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Sample records for density polyurethane foam

  1. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  2. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  3. Cell openness manipulation of low density polyurethane foam for efficient sound absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyuk Park, Ju; Suh Minn, Kyung; Rae Lee, Hyeong; Hyun Yang, Sei; Bin Yu, Cheng; Yeol Pak, Seong; Sung Oh, Chi; Seok Song, Young; June Kang, Yeon; Ryoun Youn, Jae

    2017-10-01

    Satisfactory sound absorption using a low mass density foam is an intriguing desire for achieving high fuel efficiency of vehicles. This issue has been dealt with a microcellular geometry manipulation. In this study, we demonstrate the relationship between cell openness of polyurethane (PU) foam and sound absorption behaviors, both theoretically and experimentally. The objective of this work is to mitigate a threshold of mass density by rendering a sound absorber which shows a satisfactory performance. The cell openness, which causes the best sound absorption performance in all cases considered, was estimated as 15% by numerical simulation. Cell openness of PU foam was experimentally manipulated into desired ranges by adjusting rheological properties in a foaming reaction. Microcellular structures of the fabricated PU foams were observed and sound absorption coefficients were measured using a B&K impedance tube. The fabricated PU foam with the best cell openness showed better sound absorption performance than the foam with double mass density. We envisage that this study can help the manufacture of low mass density sound absorbing foams more efficiently and economically.

  4. Mechanical properties of palm oil based bio-polyurethane foam of free rise and various densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmi, Hazmi; Zainuddin, Firuz; Cheng, Teoh Siew; Lan, Du Ngoc Uy

    2017-12-01

    Bio-foam was produced from palm oil-based polyol (POBP) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) with weight ratio of 1:1. The effect of opened mould (as free rise) and closed mould (control expansion) was investigated. Different densities of bio-polyurethane foam (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g.cm-3) were prepared using the closed mould system. The effect of density on morphology and compressive properties of bio-foam was studied. Results showed that bio-foam prepared by closed mould method possessed homogeneous cell structure and cell size compared to bio-foam prepared by opened mould. In addition, bio-foam using closed mould system had higher compression strength (0.47 MPa) than that of bio-foam using opened mould system (0.13 MPa). With higher density and lesser porosity, the compressive modulus and compressive strength of bio foams will be higher. The increase in compressive properties is due to the decrease in the cells size, more homogeneous cell structure and reduction in porosity content.

  5. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Small, Ward; Eagleston, Scott; Van de Water, Judy; Maitland, Duncan J.; Wilson, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of highly chemically crosslinked, ultra low density (~0.015 g/cc) polyurethane shape memory foams synthesized from symmetrical, low molecular weight and branched hydroxyl monomers. Sharp single glass transitions (Tg) customizable in the functional range of 45–70 °C were achieved. Thermomechanical testing confirmed shape memory behavior with 97–98% shape recovery over repeated cycles, a glassy storage modulus of 200–300 kPa and recovery stresses of 5–15 kPa. Shape holding tests under constrained storage above the Tg showed stable shape memory. A high volume expansion of up to 70 times was seen on actuation of these foams from a fully compressed state. Low in-vitro cell activation induced by the foam compared to controls demonstrates low acute bio-reactivity. We believe these porous polymeric scaffolds constitute an important class of novel smart biomaterials with multiple potential applications. PMID:22570509

  6. Open-celled polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foam has a density of 8.3 pounds per cubic foot and a compressive strength of 295 to 325 psi. It is useful as a porous spacer in layered insulation and as an insulation material in vacuum tight systems.

  7. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  8. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, Thomas E.; Spieker, David A.

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  9. Experimental determination of drag coefficients in low-density polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M L

    2006-04-18

    We describe several experiments performed at the LLNL Site 300 firing range and on the LLNL 1/3 scale gun to investigate the deceleration of small projectiles (l {approx} 3-5 [mm]) in low-density foam ({rho} {approx} 0.08-0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}]). The experiments at the firing range researched a passive velocity diagnostic based on Faraday's law of induction, while experiments on the 1/3 scale gun investigated the effects of varying projectile surface area, projectile shape, and foam density on the drag coefficient c{sub d}. Analysis shows that the velocity diagnostic has an uncertainty on the order of 1 percent for projectiles with velocitymore » v {approx} 0.8-1.2 [km/s]. The 1/3 scale gun experiments, dubbed the Krispy Kreme series, included nine shots considering the combinations of 3 projectile surface areas with 3 target densities. The experiments used Tantalum square surface area block projectiles (with an initial velocity v{sub 0} {approx} 1.2 [km/s], a common thickness T = 2.67 [mm], and square side lengths of 3, 4, and 5 [mm]) decelerating in polyurethane foams (with densities {rho}{sub f} of 0.08, 0.16 and 0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}]). Standard fluid models of the Krispy Kreme experiments predict Reynolds numbers Re {approx} 10{sup 5} - 10{sup 6}, Mach numbers Ma {approx} 0.5-2.0, and drag coefficients c{sub d} {approx} 2-3. However, the data indicate that c{sub d} = 1.1-1.2 (c{sub d} = 1.7) for all three block projectiles in the 0.08 and 0.16 [g/cm{sup 3}] targets (0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}] target). First, we conclude that the drag force on projectiles in solid polyurethane foam is less than in fluids with equivalent dimensionless parameters. This result is also supported by an additional Krispy Kreme experiment that used a disk projectile (with diameter d = 4.51 [mm] and thickness T = 2.67 [mm]) penetrating a target with density {rho} = 0.16 [g/cm{sup 3}], i.e., the fluid-like c{sub d} = 1.15 while the measured c{sub d} = 0.63. Second, we conclude that the measured drag

  10. Material Characterization and Computer Model Simulation of Low Density Polyurethane Foam Used in a Rodent Traumatic Brain Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Gurao, Manish; Yang, King H.; King, Albert I.

    2011-01-01

    Computer models of the head can be used to simulate the events associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and quantify biomechanical response within the brain. Marmarou’s impact acceleration rodent model is a widely used experimental model of TBI mirroring axonal pathology in humans. The mechanical properties of the low density polyurethane (PU) foam, an essential piece of energy management used in Marmarou’s impact device, has not been fully characterized. The foam used in Marmarou’s device was tested at seven strain rates ranging from quasi-static to dynamic (0.014 ~ 42.86 s−1) to quantify the stress-strain relationships in compression. Recovery rate of the foam after cyclic compression was also determined through the periods of recovery up to three weeks. The experimentally determined stress-strain curves were incorporated into a material model in an explicit Finite Element (FE) solver to validate the strain rate dependency of the FE foam model. Compression test results have shown that the foam used in the rodent impact acceleration model is strain rate dependent. The foam has been found to be reusable for multiple impacts. However the stress resistance of used foam is reduced to 70% of the new foam. The FU_CHANG_FOAM material model in an FE solver has been found to be adequate to simulate this rate sensitive foam. PMID:21459114

  11. Material characterization and computer model simulation of low density polyurethane foam used in a rodent traumatic brain injury model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Gurao, Manish; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2011-05-15

    Computer models of the head can be used to simulate the events associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and quantify biomechanical response within the brain. Marmarou's impact acceleration rodent model is a widely used experimental model of TBI mirroring axonal pathology in humans. The mechanical properties of the low density polyurethane (PU) foam, an essential piece of energy management used in Marmarou's impact device, has not been fully characterized. The foam used in Marmarou's device was tested at seven strain rates ranging from quasi-static to dynamic (0.014-42.86 s⁻¹) to quantify the stress-strain relationships in compression. Recovery rate of the foam after cyclic compression was also determined through the periods of recovery up to three weeks. The experimentally determined stress-strain curves were incorporated into a material model in an explicit Finite Element (FE) solver to validate the strain rate dependency of the FE foam model. Compression test results have shown that the foam used in the rodent impact acceleration model is strain rate dependent. The foam has been found to be reusable for multiple impacts. However the stress resistance of used foam is reduced to 70% of the new foam. The FU_CHANG_FOAM material model in an FE solver has been found to be adequate to simulate this rate sensitive foam. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  13. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  14. A study of aerosol entrapment and the influence of wind speed, chamber design and foam density on polyurethane foam passive air samplers used for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Wild, Edward; Davison, Brian; Barber, Jonathan L; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-06-01

    Polyurethane foam disks are a cheap and versatile tool for sampling persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the air in ambient, occupational and indoor settings. This study provides important background information on the ways in which the performance of these commonly used passive air samplers may be influenced by the key environmental variables of wind speed and aerosol entrapment. Studies were performed in the field, a wind tunnel and with microscopy techniques, to investigate deployment conditions and foam density influence on gas phase sampling rates (not obtained in this study) and aerosol trapping. The study showed: wind speed inside the sampler is greater on the upper side of the sampling disk than the lower side and tethered samplers have higher wind speeds across the upper and lower surfaces of the foam disk at a wind speed > or = 4 m/s; particles are trapped on the foam surface and within the body of the foam disk; fine (<1 um) particles can form clusters of larger size inside the foam matrix. Whilst primarily designed to sample gas phase POPs, entrapment of particles ensures some 'sampling' of particle bound POPs species, such as higher molecular weight PAHs and PCDD/Fs. Further work is required to investigate how quantitative such entrapment or 'sampling' is under different ambient conditions, and with different aerosol sizes and types.

  15. Washing Off Polyurethane Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Fogel, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Jet of hot water removes material quickly and safely. Simple, environmentally sound technique found to remove polyurethane foam insulation from metal parts. Developed for (but not limited to) use during rebuilding of fuel system of Space Shuttle main engine, during which insulation must be removed for penetrant inspection of metal parts.

  16. Polyurethane Foam Roofing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    degradation of foam .... ............... ... 53 38 Wet film gauge ....... ..................... 55 39 Peak dry film thickness gauge ... ........... ... 56 40...openings, splits and small holes or other imperfections as the liquid mixture expands and sets to form the finished foam . In addition, they can be applied...are based on the foam insulation thickness desired and the generic type and dry film mil thickness (DFT) of elastomeric protective coating selected

  17. Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for embolic biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Small, Ward; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Maitland, Duncan J; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Low density shape memory polymer foams hold significant interest in the biomaterials community for their potential use in minimally invasive embolic biomedical applications. The unique shape memory behavior of these foams allows them to be compressed to a miniaturized form, which can be delivered to an anatomical site via a transcatheter process, and thereafter actuated to embolize the desired area. Previous work in this field has described the use of a highly covalently crosslinked polymer structure for maintaining excellent mechanical and shape memory properties at the application-specific ultra low densities. This work is aimed at further expanding the utility of these biomaterials, as implantable low density shape memory polymer foams, by introducing controlled biodegradability. A highly covalently crosslinked network structure was maintained by use of low molecular weight, symmetrical and polyfunctional hydroxyl monomers such as Polycaprolactone triol (PCL-t, Mn 900 g), N,N,N0,N0-Tetrakis (hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine (HPED), and Tris (2-hydroxyethyl) amine (TEA). Control over the degradation rate of the materials was achieved by changing the concentration of the degradable PCL-t monomer, and by varying the material hydrophobicity. These porous SMP materials exhibit a uniform cell morphology and excellent shape recovery, along with controllable actuation temperature and degradation rate. We believe that they form a new class of low density biodegradable SMP scaffolds that can potentially be used as “smart” non-permanent implants in multiple minimally invasive biomedical applications. PMID:24090987

  18. Polyurethane Foam Impact Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipp, M. E.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Reinhart, W. D.; Wong, M. K.

