis and in the overall survival of the patients. The study population consists of 136 pathologically confirmed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases diagnosed between years 2009 and 2014 at a tertiary medical center. Levels of preoperative serum lipid component's total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a) were compared between patients and normal controls matched for age and gender. Serum lipid profiles and their association with clinical parameters were analyzed. The effects of the serum lipid components on survival were examined using the proportional hazards regression model to estimate hazard ratio. Significant lower levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B were found in patients with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). However, a significantly higher level of lipoprotein (a) was found in the cancer group (P < 0.0001). Patients with higher lipoprotein (a) had significantly shorter overall survival than those with lower lipoprotein (a) (P = 0.0042). Multivariate analysis showed that both higher lipoprotein (a) and lymph node metastasis are independent prognostic factors in the patient population (P < 0.01). A higher lipoprotein (a) was associated with poorer prognosis and might be a novel marker in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Lipid profiles in brains from sheep with natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Scano, Paola; Incani, Alessandra; Pilla, Federica; Maestrale, Caterina; Manca, Matteo; Ligios, Ciriaco; Pani, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many mammals, ovine scrapie being the archetypal prion disease. Several independent studies in murine and cell-based models of scrapie have highlighted the presence of a link between prion generation and lipid alterations; yet, no data on natural disease are available. In this study we investigated levels of total lipids and cholesterol as well as profiles of fatty acids in brain homogenates from symptomatic and asymptomatic scrapie-infected sheep vs. healthy sheep, all belonging to the same flock. Lipid extracts were analyzed by means of gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Data of fatty acids were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis to give a picture of the brain lipid profiles of sheep. Interestingly, results revealed abnormalities in the brain fatty acid unsaturation of infected/symptomatic animals. Significant reduction of monoene 18:1 n-9 was detected in brain lipids from infected/symptomatic sheep, as compared to healthy and infected/asymptomatic animals, and this alteration occurred in combination with a significant increase in 18:0 level. The unsupervised Principal Component Analysis showed that infected/symptomatic and healthy sheep samples lie in two different regions of the plot, infected/asymptomatic lie mostly next to healthy. The increase of cerebral saturated fatty acids provides a rough indication of presumed alterations in lipid raft domains of nervous cells during scrapie, suggesting that they may exist in a notable viscous liquid-ordered state. Such physicochemical alteration would have a profound impact on the raft thermodynamic properties, its spatial organization, and signal transduction, all potentially relevant for prion generation.

  1. Lipid profile in nonobese pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Stefano; Falbo, Angela; Chiossi, Giuseppe; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Fornaciari, Eleonora; Orio, Francesco; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Zullo, Fulvio

    2014-10-01

    Alterations in lipid pattern and increased risk for obstetric/neonatal complications have been observed in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Pregnancy leads to physiologic changes in lipoprotein metabolism, and alterations in lipid profile have been related with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present prospective controlled clinical study was to test the hypothesis that the changes in the lipid profile in patients with PCOS during pregnancy are characteristic and potentially related to the increased risk of obstetric/neonatal complications. One hundred and fifty nonobese PCOS women and 150 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and androgens levels were serially assayed in all subjects before and throughout pregnancy. Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PCOS group than in healthy controls at each assessment. Throughout pregnancy, serum LDL and TG levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in both groups, although the change from pre-pregnancy values was significantly (P<0.05) greater in PCOS patients than in healthy controls. A significant (P<0.05) relationship was observed between serum LDL and TG changes and changes in both insulin sensitivity indexes and androgen levels in PCOS patients alone. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI and lipid levels, body weight gain, and insulin-resistance markers, serum TG concentrations during pregnancy were directly and independently associated with obstetric complications in both groups, whereas serum LDL levels only in PCOS patients. We can conclude that nonobese PCOS patients had specific changes in lipid profile during pregnancy, and that the lipid pattern typical of PCOS may account for the more frequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. PCOS-related hormonal and metabolic features, such as insulin resistance and high

  2. Toward Quantitative Coarse-Grained Models of Lipids with Fluids Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Frink, Laura J Douglas; Frischknecht, Amalie L; Heroux, Michael A; Parks, Michael L; Salinger, Andrew G

    2012-04-10

    We describe methods to determine optimal coarse-grained models of lipid bilayers for use in fluids density functional theory (fluids-DFT) calculations. Both coarse-grained lipid architecture and optimal parametrizations of the models based on experimental measures are discussed in the context of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers in water. The calculations are based on a combination of the modified-iSAFT theory for bonded systems and an accurate fundamental measures theory (FMT) for hard sphere reference fluids. We furthermore discuss a novel approach for pressure control in the fluids-DFT calculations that facilitates both partitioning studies and zero tension control for the bilayer studies. A detailed discussion of the numerical implementations for both solvers and pressure control capabilities are provided. We show that it is possible to develop a coarse-grained lipid bilayer model that is consistent with experimental properties (thickness and area per lipid) of DPPC provided that the coarse-graining is not too extreme. As a final test of the model, we find that the predicted area compressibility moduli and lateral pressure profiles of the optimized models are in reasonable agreement with prior results.

  3. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms.

  4. Change in lipid profile in celiac disease: beneficial effect of gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Brar, Pardeep; Kwon, Grace Y; Holleran, Steve; Bai, Diane; Tall, Alan R; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Green, Peter H R

    2006-09-01

    Celiac disease is associated with hypocholesterolemia, which is thought to contribute to a favorable cardiovascular risk profile. This led to suggestions that the diagnosis of celiac disease and its treatment with a gluten-free diet may result in elevation of the serum cholesterol level and worsen this risk profile. However, no study proves this in adults. We therefore examined the effect of a gluten-free diet on the lipid profile in patients with celiac disease. We identified 132 patients with celiac disease who adhered to a gluten-free diet and had lipid profiles performed before and after a median of 20.5 months on the diet. The patients lacked diseases that may affect serum lipids. There were significant increases in total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P < .0001) but not low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P=.06). The LDL/HDL ratio decreased by 0.36+/-0.7 (P < .0001). Both men and women had a significant increase in total cholesterol and HDL and a significant decrease in the LDL/HDL ratio. Only men had increases in LDL (P=.02). The greatest increase in lipid values was seen in those with the lowest initial values. The largest increase in HDL was seen in subjects with more severe disease as indicated by low albumin level and presence of total villous atrophy. Diagnosis of celiac disease and its treatment with a gluten-free diet resulted in improvement in the lipoprotein profile, which included an increase in HDL and a decrease in the LDL/HDL ratio.

  5. Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene-induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30(th) day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21(st) day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid profile in serum and the tissues. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were markedly elevated and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly decreased in the serum of tumor bearing rats. Significant alterations were also observed in the lipid profile of liver and kidney. These changes were significantly reversed in Terminalia catappa (500 mg/kg) treated animals. The reversal of altered lipid levels to normal values in rats with experimentally induced tumor was showed antitumor activity by Terminalia catappa.

  6. Paraoxonase Activity and Lipid Profile in Paediatric Nephrotic Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anuradha B.; Patil, Vidya S.; Ingleshwar, Deepti G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dyslipidaemia of Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) is known to be linked to oxidative reactions and atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase (PON1) has been implicated in the prevention of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) lipid peroxidation and also degrades biologically active oxidised lipids in lipoprotein. Aim The present study was taken up to assess PON1 levels in paediatric nephrotic syndrome and also to see if any correlation exists between lipid parameters and PON1. Materials and Methods This study consists of Group 1 with 40 cases of NS in the age group of 2-14 years and Group 2 with 40 age and sex matched healthy controls. Lipid profile and paraoxonase activity was measured in serum samples of both the groups. Results Statistical analysis by student’s t-test showed that the mean levels of Total Cholesterol, Trigylycerides, LDL, and VLDL were significantly increased in Group 1 when compared to Group 2 (p <0.001). The mean levels of HDL were similar in both groups. The levels of PON1 were significantly lowered in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Correlation studies showed no significant correlation between lipid profile and PON1. Conclusion Cases have atherosclerotic dyslipidaemia and significantly decreased PON1 activity. Decreased PON1 may lead to increased oxidation of LDL accelerating the process of atherosclerosis. PMID:27134858

  7. Density profiles of the exclusive queuing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The exclusive queuing process (EQP) incorporates the exclusion principle into classic queuing models. It is characterized by, in addition to the entrance probability α and exit probability β, a third parameter: the hopping probability p. The EQP can be interpreted as an exclusion process of variable system length. Its phase diagram in the parameter space (α,β) is divided into a convergent phase and a divergent phase by a critical line which consists of a curved part and a straight part. Here we extend previous studies of this phase diagram. We identify subphases in the divergent phase, which can be distinguished by means of the shape of the density profile, and determine the velocity of the system length growth. This is done for EQPs with different update rules (parallel, backward sequential and continuous time). We also investigate the dynamics of the system length and the number of customers on the critical line. They are diffusive or subdiffusive with non-universal exponents that also depend on the update rules.

  8. Autopsy case of Dubin-Johnson syndrome with pneumonia and abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Mitsunobu; Ohni, Mitsuo; Sugiyama, Youichi; Mizukawa, Shinjirou; Toba, Kenji; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Hata, Yoshiya

    2006-06-01

    We report the autopsy of a 79-year-old Japanese woman with Dubin-Johnson syndrome accompanied by pneumonia, an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile and acanthocytosis. On admission, physical examination of the patient revealed malnutrition. Blood tests revealed marked inflammatory changes and mild liver dysfunction. Chest X-ray indicated bilateral pneumonia. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 89 mg/dL, 5 mg/dL and 6 mg/dL, respectively. Peripheral blood smears revealed numerous acanthocytes. Despite the administration of antibiotics and nutritional support, the patient died. Autopsy revealed a black liver, atrophy of fat tissue on the mesentery, and pneumonia with bilateral pleural effusion. We believe that the abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profiles in this case were caused by malnutrition and the inflammatory changes rather than the direct effects of Dubin-Johnson syndrome. We base this conclusion on the following three findings: 1) the patient's lipid profile before hospitalization was in the normal range, 2) her serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels gradually increased after nutritional support began, and 3) blood tests revealed marked inflammatory changes (C-reactive protein 9.0 mg/dL; interleukin-6 16.4 pg/mL). This case provides important information that enhances our understanding of lipid metabolism under conditions of malnutrition and inflammation.

  9. New insights of altered lipid profile in Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Çaku, Artuela; Seidah, Nabil G; Lortie, Audrey; Gagné, Nancy; Perron, Patrice; Dubé, Jean; Corbin, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the main genetic cause of autism and intellectual deficiency resulting the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Clinical picture is characterized by cognitive impairment associated with a broad spectrum of psychiatric comorbidities including autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with lipid abnormalities and lower cholesterol levels. Since lipids are important for neuronal development, we aim to investigate the lipid profile of French Canadian-FXS individuals and to identify the altered components of cholesterol metabolism as well as their association with clinical profile. Anthropometric data were collected from 25 FXS individuals and 26 controls. Lipid assessment included: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, LDL, HDL, ApoB, ApoA1, PCSK9, Lp(a) and lipoprotein electrophoresis. Aberrant and adaptive behaviour of affected individuals was respectively assessed by the ABC-C and ABAS questionnaires. FXS participants had a higher body mass index as compared to controls while 38% of them had TC<10th percentile. Lower levels of LDL, HDL and apoA1 were observed in FXS group as compared to controls. However, PCSK9 levels did not differ between the two groups. As expected, PCSK9 levels correlated with total cholesterol (rs = 0.61, p = 0.001) and LDL (rs = 0.46, p = 0.014) in the control group, while no association was present in the FXS group. An inverse relationship was observed between total cholesterol and aberrant behaviour as determined by ABC-C total score. Our results showed the presence of hypocholesterolemia in French Canadian-FXS population, a condition that seems to influence their clinical phenotype. We identified for the first time a potential underlying alteration of PCSK9 function in FXS that could result from the absence of FMRP. Further investigations are warranted to better understand the association between cholesterol

  10. New insights of altered lipid profile in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seidah, Nabil G.; Lortie, Audrey; Gagné, Nancy; Perron, Patrice; Dubé, Jean; Corbin, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Background Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the main genetic cause of autism and intellectual deficiency resulting the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Clinical picture is characterized by cognitive impairment associated with a broad spectrum of psychiatric comorbidities including autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with lipid abnormalities and lower cholesterol levels. Since lipids are important for neuronal development, we aim to investigate the lipid profile of French Canadian-FXS individuals and to identify the altered components of cholesterol metabolism as well as their association with clinical profile. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from 25 FXS individuals and 26 controls. Lipid assessment included: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, LDL, HDL, ApoB, ApoA1, PCSK9, Lp(a) and lipoprotein electrophoresis. Aberrant and adaptive behaviour of affected individuals was respectively assessed by the ABC-C and ABAS questionnaires. Results FXS participants had a higher body mass index as compared to controls while 38% of them had TC<10th percentile. Lower levels of LDL, HDL and apoA1 were observed in FXS group as compared to controls. However, PCSK9 levels did not differ between the two groups. As expected, PCSK9 levels correlated with total cholesterol (rs = 0.61, p = 0.001) and LDL (rs = 0.46, p = 0.014) in the control group, while no association was present in the FXS group. An inverse relationship was observed between total cholesterol and aberrant behaviour as determined by ABC-C total score. Conclusion Our results showed the presence of hypocholesterolemia in French Canadian-FXS population, a condition that seems to influence their clinical phenotype. We identified for the first time a potential underlying alteration of PCSK9 function in FXS that could result from the absence of FMRP. Further investigations are warranted to better understand the

  11. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  12. Serum homocysteine is not independently associated with an atherogenic lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDL-21) study.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Joshua R; Quispe, Renato; Kulkarni, Krishnaji; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism for this risk remains unclear. While reducing serum total homocysteine (tHcy) has been shown to decrease strokes, there is no evidence for an effect on myocardial infarctions in randomized controlled trials. This study aims to examine the relationship between tHcy and several lipid measures. Our analyses included 18,297 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids who had an extended lipid panel including direct measurement of triglycerides (TG), and the cholesterol concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), and remnant-lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: IDL-C + VLDL3-C). Additional measurements were tHcy, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Subjects were categorized into tHcy quartiles. Linear regression models were performed using lipids and tHcy as dependent and independent variables respectively, and further adjusted with age, sex, HbA1c, insulin, creatinine, and BUN levels in multivariable regression. In unadjusted analysis, levels of LDL-C (p < 0.001), non-HDL-C (p < 0.001) and HDL-C (p < 0.001) were 7-10% lower whereas levels of TG (p < 0.001), VLDL-C (p = 0.016) and RLP-C (p < 0.001) were 2-6% higher in the highest tHcy quartile. These associations between tHcy levels and lipids were eliminated (p-value range: 0.101-0.750) when controlling for age, sex, HbA1c, insulin, creatinine, and BUN. Although high levels of tHcy were associated with 2-6% higher TG-rich lipoproteins in unadjusted analysis, after adjustment for confounders our findings do not support the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accuracy of Non-Fasting Lipid Profile for the Assessment of Lipoprotein Coronary Risk.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Safia; Ijaz, Aamir; Sharif, Tariq Bin; Khan, Dilshad Ahmad; Siddique, Amer

    2016-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile in the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, taking fasting lipid profile as gold standard, in adult population. Cross-sectional validation study. Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2014. One hundred seventy-five adult patients coming for fasting lipid profile were included; their non-fasting samples were taken on the next day. Patients on anti-cholesterol treatment and indoor patients were excluded. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), and triglycerides were measured by direct enzymatic colorimetric method by Modular p-800®. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated by Friedewald's formula, but when triglyceride was greater than 4.5 mmol/l, then LDL-C was measured directly by homogenous enzymatic colorimetric method. Non-HDL-C was calculated by simple equation, i.e. TC-HDL-C. Non-fasting lipid profile had 93% specificity , 51% sensitivity, 94% positive predictive value and 49% negative predictive value; and 65% accuracy with 7.28 positive likelihood ratio and 0.52 negative likelihood ratio. Non-fasting TC and non-HDL-C were significantly higher than fasting TC and non-HDL-C by mean difference of 0.2 mmol/l each with p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively. Fasting and non fasting HDL-C are comparable to each other with mean difference of 0.01 mmol/l (p=0.745). Receiver operating curve (ROC) of non-fasting non-HDL-C showed 0.804 (95%CI (0.738-0.870), (p=0.000) area under the curve (AUC) indicating that it was a significant test for ruling out hyperlipidemia. Bland-Altmann plot showed a significant difference between non-fasting, non-HDL-C and fasting LDL-C and non-fasting, non-HDL-C -0.087540 with bias -0.00109; therefore, these cannot be alternative to each other. Diagnostic accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile was found significantly higher than fasting lipid profile (p=0

  14. Polyunsaturation in lipid membranes: dynamic properties and lateral pressure profiles.

    PubMed

    Ollila, Samuli; Hyvönen, Marja T; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2007-03-29

    We elucidate the influence of unsaturation on single-component membrane properties, focusing on their dynamical aspects and lateral pressure profiles across the membrane. To this end, we employ atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study five different membrane systems with varying degrees of unsaturation, starting from saturated membranes and systematically increasing the level of unsaturation, ending up with a bilayer of phospholipids containing the docosahexaenoic acid. For an increasing level of unsaturation, we find considerable effects on dynamical properties, such as accelerated dynamics of the phosphocholine head groups and glycerol backbones and speeded up rotational dynamics of the lipid molecules. The lateral pressure profile is found to be altered by the degree of unsaturation. For an increasing number of double bonds, the peak in the middle of the bilayer decreases. This is compensated for by changes in the membrane-water interface region in terms of increasing peak heights of the lateral pressure profile. Implications of the findings are briefly discussed.

  15. Risk factors, lipid profile, and histopathological study of oral cancers in Kolar district: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Amith; Shashidhar, Kurpad Nagaraj; Anantharamaiah, Hemalatha; Rangareddy, Harish; Sathyanarayana, Vinaya Babu

    2014-01-01

    To estimate serum lipid profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma and correlate the risk factors and lipid profile with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Lipid profile was done in agriculturists/laborers in the age group of 30-70 years; 56 subjects (cases = 28, control = 28) were included. Study was carried out for a duration of four months; statistical analyses applied were mean, standard deviation, and independent 't' test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eleven cases had buccal mucosa cancer, nine had tongue carcinoma, and eight had gingivobuccal sulcus carcinoma. Lipid profile such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were marginally and slightly elevated in cases compared to controls. HDL was grossly decreased in cases compared to controls. There was a significant association between HDL and squamous cell carcinoma; maximum number of SCC had a history of smoking in the range of 10-19 years, irrespective of other lipid parameters, constrained to the fact that lipids are genetically determined, have geographical variation, and are highly skewed.

  16. Analysis of the Serum Lipid Profile in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miaoling; Zhang, Xiongze; Liao, Nanying; Ye, Baikang; Peng, Yuting; Ji, Yuying; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the predominant subtype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the Asian population, is associated with genetic polymorphism of lipid metabolism. In this study, we performed the untargeted lipidomics approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to reveal the potential discriminating lipid profile of PCV patients in serum (21 PCV patients and 19 age-matched controls). Unsupervised principal component, supervised orthogonal partial least squares analysis, correlation analysis, and heatmap analysis were performed with the data obtained by UPLC-MS. Forty–one discriminating metabolites were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, pathway analysis and functional analysis were performed subsequently, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) was further selected as the key indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. Finally, the serum level of PAF was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which is significantly higher in PCV patients compared to controls (65 PCV patients and 63 age-matched controls, p < 0.0001), consistent with the UPLC-MS analysis. Our results suggested that PAF is considered as the major indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. PMID:27910906

  17. Convergence of Free Energy Profile of Coumarin in Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of druglike molecules embedded in lipid bilayers are of considerable interest as models for drug penetration and positioning in biological membranes. Here we analyze partitioning of coumarin in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer, based on both multiple, unbiased 3 μs MD simulations (total length) and free energy profiles along the bilayer normal calculated by biased MD simulations (∼7 μs in total). The convergences in time of free energy profiles calculated by both umbrella sampling and z-constraint techniques are thoroughly analyzed. Two sets of starting structures are also considered, one from unbiased MD simulation and the other from “pulling” coumarin along the bilayer normal. The structures obtained by pulling simulation contain water defects on the lipid bilayer surface, while those acquired from unbiased simulation have no membrane defects. The free energy profiles converge more rapidly when starting frames from unbiased simulations are used. In addition, z-constraint simulation leads to more rapid convergence than umbrella sampling, due to quicker relaxation of membrane defects. Furthermore, we show that the choice of RESP, PRODRG, or Mulliken charges considerably affects the resulting free energy profile of our model drug along the bilayer normal. We recommend using z-constraint biased MD simulations based on starting geometries acquired from unbiased MD simulations for efficient calculation of convergent free energy profiles of druglike molecules along bilayer normals. The calculation of free energy profile should start with an unbiased simulation, though the polar molecules might need a slow pulling afterward. Results obtained with the recommended simulation protocol agree well with available experimental data for two coumarin derivatives. PMID:22545027

  18. Observational study of lipid profile and LDL particle size in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is characterized by an increase in plasma triglycerides, a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and the prevalence of small, dense-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) particles. The aim of this study was to establish the importance of LDL particle size measurement by gender in a group of patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) attending at a Cardiovascular Risk Unit in Primary Care and their classification into phenotypes. Subjects and methods One hundred eighty-five patients (93 men and 92 women) from several areas in the South of Spain, for a period of one year in a health centre were studied. Laboratory parameters included plasma lipids, lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein size and several atherogenic rates were determinated. Results We found differences by gender between anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and glucose measures by MS status. Lipid profile was different in our two study groups, and gender differences in these parameters within each group were also remarkable, in HDLc and Apo A-I values. According to LDL particle size, we found males had smaller size than females, and patients with MS had also smaller than those without MS. We observed inverse relationship between LDL particle size and triglycerides in patients with and without MS, and the same relationship between all atherogenic rates in non-MS patients. When we considered our population in two classes of phenotypes, lipid profile was worse in phenotype B. Conclusion In conclusion, we consider worthy the measurement of LDL particle size due to its relationship with lipid profile and cardiovascular risk. PMID:21936888

  19. Accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin and changes of plasma lipid levels in psoriatic patients.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Nilgun Solak; Tekin, Ishak Ozel; Barut, Figen; Sipahi, Emine Yilmaz

    2007-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol) in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage.

  20. Alteration of Lipid Profile in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Li; He, Shan; Zhang, Shao-Fang; Wang, Jun; Sun, Xiu-Fa; Gong, Chun-Mei; Zheng, Shi-Jie; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies yielded controversial results about the alteration of lipid profiles in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and lipid profiles. Material/Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure articles published January 1990 through January 2014. Dissertation databases (PQDT and CDMD) were searched for additional unpublished articles. We included articles reporting the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and at least 1 parameter of lipid profiles, and calculated the overall weighted mean difference (WMD) with a random effects model. Meta-regression was used to explore the source of heterogeneity among studies, and the Egger test, Begg test, and the trim and fill method were used to assess potential publication bias. Results Sixteen observational studies were included in our analysis. Meta-analysis suggested that the serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total triglyceride levels were significantly increased in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism compared with euthyroidism individuals; the WMD were 12.17 mg/dl, 7.01 mg/dl, and 13.19 mg/dl, respectively (P<0.001 for all). No significant difference was observed for serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Match strategy was the main source of heterogeneity among studies in TC and LDL-C analysis. Potential publication bias was found in TC and LDL-C analysis by the Egger test or Begg test and was not confirmed by the trim and fill method. Conclusions Subclinical hypothyroidism may correlate with altered lipid profile. Previous studies had limitations in the control of potential confounding factors and further studies should consider those factors. PMID:25124461

  1. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Haghdoost, A A; Poorranjbar, M

    2009-09-01

    The serum lipid profiles in Muslims change during the fasting month of Ramadan, but it is not clear whether this change is due to changes in their physical activities. In this study, we compared the patterns of the lipid profile changes in those who engaged in regular physical activity with those who did not. In a randomised trial, we assigned 93 students who took a physical education course into two groups--those who had regular physical activity after Ramadan and those who had physical activity during Ramadan. Venous blood (5 ml) was taken just before, at the end, and 40 days after Ramadan, and the fasting glucose sugar and lipid profile were measured. Fasting with physical activity decreased body weight by 1.2 kg (p-value is 0.03). Fasting blood sugar also decreased by 7 mg/dL during Ramadan, but this drop was observed in both groups. Triglyceride decreased in both groups during Ramadan, but cholesterol levels dropped considerably during and after Ramadan for those who concurrently engaged in physical activity and fasted (-12.24 and -8.4 mg/dL, respectively). The patterns of changes in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL/LDL values were more or less comparable in both groups (p is greater than 0.5). Usually, people are less physically active during Ramadan, but our findings show that physical activity alone cannot explain the variations in the lipid profile. Other factors, such as changes in the diet and sleeping hours, may have more important roles.

  2. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    KARABUDAK, EFSUN; TÜRKÖZÜ, DUYGU; KÖKSAL, EDA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels. PMID:26136902

  3. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  4. Density profile control in a large diameter, helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cluggish, B.P.; Anderegg, F.A.; Freeman, R.L.; Gilleland, J.; Hilsabeck, T.J.; Isler, R.C.; Lee, W.D.; Litvak, A.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ohkawa, T.; Putvinski, S.; Umstadter, K.R.; Winslow, D.L.

    2005-05-15

    Plasmas with peaked radial density profiles have been generated in the world's largest helicon device, with plasma diameters of over 70 cm. The density profiles can be manipulated by controlling the phase of the current in each strap of two multistrap antenna arrays. Phase settings that excite long axial wavelengths create hollow density profiles, whereas settings that excite short axial wavelengths create peaked density profiles. This change in density profile is consistent with the cold-plasma dispersion relation for helicon modes, which predicts a strong increase in the effective skin depth of the rf fields as the wavelength decreases. Scaling of the density with magnetic field, gas pressure, and rf power is also presented.

  5. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  6. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  7. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yee-Wen; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Hui-Chin; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lung, Chia-Chi; Lin, Long-Yau; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2014-04-08

    Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal vegans. Vegan diet was

  8. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Methods Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. Results A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal

  9. [Lipid profile in Venezuelan preschoolers by socioeconomic status].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Emma; Adela Barón, María; Solano, Liseti; Páez, Maria; Llovera, Daisy; Portillo, Zulay

    2006-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that unfavorable serum lipids levels in childhood are predictors of development of atherosclerosis lesions in adulthood. We assessed the lipid profile of 297 Venezuelan preschool children (4-7 years old) from two socioeconomic levels in order to compare them by this characteristic. Their social level was determined according to modified Graffar method, and two groups were obtained: high socioeconomic status (HSES, n=103) and low socioeconomic status (LSES, n=194). Nutritional anthropometric evaluation was performed by weight to height, and NCHS/OMS cut-off point was used. Lipid profile was determined by colorimetric biochemical methods and atherogenic risks factors were calculated. Underweight for HSES was 5.8% and for LSES: 14.9%, while normal status was 78.6% and 70.1%, and overweight was 15.5% and 14.9%, respectively. Mean values for triglycerides were 0.66 +/- 0.27and 0.76 +/- 0.31 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC): 3.61 +/- 0.65 and 2.98 +/- 0.71 mmol/L, HDL-C: 1.04 +/- 0.18 and 0.62 +/- 0.16 mmol/L, LDL-C: 2.27 +/- 0.61 and 2.01 +/- 0.71 mmol/L, TC/HDL-C: 3.5 +/- 0.78 and 5.0 +/- 1.5; LDL-C/HDL-C: 2.0 +/- 0.71 and 3.4 +/- 1.4 with significant differences between HSES and LSES as shown respectively. A significant association was found (p < 0.01) between lipid values and socioeconomic status, being the LSES preschoolers those with the higher atherogenic risk. Its pattern was of lower HDL-C levels, and higher TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Comparisons of lipid profile by nutritional status or gender did not show significant differences. Findings indicate that children from low socioeconomic status are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis than children from high socioeconomic status.

  10. Is the oxidation of high-density lipoprotein lipids different than the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein lipids?

    PubMed

    Thomas, M J; Chen, Q; Zabalawi, M; Anderson, R; Wilson, M; Weinberg, R; Sorci-Thomas, M G; Rudel, L L

    2001-02-13

    This article gives detailed insight into the kinetics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) oxidation catalyzed by azobis(2-amidinopropane).dihydrochloride (ABAP) or by copper. ABAP initialized oxidation of human HDL 3-4 times faster than non-human primate HDL with a similar composition. The oxidizability of non-human primate HDL was 1000 times lower than the oxidizability calculated from rate constants derived from liposome oxidation, suggesting that there is a slow step in HDL oxidation not present in liposomes. Saturable binding of copper to HDL was a significant feature of copper-catalyzed oxidation. Binding constants (K(m)) for non-human primate HDL were 2-3-fold lower than those for human HDL. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of non-human primate HDL was slower than that of human HDL, but human HDL(2) and HDL(3) oxidized at about the same rate. Overall, the kinetics describing the oxidation of HDL were mechanistically similar to those reported for LDL, suggesting that HDL lipids were as easily oxidized as LDL lipids and that HDL will be easily oxidized in vivo when exposed to agents that oxidize LDL.

  11. Exposure to phthalates is associated with lipid profile in peripubertal Mexican youth.

    PubMed

    Perng, Wei; Watkins, Deborah J; Cantoral, Alejandra; Mercado-García, Adriana; Meeker, John D; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Peterson, Karen E

    2017-04-01

    Animal models indicate that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect circulating lipid concentrations by interfering with hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Little is known of the relationship between EDC exposure and lipid profile in humans. We measured bisphenol A (BPA) and 9 phthalate metabolites in maternal urine collected at up to three time points during pregnancy as a measure of in utero exposure, and in the child's urine at 8-14 years as a measure of concurrent, peripubertal exposure among 248 participants of a Mexico City pre-birth cohort. We used linear regression to examine relations of BPA and phthalate exposure with peripubertal serum lipids, while also adjusting for child age, sex, and specific gravity. While in utero EDC exposure was not associated with lipid profile, higher concurrent levels of mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and dibutyl phthalate metabolites (DBP) corresponded with lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in boys; e.g., an interquartile range increment in MCPP corresponded with 7.4% (2.0%, 12.8%) lower total cholesterol and 12.7% (3.8%, 21.6%) lower LDL-C. In girls, higher urinary di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) correlated with lower LDL-C (-7.9% [-15.4%, -0.4%]). Additional longitudinal research is needed to determine whether these associations persist beyond adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to phthalates is associated with lipid profile in peripubertal Mexican youth

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Watkins, Deborah J.; Cantoral, Alejandra; Mercado-García, Adriana; Meeker, John D.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Peterson, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models indicate that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect circulating lipid concentrations by interfering with hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Little is known of the relationship between EDC exposure and lipid profile in humans. We measured bisphenol A (BPA) and 9 phthalate metabolites in maternal urine collected at up to three time points during pregnancy as a measure of in utero exposure, and in the child’s urine at 8–14 years as a measure of concurrent, peripubertal exposure among 248 participants of a Mexico City pre-birth cohort. We used linear regression to examine relations of BPA and phthalate exposure with peripubertal serum lipids, while also adjusting for child age, sex, and specific gravity. While in utero EDC exposure was not associated with lipid profile, higher concurrent levels of mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and dibutyl phthalate metabolites (DBP) corresponded with lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in boys; e.g., an interquartile range increment in MCPP corresponded with 7.4% (2.0%, 12.8%) lower total cholesterol and 12.7% (3.8%, 21.6%) lower LDL-C. In girls, higher urinary di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) correlated with lower LDL-C (−7.9% [−15.4%, −0.4%]). Additional longitudinal research is needed to determine whether these associations persist beyond adolescence. PMID:28152472

  13. LC/MS lipid profiling from human serum: a new method for global lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Di Veroli, Alessandra; Valeri, Aurora; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have improved the sensitivity and selectivity of LC/MS analyzers, providing very efficient tools for lipidomics research. In particular, the nine lipid classes that constitute 99 % of the human serum lipidome (sterols, cholesteryl esters, phosphocholines, phosphoethanolamines, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, lysophosphocholines, and diacylglycerols) can be easily detected. However, until today there has not been a unique technique for sample preparation that provides a satisfactory recovery for all of these nine classes together. In this work, we have developed and validated a new one-phase extraction (OPE) method that overcomes this limitation. This method was also compared with the gold standard lipid extraction methods such as Folch, Bligh & Dyer, and recently developed methods with methanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether. Results demonstrate that the mixture of methanol/chloroform/MTBE (MMC) provides a recovery very close to 100 % for all nine lipid classes of the human serum investigated. For this extraction method, 100 μL of human serum is incubated with 2 mL of the solvents mixture, then vortexed and centrifuged. For its simplicity of execution, rapidity, reproducibility, and the reduced volume of sample required, this method opens the door to the use of human serum lipid profiling for large-scale applications in scientific research and clinical trials.

  14. Lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z.; Gardener, Hannah; Moon, Yeseon P.; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Subclinical cerebrovascular disease has been associated with multiple adverse events related to aging, including stroke and dementia. The modifiable risk factors for subclinical cerebrovascular disease beyond hypertension have not been well characterized. Our objective was to examine the association between baseline, and changes over time, in lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Fasting plasma lipids were collected on participants in the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a multi-ethnic elderly urban dwelling population. A subsample of the cohort underwent brain MRI between 2003 and 2008 (a median of 6.2 (range=0–14) years after enrollment, when repeat fasting lipids were obtained. We used lipid profile components at the time of initial enrollment (n=1256 with lipids available) as categorical variables, as well as change in clinical categories over the 2 measures (n=1029). The main outcome measures were (1)total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) using linear regression, and (2)silent brain infarcts (SBI) using logistic regression. Results None of the plasma lipid profile components at the time of enrollment were associated with WMHV. The association between baseline lipids and WMHV was however modified by apoE status (chi-squared with 2 degrees of freedom, p=0.03), such that among apoE4 carriers those with total cholesterol (TC) ≥200mg/dl had a trend towards smaller WMHV than those with TC<200mg/dl (difference in log WMHV − 0.19, p=0.07) while there was no difference among apoE3 carriers. When examining the association between WMHV and change in lipid profile components we noted an association with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)(>50 mg/dl for women,>40 mg/dl for men) and TC. A transition from low risk high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)(>50 mg/dl for women,>40 mg

  15. Global SAXS Data Analysis for Multilamellar Vesicles: Evolution of the Scattering Density Profile (SDP) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Heftberger, Peter; Kollmitzer, Benjamin; Heberle, Frederick A; Pan, Jianjun; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Kucerka, Norbert; Katsaras, John; Pabst, georg

    2014-01-01

    The highly successful scattering density profile (SDP) model, used to jointly analyze small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data from unilamellar vesicles, has been adapted for use with data from fully hydrated, liquid crystalline multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Using a genetic algorithm, this new method is capable of providing high-resolution structural information, as well as determining bilayer elastic bending fluctuations from standalone X-ray data. Structural parameters such as bilayer thickness and area per lipid were determined for a series of saturated and unsaturated lipids, as well as binary mixtures with cholesterol. The results are in good agreement with previously reported SDP data, which used both neutron and X-ray data. The inclusion of deuterated and non-deuterated MLV neutron data in the analysis improved the lipid backbone information but did not improve, within experimental error, the structural data regarding bilayer thickness and area per lipid.

  16. Deficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDL-3) study.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Joshua R; Faridi, Kamil F; Martin, Seth S; Sharma, Sristi; Kulkarni, Krishnaji; Jones, Steven R; Michos, Erin D

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found an association between deficiencies in serum vitamin D, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and an atherogenic lipid profile. These studies have focused on a limited panel of lipid values including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Our study examines the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and an extended lipid panel (Vertical Auto Profile) while controlling for age, gender, glycemic status, and kidney function. We used the Very Large Database of Lipids, which includes US adults clinically referred for analysis of their lipid profile from 2009 to 2011. Our study focused on 20,360 subjects who had data for lipids, 25(OH)D, age, gender, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Subjects were split into groups based on serum 25(OH)D: deficient (<20 ng/mL), intermediate (≥ 20-30 ng/mL), and optimal (≥ 30 ng/mL). The deficient group was compared to the optimal group using multivariable linear regression. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression, deficient serum 25(OH)D was associated with significantly lower serum HDL-C (-5.1%) and higher total cholesterol (+9.4%), non-HDL-C (+15.4%), directly measured LDL-C (+13.5%), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+23.7%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+19.0%), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (+18.4%), and TG (+26.4%) when compared with the optimal group. Deficient serum 25(OH)D is associated with significantly lower HDL-C and higher directly measured LDL-C, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and TG. Future trials examining vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk should consider using changes in an extended lipid panel as an additional outcome measurement. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum lipid profiles and dyslipidaemia are associated with retinal microvascular changes in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Guo, Xinxing; Ding, Xiaohu; He, Mingguang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the relationship between serum lipid parameters and retinal microvascular calibres in children and adolescents. A total of 950 participants aged 7 to 19 years were recruited. Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) were measured from digital retinal images. Serological testing was performed to obtain lipid profiles. Dyslipidaemia was defined according to the US national expert panel guideline. After adjusted for age, sex, mean arterial blood pressure, axial length, body mass index and the fellow retinal vascular calibre, no significant association was found between retinal vascular diameters and any lipid parameters (all P > 0.05) in children younger than 12 years. Among the adolescents 12 years and older, increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoB were associated with decrease in CRAE (β = −1.33, −1.83, −1.92 and −7.18, P = 0.031, 0.003, 0.006, and 0.009, respectively). Compared with normolipidemic counterparts, adolescents with dyslipidaemia had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar diameters. No significant relationship between lipid subclass levels and CRVE was revealed in adolescents. The present findings suggest that the elevation of atherogenic lipids in adolescents is closely related to the adverse changes of retinal arterioles. Dyslipidaemia may affect systemic microvasculature from childhood on. PMID:28317946

  18. Effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle strength and blood lipid profiles in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Elliott, K J; Sale, C; Cable, N T

    2002-10-01

    To study the effects of eight weeks of supervised, low intensity resistance training (80% of 10 repetition maximum (10RM)) and eight weeks of detraining on muscle strength and blood lipid profiles in healthy, sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifteen postmenopausal women, aged 49-62 years, took part in the study. Subjects were assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 8) group. The training regimen consisted of three sets of eight repetitions of leg press, bench press, knee extension, knee flexion, and lat pull-down, three days a week at 80% of 10RM. Dynamic leg strength, 10RM, and blood lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C)) were measured at baseline, after eight weeks of training, and after a further eight weeks of detraining. Eight weeks of resistance training produced significant increases in knee extension (F(1,13) = 12.60; p<0.01), bench press (F(1,13) = 13.79; p<0.01), leg press (F(1,13) = 15.65; p<0.01), and lat pull-down (F(1,13) = 16.60; p<0.005) 10RM strength tests. Although 10RM strength decreased after eight weeks of detraining, the results remained significantly elevated from baseline measures. Eight weeks of training did not result in any significant alterations in blood lipid profiles, body composition, or dynamic isokinetic leg strength. There were no significant differences in any of the variables investigated over the 16 week period in the control group. These data suggest that a short, low intensity resistance training programme produces substantial improvements in muscle strength. Training of this intensity and duration was not sufficient to produce significant alterations in blood lipid concentrations.