    1999-06-01

    Uniaxial strain impact experiments with a rigid polyurethane foam of nominal density 0.22g/cc are reported. A 6 mm thick foam impactor is mounted on the face of a projectile and impacts a thin (1 mm) target plate of aluminum or copper, on which the rear free surface velocity history is acquired with a VISAR. Impact velocities ranged from 300 to 1500 m/s. The velocity record monitors the initial shock from the foam transmitted through the target, followed by a reverberation within the target plate as the wave interacts with the compressed foam at the impact interface and the free recording surface. These one-dimensional uniaxial strain impact experiments were modeled using a traditional p-alpha porous material model for the distended polyurethane, which generally captured the motion imparted to the target by the foam. Some of the high frequency aspects of the data, reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the foam, can be recovered with computations of fully 3-dimensional explicit representations of this porous material.

  19. An overview of polyurethane foams in higher specification foam mattresses.

    PubMed

    Soppi, Esa; Lehtiö, Juha; Saarinen, Hannu

    2015-02-01

    Soft polyurethane foams exist in thousands of grades and constitute essential components of hospital mattresses. For pressure ulcer prevention, the ability of foams to control the immersion and envelopment of patients is essential. Higher specification foam mattresses (i.e., foam mattresses that relieve pressure via optimum patient immersion and envelopment while enabling patient position changes) are claimed to be more effective for preventing pressure ulcers than standard mattresses. Foam grade evaluations should include resiliency, density, hardness, indentation force/load deflection, progressive hardness, tensile strength, and elongation along with essential criteria for higher specification foam mattresses. Patient-specific requirements may include optimal control of patient immersion and envelopment. Mattress cover characteristics should include breathability, impermeability to fluids, and fire safety and not affect mattress function. Additional determinations such as hardness are assessed according to the guidelines of the American Society for Testing and Materials and the International Organization for Standardization. At this time, no single foam grade provides an optimal combination of the above key requirements, but the literature suggests a combination of at least 2 foams may create an optimal higher specification foam mattress for pressure ulcer prevention. Future research and the development of product specification accuracy standards are needed to help clinicians make evidence-based decisions about mattress use.

  20. Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2006-01-01

    Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal

  1. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  2. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam; Daniels, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  3. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  4. Properties of rigid polyurethane foams filled with glass microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V.; Bel'kova, L.; Sevastyanova, I.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of hollow glass microspheres with a density of 125 kg/m3 on the properties of low-density (54-90 kg/m3) rigid polyurethane foams is investigated. The thermal expansion coefficient of the foams and their properties in tension and compression in relation to the content of the microspheres (0.5-5 wt.%) are determined. An increase in the characteristics of the material in compression in the foam rise direction with increasing content of filler is revealed. The limiting content of the microspheres above which the mechanical characteristics of the filled foams begin to decrease is found. The distribution of the microspheres in elements of the cellular structure of the polyurethane foams is examined.

  5. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  6. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  7. Properties of rigid polyurethane foams filled with milled carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V.; Stirna, U.; Bel'kova, L.; Deme, L.; Sevastyanova, I.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of milled carbon fibers of two types (differing in length) on the properties of rigid polyurethane foams in the density range from 50 to 90 kg/m3 is investigated. The coefficient of thermal expansion and properties of the foams in tension and compression as functions of fiber content in them are determined. It is found that the long fibers are more efficient in improving the properties of the foams in their rise direction. The elongation at break of the foams decreases significantly with increasing fiber content.

  8. Some physical and mechanical properties of recycled polyurethane foam blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bledzki, A. K.; Zicans, J.; Merijs Meri, R.; Kardasz, D.

    2008-09-01

    Blends of secondary rigid polyurethane foams (RPUFs) with soft polyurethane foams (SPUFs) were investigated. The effect of SPUF content and its chemical nature on some physical and mechanical properties of the blends was evaluated. Owing to the stronger intermolecular interaction and higher values of cohesion energy, the blends of RPUFs with polyester SPUFs showed higher mechanical properties than those with polyether SPUFs. The density, hardness, ultimate strength, and the tensile, shear, and flexural moduli increased, while the impact toughness, ultimate elongation, and damping characteristics decreased with increasing RPUF content in the blends.

  9. Study of Polyurethane Foaming Dynamics Using a Heat Flow Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koniorczyk, P.; Trzyna, M.; Zmywaczyk, J.; Zygmunt, B.; Preiskorn, M.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the results of the study concerning the effects of fillers addition on the heat flux density \\dot{q}( t ) of foaming of polyurethane-polystyrene porous composite (PSUR) and describes the dynamics of this process during the first 600 s. This foaming process resulted in obtaining porous materials that were based on HFC 365/225 blown rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) matrix, which contained thermoplastic expandable polystyrene (EPS) beads as the filler. In PSUR composites, the EPS beads were expanded after being heated to a temperature above the glass transition temperature of EPS and vaporing gas incorporated inside, by using the heat of exothermic reaction of polyol with isocyanate. From the start (t=0) to the end of the PSUR composite foaming process (t=tk), \\dot{q}( t ) was measured with the use of the heat flow meter. For the purpose of the study two PUR systems were selected: one with high and one with low heat density of foaming process q. EPS beads were selected from the same manufacturer with large and small diameter. The mass fraction of EPS in PSUR foam varied during the measurements. Additionally, a study of volume fractions of expanded EPS phase in PSUR foams as a function of mass fractions of EPS was conducted. In order to verify effects of the EPS addition on the heat flux density during PSUR foaming process, the thermal conductivity measurements were taken.

  10. Modeling of skeletal members using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, J.M.F.; Weaver, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    At the request of the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, members of the Plastic Section in the Process Development Division at SNLA undertook the special project of the Chaco Lady. The project consisted of polyurethane foam casting of a disinterred female skull considered to be approximately 1000 years old. Rubber latex molds, supplied by the UNM Anthropology Department, were used to produce the polymeric skull requested. The authors developed for the project a modified foaming process which will be used in future polyurethane castings of archaeological artifacts and contemporary skeletal members at the University.

  11. Time-dependent crashworthiness of polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basit, Munshi Mahbubul; Cheon, Seong Sik

    2018-05-01

    Time-dependent stress-strain relationship as well as crashworthiness of polyurethane foam was investigated under constant impact energy with different velocities, considering inertia and strain-rate effects simultaneously during the impact testing. Even though the impact energies were same, the percentage in increase in densification strain due to higher impact velocities was found, which yielded the wider plateau region, i.e. growth in crashworthiness. This phenomenon is analyzed by the microstructure of polyurethane foam obtained from scanning electron microscopy. The equations, coupled with the Sherwood-Frost model and the impulse-momentum theory, were employed to build the constitutive equation of the polyurethane foam and calculate energy absorption capacity of the foam. The nominal stress-strain curves obtained from the constitutive equation were compared with results from impact tests and were found to be in good agreement. This study is dedicated to guiding designer use polyurethane foam in crashworthiness structures such as an automotive bumper system by providing crashworthiness data, determining the crush mode, and addressing a mathematical model of the crashworthiness.

  12. Assessment of Multiaxial Mechanical Response of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettarin, Valeria; Fasce, Laura A.; Frontini, Patricia M.

    2014-02-01

    Multiaxial deformation behavior and failure surface of rigid polyurethane foams were determined using standard experimental facilities. Two commercial foams of different densities were assayed under uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial stress states. These different stress states were reached in a uniaxial universal testing machine using suitable testing configurations which imply the use of special grips and lateral restricted samples. Actual strains were monitored with a video extensometer. Polyurethane foams exhibited typical isotropic brittle behavior, except under compressive loads where the response turned out to be ductile. A general failure surface in the stress space which accounts for density effects could be successfully generated. All of failure data, determined at the loss of linear elasticity point, collapsed in a single locus defined as the combination of a brittle crushing of closed-cell cellular materials criterion capped by an elastic buckling criterion.

  13. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  14. Physicomechanical Characteristics of Spray-On Rigid Polyurethane Foams at Normal and Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V. A.; Zhmud', N. P.; Stirna, U. K.

    2002-05-01

    The effect of processing factors on the inhomogeneity and physicomechanical characteristics of spray-on polyurethane foams is studied. The dependences of the basic characteristics of foam plastics on the apparent density and cell-shape factor are determined. A method is offered for evaluating the effect of the technological surface skin on the tensile characteristics of foam plastics under normal and low temperatures.

  15. Experimental Polyurethane Foam Roof Systems - II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    distribution unlimited. qt’, B 11 1 A F FN 1 5.6,-’ ,". I Rf- IE I0 Edthat, I.f "" Roofs, energy conservation, insulation, sprayed polyurethane foam...pcriod is presented, and thle energy savings realized by Oamning thle roof’ are prese nted. Libirary Card Naval Civil lFiginvee.ig I alora tor)i...the energy savings I reali/ed by foaming the roof are presented.I Unclassified rC~U~tTY CL ASSIrICATIO)N OF THISt PAGi-h WI-., . I -d CONTENTS Page

  16. The kinetics of polyurethane structural foam formation: Foaming and polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Long, Kevin N.

    We are developing kinetic models to understand the manufacturing of polymeric foams, which evolve from low viscosity Newtonian liquids, to bubbly liquids, finally producing solid foam. Closed-form kinetics are formulated and parameterized for PMDI-10, a fast curing polyurethane, including polymerization and foaming. PMDI- 10 is chemically blown, where water and isocyanate react to form carbon dioxide. The isocyanate reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, producing polymer. Our approach is unique, though it builds on our previous work and the polymerization literature. This kinetic model follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples foaming and curing, including an evolving glass transitionmore » temperature to represent vitrification. This approach is based on IR, DSC, and volume evolution data, where we observed that the isocyanate is always in excess and does not affect the kinetics. Finally, the kinetics are suitable for implementation into a computational fluid dynamics framework, which will be explored in subsequent papers.« less

  17. The kinetics of polyurethane structural foam formation: Foaming and polymerization

    DOE PAGES

    Rao, Rekha R.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Long, Kevin N.; ...

    2017-02-15

    We are developing kinetic models to understand the manufacturing of polymeric foams, which evolve from low viscosity Newtonian liquids, to bubbly liquids, finally producing solid foam. Closed-form kinetics are formulated and parameterized for PMDI-10, a fast curing polyurethane, including polymerization and foaming. PMDI- 10 is chemically blown, where water and isocyanate react to form carbon dioxide. The isocyanate reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, producing polymer. Our approach is unique, though it builds on our previous work and the polymerization literature. This kinetic model follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples foaming and curing, including an evolving glass transitionmore » temperature to represent vitrification. This approach is based on IR, DSC, and volume evolution data, where we observed that the isocyanate is always in excess and does not affect the kinetics. Finally, the kinetics are suitable for implementation into a computational fluid dynamics framework, which will be explored in subsequent papers.« less

  18. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  19. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  20. Modeling Manufacturing Impacts on Aging and Reliability of Polyurethane Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    Polyurethane is a complex multiphase material that evolves from a viscous liquid to a system of percolating bubbles, which are created via a CO2 generating reaction. The continuous phase polymerizes to a solid during the foaming process generating heat. Foams introduced into a mold increase their volume up to tenfold, and the dynamics of the expansion process may lead to voids and will produce gradients in density and degree of polymerization. These inhomogeneities can lead to structural stability issues upon aging. For instance, structural components in weapon systems have been shown to change shape as they age depending on theirmore » molding history, which can threaten critical tolerances. The purpose of this project is to develop a Cradle-to-Grave multiphysics model, which allows us to predict the material properties of foam from its birth through aging in the stockpile, where its dimensional stability is important.« less

  1. Compressive and shear properties of commercially available polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mark S; McCarthy, Ian D; Lidgren, Lars; Ryd, Leif

    2003-10-01

    The shear properties of rigid polyurethane (PU-R) foams, routinely used to simulate cancellous bone, are not well characterized. The present assessment of the shear and compressive properties of four grades of Sawbones "Rigid cellular" PU-R foam tested 20 mm gauge diameter dumb-bell specimens in torsion and under axial loading. Shear moduli ranged from 13.3 to 99.7 MPa, shear strengths from 0.7 MPa to 4.2 MPa. Compressive yield strains varied little with density while shear yield strains had peak values with "200 kgm-3" grade. PU-R foams may be used to simulate the elastic but not failure properties of cancellous bone.

  2. Effect of silica nanoparticles on polyurethane foaming process and foam properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, A. B.; Navarro Bañón, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible polyurethane foams (FPUF) are commonly used as cushioning material in upholstered products made on several industrial sectors: furniture, automotive seating, bedding, etc. Polyurethane is a high molecular weight polymer based on the reaction between a hydroxyl group (polyol) and isocyanate. The density, flowability, compressive, tensile or shearing strength, the thermal and dimensional stability, combustibility, and other properties can be adjusted by the addition of several additives. Nanomaterials offer a wide range of possibilities to obtain nanocomposites with specific properties. The combination of FPUF with silica nanoparticles could develop nanocomposite materials with unique properties: improved mechanical and thermal properties, gas permeability, and fire retardancy. However, as silica particles are at least partially surface-terminated with Si-OH groups, it was suspected that the silica could interfere in the reaction of poyurethane formation.The objective of this study was to investigate the enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of FPUF by the incorporation of different types of silica and determining the influence thereof during the foaming process. Flexible polyurethane foams with different loading mass fraction of silica nanoparticles (0-1% wt) and different types of silica (non treated and modified silica) were synthesized. PU/SiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, and measurements of apparent density, resilience and determination of compression set. Addition of silica nanoparticles influences negatively in the density and compression set of the foams. However, resilience and thermal stability of the foams are improved. Silica nanoparticles do not affect to the chemical structure of the foams although they interfere in the blowing reaction.

  3. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  4. Uncertainty Analysis of Decomposing Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Michael L.; Romero, Vicente J.

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity/uncertainty analyses are necessary to determine where to allocate resources for improved predictions in support of our nation's nuclear safety mission. Yet, sensitivity/uncertainty analyses are not commonly performed on complex combustion models because the calculations are time consuming, CPU intensive, nontrivial exercises that can lead to deceptive results. To illustrate these ideas, a variety of sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were used to determine the uncertainty associated with thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam exposed to high radiative flux boundary conditions. The polyurethane used in this study is a rigid closed-cell foam used as an encapsulant. Related polyurethane binders such as Estane are used in many energetic materials of interest to the JANNAF community. The complex, finite element foam decomposition model used in this study has 25 input parameters that include chemistry, polymer structure, and thermophysical properties. The response variable was selected as the steady-state decomposition front velocity calculated as the derivative of the decomposition front location versus time. An analytical mean value sensitivity/uncertainty (MV) analysis was used to determine the standard deviation by taking numerical derivatives of the response variable with respect to each of the 25 input parameters. Since the response variable is also a derivative, the standard deviation was essentially determined from a second derivative that was extremely sensitive to numerical noise. To minimize the numerical noise, 50-micrometer element dimensions and approximately 1-msec time steps were required to obtain stable uncertainty results. As an alternative method to determine the uncertainty and sensitivity in the decomposition front velocity, surrogate response surfaces were generated for use with a constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. Two surrogate response surfaces were investigated: 1) a linear surrogate response surface (LIN) and 2

  5. Toxicity studies of a polyurethane rigid foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Relative toxicity tests were performed on a polyurethane foam containing a trimethylopropane-based polyol and an organophosphate flame retardant. The routine screening procedure involved the exposure of four Swiss albino male mice in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber to the products generated by pyrolyzing a 1.00 g sample at a heating rate of 40 deg C/min from 200 to 800 C in the absence of air flow. In addition to the routine screening, experiments were performed with a very rapid rise to 800 C, with nominal 16 and 48 ml/sec air flow and with varying sample rates. No unusual toxicity was observed with either gradual or rapid pyrolysis to 800 C. Convulsions and seizures similar to those previously reported were observed when the materials were essentially flash pyrolyzed at 800 C in the presence of air flow, and the toxicity appeared unusual because of low sample weights required to produce death.

  6. Polyurethane foam for roadway stabilization NH Route 129, Loudon, NH.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-12

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the performance of polyurethane foam as a method of roadway : stabilization for a rural roadway experiencing substantial frost heaving. : NHDOT is responsible for many roads which have evolved from gravel road...

  7. Polyurethane foam for roadway stabilization NH route 129, Loudon, NH.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-12

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the performance of polyurethane foam as a method of roadway : stabilization for a rural roadway experiencing substantial frost heaving. : NHDOT is responsible for many roads which have evolved from gravel road...

  8. Rigid open-cell polyurethane foam for cryogenic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Lindquist, C. R.; Niendorf, L. R.; Nies, G. E.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Lightweight polyurethane foam assembled in panels is effective spacer material for construction of self-evacuating multilayer insulation panels for cryogenic liquid tanks. Spacer material separates radiation shields with barrier that minimizes conductive and convective heat transfer between shields.

  9. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  10. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or... polyurethane foam process, with the following exception. Diisocyanates may be used to flush the mixhead and...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or... polyurethane foam process, with the following exception. Diisocyanates may be used to flush the mixhead and...

  12. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  13. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Curro, John G.; Quintana, Carlos A.; Russick, Edward M.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    1987-01-01

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  14. Rigid Polyurethane Foams from Lignin Based-Polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cateto, Carolina; Barreiro, Filomena; Rodrigues, Alírio; Belgacem, Naceur

    2008-08-01

    Rigid polyurethane (RPU) foams were synthesized using lignin-based polyols obtained by an oxypropylation process. Alcell, Indulin AT, Curan 27-11P and Sarkanda lignins have been oxypropylated using formulations deduced from an optimization study with Alcell. L/PO/C (ratio between lignin, PO and catalyst content) of 30/70/2 and 20/80/5 were used to obtain the desired polyols. The resulting RPU foams were characterized in terms of density, mechanical properties, conductivity and morphology. All Sarkanda lignin based polyols and the 30/70/2 Curan 27-11P polyol were found inadequate for RPU formulations. Alcell and Indulin AT based polyols and the 20/80/5 Curan 27-11P polyol resulted in RPU foams with properties very similar to those obtained from conventional commercial polyols. RPU foams produced with the 30/70/2 Alcell and the 30/70/2 Indulin AT polyols exhibited improved properties compared with those from 20/80/5 based formulations.

  15. The Modification of Polyurethane Foams Using New Boroorganic Polyols (II) Polyurethane Foams from Boron-Modified Hydroxypropyl Urea Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The work focuses on research related to determination of application possibility of new, ecofriendly boroorganic polyols in rigid polyurethane foams production. Polyols were obtained from hydroxypropyl urea derivatives esterified with boric acid and propylene carbonate. The influence of esterification type on properties of polyols and next on polyurethane foams properties was determined. Nitrogen and boron impacts on the foams' properties were discussed, for instance, on their physical, mechanical, and electric properties. Boron presence causes improvement of dimensional stability and thermal stability of polyurethane foams. They can be applied even at temperature 150°C. Unfortunately, introducing boron in polyurethanes foams affects deterioration of their water absorption, which increases as compared to the foams that do not contain boron. However, presence of both boron and nitrogen determines the decrease of the foams combustibility. Main impact on the decrease combustibility of the obtained foams has nitrogen presence, but in case of proper boron and nitrogen ratio their synergic activity on the combustibility decrease can be easily seen. PMID:24587721

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF CFC AND HCFC SUBSTITUTES FOR BLOWING POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a cooperative effort to identiry chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbon substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. The substantial ongoing effort is identifying third-generation blowing agets for polyurethane foams to repla...

  17. Fiber glass prevents cracking of polyurethane foam insulation on cryogenic vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forge, D. A.

    1968-01-01

    Fiber glass material, placed between polyurethane foam insulation and the outer surfaces of cryogenic vessels, retains its resilience at cryogenic temperatures and provides an expansion layer between the metal surfaces and the polyurethane foam, preventing cracking of the latter.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a new...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a new...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—diisocyanate emissions. Each new and existing slabstock affected source shall comply...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—diisocyanate emissions. Each new and existing slabstock affected source shall comply...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a new...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  11. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  12. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  13. Electrical conductivity of rigid polyurethane foam at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. T., Jr.

    1982-08-01

    The electrical conductivity of rigid polyurethane foam, used for electronic encapsulation, was measured during thermal decomposition to 3400 C. At higher temperatures the conductance continues to increase. With pressure loaded electrical leads, sample softening results in eventual contact between electrodes which produces electrical shorting. Air and nitrogen environments show no significant dependence of the conductivity on the atmosphere over the temperature range. The insulating characteristics of polyurethane foam below approx. 2700 C are similar to those for silicone based materials used for electronic case housings and are better than those for phenolics. At higher temperatures (greater than or equal to 2700 C) the phenolics appear to be better insulators to approx. 5000 C and the silicones to approx. 6000 C. It is concluded that the Sylgard 184/GMB encapsulant is a significantly better insulator at high temperature than the rigid polyurethane foam.

  14. Roof-crush strength improvement using rigid polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, K.; Mani, A.

    1998-08-01

    Recent bending tests show the effectiveness of rigid, polyurethane foam in improving the strength of automotive body structures. By using foam, it is possible to reduce pillar sections, and to reduce thicknesses or eliminate reinforcements inside the pillars, and thereby offset the mass increase due to the foam filling. Further tests showed that utilizing the foam filling in a B-pillar to reduce section size can save ~20 mm that could be utilized to add energy absorbing structures in order to meet the new interior head impact requirements specified by the federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSS) 201 Head Impact Protection upgrade.

  15. Effect of Filler Type on the Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams at a Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V.; Cabulis, U.; Sevastyanova, I.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of filler type and mass percentage on the properties of low-density rigid polyurethane foams at a temperature of 77K was investigated. The mechanical properties of foams of density 55-90 kg/m3 filled with milled carbon fibers of average length of 100 and 60 μm and hollow glass microspheres of average diameter of 65 μm were compared. A considerable increase in the compressive elastic modulus in the foam rise direction with increasing filler content was observed. The compression strength of the foams in the parallel and perpendicular directions at the cryogenic temperature decreased upon introducing the milled carbon fibers of either type. The compression strength of the foams of density 90 kg/m3 somewhat increased only upon introducing the glass microspheres.