  19. Effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle strength and blood lipid profiles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, K; Sale, C; Cable, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of eight weeks of supervised, low intensity resistance training (80% of 10 repetition maximum (10RM)) and eight weeks of detraining on muscle strength and blood lipid profiles in healthy, sedentary postmenopausal women. Subjects: Fifteen postmenopausal women, aged 49–62 years, took part in the study. Subjects were assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 8) group. The training regimen consisted of three sets of eight repetitions of leg press, bench press, knee extension, knee flexion, and lat pull-down, three days a week at 80% of 10RM. Dynamic leg strength, 10RM, and blood lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C)) were measured at baseline, after eight weeks of training, and after a further eight weeks of detraining. Results: Eight weeks of resistance training produced significant increases in knee extension (F1,13 = 12.60; p<0.01), bench press (F1,13 = 13.79; p<0.01), leg press (F1,13 = 15.65; p<0.01), and lat pull-down (F1,13 = 16.60; p<0.005) 10RM strength tests. Although 10RM strength decreased after eight weeks of detraining, the results remained significantly elevated from baseline measures. Eight weeks of training did not result in any significant alterations in blood lipid profiles, body composition, or dynamic isokinetic leg strength. There were no significant differences in any of the variables investigated over the 16 week period in the control group. Conclusions: These data suggest that a short, low intensity resistance training programme produces substantial improvements in muscle strength. Training of this intensity and duration was not sufficient to produce significant alterations in blood lipid concentrations. PMID:12351331

  20. Lack of Association between Polymorphisms of Hepatic Lipase with Lipid Profile in Young Jordanian Adults.

    PubMed

    Khabour, Omar F; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Alzoubi, Karem H; Gharaibeh, Mohammad Y; Alhashimi, Farah H

    2014-01-01

    The human hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene encodes hepatic lipase, an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Therefore, variants in LIPC gene may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. In this study, the association of LIPC C-514T and G-250A polymorphisms with plasma lipid profiles in 348 young Jordanians was investigated. Genotyping of C-514T and G-250A was performed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent digestion with DraI and NiaIII restriction enzymes, respectively, while Roche analyzer was used to determine plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-and high-density lipoprotein. The G-250 and C-514 alleles were most abundant in Jordanians with 79 and 80% frequencies, respectively. Additionally, no difference was found in the lipid-lipoprotein profile between the different genotype groups of C-514T or G-250A polymorphisms, even when males and females were examined separately (P > 0.05). In young Jordanian adults, the examined LIPC polymorphisms seem to play a limited role in determining the lipid profile.

  1. Lipid Profiles, Glycated Hemoglobin, and Diabetes in People Living at High Altitude in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Nirmal; Weatherall, Mark; Bhatta, Yadav Kumar Deo; Mann, Stewart

    2017-09-10

    This study aimed to describe lipid profiles and the distribution of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of a high altitude population of Nepal and to explore associations between these metabolic risk variables and altitude. A cross-sectional survey of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors was conducted among 521 people living at four different altitude levels, all above 2800 m, in the Mustang and Humla districts of Nepal. Urban participants (residents at 2800 m and 3620 m) had higher total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) than rural participants. A high ratio of TC to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (TC/HDL ≥ 5.0) was found in 23.7% (95% CI 19.6, 28.2) and high TG (≥1.7 mmol/L) in 43.3% (95% CI 38.4, 48.3) of participants overall. Mean HbA1c levels were similar at all altitude levels although urban participants had a higher prevalence of diabetes. Overall, 6.9% (95% CI 4.7, 9.8) of participants had diabetes or were on hypoglycaemic treatment. There was no clear association between lipid profiles or HbA1c and altitude in a multivariate analysis adjusted for possible confounding variables. Residential settings and associated lifestyle practices are more strongly associated with lipid profiles and HbA1c than altitude amongst high altitude residents in Nepal.

  2. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  3. Unfavorable lipid profile and higher frequency of hot flashes during perimenopausal years after fallopian tube ligation.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Enis; Gokmen, Oya; Tosun, Alptekin; Kucuk, Emine; Baris, Songül; Korkmaz, Vakkas; Usta, Murat

    2013-06-01

    We sought to study the effect of tubal ligation on lipid profile, ovarian reserve and hot flashes during perimenopausal years. A total of 210 perimenopausal women complaining of abnormal vaginal bleeding were enrolled for the study. Subjects' menstrual, reproductive and medical histories were recorded. Serum FSH, LH and estradiol levels were screened in all women to determine menopausal status. In order to rule out any gynecologic pathology, all subjects underwent transvaginal sonography. Women were divided into two groups according to presence (study group, n = 68) or absence (control group, n = 142) of tubal ligation history. Lipid profiles and ovarian reserve tests were compared between groups. Mean age, parity, serum hemoglobin (Hb), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), triglyceride, estradiol levels, endometrial thickness and frequency of hot flashes were significantly different between groups (p < 0.05). Mean age was 42.8 ± 1.9 years in women with tubal ligation and 45.9 ± 3.5 years in control group. Mean serum estradiol level was lower in group with tubal ligation (41.4 versus 92.5 pg/ml). Mean endometrial thickness was higher in control group (10.2 versus 7.5 mm). Age-adjusted serum Hb, HDL-C, triglyceride, estradiol, FSH level, endometrial thickness and frequency of hot flashes remained significantly different between groups (p < 0.05). Tubal ligation is associated with unfavorable lipid profile and higher frequency of hot flashes during perimenopausal years.

  4. Comparison of Cord Blood Lipid Profile in Preterm Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Katragadda, Tejasree; Shetty, Subodh; Baliga, Shantharam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Coronary heart disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in current era. The roots of this epidemic have been traced to as early as foetal life by foetal origin hypothesis. There are a few studies which have compared the cord blood lipid profile of preterm and term babies and thereby leading a path to primordial prevention of chronic diseases. Aim To study cord blood lipid profile of preterm appropriate for gestational age and preterm small for gestational age neonates and compare atherogenic index of both groups. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 109 preterm infants. Cord blood samples were collected from placental side of umbilical cord at birth and analyzed for lipid profile which includes serum cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoproteins which include ApoA1, Apo B. Results Preterm Small for Gestational Age (SGA) neonates had statistically significant higher values of triglycerides, Apo B and atherogenic index compared to preterm Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) neonates. Other measured lipid levels were not statistically significant, though the values were higher than reference ranges for term babies. Conclusion Prematurity as a factor associated with a more atherogenic lipid profile is re-affirmed and SGA as an additional risk factor has been proven giving scope for future research and primordial prevention. PMID:28274013

  5. Serum Lipid Profile in Subjects with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Laclaustra, Martin; Van Den Berg, Elizabeth Louise Maayken; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilée; Castellote, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Few large studies have examined the relationship between spinal cord injury (SCI) and lipid profile. We studied serum lipid concentrations in subjects with traumatic SCI in relation to the degree of neurological involvement and time since injury, and compared them with values from a reference sample for the Spanish population (DRECE study). Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort was built from 177 consecutive cases with traumatic SCI admitted to the SCI unit of the Miguel Servet Hospital in Aragon (Spain). Outcome measures (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c levels) were analyzed according to the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), neurological level of injury (involvement of all limbs vs. only lower limbs), and time since injury. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Results Cases without preserved motor function (AIS A or B) had lower total and HDL cholesterol than the others (-11.4 [-21.5, -1.4] mg/dL total cholesterol and -5.1 [-8.8, -1.4] mg/dL HDL-c), and cases with all-limb involvement had lower total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol than those with only lower-limb involvement (-14.0 [-24.6, -3.4] mg/dL total cholesterol, -4.1 [-8.0, -0.2] mg/dL HDL-c, and -10.0 [-19.7, -0.3] mg/dL LDL-c) (all p<0.05). No association was found between lipid concentrations and time since injury. Concentrations of lipid subfractions and triglycerides in SCI subjects were lower than in sex- and age-stratified values from the reference sample. Conclusion A high degree of neurological involvement in SCI (anatomically higher lesions and AIS A or B) is associated with lower total cholesterol and HDL-c. PMID:25706982

  6. Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Han, Peng; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is related to hyperlipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Health benefits of vegetarian diets have well-documented in the Western countries where both obesity and hyperlipidemia were prevalent. We studied the association between BMI and various lipid/lipoprotein measures, as well as between BMI and predicted coronary heart disease probability in lean, low risk populations in Southern China. The study included 170 Buddhist monks (vegetarians) and 126 omnivore men. Interaction between BMI and vegetarian status was tested in the multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had significantly lower mean BMI, blood pressures, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and A-I, as well as lower predicted probability of coronary heart disease. Higher BMI was associated with unfavorable lipid/lipoprotein profile and predicted probability of coronary heart disease in both vegetarians and omnivores. However, the associations were significantly diminished in Buddhist vegetarians. Vegetarian diets not only lower BMI, but also attenuate the BMI-related increases of atherogenic lipid/ lipoprotein and the probability of coronary heart disease.

  7. Impact of Diet Containing Grape Pomace on Growth Performance and Blood Lipid Profile of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ivy; Yu, Jianmei; Hurley, Steven L; Hanner, Tracy

    2017-06-01

    Grape pomace (GP), the residue of grapes after wine making, is rich in dietary polyphenols and fiber, and it has potential to serve as a functional food ingredient to improve health. However, high polyphenol diets have also been reported to inhibit the growth of young animals and cause liver necrosis. This study investigated the effect of diets containing different amounts of GP on the growth performance and blood lipid profile by using a young rat model. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats of age 7 weeks were randomly divided into four groups that were fed AIN-93G diets that were modified by substituting 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of carbohydrate with GP for 10 weeks (the diets, thus, obtained contained 0%, 6.9%, 13.8%, and 20.7% of GP). The group fed original AIN-93G (0% GP) was used as control. Feed consumption, body weight, length, and height were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken biweekly to analyze plasma lipid profile. At the end of the feeding period, the rats were fasted overnight and euthanized by exsanguination under anesthesia. Livers, hearts, and kidneys were collected, and their weights were recorded. Results show that the diet containing a maximum of 20.7% of GP did not influence the body weights, lengths, and heights of rats. As the GP content increased, the blood triglyceride and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) decreased, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increased slightly but were statistically significant, and total cholesterol remained constant. In conclusion, GP in the AIN-93G diet did not influence the growth performance of young rats, but it exhibited both positive and negative effects on the blood lipid profile.

  8. Oleuropein improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in rats with simultaneous renovascular hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Azadeh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Khosravi, Mohammad Bagher

    2017-10-01

    Oleuropein mediates most of the beneficial effects of olive products. This study examined the role of oxidative stress in the effects of oleuropein on lipid profile and blood glucose in rats with simultaneous renovascular hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Eight groups (n = 7-9 each) of male Sprague-Dawley rats including a control, a type 2 diabetic, a renovascular hypertensive, a sham, a simultaneously hypertensive diabetic receiving vehicle, and 3 simultaneously hypertensive-diabetic receiving 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day oleuropein were used. Four weeks after treatment, blood glucose, lipid profile, and biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured, and glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. Simultaneously hypertensive diabetic rats had significantly higher blood pressure, blood glucose, and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride and malondialdehyde. They also had lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, and impaired glucose tolerance. Oleuropein significantly reduced blood pressure, blood glucose, and serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride and malondoaldehyde. It also increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, and improved glucose tolerance. The findings show that the model is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, and adverse lipid profile. They also show that oleuropein, partly by an antioxidant mechanism, improves glucose tolerance and changed lipid profile favorably.

  9. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Owu, D U; Antai, A B; Udofia, K H; Obembe, A O; Obasi, K O; Eteng, M U

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM)is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  10. Exploration of polar lipid accumulation profiles in Euglena gracilis using LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral library constructed in silico.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takumi; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Rai; Nakazawa, Masami; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori; Ohta, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    A rapid protocol for polar lipid profiling was applied to Euglena gracilis lipid metabolism by LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral similarity search tool. The similarity search results suggested anoxia-induced polar lipid metabolism in Euglena characterized by the accumulation of differential lipid classes, carbon chain lengths, and unsaturated bond numbers. The informatics-supported MS spectral search provides an alternative option for global lipid profiling studies.

  11. Blood lipids profile in obese or overweight patients.

    PubMed

    Szczygielska, Anna; Widomska, Sylwia; Jaraszkiewicz, Magdalena; Knera, Patrycja; Muc, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are important risk factors for coronary heart disease. Another established predictor of cardiovascular disease is obesity. Obesity and overweight are widespread phenomena and they have reached epidemic proportions in the developed countries, including Poland. Only 30% of people in the Lublin region have normal weight (BMI<25). The aim of this study was to asses the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and blood lipids in the population of 83 people from Aleksandrow commune (64 women and 19 men aged 28-81) who spontaneously applied for medical examination performed as student research. Mean total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were higher in obese persons in comparison to normal weight subjects and HDL cholesterol concentration was lower in obese subjects as compared to normal and overweight individuals. Differences in mean concentrations of LDL cholesterol were not significant. A linear correlation between the degree of obesity and plasma level of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides was shown. In conclusion, obesity and overweight are accompanied by unfavourable blood lipids patterns and in a considerable proportion of overweight or obese patients other risk factors for coronary heart disease, such as hypertension, smoking, diabetes or family history of cardiovascular diseases coexist.

  12. Effects of Apple Consumption on Lipid Profile of Hyperlipidemic and Overweight Men

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Haghighatjoo, Elham; Shidfar, Farzad; Afshari, Shirin; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Ziaee, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Methods: Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Results: Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. Conclusions: Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. PMID:21603015

  13. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    PubMed Central

    Gualano, Bruno; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Artioli, Guilherme G; Benatti, Fabiana B; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio H

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or placebo (PL) (dextrose) in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre) and after four (Post 4), eight (Post 8) and twelve (Post 12) weeks. We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01), TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone. PMID:18831767

  14. Lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the northern Manhattan study.

    PubMed

    Willey, Joshua Z; Gardener, Hannah; Moon, Yeseon P; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical cerebrovascular disease has been associated with multiple adverse events related to aging, including stroke and dementia. The modifiable risk factors for subclinical cerebrovascular disease beyond hypertension have not been well characterized. Our objective was to examine the association between baseline, and changes over time, in lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fasting plasma lipids were collected on participants in the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a multiethnic elderly urban-dwelling population. A subsample of the cohort underwent brain MRI between 2003 and 2008 (a median of 6.2 years, range = 0-14, after enrollment), when repeat fasting lipids were obtained. We used lipid profile components at the time of initial enrollment (n = 1,256 with lipids available) as categorical variables, as well as change in clinical categories over the two measures (n = 1,029). The main outcome measures were (1) total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) using linear regression and (2) silent brain infarcts (SBI) using logistic regression. None of the plasma lipid profile components at the time of enrollment were associated with WMHV. The association between baseline lipids and WMHV was, however, modified by apolipoprotein E (apoE) status (χ(2) with 2 degrees of freedom, p = 0.03), such that among apoE4 carriers those with total cholesterol (TC) ≥200 mg/dl had a trend towards smaller WMHV than those with TC <200 mg/dl (difference in log​WMHV -0.19, p = 0.07), while there was no difference among apoE3 carriers. When examining the association between WMHV and change in lipid profile components we noted an association with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, >50 mg/dl for women, >40 mg/dl for men) and TC. A transition from low-risk HDL-C (>50 mg/dl for women, >40 mg/dl for men) at baseline to high

  15. Lipid profile changes in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: a comparative study between sleeve gastrectomy and mini-gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Milone, Marco; Lupoli, Roberta; Maietta, Paola; Di Minno, Alessandro; Bianco, Paolo; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Coretti, Guido; Milone, Francesco; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Musella, Mario

    2015-02-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of different types of bariatric surgery on lipid profile. Total cholesterol (TC), High-Density-Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), Low-Density-Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and triglycerides (TG) levels were evaluated before surgery and at 3 different post-operative time-points (3, 6 and 12 months) in consecutive obese subjects undergoing mini-gastric bypass (MGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). At baseline, 74 MGB and 86 SG subjects were comparable for lipid profile and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia/hypertriglyceridemia. During the post-operative follow-up, both MGB and SG subjects showed significant changes in lipid profile. However, at 3 months, MGB patients showed higher changes in TC (β = 0.179, p = 0.022) and TG (β = 0.265, p = 0.001) than those undergoing SG. At 6-month post-operative follow-up, these differences were confirmed only for TC. After a 12-month follow-up, MGB and SG were entirely comparable for changes in lipid profile with the exception of HDLc, whose changes were higher in SG group (β = 0.130, p = 0.039). Overall, the probability to normalize lipid profile during the 12-month follow-up was similar in MGB and in SG patients (OR:1.24, 95%CI:0.41-3.76, p = 0.689). Despites some differences at 3-6 post-operative months, during a 12-month follow-up, SG and MGB showed a similar efficacy in the improvement of lipid profile of obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Magda I; El-Sherbeny, Enas E; Bekhet, Meram M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with regard to their glycemic control and lipid profile. One hundred subjects with T2DM were recruited and given 4500 IU/day of vitamin D for 2 months. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile were measured pre- and postsupplementation. There was a significant increase in the mean value of 25(OH)D level after supplementation (baseline level 16 ± 5.3 ng/ml vs. after supplement level 49.2 ± 17.7 ng/ml, p < 0.05). Both FBG and HbA1c but not lipid profile were significantly decreased after supplementation. However, the univariate general linear model between 25(OH)D percentiles and lipid profile levels showed that diabetic subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (>61 ng/ml) had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in comparison to those in the low or middle percentiles. Furthermore, participants in a higher percentile had a significantly higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than those in the middle percentile. Lipid profile levels were not affected by the supplement except for triglycerides (TG) levels in females, which were significantly decreased. Vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial to diabetic subjects because it improved glycemic control. Diabetic subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (>61 ng/ml) had better lipid profiles.

  17. Neural network evaluation of reflectometry density profiles for control purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Nunes, F.; Manso, M.; Nunes, I.

    1999-01-01

    Broadband reflectometry is a diagnostic that is able to measure the density profile with high spatial and temporal resolutions, therefore it can be used to improve the performance of advanced tokamak operation modes and to supplement or correct the magnetics for plasma position control. To perform these tasks real-time processing is needed. Here we present a method that uses a neural network to make a fast evaluation of radial positions for selected density layers. Typical ASDEX Upgrade density profiles were used to generate the simulated network training and test sets. It is shown that the method has the potential to meet the tight timing requirements of control applications with the required accuracy. The network is also able to provide an accurate estimation of the position of density layers below the first density layer which is probed by an O-mode reflectometer, provided that it is trained with a realistic density profile model.

  18. Overweight and Obesity, Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices among Civil Servants in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, EI; Ogbonna, NC; Nwibo, AN; Onimawo, IA

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between dyslipidaemia, obesity and hypertension is well established, and all have been found to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aim: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices as markers for CVD among civil servants. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and five (205) apparently healthy civil servants (106, 51.7% males) aged 21-60 years, mean and standard deviation (SD) 40.9 (11.3) years, enrolled between February and April 2008 were assessed for their plasma lipid profile and anthropometrics (body weight and height) using standard methods and techniques. Results: Prevalent rates of overweight and obesity were 34.2% (70/205) and 6.8% (14/205), respectively, with more men affected than women. Abnormal lipids observed were: Elevated total cholesterol 37.1% (76/205), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) 37.1% (76/205), triglyceride 6.8% (14/205), reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) 8.8% (18/205) and elevated Atherogenic Index 10.7% (22/205) and Coronary Risk Index 9.8% (20/205), with the older age groups and higher Body Mass Index (BMI) groups being the most affected. Male subjects were found to have more favorable plasma lipid profile (lower LDL-C and higher HDL-C) than the females. Plasma lipids were positively correlated with BMI and artherogenic indices, except for HDL-C, which was negatively correlated with artherogenic indices and LDL-C but positively correlated with BMI. Conclusion: The findings show that civil servants in Abakaliki, particularly the females, those with higher BMI and advanced in age, exhibited unfavorable plasma lipids and social habits with a low level of physical activity, which may predispose them to CVD. In addition to epidemiological study of the general population, there is a need for education on healthier lifestyles such as good nutrition, weight reduction, smoking and alcohol cessation, greater physical activity

  19. Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood, liver and muscle.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Jyothsna; Jeevaratnam, K

    2009-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise on effects of the daily intake of vegetarian diet of either vegetable hydrogenated fat (HF) or peanut oil (PO) with or without carnitine on the lipid profile. Eight groups of male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet (4 groups) or PO-diet (4 groups), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), liver and thigh muscle glycogen, total fat (TF), TG, TC and FFA were analyzed. HF-fed rats showed significantly increased plasma TC, VLDL+LDL-cholesterol and TG compared to PO-fed rats, wherein a lowered plasma TC, TG levels in all the groups with significantly increased liver cholesterol and decreased muscle cholesterol was observed. Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects of HF.

  20. Dietary lipid level influences fatty acid profiles, tissue composition, and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Huei; Lin, Way-Yee; Chu, Jen-Hong

    2005-11-01

    Dietary lipids containing equal portions of soybean oil and fish oil were fed to juvenile Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, at supplementation level of 0 to 15% for 8 weeks. Tissue fat contents of turtles increased when dietary lipid concentration increased. Fatty acid profiles for turtles fed diets supplemented with 6% or higher levels of lipids were similar to those in dietary lipids. On absolute value basis, fatty acids of 14-, 16-, and 18-carbons in muscle of turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation were higher than those in the initial turtle muscle. Among them, C16:1 and C18:1 was approximately 4 and 2 fold higher, respectively, than that of the initial turtles. By contrast, absolute amounts of C20:5 and C22:6 in muscle of turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation were slightly less than those in the initial turtles. For turtles fed lipid supplemented diets, tissue C20:5 and C22:6, however, increased when dietary lipid level increased. These results suggest that soft-shelled turtles are capable of synthesizing fatty acids up to 18 carbons from other nutrients and that they may have limited or no ability to synthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids. Lipid peroxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in tissues of turtles fed 12% and 15% lipids was greater (p<0.05) than that in turtles fed 3% to 9% lipids. This could be due to high lipid and unsaturated fatty acid content in these tissues. On lipid basis, lipid peroxidation in turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation was the highest among all groups suggesting the existence of antioxidant factors in the dietary lipids.

  1. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolum, D. S.; Burnett, D. S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Relatively small discrepancies between Apollo 17 lunar neutron probe experiment (LNPE) data and theoretical calculations by Lingenfelter, Canfield, and Hampel in the effect of Cd absorption on the neutron density, and in the relative Sm-149 to Gd-157 capture rates reported previously, imply that the true lunar Gd-157 capture rate is about one-half of that derived theoretically.

  2. Change in adiposity minimally affects the lipid profile in youth with recent onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amy S; Dolan, Lawrence M; Dabelea, Dana; Stafford, Jeanette M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Marcovina, Santica; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Wadwa, R Paul; Daniels, Stephen R; Reynolds, Kristi; Hamman, Richard F; Bowlby, Deborah A; Maahs, David M

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidemia contributes to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Weight control is commonly recommended as a treatment for dyslipidemia. However, the extent to which decreases in weight affect the lipid profile in youth with T1D is not known. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that decreases in body mass index z-score (BMIz) were associated with concomitant changes in the lipid profile in youth with T1D. We studied 1142 youth with incident T1D, who had at least two fasting lipid measurements over 2 yr (initial visit mean: age = 10.8 ± 3.9 yr, BMIz = 0.55 ± 0.97, T1D duration = 10.7 ± 7.6 months; 47.5% female, 77.9% non-Hispanic white) in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Longitudinal mixed models were used to examine the relationships between changes in BMIz and changes in total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol, and log triglycerides (TG) adjusted for initial age, sex, race/ethnicity, clinical site, season of study visit, T1D duration, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We found that over 2 yr all lipid levels, except LDL-C, increased significantly (p < 0.05). Decreases in BMIz were associated with favorable changes in HDL-C and TG only and the magnitude of these changes depended on the initial BMIz value (interaction p < 0.05), so that greater improvements were seen in those with higher BMIz. Our data suggest that weight loss may be an effective, but limited, therapeutic approach for dyslipidemia in youth with T1D. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical Profile and Changes of Serum Lipid Levels in Epileptic Patients after Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ken; Sawada, Masahiro; Morioka, Harumi; Kyuzen, Maya; Ebina, Junya; Nagasawa, Junpei; Yanagihashi, Masaru; Miura, Ken; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Hirayama, Takehisa; Takazawa, Takanori; Kano, Osamu; Kawabe, Kiyokazu; Iwasaki, Yasuo

    2017-03-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may increase development of dyslipidemia and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We examined the clinical profile and changes of serum lipid levels after AED monotherapy in patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after cerebral infarction (CI). Medical records were reviewed in consecutive 2144 CI patients. Monotherapy of valproate, carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), zonisamide, levetiracetam, or lamotrigine was performed in PSE patients. Serum lipid levels were measured before and at 3 months after AED treatment. The prevalence of PSE was 7.0% in CI patients. The TOAST etiology disclosed large-artery atherosclerosis in 68 patients (45%), cardioembolism in 63 patients (42%), and undetermined cause in 19 patients (13%). CVD risk profile showed obesity of 18 patients (12%), current smoker of 30 patients (20%), hypertension of 75 patients (50%), diabetes mellitus of 32 patients (21%), dyslipidemia of 15 patients (10%), and atrial fibrillation of 63 patients (42%). CBZ or PHT administration increased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels significantly compared to baseline and AED-untreated controls. Those levels were not increased significantly in other AED and control groups. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically in all groups. The prevalence of post-CI epilepsy was 7.0%. The pathogenesis contributed to atherothrombosis and cardioembolism. CBZ or PHT administration increased serum TC and LDL-C significantly. Thus, we should pay more attention to serum lipid levels in patients receiving cytochrome P450 (CYP)-induced AEDs, and might considerer switching to non-CYP-induced AEDs in patients with unfavorable serum lipid changes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals.

  5. The relationships between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone with lipid profile in euthyroid men.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2014-01-01

    Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population. A total of 708 Chinese and Malay men aged 20 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Their blood was collected for the determination of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels. The association was analyzed using multiple regression and logistic regression models with adjustment for age, ethnicity, body mass index and FT4/FT3/TSH levels. In multiple regression models, TSH was positively and significantly associated with TG (p<0.05). Free T4 was positively and significantly associated with TC, LDL-C and HDL-C (p<0.05). Free T3 was negatively and significantly associated with HDL-C (p<0.05). In binary logistic models, an increase in TSH was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TG in the subjects (p<0.05), while an increase in FT4 was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TC but a lower prevalence of subnormal HDL in the subjects (p<0.05). Free T3 was not associated with any lipid variables in the logistic regression (p>0.05). In euthyroid Malaysian men, there are positive and significant relationships between TSH level and TG level, and between FT4 level and cholesterol levels.

  6. Step Density Profiles in Localized Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Dhar, Abhishek; Huveneers, François; Schütz, Marius

    2017-06-01

    We consider two types of strongly disordered one-dimensional Hamiltonian systems coupled to baths (energy or particle reservoirs) at the boundaries: strongly disordered quantum spin chains and disordered classical harmonic oscillators. These systems are believed to exhibit localization, implying in particular that the conductivity decays exponentially in the chain length L. We ask however for the profile of the (very slowly) transported quantity in the steady state. We find that this profile is a step-function, jumping in the middle of the chain from the value set by the left bath to the value set by the right bath. This is confirmed by numerics on a disordered quantum spin chain of 9 spins and on much longer chains of harmonic oscillators. From theoretical arguments, we find that the width of the step grows not faster than √{L}, and we confirm this numerically for harmonic oscillators. In this case, we also observe a drastic breakdown of local equilibrium at the step, resulting in a heavily oscillating temperature profile.

  7. Lipid profiles in a large cohort of Italian children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; Bartuli, Andrea; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Vittucci, Annachiara; Di Camillo, Chiara; Bianchi, Simona; Pires Marafon, Denise; Villani, Alberto; Valentini, Diletta

    2016-08-01

    Results of epidemiological studies of lipid profiles in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) in different settings showed discordant results but laboratory norms for this population has been lacking. The aim of our study is to evaluate lipid profiles in a large population of Italian children with DS. Lipid profiles of 357 patients with diagnosis of DS were recorded. Multiple linear regression was employed to estimate models for each lipid fraction as a function of sex and age in patients with DS. The main contribution of this paper is to provide data about lipid profile on a large cohort of people with Down syndrome. Long-term surveillance will be crucial to establish if this specific lipid profile may translate into increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sunil A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Liebeskind, David S.; Won, Seok Joon; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior efforts to identify a blood biomarker of brain injury have relied almost exclusively on proteins; however their low levels at early time points and poor correlation with injury severity have been limiting. Lipids, on the other hand, are the most abundant molecules in the brain and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously showed that certain sphingolipid (SL) species are highly specific to the brain. Here we examined the feasibility of using SLs as biomarkers for acute brain injury. A rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a mouse model of stroke were used to identify candidate SL species though our mass-spectrometry based lipid profiling approach. Plasma samples collected after TBI in the rat showed large increases in many circulating SLs following injury, and larger lesions produced proportionately larger increases. Plasma samples collected 24 hours after stroke in mice similarly revealed a large increase in many SLs. We constructed an SL score (sum of the two SL species showing the largest relative increases in the mouse stroke model) and then evaluated the diagnostic value of this score on a small sample of patients (n = 14) who presented with acute stroke symptoms. Patients with true stroke had significantly higher SL scores than patients found to have non-stroke causes of their symptoms. The SL score correlated with the volume of ischemic brain tissue. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using lipid biomarkers to diagnose brain injury. Future studies will be needed to further characterize the diagnostic utility of this approach and to transition to an assay method applicable to clinical settings. PMID:26076478

  9. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  10. Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidaemia, and Associated Risk Factors Among Northern Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E.; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. Results: The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11–4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35–3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Conclusions: Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level. PMID:27379432

  11. Exploring the lipid profiles of three marine fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, A.; White, H. K.; Janson, O.

    2016-02-01

    Three species of marine fungi from the Ascomycota phylum were previously isolated from oil-soaked sand patties collected from Gulf Coast beaches following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. These fungi have been shown to degrade crude oil, however, little is known about the mechanism of oil degradation or the extent to which oil is incorporated into fungal biomass. This study focuses on determining the lipid profile of the three marine fungi to quantify biomarkers of interest that could be used in future experiments to determine the uptake of oil. In this instance, the uptake of oil would be determined by measuring the carbon isotopic composition of these fungal biomarkers relative to the carbon isotopic composition of the available carbon sources. In this study, the three species of marine fungi were cultivated in the lab before drying and extracting with a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (2:1 ratio). The lipid extract was then subjected to silica gel chromatography and separated into three fractions by eluting sequentially with dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol to obtain non-polar, neutral, and polar fractions respectively. All fractions were derivatized prior to analysis via gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Preliminary analysis revealed the presence of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), ergosterol and pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, a potential antimicrobial. Quantification of these biomarkers and further analysis of additional biomarkers of interest is ongoing.

  12. Olive Leaf Extract Improves the Atherogenic Lipid Profile in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Olmez, Ercument; Vural, Kamil; Gok, Sule; Ozturk, Zeynep; Kayalar, Husniye; Ayhan, Semin; Var, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Coronary heart disease because of atherosclerosis is still the most common cause of mortality. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the olive leaf extract on serum lipid profile, early changes of atherosclerosis and endothelium-dependent relaxations in cholesterol-fed rats. For this purpose, rats were fed by 2% cholesterol-enriched or standard chow for 8 weeks. Some rats in each group were also fed orally by olive leaf extract at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. Atorvastatin at dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight daily was also given as positive control. After 8 weeks, lipid profiles of rat serums were analyzed. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and degree of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) were also measured in the hearts isolated from rats. In addition, expression of adhesion molecules and endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated thoracic aortas of rats were evaluated. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be increased in cholesterol-fed rats, and both doses of olive leaf extract and atorvastatin significantly decreased those levels. In conclusion, because the olive leaf extract attenuates the increased cholesterol levels, it may have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis.

  13. Association of rs1122608 with Coronary Artery Disease and Lipid Profile: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Xiu, Bingqiu; Liu, Jingdong; Xue, Aimin; Tang, Qiqun; Shen, Yiwen; Xie, Jianhui

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that rs1122608 adjacent to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor (LDLR) locus is associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and blood lipid profile in the Caucasian population. Due to the contradictory results in the Asian population, we conducted a meta-analysis to systematically summarize and clarify the association between rs1122608 with CAD risk and lipid profile. A systematic search regarding studies on the association of rs1122608 with CAD risk and lipid profile was conducted in databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to pool the effect size. A total of five case-control studies were included in this study. A statistically significant association was identified between rs1122608-G allele and CAD risk in overall analysis (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.48-2.97) and in both Asian (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.04-3.18) and Caucasian subgroups (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.48-3.60). The rs1122608-G allele was associated with increased triglyceride (TG) level (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.52), but not with total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or LDL cholesterol level. Moreover, the rs1122608-G allele is associated with increased CAD risk in the Asian male population (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.51-9.86) but not in the Asian female population. The rs1122608 is associated with the risk of CAD and TG level. The rs1122608-G allele was a significant risk factor of CAD in the Asian male population but not in the Asian female population. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in Naswar users, whereas serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly increased (P<0.01) in Naswar consumers compared to controls. Our findings indicate deleterious effects of Naswar usage on health by causing altered lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Evaluation of Lipid Profile Changes in Pediatric Patients with Acute Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection could lead to atherogenic lipid profile changes in adults; while there is no evidence about the children with Infectious mononucleosis (IM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile of the children in acute phase of mononucleosis and two months after the recovery. Materials and Methods From 2010 through 2012, 36 children with IM aged 1-10 years were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study. Fasting serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride level were measured during acute phase of the disease and after 2 months of the recovery. Results From 36 patients enrolled, 25 (69.4%) cases were male and the mean age of the patients was 4.1 ± 2.0 years. The mean of the total cholesterol level in the acute phase and 2 months after the recovery were149.5 ± 35.3 mg/dL and 145.7±30.6, respectively (P = 0.38). However, the serum level of HDL cholesterol in patients after 2 months of recovery was significantly increased (37.9 ± 9.3 mg/dL vs. 28.5 ± 10.6 mg/dL, P <0.001). The mean value of serum LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced, two months after recovery (81.4 ± 19.5 mg/dL, vs. 92.6 ± 28.8 mg/dL, P = 0.009). Furthermore, the serum triglyceride level was significantly reduced after the recovery (108.7 ± 36.9 mg/dL) compared with the acute phase (163.8 ± 114.3 mg/dL) (P = 0.004). Conclusion EBV infection in children could change lipid profile which is partially restored 2 months after the recovery. PMID:28332346

  16. Density profile slopes of dwarf galaxies and their environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study how the dark matter density profiles of dwarf galaxies in the mass range 108-1010 M⊙ are modified by the interaction of the dwarf galaxy with neighbouring structures, and by the changing baryon fraction in dwarf galaxies. With this aim, and referring to an earlier paper by Del Popolo, we determine the density profiles of the dwarf galaxies, taking into account the effect of tidal interaction with neighbouring structures, the effects of ordered and random angular momentum, dynamical friction, the response of dark matter haloes to the condensation of baryons and the effects produced by the presence of baryons. As already shown in the earlier paper, the slope of the density profile of inner haloes flattens with decreasing halo mass, and the profile is well approximated by a Burkert profile. We thus treat the angular momentum generated by tidal torques and the baryon fraction as a parameter in order to understand how the latter influences the density profiles. The analysis shows that dwarf galaxies that have suffered a smaller tidal torque (and consequently have smaller angular momentum) are characterized by steeper profiles with respect to dwarf galaxies subject to higher torque. Similarly, dwarf galaxies that have a smaller baryon fraction also have steeper profiles than those that have a larger baryon fraction. When tidal torquing is shut down and baryons are not present, the density profile is very well approximated by an Einasto profile, similarly to dwarf galaxies obtained in dissipationless N-body simulations. Then, we apply the result of the previous analysis to the dark matter halo rotation curves of three different dwarfs: NGC 2976, which is known to have a flat inner core; NGC 5949, which has a profile intermediate between a cored and a cuspy one; and NGC 5963, which has a cuspy profile. After calculating the baryon fraction, which is ≃0.1 for the three galaxies, we fitted the rotation curves, changing the value of the angular

  17. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  18. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA.

  19. Lack of effects of isoflavones on the lipid profile of Brazilian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rios, Danyelle Romana A; Rodrigues, Edna T; Cardoso, Ana Paula Z; Montes, Marlise Boneti A; Franceschini, Sílvio A; Toloi, Maria Regina T

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on profile lipid and endogenous hormone levels. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 47 postmenopausal women 47-66 y of age received 40 mg of isoflavone (n = 25) or 40 mg of casein placebo (n = 22). Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by evaluating lipid profile at baseline and after 6 mo of treatment. To examine the effects of this regime on endogenous hormone levels, follicle-stimulating hormone and beta-estradiol were measured. Urinary isoflavone concentrations (genistein and daidzein) were measured as markers of both compliance and absorption using high performance liquid chromatography. Baseline characteristics were compared by the unpaired Student's t-test. Within-group changes were determined by paired Student's t-test and comparison between the isoflavone and casein placebo groups were determined by analysis of variance. Lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol) similarly decreased in both groups. High-density lipoprotein increased significantly in both groups and cannot thus be attributable to treatment; the reason for such variation is unknown and can be attributed to chance or to bias (even that of a real placebo effect in both groups or perhaps in spontaneous changes in exercise and dietary habits of patients after their inclusion). Furthermore, in both groups very low-density lipoprotein and triacylglycerol levels increased in a non-significant manner. The results of the present study do not support any biologically significant estrogenic effects of isoflavone on the parameters assessed. Further research will be necessary to definitively assess the safety and efficacy of isoflavone.