  16. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOEpatents

    Maienschein, Jon L.; Barry, Patrick E.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  17. Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Marukovich, Alexander; Mikutski, Vitali; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Hryhoryeu, Siarhei; Sadykov, Vladislav

    2016-06-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams were manufactured by multiple replications of a polyurethane foam template structure using ethanolic solutions of phenolic resin. The aims were to create an algorithm of fine tuning the precursor foam density and ensure an open-cell reticulated porous structure in a wide density range. The precursor foams were pyrolyzed in inert atmospheres at 700°C, 1100°C and 2000°C, and RVC foams with fully open cells and tunable bulk densities within 0.09-0.42 g/cm3 were synthesized. The foams were characterized in terms of porous structure, carbon lattice parameters, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and corrosive resistance. The reported manufacturing approach is suitable for designing the foam microstructure, including the strut design with a graded microstructure.

  18. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  19. Cyanide toxicity from the thermal degradation of rigid polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Bell, R H; Stemmer, K L; Barkley, W; Hollingsworth, L D

    1979-09-01

    Thermal degradation products (tdp) from a model, rigid polyurethane foam were collected in such a manner as to eliminate carbon monoxide and other gases with low boiling points. The effects in rats resulting from intratracheal intubation (I.T.) of the tdp are discussed. Cyanide was found to be a major factor associated with severe toxic responses of the experimental rats.

  20. Sorption of Triangular Silver Nanoplates on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furletov, A. A.; Apyari, V. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Volkov, P. A.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Dmitrienko, S. G.

    2018-02-01

    The sorption of triangular silver nanoplates on polyurethane foam is investigated as a procedure for creating a nanocomposite sensing material for subsequent use in optical means of chemical analysis. Triangular silver nanoplates are synthesized and characterized, and a simple sorption technique for the formation of a composite material based on these nanoplates is proposed.

  1. Fiber-modified polyurethane foam for ballistic protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Parker, J. A.; Rosser, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Closed-cell, semirigid, fiber-loaded, self-extinguishing polyurethane foam material fills voids around fuel cells in aircraft. Material prevents leakage of fuel and spreading of fire in case of ballistic incendiary impact. It also protects fuel cell in case of exterior fire.

  2. Aluminum phosphate microcapsule flame retardants for flexible polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Hong; Han, Jian

    2018-04-01

    In this study, highly efficient flame-retardant aluminum phosphate (ALP) microcapsules were synthesized from ALP and ammonium phosphomolybdate trihydrate. The chemical structure of the ALP microcapsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis, and the thermal degradation behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Subsequently, flexible polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared with the ALP microcapsules. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests, vertical burning tests, smoke density rating (SDR), and cone calorimetric tests were employed to investigate the combustion of the materials. The results showed that the flexible PU foams with 15 parts per hundred polyol by weight (pphp) ALP microcapsules passed the vertical burning test and they had an increased LOI value of 28.5%. The SDR value for PU/20 pphp ALP microcapsule composites was about 16.0% and the SDR value for the pure PU was about 29.0%. The corresponding flame-retardant mechanism was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TGA, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) tests, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

  3. Tests of two new polyurethane foam wheelchair tires.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1989-01-01

    The performance characteristics of four 24-inch wheelchair tires are considered; one pneumatic and three airless. Specifically, two new airless polyurethane foam tires (circular and tapered cross-section) were compared to both a molded polyisoprene tire and a rubber pneumatic tire. Rolling resistance, coefficient of static friction, spring rate, tire roll-off, impact absorption, wear resistance, and resistance to compression set were the characteristics considered for the basis of comparison. Although the pneumatic tire is preferred by many wheelchair users, the two new polyurethane foam tires were found to offer a performance similar to the high-pressure pneumatic tire. In addition, the foam tires are less expensive and lighter in weight than the other tires tested.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line in...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line in...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line in...

  7. Active Debris Removal System Based on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzitelli, Federico; Valdatta, Marcelo; Bellini, Niccolo; Candini Gian, Paolo; Rastelli, Davide; Romei, Fedrico; Locarini, Alfredo; Spadanuda, Antonio; Bagassi, Sara

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an increasing problem. The exponential increase of satellite launches in the last 50 years has determined the problem of space debris especially in LEO. The remains of past missions are dangerous for both operative satellites and human activity in space. But not only: it has been shown that uncontrolled impacts between space objects can lead to a potentially dangerous situation for civil people on Earth. It is possible to reach a situation of instability where the big amount of debris could cause a cascade of collisions, the so called Kessler syndrome, resulting in the infeasibility of new space missions for many generations. Currently new technologies for the mitigation of space debris are under study: for what concerning the removal of debris the use of laser to give a little impulse to the object and push it in a graveyard orbit or to be destroyed in the atmosphere. Another solution is the use of a satellite to rendezvous with the space junk and then use a net to capture it and destroy it in the reentry phase. In a parallel way the research is addressed to the study of deorbiting solutions to prevent the formation of new space junk. The project presented in this paper faces the problem of how to deorbit an existing debris, applying the studies about the use of polyurethane foam developed by Space Robotic Group of University of Bologna. The research is started with the Redemption experiment part of last ESA Rexus program. The foam is composed by two liquid components that, once properly mixed, trig an expansive reaction leading to an increase of volume whose entity depends on the chemical composition of the two starting components. It is possible to perform two kind of mission: 1) Not controlled removal: the two components are designed to react producing a low density, high expanded, spongy foam that incorporates the debris. The A/m ratio of the debris is increased and in this way also the ballistic parameter. As a consequence, the effect of

  8. Characterization of commercial rigid polyurethane foams used as bone analogs for implant testing.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Kayla L; Trumble, Kevin P; Webster, Thomas J; Kirkpatrick, Lynn A

    2010-05-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructure characterization of a series of graded commercial rigid polyurethane foams commonly used to mimic trabecular bone in testing orthopaedic devices is reported. Compressive testing conducted according to ASTM standard F1839-08, which requires large specimens (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm x 25.4 mm blocks) gave elastic modulus and compressive strength values ranging from 115 to 794 MPa and 4.7 to 24.7 MPa, respectively, for foams having densities of 0.240-0.641 g/cm(3). All these results were within the requirements of the specification for the corresponding grades. Compression testing using smaller specimens (7.5 mm diameter x 15 mm) typical of testing bone, gave results in good agreement with those obtained in the standard tests. Microstructural measurements showed the average pore size ranged from 125 to 234 microm for densities ranging from 0.641 to 0.159 g/cm(3), respectively. The relative modulus as a function of relative density of the foams fit well to the model of Gibson and Ashby. Cyclic testing revealed hysteresis in the lower density foams with a loading modulus statistically equivalent to that measured in monotonic testing. Shore DO durometry (hardness) measurements show good correlations to elastic modulus and compressive strength. The results suggest additional parameters to consider for the evaluation of polyurethane foams for bone analog applications.

  9. Damage Caused to Polyurethane Foams by Aging, Simulated Sunlight Exposure, Heat and Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    vented configuration ............ .................. 11 4 Sample of the tan-colored solid formed upon pyrolysis of blue foam ..... .............. .. 21...54 26 Infrared absorption spectrum of the solid, tan-colored pyrolysis product formed from blue polyurethane foam ..... .............. .. 55 27...Infrared absorption spectrum of the liquid, brown-colored pyrolysis product formed from blue polyurethane foam ..... .............. .. 56 28 Fuel vent

  10. Polyurethane foam-covered breast implants: a justified choice?

    PubMed

    Scarpa, C; Borso, G F; Vindigni, V; Bassetto, F

    2015-01-01

    Even if the safety of the polyurethane prosthesis has been the subject of many studies and professional and public controversies. Nowadays, polyurethane covered implants are very popular in plastic surgery for the treatment of capsular contracture. We have identified 41 papers (1 is a communication of the FDA) by using search browsers such as Pubmed, Medline, and eMedicine. Eleven manuscripts have been used for an introduction, and the remaining thirty have been subdivided into three tables whose results have been summarized in three main chapters: (1) capsular formation and contracture, (2) complications, (3) biodegradation and cancer risk. (1) The polyurethanic capsule is a well defined foreign body reaction characterized by synovial metaplasia, a thin layer of disarranged collagen fibers and a high vascularization. These features make possible a "young" capsule and a low occurrence of capsular contracture even over a long period (10 years); (2) the polyurethane implants may be difficult to remove but there is no evidence that they cause an increase in the other complications; (3) there is no evidence of polyurethane related cancer in long-term studies (after 5 years). Polyurethane foam covered breast implants remain a valid choice for the treatment of capsular contracture even if it would be very useful to verify the ease of removal of the prosthesis and to continue investigations on biodegradation products.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section, unless a recovery device is used. Slabstock foam...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section, unless a recovery device is used. Slabstock foam...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section, unless a recovery device is used. Slabstock foam...

  14. A finite element/level set model of polyurethane foam expansion and polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    Polyurethane foams are used widely for encapsulation and structural purposes because they are inexpensive, straightforward to process, amenable to a wide range of density variations (1 lb/ft3 - 50 lb/ft3), and able to fill complex molds quickly and effectively. Computational model of the filling and curing process are needed to reduce defects such as voids, out-of-specification density, density gradients, foam decomposition from high temperatures due to exotherms, and incomplete filling. This paper details the development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a moderate density PMDI structural foam, PMDI-10. PMDI is an isocyanate-based polyurethane foam, which is chemically blown withmore » water. The polyol reacts with isocyanate to produces the polymer. PMDI- 10 is catalyzed giving it a short pot life: it foams and polymerizes to a solid within 5 minutes during normal processing. To achieve a higher density, the foam is over-packed to twice or more of its free rise density of 10 lb/ft3. The goal for modeling is to represent the expansion, filling of molds, and the polymerization of the foam. This will be used to reduce defects, optimize the mold design, troubleshoot the processed, and predict the final foam properties. A homogenized continuum model foaming and curing was developed based on reaction kinetics, documented in a recent paper; it uses a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. The chemo-rheology of PMDI is measured experimentally and fit to a generalized- Newtonian viscosity model that is dependent on the extent of cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and three rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. The equations are combined with a level set method to determine the location of the foam-gas interface as it evolves to fill the mold. Understanding the thermal history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity

  15. Fire and ecotoxicological aspects of polyurethane rigid foam.

    PubMed

    Wittbecker, F W; Giersig, M

    2001-01-01

    The main characteristics of fire effluents from polyurethane (PUR) foams are comparable to those from natural materials like wood, cork, or wool. This similarity has been demonstrated by comparative data from analytical and toxicological studies. It is therefore presumed that effluents of these materials present similar hazards to human beings and the environment. In almost all fires, dioxins can be found in the smoke and residues. In fires involving PURs, relevant quantities of halogenated dioxins or furans are not to be expected; this has been confirmed by investigations under controlled laboratory conditions. The insulation properties of rigid PUR foam contribute significantly to environmental protection and the conservation of resources. A number of methods for reusing and recycling PUR rigid foam waste have been developed and realized in practise. The possibilities range from reusing the material itself, generating liquid raw materials, and thermal recycling, even for (H)CFC-containing PUR rigid foams, by cocombustion in suitable plants.

  16. Temperature and speed of testing influence on the densification and recovery of polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Dragoş Alexandru; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane foams with densities of 35, 93, and 200 kg/m3 were tested in compression at three levels of temperatures as: -60 °C, 23 °C, and 80 °C. The influence of speed of testing from 2 mm/min up to 6 m/s (0.0014 to 545 s-1) on the response of the foams is analyzed. Testing is done separately on the rise direction and on the in-plane direction of the foams, and differences in their behavior are commented. With interpolation functions which approximate the plateau and densification region, the specific strain energy is calculated together with the energy efficiency and onset strain of densification. A Nagy-type phenomenological strain-rate-dependent model is proposed to generate engineering stress-strain curves and is validated through comparison with experimental stress-strain curves obtained at different speeds of testing. Starting from a reference experimental curve, two material parameters which are density and temperature dependent are established. Foam recovery for each density of the polyurethane foams is analyzed as a function of direction of testing, temperature, and speed of testing.

  17. Compressive properties of commercially available polyurethane foams as mechanical models for osteoporotic human cancellous bone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Purvi SD; Shepherd, Duncan ET; Hukins, David WL

    2008-01-01

    Background Polyurethane (PU) foam is widely used as a model for cancellous bone. The higher density foams are used as standard biomechanical test materials, but none of the low density PU foams are universally accepted as models for osteoporotic (OP) bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether low density PU foam might be suitable for mimicking human OP cancellous bone. Methods Quasi-static compression tests were performed on PU foam cylinders of different lengths (3.9 and 7.7 mm) and of different densities (0.09, 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3), to determine the Young's modulus, yield strength and energy absorbed to yield. Results Young's modulus values were 0.08–0.93 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 15.1–151.4 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. Yield strength values were 0.01–0.07 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 0.9–4.5 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. The energy absorbed to yield was found to be negligible for all foam cylinders. Conclusion Based on these results, it is concluded that 0.16 g.cm-3 PU foam may prove to be suitable as an OP cancellous bone model when fracture stress, but not energy dissipation, is of concern. PMID:18844988

  18. Correlation Between Bone Density and Instantaneous Torque at Implant Site Preparation: A Validation on Polyurethane Foam Blocks of a Device Assessing Density of Jawbones.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bone density at implant placement sites is one of the key factors affecting implant primary stability, which is a determinant for implant osseointegration and rehabilitation success. Site-specific bone density assessment is, therefore, of paramount importance. Recently, an implant micromotor endowed with an instantaneous torque-measuring system has been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of this system. Five blocks with different densities (0.16, 0.26, 0.33, 0.49, and 0.65 g/cm(3)) were used. A single trained operator measured the density of one of them (0.33 g/cm(3)), by means of five different devices (20 measurements/device). The five resulting datasets were analyzed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model to investigate interdevice variability. As differences were not significant (P = .41), the five devices were each assigned to a different operator, who collected 20 density measurements for each block, both under irrigation (I) and without irrigation (NI). Measurements were pooled and averaged for each block, and their correlation with the actual block-density values was investigated using linear regression analysis. The possible effect of irrigation on density measurement was additionally assessed. Different devices provided reproducible, homogenous results. No significant interoperator variability was observed. Within the physiologic range of densities (> 0.30 g/cm(3)), the linear regression analysis showed a significant linear correlation between the mean torque measurements and the actual bone densities under both drilling conditions (r = 0.990 [I], r = 0.999 [NI]). Calibration lines were drawn under both conditions. Values collected under irrigation were lower than those collected without irrigation at all densities. The NI/I mean torque ratio was shown to decrease linearly with density (r = 0.998). The mean error introduced by the device-operator system was less than 10% in the range of normal jawbone density

  19. High temperature electrical conductivity of rigid polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. T., Jr.

    1984-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of three rigid polyurethane foams prepared using different formulations was measured to approx. 320 C. The materials exhibit similar conductivity characteristics, showing a pronounced increase in conductivity with increasing temperature. The insulating characteristics to approx. 200 C are better than that for phenolic materials (glass fabric reinforced), and are similar to those for silicone materials (glass microsphere reinforced). At higher temperatures (500 to 600 C), the phenolics and silicones are better insulators.

  20. Preparation of linear hydroxy substituted polyphosphazenes. [flame retardant polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The synthesis of partially hydroxy-substituted phosphazene prepolymers amenable to processing into cellular, flexible polyurethane foams was investigated. Factors determined include (1) the environment of the hydroxyl group; (2) the ease of the hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene polymerization; (3) the nature of the nonreactive substituents; and (4) the mode of introduction of the hydroxyl entity. The specific approaches taken, the rationale of the selections made, and the results are discussed.

  1. Water as foaming agent for open cell polyurethane structures.

    PubMed

    Haugen, H; Ried, V; Brunner, M; Will, J; Wintermantel, E

    2004-04-01

    The problem of moisture in polymer processing is known to any polymer engineer, as air bubbles may be formed. Hence granulates are generally dried prior to manufacturing. This study tried to develop a novel processing methods for scaffolds with controlled moisture content in thermoplastic polyurethane. The common foaming agents for polyurethane are organic solvents, whose residues remaining in the scaffold may be harmful to adherent cells, protein growth factors or nearby tissues. Water was used as a foaming agent and NaCl was used as porogens to achieve an open-cell structure. The polyether-polyurethane samples were processed in a heated press, and achieved a porosity of 64%. The pore size ranged between 50 and 500 microm. Human fibroblasts adhered and proliferate in the scaffold. A non-toxic production process was developed to manufacture a porous structure with a thermoplastic polyether-polyurethane. The process enables a mass-production of samples with adjustable pore size and porosity. In contrast to an existing method (solvent casting), the processing of the samples was not limited by its thickness. The process parameters, which attribute mostly to the pore building, were filling volume, temperature, NaCl-concentration and water-uptake rate.

  2. A multilayered polyurethane foam technique for skin graft immobilization.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoki; Ito, Erika; Kato, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shoichi; Morita, Akimichi

    2012-02-01

    Several techniques are applicable for skin graft immobilization. Although the sponge dressing is a popular technique, pressure failure near the center of the graft is a weakness of the technique that can result in engraftment failure. To evaluate the efficacy of a new skin graft immobilization technique using multilayered polyurethane foam in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-six patients underwent a full-thickness skin graft. Multiple layers of a hydrocellular polyurethane foam dressing were used for skin graft immobilization. In addition, we created an in vitro skin graft model that allowed us to estimate immobilization pressure at the center and edges of skin grafts of various sizes. Overall mean graft survival was 88.9%. In the head and neck region (19 patients), mean graft survival was 93.6%. Based on the in vitro outcomes, this technique supplies effective pressure (<30 mmHg) to the center region of the skin graft. This multilayered polyurethane foam dressing is simple, safe, and effective for skin graft immobilization. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Polyurethane Foam Pack Outdoor Storage Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    formed between the polyurthane foam and the plywood. No nails "re used to secure the top. It was impossible to tell If the pack was completely filled...Ulm. rILE: toury AD-A 187 729 - N T. ;I[ POLYURIET!AN FOAM PACK OUTDOOR STORAGE TEST I OCTOBU 1987 DTIC &%ELECTEi NOV 3 0197 * 1’• Thomas M...U.S. ARMY TANK-AUTOMOTIVE COMMANDRESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING CENTERWarren, Michigan 48397-5000 REPRODUCTION QUALITY NOTICE This document is the

  4. Study of factors influencing the mechanical properties of polyurethane foams under dynamic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linul, E.; Marsavina, L.; Voiconi, T.; Sadowski, T.

    2013-07-01

    Effect of density, loading rate, material orientation and temperature on dynamic compression behavior of rigid polyurethane foams are investigated in this paper. These parameters have a very important role, taking into account that foams are used as packing materials or dampers which require high energy impact absorption. The experimental study was carried out on closed-cell rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam specimens of different densities (100, 160 respectively 300 kg/m3), having a cubic shape. The specimens were subjected to uniaxial dynamic compression with loading rate in range of 1.37-3.25 m/s, using four different temperatures (20, 60, 90, 110°C) and two loading planes (direction (3) - rise direction and direction (2) - in plane). Experimental results show that Young's modulus, yield stress and plateau stress values increases with increasing density. One of the most significant effects of mechanical properties in dynamic compression of rigid PUR foams is the density, but also the loading speed, material orientation and temperature influences the behavior in compression

  5. Effect of foam age on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyurethane flexible foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Murphy, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from some samples of polyurethane flexible foams appears to have decreased with age, while other samples seem to exhibit no significant change with age in this respect. The changes observed were greater than could be accounted for by variations in the material, or test variations or artifacts.

  6. Dielectric properties of novel polyurethane-PZT-graphite foam composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolvanen, Jarkko; Hannu, Jari; Nelo, Mikko; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2016-09-01

    Flexible foam composite materials offer multiple benefits to future electronic applications as the rapid development of the electronics industry requires smaller, more efficient, and lighter materials to further develop foldable and wearable applications. The aims of this work were to examine the electrical properties of three- and four-phase novel foam composites in different conditions, find the optimal mixture for four-phase foam composites, and study the combined effects of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and graphite fillers. The flexible and highly compressible foams were prepared in a room-temperature mixing process using polyurethane, PZT, and graphite components as well as their combinations, in which air acted as one phase. In three-phase foams the amount of PZT varied between 20 and 80 wt% and the amount of graphite, between 1 and 15 wt%. The four-phase foams were formed by adding 40 wt% of PZT while the amount of graphite ranged between 1 and 15 wt%. The presented results and materials could be utilized to develop new flexible and soft sensor applications by means of material technology.

  7. Histopathological reaction over prosthesis surface covered with silicone and polyurethane foam implanted in rats.

    PubMed

    Wagenführ-Júnior, Jorge; Ribas Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Nascimento, Marcelo Mazza do; Ribas, Fernanda Marcondes; Wanka, Marcus Vinícius; Godoi, Andressa de Lima

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate whether polyurethane foam leads more intense foreign-body reaction than silicone foam. To compare the vascularization of the capsules surrounding the foam implants. To investigate if the capsule of polyurethane foam implanted has greater amount of collagen than that of silicone foam. Sixty-four young male Wistar rats were allocated into two groups: polyurethane foam and silicone foam. Subcutaneous discs were implanted into the dorsum of the animals in both groups. The capsules were assessed 28 days, two months, three months and six months postoperatively. Microscopic analysis with H&E stain was performed to evaluate the acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign-body reaction and neovascularization. The analysis with picrosirius red was performed using the ImageProPlus software, to measure the number of vessels and collagen types I and III. There were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding the acute and chronic inflammatory processes. All rats from the polyurethane group, in all times, exhibited moderate or intense foreign-body reaction, with statistic significant difference (p=0.046) when compared with the silicone group, in which the reaction was either mild or nonexistent at two months. Vascular proliferation was significantly different between the groups at 28 days (p=0.0002), with the polyurethane group displaying greater neovascularization with H&E stain. Similar results were obtained with picrosirius red, which revealed in the polyurethane group a much greater number of vessels than in the silicone group (p=0.001). The collagen area was larger in the polyurethane group, significantly at 28 days (p=0.001) and at two months (p=0.030). Polyurethane foam elicited more intense foreign-body reaction when compared with silicone foam. The number of vessels was higher in the capsules of the polyurethane foam implants 28 days after the operation. The capsule of the polyurethane foam implants showed a greater amount of collagen

  8. Polyurethane foam with multi walled carbon nanotubes/magnesium hybrid filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Sinar Arzuria; Zainuddin, Firuz; Zaidi, Nur Hidayah Ahmad; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Ahmad, Sahrim

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/magnesium (Mg) hybrid filler in polyurethane (PU) foams with different weight percentages (0.5 wt.% to 3.0 wt.%). The PU/MWCNTs/Mg foam composites were formed by reaction of based palm oil polyol (POP) with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) with ratio 1:1.1 by weight. The foam properties were evaluated in density, morphology and compressive strength. The addition of 2.5 wt.% hybrid filler showed the higher density in 59.72 kg/m3 and thus contribute to the highest compressive strength at 1.76 MPa. The morphology show cell in closed structure and addition hybrid filler showed uneven structure.