  20. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  1. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    PubMed

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Maternal lipid profile and the relation with spontaneous preterm delivery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Maryam; Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Spiering, Wilko; de Laat, Monique W M; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown whether an unfavorable (atherogenic) lipid profile and homocysteine level, which could supersede clinical cardiovascular disease, is also associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD). A systematic review of studies assessing the lipid profile and homocysteine value of women with sPTD compared to women with term delivery in pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles published between January 1980 and May 2014 was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane database. We included case-control and cohort studies that examined triglycerides, high/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol and homocysteine in women with sPTD. Articles were subdivided in pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimester. Of 708 articles reviewed for eligibility, 14 met our inclusion criteria. Nine cohort studies and five case-control studies were analyzed, reporting on 1466 cases with sPTD and 11296 controls with term delivery. The studies suggest a possible elevated risk of sPTD in woman with high TG levels, no association of high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol with the risk of sPTD was found. High homocysteine levels are associated with sPTD in the second trimester. The role of triglycerides and homocysteine in sPTD should be explored further.

  3. Impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Fatemeh; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Mirhoseini, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Hajian, Shabnam; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Hibiscus esculentus is capable to produce various molecules including phenolic and flavonoid compounds, phytosteroids with antioxidant property. Therefore, it has the potential to show antidiabetic activities. Objectives: This study was aimed to evaluate the impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats. The flavonoid, flavonol and phenolic components, as well as antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In a preclinical study, 40 male Wistar rats were designated into four 10-member groups, i.e., control, diabetic control, diabetic Hibiscus esculentus, and diabetic glibenclamide. The Alloxan-induced diabetic rats received extracts orally for four weeks. Then, the serum biochemical factors were measured and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in diabetic Hibiscus esculentus rats compared to diabetic control ones (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improving the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats indicates that Hibiscus esculentus extract might be beneficial in diabetic patients.

  4. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, F; Mansoori, A; Sarkaki, A R; Jalali, M T; Latifi, S M

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of apple cider vinegar on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (300+/-30 g) by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1) of body weight). Both normal and diabetic animals were fed with standard animal food containing apple cider vinegar (6% w/w) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose did not change, while HbA1c significantly decreased by apple cider vinegar in diabetic group (p<0.05). In normal rats fed with vinegar, significant reduction of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (p<0.005) and significant increase of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels (p<0.005) were observed. Apple cider vinegar also reduced serum triglyceride (TG) levels (p<0.005) and increased HDL-c (p<0.005) in diabetic animals. These results indicate that apple cider vinegar improved the serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats by decreasing serum TG, LDL-c and increasing serum HDL-c and may be of great value in managing the diabetic complications.

  5. Impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Fatemeh; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Mirhoseini, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Hajian, Shabnam; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hibiscus esculentus is capable to produce various molecules including phenolic and flavonoid compounds, phytosteroids with antioxidant property. Therefore, it has the potential to show antidiabetic activities. Objectives: This study was aimed to evaluate the impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats. The flavonoid, flavonol and phenolic components, as well as antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In a preclinical study, 40 male Wistar rats were designated into four 10-member groups, i.e., control, diabetic control, diabetic Hibiscus esculentus, and diabetic glibenclamide. The Alloxan-induced diabetic rats received extracts orally for four weeks. Then, the serum biochemical factors were measured and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in diabetic Hibiscus esculentus rats compared to diabetic control ones (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improving the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats indicates that Hibiscus esculentus extract might be beneficial in diabetic patients. PMID:28197508

  6. A representative density profile of the North Greenland snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian Schaller, Christoph; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Laepple, Thomas; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Eisen, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Along a traverse through North Greenland in May 2015 we collected snow cores up to 2 m depth and analyzed their density and water isotopic composition. A new sampling technique and an adapted algorithm for comparing data sets from different sites and aligning stratigraphic features are presented. We find good agreement of the density layering in the snowpack over hundreds of kilometers, which allows the construction of a representative density profile. The results are supported by an empirical statistical density model, which is used to generate sets of random profiles and validate the applied methods. Furthermore we are able to calculate annual accumulation rates, align melt layers and observe isotopic temperatures in the area back to 2010. Distinct relations of δ18O with both accumulation rate and density are deduced. Inter alia the depths of the 2012 melt layers and high-resolution densities are provided for applications in remote sensing.

  7. Stimulated neutrino transformation with sinusoidal density profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Kneller, J. P.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Patton, K. M.

    2013-03-28

    Large amplitude oscillations between the states of a quantum system can be stimulated by sinusoidal external potentials with frequencies that are similar to the energy level splitting of the states or a fraction thereof. Situations where the applied frequency is equal to an integer fraction of the energy level splittings are known as parametric resonances. We investigate this effect for neutrinos both analytically and numerically for the case of arbitrary numbers of neutrino flavors. We look for environments where the effect may be observed and find that supernovae are the one realistic possibility due to the necessity of both largemore » densities and large amplitude fluctuations. In conclusion, the comparison of numerical and analytical results of neutrino propagation through a model supernova reveals that it is possible to predict the locations and strengths of the stimulated transitions that occur.« less

  8. Stimulated neutrino transformation with sinusoidal density profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, J. P.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Patton, K. M.

    2013-03-28

    Large amplitude oscillations between the states of a quantum system can be stimulated by sinusoidal external potentials with frequencies that are similar to the energy level splitting of the states or a fraction thereof. Situations where the applied frequency is equal to an integer fraction of the energy level splittings are known as parametric resonances. We investigate this effect for neutrinos both analytically and numerically for the case of arbitrary numbers of neutrino flavors. We look for environments where the effect may be observed and find that supernovae are the one realistic possibility due to the necessity of both large densities and large amplitude fluctuations. In conclusion, the comparison of numerical and analytical results of neutrino propagation through a model supernova reveals that it is possible to predict the locations and strengths of the stimulated transitions that occur.

  9. The traditions and risks of fasting for lipid profiles in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Aldasouqi, Saleh; Grunberger, George

    2014-11-01

    Fasting overnight has been traditionally recommended by clinicians when ordering laboratory tests for lipid profiles for the purposes of health screening or monitoring of the effects of lipid-lowering medications. Patients with diabetes are tested for lipid profiles at least annually. This deeply rooted tradition of fasting for lipid testing has recently been challenged. Several studies have shown little benefit obtained by testing lipids in fasting compared with postprandial states. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the importance of postprandial lipid spikes in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. At the same time, recent reports have alerted the medical community to the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes on antidiabetic medications (particularly insulin and sulfonylureas) who are asked to fast for lab tests. This article reviews the literature on these emerging issues in lipid testing in patients with diabetes, and offers recommendations for lipid testing in these patients in view of these emerging discussions.

  10. Integrated data analysis at TJ-II: The density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Tafalla, D.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Fraguas, A. Lopez; Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Dinklage, A.; Fischer, R.

    2011-07-15

    An integrated data analysis system based on Bayesian inference has been developed for the TJ-II stellarator. It reconstructs the electron density profile at a single time point, using data from interferometry, reflectometry, Thomson scattering, and the Helium beam, while providing a detailed error analysis. In this work, we present a novel analysis of the ambiguity inherent in profile reconstruction from reflectometry and show how the integrated data analysis approach elegantly resolves it. Several examples of the application of the technique are provided, in both low-density discharges with and without electrode biasing, and in high-density discharges with an (L-H) confinement transition.

  11. Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Haberberger, D. Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-05-15

    A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres.

  12. Testing gravity with halo density profiles observed through gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Narikawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2012-05-01

    We present a new test of the modified gravity endowed with the Vainshtein mechanism with the density profile of a galaxy cluster halo observed through gravitational lensing. A scalar degree of freedom in the galileon modified gravity is screened by the Vainshtein mechanism to recover Newtonian gravity in high-density regions, however it might not be completely hidden on the outer side of a cluster of galaxies. Then the modified gravity might yield an observational signature in a surface mass density of a cluster of galaxies measured through gravitational lensing, since the scalar field could contribute to the lensing potential. We investigate how the transition in the Vainshtein mechanism affects the surface mass density observed through gravitational lensing, assuming that the density profile of a cluster of galaxies follows the original Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, the generalized NFW profile and the Einasto profile. We compare the theoretical predictions with observational results of the surface mass density reported recently by other researchers. We obtain constraints on the amplitude and the typical scale of the transition in the Vainshtein mechanism in a subclass of the generalized galileon model.

  13. Spontaneous curvature of bilayer membranes from molecular simulations: asymmetric lipid densities and asymmetric adsorption.

    PubMed

    Różycki, Bartosz; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-02-07

    Biomimetic and biological membranes consist of molecular bilayers with two leaflets which are typically exposed to different aqueous environments and may differ in their molecular density or composition. Because of these asymmetries, the membranes prefer to curve in a certain manner as quantitatively described by their spontaneous curvature. Here, we study such asymmetric membranes via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We consider two mechanisms for the generation of spontaneous curvature: (i) different lipid densities within the two leaflets and (ii) leaflets exposed to different concentrations of adsorbing particles. We focus on membranes that experience no mechanical tension and describe two methods to compute the spontaneous curvature. The first method is based on the detailed structure of the bilayer's stress profile which can hardly be measured experimentally. The other method starts from the intuitive view that the bilayer represents a thin fluid film bounded by two interfaces and reduces the complexity of the stress profile to a few membrane parameters that can be measured experimentally. For the case of asymmetric adsorption, we introduce a simulation protocol based on two bilayers separated by two aqueous compartments with different adsorbate concentrations. The adsorption of small particles with a size below 1 nm is shown to generate large spontaneous curvatures up to about 1/(24 nm). Our computational approach is quite general: it can be applied to any molecular model of bilayer membranes and can be extended to other mechanisms for the generation of spontaneous curvatures as provided, e.g., by asymmetric lipid composition or depletion layers of solute molecules.

  14. Relationship between coping styles and lipid profile among public university staff.

    PubMed

    Ariaratnam, Suthahar; Krishnapillai, Ambigga Devi; Daher, Aqil Mohammad; Fadzil, Mohd Ariff; Razali, Salmi; Omar, Siti Aminah; Keat, Ng Kien; Mat Nasir, Nafiza; Miskan, Maizatullifah; Md Yasin, Mazapuspavina; Saw, Jo Anne; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Che Bakar, Osman; Hashim, Nurul Azreen

    2017-02-28

    The scarcity of data about coping styles with a biochemical marker namely lipid profile, potentially associated with cardiovascular risk factors is most striking among professionals working in public university. Hence, this research aimed to investigate the relationship between coping styles and lipid profile comprising total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and LDL-cholesterol (Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) among this group of professionals. A cross sectional survey was conducted among staff from a tertiary education centre. Subjects were contacted to ascertain their medical history. A total of 320 subjects were interviewed and 195 subjects were eligible and subsequently recruited on a suitable date for taking blood and administration of the questionnaires. The subjects completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic details and coping styles. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of association between lipid profile and coping styles. Majority of the subjects were non-academic staff (60.0%), female (67.2%), Malay (91.8%), married (52.3%) and educated until Diploma level (34.9%). Academic staff scored significantly higher mean scores in task-oriented coping styles (Mean = 64.12). Non-academic staff scored significantly higher mean scores in emotion (Mean = 48.05) and avoidance-oriented coping styles (Mean = 57.61). Malay subjects had significantly higher mean scores in emotion (Mean = 47.14) and avoidance-oriented coping styles (Mean = 55.23). Non-malay subjects (Mean = 66.00) attained significantly higher mean scores in task-oriented coping styles. Single/divorced/widowed individuals scored significantly higher mean scores in emotion (Mean = 48.13) and avoidance-oriented coping styles (Mean = 56.86). There was a significant negative correlation between TC (r = -0.162) and LDL (r = -0.168) with avoidance-oriented coping styles

  15. Kinematics, material symmetry, and energy densities for lipid bilayers with spontaneous curvature

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Mohsen; Seguin, Brian; Fried, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Continuum mechanical tools are used to describe the deformation, energy density, and material symmetry of a lipid bilayer with spontaneous curvature. In contrast to conventional approaches in which lipid bilayers are modeled by material surfaces, here we rely on a three-dimensional approach in which a lipid bilayer is modeling by a shell-like body with finite thickness. In this setting, the interface between the leaflets of a lipid bilayer is assumed to coincide with the mid-surface of the corresponding shell-like body. The three-dimensional deformation gradient is found to involve the curvature tensors of the mid-surface in the spontaneous and the deformed states, the deformation gradient of the mid-surface, and the transverse deformation. Attention is also given to the coherency of the leaflets and to the area compatibility of closed lipid bilayers (i.e., vesicles). A hyperelastic constitutive theory for lipid bilayers in the liquid phase is developed. In combination, the requirements of frame-indifference and material symmetry yield a representation for the energy density of a lipid bilayer. This representation shows that three scalar invariants suffice to describe the constitutive response of a lipid bilayer exhibiting in-plane fluidity and transverse isotropy. In addition to exploring the geometrical and physical properties of these invariants, fundamental constitutively-associated kinematical quantities are emphasized. On this basis, the effect on the energy density of assuming that the lipid bilayer is incompressible is considered. Lastly, a dimension reduction argument is used to extract an areal energy density per unit area from the three-dimensional energy density. This step explains the origin of spontaneous curvature in the areal energy density. Importantly, along with a standard contribution associated with the natural curvature of lipid bilayer, our analysis indicates that constitutive asymmetry between the leaflets of the lipid bilayer gives rise to

  16. [Conicity index as a predictor of changes in the lipid profile of adolescents in a city in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Neta, Adélia da Costa Pereira de Arruda; Farias, José Cazuza de; Martins, Pamela Rodrigues; Ferreira, Flávia Emília Leite de Lima

    2017-04-20

    The objective was to evaluate the conicity index (C Index) as a predictor of changes in the lipid profile of adolescents and to establish its cutoff points. This was a cross-sectional study in 774 adolescents of both sexes (55% girls), 10 to 14 years of age. C Index was calculated according to the formula proposed by Valdez, considering body mass, height, and waist circumference (WC). Changes in the adolescents' lipid profile were defined according to one of the following conditions: elevated levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The predictive power of the conicity index for altered lipid profile and its cutoff points were determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The C Index was a good predictor of lipid alterations in adolescents, emphasizing triglycerides in boys 10 to 11 years of age (ROC = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.50-0.85) and 12 to 14 (ROC = 0.69; 95%CI: 0.59-0.80), and in girls 10 to 11 years (ROC = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.50-0.79); and LDL in girls 10 to 11 years (ROC = 0.70; 95%CI: 0.59-0.80) and boys (ROC = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.55-0.75) and girls (ROC = 0.62; 95%CI: 0.50-0.75) 12 to 14 years. The cutoff points for the C Index varied from 1.12 to 1.16 between boys and girls. The C Index can be used to predict lipid alterations, and its cutoff points can be used to screen adolescents for risk of alterations in lipid profile.

  17. Nutritional Status and Lipid Profile in HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Stambullian, M; Feliu, M S; Cassetti, L I; Slobodianik, N H

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, there have been many reports of HIV infection and abnormalities in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims at describing the nutritional status of HIV-infected adults and its relation to lipid profile through traditional [total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL)] and other parameters [Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), fibrinogen, and high sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)]. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and references were taken from WHO. TC, HDL, TG and glucose were determined and non-HDL cholesterol and LDL were calculated. ApoB and fibrinogen were determined by quantitative radial immunodiffusion on agar plates (Diffuplate,Biocientífica SA,Argentina) and hs-CRP by immunoturbidimetric test. Qualitative variables were compared with the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Quantitative variables were compared applying parametrics or nonparametric tests. Pearson test for correlations. Software SPSS 17.0. 97 patients were analyzed: 69.1% were men. 80% were on antiretroviral treatment. Average (SD) BMI was 24.3 (4.1) kg/m(2). 29.4% were overweight and 5.9% obese. Patients with a BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) presented significantly higher levels of TG, ApoB and glycemia than well-nourished people [246.1(169.0) vs. 142.9(78.4) mg/dL;p=0.029, 198.6(69.3) vs. 126.4(50.6) mg/dL;p=0.01 and 100 (3.2) vs. 90.2 (6.9) mg/dL;p=0.008 resp.] and a significantly decreased HDL [37.2(1.5) vs. 49.8(10.4) mg/dL;p<0.01]. No statistically significant correlation was found between ApoB and non-HDL (p=0,063). There was no evidence that there is a direct relation between Apo B and the other lipid parameters. The potential increase in CVD in this group of patients, would be related to the higher levels of TG, ApoB and overweight/obesity. Nutritional education is needed to promote a healthy weight to warn against the risk of

  18. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on lipid profiles and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Nam, Su Youn; Ryu, Kum Hei; Park, Bum Joon; Park, Sohee

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship of current Helicobacter pylori infection with lipid profile and cardiovascular disease and its eradication effect. Healthy subjects, who underwent routine checkup between October 2003 and December 2007, were followed up until June 2009. Helicobacter pylori and lipid profiles were measured both baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression models for odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the effects of H. pylori infection and its eradication, on lipids and cardiovascular disease. Current infection with H. pylori with 50.5% (6759/13383) at baseline increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) than H. pylori-negative group. Successful eradication of H. pylori decreased the risk of high LDL compared with the persistent infection (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-96), which was comparable to that of the persistent negative group (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97), and decreased the risk of low HDL (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). Current infection of H. pylori increased the risk of cardiovascular disease (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.31-8.14) at baseline, but its eradication failed to decrease the risk at a 2-year follow-up. However, persistent negative infection decreased the risk (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.94) comparing to persistent positive infection at follow-up. Current infection with H. pylori had a positive association with high LDL, low HDL, and cardiovascular disease. Successful H. pylori eradication decreased the risk of high LDL and low HDL, but did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238

  20. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis.

  1. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis. PMID:26823881

  2. The flat density profiles of massive, and relaxed galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Popolo, A. Del

    2014-07-01

    The present paper is an extension and continuation of Del Popolo (2012a) which studied the role of baryon physics on clusters of galaxies formation. In the present paper, we studied by means of the SIM introduced in Del Popolo (2009), the total and DM density profiles, and the correlations among different quantities, observed by Newman et al. (2012a,b), in seven massive and relaxed clusters, namely MS2137, A963, A383, A611, A2537, A2667, A2390. As already found in Del Popolo 2012a, the density profiles depend on baryonic fraction, angular momentum, and the angular momentum transferred from baryons to DM through dynamical friction. Similarly to Newman et al. (2012a,b), the total density profile, in the radius range 0.003–0.03r{sub 200}, has a mean total density profile in agreement with dissipationless simulations. The slope of the DM profiles of all clusters is flatter than -1. The slope, α, has a maximum value (including errors) of α = −0.88 in the case of A2390, and minimum value α = −0.14 for A2537. The baryonic component dominates the mass distribution at radii < 5–10 kpc, while the outer distribution is dark matter dominated. We found an anti-correlation among the slope α, the effective radius, R{sub e}, and the BCG mass, and a correlation among the core radius r{sub core}, and R{sub e}. Moreover, the mass in 100 kpc (mainly dark matter) is correlated with the mass inside 5 kpc (mainly baryons). The behavior of the total mass density profile, the DM density profile, and the quoted correlations can be understood in a double phase scenario. In the first dissipative phase the proto-BCG forms, and in the second dissipationless phase, dynamical friction between baryonic clumps (collapsing to the center) and the DM halo flattens the inner slope of the density profile. In simple terms, the large scatter in the inner slope from cluster to cluster, and the anti-correlation among the slope, α and R{sub e} is due to the fact that in order to have a total

  3. Genetic Variants Associated with Lipid Profiles in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xuelian; Hong, Jing; Yang, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to identify lipid-related genetic variants in T2D patients of Han Chinese ancestry. Among 4,908 Chinese T2D patients who were not taking lipid-lowering medications, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes previously found to be associated with lipid traits in genome-wide association studies conducted in populations of European ancestry (ABCA1, GCKR, BAZ1B, TOMM40, DOCK7, HNF1A, and HNF4A) were genotyped. After adjusting for multiple covariates, SNPs in ABCA1, GCKR, BAZ1B, TOMM40, and HNF1A were identified as significantly associated with triglyceride levels in T2D patients (P < 0.05). The associations between the SNPs in ABCA1 (rs3890182), GCKR (rs780094), and BAZ1B (rs2240466) remained significant even after correction for multiple testing (P = 8.85×10−3, 7.88×10−7, and 2.03×10−6, respectively). BAZ1B (rs2240466) also was associated with the total cholesterol level (P = 4.75×10−2). In addition, SNP rs157580 in TOMM40 was associated with the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P = 6.94×10−3). Our findings confirm that lipid-related genetic loci are associated with lipid profiles in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26252223

  4. Does the periodontal health of thalassemia major patients have an impact on the blood lipid profiles? A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ay, Zuhal Yetkin; Oruçoğlu, Aslihan; Kilinç, Gizem; Oztürk, Mine; Kilbaş, Aynur; Uskun, Ersin; Bozkurt, Fatma Yeşim; Canatan, Duran

    2007-10-01

    Cardiac symptoms and premature death from cardiac causes are still suggested to be a major problem in thalassemic patients. One of the main reasons for the cardiovascular events in thalassemia major (TM) patients has suggested having iron overload, in addition to other reasons such as hypoxia, abnormal lipoproteins levels, atherosclerotic conditions, etc. This study aims to investigate whether the periodontal health has an impact on the blood lipid levels. Twenty-four TM patients and sex-matched controls (C) enrolled to this study. The measurements of the periodontal parameters (gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level) were recorded. Besides, in venous blood samples the lipid profile was investigated. All of the periodontal parameters were significantly higher in TM group than in C group (P<0.05). Triglyceride and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio had significant positive correlations with the periodontal parameters (P<0.05). Multiple regression analyses present significant associations between gingival index, plaque index scores, and the cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio (P<0.001). Our study results showed that the lipid profile of TM patients might be affected by their periodontal health. Further studies are needed to determine the lipid profile involvement magnitude and the cardiovascular disease risk caused by the periodontal health of TM patients.

  5. Effects of Erxian decoction, a Chinese medicinal formulation, on serum lipid profile in a rat model of menopause

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk of cardiovascular disease increase after menopause in correlation with the progression of abnormality in the serum lipid profile and the deprivation of estrogen. Erxian decoction (EXD), a Chinese medicinal formulation for treating menopausal syndrome, stimulates ovarian estrogen biosynthesis. This study investigates whether EXD improves the serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model. Methods Twenty-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EXD and its constituent fractions. Premarin was administered for comparison. After eight weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were determined. The hepatic protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density-lipoprotein receptor were assessed with Western blot. Results The serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in the EXD-treated group than in the constituent fractions of EXD or premarin groups. However, the serum levels of triglyceride and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were not significantly different from the control groups. Results from Western blot suggest that EXD significantly down-regulated the protein level of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and up-regulated low-density-lipoprotein receptor. Conclusion EXD improves serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model through the suppression of the serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, possibly through the down-regulation of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA and up-regulation of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor. PMID:22047073

  6. Changes in weight loss and lipid profiles after a dietary purification program: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series was to describe immediate changes to weight and lipid profiles after a 21-day Standard Process whole food supplement and dietary modification program. Methods Changes in weight and lipid profiles were measured for 7 participants (6 men and 1 woman) participating in a 21-day program. The dietary modifications throughout the Standard Process program were consumption of (1) unlimited fresh or frozen vegetables and fruits and preferably twice as many vegetables as fruits, (2) ½ to 1 cup of cooked lentils or brown rice each day, (3) 4 to 7 teaspoons of cold pressed oils per day, and (4) at least 64 oz of water a day. After day 10 of the program, participants were allowed to consume 1 to 2 servings of baked, broiled, or braised poultry or fish per day. Participants consumed a whey protein–based shake as meal replacement 2 times per day. Nutritional supplementation included a cleanse product on days 1 to 7, soluble fiber supplementation including oat bran concentrate and apple pectin on all days, and “green food” supplementation on days 8 to 21. Results Weight loss ranged between 5.2 (2.4 kg) and 19.9 lb (9.0 kg) (average, 11.7 lb; 5.3 kg). Total cholesterol levels decreased with ranges between 11 and 77 mg/dL, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in a range between 7 and 67 mg/dL. Conclusion After participating in a dietary program, the 7 participants demonstrated short-term weight loss and improvements in their lipid profiles. PMID:23997722

  7. Changes in weight loss and lipid profiles after a dietary purification program: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Erica

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this case series was to describe immediate changes to weight and lipid profiles after a 21-day Standard Process whole food supplement and dietary modification program. Changes in weight and lipid profiles were measured for 7 participants (6 men and 1 woman) participating in a 21-day program. The dietary modifications throughout the Standard Process program were consumption of (1) unlimited fresh or frozen vegetables and fruits and preferably twice as many vegetables as fruits, (2) ½ to 1 cup of cooked lentils or brown rice each day, (3) 4 to 7 teaspoons of cold pressed oils per day, and (4) at least 64 oz of water a day. After day 10 of the program, participants were allowed to consume 1 to 2 servings of baked, broiled, or braised poultry or fish per day. Participants consumed a whey protein-based shake as meal replacement 2 times per day. Nutritional supplementation included a cleanse product on days 1 to 7, soluble fiber supplementation including oat bran concentrate and apple pectin on all days, and "green food" supplementation on days 8 to 21. Weight loss ranged between 5.2 (2.4 kg) and 19.9 lb (9.0 kg) (average, 11.7 lb; 5.3 kg). Total cholesterol levels decreased with ranges between 11 and 77 mg/dL, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in a range between 7 and 67 mg/dL. After participating in a dietary program, the 7 participants demonstrated short-term weight loss and improvements in their lipid profiles.

  8. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons

    PubMed Central

    Cenzano, Ana M.; Cantoro, Renata; Teresa Hernandez-Sotomayor, S. M.; Abdala, Guillermina I.; Racagni, Graciela E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  9. Configurable lipid membrane gradients quantify diffusion, phase separations and binding densities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Katherine N; Hung, Chen-Min S; Swift, Michael A; Muñoz, Kristen A; Cortez, Jose L; Sanii, Babak

    2015-11-14

    Single-experiment analysis of phospholipid compositional gradients reveals diffusion coefficients, phase separation parameters, and binding densities as a function of localized lipid mixture. Compositional gradients are formed by directed self assembly where rapid-prototyping techniques (i.e., additive manufacturing or laser-cutting) prescribe lipid geometries that self-spread, heal and mix by diffusion.

  10. Influence of coumarin and some coumarin derivatives on serum lipid profiles in carbontetrachloride-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Ezel; Atmaca, Mukadder; Yıldırım, Yaşar; Bilgin, Hakkı Murat; Demirtaş, Berjan; Obay, Basra Deniz; Kelle, Mustafa; Oflazoğlu, Hüda Diken

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, coumarin and some coumarin derivatives (esculetin, scoparone, and 4-methylumbelliferone) were investigated for their lipid-lowering effect in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) were divided into six groups and each group comprised of five rats. Hepatic injury-dependent hyperlipidemia was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1.25 ml/kg). Coumarin and coumarin derivatives esculetin (35 mg/kg), scoparone (35 mg/kg), 4-methylumbelliferone (35 mg/kg), or coumarin (30 mg/kg) were administered to experimental groups at 12-h intervals. Animals received the derivatives esculetin, scoparone or 4-methylumbelliferone prior to the administration of a single toxic dose of CCl4. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels significantly increased in CCl4-treated group ( p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively), while levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased ( p < 0.01). 4-Methylumbelliferone had no recovery effects on serum TC levels, however, significantly prevented CCl4-induced hyperlipidemia by reducing TG and VLDL-C levels ( p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, coumarin had no recovery effect on any of the serum lipid parameters against CCl4-induced hyperlipidemia. Among the coumarin derivatives only esculetin and scoparone significantly prevented serum HDL-C in CCl4-induced dyslipidemia. The results from this study indicate that the chemical structure of coumarins plays an important role on the regulation of serum lipid profiles.

  11. Induction of lipids and resultant FAME profiles of microalgae from coastal waters of Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Daroch, Maurycy; Shao, Congcong; Liu, Ying; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a study on identification, cultivation and characterisation of microalgal strains from the coastal waters of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong, China. Thirty-seven identified strains belong to the families: Chlorellaceae, Scotiellocystoidaceae, Scenedesmaceae,Selenastraceae,Micractiniaceae, Coccomyxaceae, Trebouxiaceae and Chlorococcaceae. Of isolated strains, Hindakia PKUAC 169 was selected for lipid induction using two methods: nitrogen starvation and salt stress. After derivatisation of algal lipids through in situ transesterification, lipid profiles of the alga under the two methods were analysed. The results have shown that both lipid yield and fatty acid profiles vary with the methods. Of the two tested methods of inducing lipid production, salt stress yielded three-fold higher lipid productivity than nitrogen starvation. The lipids are predominantly composed of C14-C18 fatty acids, which are favourable for biodiesel production. Moreover, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was below the limit of 12% set by EN14214 biodiesel standard.

  12. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Diego, J. M.; Iliev, I. T.; Gottlöber, S.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or - within the range of the simulated catalogue - on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  13. The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Raghuram, T C; Rao, U Brahmoji; Moffatt, Robert J; Krishnaswamy, Kamla

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking/alcoholic consumption) and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum protein as effective measures of lowering blood pressure among hypertensives in both males and females. Hypertensive patients on betablocker and/or thiazide therapy were compared in cross-section study with their age, blood pressure, fat intake, serum lipid profile, BMI, and serum albumin in males and females. Dietary fat intake and serum lipid profile were income related. Betablocker and diuretics therapy in combination with dietary fat intervention was beneficial for prolonged dyslipidemia control. Serum cholesterol level was main contributing factor dependent on BMI, duration of drug, and socio-economic factors. Fat intake contributed in hypertension and serum cholesterol levels. A cross-sectional data analysis showed beneficial effects of "low fat-salt-smoking-alcohol consumption and combined polyunsaturated fatty acid with antihypertensive therapy approach" to keep normal dyslipidemia and hypertension. Low fat intake, low salt, smoking, alcohol consumption, and combination of dietary oil supplements with lipid betablockers and diuretic modulators were associated with low hypertension and controlled dyslipidemia in Asian sedentary population.

  14. Amending the uniformity of ion beam current density profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Xu, Dequan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Xiangdong; Fu, Shaojun

    2008-03-01

    The uniformity of ion beam current density profile has been amended by changing the flow of the gas and making a new beam channel. The platform scanned in the horizontal orientation in this experiment, so the horizontal ion beam current distribution had hardly any effect on the etching uniformity and amending the ion beam current density profile in the vertical orientation was sufficient for the purpose of plat etching profile. The ratio of the ion source's working gas inputs has some effect for the uniformity and a ratio of 6.50sccm: 8.00sccm: 9.60sccm of the three gas inputs flow1: flow2: flow3 will lead to a more uniform profile. According to the horizontal distribution and the original vertical ion beam current density distribution measured by Faraday Cup, a new beam channel was made. The uniformity of ion beam current density profile is enhanced from +/-4.31%to +/-1.96% in this experiment.

  15. The Robustness of Dark Matter Density Profiles in Dissipationless Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Zentner, Andrew R.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2006-04-01

    We present a comprehensive series of dissipationless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of density distribution in equal-mass mergers between dark matter (DM) halos and multicomponent galaxies. The DM halo models are constructed with various asymptotic power-law indices ranging from steep cusps to corelike profiles and the structural properties of the galaxy models are motivated by the ΛCDM paradigm of structure formation. The adopted force resolution allows robust density profile estimates in the inner ~1% of the virial radii of the simulated systems. We demonstrate that the central slopes and overall shapes of the remnant density profiles are virtually identical to those of the initial systems, suggesting that the remnants retain a remarkable memory of the density structure of their progenitors, despite the relaxation that accompanies merger activity. We also find that halo concentrations remain approximately constant through hierarchical merging involving identical systems and show that remnants contain significant fractions of their bound mass well beyond their formal virial radii. These conclusions hold for a wide variety of initial asymptotic density slopes, orbital energies, and encounter configurations, including sequences of consecutive merger events, simultaneous mergers of several systems, and mergers of halos with embedded cold baryonic components in the form of disks, spheroids, or both. As an immediate consequence, the net effect of gas cooling, which contracts and steepens the inner density profiles of DM halos, should be preserved through a period of dissipationless major merging. Our results imply that the characteristic universal shape of DM density profiles may be set early in the evolution of halos.

  16. Measurements of Electron Density Profile and Fluctuations on HSX*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Probert, P.; Radder, J.; Talmadge, J. N.

    2001-10-01

    The 288 GHz interferometer system on the quasi-helical stellarator HSX views the plasma cross section along 9 adjacent chords with 1.5 cm spacing. At this frequency refraction is manageable but requires correction when performing inversions. The interferometer has sensitivity n_edl = 8 x 10^11 cm-2 and frequency response up to 1 MHz. Improved time response permits measurement of high-frequency density fluctuations as well as fast changes to the equilibrium profile. First results from HSX with 2nd harmonic ECH at 28 GHz, using a 5 chord version of the interferometer, indicate that the density profile is quite peaked for both quasi-helically symmetric (QHS) plasmas and those where the quasisymmetry is broken (mirror mode) for ne = 1 x 10^12 cm-3. However, for densities ne = 3 x 10^11 cm-3, the profile for the QHS plasma (high stored energy) is narrower when compared to the mirror mode (low stored energy). Density profile variation with plasma configuration and resonant heating location using the 9 channel interferometer will be described. For high density HSX plasmas, ne > 3 x 10^12 cm-3, coherent oscillations are observed in the line-integrated density traces which are out of phase across the magnetic axis. These m=1 oscillations are observed at frequencies of 1-2 kHz and result in a periodic displacement of the density profile. *Supported by USDOE under grant DE-FG03-01ER-54615, Task III and DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  17. Stress-time profiles in low density HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    Stress-time profiles were measured in initiating HMX explosive (cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine) at a density of 1.24 g/cm/sup 3/ (35% voids) using manganin gauges. Initial stress in the explosive was 0.8 GPa. The profiles show development of a reactive peak at the shock. This is different character than that seen in full density explosives. This behavior along with earlier observation of this explosive can be understood in a consistent manner using simple models of shock initiation of detonation.

  18. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Brenner Reetz, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; Wagner, Roger; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  19. Annona montana fruit and leaves improve the glycemic and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Soares de Souza, Maricelma da Silva; dos Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf; Farinazzi-Machado, Flávia Maria Vasques; Araújo, Adriano Cressoni; Meneguim, Carla Omete; Pascoal Silveira, Eliane; de Souza Oliveira, Natalia; da Silva, Beatriz Clivati; Barbosa, Sara da Silva; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; Gonçalves, Priscilla Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Species of the family Annonaceae has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant in tropical regions of South and North America and in Africa. Annona montana is known popularly as false graviola and originates from tropical America and can be cultivated throughout Brazil. There are no studies in the literature that associate A. montana with the metabolic profile of animals. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the consumption of pulp and leaves of this plant on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. The animals, which were treated for 40 days, were divided into two control groups--treated with water via gavage and ad libitum, respectively, and two treated groups--one treated with leaf juice and the other with pulp juice of the fruit. Glycemia, lipids, and body weight were found to decrease and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels to increase in the animals treated with leaf juice. The group treated with pulp juice showed a reduction in lipids and augmented HDL-c. The use of A. montana may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and may thus contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. A Single Consumption of High Amounts of the Brazil Nuts Improves Lipid Profile of Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers. PMID:23840948

  1. Effects of Yogurt and Yogurt Plus Shallot Consumption on Lipid Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Sanaz; Abbasi, Behnod; Darvishi, Leila; Esfahani, Mehdi Asemi; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identification of food with lowering cholesterol level properties plays a vital role to control impaired lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients. the current study aimed to evaluate the effects of yogurt and yogurt plus shallot intake on lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: Forty-eight participants with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. Participants in the first group (n = 22) received 150 ml of low-fat yogurt (1.5% fat) and those in the second group (n = 26) received 150 ml of low-fat yogurt (1.5% fat) plus shallot for 10 weeks. Serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured before and after each intervention. Results: comparison of parameters between two groups after intervention showed that TG and TC concentrations decreased more in participants who consumed yogurt plus shallot than who consumed yogurt (P = 0.003 and P = 0.04, respectively), also LDL-C level of participants who were in yogurt plus shallot group was lower than that of participants in yogurt group, but this difference was marginally significant (P = 0.06). However, FBS level was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusions: This study found that yogurt plus shallot intake significantly decreased LDL-C, TG, and TC levels in diabetic women compared with yogurt intake. PMID:28928912

  2. Effects of Yogurt and Yogurt Plus Shallot Consumption on Lipid Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Women.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Sanaz; Abbasi, Behnod; Darvishi, Leila; Esfahani, Mehdi Asemi; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Identification of food with lowering cholesterol level properties plays a vital role to control impaired lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients. the current study aimed to evaluate the effects of yogurt and yogurt plus shallot intake on lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic women. Forty-eight participants with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. Participants in the first group (n = 22) received 150 ml of low-fat yogurt (1.5% fat) and those in the second group (n = 26) received 150 ml of low-fat yogurt (1.5% fat) plus shallot for 10 weeks. Serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured before and after each intervention. comparison of parameters between two groups after intervention showed that TG and TC concentrations decreased more in participants who consumed yogurt plus shallot than who consumed yogurt (P = 0.003 and P = 0.04, respectively), also LDL-C level of participants who were in yogurt plus shallot group was lower than that of participants in yogurt group, but this difference was marginally significant (P = 0.06). However, FBS level was not statistically different between two groups. This study found that yogurt plus shallot intake significantly decreased LDL-C, TG, and TC levels in diabetic women compared with yogurt intake.

  3. Changes in the lipid profile of elite basketball and soccer players after a match.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, N; Bogdanis, G C; Kostopoulos, N; Souglis, A; Papadopoulos, Ch

    2014-01-01

    The lipid profile of elite basketball and soccer athletes was evaluated and compared with that of inactive individuals. Total cholesterol (T-C), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentration were measured in the morning and after a soccer or a basketball match. All parameters of lipid profile measured at a fasted and resting state, except HDL-C, were lower in the athletes compared with the controls (p < 0.01). The soccer match resulted in a greater decrease in TG (78.3 ± 6.7 to 70.7 ± 6.3, p < 0.01), T-C (179.3 ± 10.7 to 171.6 ± 9.6, p < 0.01), LDL-C (110.9 ± 8.9 to 103.5 ± 7.5, p < 0.01) compared with the basketball match that resulted only in a decrease in LDL-C (126.8 ± 9.5 to 117.3 ± 9.1, p < 0.01) and an increase in HDL-C that was similar to that observed after the soccer match (9-12%). These findings support the beneficial effects of basketball and soccer on cardiovascular health.

  4. Simulating confined particles with a flat density profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkovas, Airidas

    2016-08-01

    Particle simulations confined by sharp walls usually develop an oscillatory density profile. For some applications, most notably soft matter liquids, this behavior is often unrealistic and one expects a monotonic density climb instead. To reconcile simulations with experiments, we propose mirror-and-shift boundary conditions where each interface is mapped to a distant part of itself. The main result is that the particle density increases almost monotonically from zero to bulk, over a short distance of about one particle diameter. The method is applied to simulate a polymer brush in explicit solvent, grafted on a flat silicon substrate. The simulated density profile agrees favorably with neutron reflectometry measurements and self-consistent field theory results.

  5. Effects of stocking density on lipid deposition and expression of lipid-related genes in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Ni, Meng

    2017-09-16

    To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities (LSD 5.5 kg/m(3), MSD 8.0 kg/m(3), and HSD 11.0 kg/m(3)) for 70 days and then the growth index, lipid content, lipase activities, and the mRNA expressions of lipid-related genes were examined. Results showed that fish subjected to higher stocking density presented lower final body weights (FBW), specific growth ratio (SGR), and gonad adipose tissue index (GAI) (P < 0.05). Lower lipid content was observed in the liver, gonad adipose tissue and muscle in sturgeons held in HSD group (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly with increasing stocking density, while no significant change was observed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the cDNAs encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were isolated in Amur sturgeon, respectively. The full-length LPL cDNA was composed of 1757 bp with an open reading frame of 501 amino acids, while the complete nucleotide sequences of HL covered 1747 bp encoding 499 amino acids. In the liver, the activities and mRNA levels of LPL were markedly lower in HSD group, which were consistent with the variation tendency of HL. Fish reared in HSD group also presented lower levels of activities and mRNA expression of LPL in the muscle and gonad. Moreover, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in both the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly upregulated in HSD group. Overall, the results indicated that high stocking density negatively affects growth performance and lipid deposition of Amur sturgeon to a certain extent. The downregulation of LPL and HL and the upregulation of PPARα may be responsible for the lower lipid

  6. Lipid Profiles in Wheat Cultivars Resistant and Susceptible to Tan Spot and the Effect of Disease on the Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongwon; Jeannotte, Richard; Welti, Ruth; Bockus, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid profiles in wheat leaves and the effects of tan spot on the profiles were quantified by mass spectrometry. Inoculation with Pyrenophora tritici-repentis significantly reduced the amount of leaf lipids, including the major plastidic lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), which together accounted for 89% of the mass spectral signal of detected lipids in wheat leaves. Levels of these lipids in susceptible cultivars dropped much more quickly during infection than those in resistant cultivars. Furthermore, cultivars resistant or susceptible to tan spot displayed different lipid profiles; leaves of resistant cultivars had more MGDG and DGDG than susceptible ones, even in non-inoculated plants. Lipid compositional data from leaves of 20 non-inoculated winter wheat cultivars were regressed against an index of disease susceptibility and fitted with a linear model. This analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between resistance and levels of plastidic galactolipids and indicated that cultivars with high resistance to tan spot uniformly had more MGDG and DGDG than cultivars with high susceptibility. These findings suggest that lipid composition of wheat leaves may be a determining factor in the resistance response of cultivars to tan spot. PMID:23035632

  7. A study of the influence of dexamethasone on lipid profile and enzyme lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Arab Dolatabadi, A; Mahboubi, M

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is an exceptionally applied glucocorticoid unfortunately prescribed too much. This drug is attached to its receptors in the cytoplasm by going through the cell layer, and opens the cell nucleus by the drug-receptor system, being ultimately responsible for systematic effects of corticosteroids. This study was conducted to explore the influence of dexamethasone on serum level of some biochemical parameters in adult men rats. 40 adult male rats were put into 4 test and check collections. The test collection only received saline and the experimental group received dexamethasone of 0.4, 0.7, and 1 mg/ kg doses daily in the form of intraperitoneal inoculation of 1 mL/ day. After serum separation, the serum value of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and lactate dehydrogenase were measured and the outcomes were examined by using SPSS and Dunnett software. The test of lipid profile and lactate dehydrogenase was done by using the biochemistry tools and the collections were examined. In this research, meaningful differences in the application of the above hormones were not observed up to 0.7 mg/ kg dose. However, important differences were seen in higher doses i.e. 1mg/ kg in the test collection associated with the administration group (P<0.05). The final result was that the injection of dexamethasone followed in the development of cholesterol and adverse lipid and it could cause tissue damage by increasing lactate dehydrogenase.

  8. Lipid profiles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: mechanisms and the impact of treatment.

    PubMed

    Steiner, George; Urowitz, Murray B

    2009-04-01

    To describe the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and its treatment, on lipoprotein levels with potential implications for atherosclerosis. A PubMed literature search was undertaken for studies published between 1990 and May 2007, using the search terms "rheumatoid arthritis" AND "lipid" OR "lipoprotein," and including all relevant drug treatment terms for glucocorticoids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and biologics. Patients with RA face an increased risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease and limited ability to modify risk factors, eg, through exercise. RA is associated with an abnormal lipoprotein pattern, principally low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Most treatments for RA tend to improve the atherogenic index (total/HDL cholesterol ratio), with more evidence for biologics in this regard. The improvement in the lipoprotein profile in RA appears to be associated with suppression of inflammation. Lipid levels should be monitored and managed in patients with RA to minimize the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. More research is needed to quantify the relationship between systemic inflammation and lipoprotein levels and to determine the impact of specific lipoprotein particles, eg, small dense low-density lipoprotein and subfractions of HDL on long-term risk. Control of inflammation may have an effect on modifying cardiovascular risk.

  9. Lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, dietary intake, and drug use of older rural Iowa women.

    PubMed

    Witte-Foster, S R; Garcia, P A; Dove, C R

    1991-06-01

    Serum lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, and serum proteins were investigated in 65 noninstitutionalized older women living in a rural community. All women were mentally and physically able to participate in the study. They did not have any overt disease nor were they taking any prescription or nonprescription drugs that would interfere with the study. Personal interview elicited medical history, drug usage, dietary information, height, and weight from 25 reference women (50 through 64 years old), 28 young-old women (65 through 84 years old), and 12 old-old women (85 through 92 years old). Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants and analyzed for total serum cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), serum albumin, and total serum protein. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by age, drug use, or age-by-drug use interaction. Effects of age were observed for IgA and serum albumin. Mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, serum albumin, and total serum proteins were within normal limits for all participants. Based on this small sample of rural older women, our results indicate that the normal levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the healthy life-styles of these women may help offset any possible negative effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentrations.

  10. Lipid profiling and corresponding biodiesel quality of Mortierella isabellina using different drying and extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ruan, Zhenhua; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Four lipid extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer, hexane & isopropanol, dichloromethane & methanol, and hexane) were evaluated to extract lipid from freeze- and oven-dried fungus Mortierella isabellina ATCC42613. The highest lipid yield (41.8%) was obtained from Bligh & Dyer extraction on the oven-dried fungal biomass with a methanol:chloroform:water ratio of 2:1:0.8. Other lipid extraction methods on both freeze- and oven-dried samples had lipid yields ranging from 20.7% to 35.9%. Non-polar lipid was the main lipid class (more than 90% of total lipid) in M. isabellina. Regarding fatty acid profile, there was no significant difference on fatty acid concentration between different drying and extraction methods. Estimation of biodiesel fuel properties using correlative models further demonstrated that the fungal biodiesel is a good alternative to fossil diesel.

  11. Symmetry breaking of the fluid density profiles in closed nanoslits.

    PubMed

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2007-03-28

    The density profiles in a fluid interacting with the two identical solid walls of a closed long slit were calculated for wide ranges of the number of fluid molecules in the slit and temperature by employing a nonlocal density functional theory. Using argon as the sample fluid and considering the walls composed of solid carbon dioxide, it is shown that the density profile corresponding to the stable state of the fluid considerably changes its shape with increasing average density rho(av) of the fluid inside the slit. Temperature dependent critical values rho(sb1) and rho(sb2) of rho(av) were identified, such that for rho(sb1)density profile whereas outside this range it is described by a symmetric one. Hence a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the fluid density distribution in a closed slit with identical walls can take place. On the basis of the results obtained for closed slits, the symmetry breaking in open slits was also examined.

  12. On the Density Profile of the Globular Cluster M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, A.; Zocchi, A.; Varri, A. L.; Monelli, M.; Bertin, G.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Nonino, M.; Buonanno, R.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Kunder, A.; Walker, A. R.

    2013-04-01

    We present new number density and surface brightness profiles for the globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). These profiles are calculated from optical images collected with the CCD mosaic camera MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ground-based data were supplemented with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalog. Special care was taken to discriminate candidate cluster stars from field stars and to subtract the background contamination from both profiles. By examining the contour levels of the number density, we found that the stellar distribution becomes clumpy at radial distances larger than ~13', and there is no preferred orientation of contours in space. We performed detailed fits of King and Wilson models to the observed profiles. The best-fit models underestimate the number density inside the core radius. Wilson models better represent the observations, in particular in the outermost cluster regions: the good global agreement of these models with the observations suggests that there is no need to introduce an extra-tidal halo to explain the radial distribution of stars at large radial distances. The best-fit models for the number density and the surface brightness profiles are different, even though they are based on the same observations. Additional tests support the evidence that this fact reflects the difference in the radial distribution of the stellar tracers that determine the observed profiles (main-sequence stars for the number density, bright evolved stars for the surface brightness). Based in part on data obtained from the ST-ECF Science Archive Facility. This research used the facilities of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  13. Inherited susceptibility determines the distribution of dense low-density lipoprotein subfraction profiles in familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed Central

    Bredie, S. J.; Kiemeney, L. A.; de Haan, A. F.; Demacker, P. N.; Stalenhoef, A. F.

    1996-01-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a heritable lipid disorder, in which dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction profiles due to a predominance of small dense LDL particles are frequently observed. These small dense LDL particles are associated with cardiovascular disease. Using segregation analysis, we investigated to what extent these LDL subfraction profiles are genetically determined; also, the mode of inheritance was studied. Individual LDL subfraction profiles were determined by density gradient ultracentrifugation in 623 individuals of 40 well-defined Dutch FCH families. The individual LDL subfraction profile was defined as a quantitative trait by the continuous variable K, a reliable estimate of the relative contribution of each LDL subfraction to the overall profile. Variation in parameter K due to age, sex, and hormonal status was taken into account by introducing liability classes. Segregation analysis was performed by fitting a series of class D regressive models, implemented in the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology (SAGE) program, after which genetic models were compared using log-likelihood ratio tests. Our data show that 60% of the variability of parameter K could be explained by lipid and lipoprotein levels and that a major autosomal locus, recessively inherited, with a population frequency of .42 +/- .07, and an additional polygenic component of .25 best explained the clustering of atherogenic dense LDL subfraction profiles in these FCH families. Therefore, dense LDL subfraction profiles, associated with elevated lipid levels, appear to have a genetic basis in FCH. PMID:8644746

  14. Lipid profiling identifies a triacylglycerol signature of insulin resistance and improves diabetes prediction in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Eugene P.; Cheng, Susan; Larson, Martin G.; Walford, Geoffrey A.; Lewis, Gregory D.; McCabe, Elizabeth; Yang, Elaine; Farrell, Laurie; Fox, Caroline S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Carr, Steven A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Florez, Jose C.; Clish, Clary B.; Wang, Thomas J.; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, although exactly which of the many plasma lipids contribute to this remains unclear. We therefore investigated whether lipid profiling can inform diabetes prediction by performing liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry–based lipid profiling in 189 individuals who developed type 2 diabetes and 189 matched disease-free individuals, with over 12 years of follow up in the Framingham Heart Study. We found that lipids of lower carbon number and double bond content were associated with an increased risk of diabetes, whereas lipids of higher carbon number and double bond content were associated with decreased risk. This pattern was strongest for triacylglycerols (TAGs) and persisted after multivariable adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, total triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. A combination of 2 TAGs further improved diabetes prediction. To explore potential mechanisms that modulate the distribution of plasma lipids, we performed lipid profiling during oral glucose tolerance testing, pharmacologic interventions, and acute exercise testing. Levels of TAGs associated with increased risk for diabetes decreased in response to insulin action and were elevated in the setting of insulin resistance. Conversely, levels of TAGs associated with decreased diabetes risk rose in response to insulin and were poorly correlated with insulin resistance. These studies identify a relationship between lipid acyl chain content and diabetes risk and demonstrate how lipid profiling could aid in clinical risk assessment. PMID:21403394

  15. Lipid profile characterization of wastewaters from different origins.

    PubMed

    Efimova, E; Marjakangas, J M; Lakaniemi, A-M; Koskinen, P E P; Puhakka, J A

    2013-01-01

    Lipids in wastewaters are potential raw material for renewable diesel, but may complicate biological treatment of wastewaters. The lipid composition of palm oil mill effluent (POME), chemithermomechanical pulp mill (CTMP) wastewater and municipal wastewater (MWW) was studied with a combination of thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Gravimetrically determined content of extracted lipids from the solids of POME and CTMP wastewater were 8.4 ± 1.2 g/L (19.6 ± 0.8% of dry weight) and 0.17-0.23 g/L (12.4-18.5%), respectively, while MWW contained 0.021 ± 0.002 g/L (9.3 ± 1.4%) of lipids. All lipid extracts contained mono-, di- and triacylglycerols (TAGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). In POME, lipids were mostly TAGs (11.5 ± 0.2 μmol/10 mg of lipid extract). In CTMP and MWW lipid composition was more diverse than in POME containing also sterol derivatives and fatty acid methyl esters and the main lipids were FFAs.

  16. Calculation of nanodrop profile from fluid density distribution.

    PubMed

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2016-05-01

    Two approaches are examined, which can be used to determine the drop profile from the fluid density distributions (FDDs) obtained on the basis of microscopic theories. For simplicity, only two-dimensional (cylindrical, or axisymmetrical) distributions are examined and it is assumed that the fluid is either in contact with a smooth solid or separated from the smooth solid by a lubricating liquid film. The first approach is based on the sharp-kink interface approximation in which the density of the liquid inside and the density of the vapor outside the drop are constant with the exception of the surface layer of the drop where the density is different from the above ones. In this case, the drop profile was calculated by minimizing the total potential energy of the system. The second approach is based on a nonuniform FDD obtained either by the density functional theory or molecular dynamics simulations. To determine the drop profile from such an FDD, which does not contain sharp interfaces, three procedures can be used. In the first two procedures, P1 and P2, the one-dimensional FDDs along straight lines which are parallel to the surface of the solid are extracted from the two-dimensional FDD. Each of those one-dimensional FDDs has a vapor-liquid interface at which the fluid density changes from vapor-like to liquid-like values. Procedure P1 uses the locations of the equimolar dividing surfaces for the one-dimensional FDDs as points of the drop profile. Procedure P2 is based on the assumption that the fluid density is constant on the surface of the drop, that density being selected either arbitrarily or as a fluid density at the location of the equimolar dividing surface for one of the one-dimensional FDDs employed in procedure P1. In the third procedure, P3, which is suggested for the first time in this paper, the one-dimensional FDDs are taken along the straight lines passing through a selected point inside the drop (radial line). Then, the drop profile is

  17. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile. [Apollo 17 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolum, D. S.; Burnett, D. S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An in situ measurement of the lunar neutron density from 20 to 400 g/sq cm depth between the lunar surface was made by the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment using particle tracks produced by the B10(n, alpha)Li7 reaction. Both the absolute magnitude and depth profile of the neutron density are in good agreement with past theoretical calculations. The effect of cadmium absorption on the neutron density and in the relative Sm149 to Gd157 capture rates obtained experimentally implies that the true lunar Gd157 capture rate is about one half of that calculated theoretically.

  18. Effects of synbiotic on anthropometry, lipid profile and oxidative stress in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ipar, N; Aydogdu, S Durmus; Yildirim, G Kilic; Inal, M; Gies, I; Vandenplas, Y; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested some beneficial effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics on obesity in adults; such experience is limited in children and adolescents. This study was an open-label, randomised, controlled study including children with primary obesity. The first group was treated with a standard method with a reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity. The second group received add-on daily synbiotic supplementation during one month. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of a synbiotic on anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters. One month of supplementation of the synbiotic resulted in a significant reduction of weight (P<0.001) and body mass index (P<0.01). Changes (% reduction comparing to baseline) in anthropometric measurements, were significantly higher in the children receiving the additional synbiotic supplement (P<0.05). The percentage of children with weight loss was higher in the synbiotic group, but not statistically significant (71.4 vs 64.2%, P>0.05). At the 30(th) day of synbiotic intervention, serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total oxidative stress levels significantly declined (P<0.05). Changes in serum lipid levels were significantly higher in the synbiotic group (P<0.05). Changes in serum total oxidative stress levels before and after the intervention period, were significant in synbiotic group (P<0.01). In our study, changes in weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness were higher in the group receiving the one month synbiotic supplement thin in the standard method group. The supplement tested also had a beneficial effect on lipid profile and total oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the effects of synbiotics on oxidative stress in obese patients with an additional effect on weight loss regarding to previous studies.

  19. Role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density on exercise-stimulated lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Jose E; Johannsen, Neil M; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Costford, Sheila R; Zhang, Zhengyu; Gupta, Alok K; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial density is proposed to lead to impaired muscle lipid oxidation and increased lipid accumulation in sedentary individuals. We assessed exercise-stimulated lipid oxidation by imposing a prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in men with variable skeletal muscle mitochondrial density as measured by citrate synthase (CS) activity. After a 2-day isoenergetic high-fat diet, lipid oxidation was measured before and during exercise (650 kcal at 50% VO(2)max) in 20 healthy men with either high (HI-CS = 24 ± 1; mean ± s.e.) or low (LO-CS = 17 ± 1 nmol/min/mg protein) muscle CS activity. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after exercise. Respiratory exchange data and blood samples were collected at rest and throughout the exercise. HI-CS subjects had higher VO(2)max (50 ± 1 vs. 44 ± 2 ml/kg fat free mass/min; P = 0.01), lower fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) (0.81 ± 0.01 vs. 0.85 ± 0.01; P = 0.04) and higher ex vivo muscle palmitate oxidation (866 ± 168 vs. 482 ± 78 nmol/h/mg muscle; P = 0.05) compared to LO-CS individuals. However, whole-body exercise-stimulated lipid oxidation (20 ± 2 g vs. 19 ± 1 g; P = 0.65) and plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and catecholamine responses were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, in response to the same energy demand during a moderate prolonged exercise bout, reliance on lipid oxidation was similar in individuals with high and low skeletal muscle mitochondrial density. This data suggests that decreased muscle mitochondrial density may not necessarily impair reliance on lipid oxidation over the course of the day since it was normal under a high-lipid oxidative demand condition. Twenty-four-hour lipid oxidation and its relationship with mitochondrial density need to be assessed.

  20. Protein and lipid MALDI profiles classify breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtype

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of common solid tumors. Using recently developed MALDI matrices for lipid profiling, we evaluated whether direct tissue MALDI MS analysis on proteins and lipids may classify human breast cancer samples according to the intrinsic subtype. Methods Thirty-four pairs of frozen, resected breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS analysis. Sinapinic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. Results Protein and lipid profiles distinguish cancer from adjacent normal tissue samples with the median prediction accuracy of 94.1%. Luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by permutation P values less than 0.01 for 0.632+ bootstrap cross-validated misclassification rates with all classifiers tested. Discriminatory proteins and lipids were useful for classifying tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in random test sets. Conclusions Protein and lipid profiles accurately distinguish tumor from adjacent normal tissue and classify breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtype. PMID:22029885

  1. [Lipid profile of healthy persons with low-carbohydrate diet].

    PubMed

    Baumann, Monica; Espeland, Martine Z; Kværner, Ane Sørlie; Bogsrud, Martin Prøven; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2013-06-11

    Many Norwegians have embraced the low-carb trend and choose butter and bacon instead of brown bread and carrots. This entails a dramatic change in the total intake of fat and the intake of saturated fat. We have investigated how a low-carb diet can affect the lipid profile in healthy adults with a normal bodyweight. Seven healthy female participants with normal bodyweight underwent a four-week trial of a low-carb diet (< 20-25 grams of carbohydrates/day). Daily diet registrations were made during the trial period, and diet data for three randomly selected days were included in the estimates. Blood samples and weight data were collected as fasting values prior to and after the intervention. Standardised diet data were available for six participants. On a low-carb diet, the energy intake from carbohydrates accounted for a median of 3 (spread: 2-5) per cent of the total energy intake. The intake of fat accounted for 71 (67-78) per cent of total energy, while protein accounted for 26 (19-31) of total energy intake. At baseline, the median value of total cholesterol was 4.1 mmol/L (dispersion: 3.3-5.7) and LDL cholesterol was 2.2 (1.8-3.4) mmol/L. The values increased to 5.2 (3.7-8.8) mmol/L and 3.1 (1.9-6.2) mmol/L for total and LDL cholesterol respectively. The absolute changes correspond to a percentage increase in total cholesterol of 33 (14-71)% and in LDL cholesterol of 41 (9-84)%. Median weight change amounted to -1.2 kg (-2.8-0.6). A diet with little carbohydrate and a great deal of protein and fat resulted in a considerably heightened level of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in young, healthy women with a normal bodyweight. The findings indicate that a low-carb diet may have a negative impact on individual risk profiles. However, the study is small-scale and the results must be interpreted with caution.

  2. Lipids of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 with biodiesel potential: Oil yield, fatty acid profile, fuel properties.

    PubMed

    Khot, Mahesh; Ghosh, Debashish

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the single cell oil (SCO), fatty acid profile, and biodiesel fuel properties of the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 grown on the pentose fraction of acid pre-treated sugarcane bagasse as a carbon source. The yeast biomass from nitrogen limiting culture conditions (15.3 g L(-1) ) was able to give the SCO yield of 0.17 g g(-1) of xylose consumed. Acid digestion, cryo-pulverization, direct in situ transesterification, and microwave assisted techniques were evaluated in comparison to the Soxhlet extraction for the total intracellular yeast lipid recovery. The significant differences were observed among the SCO yield of different methods and the in situ transesterification stood out most for effective yeast lipid recovery generating 97.23 mg lipid as FAME per gram dry biomass. The method was fast and consumed lesser solvent with greater FAME yield while accessing most cellular fatty acids present. The yeast lipids showed the major presence of monounsaturated fatty esters (35-55%; 18:1, 16:1) suitable for better ignition quality, oxidative stability, and cold-flow properties of the biodiesel. Analyzed fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number) of the yeast oil were in good agreement with international biodiesel standards. The sugarcane bagasse-derived xylose and the consolidated comparative assessment of lab scale SCO recovery methods highlight the necessity for careful substrate choice and validation of analytical method in yeast oil research. The use of less toxic co-solvents together with solvent recovery and recycling would help improve process economics for sustainable production of biodiesel from the hemicellulosic fraction of cheap renewable sources. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effects of treatment with verapamil SR and captopril on the lipid profile of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Catalano, M; Cislaghi, C; Carzaniga, G; Aronica, A; Seregni, R; Libretti, A

    1992-01-01

    The potential beneficial effects of antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality may be compromised by their adverse effects on serum lipid levels. In our study we compared verapamil and captopril and evaluated their effects on blood pressure and on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, with particular attention to lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. 20 hypertensive patients were treated with sustained release verapamil 240mg once daily or captopril 25mg twice daily for 3 months in a double-blind randomised study. Diastolic blood pressure was reduced from 100 +/- 3mm Hg to 87 +/- 6mm Hg (p < 0.01) and from 100 +/- 5mm Hg to 92 +/- 7mm Hg (p < 0.05) in the verapamil and captopril groups, respectively. Small but significant changes in serum lipid levels were noted: total cholesterol was reduced from 6 to 5.8 mmol/L (verapamil) and from 6.1 to 5.9 mmol/L (captopril); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was reduced from 4 to 3.8 mmol/L (verapamil) and from 4.2 to 3.9 mmol/L (captopril); apolipoprotein C-III was reduced from 0.3 +/- 0.07 to 0.2 +/- 0.06 mmol/L (9.7 +/- 2.5 to 9.2 +/- 2.3 mg/dl) [verapamil] and from 0.2 +/- 0.1 to 0.2 +/- 0.09 mmol/L (9.1 +/- 3.7 to 8.3 +/- 3.4 mg/dl) [captopril]; apolipoprotein A-II increased only with verapamil (p < 0.02). Lp(a) levels showed only minor changes in individual patients. In conclusion, in our study verapamil and captopril were effective antihypertensive agents and did not adversely effect the lipid profile.

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Aloe vera gel improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Rakesh, Shruti; Nagpal, Ravinder; Hemalatha, R; Ramakrishna, A; Sudarshan, V; Ramagoni, Ramesh; Shujauddin, Mohd; Verma, Vinod; Kumar, Ashok; Tiwari, Akhilesh; Singh, Birbal; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-03-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Aloe vera (AV) gel on lipid profiles in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were studied. Five treatment groups of rats (n = 7) were the fed experimental diets: a normal control diet, a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), HD + LGG, HD + AV gel, and HD + LGG + AV gel. Supplementation with LGG decreased serum total cholesterol by 32%; however, in combination with AV, the decrease was 43%. The decreases in triacylglycerol levels in the HD + LGG, HD + AV, and HD + LGG + AV groups were 41%, 23% and 45%, respectively. High-density lipoprotein increased by 12% in the HD + LGG + AV group, whereas very low-density and low-density lipoprotein values decreased by 45% and 30%, respectively. The atherogenic index in the HD + LGG + AV group decreased to 2.45 from 4.77 in the HD + LGG group. Furthermore, fecal Lactobacillus species counts increased significantly when LGG was fed in combination with the AV gel. The oral administration of LGG fermented milk alone or in combination with the AV gel increased cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression) and absorption (low-density lipoprotein receptor expression), whereas cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression levels were lower in the HD + LGG and HD + LGG + AV groups compared with the control HD group. The combination of LGG and AV gel may have a therapeutic potential to decrease cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Changes in the Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Exemestane or Letrozole

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lauren Nicole; Nguyen, Anne Thi Phuong; Li, Lang; Desta, Zeruesenay; Lynn Henry, N.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Stearns, Vered; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Flockhart, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy on the plasma lipid profile are not clear. Here the authors describe changes in fasting lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) before and after 3 months of exemestane or letrozole treatment. HDL was reduced in the entire cohort (P < .001) and in the exemestane group (P < .001) but unchanged in the letrozole group (P = .169). LDL was increased in the entire cohort (P = .005) and in the letrozole group (P = .002) but unchanged in the exemestane group (P = .361). This effect was at least partially attributable to washout of tamoxifen as only patients with prior use of tamoxifen experienced a significant increase in LDL. Baseline HDL was an independent predictor of the change in HDL (r2 = −0.128, P < .001), and prior tamoxifen use was associated with greater increases in LDL (r2 = 0.057, P < .001). Use of lipid-altering medications did not protect against the exemestane-induced drop in HDL or the increase in LDL observed in women with prior use of tamoxifen taking letrozole. In conclusion, AI treatment and/or washout of tamoxifen induced detrimental changes in the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. PMID:22174434

  6. New signal processing technique for density profile reconstruction using reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Ricaud, B.; Briolle, F.; Heuraux, S.

    2011-08-15

    Reflectometry profile measurement requires an accurate determination of the plasma reflected signal. Along with a good resolution and a high signal to noise ratio of the phase measurement, adequate data analysis is required. A new data processing based on time-frequency tomographic representation is used. It provides a clearer separation between multiple components and improves isolation of the relevant signals. In this paper, this data processing technique is applied to two sets of signals coming from two different reflectometer devices used on the Tore Supra tokamak. For the standard density profile reflectometry, it improves the initialization process and its reliability, providing a more accurate profile determination in the far scrape-off layer with density measurements as low as 10{sup 16} m{sup -1}. For a second reflectometer, which provides measurements in front of a lower hybrid launcher, this method improves the separation of the relevant plasma signal from multi-reflection processes due to the proximity of the plasma.

  7. Profiling compact toroid plasma density on CTIX with laser deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel Joseph Erwin

    A laser deflectometer measures line-integrated plasma density gradient using laser diodes and amplified point detectors. A laser passing through an optically thin plasma is refracted by an amount proportional to the line-integrated electron density gradient. I have designed, installed, and operated a deflection diagnostic for the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX), a plasma rail gun which can create compact toroid (CT) plasmas of controllable density and velocity. The diagnostic design and motivation are discussed, as well as three experiments performed with deflectometry. Thus, my thesis consists of the design of the deflectometer diagnostic, a comparison of its accuracy to interferometer density measurements, and finally a survey of compact toroid density profiles in two dimensions conducted with an array of detectors.

  8. [Five-year follow up of lipid profile in children in the Rivas-Vaciamadrid study].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bayle, M; Sánchez Bernardo, A; Asensio Antón, J; Ruiz-Jarabo Quemada, C; Baeza Mínguez, J; Morales San José, M T

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate lipid balance in children after a 5-year follow-up and tracking between initial and final levels. Two hundred eighty-one children included in the Rivas-Vaciamadrid study were evaluated at the ages of 6 and 11 years. In all children, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoproteins A1 (Apo A) and B100 (Apo B) were measured. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was determined and the Apo B/Apo A, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios and the atherogenic index were calculated. At 11 years of age, lipid balance was worse in girls than in boys. Levels of TG and HDL-C were significantly higher at the age of 11 years than those at the age of 6 years, but levels of the remaining variables analyzed were lower, except for Apo A and TC, which showed a non-significant increase. The correlation coefficients between values at the ages of 6 and 11 years were significant for all variables and the highest was LDL-C in girls (0.711). Kappa and Nishio tracking indexes were significant for all variables and were highest for the atherogenic index (0.431 and 6.71 respectively) and lowest for TG (0.129 and 2.85 respectively). Subjects in the highest quartile at 6 years old had a relative risk of 8.04 (CI 4.34-14.88) for having the same atherogenic index at the age of 11 years and a relative risk of 1.91 (CI 1.05-3.46) for having the same TG value. There is a significant correlation between lipid profile values in children at the ages of 6 and 11 years. The best tracking was found in the atherogenic index.

  9. Stationary density profiles in the Alcator C-mod tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, J.; Ernst, D.; Hughes, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Scott, S.; Shiraiwa, S.; Whyte, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the absence of an internal particle source, plasma turbulence will impose an intrinsic relationship between an inwards pinch and an outwards diffusion resulting in a stationary density profile. The Alcator C-mod tokamak utilizes RF heating and current drive so that fueling only occurs in the vicinity of the separatrix. Discharges that transition from L-mode to I-mode are seen to maintain a self-similar stationary density profile as measured by Thomson scattering. For discharges with negative magnetic shear, an observed rise of the safety factor in the vicinity of the magnetic axis appears to be accompanied by a decrease of electron density, qualitatively consistent with the theoretical expectations.

  10. Stationary Density Profiles in Alcator C-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, J.; Ernst, D.; Hughes, J. W.; Mumgaard, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2012-10-01

    In the absence of an internal particle source, plasma turbulence will impose an intrinsic relationship between an inwards pinch and an outwards diffusion resulting in a stationary density profile as determined by the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. The Alcator C-mod tokamak utilizes RF heating and current drive so that fueling only occurs in the vicinity of the separatrix. Density is determined from Thomson scattering. Discharges that transition from L-mode to I-mode are seen to maintain a stationary profile. For reversed shear discharges maintained by non-inductive current drive (Vloop 0) a drop of density in the vicinity of the axis is consistent with an observed rise in q, although error in the measurement precludes making this observation definitive.

  11. Glucose control predicts 2-year change in lipid profile in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Andrews, Jeannette S; Shah, Amy S; Crimmins, Nancy; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Marcovina, Santica; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Wadwa, R Paul; Daniels, Steven R; Reynolds, Kristi; Hamman, Richard F; Dolan, Lawrence M

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a change in glycated hemoglobin (A1c) over a follow-up interval of approximately 2 years would be associated with concomitant changes in fasting lipids in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). All subjects with T1D diagnosed in 2002-2005 in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study with at least 2 study visits ∼12 and ∼24 months after an initial visit were included (age at initial visit, 10.6 ± 4.1 years; 48% female; diabetes duration, 10 ± 7 months; 76% non-Hispanic white; A1c = 7.7% ± 1.4%). Longitudinal mixed models were fit to examine the relationship between change in A1c and change in lipid levels (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-c], log triglycerides [TG], and non-HDL-c) with adjustment for possible confounders. Change in A1c over time was significantly associated with changes in TC, HDL-c, LDL-c, TG, and non-HDL-c over the range of A1c values. For example, for a person with an A1c of 10% and then a 2% decrease in A1c 2 years later (to 8%), the model predicted concomitant changes in TC (-0.29 mmol/L, -11.4 mg/dL), HDL-c (0.03 mmol/L, 1.3 mg/dL), LDL-c (-0.23 mmol/L, -9.0 mg/dL), and non-HDL-c (-0.32 mmol/L, -12.4 mg/dL) and an 8.5% decrease in TG (mmol/L). Improved glucose control over a 2-year follow-up was associated with a more favorable lipid profile but may be insufficient to normalize lipids in dyslipidemic T1D youth needing to decrease lipids to goal. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved cardiac management with a disease management program incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    McAna, John F; Goldfarb, Neil I; Couto, Joseph; Henry, Michelle A; Piefer, Gary; Rapier, George M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improved effectiveness of a disease management treatment protocol incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling and targeted lipid care based on lipid profile findings in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) or congestive heart failure (CHF) enrolled in a managed care plan. This retrospective cohort study, conducted over a 2-year period, compared outcomes between patients with a standard lipid profile to those evaluated with a comprehensive lipid profile. All adult members of the WellMed Medical Management, Inc. managed care health plan diagnosed with IHD or CHF, and continuously enrolled between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2008, were included in the study. Cases were defined as those who had at least 1 comprehensive lipid test (the VAP [vertical auto profile] ultracentrifuge test) during this period (n=1767); they were compared to those who had no lipid testing or traditional standard lipid testing only (controls, n=289). Univariate statistics were analyzed to describe the groups, and bivariate t tests or chi-squares examined differences between the 2 cohorts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounders. The results show that the case group had lower total costs ($4852.62 vs. $7413.18; P=0.0255), fewer inpatient stays (13.1% vs. 18.3% of controls; P=0.0175) and emergency department visits (11.9% vs. 15.6% of controls; P=0.0832). Prescription use and frequency of lipid measurement suggested improved control resulting from a targeted approach to managing specific dyslipidemias. A treatment protocol incorporating a comprehensive lipid profile appears to improve care and reduce utilization and costs in a disease management program for cardiac patients.

  13. Estimation of topside electron density profile using on-orbit measured GPS and electron density data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2015-12-01

    The topside ionophere have lacks of information about plasma, but it is important for human beings and scientific applicaiton. We establish an estimation method for electron density profile using Langmuir Probe and GPS data of CHAMP satellite and have comparision the method results with other satellites measurements. In order to develop the model, hydrostatic mapping function, vertical scale height, and vertical TEC(Total Electron Contents) are used for calculations. The electron density and GPS data with hydrostatic mapping function give the vertical TEC and after some algebra using exponential model of density profile give the vertical scale height of ionosphere. The scale height have about 10^2~10^3 km order of magnitude so it can be used exponential model again since the altitude of CHAMP. Therefore, apply the scale height to exponoential model we can get the topside electron density profile. The result of the density profile model can be compared with other satellite data as STSAT-1, ROCSAT, DMSP which is measured the electron density in similar Local Time, Latitude, Longitude but above the CHAMP. This comparison shows the method is accecptable and it can be applied to other reseach for topside ionosphere.

  14. The effects of classic ketogenic diet on serum lipid profile in children with refractory seizures.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Parviz; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Badv, Reza Shervin; Tavassoli, Ali Reza; Azizi Malamiri, Reza

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 % of children with epilepsy develop refractory seizures unresponsive to both old and new generation anticonvulsants. Since such seizures have a serious negative impact on the quality of life, other treatment options are considered. The ketogenic diet is a well-known treatment for managing refractory seizures, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies have shown that this diet is as good as, or better than, any of the newer medications in reducing seizure frequency. However, concerns about adverse effects have been raised. We conducted an open label trial to show the effects of this diet on serum lipid profile. Thirty-three children with refractory epilepsy were treated with the ketogenic diet and were followed for 6 months. Their serum lipid profile was assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after initiating the diet. Seizure frequency was reduced in 63 % of children (no seizures in 2/33 and reduced >50 % in 19/33). However, after 6 months of administering the diet, median triglyceride was significantly increased (from 84 to 180 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median total cholesterol was significantly increased (from 180 to 285 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was significantly increased (from 91 to 175 mg/dl, P < 0.001), and median serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased (from 51 to 58 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Results of this study indicate that a classic ketogenic diet in children with refractory seizures is effective in seizure reduction, but leads to development of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  15. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Effects on Lipid Profile and Insulin Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yfanti, Christina; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Deli, Chariklia K; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-09-01

    Eccentric exercise has been shown to exert beneficial effects in both lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. Antioxidant supplementation during chronic exercise is controversial as it may prevent the physiological training-induced adaptations. The aim of this study was to investigate: 1) the minimum duration of the eccentric exercise training required before changes on metabolic parameters are observed and 2) whether antioxidant supplementation during training would interfere with these adaptations. Sixteen young healthy men were randomized into the Vit group (1 g of vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E daily) and the placebo (PL) group. Subjects received the supplementation for 9 weeks. During weeks 5-9 all participants went through an eccentric exercise training protocol consisting of two exercise sessions (5 sets of 15 eccentric maximal voluntary contractions) per week. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoproteins (Apo A1, Apo B and Lpa) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA) were assessed before the supplementation (week 0), at weeks 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. TG, TC and LDL were significantly lower compared to pre supplementation at both weeks 8 and 9 (P<0.05) in both groups. HDL was significantly elevated after 4 weeks of training (p < 0.005) in both groups. There was no effect of the antioxidant supplementation in any of the variables. There was no effect of either the training or the supplementation protocol in apolipoproteins levels and insulin sensitivity. A minimum duration of 3 weeks of eccentric exercise training is required before beneficial effects in lipid profile can be observed in healthy young men. Concomitant antioxidant supplementation does not interfere with the training-induced adaptations.

  16. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia M M; Ferreira, Célia C D; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat.

  17. Association of circulating irisin levels with normal weight obesity, glycemic and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Sarvenaz; Taheri, Ehsaneh; Karkhaneh, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hosseini, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Irisin, a recently identified myokine/adipokine, has potential role in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Normal weight obesity (NWO) is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate association of irisin level with NWO, glycemicand lipid profile in women. In this matchedcase-control study, 38 subjects with NWO (body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2 and BF % > 30) as case and 26 controls (BMI <25 kg/m2 and BF % < 30) were selected randomly from sport clubs in the East area of Tehran, Iran. In addition to anthropometric variables, including BMI and body composition, fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting levels of irisin andinsulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 18.0. In univariate analysis, levels of irisin were significantly higher in subjects with NWO compared to controls (0.81 ± 0.41vs. 0.58 ± 0.26 ng/ml, P = 0.009). This association remained significant after adjusting for confounders (adjusted for energy intake, physical activity, waist circumference and BMI) (P = 0.049). In NWO, irisin level was not significantly correlated with all glycemic and lipid profile. In control group, only correlation ofirisin with insulin was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Serum irisin levels were higher in NWO subjects than controls. In control group, only the negative association between irisin and insulin levels was statistically significant. Further studies with larger sample size are clearly needed to evaluate the potential role of irisin in NWO subject and other disturbed metabolic conditions.