  9. Polyurethane Foams for Thermal Insulation Uses Produced from Castor Oil and Crude Glycerol Biopolyols.

    PubMed

    Carriço, Camila S; Fraga, Thaís; Carvalho, Vagner E; Pasa, Vânya M D

    2017-07-02

    Rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized using a renewable polyol from the simple physical mixture of castor oil and crude glycerol. The effect of the catalyst (DBTDL) content and blowing agents in the foams' properties were evaluated. The use of physical blowing agents (cyclopentane and n-pentane) allowed foams with smaller cells to be obtained in comparison with the foams produced with a chemical blowing agent (water). The increase of the water content caused a decrease in density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and Young's modulus, which indicates that the increment of CO₂ production contributes to the formation of larger cells. Higher amounts of catalyst in the foam formulations caused a slight density decrease and a small increase of thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and Young's modulus values. These green foams presented properties that indicate a great potential to be used as thermal insulation: density (23-41 kg·m -3 ), thermal conductivity (0.0128-0.0207 W·m -1 ·K -1 ), compressive strength (45-188 kPa), and Young's modulus (3-28 kPa). These biofoams are also environmentally friendly polymers and can aggregate revenue to the biodiesel industry, contributing to a reduction in fuel prices.

  10. The Utilization of Bark to Make Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Jason

    This work focused on the characterization of polyols derived from the liquefaction or alkoxylation of bark. Regarding liquefaction, it was found that both temperature and solvent structure played a significant role in polyol properties. High temperature liquefaction resulted in the degradation of sugars, while liquefaction at mild temperatures preserved sugar structures as shown by 31P-NMR. It was also shown that liquefaction at 130°C was ideal in terms of producing a polyol with a relatively at, broad, plateau of molecular weight distribution, whereas liquefaction at 90 and 160°C produced polyols with a large amount of low molecular weight compounds. Regarding solvent structure, it was found that polyhydric alcohols with short chain primary hydroxyls resulted in less sugar degradation products and less formation of condensation side-products. It is proposed that the highly polar environment promoted grafting and prevented condensation onto other biopolymers. Using organic solvents it was found that ketonic solvents like acetyl acetone and cyclohexanone, through their highly polar carbonyl group could engage in hydrogen bonding through electron donation/proton accepting interactions. These enabled the solvent to reduce the amount of condensation reactions and improve liquefaction yield. The liquefied bark-based polyols were then used to make polyurethane foams. It was found that when a diversity of hydroxyl groups were present the foaming rate was reduced and this may react a slower rate of curing and explain why the bark foams had a greater amount of cells that underwent coalescence. It was also observed that the bark foams had a low amount of closed-cell content. Since closed-cell content plays a role in dictating elastic compression, this may explain why the bark foams exhibited a lower elastic modulus. Finally, as a contrast to liquefaction, bark was alkoxylated. It was observed that the conversion yield was higher than liquefaction. The polyols had a high

  11. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... emissions from leaks from transfer pumps, valves, connectors, pressure-relief valves, and open-ended lines...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... emissions from leaks from transfer pumps, valves, connectors, pressure-relief valves, and open-ended lines...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... emissions from leaks from transfer pumps, valves, connectors, pressure-relief valves, and open-ended lines...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or existing...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA storage vessels. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA emissions from the production line. (a) Each owner or...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA storage vessels. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or existing...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—source-wide emission limitation. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA emissions from the production line. (a) Each owner or...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—source-wide emission limitation. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or existing...

  10. Effect of flame retardants on the properties of monolithic and foamed polyurethanes at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V. A.; Stirna, U. K.; Zhmud', N. P.

    1999-09-01

    The dependence of physical and mechanical properties of monolithic and foamed rigid polyurethanes on the content of flame retardants was investigated at 293 and 98 K. The character of the influence of the content of trichloroethyl phosphate on the ultimate tensile elongation and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion for monolithic and foamed polyurethanes at a temperature of 98 K was established.

  11. Biodegradative Activities of Selected Environmental Fungi on a Polyester Polyurethane Varnish and Polyether Polyurethane Foams

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Barragán, Joyce; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Vargas-Suárez, Martín; González-Hernández, Ricardo; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyurethane (PU) is widely used in many aspects of modern life because of its versatility and resistance. However, PU waste disposal generates large problems, since it is slowly degraded, there are limited recycling processes, and its destruction may generate toxic compounds. In this work, we isolated fungal strains able to grow in mineral medium with a polyester PU (PS-PU; Impranil DLN) or a polyether PU (PE-PU; Poly Lack) varnish as the only carbon source. Of the eight best Impranil-degrading strains, the six best degraders belonged to the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex, including the species C. pseudocladosporioides, C. tenuissimum, C. asperulatum, and C. montecillanum, and the two others were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The best Impranil degrader, C. pseudocladosporioides strain T1.PL.1, degraded up to 87% after 14 days of incubation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of Impranil degradation by this strain showed a loss of carbonyl groups (1,729 cm−1) and N—H bonds (1,540 and 1,261 cm−1), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a decrease in ester compounds and increase in alcohols and hexane diisocyanate, indicating the hydrolysis of ester and urethane bonds. Extracellular esterase and low urease, but not protease activities were detected at 7 and 14 days of culture in Impranil. The best eight Impranil-degrading fungi were also able to degrade solid foams of the highly recalcitrant PE-PU type to different extents, with the highest levels generating up to 65% of dry-weight losses not previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of fungus-treated foams showed melted and thinner cell wall structures than the non-fungus-treated ones, demonstrating fungal biodegradative action on PE-PU. IMPORTANCE Polyurethane waste disposal has become a serious problem. In this work, fungal strains able to efficiently degrade different types of

  12. Biodegradative Activities of Selected Environmental Fungi on a Polyester Polyurethane Varnish and Polyether Polyurethane Foams.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Barragán, Joyce; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Vargas-Suárez, Martín; González-Hernández, Ricardo; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; Loza-Tavera, Herminia

    2016-09-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is widely used in many aspects of modern life because of its versatility and resistance. However, PU waste disposal generates large problems, since it is slowly degraded, there are limited recycling processes, and its destruction may generate toxic compounds. In this work, we isolated fungal strains able to grow in mineral medium with a polyester PU (PS-PU; Impranil DLN) or a polyether PU (PE-PU; Poly Lack) varnish as the only carbon source. Of the eight best Impranil-degrading strains, the six best degraders belonged to the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex, including the species C. pseudocladosporioides, C. tenuissimum, C. asperulatum, and C. montecillanum, and the two others were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum The best Impranil degrader, C. pseudocladosporioides strain T1.PL.1, degraded up to 87% after 14 days of incubation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of Impranil degradation by this strain showed a loss of carbonyl groups (1,729 cm(-1)) and N-H bonds (1,540 and 1,261 cm(-1)), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a decrease in ester compounds and increase in alcohols and hexane diisocyanate, indicating the hydrolysis of ester and urethane bonds. Extracellular esterase and low urease, but not protease activities were detected at 7 and 14 days of culture in Impranil. The best eight Impranil-degrading fungi were also able to degrade solid foams of the highly recalcitrant PE-PU type to different extents, with the highest levels generating up to 65% of dry-weight losses not previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of fungus-treated foams showed melted and thinner cell wall structures than the non-fungus-treated ones, demonstrating fungal biodegradative action on PE-PU. Polyurethane waste disposal has become a serious problem. In this work, fungal strains able to efficiently degrade different types of polyurethanes are reported, and

  13. Glycolysis recycling of rigid waste polyurethane foam from refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Zhu, P; Cao, Z B; Chen, Y; Zhang, X J; Qian, G R; Chu, Y L; Zhou, M

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth of rigid waste polyurethane (WPUR) foam from refrigerators attracts the attention all over the world. In this study, glycolysis was chosen to treat WPUR from scrapped refrigerators collected in Shanghai, China. Glycolysis reagents and catalysts were selected. The results indicated that the glycolysis efficiency of ethylene glycol (EG) was higher than that of diethylene glycol, and the catalytic efficiency of alkali metal salts (NaOH) was more excellent than that of triethanolamine and organic salts of alkali metal (NaAc). When EG was 100%WPUR as a glycolysis reagent and NaOH was 1%WPUR as a catalyst at a constant temperature of 197.85°C for 2 h, the glycolysis product had the highest glycolysis conversion rate. In order to maximize the recycling of WPUR, regenerative Polyurethane was performed by adding 10% distilled mixed polyol, which conformed to the QB/T 26689-2011 requirements.

  14. Rigid polyurethane/oil palm fibre biocomposite foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, Adilah; Majid, Rohah A.; Nasir, Izzah Athirah Ahmad; Mustaffa, Nor Syatika; Hassan, Wan Hasamuddin Wan

    2017-07-01

    Rigid polyurethane (PU) biocomposite foam had been successfully prepared by reacting palm oil-derived polyol (PO-p) with polymeric 4, 4-diphenylmethane diisocynate (p-MDI). Two types of alkali-treated oil palm fibres namely, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm pressed fibre (PPF) were used as fillers to be incorporated into PU foam at 2.5 wt%, 5 wt% and 7.5 wt% fibre loadings. The effects of these fibres on surface morphology, compressive strength and thermal transition behaviours of biocomposite foams were investigated. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of urethane linkages (-NHCOO) in all samples at 1530-1540 cm-1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the average melting peak temperature (Tm) of biocomposite foams (132°C) were lower Tm than that of pure PU foam (161.67°C) and the increase amount of fibres did not give significant effect on the Tm of both biocomposite systems. Meanwhile, the microscopic images of PU-PPF foams exhibited smaller and uniform cell size morphologies compared with the PU-EFB foams that had coarse and irregular cell sizes, especially at 7.5wt% EFB. These findings were manifested with the gradually increase of compressive strength of PU-PPF at all PPF ratios while for PU-EFB system, the compressive strength increased up to 5 wt% before reduced at 7.5 wt% loading. It was thought due to the residual oil in PPF fibre had plasticized the PU matrix to a little extent, thus helping the dispersion of PPF fibre across the matrix.

  15. Mapping pocket gopher burrow systems with expanding polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Felthauser, M.; McInroy, D.

    The impetus for this study arose from the need to isolate buried chemical and radioactive waste from burrowing animals. In a study of barrier materials that inhibit burrowing by pocket gophers (Thomomys spp.) into waste material, it was necessary to map tunnel systems as a function of depth and soil type. A method of mapping burrow systems was needed that would be economical, portable, useful in a variety of soil types, and give accurate, permanent records of burrow configurations. A method is described for injecting an expanding polyurethane foam to map burrow systems in situ.

  16. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  17. Investigation of Industrial Polyurethane Foams Modified with Antimicrobial Copper Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sportelli, Maria Chiara; Picca, Rosaria Anna; Ronco, Roberto; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Pollini, Mauro; Sannino, Alessandro; Valentini, Antonio; Cataldi, Tommaso R.I.; Cioffi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were electrosynthetized and applied to the controlled impregnation of industrial polyurethane foams used as padding in the textile production or as filters for air conditioning systems. CuNP-modified materials were investigated and characterized morphologically and spectroscopically, by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The release of copper ions in solution was studied by Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of freshly prepared, as well as aged samples—stored for two months—was demonstrated towards different target microorganisms. PMID:28773665

  18. PUFoam : A novel open-source CFD solver for the simulation of polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, M.; Droghetti, H.; Marchisio, D. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work a transient three-dimensional mathematical model is formulated and validated for the simulation of polyurethane (PU) foams. The model is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and is coupled with a population balance equation (PBE) to describe the evolution of the gas bubbles/cells within the PU foam. The front face of the expanding foam is monitored on the basis of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method using a compressible solver available in OpenFOAM version 3.0.1. The solver is additionally supplemented to include the PBE, solved with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), the polymerization kinetics, an adequate rheological model and a simple model for the foam thermal conductivity. The new solver is labelled as PUFoam and is, for the first time in this work, validated for 12 different mixing-cup experiments. Comparison of the time evolution of the predicted and experimentally measured density and temperature of the PU foam shows the potentials and limitations of the approach.

  19. A numerical study of shock wave reflections on low density foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, M. R.

    1992-06-01

    A continuum mixture theory is used to describe shock wave reflections on low density open-cell polyurethane foam. Numerical simulations are compared to the shock tube experiments of Skews (1991) and detailed wave fields are shown of a shock wave interacting with a layer of foam adjacent to a rigid wall boundary. These comparisons demonstrate that a continuum mixture theory describes well the shock interactions with low density foam.

  20. Influence of carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties and structure of rigid polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciecierska, E.; Jurczyk-Kowalska, M.; Bazarnik, P.; Kulesza, M.; Lewandowska, M.; Kowalski, M.; Krauze, S.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the influence of carbon nanotubes addition on foam structure and mechanical properties of rigid polyurethane foam/nanotube composites was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to reveal the foam porous structure and distribution of carbon nanotubes. To determine the mechanical properties, three point bending tests were carried out.

  1. Morphological and performance measures of polyurethane foams using X-ray CT and mechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brian M; Henderson, Kevin; Gilbertson, Robert D; Tornga, Stephanie; Cordes, Nikolaus L; Chavez, Manuel E; Smith, Zachary

    2014-08-01

    Meso-scale structure in polymeric foams determines the mechanical properties of the material. Density variations, even more than variations in the anisotropic void structure, can greatly vary the compressive and tensile response of the material. With their diverse use as both a structural material and space filler, polyurethane (PU) foams are widely studied. In this manuscript, quantitative measures of the density and anisotropic structure are provided by using micro X-ray computed tomography (microCT) to better understand the results of mechanical testing. MicroCT illustrates the variation in the density, cell morphology, size, shape, and orientation in different regions in blown foam due to the velocity profile near the casting surface. "Interrupted" in situ imaging of the material during compression of these sub-regions indicates the pathways of the structural response to the mechanical load and the changes in cell morphology as a result. It is found that molded PU foam has a 6 mm thick "skin" of higher density and highly eccentric morphological structure that leads to wide variations in mechanical performance depending upon sampling location. This comparison is necessary to understand the mechanical performance of the anisotropic structure.

  2. Effect of aluminum phosphate on alkaline phosphatase activity of polyurethane foam immobilized cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, N; Prasanna, B Gowtham

    2006-09-01

    The impact of insoluble phosphorus such as aluminum and rock phosphate on alkaline phosphatase activity of polyurethane foam immobilized cyanobacteria was assessed. Polyurethane foam immobilized Nodularia recorded the highest alkaline phosphatase activity of 9.04 (m. mol p-nitrophenol released h(-1) mg(-1) protein) in vitro. A higher concentration of aluminum phosphate was recorded a 25% reduction in alkaline phosphatase activity, ammonia content, and available phosphorus in culture filtrate of polyurethane foam immobilized cyanobacteria. In general, immobilized cyanobacteria exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in rock phosphate than aluminum phosphate.

  3. Synthesis of rigid polyurethane foams from phosphorylated biopolyols.

    PubMed

    de Haro, Juan Carlos; López-Pedrajas, Daniel; Pérez, Ángel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Carmona, Manuel

    2017-08-18

    Renewable resources are playing a key role on the synthesis of biodegradable polyols. Moreover, the incorporation of covalently linked additives is increasing in importance in the polyurethane (PU) market. In this work, previously epoxidized grape seed oil and methyl oleate were transformed into phosphorylated biopolyols through an acid-catalyzed ring-opening hydrolysis in the presence of H 3 PO 4 . The formation of phosphate polyesters was confirmed by FT-IR and 31 P-NMR. However, the synthesis of a high-quality PU rigid foam was not possible using exclusively these polyols attending to their low hydroxyl value. In that way, different rigid PU foams were prepared from the phosphorylated biopolyols and the commercial polyol Alcupol R4520. It was observed that phosphorylated biopolyols can be incorporated up to a 57 wt.% in the PU synthesis without significant structural changes with respect to the commercial foam. Finally, thermogravimetric and EDAX analyses revealed an improvement of thermal stability by the formation of a protective phosphorocarbonaceous char layer.

  4. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  5. Modeling shock-driven reaction in low density PMDI foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundage, Aaron; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William; Peterson, David

    Shock experiments on low density polyurethane foams reveal evidence of reaction at low impact pressures. However, these reaction thresholds are not evident over the low pressures reported for historical Hugoniot data of highly distended polyurethane at densities below 0.1 g/cc. To fill this gap, impact data given in a companion paper for polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) foam with a density of 0.087 g/cc were acquired for model validation. An equation of state (EOS) was developed to predict the shock response of these highly distended materials over the full range of impact conditions representing compaction of the inert material, low-pressure decomposition, and compression of the reaction products. A tabular SESAME EOS of the reaction products was generated using the JCZS database in the TIGER equilibrium code. In particular, the Arrhenius Burn EOS, a two-state model which transitions from an unreacted to a reacted state using single step Arrhenius kinetics, as implemented in the shock physics code CTH, was modified to include a statistical distribution of states. Hence, a single EOS is presented that predicts the onset to reaction due to shock loading in PMDI-based polyurethane foams. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Experimental study on cryogenic moisture uptake in polyurethane foam insulation material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Yao, L.; Qiu, L. M.; Gan, Z. H.; Yang, R. P.; Ma, X. J.; Liu, Z. H.

    2012-12-01

    Rigid foam is widely used to insulate cryogenic tanks, in particular for space launch vehicles due to its lightweight, mechanical strength and thermal-insulating performance. Up to now, little information is available on the intrusion of moisture into the material under cryogenic conditions, which will bring substantial additional weight for the space vehicles at lift-off. A cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure the amount of water uptake into the polyurethane foam. One side of the specimen is exposed to an environment with high humidity and ambient temperature, while the other with cryogenic temperature at approximately 78 K. A total of 16 specimens were tested for up to 24 h to explore the effects of the surface thermal protection layer, the foam thickness, exposed time, the butt joints, and the material density on water uptake of the foam. The results are constructive for the applications of the foam to the cryogenic insulation system in space launch vehicles.

  7. Isocyanate emissions from pyrolysis of mattresses containing polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Garrido, María A; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the emissions of powerful asthmatic agents called isocyanates from small-scale pyrolysis experiments of two common foams employed in mattress production such as flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) and viscoelastic memory foam (VMF). A nitrogen atmosphere and five different temperatures, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 850 °C, were selected to carry out the experiments in order to evaluate the worst possible conditions for thermal degradation. A similar trend for both materials was found. At lower temperatures, diisocyanates were the most important products whereas at 850 °C monoisocyanates, and mainly isocyanic acid released mainly from the thermal cracking of diisocyanates evolved directly from the polymer chains. The total yields of isocyanates were in the range of 1.43-11.95 mg/m 3 for FPUF at 300-850 °C and 0.05-6.13 mg/m 3 for VMF, 300-850 °C. This difference could be a consequence of the lower amount of isocyanates employed in the VMF production which was confirmed by the nitrogen content of the foams, 5.95% FPUF vs. 3.34% in VMF. Additionally, a qualitative search for so far unknown isocyanates was performed in samples from the pyrolysis of FPUF at 300, 400 and 850 °C. It was confirmed that six different aminoisocyanates at 300 °C were evolved, whereas at 400 and 850 °C only five of them were detected. The general trend observed was a decrease of the aminoisocyanate levels with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some polyurethane and polychloroprene foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Slattengren, C. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of toxicity screening tests on some polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams are presented. The test method involves the exposure of four Swiss albino male mice in a 4.2-liter hemispherical chamber to the pyrolysis effluents from 1 g of sample exposed to temperatures rising from 200 to 800 C at a rate of 40 C/min. Mortality and times to incapacitation and to death are recorded. Comparisons indicate that flexible polyurethane foams without fire retardant are more toxic than the corresponding foams containing fire retardant, and polychloroprene foams are least toxic.

  9. Polyurethane foam infill for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck panels.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to develop, test, and evaluate fiber-reinforced, polyurethane foams to replace the costly : honeycomb construction currently used to manufacture FRP bridge deck panels. The effort will focus on developing an ...

  10. In vitro analysis of polyurethane foam as a topical hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; van Oeveren, Wim; Zuidema, Johan; Visscher, Susan H; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2011-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents can be used to treat problematic bleedings in patients who undergo surgery. Widely used are the collagen- and gelatin-based hemostats. This study aimed to develop a fully synthetic, biodegradable hemostatic agent to avoid exposure to animal antigens. In this in vitro study the suitability of different newly developed polyurethane-based foams as a hemostatic agent has been evaluated and compared to commonly used agents. An experimental in vitro test model was used in which human blood flowed through the test material. Different modified polyurethane foams were compared to collagen and gelatin. The best coagulation was achieved with collagen. The results of the polyurethane foam improved significantly by increasing the amount of polyethylene glycol. Therefore, the increase of the PEG concentration seems a promising approach. Additional in vivo studies will have to be implemented to assess the application of polyurethane foam as a topical hemostatic agent.

  11. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  12. Improving the Performance of Heat Insulation Polyurethane Foams by Silica Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikje, M. M. Alavi; Garmarudi, A. Bagheri; Haghshenas, M.; Mazaheri, Z.