  18. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  19. Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Zulfitri A Mat; Tubie, Boniface; Sheyman, Marina; Osia, Robert; Adams, Judy; Tubie, Sharon; Khosla, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. Patients and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols) or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols). Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6), oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde), lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. Results TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance) or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test). However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline) in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032) and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072) after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly, normalized plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher (P<0.05) in the TRF group as compared with placebo at both week 12 and week 16. The changes in the TRF group at week 12 and week 16 were associated with higher plasma apolipoprotein A1 concentration (P

  20. Lipid Bilayer Phase Transition: Density Measurements and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The overall change of density for dipalmitoyl lecithin bilayers agrees with a general order-disorder theory and yields about seven gauche rotations per molecule for the biologically relevant high-temperature phase. The shape of the curve of density against temperature is similar to the result of an exact calculation on a specific model, which gives a 3/2-order phase transition. PMID:4519637

  1. Characterizing Exposures of Fish to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent: An Integrated Metabolite and Lipid Profiling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolite and lipid profiling are well established techniques for studying chemical-induced alterations to normal biological function in numerous organisms. These techniques have been used successfully to identify biomarkers of chemical exposure, screen for chemical potency, or ...

  2. Characterizing Exposures of Fish to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent: An Integrated Metabolite and Lipid Profiling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolite and lipid profiling are well established techniques for studying chemical-induced alterations to normal biological function in numerous organisms. These techniques have been used successfully to identify biomarkers of chemical exposure, screen for chemical potency, or ...

  3. Estimating tropical-forest density profiles from multibaseline interferometric SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, Robert; Chapman, Bruce; dos Santos, Joao Roberto; Dutra, Luciano; Goncalves, Fabio; da Costa Freitas, Corina; Mura, Jose Claudio; de Alencastro Graca, Paulo Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Vertical profiles of forest density are potentially robust indicators of forest biomass, fire susceptibility and ecosystem function. Tropical forests, which are among the most dense and complicated targets for remote sensing, contain about 45% of the world's biomass. Remote sensing of tropical forest structure is therefore an important component to global biomass and carbon monitoring. This paper shows preliminary results of a multibasline interfereomtric SAR (InSAR) experiment over primary, secondary, and selectively logged forests at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. The profile shown results from inverse Fourier transforming 8 of the 18 baselines acquired. A profile is shown compared to lidar and field measurements. Results are highly preliminary and for qualitative assessment only. Parameter estimation will eventually replace Fourier inversion as the means to producing profiles.

  4. Estimating tropical-forest density profiles from multibaseline interferometric SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, Robert; Chapman, Bruce; dos Santos, Joao Roberto; Dutra, Luciano; Goncalves, Fabio; da Costa Freitas, Corina; Mura, Jose Claudio; de Alencastro Graca, Paulo Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Vertical profiles of forest density are potentially robust indicators of forest biomass, fire susceptibility and ecosystem function. Tropical forests, which are among the most dense and complicated targets for remote sensing, contain about 45% of the world's biomass. Remote sensing of tropical forest structure is therefore an important component to global biomass and carbon monitoring. This paper shows preliminary results of a multibasline interfereomtric SAR (InSAR) experiment over primary, secondary, and selectively logged forests at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. The profile shown results from inverse Fourier transforming 8 of the 18 baselines acquired. A profile is shown compared to lidar and field measurements. Results are highly preliminary and for qualitative assessment only. Parameter estimation will eventually replace Fourier inversion as the means to producing profiles.

  5. Lipid profiling of lipoprotein X: Implications for dyslipidemia in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Susanne; Boettcher, Alfred; Kaul, Harald; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein that may typically be formed in intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis and potentially interfere with lipid analysis in the routine lab. To gain insight into lipid class and species composition, Lp-X, LDL and HDL from cholestatic and control serum samples were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis including phospholipids (PL), sphingolipids, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE) and bile acids. Our analysis of Lp-X revealed a content of 46% FC, 49% PL with 34% phosphatidylcholine (PC) as main PL component. The lipid species pattern of Lp-X showed remarkable high fractions of mono-unsaturated species including PC 32:1 and PC 34:1 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 32:1 and 34:1. LDL and HDL lipid composition in the same specimens strongly reflected the lipid composition of Lp-X with increased PC 32:1, PC 34:1, PE 32:1, PE 34:1 and FC accompanied by decreased CE compared to controls. Comparison of Lp-X and biliary lipid composition clearly indicates that Lp-X does not originate from a sole release of bile lipids. Moreover, these data present evidence for increased hepatic fatty acid and PL synthesis which may represent a reaction to high hepatic FC level observed during cholestasis.

  6. Mapping surface charge density of lipid bilayers by quantitative surface conductivity microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-08-01

    Local surface charge density of lipid membranes influences membrane-protein interactions leading to distinct functions in all living cells, and it is a vital parameter in understanding membrane-binding mechanisms, liposome design and drug delivery. Despite the significance, no method has so far been capable of mapping surface charge densities under physiologically relevant conditions. Here, we use a scanning nanopipette setup (scanning ion-conductance microscope) combined with a novel algorithm to investigate the surface conductivity near supported lipid bilayers, and we present a new approach, quantitative surface conductivity microscopy (QSCM), capable of mapping surface charge density with high-quantitative precision and nanoscale resolution. The method is validated through an extensive theoretical analysis of the ionic current at the nanopipette tip, and we demonstrate the capacity of QSCM by mapping the surface charge density of model cationic, anionic and zwitterionic lipids with results accurately matching theoretical values.

  7. Mapping surface charge density of lipid bilayers by quantitative surface conductivity microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Local surface charge density of lipid membranes influences membrane–protein interactions leading to distinct functions in all living cells, and it is a vital parameter in understanding membrane-binding mechanisms, liposome design and drug delivery. Despite the significance, no method has so far been capable of mapping surface charge densities under physiologically relevant conditions. Here, we use a scanning nanopipette setup (scanning ion-conductance microscope) combined with a novel algorithm to investigate the surface conductivity near supported lipid bilayers, and we present a new approach, quantitative surface conductivity microscopy (QSCM), capable of mapping surface charge density with high-quantitative precision and nanoscale resolution. The method is validated through an extensive theoretical analysis of the ionic current at the nanopipette tip, and we demonstrate the capacity of QSCM by mapping the surface charge density of model cationic, anionic and zwitterionic lipids with results accurately matching theoretical values. PMID:27561322

  8. ICRF coupling and edge density profile on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Heuraux, S.; Lombard, G.

    2004-10-01

    In addition to the propagation and absorption of the waves into the plasma, a crucial point in ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating (ICRH) is to know how the energy is coupled to the plasma. The coupling efficiency is experimentally estimated through measurements of the antenna coupling resistance and it is of primary importance to precisely establish its dependence on the plasma parameters. The coupling resistance is highly connected to the density profile, which determines the cut-off positions of the magnetosonic waves for a given radiated wave number spectrum. For a large size tokamak like Tore Supra these cut-off densities range between 1018 and 1019 m-3, corresponding to the plasma edge. In this study, the RF coupling is investigated with respect to the plasma edge density profile measured by X-mode reflectometry and a characteristic cut-off position of the magnetosonic wave. We show that the edge density is not only a function of the average density but also depends in a complex way, on various edge plasma regimes, the power deposition, or the kind of limiter materials or divertor perturbation used to control the edge. Over a large variety of plasma edge regimes, it is shown how the distance between a characteristic ICRH cut-off density layer and the antenna is the relevant parameter to address the problem of the RF coupling efficiency. Simulation of the coupling process with the three-dimensional antenna code Ion Cyclotron ANTenna compares well with RF measurements, provided that the experimental density profiles are used in the computations.

  9. Lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, and low serum retinol and carotenoid levels in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Tânia Regina Beraldo; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano; Pitta, Tassiana Sacchi; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Hix, Sonia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Tardini, Priscila Chemiotti; dos Santos, Valter Pinho; Lopez, Fábio Ancona

    2010-06-01

    To assess serum retinol and levels of carotenoids in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to correlate low serum retinol and carotenoid levels with the presence of lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, lipid peroxidation, and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional, controlled observational study was carried out with 30 children and adolescents with AIDS (mean age 9.1 y) receiving antiretroviral therapy (median length of treatment 28.4 mo), including 30 uninfected healthy controls matched for age and gender. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed to determine nutritional status, presence of lipodystrophy, serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), glycemia, and serum insulin (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, cutoff point >3). Statistical analysis was done with chi-square test and Student's t test. Lipodystrophy was observed in 53.3% of patients with AIDS, and dyslipidemia was detected in 60% and 23% of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus and control subjects, respectively (P = 0.004). A higher prevalence of retinol deficiency (60% versus 26.7%, P = 0.009) and beta-carotene deficiency (23.3% versus 3.3%, P = 0.026) was found in the group with human immunodeficiency virus than in the control group. No correlation was found for low retinol and beta-carotene levels, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, or lipodystrophy in children and adolescents with AIDS. Despite the high frequency of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies, it was not possible to demonstrate a correlation of these findings with lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies in this population and the clinical

  10. LIPID PROFILE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE, ATTENDED AT THE FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY, VIÇOSA/MG.

    PubMed

    Danésio de Souza, Jacqueline; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Silva Franco, Fernanda; Vidal Martins, Marcos; Gonçalves Rodrigues, Meirele; Wick, Jeannette Y; Araújo Tinôco, Adelson Luiz

    2015-08-01

    the aging population has been accompanied by epidemiological changes of the Brazilian population, with the highlight being the continued growth of the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases especially cardiovascular or artery-coronary, resulting from changes in the lipid profile of the elderly. this study had the aim to describe the behavioral, anthropometric, lifestyle and body composition factors and their association with changes in the lipid profile of elderly people. the sample included 402 participants attended at the Family Health Strategy, Viçosa (MG), to which a questionnaire with socio-demographic, behavioral and lifestyle information was applied. Blood sample was collected to obtain the lipid fractions, and the weight, height, waist circumference and body fat percentage were measured. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify independently associated factors with changes in each of the selected lipid fractions. the factors independently associated with increased levels of total cholesterol were the presence of sedentary behavior, high body fat percentage, greater waist height and greater waist circumference. The consumption of alcoholic beverages and a higher waist-hip ratio remained independently associated with decreased high-density lipoprotein levels. The increased waist circumference was independently associated with low values of the low-density lipoprotein levels. The value of increased triglyceride was independently associated with higher waist-hip ratio, higher body mass index and smoking. modifiable risk factors associated with a changed lipid profile should be prioritized among the actions to be considered in structuring health programs for the elderly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoothed orientational order profile of lipid bilayers by 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, M; Fine, B; Sternin, E; Cullis, P R; Bloom, M

    1989-01-01

    A new method has been developed to determine the complete orientational order profile of lipid bilayers using 2H-NMR. The profile is obtained from a single powder spectrum of a lipid which has a saturated chain fully deuteriated. The smoothed order profile is determined directly from the normalized dePaked spectrum assuming a monotonic decrease of the order along the acyl chain. The oscillatory variations of the order at the beginning of the chain are not described by this method. However the smoothed order profile reveals in a straightforward way the crucial features of the anisotropic order of the bilayer. PMID:2605294

  12. Density profiles of supernova matter and determination of neutrino parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.-H.

    2007-08-15

    The flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos can lead to observable signatures related to the unknown neutrino parameters. As one of the determinants in dictating the efficiency of resonant flavor conversion, the local density profile near the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance in a supernova environment is, however, not so well understood. In this analysis, variable power-law functions are adopted to represent the independent local density profiles near the locations of resonance. It is shown that the uncertain matter density profile in a supernova, the possible neutrino mass hierarchies, and the undetermined 1-3 mixing angle would result in six distinct scenarios in terms of the survival probabilities of {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub e}. The feasibility of probing the undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy and the 1-3 mixing angle with the supernova neutrinos is then examined using several proposed experimental observables. Given the incomplete knowledge of the supernova matter profile, the analysis is further expanded to incorporate the Earth matter effect. The possible impact due to the choice of models, which differ in the average energy and in the luminosity of neutrinos, is also addressed in the analysis.

  13. Midplane neutral density profiles in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, D. P.; Scotti, F.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ross, P. W.

    2015-08-13

    Atomic and molecular density data in the outer midplane of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are inferred from tangential camera data via a forward modeling procedure using the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code. The observed Balmer-β light emission data from 17 shots during the 2010 NSTX campaign display no obvious trends with discharge parameters such as the divertor Balmer-α emission level or edge deuterium ion density. Simulations of 12 time slices in 7 of these discharges produce molecular densities near the vacuum vessel wall of 2–8 × 1017 m–3 and atomic densities ranging from 1 to 7 ×1016 m–3; neither has a clear correlation with other parameters. Validation of the technique, begun in an earlier publication, is continued with an assessment of the sensitivity of the simulated camera image and neutral densities to uncertainties in the data input to the model. The simulated camera image is sensitive to the plasma profiles and virtually nothing else. The neutral densities at the vessel wall depend most strongly on the spatial distribution of the source; simulations with a localized neutral source yield densities within a factor of two of the baseline, uniform source, case. Furthermore, the uncertainties in the neutral densities associated with other model inputs and assumptions are ≤ 50%.

  14. Midplane neutral density profiles in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, D. P. Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ross, P. W.; Scotti, F.

    2015-08-15

    Atomic and molecular density data in the outer midplane of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are inferred from tangential camera data via a forward modeling procedure using the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code. The observed Balmer-β light emission data from 17 shots during the 2010 NSTX campaign display no obvious trends with discharge parameters such as the divertor Balmer-α emission level or edge deuterium ion density. Simulations of 12 time slices in 7 of these discharges produce molecular densities near the vacuum vessel wall of 2–8 × 10{sup 17 }m{sup −3} and atomic densities ranging from 1 to 7 × 10{sup 16 }m{sup −3}; neither has a clear correlation with other parameters. Validation of the technique, begun in an earlier publication, is continued with an assessment of the sensitivity of the simulated camera image and neutral densities to uncertainties in the data input to the model. The simulated camera image is sensitive to the plasma profiles and virtually nothing else. The neutral densities at the vessel wall depend most strongly on the spatial distribution of the source; simulations with a localized neutral source yield densities within a factor of two of the baseline, uniform source, case. The uncertainties in the neutral densities associated with other model inputs and assumptions are ≤50%.

  15. Midplane neutral density profiles in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Stotler, D. P.; Scotti, F.; Bell, R. E.; ...

    2015-08-13

    Atomic and molecular density data in the outer midplane of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are inferred from tangential camera data via a forward modeling procedure using the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code. The observed Balmer-β light emission data from 17 shots during the 2010 NSTX campaign display no obvious trends with discharge parameters such as the divertor Balmer-α emission level or edge deuterium ion density. Simulations of 12 time slices in 7 of these discharges produce molecular densities near the vacuum vessel wall of 2–8 × 1017 m–3 and atomic densities ranging frommore » 1 to 7 ×1016 m–3; neither has a clear correlation with other parameters. Validation of the technique, begun in an earlier publication, is continued with an assessment of the sensitivity of the simulated camera image and neutral densities to uncertainties in the data input to the model. The simulated camera image is sensitive to the plasma profiles and virtually nothing else. The neutral densities at the vessel wall depend most strongly on the spatial distribution of the source; simulations with a localized neutral source yield densities within a factor of two of the baseline, uniform source, case. Furthermore, the uncertainties in the neutral densities associated with other model inputs and assumptions are ≤ 50%.« less

  16. Partitioning of hydrophobic organic contaminants between polymer and lipids for two silicones and low density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Smedes, Foppe; Rusina, Tatsiana P; Beeltje, Henry; Mayer, Philipp

    2017-08-11

    Polymers are increasingly used for passive sampling of neutral hydrophobic organic substances (HOC) in environmental media including water, air, soil, sediment and even biological tissue. The equilibrium concentration of HOC in the polymer can be measured and then converted into equilibrium concentrations in other (defined) media, which however requires appropriate polymer to media partition coefficients. We determined thus polymer-lipid partition coefficients (KPL) of various PCB, PAH and organochlorine pesticides by equilibration of two silicones and low density polyethylene (LDPE) with fish oil and Triolein at 4 °C and 20 °C. We observed (i) that KPL was largely independent of lipid type and temperature, (ii) that lipid diffusion rates in the polymers were higher compared to predictions based on their molecular volume, (iii) that silicones showed higher lipid diffusion and lower lipid sorption compared to LDPE and (iv) that absorbed lipid behaved like a co-solute and did not affect the partitioning of HOC at least for the smaller molecular size HOC. The obtained KPL can convert measured equilibrium concentrations in passive sampling polymers into equilibrium concentrations in lipid, which then can be used (1) for environmental quality monitoring and assessment, (2) for thermodynamic exposure assessment and (3) for assessing the linkage between passive sampling and the traditionally measured lipid-normalized concentrations in biota. LDPE-lipid partition coefficients may also be of use for a thermodynamically sound risk assessment of HOC contained in microplastics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. High density lipoprotein level is negatively associated with the increase of oxidized low density lipoprotein lipids after a fatty meal.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Sanna; Ahotupa, Markku; Ylinen, Petteri; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-12-01

    Recent reports show that a fatty meal can substantially increase the concentration of oxidized lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowing the LDL-specific antioxidant effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL), we aimed to investigate whether HDL can modify the postprandial oxidative stress after a fatty meal. Subjects of the study (n = 71) consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal) rich in lipid peroxides, and blood samples were taken before, 120, 240, and 360 min after the meal. The study subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the pre-meal HDL cholesterol value (HDL subgroup 1, 0.66-0.91; subgroup 2, 0.93-1.13; subgroup 3, 1.16-1.35; subgroup 4, 1.40-2.65 mmol/L). The test meal induced a marked postprandial increase in the concentration of oxidized LDL lipids in all four subgroups. The pre-meal HDL level was associated with the extent of the postprandial rise in oxidized LDL lipids. From baseline to 6 h after the meal, the concentration of ox-LDL increased by 48, 31, 24, and 16% in the HDL subgroup 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the increase was higher in subgroup 1 compared to subgroup 3 (p = 0.028) and subgroup 4 (p = 0.0081), respectively. The pre-meal HDL correlated with both the amount and the rate of increase of oxidized LDL lipids. Results of the present study show that HDL is associated with the postprandial appearance of lipid peroxides in LDL. It is therefore likely that the sequestration and transport of atherogenic lipid peroxides is another significant mechanism contributing to cardioprotection by HDL.

  18. Conformational Changes in High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles Induced by High Payloads of Paramagnetic Lipids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanoparticles doped with gadolinium lipids can be used as magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic agents for atherosclerosis. In this study, HDL nanoparticles with different molar fractions of gadolinium lipids (0 < xGd-lipids < 0.33) were prepared, and the MR relaxivity values (r1 and r2) for all compositions were measured. Both r1 and r2 parameters reached a maximal value at a molar fraction of approximately xGd-lipids = 0.2. Higher payloads of gadolinium did not significantly increase relaxivity values but induced changes in the structure of HDL, increasing the size of the particles from dH = 8.2 ± 1.6 to 51.7 ± 7.3 nm. High payloads of gadolinium lipids trigger conformational changes in HDL, with potential effects on the in vivo behavior of the nanoparticles. PMID:27713933

  19. Therapeutic effect of probiotic dahi on plasma, aortic, and hepatic lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod Kumar; Shah, Dilip; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Manoj; Gautam, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Birbal; Behare, Pradip Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effects of probiotic dahi prepared by Lactobacillus plantarum Lp9 and dahi culture in buffalo milk on lowering cholesterol in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic basal diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and fed with probiotic dahi, dahi, or buffalo milk for 120 days. Following the consumption of supplements (probiotic dahi, dahi or buffalo milk), the animals were fed a basal hypercholesterolemic diet. Plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides (TAGs) were decreased by 35% and 72% in rats fed with probiotic dahi group, while cholesterol levels increased by 70% and TAGs increased by 97% in buffalo milk and 59% in dahi fed groups. Supplementation of probiotic dahi further lowered plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) + very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)- cholesterol by 59%, while it elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 116%. As a result, atherogenic index, the ratio of HDL to LDL + VLDL was markedly improved. Deposition of cholesterol and TAGs in liver and aorta were significantly reduced in rats fed with probiotic dahi. These observations suggest that probiotic dahi may have therapeutic potential to decrease plasma, hepatic and aortic lipid profile, and attenuate diet-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Effect of vitamin C on serum lipids and electrolyte profile of albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Eteng, M U; Ibekwe, H A; Amatey, T E; Bassey, B J; Uboh, F U; Owu, D U

    2006-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of vitamin C on serum lipids and electrolyte profile were investigated in albino rats of the Wistar strain. Eighteen (18) albino rats of opposite sexes weighing between 150-300 g were used for the study and randomly assigned on the basis of body weight and litter origin to three study groups of six animals each. The control group received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water), while test groups 1 and II received 100 mg/kg body weight and 200 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C in 2.5 ml and 5.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. The administration of vitamin C for 30 days produced a significant [P < 0.05] decrease in total cholesterol (TC), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the test groups versus control but there was no change in triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Computed HDL:LDL ratio also increased in the treatments relative to the control. Except for computed HDL:LDL ratio all the other changes were dose dependent and there was a slight non-significant increase in all electrolytes (Na(+), K(+); and HCO3(-) ions. The study confirms the hypocholesterolaemic effect of vitamin C and that Vitamin C has no adverse effect on serum electrolytes. It is suggested that its administration in moderate to high doses may protect against atherosclerosis and hypertension.

  1. Temperature, Density, and Heating Profiles of Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plowman, Joseph; Martens, P. C.; Kankelborg, C.; Ritchie, M.; Scott, J.; Sharma, R.

    2013-07-01

    We show detailed results of a combined DEM and density-sensitive line ratio analysis of coronal loops observed simultaneously by EIS and AIA. The temperature and density profiles of the loop are compared to and isolated from those of the surrounding material, and these properties are fit to an analytic strand heating model developed by Martens (2010). This research builds on our previously reported work by analyzing a number of coronal loops (including one observed by the Hi-C rocket), improved background subtraction and loop fitting. These improvements allow us to place significant constraints on the heating distribution of coronal loops.

  2. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

  3. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  4. Interrelationship of antioxidative status, lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Cimbaljević, Branko; Vasilijević, Ana; Cimbaljević, Slavica; Buzadzić, Biljana; Korać, Aleksandra; Petrović, Vesna; Janković, Aleksandra; Korać, Bato

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interrelationship of plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte antioxidative defense in patients with insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides and the activities of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as the amount of glutathione in erythrocytes, were determined in IDDM, NIDDM, and nondiabetic control subjects. Additionally, morphology of erythrocytes in all subjects was examined. Plasma levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in NIDDM compared with controls. Also, the lipid peroxide level was higher in NIDDM than in either control or IDDM subjects. CuZnSOD activity in erythrocytes was elevated in NIDDM patients compared with the control. In NIDDM patients, more extensive erythrocyte spherocytosis and echinocytosis compared with both control and IDDM subjects were observed. In contrast with the IDDM group, the observed abnormality in lipid metabolism in NIDDM patients is closely associated with increased lipid peroxidation, changes in antioxidative defense, and erythrocyte morphology.

  5. The Dark Matter Density Profile of the Fornax Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardel, John R.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2012-02-01

    We construct axisymmetric Schwarzschild models to measure the mass profile of the Local Group dwarf galaxy Fornax. These models require no assumptions to be made about the orbital anisotropy of the stars, as is the case for commonly used Jeans models. We test a variety of parameterizations of dark matter density profiles and find cored models with uniform density ρ c = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10-2 M ⊙ pc-3 fit significantly better than the cuspy halos predicted by cold dark matter simulations. We also construct models with an intermediate-mass black hole, but are unable to make a detection. We place a 1σ upper limit on the mass of a potential intermediate-mass black hole at M • <= 3.2 × 104 M ⊙.

  6. Lipid Profile in Adolescent Girls with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperandrogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Deja, Grazyna; Gawlik, Aneta; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Klimek, Katarzyna; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. The study aim was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenemia in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may adversely influence lipid profile. Design and Participants. Lipid levels in 16 diabetic girls with biochemical hyperandrogenemia (T1DM-H) aged 16.3 ± 1.2 years were compared to 38 diabetic girls with normal androgen levels (T1DM-N) aged 15.8 ± 1.2 years. 15 healthy girls served as controls (CG). In all patients, anthropometric measurements were done, and androgens and SHBG were assessed. Results. In T1DM-H, total cholesterol (TC) and low density cholesterol (LDL-ch) were significantly higher than in CG (196.1 ± 41.2 versus 162.7 ± 31.7 mg/dL, p = 0.01; 117.3 ± 33.1 versus 91.3 ± 27.8 mg/dL, p = 0.01, resp.). Their LDL-ch, non-high density cholesterol (non-HDL-ch) concentrations, and LDL/HDL ratio were also significantly higher than in T1DM-N (117.3 ± 33.1 versus 97.7 ± 26.7 mg/dL, p = 0.03; 137.3 ± 42.9 versus 113.3 ± 40.4 mg/dL, p = 0.04; 2.8 ± 3.7 versus 1.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.04, resp.). In stepwise multiple linear regression, free androgen index (FAI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with TC (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0006), non-HDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0003), and LDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0008). Triglycerides and LDL/HDL ratio were (R2 = 0.7, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.6, p < 0.0003 resp.) related to testosterone, FAI, WHR, and mean HbA1c. Conclusion. Lipid profile in diabetic adolescent girls is adversely influenced by the androgens level, particularly in the group with higher WHR and poorer glycemic control. PMID:27239195

  7. Alterations in lipid profile of autistic boys: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Neggers, Yasmin H; Shin, Cheung-Soo; Kim, Eunkyeong; Kim, Eun Mi

    2010-04-01

    We hypothesize that autism is associated with alterations in the plasma lipid profile and that some lipid fractions in autistic boys may be significantly different than those of healthy boys. A matched case control study was conducted with 29 autistic boys (mean age, 10.1 +/- 1.3 years) recruited from a school for disabled children and 29 comparable healthy boys from a neighboring elementary school in South Korea. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (T-Chol), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the LDL/HDL ratio, and 1-day food intakes were measured. Multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the association between autism and various lipid fractions. The mean TG level (102.4 +/- 52.4 vs 70.6 +/- 36.3; P = .01) was significantly higher, whereas the mean HDL-C level (48.8 +/- 11.9 vs 60.5 +/- 10.9 mg/dL; P = .003) was significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. There was no significant difference in T-Chol and LDL-C levels between cases and controls. The LDL/HDL ratio was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls. Multiple regression analyses indicated that autism was significantly associated with plasma TG (beta = 31.7 +/- 11.9; P = .01), HDL (beta = -11.6 +/- 2.1; P = .0003), and the LDL/HDL ratio (beta = 0.40 +/- 0.18; P = .04). There was a significant interaction between autism and TG level in relation to plasma HDL level (P = .02). Fifty-three percent of variation in the plasma HDL was explained by autism, plasma TG, LDL/HDL ratio, and the interaction between autism and plasma TG level. These results indicate the presence of dyslipidemia in boys with autism and suggest a possibility that dyslipidemia might be a marker of association between lipid metabolism and autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of bark, density profile, and resin content on medium-density fiberboards from southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    G.E. Woodson

    1976-01-01

    Pressure-regined barky fibers of hickory, sweetgum, and southern red oak had a greater percentage of fines than did refined bark-free fibers of these species. Inclusion of bark decreased tensile and bending strengths of fiberboards by 16 to 18 percent, MOE by 10 to 14 percent, and IB by 8 percent. Density profile of boards strongly influenced their bending properties...

  9. Association of Lipid Profile in Pregnancy with Preeclampsia, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Babita; Pusukuru, Raghuram; Mehta, Varshil

    2017-07-03

    . The mean cholesterol levels in patients with preterm in second and third trimesters were 213.33 mg/dl and 243.66 mg/dl, respectively. Out of the total 200 patients, 168 had no complications, while 20 (10%) had preeclampsia, six (3%) had gestational diabetes mellitus, and the other six {3%} had preterm deliveries. Conclusion An association between maternal early pregnancy triglyceridaemia and the subsequent risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm deliveries was observed. The occurrence of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm deliveries cannot be predicted based on the values of serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). Hence, estimation of lipid profile is strongly recommended during pregnancy to prevent the deleterious effect of hyperlipidaemia associated with pregnancy.

  10. Radiotherapy improves serum fatty acids and lipid profile in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Sana; Channa, Naseem Aslam; Talpur, Farha Naz; Younis, Muhammad; Tabassum, Naila

    2017-05-18

    Breast cancer is a disease with diverse clinical symptoms, molecular profiles, and its nature to response its therapeutic treatments. Radiotherapy (RT), along with surgery and chemotherapy is a part of treatment in breast cancer. The aim of present study was to investigate pre and post treatment effects of radiotherapy in serum fatty acids and its lipids profile in patients with breast cancer. In this comparative as well as follow up study, Serum fatty acids were performed by gas chromatography to investigate fatty acids and Microlab for analysis of lipid profile. Among serum free and total fatty acids the major saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in serum lipids of breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) were stearic acid (18:0) and palmitic acid (16:0). These fatty acids contributed about 35-50% of total fatty acids. The decreased concentrations of linoleic acid (C18:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4) with a lower ratio of C18:2/C18:1 was found in pretreated breast cancer patients as compared to controls. The n-3/n-6 ratio of breast cancer patients was decreased before treatment but it was 35% increased after treatment. In addition, plasma activity of D6 desaturase was increased in the breast cancer patients, while the activity of D5 desaturase was decreased. Increased levels of SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) as compared to controls. Serum total cholesterol (TC) (224.4 mg/dL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (142.9 mg/dL) were significantly increased in pretreated breast cancer patients but after the radiotherapy treatment, the TC (150.2 mg/dL) and LDL-C (89.8 mg/dL) were decreased. It seems that RT would have played a potential role in the treatment of BC. After RT the serum levels of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C are improved. Our study reinforces the important role of RT in the management of BC. The level of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C can be

  11. Effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Md; Hossain, Md Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163).

  12. Ionospheric topside models compared with experimental electron density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Radicella, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    In the last couple of years an increasing number of topside electron density profiles has been made available through the Internet to the scientific community. This kind of data is particularly important for ionospheric modeling purposes, since the experimental information on the electron density above the ionosphere maximum of ionization is very scarce. The present work analyses the behavior of the NeQuick and IRI models, adopted by the ITU-R recommendation P.531-5, with respect to the topside electron density profiles available in the databases of ISIS2, IK19 and Cosmos-1809 satellites. Experimental total electron content (TEC) from the F2 peak up to satellite height and electron densities at fixed heights above that peak have been compared with values computed with the models. A wide range of different conditions (solar activity, local time, geographical and geomagnetic position has been considered). The analysis done allows to point out the behavior of the models and the improvement needed to allow a better reproduction of the experimental results.

  13. LPWA using supersonic gas jet with tailored density profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, O.; Bohlen, S.; Dale, J.; D'Arcy, R.; Dinter, M.; Erbe, J. H.; Indorf, G.; di Lucchio, L.; Goldberg, L.; Gruse, J. N.; Karstensen, S.; Libov, V.; Ludwig, K.; Martinez de La Ossa, A.; Marutzky, F.; Niroula, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Quast, M.; Schaper, L.; Schwinkendorf, J.-P.; Streeter, M.; Tauscher, G.; Weichert, S.; Palmer, C.; Horbatiuk, Taras

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators have been explored as a potential compact, reproducible source of relativistic electron bunches, utilising an electric field of many GV/m. Control over injection of electrons into the wakefield is of crucial importance in producing stable, mono-energetic electron bunches. Density tailoring of the target, to control the acceleration process, can also be used to improve the quality of the bunch. By using gas jets to provide tailored targets it is possible to provide good access for plasma diagnostics while also producing sharp density gradients for density down-ramp injection. OpenFOAM hydrodynamic simulations were used to investigate the possibility of producing tailored density targets in a supersonic gas jet. Particle-in-cell simulations of the resulting density profiles modelled the effect of the tailored density on the properties of the accelerated electron bunch. Here, we present the simulation results together with preliminary experimental measurements of electron and x-ray properties from LPWA experiments using gas jet targets and a 25 TW, 25 fs Ti:Sa laser system at DESY.

  14. Density profile of pyrolite under the lower mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ricolleau, Angele; Fei, Yingwei; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Watson, Heather; Deng, Liwei; Zhang, Li; Fiquet, Guillaume; Auzende, Anne-Line; Roskosz, Mathieu; Morard, Guillaume; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2009-04-13

    The pyrolite model is one of the possible compositions of the Earth's lower mantle. The lower mantle's composition is generally modelled by comparing seismic observations with mineral physics data of possible lower mantle end-member phases. Here, we report the compression behavior of a natural KLB-1 peridotite (a representative composition of the pyrolite model) in a quasi-hydrostatic environment at simultaneous high pressure (P) and temperature (T), covering the entire range of lower mantle P-T conditions up to 112 GPa. This is the first experimentally determined density profile of pyrolite under the lower mantle conditions. The results allow us to directly compare the measured density of peridotite mantle along the geotherm with the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) derived from seismic observations, without extrapolation. The comparison shows significant mismatch between the two, which calls for a re-evaluation of the PREM density model or a non-pyrolite lower mantle composition.

  15. Lipid profile changes during the first year after kidney transplantation: risk factors and influence of the immunosuppressive drug regimen.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, G A; Felipe, C R; Park, S I; Mandia-Sampaio, E L; Tedesco-Silva, H; Medina-Pestana, J O

    2011-12-01

    This study analyzed the incidence, time course, and risk factors associated with dyslipidemia during the first year after kidney transplantation among patients receiving various immunosuppressive regimens. The analysis included 474 kidney transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine (CSA) combined with sirolimus (SRL; n=137) or mycophenolate (MMF, n=58) or everolimus (EVR, n=47); or SRL combined with MMF (n=32); or tacrolimus (TAC) combined with SRL (n=86) or MMF (n=114). All patients received prednisone. We evaluated the influence of demographic features, clinical outcomes, and statin use on lipid profiles during the first year after transplantation. total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (hdl-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ldl-C), non-HDL-C, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, TG:HDL-C. Lipid profiles were within the recommended ranges in 28% of patients pretransplantation and in 10% at 1 year; 27% of them received statins. At 1 year, LDL-C<100 mg/dL was observed in 31.8% of patients but more than 35% of these patients still showed other lipid fractions or ratios outside recommended target concentrations. Among all patients with LDL-C>100 mg/dL, almost 70% to 80% had other lipid fractions or ratios within target ranges. A logistic regression analysis showed age, gender, time on dialysis, diabetes, type of calcineurin inhibitor (CSA vs TAC), adjunctive therapy (SRL/EVR vs MMF) and prednisone dose to be associated with dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia is frequent at 1 year after transplantation. The lack of agreement among changes observed in lipid fractions and ratios suggests that more studies are necessary to guide therapy besides targeting LDL-C concentrations as recommended by current guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  17. Common medications used by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: what are their effects on the lipid profile?

    PubMed

    Rosenblit, Paul D

    2016-07-14

    Dyslipidemia is the most fundamental risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In clinical practice, many commonly prescribed medications can alter the patient's lipid profile and, potentially, the risk for ASCVD-either favorably or unfavorably. The dyslipidemia observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be characterized as both ominous and cryptic, in terms of unrecognized, disproportionately elevated atherogenic cholesterol particle concentrations, in spite of deceptively and relatively lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Several factors, most notably insulin resistance, associated with the unfavorable discordance of elevated triglyceride (TG) levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), have been shown to correlate with an increased risk/number of ASCVD events in patients with T2DM. This review focuses on known changes in the routine lipid profile (LDL-C, TGs, and HDL-C) observed with commonly prescribed medications for patients with T2DM, including antihyperglycemic agents, antihypertensive agents, weight loss medications, antibiotics, analgesics, oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement therapies. Given that the risk of ASCVD is already elevated for patients with T2DM, the use of polypharmacy may warrant close observation of overall alterations through ongoing lipid-panel monitoring. Ultimately, the goal is to reduce levels of atherogenic cholesterol particles and thus the patient's absolute risk.

  18. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  19. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved plasma lipid profile: the Aragon Health Workers Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Peñalvo, José L; Oliva, Belén; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Uzhova, Irina; Moreno-Franco, Belén; León-Latre, Montserrat; Ordovás, José María

    2015-04-01

    There is wide recognition of the importance of healthy eating in cardiovascular health promotion. The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns among a Spanish population, and to determine their relationship with plasma lipid profiles. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data from 1290 participants of the Aragon Workers Health Study cohort. Standardized protocols were used to collect clinical and biochemistry data. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, quantifying habitual intake over the past 12 months. The main dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The association between adherence to dietary patterns and plasma lipid levels was assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two dietary patterns were identified: a Mediterranean dietary pattern, high in vegetables, fruits, fish, white meat, nuts, and olive oil, and a Western dietary pattern, high in red meat, fast food, dairy, and cereals. Compared with the participants in the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western dietary pattern, those in the highest quintile had 4.6 mg/dL lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), 8 mg/dL lower apolipoprotein A1 levels (P = .005) and a greater risk of having decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio = 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-7.5; P-trend = .03). Participants adhering to the Mediterranean dietary pattern had 3.3mg/dL higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), and a ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol that was 0.43 times lower (P = .043). Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved lipid profile compared with a Western dietary pattern, which was associated with a lower odds of optimal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in this population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of iron on growth, lipid accumulation, and gene expression profile of the freshwater microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Wan, Minxi; Jin, Xuejie; Xia, Jinlan; Rosenberg, Julian N; Yu, Geng; Nie, Zhenyuan; Oyler, George A; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The effects of iron on the growth, lipid accumulation, and gene expression profiles of the limnetic Chlorella sorokiniana CCTCC M209220 under photoautotrophy were investigated. The addition of iron up to 10(-5) mol l(-l) increased final cell densities by nearly 2-fold at 2.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, growth rate by 2-fold, and the length of the exponential phase by 5 days as compared to unsupplemented controls while 10(-3) mol l(-1) iron was toxic. The lipid content increased from 12 % for unsupplemented cultures to 33 % at 10(-4) mol l(-1) iron while the highest overall lipid yield reached 179 mg l(-1). A genefishing and qPCR comparison between the C. sorokiniana at low and high iron levels indicated increases in the expression of several genes, including carbonic anhydrase involved in microalgal cell growth, as well as acc1 and choline transporter related to lipid synthesis. This study provides insights into changes in gene expression and metabolism that accompany iron supplementation to Chlorella as well as potential metabolic engineering targets for improving growth and lipid synthesis in microalgae.

  1. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  2. The impact of the modified Atkins diet on lipid profiles in adults with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Patton, Katlyn; Eloyan, Ani; Henry, Bobbie; Kossoff, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet used to treat intractable seizures in children and adults. The long-term impact on fasting lipid profiles (FLPs) remains unknown. This study was designed to detect significant lipid changes in adults on MAD. Patients were observed prospectively. A FLP was obtained in all patients at the first visit then serially. Patients were started on a 20 g per day net carbohydrate limit MAD. They were screened for risk for coronary heart disease and counseled to reduce saturated fats by a registered dietitian if deemed at risk. Patients that remained on MAD for 3 or more months with one or more follow-up FLP were included. Thirty-seven patients (14 male), mean age 33 years (SD 13, range 18-59) met study criteria. Median diet duration was 16 months (range 3-41). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increased significantly over the first 3 months of MAD (P = 0.01 and 0.008, respectively), but were not significantly different from baseline after 1 year of treatment (P = 0.2 and P = 0.5, respectively). High-density lipoprotein levels trended upward in the first 3 months (P = 0.05) and triglycerides remained unchanged (P = 0.5). In 12 patients followed for 3 or more years, no cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events were reported. Although total cholesterol and LDL increased over the first 3 months of the MAD, these values normalized within a year of treatment, including in patients treated with MAD for more than 3 years.

  3. Interaction of hypercaloric diet and physical exercise on lipid profile, oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses.

    PubMed

    Burneiko, Regina C M; Diniz, Yeda S; Galhardi, Cristiano M; Rodrigues, Hosana G; Ebaid, Geovana M X; Faine, Luciane A; Padovani, Carlos R; Cicogna, Antonio C; Novelli, Ethel L B

    2006-07-01

    The present study examined the interaction of hypercaloric diet (HD) and physical exercise on lipid profile and oxidative stress in serum and liver of rats. Male Wistar rats (60-days-old) were fed with a control (C) and hypercaloric diet (H). Each of the two dietary groups (C and H) was divided into three subgroups (n=8), sedentary (CS and HS), exercised 2days a week (CE2 and HE2) and exercised 5days a week (CE5 and HE5). The swimming was selected as a model for exercise performance. After 8-weeks exercised rats showed decreased lactate dehydrogenase serum activities, demonstrating the effectiveness of the swimming as an aerobic-training protocol. Exercise 5-days a week reduced the body weight gain. Triacylglycerol (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) were increased in HD-fed rats. HE5 and CE5 rats had decreased TG, VLDL-C and cholesterol. HE2 rats had enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in serum. No alterations were observed in lipid hydroperoxide (LH), while total antioxidant substances (TAS) were increased in serum of exercised rats. HD-fed rats had hepatic TG accumulation. Superoxide dismutase activities were increased and catalase was decreased in liver of exercised rats. The interaction of HD and physical exercise reduced TAS and enhanced LH levels in hepatic tissue. In conclusion, this study confirmed the beneficial effect of physical exercise as a dyslipidemic-lowering component. Interaction of HD and physical exercise had discrepant effects on serum and liver oxidative stress. The interaction of HD and physical exercise reduced the oxidative stress in serum. HD and physical exercise interaction had pro-oxidant effect on hepatic tissue, suggesting that more studies should be done before using physical exercise as an adjunct therapy to reduce the adverse effects of HD.

  4. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  5. Comparison between the Effect of Cow Ghee and Butter on Memory and Lipid Profile of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Yogita Surendra; Bansude, Akshata Sanjay; Angadi, Eesha Ajit

    2016-09-01

    The traditional texts designate Cow Ghee as Medhya Rasayana, beneficial for mental alertness and memory. There has been concern about increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to its high percentage of saturated fatty acids in ghee. Amongst all edible fats, nutrition composition of cow ghee and butter is comparatively similar. Hence we had planned a study to assess effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. So the aim of this study is to assess the effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. Nootropic activity of test drugs was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) model. Rats were divided into four groups namely control, Piracetam, cow ghee and butter. All drugs were given orally for 21 days. Transfer latency was measured in EPM model and probe test was done in MWM model. Cow ghee and butter group showed no significant effect on memory in EPM and MWM model. There was reduction in weight of animals in Cow Ghee group and increase in weight with Butter. In both the models there was a significant increase in Triglyceride (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) levels of rats in butter groups and increase in TG and VLDL of rats with cow ghee in EPM model. The result of experiment suggests that no beneficial effect cow ghee and butter on cognition was seen. However, ghee is relatively safer when compared to Butter in considering lipid profile.

  6. Comparison between the Effect of Cow Ghee and Butter on Memory and Lipid Profile of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bansude, Akshata Sanjay; Angadi, Eesha Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The traditional texts designate Cow Ghee as Medhya Rasayana, beneficial for mental alertness and memory. There has been concern about increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to its high percentage of saturated fatty acids in ghee. Amongst all edible fats, nutrition composition of cow ghee and butter is comparatively similar. Hence we had planned a study to assess effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. Aim So the aim of this study is to assess the effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile Materials and Methods Nootropic activity of test drugs was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) model. Rats were divided into four groups namely control, Piracetam, cow ghee and butter. All drugs were given orally for 21 days. Transfer latency was measured in EPM model and probe test was done in MWM model. Results Cow ghee and butter group showed no significant effect on memory in EPM and MWM model. There was reduction in weight of animals in Cow Ghee group and increase in weight with Butter. In both the models there was a significant increase in Triglyceride (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) levels of rats in butter groups and increase in TG and VLDL of rats with cow ghee in EPM model. Conclusion The result of experiment suggests that no beneficial effect cow ghee and butter on cognition was seen. However, ghee is relatively safer when compared to Butter in considering lipid profile. PMID:27790463

  7. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  8. Oral magnesium supplementation improves glycemic control and lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes and hypomagnesaemia.

    PubMed

    Shahbah, Doaaa; Hassan, Tamer; Morsy, Saeed; Saadany, Hosam El; Fathy, Manar; Al-Ghobashy, Ashgan; Elsamad, Nahla; Emam, Ahmed; Elhewala, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Boshra; Gebaly, Sherief El; Sayed, Hany El; Ahmed, Hanan

    2017-03-01

    Dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg) in addition to classical therapies for diabetes may help in prevention or delaying of diabetic complications.We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assessing its relationship to glycemic control and lipid profile. Then evaluating the effect of oral Mg supplementation on glycemic control and lipid parameters.We included 71 children at Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic, Zagazig University, Egypt with type 1 diabetes and assessed HBA1c, lipid profile, and serum Mg at the start of study. Patients with serum Mg level < 1.7 mg/dL were given 300 mg Mg oxide for 3 months. After that we reevaluated HBA1c, lipid profile, and serum Mg in all patients.The study included 71 patients with type 1 diabetes (32 males and 39 females); their mean age was 9.68 ± 3.99 years. The mean serum Mg level was 1.83 ± .27 mg/dL. Hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% study patients. Serum Mg was found to be positively correlated with high density lipoprotein, mean corpuscular volume and platelet count (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001). There was significant reduction in HBA1c in group given Mg supplementation. HBA1c was initially 10.11% ± 0.87%. After 3 months of oral Mg supplementation it is reduced to 7.88% ± 0.42% (P < 0.001). There was statistically significant difference in lipid parameters in hypomagnesemic diabetic patients before and after Mg supplementation with significant reduction in serum triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol following Mg supplementation with P < 0.001. Although HDL shows a significant increase after Mg supplementation in hypomagnesemic diabetic children with P < 0.001.Correction of hypomagnesemia in type 1 diabetic children with oral Mg supplements is associated with optimization of glycemic control and

  9. Oral magnesium supplementation improves glycemic control and lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes and hypomagnesaemia

    PubMed Central

    Shahbah, Doaaa; Hassan, Tamer; Morsy, Saeed; Saadany, Hosam El; Fathy, Manar; Al-Ghobashy, Ashgan; Elsamad, Nahla; Emam, Ahmed; Elhewala, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Boshra; Gebaly, Sherief El; Sayed, Hany El; Ahmed, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg) in addition to classical therapies for diabetes may help in prevention or delaying of diabetic complications. We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assessing its relationship to glycemic control and lipid profile. Then evaluating the effect of oral Mg supplementation on glycemic control and lipid parameters. We included 71 children at Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic, Zagazig University, Egypt with type 1 diabetes and assessed HBA1c, lipid profile, and serum Mg at the start of study. Patients with serum Mg level < 1.7 mg/dL were given 300 mg Mg oxide for 3 months. After that we reevaluated HBA1c, lipid profile, and serum Mg in all patients. The study included 71 patients with type 1 diabetes (32 males and 39 females); their mean age was 9.68 ± 3.99 years. The mean serum Mg level was 1.83 ± .27 mg/dL. Hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% study patients. Serum Mg was found to be positively correlated with high density lipoprotein, mean corpuscular volume and platelet count (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001). There was significant reduction in HBA1c in group given Mg supplementation. HBA1c was initially 10.11% ± 0.87%. After 3 months of oral Mg supplementation it is reduced to 7.88% ± 0.42% (P < 0.001). There was statistically significant difference in lipid parameters in hypomagnesemic diabetic patients before and after Mg supplementation with significant reduction in serum triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol following Mg supplementation with P < 0.001. Although HDL shows a significant increase after Mg supplementation in hypomagnesemic diabetic children with P < 0.001. Correction of hypomagnesemia in type 1 diabetic children with oral Mg supplements is associated with optimization of glycemic

  10. Kinetic Control of Histidine-Tagged Protein Surface Density on Supported Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, Jeffrey A.; Groves, Jay T.

    2008-02-28

    Nickel-chelating lipids are general tools for anchoring polyhistidine-tagged proteins to supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), but controversy exists over the stability of the protein-lipid attachment. In this study, we show that chelator lipids are suitable anchors for building stable, biologically active surfaces but that a simple Langmuirian model is insufficient to describe their behavior. Desorption kinetics from chelator lipids are governed by the valency of surface binding: monovalently bound proteins desorb within minutes (t1/2 ≈ 6 min), whereas polyvalently bound species remain bound for hours (t1/2 ≈ 12 h). Evolution between surface states is slow, so equilibrium is unlikely to be reached on experimental timescales. However, by tuning incubation conditions, the populations of each species can be kinetically controlled, providing a wide range of protein densities on SLBs with a single concentration of chelator lipid. In conclusion, we propose guidelines for the assembly of SLB surfaces functionalized with specific protein densities and demonstrate their utility in the formation of hybrid immunological synapses.

  11. Association of lipid profile test values, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, D S; Chopra, Jyoti; Sood, Anchal

    2015-01-01

    A two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease has been suggested; whereas obesity and impaired lipid profile are risk factors for type-2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the relationship between lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with periodontal health/disease dependent variables in healthy, diabetic and impaired glucose tolerance subjects. 120 patients were selected for the study and were determined to be periodontally healthy or diseased. All these patients underwent biochemical tests for OGTT and Lipid profile analysis and data was compared using Z-test. The OGTT results deteriorated with deteriorating periodontal condition. A similar correlation was also observed between worsening lipid profile test values, OGTT score, and periodontal condition. This study indicates that hyperlipidemia may be one of the factors associated with periodontitis and that periodontitis may itself lead to abnormal serum lipid levels. Therefore, in addition to effects on diabetes, periodontitis may contribute to elevated serum lipid levels and therefore potentially to systemic disease arising from chronic hyperlipidemia.

  12. Dietary Supplementation with Virgin Coconut Oil Improves Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Status and Has Potential Benefits on Cardiovascular Risk Indices in Normal Rats.

    PubMed

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Nwali, Sophia C; Agbo, Ngozi N; Obi, Joy N; Ezechukwu, Goodness C

    2017-08-17

    Research findings that suggest beneficial health effects of dietary supplementation with virgin coconut oil (VCO) are limited in the published literature. This study investigated the in vivo effects of a 5-week VCO-supplemented diet on lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, hepatorenal function, and cardiovascular risk indices in normal rats. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 treatment groups (10% and 15% VCO-supplemented diets) for 5 weeks. Serum and homogenate samples were used to analyze lipid profile, hepatorenal function markers, hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde level. Lipid profile of animals fed VCO diets showed significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level increased significantly (p < .05) compared to control; and there were beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk indices. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, remarkably reduced and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-were markedly increased in VCO diet-fed rats. The VCO diet significantly modulated creatinine, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to control. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of VCO on lipid profile, renal status, hepatic antioxidant defense system, and cardiovascular risk indices in rats.

  13. Lipid profiling of in vitro cell models of adipogenic differentiation: relationships with mouse adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A.; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V.; Siviski, Matthew E.; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Baker, Paul R.S.; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MSALL. Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MSALL data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. PMID:26910604

  14. Evaluation of Lipid Profiles and the Use of Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Anthony; Norwig, John; Maroon, Joseph C.; Bost, Jeffrey; Bradley, James P.; Duca, Mark; Wecht, Daniel A.; Grove, Ryan; Iso, Ariko; Cobb, Ingrid; Ross, Nathan; Borden, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research showed 82% of 233 retired National Football League players under age 50 had abnormal narrowing and blockages in arteries compared to the general population of the same age. It has been suggested that early screening and intervention in this at-risk population be a priority. Hypothesis: Omega-3 essential fatty acid has been shown to improve cardiovascular lipid risk factors and should improve lipid profiles in professional football players to help reduce their recently shown accelerated risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods: A total of 36 active national football players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the first group (n = 20) was provided fish oil capsules (2200 mg of mixed docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid and 360 mg of other omega-3s), and the second group (n = 16) served as controls during a 60-day trial. Vertical Auto Profile cholesterol tests directly measuring serum low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and other subfractions were performed. Compliance, side effects, and seafood consumption data were also collected. Baseline, midpoint, and poststudy blood work measured plasma docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Results: Treatment increased high-density lipoprotein (average percent change: +25.96, control +14.16), decreased triglycerides treatment (–8.06, control +43.98), very low-density lipoprotein treatment (–13.98, control +23.18), intermediate density lipoprotein (–27.58, control +12.07), remnant lipoproteins (–23.86, control +8.33), and very low-density lipoprotein-3 (–17.10, control +7.77). An average increase of 106.67% for docosahexaenoic acid and 365.82% for eicosapentaenoic acid compared to control was also shown. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation significantly improved the lipid profile of active players randomized to treatment. These results suggest that fish oil supplementation is an effective way to increase eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic

  15. Noni juice improves serum lipid profiles and other risk markers in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids.

  16. Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

  17. Effect of copper deficiency on blood lipid profile and haematological parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kaya, A; Altiner, A; Ozpinar, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the changes in haematological parameters and blood lipid profile through copper (Cu) deficiency. Eighty broiler chicks were used in the study. The chicks were separated into two equal groups (n = 40), feed treatment according to the groups started on day 7. The animals in the control group were fed with normal feed. Those in the Cu-deficient group were fed with feed that did not contain supplemental Cu. Blood samples were taken from all the animals on days 7, 21 and 49. Fibrinogen and prothrombin time were assayed in plasma; total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), triglyceride and ceruloplasmin were assayed in sera; and haematocrit and thrombocyte levels were assayed in the blood samples. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. Serum ceruloplasmin levels were lower in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. Prothrombin time was higher in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. Haematocrit levels were lower in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. It was concluded that Cu deficiency created hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, insufficient growth and anaemia in broilers.

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise on lipid profiles and high molecular weight adiponectin in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Kawano, Hiroaki; Piao, Lianhua; Itoh, Nana; Node, Koichi; Sato, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the accumulation of several metabolic risk factors. It is important to improve physical activity and dietary habits to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in humans. The study participants participated in a weekly aerobic exercise program that included a session composed of a brief meeting, warm-up exercises, and primary exercises (low and high impact, stretch, muscle training, and cooling down). To evaluate the effect of this intervention we measured body fat composition, holding power, and quality of life assessment. Blood tests were also carried out before and every 3 months during the study. Of the 37 participants enrolled in the exercise group, 31 (83.8%) completed the 12-week program. The control group consisted of 42 subjects, 36 (85.7%) of whom were available for follow-up at the end of the 12-week study period. In the exercise group, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, the World Health Organization quality of life 26 (WHO-QOL 26) score, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol had improved significantly at the end of three months. The high molecular weight adiponectin concentration of the participants in the exercise group increased during the 9-month period of the study, although this change did not reach statistical significance compared with pre-exercise. Aerobic exercise led to an improvement in body composition and lipid profiles. High molecular weight adiponectin concentrations tended to improve compared with pre-aerobic exercise levels.

  19. Effects of shrimp (Macrobracium rosenbergii)-derived chitosan on plasma lipid profile and liver lipid peroxide levels in normo- and hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shahdat; Rahman, Azizur; Kabir, Yearul; Shams, Ali Ahmed; Afros, Fahmida; Hashimoto, Michio

    2007-03-01

    1. The effects of chitosan (CS) derived from the exoskeleton of the shrimp Macrobracium rosenbergii on bodyweight, plasma lipid profile, fatty acid composition, liver lipid peroxide (LPO) levels and plasma levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined in normocholesterolaemic (NC) and hypercholesterolaemic (HC) Long Evans rats. 2. The NC rats were fed a diet containing 2% CS and the HC rats were fed a diet containing 2 and 4% CS for 8 weeks. Chitosan significantly reduced bodyweight gain only in HC + 4% CS rats compared with HC rats, but not in NC + 2% CS or HC + 2% CS rats. 3. Chitosan reduced plasma total cholesterol in the HC + 2% CS, HC + 4% CS and NC + 2% CS rats; however, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased only in the first two groups. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in the HC + 4% CS rats by 24% compared with the HC + 2% CS group and by 30% compared with HC rats; however, HDL-C did not increase in the NC + 2% CS group compared with NC rats. The level of plasma triglycerides decreased significantly only in HC + 2% CS rats compared with HC rats. 4. Chitosan significantly decreased plasma levels of arachidonic acid in the HC + 2% CS and HC + 4% CS groups, with a concurrent increase in the molar ratio of total unsaturated fatty acid (TUFA) to total saturated fatty acid (TSFA). 5. Moreover, CS increased liver LPO levels without affecting plasma levels of GPT. Liver LPO levels were positively correlated with the TUFA/TSFA molar ratio. 6. The present study suggests that dietary CS decreases the atherogenic lipid profiles of both NC and HC rats and reduces the bodyweight gain of HC rats.

  20. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Devi, K. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  1. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  2. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  3. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Hamid; Zhao, Baixiao; Darbandi, Mahsa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Tavallaie, Shima; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Safariyan, Mohammad; Nemati, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Maryam; Abbasi-Parizad, Parisa; Darbandi, Sara; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Ferns, Gordon A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps)-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia. PMID:22649299

  4. Pattern of Altered Lipid Profile in Patients with Subclinical and Clinical Hypothyroidism and its Correlation with Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Humerah, Sobia; Siddiqui, Arif; Khan, Humaira Fayyaz

    2016-06-01

    To compare the lipid profile of the subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients and to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile in hypothyroidism. Cross-sectional study. Islamic International Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, and Citi Laboratory, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. The subjects were selected through non-probability, purposive sampling. On the basis of thyroid profile, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: euthyroids (n=20), subclinical hypothyroids (n=50), and clinical hypothyroids (n=30). The blood of these subjects was then analyzed for lipid profile. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18 statistical software. Both hypothyroid groups showed altered lipid profile which was observed to be significantly raised when compared with the euthyroid subjects. Comparison of lipid profile in euthyroid, subclinical, and clinical hypothyroid groups showed significant differences by non-parametric tests (p < 0.05). An assessment of correlation of lipid profile with the BMI was found to be significant (p < 0.01). Hypothyroidism causes alteration of lipid profile. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroid patients have altered lipid profile as compared to euthyroids. Thyroid status monitoring is very important, since it can induce changes in lipid profile. Such dyslipidemic status is significant not only for the management of thyroid disorders but also for common diseases like obesity and coronary atherosclerosis in the population.

  5. Automated Processing of ISIS Topside Ionograms into Electron Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter; Hills, H. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Modeling of the topside ionosphere has for the most part relied on just a few years of data from topside sounder satellites. The widely used Bent et al. (1972) model, for example, is based on only 50,000 Alouette 1 profiles. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza, 1990, 2001) uses an analytical description of the graphs and tables provided by Bent et al. (1972). The Alouette 1, 2 and ISIS 1, 2 topside sounder satellites of the sixties and seventies were ahead of their times in terms of the sheer volume of data obtained and in terms of the computer and software requirements for data analysis. As a result, only a small percentage of the collected topside ionograms was converted into electron density profiles. Recently, a NASA-funded data restoration project has undertaken and is continuing the process of digitizing the Alouette/ISIS ionograms from the analog 7-track tapes. Our project involves the automated processing of these digital ionograms into electron density profiles. The project accomplished a set of important goals that will have a major impact on understanding and modeling of the topside ionosphere: (1) The TOPside Ionogram Scaling and True height inversion (TOPIST) software was developed for the automated scaling and inversion of topside ionograms. (2) The TOPIST software was applied to the over 300,000 ISIS-2 topside ionograms that had been digitized in the fkamework of a separate AISRP project (PI: R.F. Benson). (3) The new TOPIST-produced database of global electron density profiles for the topside ionosphere were made publicly available through NASA s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) ftp archive at . (4) Earlier Alouette 1,2 and ISIS 1, 2 data sets of electron density profiles from manual scaling of selected sets of ionograms were converted fiom a highly-compressed binary format into a user-friendly ASCII format and made publicly available through nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The new database for the topside

  6. Isotope and density profile effects on pedestal neoclassical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buller, S.; Pusztai, I.

    2017-10-01

    Cross-field neoclassical transport of heat, particles and momentum is studied in sharp density pedestals, with a focus on isotope and profile effects, using a radially global approach. Global effects—which tend to reduce the peak ion heat flux, and shift it outward—increase with isotope mass for fixed profiles. The heat flux reduction exhibits a saturation with a favorable isotopic trend. A significant part of the heat flux can be convective even in pure plasmas, unlike in the plasma core, and it is sensitive to how momentum sources are distributed between the various species. In particular, if only ion momentum sources are allowed, in global simulations of pure plasmas the ion particle flux remains close to its local value, while this may not be the case for simulations with isotope mixtures or electron momentum sources. The radial angular momentum transport that is a finite orbit width effect, is found to be strongly correlated with heat sources.

  7. Effects of Surface Ligand Density on Lipid-Monolayer-mediated 2D Assembly of Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuto, M.; Wang, S; Lohr, M; Kewalramani, S; Yang, L

    2010-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) assembly of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-bearing lipid monolayer was studied as a function of the surface density of biotin, a protein-binding ligand, by means of in situ X-ray scattering and optical Brewster angle microscopy measurements at the liquid-vapor interface. Although this model system has been studied extensively, the relationship between the surface biotin density and the adsorption, 2D phase behavior, and binding state of streptavidin has yet to be determined quantitatively. The observed equilibrium phase behavior provides direct structural evidence that the 2D crystallization of the lipid-bound streptavidin occurs as a density-driven first-order phase transition. The minimum biotin density required for the 2D crystallization of streptavidin is found to be remarkably close to the density of the ligand-binding sites in the protein crystal. Moreover, both above and below this transition, the observed biotin-density dependence of protein adsorption is well described by the binding of biotin-bearing lipids at both of the two available sites per streptavidin molecule. These results imply that even in the low-density noncrystalline phase, the bound proteins share a common, fixed orientation relative to the surface normal, and that the 2D crystallization occurs when the lateral protein density reaches 50-70% of the 2D crystal density. This study demonstrates that in addition to a well-defined molecular orientation, high lateral packing density is essential to the 2D crystallization of proteins.

  8. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  9. Characterization of Lipid Composition and High-Density Lipoprotein Function in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Alana M.; Chow, Dominic C.; Playford, Martin P.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A.; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is an increase in the cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in individuals infected with HIV that may be due to inflammatory lipid modulation not captured by traditional lipid measures. The objective of this study was to perform advanced lipoprotein phenotyping inclusive of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity and lipoprotein particle concentration and size in a well-phenotyped group of 118 patients infected with HIV. We used simple and multivariable analyses to determine the associations between advanced lipoprotein parameters and known cardiometabolic risk factors. Participants were on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) and had benign traditional lipid panels [median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides of 178 mg/dl, 108 mg/dl, 44 mg/dl, and 122.5 mg/dl, respectively]. However, advanced lipoprotein phenotyping demonstrated an elevation of LDL particle number (median of 1,233 nmol/liter) and a decrease in LDL size (median of 20.4 nm), along with a decrease in protective, large HDL particles (median of 3.15 μmol/liter) and reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in comparison to controls of other studies. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with HDL levels (β=0.395, p<0.001), small LDL particle concentration (β=–0.198, p=0.031), insulin sensitivity by the Matsuda index (β=0.218, p=0.029), and the Framingham Risk Score (β=–0.184, p=0.046). We demonstrate an atherogenic lipoprotein profile by NMR spectroscopy and HDL efflux measurement in a group of HIV-infected patients on stable ART with normal lipid panels. PMID:25416403

  10. Constant Surface Gravity and Density Profile of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    Cumulative observational evidence confirms that the surface gravity of dark matter (DM) halos μ0 D = r0ρ0, where r0 and ρ0 are the halo core radius and central density, respectively, is nearly constant and independent of galaxy luminosity for a high number of galactic systems (spirals, dwarf irregular and spheroidals, elliptics) spanning over 14 magnitudes in luminosity and of different Hubble types. Remarkably, its numerical value, μ0D ≃140M⊙/pc2 = (18.6 MeV)3, is approximately the same (up to a factor of 2) in all these systems. First, we present the physical consequences of the independence of μ0D from r0: the energy scales as the volume ˜ r03, while the mass and the entropy scale as the surface ˜ r02 and the surface times log r0, respectively. Namely, the entropy scales similarly to the black hole entropy but with a much smaller coefficient. Second, we compute the surface gravity and the density profile for small scales from first principles and the evolution of primordial density fluctuations from the end of inflation till today using the linearized Boltzmann-Vlasov equation. The density profile ρlin(r) obtained in this way decreases as r-1-ns/2 for intermediate scales, where ns≃0.964 is the primordial spectral index. This scaling is in remarkable agreement with the empirical behavior found observationally and in N-body simulations: r-1.6±0.4. The observed value of μ0D indicates that the DM particle mass m is on the keV scale. The theoretically derived density profiles ρlin(r) turn to be cored for m on the keV scale and they are cusped for m on the GeV scale or beyond. We consider both fermions and bosons as DM particles decoupling either ultrarelativistically or nonrelativistically. Our results do not use any particle physics model and vary slightly with the statistics of the DM particle.

  11. Impact of physical activity on obesity and lipid profile of adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Krystyna; Zwierzchowska, Anna; Celebańska, Diana

    2017-09-11

    This study assessed overweight, obesity and lipid profiles in adults with intellectual disability and compared these metrics with their physical activity. Basic somatic parameters, lipid profile and weekly physical activity were examined in 27 adults with moderate intellectual disability. Chi-square independence tests and Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were used. The participants had excess body mass, excess body fat and abdominal obesity. Very high positive correlations were shown between body mass index and both waist circumference and %fat. The lipid profiles were more favourable in the general population. Healthy levels of physical activity were observed in 8% of women and 26% of men. A high negative correlation was found between physical activity and body mass index. The study group was characterized by excess body mass and insufficient levels of physical activity. Body mass index and waist circumference are sufficient indicators for identifying obesity in adults with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of exercise intensity on lipid profile in sedentary obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Umamaheswari; Vasudevan, Kavita; Balasubramaniam, Kavita; Yerrabelli, Dhanalakshmi; Shanmugavel, Karthik; John, Nitin Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Exercise is a lifestyle change that has been recommended for lowering atherogenic index in adults. The intensity and duration of exercise to bring about a change in the lipid parameters are yet to be determined. Previous studies examining the effects of exercise intensity on lipid and lipoprotein levels have reported conflicting findings. Thus we aimed at determining the changes in lipid profile in sedentary obese adults influenced by different intensity of exercise. Study included 51 obese adults with sedentary lifestyle. Participants performed exercise of moderate intensity (n=22) and high intermittent intensity (n=29) for a duration of 40min/day for 5 days/week and 20 min/day for 3 days/week respectively on bicycle ergometer for a period of 15 weeks. Pretesting and post testing included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure and lipid profile. RESULTS were analysed using the Paired and Unpaired samples t-test. Postexercise revealed significant reduction in the LDL-C and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05) with the high intensity exercise group.There was a significant difference in BMI, lipid profile and blood pressure in both the moderate and high intensity exercise group. This study suggests that exercise is "elixir" for a healthy life. High intermittent intensity can be considered for individuals who have time constraints and lead a sedentary life style and moderate intensity exercise advised for individuals who are willing to create time for their health benefits. A programmed protocol of exercise will help in reduction of lipid parameters.

  13. The lipid profile in obese asthmatic children compared to non-obese asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Fang, L-J; Huang, C-S; Liu, Y-C; Su, Y-M; Wan, K-S

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between asthma and obesity has been documented in children and adolescents. An alternate day calorie restriction diet has been reported to improve asthma symptoms by decreasing levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides, reducing markers of oxidative stress and increasing levels of the antioxidant uric acid. Therefore, to investigate the lipid profile in asthmatic children may be important in asthma control treatment. One hundred and sixty newly diagnosed persistent asthmatic children were selected to participate in the study. They were divided into four groups based on their body mass index (BMI): Group I normal weight (BMI=20-24.9kg/m(2), n=30); Group II under-weight (BMI<20kg/m(2), n=30); Group III overweight (BMI=25-30kg/m(2), n=25); and Group IV obese (BMI>30kg/m(2), n=25). Fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, and HbA1c were measured to exclude the possibility of pre-diabetes. Lipid profile measurements included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-A1, apo-B and triglycerides. There were no significant differences in the levels of apo-A1, apo-B, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL in all four groups. Only the level of HDL was higher in GIV>GIII>GII>GI (75.84±13.95, 68.56±15.28, 64.17±13.93, 63.17±14.34mg/dl, respectively). There were no cases of pre-diabetes in any of the four groups. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia were not found in any of the persistent asthmatic children, and thus they are not high risk factors for asthma. Similarly, there were no differences in apo-A1 and apo-B between any of the BMI groups. No differences were found in LDL levels, however HDL levels were increased in all four groups, indicating that allergic sensitisation may have occurred. Controlling body weight and restricting calorie intake may be as important as appropriate pharmacological management in controlling asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  14. Effect of genistein against copper-induced lipid peroxidation of human high density lipoproteins (HDL).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Bacchetti, T; Menanno, F; Curatola, G

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the isoflavone genistein exerts a protective effect against lipid peroxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Aim of our study was to investigate whether genistein protects high density lipoproteins (HDL), isolated from normolipemic subjects, against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation. Our results demonstrated that genistein exerts an inhibitory effect against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation of HDL, as shown by the lower increase in the levels of conjugated dienes in lipoproteins oxidized after preincubation with different concentrations of genistein (0.5-2.5microM). Moreover the analysis of fluorescence emission spectra of tryptophan (Trp) and Laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethyl-aminonaphthalene) demonstrated that genistein prevents the alterations of apoprotein structure and physico-chemical properties, associated with Cu(++)-triggered lipid peroxidation of lipoproteins. The protective effect exerted by genistein against oxidative damage of lipoproteins was realized at concentrations similar to those observed in plasma of human subjects consuming a traditional soy diet or receiving a soy supplement. Therefore, we suggested that antioxidant activity exerted by genistein against lipid peroxidation of HDL in vitro could be of physiological relevance.

  15. Lipid traffic between high density lipoproteins and Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Several intraerythrocytic growth cycles of Plasmodium falciparum could be achieved in vitro using a serum free medium supplemented only with a human high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction (d = 1.063-1.210). The parasitemia obtained was similar to that in standard culture medium containing human serum. The parasite development was incomplete with the low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction and did not occur with the VLDL fraction. The lipid traffic from HDL to the infected erythrocytes was demonstrated by pulse labeling experiments using HDL loaded with either fluorescent NBD-phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC) or radioactive [3H]palmitoyl-PC. At 37 degrees C, the lipid probes rapidly accumulated in the infected cells. After incubation in HDL medium containing labeled PC, a subsequent incubation in medium with either an excess of native HDL or 20% human serum induced the disappearance of the label from the erythrocyte plasma membrane but not from the intraerythrocytic parasite. Internalization of lipids did not occur at 4 degrees C. The mechanism involved a unidirectional flux of lipids but no endocytosis. The absence of labeling of P. falciparum, with HDL previously [125I]iodinated on their apolipoproteins or with antibodies against the apolipoproteins AI and AII by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, confirmed that no endocytosis of the HDL was involved. A possible pathway of lipid transport could be a membrane flux since fluorescence videomicroscopy showed numerous organelles labeled with NBD-PC moving between the erythrocyte and the parasitophorous membranes. TLC analysis showed that a partial conversion of the PC to phosphatidylethanolamine was observed in P. falciparum-infected red cells after pulse with [3H]palmitoyl-PC-HDL. The intensity of the lipid traffic was stage dependent with a maximum at the trophozoite and young schizont stages (38th h of the erythrocyte life cycle). We conclude that the HDL fraction appears to be a major lipid source for Plasmodium

  16. The lipidation profile of aquaporin-0 correlates with the acyl composition of phosphoethanolamine lipids in lens membranes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Vian S; Mosely, Jackie A; Tapodi, Antal; Quinlan, Roy A; Sanderson, John M

    2016-11-01

    The lens fiber major intrinsic protein (otherwise known as aquaporin-0 (AQP0), MIP26 and MP26) has been examined by mass spectrometry (MS) in order to determine the speciation of acyl modifications to the side chains of lysine residues and the N-terminal amino group. The speciation of acyl modifications to the side chain of one specific, highly conserved lysine residue (K238) and the N-terminal amino group of human and bovine AQP0 revealed, in decreasing order of abundance, oleoyl, palmitoyl, stearoyl, eicosenoyl, dihomo-γ-linolenoyl, palmitoleoyl and eicosadienoyl modifications. In the case of human AQP0, an arachidonoyl modification was also found at the N-terminus. The relative abundances of these modifications mirror the fatty acid composition of lens phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. This lipid class would be expected to be concentrated in the inner leaflet of the lens fiber membrane to which each of the potential AQP0 lipidation sites is proximal. Our data evidence a broad lipidation profile that is both species and site independent, suggesting a chemical-based ester aminolysis mechanism to explain such modifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. An impact of the diet on serum fatty acid and lipid profiles in Polish vegetarian children and children with allergy.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, D; Paściak, M; Szponar, B; Gamian, A; Jankowski, A

    2011-02-01

    Vegetarian diet has become an increasing trend in western world and in Poland. The frequency of allergies is growing, and the effectiveness of vegetarian diet in allergic diseases is a concern for research. We aimed to study an effect of vegetarian diet on lipid profile in serum in a group of Polish children in Poland and to investigate lipid parameters in healthy vegetarian children and in omnivorous children with diagnosed atopic disease. Serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fatty acids) were assessed in groups of children: healthy vegetarians (n=24) and children with diagnosed atopic diseases (n=16), with control group of healthy omnivores (n=18). Diet classification was assessed by a questionnaire. No differences were observed in serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids level in all groups. In the group of Polish vegetarian children, we recorded high consumption of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acid, and sunflower oil containing linoleic acid. This observation was associated with higher content of linoleic acid in serum in this group. Among polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid revealed significantly (P<0.05) lower levels in allergy vs vegetarian groups. In case of eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3 fatty acid), the allergy group showed higher levels of this compound in comparison to vegetarians. Significantly higher concentration of linoleic acid in vegetarian children in comparison to allergy group indicated possible alternative path of lipid metabolism in studied groups, and in consequence, some elements of vegetarian diet may promote protection against allergy.

  18. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  19. Calibration phantoms for accurate water and lipid density quantification using dual energy mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.-M.; Ding, H.; Kumar, N.; Sennung, D.; Molloi, S.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of water and lipid as calibration phantoms for accurate dual energy breast density quantification. Dual energy calibration was performed on a mammography system based on scanning multi-slit Si strip photon-counting detectors using plastic water and adipose-equivalent phantoms as the basis materials. Two different methods were used to convert the dual energy decomposition measurements in plastic phantom thicknesses into the true water and lipid basis materials. The first method was based entirely on the theoretically calculated effective attenuation coefficients of the investigated materials in the mammographic energy range. The conversion matrix was determined through the linear least-squares fitting of the target material using the calculated effective attenuation coefficients of water and lipid. The second method was based on experimental calibration with plastic water phantom, adipose-equivalent phantom, and its correlation to known water and lipid thicknesses. These two methods were then validated by using an independent measurement of water and lipid mixture phantoms and postmortem breasts. The correlation between the dual energy decomposition measurements and the known values was evaluated using linear regression analysis. The averaged root-mean-square errors for water density quantification derived from the theoretical and experimental conversions were 8.6% and 1.6%, respectively. The postmortem breast tissue study also indicates that the experimentally acquired conversion coefficient improved the accuracy in water density quantification, in comparison with that from the theoretical conversion. The results show that conversion of the dual energy measurements into water and lipid thicknesses improves the accuracy in breast tissue decomposition.

  20. Density profile of strongly correlated spherical Yukawa plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, M.; Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Golubnychiy, V.; Baumgartner, H.; Piel, A.; Block, D.

    2006-10-01

    Recently the discovery of 3D-dust crystals [1] excited intensive experimental and theoretical activities [2-4]. Details of the shell structure of these crystals has been very well explained theoretically by a simple model involving an isotropic Yukawa-type pair repulsion and an external harmonic confinement potential [4]. On the other hand, it has remained an open question how the average radial density profile, looks like. We show that screening has a dramatic effect on the density profile, which we derive analytically for the ground state. Interestingly, the result applies not only to a continuous plasma distribution but also to simulation data for the Coulomb crystals exhibiting the above mentioned shell structure. Furthermore, excellent agreement between the continuum model and shell models is found [5]. [1] O. Arp, D. Block, A. Piel, and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] H. Totsuji, C. Totsuji, T. Ogawa, and K. Tsuruta, Phys. Rev. E 71, 045401 (2005) [3] P. Ludwig, S. Kosse, and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. E 71, 046403 (2005) [4] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golubnychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel, and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006) [5] C. Henning, M. Bonitz, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, H. Baumgartner, V. Golubnichiy, and D. Block, submitted to Phys. Rev. E

  1. Lipid profile of coronary risk subjects following yogic lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, A S; Reddy, K S; Sachdeva, U

    1999-01-01

    The effect of yogic lifestyle on the lipid status was studied in angina patients and normal subjects with risk factors of coronary artery disease. The parameters included the body weight, estimation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and the cholesterol - HDL ratio. A baseline evaluation was done and then the angina patients and risk factors subjects were randomly assigned as control (n = 41) and intervention (yoga) group (n = 52). Lifestyle advice was given to both the groups. An integrated course of yoga training was given for four days followed by practice at home. Serial evaluation of both the groups was done at four, 10 and 14 weeks. Dyslipidemia was a constant feature in all cases. An inconsistent pattern of change was observed in the control group of angina (n = 18) and risk factor subjects (n = 23). The subjects practising yoga showed a regular decrease in all lipid parameters except HDL. The effect started from four weeks and lasted for 14 weeks. Thus, the effect of yogic lifestyle on some of the modifiable risk factors could probably explain the preventive and therapeutic beneficial effect observed in coronary artery disease.

  2. [Lipid profile modifications in post-menopausal women treated with testosterone gel].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carvajal, Johanna; Luz-Araujo, Hedy; Guerra-Velázquez, Mery; Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Santos-Bolívar, Joel; Torres-Cepeda, Duly; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    To assess lipid profile changes in post-menopausal women treated with testosterone gel. Thirty-six oophorectomized women on estradiol treatment who received transdermal testosterone gel (5mg daily) were enrolled into our study. Cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and lipoprotein (a) were tested before and after 6 months of treatment. Selected participants had a mean age of 50.9±4.6 years and a body mass index of 30.1±3.8 kg/m(2). Significantly decreased cholesterol levels were found after 6 months of treatment (204.5±35.1 mg/dL before treatment as compared to 183.1±21.9 mg/dL after treatment; p<0.05). A significant reduction was also seen in LDL-C levels after 6 months of treatment with testosterone gel as compared to baseline (130.9±29.7 mg/dL versus 118.5±21.3 mg/dL; p<0.05). No differences were found in triglyceride, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and lipoprotein (a) levels (p=ns). El gel de testosterona, asociado a tratamiento estrogénico en mujeres ooforectomizadas, produce disminución de las concentraciones de colesterol y LDL-C posterior a 6 meses de tratamiento, sin afectar las concentraciones de triglicéridos, HDL-C, VLDL-C y lipoproteína (a)Testosterone gel, associated to estrogen treatment in oophorectomized women, decreased cholesterol and LDL-C levels after 6 months of treatment, without affecting serum triglyceride, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and lipoprotein (a) levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanogyroids Incorporating Multivalent Lipids: Enhanced Membrane Charge Density and Pore Forming Ability for Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Cecília; Ewert, Kai K.; Shirazi, Rahau S.; Bouxsein, Nathan F.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2011-01-01

    The self-assembly of a custom-synthesized pentavalent cationic lipid (MVL5) and glycerol monooleate (GMO) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) results in the formation of a double-gyroid bicontinuous inverted cubic phase with co-localized lipid/siRNA domains as shown by synchrotron X-ray scattering and fluorescence microscopy. The high charge density (due to MVL5) and positive Gaussian modulus of the GMO-containing membranes confer optimal electrostatic and elastic properties for endosomal escape, enabling efficient siRNA delivery and effective, specific gene silencing. PMID:21612245

  4. Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Paxton; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Guo, Baozhu; Burow, Mark; Puppala, Naveen; Gallo, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding of plant biology. Results We have developed a high-density oligonucleotide microarray for peanut using 49,205 publicly available ESTs and tested the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues. To identify putatively tissue-specific genes and demonstrate the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues, we compared transcript levels in pod, peg, leaf, stem, and root tissues. Results from this experiment showed 108 putatively pod-specific/abundant genes, as well as transcripts whose expression was low or undetected in pod compared to peg, leaf, stem, or root. The transcripts significantly over-represented in pod include genes responsible for seed storage proteins and desiccation (e.g., late-embryogenesis abundant proteins, aquaporins, legumin B), oil production, and cellular defense. Additionally, almost half of the pod-abundant genes represent unknown genes allowing for the possibility of associating putative function to these previously uncharacterized genes. Conclusion The peanut oligonucleotide array represents the majority of publicly available peanut ESTs and can be used as a tool for expression profiling studies in diverse tissues. PMID:19523230

  5. [Characterization of lipid profile in primary health care users in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Cortez-Dias, Nuno; Robalo Martins, Susana; Belo, Adriana; Fiúza, Manuela

    2013-12-01

    To characterize the distribution of total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in primary health care users. We performed a cross-sectional study in a primary care setting, involving 719 general practitioners based on stratified distribution proportional to the population density of each region of Portugal. The first two adult patients scheduled for an appointment on a given day were invited to participate. A questionnaire was applied to assess sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data including lipid profile. The study included 16 856 individuals (mean age 58.1±15.1 years; 61.6% women). Data on TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides were available for 95.9% (n=16 159), 59.1% (n=9956), 95.4% (n=16 074) and 97.9% (n=16 494) of the population, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia (TC ≥200 mg/dl) was detected in 47%, and 38.4% had high levels of LDL-C (≥130 mg/dl). Hypertriglyceridemia (≥200 mg/dl) and low HDL-C (<40 mg/dl) were less prevalent, affecting roughly 13% of the population. Dyslipidemia was more common in middle-aged men and in post-menopausal women. Of the population aged over 40, 54.1% met eligibility criteria for lipid-lowering therapy and 44.7% were medicated with statins, but only 16.0% of these had TC ≤175 mg/dl. Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in primary health care users in Portugal. It is particularly common in middle-aged men and post-menopausal women, who should be considered target groups for preventive public health measures. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Probiotic mixture improves fatty liver disease by virtue of its action on lipid profiles, leptin, and inflammatory biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Al-Muzafar, Hessah Mohammed; Amin, Kamal Adel

    2017-01-13

    A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD). Young male albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group that was fed a standard diet; a second group that was fed a HFSD; and a third group that was given both a HFSD and ingestible probiotic mixtures. The groups were fed these diets for 16 weeks, and were then examined. HFSD-only rats showed hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and their serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin levels were significantly higher than those of the control group. Compared to rats on the standard diet, HFSD-only rats showed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), increased serum leptin levels, and increased resistin hormone levels in the adipose tissues. In the third group, the inclusion of the probiotic mixture seemed to ameliorate the effects of the HFSD diet. The NAFD + probiotics group showed improved lipid profiles, better leptin and resistin levels, and better TNF-α and IL-6 levels than the NAFD-only group. They also showed no signs of NAFLD. The probiotic mixture showed promise as a treatment for NAFLD pathogenesis, and may improve HFSD-induced steatosis through its effects on leptin, resistin, inflammatory biomarkers, and hepatic function markers. We also established that gut microbiota-mediated regulation of lipid profiles was dependent on dietary lipids and carbohydrates.

  7. Effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wang, C; Zhu, K; Feng, R N; Sun, C H

    2010-06-01

    Obese individuals are more likely to have either lower blood concentrations or lower bioavailability of minerals and/or vitamins. However, there are limited data on the effects of nutritional supplementation on body weight (BW) control, energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism in obese subjects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of supplementation with multivitamin and multimineral on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women. A total of 96 obese Chinese women (body mass index (BMI) 28 kg m(-2)) aged 18-55 years participated in a 26-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study. Subjects were randomized into three groups, receiving either one tablet of multivitamin and mineral supplement (MMS), or calcium 162 mg (Calcium) or identical placebo daily during the study period. BW, BMI, waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient (RQ), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were measured at baseline and 26 weeks. A total of 87 subjects completed the study. After 26 weeks, compared with the placebo group, the MMS group had significantly lower BW, BMI, FM, TC and LDL-C, significantly higher REE and HDL-C, as well as a borderline significant trend of lower RQ (P=0.053) and WC (P=0.071). The calcium group also had significantly higher HDL-C and lower LDL-C levels compared with the placebo group. The results suggest that, in obese individuals, multivitamin and mineral supplementation could reduce BW and fatness and improve serum lipid profiles, possibly through increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Supplementation of calcium alone (162 mg per day) only improved lipid profiles.

  8. The effects of exercise on lipid profile in systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy individuals: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Miossi, Renata; Passareli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna R; Perandini, Luiz; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Borba, Eduardo; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an exercise training program on lipid profile and composition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls. A 12-week, randomized trial was conducted. Thirty-three physically inactive SLE patients were randomly assigned into two groups: trained (SLE-TR, n = 17) and non-trained (SLE-NT, n = 16). A gender-, BMI-, and age-matched healthy control groups (C-TR, n = 11) also underwent the exercise program. Subjects were assessed at baseline (Pre) and 12 weeks after the 3-month exercise training program (Post) for lipid profile (HDL, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol and triglycerides levels) and composition of the HDL subfractions HDL2 and HDL3. SLE patients showed significantly lower contents of Apo A-I, phospholipid, and triglyceride in the HDL3 subfraction (p < 0.05, between-group comparisons) than healthy controls at baseline. The exercise training program did not affect any of the parameters in the SLE-TR group (p > 0.05, within-group comparisons), although there was a trend toward decreased circulating Apo B levels (p = 0.06, ES = -0.3, within-group comparison). In contrast, the same exercise training program was effective in increasing contents of cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid in the HDL2 subfraction in the C-TR group (p = 0.036, ES = 2.06; p = 0.038, ES = 1.77; and p = 0.0021, ES = 2.37, respectively, within-group comparisons), whereas no changes were observed in the composition of the HDL3 subfraction. This study showed that SLE patients have a less effective response to a 12-week exercise training program than healthy individuals, with regard to lipid profile and chemical composition of HDL subfractions. These results reinforce the need for further studies to define the optimal training protocol to improve lipid profile and particularly the HDL composition in these patients

  9. A diet rich in dietary fiber from cocoa improves lipid profile and reduces malondialdehyde in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Lecumberri, Elena; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura

    2007-04-01

    The potential hypolipidemic effect of a new cocoa product rich in dietary fiber (DF) naturally containing antioxidant polyphenols (cocoa fiber [CF]) was studied in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. For 3 wk animals were fed normal, cholesterol-free diets or diets supplemented with cholesterol to evoke hypercholesterolemia. Control diets contained 10% cellulose as DF, and test diets were supplemented with 165 g of CF per kilogram (providing 10% DF). Lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were measured in serum in addition to the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde in the liver. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were established as a consequence of the cholesterol-rich diets. CF showed an important hypolipidemic action, returning triacylglycerol levels in hypercholesterolemic animals to normal values. The hypocholesterolemic effect was also patent, reducing total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, yet basal values were not attained. Decreased lipid peroxidation in serum and liver as a consequence of CF intake was patent not only in hypercholesterolemic but also in normocholesterolemic animals. No apparent effects on serum total antioxidant capacity or on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic levels of glutathione were observed. These effects might be attributed to the high DF content of CF and to the natural presence of antioxidant polyphenols. The consumption of CF with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and reduced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that CF might contribute to a reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  10. Computer simulation of the distribution of hexane in a lipid bilayer: spatially resolved free energy, entropy, and enthalpy profiles.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, Justin L; Tieleman, D Peter

    2006-01-11

    The partitioning behavior of small molecules in lipid bilayers is important in a variety of areas including membrane protein folding and pharmacology. However, the inhomogeneous nature of lipid bilayers on a nanometer length scale complicates experimental studies of membrane partitioning. To gain more insight in the partitioning of a small molecule into the lipid bilayer, we have carried out atomistic computer simulations of hexane in a dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine model membrane. We have been able to obtain spatially resolved free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity profiles based on umbrella sampling calculations at three different temperatures. In agreement with experiment, hexane partitions preferentially to the center of the bilayer. This process is driven almost entirely by a favorable entropy change, consistent with the hydrophobic effect. In contrast, partitioning to the densest region of the acyl chains is dominated by a favorable enthalpy change with a small entropy change, which is consistent with the "nonclassical" hydrophobic effect or "bilayer" effect. We explain the features of the entropy and enthalpy profiles in terms of density and free volume in the system.

  11. Plasma lipid profiling across species for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia[S

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G.; Mendoza, Vivienne H.; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S.; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N.; Eiermann, George J.; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L. Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L.; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A.; Donnelly, Marcie J.; Voronin, Gregory O.; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J.; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H.; Hansen, Barbara C.; Koblan, Ken S.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650

  12. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    PubMed

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  13. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients.

  14. Effects of probiotic yogurt consumption on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadshahi, Majid; Veissi, Masoud; Haidari, Fatemeh; Javid, Ahmad Zare; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Shirbeigi, Esmat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alteration in plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile has been documented in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of probiotic and conventional yogurt on lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30-60 years old who had low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) ≥100 mg/dl enrolled in this randomized, double – blind controlled trial and were assigned to two intervention and control groups. The subjects in the intervention group consumed 300 g/d probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and subjects in the control group consumed 300 g/d conventional yogurt for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake, and serum lipid profile were evaluated at the beginning and end of the intervention. Independent-sample t-test, paired sample t-test, ANCOVA, and repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. Results: The consumption of probiotic yogurt caused significant decrease in LDL-c/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio (3.13 ± 1.00-2.07 ± 0.71, P = 0.016). The levels of HDL-c were increased significantly (43.66 ± 6.80-50.42 ± 6.64, P = 0.023) in the intervention group postintervention. However, there were no significant differences in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels between two groups postintervention (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It is suggested that probiotic yogurt consumption may be used as an alternative prevention approach and treatment method to improve dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25197295

  15. Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Kathleen; Gootman, Jason; Myrdal, Amy; Kline, Gregory; Rippe, James M

    2003-05-01

    Conflicting recommendations are prevalent regarding the appropriateness of red meat versus white meat consumption for individuals aiming to reduce body weight and cardiovascular disease risk. We examined changes in body weight and lipid profiles in a 12-wk, randomized, controlled trial, in which overweight women followed a hypocaloric diet with lean beef or chicken as the primary protein source, while participating in a fitness walking program. Sedentary non-smoking females (n = 61), age 43.4 +/- 7.8 years, with body mass indexes of 32.1 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) (means +/- standard deviation), followed calculated-deficit diets (-500 kcal daily) and were randomly assigned to the beef-consumption or chicken-consumption dietary group, while following a fitness walking program. Body weight, body composition (by hydrodensitometry), and blood lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 wk. Weight loss was significant within (P < 0.05) but similar between (P > 0.05) the beef-consumption (5.6 +/- 0.6 kg, mean +/- standard error) and the chicken-consumption (6.0 +/- 0.5 kg) groups. Both groups showed significant reductions in body fat percentage (P < 0.05) and total (P < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05) cholesterol, with no significant differences between groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change significantly in either group. These findings demonstrated that weight loss and improved lipid profile can be accomplished through diet and exercise, whether the dietary protein source is lean beef or chicken.

  16. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  17. Effects of supplemental copper on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanling; Wang, Yong; Lin, Xi; Guo, Chunhua

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of copper (Cu) supplementation on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids, thirty-five 3-4-month-old Jian Yang big-eared goat kids (BW 20.3±0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary Cu treatments (n=5/treatment). The dietary Cu concentrations were: (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 20 mg, (3) 40 mg, (4) 80 mg, (5) 160 mg, (6) 320 mg, and (7) 640 mg of supplemental Cu/kg dry matter (DM). Copper was supplemented as CuSO4.5H2O (25.2 % Cu). The goats were fed a high-concentrate basal diet with the different concentrations of supplemental Cu/kg DM for 96 days. The serum lipid profile was determined on day 51 and day 96. Meat quality and carcass composition of longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after the goats were slaughtered at 96 days. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were not affected by treatment (P>0.18). No differences were observed in drip loss, cooking loss, a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values (P>0.17); however, the 24-h pH value (linear; P=0.0009) and L* (brightness) value (linear; P=0.0128) decreased, and shear force increased (linear; P=0.0005) as Cu supplementation increased. The intramuscular fat (%) increased (linear; P=0.001) as supplemental Cu increased. No differences (P>0.21) in the moisture, crude protein, and ash (%) were observed. Results of this study indicate that supplemental Cu does not modify the serum lipid profile; however, it can impact intramuscular fat content and the meat quality of goat kids.

  18. Density Profile of a Foil Accelerated by Laser Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Haberberger, D.

    2016-10-01

    An experiment to measure the density profile of a foil accelerated by laser ablation has been designed and is underway. High-density material is measured with x-ray radiography and low-density plasma is measured using 251-nm interferometry. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation results from the code DRACO will be compared to these data. The accelerated foil is an 80- μm-thick CH target with Ge and Si-doped layers. The incident laser is a 351-nm, 5-ns pulse with a total energy of 6.2 kJ. Si and Ti x rays are used for the radiography measurement. A 1-D image versus time data are recorded with an x-ray streak camera and 2-D image data at specific times are recorded with an x-ray framing camera using point-projection backlighting. Foil acceleration is measured with the 1-D data. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Lipid profile in an adult population in Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Foucan, L; Kangambega, P; Ekouévi, D K; Rozet, J; Bangou-Brédent, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide data on lipid distribution and to investigate the association between hypercholesterolemia and other factors. A cross-sectional survey of insured subjects in an Health Center of Guadeloupe in 1999. Data from a consecutive series of 1 010 individuals aged 18 years and older, collected during a 3 month-period, were used. Standardized interviews and measurements of blood lipid abnormalities and other cardiovascular risk factors were carried out. Overall, 27% had elevated total cholesterol (TC) levels above 200 mg/dL, 11.7% had TC levels above 240 mg/dL, 18.1% had LDL-C levels above160 mg/dL, 12.5% had HDL-C below 35 mg/dL and 2.7% had triglyceride levels above 200 mg/dL. Isolated low HDL-C was found in 22% of the subjects and 10.8% had both TC above 240 mg/dL and LDL-C above 160 mg/dL. Only 22% of the subjects with high TC were aware of their diagnosis and 5% were treated. The risk of having hypercholesterolemia above 200 mg/dL was independently and significantly higher in case of hypertension, age above 45 in men or 55 in women, body mass index above 30 and familial history of dyslipidemia. These findings document the first report on dyslipidemia in Guadeloupe. It showed that the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was lower than in developed countries, but markedly higher than in Africa. Modifications of lifestyle and adapted therapeutics are necessary to decrease cardiovascular mortality.

  20. Amelioration of lipid profile and level of antioxidant activities by epigallocatechin-gallate in a rat model of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuelian; Pan, Jianxing; Zhou, Xiaoli

    2014-12-01

    Improperly balanced, highly processed diets rich in calories, carbohydrates and fat are considered to contribute to oxidative stress induced hypercholesterolaemic atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to test whether the antioxidant component epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) may ameliorate the atherosclerotic effect of high fat diet in rats. A disease model for atherosclerosis was designed by formulating atherogenic diet and fed to Wistar rats for 30 days. The treatment trial was made by administration of EGCG (100 mg/kg) for six or 12 days. The lipid profile, antioxidant status and tissue morphometric analysis were performed. A significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions and cardiac risk ratio were observed in atherogenic diet fed rats than that of normal diet-fed rats. EGCG treated atherogenic diet fed rats resulted a reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractions, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to untreated-atherogenic diet fed rats. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, increased mean levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and enzymatic antioxidants was measured in EGCG administered rats, compared with those in untreated-disease model. Morphometric analysis and the activity of cardiac marker enzymes demonstrated that EGCG was effective in limiting atherogenic tissue damage in aortic layers, and ameliorated the lipid profile. This preliminary study suggests EGCG may be useful as a novel therapeutic component for treating atherosclerosis and thus warrants further detailed investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Study of Lipid Profile, Diet and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children Born to Parents Having Premature Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Savitha, MR; Sandeep, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05) in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05). Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia. PMID:22279260

  2. Effects of maternal treatment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in embryonic chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Xue; Zhang, Yuanshu; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, much evidence emerged to suggest that alterations in maternal diets during pregnancy may irreversibly affect aspects of physiological and biochemical functions in the fetus. To explore the effects of maternal dietary treatments with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on lipid metabolism in the embryo, we investigated serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the maternal and embryonic chicken. Sixteen-week-old pullets were allocated into 3 groups (n=30), and after laying, they were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with DHEA at 0, 20 or 100mg/kg diet. Eggs were collected after DHEA treatment and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Blood and liver samples were collected from hens and embryonic chickens. DHEA treatment resulted in decreased body weight and increased relative liver weight in both maternal and embryonic chickens, while the concentrations of blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly lower in the 20mg DHEA/kg group as compared to the control group during embryonic development. The expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI) gene was also reduced following treatment with 20mg DHEA/kg at hatching. However, blood TC, and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the 100mg DHEA/kg group during embryonic development and hatching. Overall, the results of this study indicate that maternal dietary treatment with DHEA regulates serum lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation of lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoprotein by a basic "skeleton" of reactions.

    PubMed

    Abuja, P M; Esterbauer, H

    1995-01-01

    A minimal kinetic model describing lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been set up. Models have been calculated by numeric integration of the differential equations describing this system consisting of seven reactions and eleven reactants in a single compartment. The model describes the usually observed behavior of the reaction system, showing that the crucial intermediate is the lipid peroxyl radical (LOO.). During different stages of the reaction, depending on the presence of antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol), different pathways in the reaction scheme become active. Simulation also demonstrates that tocopherol-mediated propagation can occur under certain conditions, i.e., a low rate of initiation. This, however, does not mean that tocopherol enhances lipid peroxidation in LDL, as without tocopherol the process would be much faster. Further extension of the basic model by inclusion of a hypothetical antioxidant leads to a model which is capable of describing Cu(2+)-induced LPO over the whole lag phase up to full propagation.

  4. Effects of insulin and other antihyperglycaemic agents on lipid profiles of patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, A; Dandona, P

    2011-10-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality risk due to diabetes-associated cardiovascular diseases is partly associated with hyperglycaemia as well as dyslipidaemia. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic hyperglycaemia involves the use of the older oral antidiabetic drugs [OADs: biguanides, sulphonylureas (SUs), α-glucosidase inhibitors and thiazolidinediones], insulin (human and analogues) and/or incretin-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). Many of these agents have also been suggested to improve lipid profiles in patients with diabetes. These effects may have benefits on cardiovascular risk beyond glucose-lowering actions. This review discusses the effects of OADs, insulins and incretin-based therapies on lipid variables along with the possible mechanisms and clinical implications of these findings. The effects of intensive versus conventional antihyperglycaemic therapy on cardiovascular outcomes and lipid profiles are also discussed. A major conclusion of this review is that agents within the same class of OADs can have different effects on lipid variables and that contrary to the findings in experimental models, insulin has been shown to have beneficial effects on lipid variables in clinical trials. Further studies are needed to understand the precise effect and the mechanisms of these effects of insulin on lipids.

  5. A simple desalting method for direct MALDI mass spectrometry profiling of tissue lipids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hay-Yan J; Liu, Cheng Bin; Wu, Hsuan-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Direct MALDI-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) profiling of tissue lipids often observes isobaric phosphatidylcholine (PC) species caused by the endogenous alkali metal ions that bias the relative abundance of tissue lipids. Fresh rat brain cryosections were washed with 70% ethanol (EtOH), water (H₂O), or 150 mM ammonium acetate (NH₄Ac), and the desalting effectiveness of each fluid was evaluated by MALDI-MS profiling of PC and sphingomyelin (SM) species in tissue and in the washing runoff. The results indicated that EtOH and H₂O only partially desalted the tissue lipids, yet both substantially displaced the tissue lipids to the washing runoffs. On the other hand, NH₄Ac effectively desalted the tissue lipids and produced a runoff containing no detectable PCs or SMs. NH₄Ac wash also unveiled the underlying changes of PCs and SMs in the infarcted rat cortex previously masked by edema-caused increase of tissue sodium. The MS/MS of an isobaric PC in the infarcted cortex revealed the precursor change as the result of NH₄Ac wash and confirmed the desalting effectiveness of such wash. Other than desalting, NH₄Ac wash also removes contaminants in tissue, enhances the overall spectral quality, and benefits additionally in profiling of biological molecules in tissue.

  6. The effect of increased consumption of edible palm oil on the nutritional status, lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation among malaysian aboriginestc.

    PubMed

    Alias, Iskandar Zulkarnain; Mdisa, Zaleha; Abdulkadir, Khalid; Ali, Osman

    2002-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of increased edible palm oil consumption on community health status in the aboriginal communities in Tual Post (treatment group) and Sinderut Post (control group), Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Nutritional status, blood pressure, lipid profiles, fasting blood glucose (FBG), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) levels and lipid peroxidation product (malonaldehyde) levels were taken as indicators of health status. This is a pre-and post-controlled community trial in which similar variables were measured in each group. Every family of 2-6 household members was given 2-5 kg cooking palm oil per month for a period of 18 months. All subjects were measured for height (cm), weight (kg) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). For calorie intake measurement, house-to-house interviews were conducted using 24-hour dietary recall method. Blood pressure, percent body fat, lipid profiles, namely total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were also measured. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) levels and lipid peroxidation products (MDA) were also determined. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in percent body fat (28.1%) and calorie intake (17.2%) following palm oil consumption. The proportion of fat intake as an energy source also increased from 4.6% to 33.9%. There was a reduction in the systolic blood pressure following consumption (p<0.05). However, diastolic blood pressure did not change. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. No particular pattern in fasting blood glucose levels was observed among the indigenous inhabitants following palm oil consumption. There was a significant increase in alpha-tocopherol levels (p<0.0001) and a decrease in MDA levels (p<0.0001) following consumption. In conclusion, high consumption of edible palm oil for 18 months was found to be not harmful to health. For the Malaysian aborigines, it serves

  7. High-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for skin surface lipids profiling[S

    PubMed Central

    Michael-Jubeli, Rime; Bleton, Jean; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2011-01-01

    Skin surface lipids (SSLs) arising from both sebaceous glands and skin removal form a complex lipid mixture composed of free fatty acids and neutral lipids. High-temperature gas chromatography coupled with electron impact or chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to achieve a simple analytical protocol, without prior separation in classes and without prior cleavage of lipid molecules, in order to obtain simultaneously i) a qualitative characterization of the individual SSLs and ii) a quantitative evaluation of lipid classes. The method was first optimized with SSLs collected from the forehead of a volunteer. More than 200 compounds were identified in the same run. These compounds have been classified in five lipid classes: free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, waxes, sterols, and glycerides. The advantage to this method was it provided structural information on intact compounds, which is new for cholesteryl esters and glycerides, and to obtain detailed fingerprints of the major SSLs. These fingerprints were used to compare the SSL compositions from different body areas. The squalene/cholesterol ratio was used to determine the balance between sebaceous secretion and skin removal. This method could be of general interest in fields where complex lipid mixtures are involved. PMID:20952798

  8. Lipid profile of rats fed blends of rice bran oil in combination with sunflower and safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, T; Manorama, R; Rukmini, C

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of blended oils, i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich vegetable oils like safflower oil (SFO) and sunflower oil (SNO) with the unconventional and hypocholesterolemic rice bran oil (RBO) on the serum lipid profile of rats. Rats fed RBO+SNO/SFO at 70:30 ratio for a period of 28 days showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in animals fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) and cholesterol free diet (CFD). Liver total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were also reduced. Fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was increased with use of RBO blends. RBO, which is rich in tocopherols and tocotrienols, may improve the oxidative stability of the blends. Tocotrienols are known to inhibit 3-hydroxy, 3-methyl, glutaryl CoA (HMG-COA) reductase (rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis), resulting in hypocholesterolemia. In addition to improving the lipid profile by lowering TC, TG and LDL-C and increasing HDL-C, blending of RBO with other oils can result in an economic advantage of lower prices.

  9. Safety and efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Lawsonia inermis leaves on lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Verma, Nishikant; Karwasra, Ritu; Kalra, Prerna; Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common risk factor for cardiac-related disorders in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein and elevated low density lipoprotein concentration. Aim: To explore the effect of Lawsonia inermis hydroalcoholic extract (LIHE) for diabetic dyslipidemic activity along with its safety profile. Materials and Methods: LIHE administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin (1 IU/kg), glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg), and metformin (100 mg/kg) were used as positive control and 1% gum acacia as normal control. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's t-test. Results: The percentage reduction in blood glucose level of LIHE at dose of 400 mg/kg was 39.08% on day 21 when compared to baseline (day 0), which is comparable to glibenclamide (44.77%) and metformin (46.30%). Decrease in blood glucose level exhibited significant improvement in lipid profile, plasma albumin, total plasma protein and serum creatinine. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that LIHE significantly improved lipid and lipoprotein pattern observed in diabetic rats and this could be due to improvement in insulin secretion or action, thus has potential to be used in treatment of diabetes mellitus associated dyslipidemia. PMID:26730149

  10. Contribution of various lipid profile parameters in determining creatine kinase-MB levels in unstable angina patients.

    PubMed

    Bagale, Kiran R; Ingle, Avinash S; Choudhary, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    In India, the correlation of severity of minor myocardial damage with dyslipidemia has rarely been studied in patients of unstable angina (UA). Dyslipidemia is proven to be a major risk factor for developing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) but still there is doubt about the type of lipoproteins involved in causing minor myocardial damage occurring in UA patients of ACS. The aim of our study was to find out the contribution of various types of lipoproteins to predict the severity of minor myocardial damage occurring in the patients of UA. Correlation design was used for the study. A single group of individuals was selected. Data were collected on dependent variable creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and independent variables (lipid profile parameters). The study comprised fifty patients admitted in cardiac care unit with typical history of UA with electrocardiogram showing no ST-segment elevation. The severity of myocardial damage was assessed from on admission CK-MB levels. The lipid profile was estimated from fasting blood samples of all the patients. For the purpose of the study, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis methods were applied. The triacylglycerol (TAG), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) showed significant positive correlation whereas HDL was negatively correlating with CK-MB levels. The TAG, VLDL, and TC/HDL were found to be significantly affecting the severity of myocardial damage in the patients of UA.

  11. Wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid predominantly improve the lipid profile of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-11-20

    In response to recent assertions that synthetic antioxidants may have the potential to cause toxic effects and to consumers' increased attention to consuming natural products, the poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants, alone or in combination with synthetic antioxidants that are currently being used by the industry. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol, and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidant enzymes, fatty acid profile, and serum biochemical profile of broiler blood. One-day-old (180) broiler birds were fed six different feeds varying in their antioxidant content: no addition (T1), natural α-tocopherol (wheat germ oil, T2), synthetic α-tocopherol (T3), α-lipoic acid (T4), α-lipoic acid together with natural α-tocopherol (T5), and α-lipoic acid together with synthetic α-tocopherol (T6). The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the breast and leg meat was positively influenced by the different dietary supplements. The content of fatty acid was significantly greater in broilers receiving T2 both in breast (23.92%) and in leg (25.82%) meat, whereas lower fatty acid levels was found in broilers receiving diets containing T6 in the breast (19.57%) and leg (21.30%) meat. Serum total cholesterol (113.42 mg/dL) and triglycerides (52.29 mg/dL) were lowest in the group given natural α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid. Wheat germ oil containing natural α-tocopherol alone or with α-lipoic acid was more effective than synthetic α-tocopherol in raising levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase while lowering plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein and plasma protein significantly. It was concluded that the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid is helpful in improving the lipid profile of broilers.

  12. Comparative Lipid Profiling of the Cnidarian Aiptasia pallida and Its Dinoflagellate Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Teresa A.; Schmeitzel, John L.; Klein, Joshua A.; Hwang, Janice J.; Schwarz, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    Corals and other cnidarians house photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts within membrane-bound compartments inside gastrodermal cells. Nutritional interchanges between the partners produce carbohydrates and lipids for metabolism, growth, energy stores, and cellular structures. Although lipids play a central role in the both the energetics and the structural/morphological features of the symbiosis, previous research has primarily focused on the fatty acid and neutral lipid composition of the host and symbiont. In this study we conducted a mass spectrometry-based survey of the lipidomic changes associated with symbiosis in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, an important model system for coral symbiosis. Lipid extracts from A. pallida in and out of symbiosis with its symbiont Symbiodinium were prepared and analyzed using negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Through this analysis we have identified, by exact mass and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (MS/MS), several classes of glycerophospholipids in A. pallida. Several molecular species of di-acyl phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine as well as 1-alkyl, 2-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidycholine were identified. The 1-alkyl, 2-acyl PEs are acid sensitive suggestive that they are plasmalogen PEs possessing a double bond at the 1-position of the alkyl linked chain. In addition, we identified several molecular species of phosphonosphingolipids called ceramide aminoethylphosphonates in anemone lipid extracts by the release of a characteristic negative product ion at m/z 124.014 during MS/MS analysis. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), an anionic lipid often found in photosynthetic organisms, was identified as a prominent component of Symbiodinium lipid extracts. A comparison of anemone lipid profiles revealed a subset of lipids that show dramatic differences in abundance when anemones are in the symbiotic state as compared to the non

  13. Abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile and acanthocytosis in a young woman with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Jun; Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideko; Shirahase, Jyoichiro

    2002-11-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa (AN) who developed an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile and acanthocytosis. These abnormalities resolved slowly as her nutritional status improved. We considered 3 possible causes of an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile in AN: (1) depletion of hepatic substrate for apolipoprotein B synthesis, (2) lack of exogenous fatty acids with exhaustion of endogenous stores of triglycerides in adipose tissue, and (3) preservation of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass. This unusual case provides important clues that enhance our understanding of lipid metabolism under exogenous and endogenous fat deprivation and highlights the pivotal role of LPL as a gatekeeper of the energy source.

  14. Effects of α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activities and lipid profiles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Young-Nam; Choi, Changsun

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid and L-carnosine are powerful antioxidants and are often used as a health supplement and as an ergogenic aid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid and/or L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activity in serum, skin, and liver of rats and blood lipid profiles for 6 weeks. Four treatment groups received diets containing regular rat chow diet (control, CON), 0.5% α-lipoic acid (ALA), 0.25% α-lipoic acid + 0.25% L-carnosine (ALA + LC), or 0.5% L-carnosine (LC). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, were analyzed in serum, skin, and liver. Blood lipid profiles were measured, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Skin and liver SOD activities of the ALA and LC groups were higher than those of the CON group (P < 0.05), but serum SOD activity was higher only in the LC group compared to that in the CON group (P < 0.05). Additionally, only liver GSH-Px activity in the LC group was higher than that of the CON and the other groups. Serum and skin MDA levels in the ALA and LC groups were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Serum TG and TC in the ALA and ALA + LC groups were lower than those in the CON and LC groups (P < 0.05). The HDL-C level in the LC group was higher than that in any other group (P < 0.05). LDL-C level was lower in the ALA + LC and LC groups than that in the CON group (P < 0.05). Thus, α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation increased antioxidant activity, decreased lipid peroxidation in the serum, liver, and skin of rats and positively modified blood lipid profiles. PMID:22125679

  15. Directly mapping the surface charge density of lipid bilayers under physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhs, Thomas; Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-03-01

    The surface charge density of lipid bilayers governs the cellular uptake of charged particles and guides cell-cell and cell-surface interactions. Direct probing of the potential requires sub nanometer distances as the electrostatic potential is screened by high physiological salt concentrations. This prevented direct measurement of the SCD under physiological conditions. In this study we investigate supported bilayers of lipid mixtures that form domains of distinct surface charges, submerged in 150mM NaCl. We use a scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM) setup to measure the ionic current through a nanopipette as the pipette is scanned several nanometers above the sample. The charged headgroups of the lipids attract counter ions leading to a charge dependent enhancement of the ion concentration near the surface. This creates a measurable change of conductivity in the vicinity of the surface. As the dependency of the current on the SCD and pipette potential is non-trivial we characterized it using numerical solutions to Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Based on the simulation results we propose an imaging method. We confirm feasibility of the proposed method by experimentally mapping the local surface charge density of phase separated lipid bilayers.

  16. Thermal transitions in the low-density lipoprotein and lipids of the egg yolk of hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Back, J F

    1975-05-22

    1. Differential sanning calorimetry and light-scattering have been used to investigate temperature-dependent transitions in low-density lipoprotein and in lipids from hens' egg yolk. Yolks of different fatty acid composition were obtained by varying the dietary lipid and by adding methyl sterculate to the hen's diet. 2. Lipoprotein solutions in 50 percent glycerol/water gave characteristic melting curves between -25 degrees C and 50 degrees C, and on cooling showed increases in light-scattering between 10 degrees C and -20 degrees C. The temperatures at which major changes occurred depended on the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 3. The thermal transitions in the intact lipoprotein in glycerol solution were reversible, but with marked hysteresis. Lipid extracted from the lipoprotein did not show temperature hystersis but the transition heats and melting curves similar to those of the intact lipoprotein. The results support the hypothesis of a "lipid-core" structure for low-density lipoproteins. 4. Scanning calorimetry of egg-yolk lecithins indicated a strong dependence of transition temperature on water content in the rane 3 percent-20 percent water. A rise in the mid-temperature of the liquid-crystalline to gel transition as the water content is lowered on freezing may be the primary event in the irreversible gelation of egg yolk and aggregation of lipoprotein.

  17. Effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on lipid profile and histopathological changes in hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheraji, S H; Amin, I; Azlan, A; Manap, M Y; Hassan, F A

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on lipid profile, liver and kidney function, and body fat in hypercholesterolaemic rats. 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The negative control group received a standard diet. The positive control group received a cholesterol-enriched diet, whereas the intervention groups received a cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with B. longum BB536 alone or in combination with inulin or Mangifera pajang fibrous polysaccharides. After 8 weeks, plasma lipids, and liver and kidney function were tested. Intake of the cholesterol-enriched diet increased total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, creatinine, urea, liver weight, adipose tissue weight, liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size. B. longum BB536 supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol, liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size, and positively affected liver and kidney function. These effects were significantly increased in the presence of inulin and M. pajang fibrous polysaccharides.

  18. Tributyltin (TBT) induces oxidative stress and modifies lipid profile in the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Przemysław; Gajewska, Ewa; Szewczyk, Rafał; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the response of the tributyltin-degrading fungal strain Cunninghamella elegans to the organotin, a comparative lipidomics strategy was employed using an LC/MS-MS technique. A total of 49 lipid species were identified. Individual phospholipids were then quantified using a multiple reaction monitoring method. Tributyltin (TBT) caused a decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. In the presence of TBT, it was observed that overall unsaturation was lower than in the control. Lipidome data were analyzed using principal component analysis, which confirmed the compositional changes in membrane lipids in response to TBT. Additionally, treatment of fungal biomass with butyltin led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. It is suggested that modification of the phospholipids profile and lipids peroxidation may reflect damage to mycelium caused by TBT.

  19. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  20. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  1. The effects of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on lipid profile in women.

    PubMed

    Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Jalali, Mahmoud; Heshmat, Ramin; Chamary, Maryam

    2010-06-01

    Many studies have been done on the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic yoghurt. The results, however, are not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on the lipid profile in women. In a randomised trial, ninety female volunteers aged 19-49 years were assigned to three groups. Subjects consumed daily 300 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 300 g conventional yoghurt or no yoghurt for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples, 3 d dietary records and anthropometric measurements were collected at baseline (T1), end of week 3 (T2) and end of week 6 (T3). Lipid profile parameters were determined by enzymic methods. Results showed no significant difference in lipid profile within any group throughout the study. Comparing mean differences (T1 - T3) among the three groups showed: no difference in TAG and LDL-cholesterol, a decrease in cholesterol in both conventional (P < 0.05) and probiotic yoghurt groups (P < 0.005) compared with the control group, a decrease in total:HDL-cholesterol ratio for conventional (P < 0.05) and probiotic yoghurt groups (P < 0.001) compared with the control group, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol in the probiotic yoghurt group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Positive changes in lipid profile were observed in both yoghurt groups. Any added effect, therefore, is due to the consumption of fermented milk products.

  2. Peaked density profile circular limiter H-modes on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, C.E. ); Goldston, R.J.; Scott, S.D.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Bell, M.G.; Boivin, R.L.; Bretz, N.; Cavallo, A.; Efthimion, P.C.; Grek, B.; Hawryluk, R.; Hill, K.; Hulse, R.A.; Janos, A.; Johnson, D.W.; Kilpatrick, S.; Manos, D.M.; Mansfield, D.K.; Meade, D.M.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.; Synakowski, E.J.; Towner, H.H.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstor

    1990-06-01

    Circular limiter H-modes are obtained on TFTR during high power neutral beam heating. The transition is usually from the supershot to the H-mode rather than the usual L- to H- transition, and thus is obtained in a low recycling environment with core fueling mainly from the heating beams. As a result, the density and pressure profiles are highly peaked at the center. Global confinement time, {tau}{sub E}, is enhanced over L-mode scaling by up to {approx} 2.5 times. The onset of ELMs shortly after the H-mode transition appears to limit {tau}{sub E}. Limiter H-modes of up to 1.5 sec duration have been realized. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Density profile of nitrogen in cylindrical pores of MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, Alan K.; Bowron, Daniel T.

    2017-09-01

    A straightforward approach using radiation scattering (X-ray or neutron) combined with atomistic modelling is used to accurately assess the pore dimensions in the porous silica, MCM-41. The method is used to calculate the density profile of nitrogen absorbed in this material at a variety of fractional pressures, p/p0, where p0 is the saturated vapour pressure, up to p/p0 = 0.36 at T = 87 K in the present instance. At this pressure two distinct layers of liquid nitrogen occur on the silica surface, with a relatively sharp gas-liquid interface. It is suggested surface tension effects at this interface strongly influence the growth of further layers.

  4. Lipid profiling of follicular fluid from women undergoing IVF: young poor ovarian responders versus normal responders.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Thais; Cordeiro, Fernanda Bertuccez; Costa, Lívia do Vale Teixeira da; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Ferreira, Christina Ramires; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta; Cedenho, Agnaldo Pereira; Turco, Edson Guimarães Lo

    2013-12-01

    This study identified possible lipid biomarkers in follicular fluid from women with poor ovarian response. These biomarkers indicate pathophysiological pathways and have potential diagnostic applications. An observational case-control study of young women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization was conducted. The participants were categorized into a poor ovarian response group and a normal ovarian response to stimulation group. All of the women underwent the same ovarian stimulation protocol, and follicular fluid was collected after ovarian aspiration. Analyses were performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and Volcano plots were used to describe follicular fluid classification models based on the lipid profiles. A total of 10 lipids were differentially expressed between the study and control groups. Of these lipid ions, three belonged to the phosphatidylcholine subclass and were present in higher concentrations in the control group. The other seven differential lipids were present in the study group and classified into four lipid subclasses: phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, and diacylglycerols. These distinctive lipids may be involved in hormonal responses and oocyte development processes and may be useful as biomarkers for therapeutic intervention in women with poor ovarian response.

  5. Critical density fluctuations in lipid bilayers detected by fluorescence lifetime heterogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, A; Hudson, B

    1989-01-01

    The heterogeneity of the decay of the fluorescence of transparinaric acid in single-component lipid bilayers at temperatures above their gel/liquid crystalline phase transition is shown to be due to the presence of regions of higher local density and higher acyl chain order than the predominant fluid regions. This conclusion is based on selective excitation behavior and the observation of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies that increase at long times. The fractional amplitude of the long lifetime component of the fluorescence shows a temperature variation that conforms to conventional descriptions of critical behavior. The critical exponent extracted from this variation is 1.1, close to the value of 1.0 that describes ultrasonic data. We therefore conclude that liquid crystalline lipid bilayers exhibit critical behavior with significant density and order fluctuations. This behavior must be taken into account in the interpretation of fluorescence and other spectroscopic measurements of the properties of bilayers. PMID:2765649

  6. Macrophage Transcriptional Profile Identifies Lipid Catabolic Pathways That Can Be Therapeutically Targeted after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Lyapichev, K; Lee, D H; Motti, D; Ferraro, N M; Zhang, Y; Yahn, S; Soderblom, C; Zha, J; Bethea, J R; Spiller, K L; Lemmon, V P; Lee, J K

    2017-03-01

    Although infiltrating macrophages influence many pathological processes after spinal cord injury (SCI), the intrinsic molecular mechanisms that regulate their function are poorly understood. A major hurdle has been dissecting macrophage-specific functions from those in other cell types as well as understanding how their functions change over time. Therefore, we used the RiboTag method to obtain macrophage-specific mRNA directly from the injured spinal cord in mice and performed RNA sequencing to investigate their transcriptional profile. Our data show that at 7 d after SCI, macrophages are best described as foam cells, with lipid catabolism representing the main biological process, and canonical nuclear receptor pathways as their potential mediators. Genetic deletion of a lipoprotein receptor, CD36, reduces macrophage lipid content and improves lesion size and locomotor recovery. Therefore, we report the first macrophage-specific transcriptional profile after SCI and highlight the lipid catabolic pathway as an important macrophage function that can be therapeutically targeted after SCI.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The intrinsic molecular mechanisms that regulate macrophage function after spinal cord injury (SCI) are poorly understood. We obtained macrophage-specific mRNA directly from the injured spinal cord and performed RNA sequencing to investigate their transcriptional profile. Our data show that at 7 d after SCI, macrophages are best described as foam cells, with lipid catabolism representing the main biological process and canonical nuclear receptor pathways as their potential mediators. Genetic deletion of a lipoprotein receptor, CD36, reduces macrophage lipid content and improves lesion size and locomotor recovery. Therefore, we report the first macrophage-specific transcriptional profile after SCI and highlight the lipid catabolic pathway as an important macrophage function that can be therapeutically targeted after SCI. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372362-15$15.00/0.

  7. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-12-01

    The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = -9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, -1.53 mg/dl and - 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = -4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group). Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  8. Effects of ACE Inhibitors on Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile in Children with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi Bitkin, Eda; Boyraz, Mehmet; Taşkın, Necati; Akçay, Arzu; Ulucan, Korkut; Akyol, Mehmet Bedir; Akçay, Teoman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using ACE inhibitors on insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, body fat composition, and lipid profile in children over 10 years of age with obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: A total of 53 children with MS, who had been followed for at least one year were included in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: Group 1-30 obese children (13 female, 17 male) who were not using an ACE inhibitor and Group 2-23 obese children (13 female, 10 male) who were using an ACE inhibitor. Anthropometric and laboratory dataobtained at baseline and at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months of follow-up were compared in the two groups. Results: Comparison of the data in the two groups at 3rd, 6th, and 12th months revealed no statistically significant differences in terms of weight standard deviation score (SDS), body mass index SDS, weight for height percentile, body fat percentage, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)values. However, there were statistically significant differences in mean glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, LDL and high-density lipoprotein values, and highly significant differences in mean triglyceride values. Conclusions: The positive effects of ACE inhibitor drugs, particularly on hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, might bring them forth as first-line drugs in the treatment of obese and hypertensive children. Randomized, controlled, double-blind, and long-term studies are needed for a definitive conclusion. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24072084

  9. Prediction of neonates' macrosomia with maternal lipid profile of healthy mothers.

    PubMed

    Mossayebi, Elaheh; Arab, Zohreh; Rahmaniyan, Mojgan; Almassinokiani, Fariba; Kabir, Ali

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the association between the lipid profile of healthy nondiabetic, nonobese pregnant women in the first weeks of the third trimester of pregnancy and macrosomia or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates with normal pregnancies. In this cohort study, 200 pregnant healthy women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), obesity, or hypertension and carrying a single fetus in a prenatal clinic of a referral hospital were included based on a convenience sampling. Then, we took a blood sample to assess fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). GDM was assessed after administering 50 g of oral glucose. All cases were followed until the end of pregnancy. The main outcome measurement was neonatal birth weight. Only 154 mothers met eligibility criteria. There were eight cases (5.2%) with macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) and 35 cases (22.7%) with LGA. Linear regression showed that mothers' TG and neonates' gender were independent predictors of the birth weight of the children (R-square = 0.52, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that maternal FBS and TG are the most independent variables which can predict the presence of macrosomia (Nagelkerke R-square = 0.53, p < 0.001) and maternal TG and child gender are the most independent variables that can predict the presence of LGA in neonates of a healthy mother (Nagelkerke R-square = 0.49, p < 0.001). Maternal triglyceride levels may be a significant predictor of fetal size in late pregnancy but not in early pregnancy. Our study reinforces that this is true not only in the case of macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g), but also for LGA. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Concentrated pomegranate juice improves lipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Tahbaz, Farideh; Gaieni, Iraj; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Azadbakht, Leila

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of concentrated pomegranate juice (CPJ) consumption on lipid profiles of type II diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia (cholesterol >/= 5.2 mmol/L or triacylglycerol >/= 2.3 mmol/L). In this quasi-experimental study 22 otherwise healthy diabetic patients, 14 women (63.6%) and eight men (36.4%), were recruited from among patients referred to the Iranian Diabetes Society. The patients were followed for 8 weeks to establish a baseline for normal dietary intake before beginning the CPJ intervention. During the pre-study period a 24-hour food recall and food records (recording flavonoid-rich foods) were completed every 10 days. At the end of the eighth week, anthropometric and biochemical assessments were done. Thereafter the patients consumed 40 g/day of CPJ for 8 weeks, during which time dietary assessment was continued. After completing the study, anthropometric and blood indices were again evaluated. The Wilcoxon signed test was used for statistical analysis. A value of P <.05 was considered significant. Mean (+/-SD) age, weight, and duration of diabetes were 52.5 +/- 5.2 years, 71.5 +/- 10.3 kg, and 7.9 +/- 6.6 years, respectively. After consumption of CPJ, significant reductions were seen in total cholesterol (P <.006), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (P <.006), LDL-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P <.001), and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (P <.001). But, there were no significant changes in serum triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Anthropometric indices, physical activity, kind and doses of oral hypoglycemic agents, and the intakes of nutrients and flavonoid-rich foods showed no change during the CPJ consumption period. It is concluded that CPJ consumption may modify heart disease risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients, and its inclusion therefore in their diets may be beneficial.

  11. [Niacin--an additive therapeutic approach for optimizing lipid profile].

    PubMed

    Wieneke, Heinrich; Schmermund, Axel; Erbel, Raimund

    2005-04-15

    Large interventional studies have shown that the reduction of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the cornerstones in the prevention of coronary artery disease. However, in up to 40% of patients the recommended target of LDL-C is not reached with a monotherapy. Furthermore, risk stratification only by LDL-C disregards a substantial number of patients with dyslipidemia with increased triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In consequence, niacin has gained attention as a component of a combined therapeutic approach in patients with dyslipidemia. Niacin substantially increases HDL-C and decreases triglycerides, LDL-C and lipoprotein (a). By this mechanism of action niacin exhibited, in combination with statins or bile acid-binding resins, favorable effects on the incidence of cardiovascular events in selected patients. Side effects like flush and hepatotoxicity seem to be in part dependent on the niacin formulations used. However, niacin has been shown to be a well-tolerated and safe therapy in controlled studies. On the basis of current data niacin should be considered a valuable therapy component in patients with dyslipidemia, in which a monotherapy fails to optimize an increased risk of coronary artery disease.

  12. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Md.; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163). PMID:25685791

  13. Concurrent profiling of polar metabolites and lipids in human plasma using HILIC-FTMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaoming; Li, Ruibin

    2016-11-01

    Blood plasma is the most popularly used sample matrix for metabolite profiling studies, which aim to achieve global metabolite profiling and biomarker discovery. However, most of the current studies on plasma metabolite profiling focused on either the polar metabolites or lipids. In this study, a comprehensive analysis approach based on HILIC-FTMS was developed to concurrently examine polar metabolites and lipids. The HILIC-FTMS method was developed using mixed standards of polar metabolites and lipids, the separation efficiency of which is better in HILIC mode than in C5 and C18 reversed phase (RP) chromatography. This method exhibits good reproducibility in retention times (CVs < 3.43%) and high mass accuracy (<3.5 ppm). In addition, we found MeOH/ACN/Acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v) as extraction cocktail could achieve desirable gathering of demanded extracts from plasma samples. We further integrated the MeOH/ACN/Acetone extraction with the HILIC-FTMS method for metabolite profiling and smoking-related biomarker discovery in human plasma samples. Heavy smokers could be successfully distinguished from non smokers by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the profiling data, and 62 biomarkers for cigarette smoke were found. These results indicate that our concurrent analysis approach could be potentially used for clinical biomarker discovery, metabolite-based diagnosis, etc.

  14. Concurrent profiling of polar metabolites and lipids in human plasma using HILIC-FTMS.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoming; Li, Ruibin

    2016-11-07

    Blood plasma is the most popularly used sample matrix for metabolite profiling studies, which aim to achieve global metabolite profiling and biomarker discovery. However, most of the current studies on plasma metabolite profiling focused on either the polar metabolites or lipids. In this study, a comprehensive analysis approach based on HILIC-FTMS was developed to concurrently examine polar metabolites and lipids. The HILIC-FTMS method was developed using mixed standards of polar metabolites and lipids, the separation efficiency of which is better in HILIC mode than in C5 and C18 reversed phase (RP) chromatography. This method exhibits good reproducibility in retention times (CVs < 3.43%) and high mass accuracy (<3.5 ppm). In addition, we found MeOH/ACN/Acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v) as extraction cocktail could achieve desirable gathering of demanded extracts from plasma samples. We further integrated the MeOH/ACN/Acetone extraction with the HILIC-FTMS method for metabolite profiling and smoking-related biomarker discovery in human plasma samples. Heavy smokers could be successfully distinguished from non smokers by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the profiling data, and 62 biomarkers for cigarette smoke were found. These results indicate that our concurrent analysis approach could be potentially used for clinical biomarker discovery, metabolite-based diagnosis, etc.

  15. Concurrent profiling of polar metabolites and lipids in human plasma using HILIC-FTMS

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaoming; Li, Ruibin

    2016-01-01

    Blood plasma is the most popularly used sample matrix for metabolite profiling studies, which aim to achieve global metabolite profiling and biomarker discovery. However, most of the current studies on plasma metabolite profiling focused on either the polar metabolites or lipids. In this study, a comprehensive analysis approach based on HILIC-FTMS was developed to concurrently examine polar metabolites and lipids. The HILIC-FTMS method was developed using mixed standards of polar metabolites and lipids, the separation efficiency of which is better in HILIC mode than in C5 and C18 reversed phase (RP) chromatography. This method exhibits good reproducibility in retention times (CVs < 3.43%) and high mass accuracy (<3.5 ppm). In addition, we found MeOH/ACN/Acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v) as extraction cocktail could achieve desirable gathering of demanded extracts from plasma samples. We further integrated the MeOH/ACN/Acetone extraction with the HILIC-FTMS method for metabolite profiling and smoking-related biomarker discovery in human plasma samples. Heavy smokers could be successfully distinguished from non smokers by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the profiling data, and 62 biomarkers for cigarette smoke were found. These results indicate that our concurrent analysis approach could be potentially used for clinical biomarker discovery, metabolite-based diagnosis, etc. PMID:27819279

  16. Cholesterol forms and traditional lipid profile for projection of atherogenic dyslipidemia: lipoprotein subfractions and erythrocyte membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Uydu, Hüseyin Avni; Bostan, Mehmet; Atak, Mehtap; Yılmaz, Adnan; Demir, Adem; Akçan, Buket; Sümer, Fatih; Baltaş, Nimet; Karadağ, Zakir; Uğurlu, Yavuz; Orem, Asım

    2014-02-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by abnormal changes in plasma lipid profile such as low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased triglyceride (TG) levels is strongly associated with atherosclerotic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the levels of pro- and antiatherogenic lipids and erythrocyte membrane cholesterol (EMC) content in normo- and dyslipidemic subjects to investigate whether EMC content could be a useful marker for clinical presentation of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), HDL and their subfraction levels and erythrocyte lipid content were determined in 64 normolipidemic (NLs), 42 hypercholesterolemic (HCs) and 42 mixed-type dyslipidemic subjects (MTDs). Plasma atherogenic lipid indices [small-dense LDL (sdLDL)/less-dense HDL (LHDL), TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and Apo B/AI] were higher in MTDs compared to NLs (p < 0.001). The highest sdLDL level was observed in HCs (p < 0.01). Despite a slight increase in EMC level in dyslipidemic subgroups, the difference was not statistically significant. A significant negative correlation, however, was observed between EMC and sdLDL/LHDL in HCs (p < 0.035, r = -0.386). Receiver operating characteristic curves to predict sdLDL level showed that TG and EMC levels had higher area under curve values compared to other parameters in HCs. We showed that diameters of larger LDL and HDL particles tend to shift toward smaller values in MTDs. Our results suggest that EMC content and TG levels may be a useful predictor for sdLDL level in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  17. Effects of probiotic supplementation on lipid profile of women with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaghef-Mehrabany, Elnaz; Vaghef-Mehrabany, Leila; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Homayouni-Rad, Aziz; Issazadeh, Karim; Alipour, Beitullah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are live beneficial microorganisms which may exert hypolipidemic effects through many mechanisms. Lipid profile disturbances are frequently reported in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus casei on serum lipids of RA women. Methods: In the present parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 RA patients were recruited and divided into 2 groups. They received either a daily capsule containing 108 CFU of L. casei 01, or identical capsules containing maltodextrin, for 8 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, dietary intake and physical activity were assessed at 2 ends of the study. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Independent-samples t test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test, and paired t test were used to test between- and within-group differences, respectively. Results: There were no significant between- or within-group differences for demographic and anthropometric parameters, physical activity and dietary intakes, throughout the study. No statistically significant within-group changes were observed for serum lipids in either group; between-group differences were also insignificant by the end of study period (TC: -0.18 [-0.65, 0.29], P = 0.801, HDL-C: -1.66 [-19.28, 15.59], P = 0.663, LDL-C: -2.73 [-19.17, 13.73], P = 0.666, TG: 0.12 [-19.76, 20.00], P = 0.900). Conclusion: Lactobacillus casei 01 could not improve serum lipids in RA patients. Further studies using probiotic foods and different probiotic strains are suggested. PMID:28326290

  18. Cardioprotective effects of diet with different grains on lipid profiles and antioxidative system in obesity-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Yun; Shin, Ji Hye; Lee, Sang Sun

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, the nutritional quality of four grains including adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW), glutinous barley (GB), and white rice (WR) were evaluated in terms of plasma lipid parameters, gut transit time, and thickness of the aortic wall in rats. The rats were then raised for 4 weeks on the high-fat diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93 G) diets containing 1 % cholesterol and 20 % dietary lipids. Forty male rats were divided into 4 groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the following grains: WR, AD, BW, or WB. The level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in liver was shown to be higher in rats by the order of those fed WR, AD, GB, and BW. This indicates that other grains decreased oxidative stress in vivo more than WR. The superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase levels in the AD, BW, and GB groups were significantly higher than those in the WR group (p < 0.05). Plasma lipid profiles differed significantly according to grain combination, and decreased aortic wall thickness was consistent with the finding of decreased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.05) and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in rats fed AD, BW, and GB (p < 0.001). The antioxidant and hypolipidemic capacities of grains are quite high, especially those of adlay, buckwheat, and glutinous barley. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the whole grains had a cardioprotective effect. This effect was related to several mechanisms that corresponded to lowering plasma lipids, decreasing TBARS, and increasing antioxidant activities.

  19. Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, Devendra K; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-04-01

    Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks in age weighing between 120-150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD(50)) and carbofuran (50% LD(50)) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD(50) of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms of serum lipid parameters such as high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Treatment with individual doses of carbofuran (50% LD(50)) and cartap (50 % LD(50)) caused significant alterations in the levels of serum lipid parameters. The pesticides treatment resulted in marked decrease in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein where as that of other lipids got significantly elevated. Further, the rats exhibited relatively higher impact of pesticides when treated with the compounds in combination (25 % LD(50) of each). The results indicated that these compounds when used together may exert enhanced effect on the levels of serum lipids in rat.

  20. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

  1. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals. PMID:26426396

  2. Impaired lipid profile and insulin resistance in a cohort of Austrian HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Hermann, Kathrin; Schalk, Horst; Haider, Bernhard; Hutterer, Judith; Gmeinhart, Bernd; Pichler, Karlheinz; Brath, Helmut; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases have been shown to have an even higher impact in the HIV infected population. Cardiovascular risk factors amongst people living with HIV treated in doctor's offices in Austria have not been documented before. Our study aimed to close this gap, focusing on dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and diabetes risk. After ethics approval, consecutive patients who visited their treating physicians for routine checks were enrolled. The lipid profile was assessed by measuring total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and apolipoprotein B and calculating LDL and non-HDL-cholesterol. The diabetes risk was calculated by measuring insulin and blood glucose levels and assessing insulin resistance and beta cell function using the HOMA-IR model. 522 patients were included in the analysis. 90.2% of the participants were on antiretroviral therapy. Two third had an impaired lipid profile, but dyslipidemia had been diagnosed only in 46.3% of the patients. There was a clear correlation between protease inhibitor use and pathologic blood lipids. Of the persons with dyslipidemia, 18.4% received lipid lowering drugs. 8 persons (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for diabetes mellitus. Of those, 4 patients already had a diagnosed diabetes mellitus. 50.1% of the study participants showed an increased insulin resistance. Patients on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors had significantly higher markers for impaired glucose metabolism. We found a high percentage of increased insulin resistance, of impaired lipid profile and in contrast to this a low treatment rate with lipid lowering drugs in this cohort of people living with HIV. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water penetration profile at the protein-lipid interface in Na,K-ATPase membranes.

    PubMed

    Bartucci, Rosa; Guzzi, Rita; Esmann, Mikael; Marsh, Derek

    2014-09-16

    The affinity of ionized fatty acids for the Na,K-ATPase is used to determine the transmembrane profile of water penetration at the protein-lipid interface. The standardized intensity of the electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) from (2)H-hyperfine interaction with D2O is determined for stearic acid, n-SASL, spin-labeled systematically at the C-n atoms throughout the chain. In both native Na,K-ATPase membranes from shark salt gland and bilayers of the extracted membrane lipids, the D2O-ESEEM intensities of fully charged n-SASL decrease progressively with position down the fatty acid chain toward the terminal methyl group. Whereas the D2O intensities decrease sharply at the n = 9 position in the lipid bilayers, a much broader transition region in the range n = 6 to 10 is found with Na,K-ATPase membranes. Correction for the bilayer population in the membranes yields the intrinsic D2O-intensity profile at the protein-lipid interface. For positions at either end of the chains, the D2O concentrations at the protein interface are greater than in the lipid bilayer, and the positional profile is much broader. This reveals the higher polarity, and consequently higher intramembrane water concentration, at the protein-lipid interface. In particular, there is a significant water concentration adjacent to the protein at the membrane midplane, unlike the situation in the bilayer regions of this cholesterol-rich membrane. Experiments with protonated fatty acid and phosphatidylcholine spin labels, both of which have a considerably lower affinity for the Na,K-ATPase, confirm these results.

  4. A rational approach for the improvement of biomass production and lipid profile in cacao cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Rúa, Adriana María Gallego; Rojas, Luisa Fernanda; Trujillo, Aura Ines Urrea; Zuleta, Oriana Parra; Alvarez, Cristian David Correa; Garcés, Lucía Atehortúa

    2017-06-23

    Cocoa butter (CB) is produced in the seeds of Theobroma cacao representing 50% of its dry weight. The lipid composition plays an important role in the physicochemical, rheological, and sensory properties of the CB, making this fat a valuable resource for the production of chocolates, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, are described experimental strategies used for a rational improvement of biomass production and fatty acids in cacao cell suspension cultures. First, the lipid profile in four cacao varieties is characterized, and then, one variety is selected to induce cell suspensions using a direct method without previous establishment of a callus phase. To improve growth and total fat production in cell suspension cultures, modified DKW media and newly designed media culture, based on the mineral concentrations of cacao seeds (cacao biomass production, "CBP"), are analyzed and compared. In addition, the effect of acetate in the lipid profile of cell suspensions is evaluated. Ultrastructural histological analysis of lipid vesicles in cacao seeds and cell suspensions is also performed. The results will show that it is feasible to establish cacao suspensions without the calli step and increase the biomass production by selecting a suitable cacao variety and tissue and also applying a new culture media formulation. In addition, it is possible to synthesize fatty acids in cell cultures and modify the lipid profile adding a precursor of the novo biosynthesis of fatty acids such as the acetate. Transmission electronic microscopy examinations and differential interference contrast microscopy analysis will demonstrate that lipid vesicles are the main reserve substance in both cacao seeds and cell suspensions.

  5. Sitagliptin added to previously taken antidiabetic agents on insulin resistance and lipid profile: a 2-year study evaluation.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Ragonesi, Pietro Dario; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Bianchi, Lucio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control and insulin resistance were maintained also after 2 years of therapy and whether sitagliptin could be effective also in improving lipid profile. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 205 patients with type 2 diabetes in therapy with different antidiabetic drugs were randomized to add sitagliptin 100 mg once a day or placebo to their current therapy. We evaluated at the baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months the following parameters: body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (Tg). Sitagliptin, added to previously taken antidiabetic agents, proved to be effective in improving glycemic profile, reducing HbA1c by -17.5%, FPG by -12.7%, PPG by -20.5%. Regarding insulin resistance, sitagliptin decreased FPI by -8.3% and HOMA-IR by -20.0%, confirming that what have been already reported in short-term studies can be applied also after 2 years of treatment. Sitagliptin also reduced body weight by -4.3%. Our study also showed the positive effect of sitagliptin on lipid profile; in particular, sitagliptin decreased TC by -13.3%, LDL-C by -20.4%, and Tg by -32.3%, and also increased HDL-C by + 13.6%. Sitagliptin proved to be effective on glycemic profile and insulin resistance even after 2 years of therapy and to be effective in improving body weight and lipid profile. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Brazil nuts intake improves lipid profile, oxidative stress and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic disease associated to an inflammatory process resulting in oxidative stress that leads to morpho-functional microvascular damage that could be improved by some dietary interventions. In this study, the intake of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), composed of bioactive substances like selenium, α- e γ- tocopherol, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been investigated on antioxidant capacity, lipid and metabolic profiles and nutritive skin microcirculation in obese adolescents. Methods Obese female adolescents (n = 17), 15.4 ± 2.0 years and BMI of 35.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, were randomized 1:1 in two groups with the diet supplemented either with Brazil nuts [BNG, n = 08, 15-25 g/day (equivalent to 3 to 5 units/day)] or placebo [PG (lactose), n = 09, one capsule/day] and followed for 16 weeks. Anthropometry, metabolic-lipid profiles, oxidative stress and morphological (capillary diameters) and functional [functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV) at baseline and peak (RBCVmax) and time (TRBCVmax) to reach it during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, after 1 min arterial occlusion] microvascular variables were assessed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy at baseline (T0) and after intervention (T1). Results T0 characteristics were similar between groups. At T1, BNG (intra-group variation) had increased selenium levels (p = 0.02), RBCV (p = 0.03) and RBCVmax (p = 0.03) and reduced total (TC) (p = 0.02) and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02). Compared to PG, Brazil nuts intake reduced TC (p = 0.003), triglycerides (p = 0.05) and LDL-ox (p = 0.02) and increased RBCV (p = 0.03). Conclusion Brazil nuts intake improved the lipid profile and microvascular function in obese adolescents, possibly due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00937599 PMID:21619692

  7. Oxidative stress, antioxidants, and lipid profile in the serum and saliva of individuals with coronary heart disease: is there a link with periodontal health?

    PubMed

    Al-Rawi, Natheer H; Shahid, Alaa M

    2017-07-12

    Oxidative stresses and dyslipidemia are an important risk factor in the development of coronary atherosclerotic complications like angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to find the relationship between the salivary lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants and the periodontal health status of patients with acute coronary heart disease. Forty s who had experienced a recent attack of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction and another 40 noncardiac patients matched for age, sex and residence (control) were recruited. The lipid profile level, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were measured in the serum and saliva of all participants together with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The studied parameters were then correlated with the periodontal status of the participant using the clinical periodontal sum score (CPSS). A multiple linear regression was used to assess the net effect of each set of independent variables on the outcome variable using SPSS-21. A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Salivary total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), Malondialdehyde (MDA), uric acid (UA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels increased with the upper tertile of the CPSS, while salivary high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased with the upper tertile of the CPSS. Periodontal health status could be considered as an independent risk factor for acute coronary heart disease (CHD).

  8. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly Efficient Microscale Purification of Glycerophospholipids by Microfluidic Cell Lysis and Lipid Extraction for Lipidomics Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Pawlowski, Sean; Johnson, Mitchell E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for small-scale lipidomics of bacterial cells by integrating extraction of glycerophospholipids on microchip with a nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (nanoESI-Q-TOF MS/MS). The standard starting point for typical macroscale lipid analysis is a multiphase liquid-liquid extraction. Working with small populations of cells (1 to about 1000) requires a scaled down process in order to minimize dilution and facilitate the interface with microscale separation methods for sample cleanup and introduction to mass spectrometry. We have developed a microfluidic system that allows for lysis of bacterial cells, capture of lipids, and elution of captured lipids from a solid phase for microscale purification of lipids. The best on-chip extraction efficiency for glycerophospholipids was as high as 83.3% by integrating silica beads as the packing material with methanol as the eluent. Ten successive measurements were evaluated indicating that the microchip packed with fresh silica beads is capable of being reused for four times without any loss in lipid extraction process. The initial screening based on high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data along with discovery profiling approach revealed the presence of 173 identified phospholipid species from microfluidic cell extracts. This work demonstrates the potential of incorporating microchip-based lipid extraction into cellular lipidomics research. PMID:21766805

  10. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region, and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Waller, Justin D; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W

    2017-09-20

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n=7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine iontophoresis or exercise, and from the forearm, back and thigh following pilocarpine iontophoresis only. Sweat content of over 150 lipid mediators were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seventy lipid mediators were routinely detected, including prostanoids, alcohols, diols, epoxides, ketones, nitrolipids, N-acylethanolamides, monoacylglycerols, and ceramides. Detected lipid mediators appeared unaffected by sampling site, though the forearm was the most consistent source of sweat. Pilocarpine-induced sweat showed increased concentrations of most detected compounds. Moreover, lipid mediator concentrations and profiles were temporally stable over the study duration. Sweat therefore appears to be a consistent and anatomically-stable source of lipid mediators, but care must be taken in comparing results obtained from different stimulation techniques. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of the lipidomic profile due to a lipid challenge and fitness level: a postprandial study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ciara; O'Grada, Colm M; Ryan, Miriam F; Gibney, Michael J; Roche, Helen M; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    The lipid composition of plasma is known to vary due to both phenotypic factors such as age, gender and BMI as well as with various diseases including cancer and neurological disorders. However, there is little investigation into the variation in the lipidome due to exercise and/ or metabolic challenges. The objectives of this present study were (i) To identify the glycerophospholipid, sphingolipids and ceramide changes in response to an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) in healthy adults and (ii) To identify the effect of aerobic fitness level on lipidomic profiles. 214 healthy adults aged 18-60 years were recruited as part of a metabolic challenge study. A sub-group of 40 volunteers were selected for lipidomic analysis based on their aerobic fitness level. Ceramides, glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelins were quantified in baseline fasting plasma samples as well as at 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min following a lipid challenge using high-throughput flow injection ESI-MS/MS. Mixed model repeated measures analysis identified lipids which were significantly changing over the time course of the lipid challenge. Included in these lipids were lysophosphoethanolamines (LPE), phosphoethanolamines (PE), phosphoglycerides (PG) and ceramides (Cer). Five lipids (LPE a C18:2, LPE a C18:1, PE aa C36:2, PE aa C36:3 and N-C16:1-Cer) had a fold change > 1.5 at 120 min following the challenge and these lipids remained elevated. Furthermore, three of these lipids (LPE a C18:2, PE aa C36:2 and PE aa C36:3) were predictive of fasting and peak plasma TAG concentrations following the OLTT. Further analysis revealed that fitness level has a significant impact on the response to the OLTT: in particular significant differences between fitness groups were observed for phosphatidylcholines (PC), sphingomyelins (SM) and ceramides. This study identified specific lipids which were modulated by an acute lipid challenge. Furthermore, it identified a series of lipids which were modulated by

  13. The development and validation of a fast and robust dried blood spot based lipid profiling method to study infant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Koulman, Albert; Prentice, Philippa; Wong, Max C Y; Matthews, Lee; Bond, Nicholas J; Eiden, Michael; Griffin, Julian L; Dunger, David B

    2014-01-01

    Early life exposures and metabolic programming are associated with later disease risk. In particular lipid metabolism is thought to play a key role in the development of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in later life. Investigative studies of metabolic programming are limited by the ethics and practicalities of sample collection in small infants. Dried blood spots on filter paper, derived from heel pricks are considered as the most suitable option for this age group. We validated a novel lipid profiling method, based on high resolution mass spectrometry to successfully determine the lipid composition of infants using dried blood spots. The spotting and air drying of blood on paper has noticeable effects on many of the lipids, leading to lipid oxidation and hydrolysis, which demand careful interpretation of the obtained data. We compared the lipid profiles from plasma or whole blood samples and the results from dried blood spots to determine if these revealed the same inter-subject differences. The results from dried blood spots were no less reproducible than other lipid profiling methods which required comparatively larger sample volumes. Therefore, lipid profiles obtained from dried blood spots can be successfully used to monitor infancy lipid metabolism and we show significant differences in the lipid metabolism of infants at age 3 versus 12 months.

  14. Density profile and fiber alignment in fiberboard from three southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    G.E. Woodson

    1977-01-01

    Density profile and fiber orientation were evaluated for their effects on selected mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard. Bending MOE and modulus of rigidity were predicted from density profiles established by x-ray radiography. Orthotropic ratios ranged from 1.19 to 2.32 for electrically aligned fiberboards from three southern hardwoods. Off-axis tensile...

  15. HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIC WAIST (EWET), GLYCIDIC AND LIPID PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED HEART ATTACK.

    PubMed

    Guattini, Veronica Lucas de Olivera; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Wittke, Estefânia; Marcadenti, Aline

    2015-09-01

    hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (EWET) has been poorly tested in patients with established cardiovascular disease. to evaluate a possible association between EWET, glycidic and lipid profile in patients with newly diagnosed heart attack (HA). cross-sectional study among 45 inpatients with myocardial infarction. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, serum triglycerides, TC/HDL-c ratio, non-HDL cholesterol) and glycidic profile (fasting glucose, serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR, glucose/insulin ratio) were obtained. Weight, height and waist circumferences (WC) were assessed; BMI and EWET were calculated. Analysis of Covariance Models (ANCOVA) was used to assess the objectives. mean age of participants was 58.75 ± 12.41 years and 55.6% (n = 25) were men. After adjustment for age, gender and BMI, EWET was significantly associated with lower HDL-c (p = 0.02), higher TC/HDL-c ratio (p = 0.003) and a trend toward fasting glucose (p = 0.11). EWET phenotype seems to be associated with a worse lipidic profile in patients with newly diagnosed HA. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of tear lipid profile among basal, reflex, and flush tear samples.

    PubMed

    Rohit, Athira; Stapleton, Fiona; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Willcox, Mark D P

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether tear collection by flushing the ocular surface with saline (flush tears) or collection by stimulation (reflex tears) can be used as an alternative to basal tear collection for the identification and quantification of lipids in the tear film. Tear samples were collected from 10 participants with no history of ocular surface disease or contact lens wear. Up to 10 μl of basal, reflex, and flush tear samples were collected from each eye using a microcapillary tube on three occasions with the order of methods randomized and allowing at least 24 hours between each collection method. Lipids were quantified from each tear sample using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Total lipids significantly differed in their concentration (pmol/μl) and mole % with each collection technique. Cholesterol esters [mean % (SE)] formed the major component of the total lipidome in basal [54.8% (3.1)], reflex [35.7% (6.4)], and flush [33.0% (3.1)] tear samples. However, the mole % of each lipid class substantially varied with each tear collection method. Nonpolar lipids, including cholesterol, wax esters, and triacylglycerols, dominated the tear lipidome in basal [92.8% (1.9)], reflex [71.8% (7.9)], and flush [83.6% (3.8)] tear samples. However, the mole % of phospholipids in reflex [27.5% (8.1)] and flush [15.8% (3.8)] tear samples was higher (p = 0.005) than that in basal tears [5.4% (2.0)]. Flush or reflex tears did not have similar lipid profiles in either concentration or in mole % to basal tears. It is recommended that basal tears are used for tear lipid analysis as the reflex or flush tears contain very low levels of most lipid components.

  17. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma.

  18. Metabolite and Lipid Profiling of Biobank Plasma Samples Collected Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Izabella; Ärlestig, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective The early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is desirable to install treatment to prevent disease progression and joint destruction. Autoantibodies and immunological markers pre-date the onset of symptoms by years albeit not all patients will present these factors, even at disease onset. Additional biomarkers would be of high value to improve early diagnosis and understanding of the process, leading to disease development. Methods Plasma samples donated before the onset of RA were identified in the Biobank of Northern Sweden, a collection within national health survey programs. Thirty samples from pre-symptomatic individuals and nineteen from controls were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) metabolite and lipid profiling. Lipid and metabolite profiles discriminating samples from pre-symptomatic individuals from controls were identified after univariate and multivariate OPLS-DA based analyses. Results The OPLS-DA models including pre-symptomatic individuals and controls identified profiles differentiating between the groups that was characterized by lower levels of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids, with higher levels of lysophospatidylcholines (LPCs) and metabolites from tryptophan metabolism in pre-symptomatic individuals compared with controls. Lipid prof