    Heat insulation polyurethane foam materials were doped by silica nano particles, to investigate the probable improving effects. In order to achieve the best dispersion condition and compatibility of silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix a modification step was performed by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) as coupling agent. Then, thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane rigid foam were investigated. Thermal and mechanical properties were studied by tensile machine, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  13. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Blum, Arlene; Stapleton, Heather M.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2015-09-01

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC-MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams.

  14. Water-free synthesis of polyurethane foams using highly reactive diisocyanates derived from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Christopher N D; Bulach, Winfried D; Rehahn, Matthias; Klein, Roland

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis of a new highly reactive diisocyanate monomer based on hydroxymethylfurfural. It further describes its catalyst-free conversion to linear-chain thermoplastic polyurethanes as well as to cross-linked polyurethane foams. In addition, a novel strategy for the synthesis of polyurethane foams without the necessity of using water is developed. Nitrogen is utilized herein as blowing agent which is formed during Curtius rearrangement of a new furan based carboxylic azide into its corresponding diisocyanate. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Highly Hydrophilic Polyurethane Foam Dressing in Treating a Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-A; Yoo, Ki-Hyun; Han, Seung-Kyu; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-12-01

    To demonstrate the efficacy of a highly hydrophilic polyurethane foam dressing in the treatment of diabetic ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers often pose a difficult treatment problem. Polyurethane foam dressings have been used worldwide to accelerate wound healing, but only a few clinical studies demonstrate the effect of foam dressing on the healing of diabetic ulcers. Medical records of 1342 patients with diabetic ulcers who were admitted and treated at the authors' institution were reviewed. A total of 208 patients met the study's inclusion criteria. Of these 208 patients, 137 were treated with a highly hydrophilic polyurethane foam dressing, and 71 were treated with saline gauze (control group). Except for the application of polyurethane foam dressing, the treatment method was identical for patients in both groups. The wound healing outcomes of the 2 groups were compared. Complete wound healing occurred in 87 patients (63.5%) in the polyurethane foam dressing group and in 28 patients (39.4%) in the control group within 12 weeks (P < .05, X test). The mean percentage of wound area reduction in both groups was statistically significant (P < .05, Mann-Whitney U test). The mean time required for complete closure in patients who achieved complete healing within 12 weeks was 6.2 (SD, 3.4) weeks and 7.3 (SD, 2.6) weeks in the polyurethane foam dressing and control groups, respectively (P < .05, Mann-Whitney U test). These results indicate that the highly hydrophilic polyurethane foam dressing may provide an effective treatment strategy for diabetic foot ulcers.

  16. Characterization of biobased polyurethane foams employing lignin fractionated from microwave liquefied switchgrass

    Treesearch

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Tingxing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Lignin samples fractionated from microwave liquefied switchgrass were applied in the preparation of semirigid polyurethane (PU) foams without purification.The objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of lignin in the PU matrix on themorphological, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties of thePU foams.The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images...

  17. Inhibition of Microbial Growth by Fatty Amine Catalysts from Polyurethane Foam Test Tube Plugs

    PubMed Central

    Bach, John A.; Wnuk, Richard J.; Martin, Delano G.

    1975-01-01

    When polyurethane foam test tube plugs are autoclaved, they release volatile fatty amines that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms. The chemical structures of these amines were determined by the use of a gas chromatographmass spectrometer. They are catalysts used to produce the foam. The problem of contaminating growth media with toxic substances released from polymeric materials is discussed. PMID:1096816

  18. Improving the mechanical performance of wood fiber reinforced bio-based polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Chi

    Because of the environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption, soybean-based polyurethane (PU) foam has been developed as an alternative to be used as the core in structural insulated panels (SIPs). Wood fibers can be added to enhance the resistance of foam against bending and buckling in compression. The goal of this work is to study the effect of three modifications: fiber surface treatment, catalyst choice, and mixing method on the compression performance of wood fiber-reinforced PU foam. Foams were made with a free-rising process. The compression performance of the foams was measured and the foams were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The foam reinforced with alkali-treated fibers had improved compression performance. The foams made with various catalysts shared similar performance. The foam made using a mechanical stirrer contained well-dispersed fibers but the reinforcing capability of the fibers was reduced.

  19. Transient Thermal Response of Lightweight Cementitious Composites Made with Polyurethane Foam Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kismi, M.; Poullain, P.; Mounanga, P.

    2012-07-01

    The development of low-cost lightweight aggregate (LWA) mortars and concretes presents many advantages, especially in terms of lightness and thermal insulation performances of structures. Low-cost LWA mainly comes from the recovery of vegetal or plastic wastes. This article focuses on the characterization of the thermal conductivity of innovative lightweight cementitious composites made with fine particles of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam waste. Five mortars were prepared with various mass substitution rates of cement with PU-foam particles. Their thermal conductivity was measured with two transient methods: the heating-film method and the hot-disk method. The incorporation of PU-foam particles causes a reduction of up to 18 % of the mortar density, accompanied by a significant improvement of the thermal insulating performance. The effect of segregation on the thermal properties of LWA mortars due to the differences of density among the cementitious matrix, sand, and LWA has also been quantified. The application of the hot-disk method reveals a gradient of thermal conductivity along the thickness of the specimens, which could be explained by a non-uniform repartition of fine PU-foam particles and mineral aggregates within the mortars. The results show a spatial variation of the thermal conductivity of the LWA mortars, ranging from 9 % to 19 %. However, this variation remains close to or even lower than that observed on a normal weight aggregate mortar. Finally, a self-consistent approach is proposed to estimate the thermal conductivity of PU-foam cement-based composites.

  20. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ainslie T.; Marsters, Robert G.; Moreno, Dawn K.

    1984-01-01

    A microcellular low density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) which is particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 .mu.m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given; and the yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  1. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOEpatents

    Young, A.T.

    1982-03-03

    A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  2. Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers for monitoring phenanthrene in stormwater.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yueqin; Zhang, Tian C; Zeng, Jing; Stansbury, John; Moussavi, Massoum; Richter-Egger, Dana L; Klein, Mitchell R

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from highway stormwater runoff has been an increasing area of concern. Many structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented for stormwater treatment and management. One challenge for these BMPs is to sample stormwater and monitor BMP performance. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers (PSs) for sampling phenanthrene (PHE) in highway stormwater runoff and BMPs. Tests were conducted using batch reactors, glass-tube columns, and laboratory-scale BMPs (bioretention cells). Results indicate that sorption for PHE by PUF is mainly linearly relative to time, and the high sorption capacity allows the PUF passive sampler to monitor stormwater events for months or years. The PUF passive samplers could be embedded in BMPs for monitoring influent and effluent PHE concentrations. Models developed to link the results of batch and column tests proved to be useful for determining removal or sorption parameters and performance of the PUF-PSs. The predicted removal efficiencies of BMPs were close to the real values obtained from the control columns with errors ranging between -8.46 and 1.52%. This research showed that it is possible to use PUF passive samplers for sampling stormwater and monitoring the performance of stormwater BMPs, which warrants the field-scale feasibility studies in the future.

  3. Biodegradable Synthetic Polyurethane Foam Nasal Packing After Septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Karlsson, Therese R; Khan, Imran; Hariharadas, Bobbi; Mansoor, Rashid; Maini, Sangeeta K

    2015-06-01

    To determine the usefulness of biodegradable Synthetic Polyurethane Foam (SPF) nasal packing as an adjunct to day-case septoplasty. Comparative, observational case series. Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, in the year 2011. One-hundred consecutive patients who underwent septoplasty and received SPF packing in 2010 were prospectively audited while one-hundred consecutive patients undergoing septoplasty in the year 2000 were studied retrospectively. Data collected include demographics, type of operation and duration of hospital stay. Excel and SPSS were used for data collection and analysis. In the year 2000, the average age of the patients was 40.6 years. There were 37 females and 63 males. One patient returned home the same day, 22 stayed one night, 69 spent two nights and 8 stayed more than two nights in hospital for their operation. The average length of stay was 1.84 nights. In 2010, the average age of patients was 37.86 years, with 31 patients being female and 69 male. All patients in this cohort received SPF packing postoperatively. Seventy-three patients went home the same day, 24 patients stayed one night and 3 patients spent two nights in hospital for their operation. Average length of hospital stay was 0.3 nights. Results were statistically significant (p < 0.001). SPF was a useful nasal packing option after septoplasty and inferior turbinate surgery, which enabled the surgeons to carry out this surgery safely as a day-case procedure.

  4. Effect of replacing polyol by organosolv and kraft lignin on the property and structure of rigid polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuejun; Saddler, Jack N

    2013-01-28

    Lignin is one of the three major components in plant cell walls, and it can be isolated (dissolved) from the cell wall in pretreatment or chemical pulping. However, there is a lack of high-value applications for lignin, and the commonest proposal for lignin is power and steam generation through combustion. Organosolv ethanol process is one of the effective pretreatment methods for woody biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and kraft process is a dominant chemical pulping method in paper industry. In the present research, the lignins from organosolv pretreatment and kraft pulping were evaluated to replace polyol for producing rigid polyurethane foams (RPFs). Petroleum-based polyol was replaced with hardwood ethanol organosolv lignin (HEL) or hardwood kraft lignin (HKL) from 25% to 70% (molar percentage) in preparing rigid polyurethane foam. The prepared foams contained 12-36% (w/w) HEL or 9-28% (w/w) HKL. The density, compressive strength, and cellular structure of the prepared foams were investigated and compared. Chain extenders were used to improve the properties of the RPFs. It was found that lignin was chemically crosslinked not just physically trapped in the rigid polyurethane foams. The lignin-containing foams had comparable structure and strength up to 25-30% (w/w) HEL or 19-23% (w/w) HKL addition. The results indicated that HEL performed much better in RPFs and could replace more polyol at the same strength than HKL because the former had a better miscibility with the polyol than the latter. Chain extender such as butanediol could improve the strength of lignin-containing RPFs.

  5. Effect of replacing polyol by organosolv and kraft lignin on the property and structure of rigid polyurethane foam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignin is one of the three major components in plant cell walls, and it can be isolated (dissolved) from the cell wall in pretreatment or chemical pulping. However, there is a lack of high-value applications for lignin, and the commonest proposal for lignin is power and steam generation through combustion. Organosolv ethanol process is one of the effective pretreatment methods for woody biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and kraft process is a dominant chemical pulping method in paper industry. In the present research, the lignins from organosolv pretreatment and kraft pulping were evaluated to replace polyol for producing rigid polyurethane foams (RPFs). Results Petroleum-based polyol was replaced with hardwood ethanol organosolv lignin (HEL) or hardwood kraft lignin (HKL) from 25% to 70% (molar percentage) in preparing rigid polyurethane foam. The prepared foams contained 12-36% (w/w) HEL or 9-28% (w/w) HKL. The density, compressive strength, and cellular structure of the prepared foams were investigated and compared. Chain extenders were used to improve the properties of the RPFs. Conclusions It was found that lignin was chemically crosslinked not just physically trapped in the rigid polyurethane foams. The lignin-containing foams had comparable structure and strength up to 25-30% (w/w) HEL or 19-23% (w/w) HKL addition. The results indicated that HEL performed much better in RPFs and could replace more polyol at the same strength than HKL because the former had a better miscibility with the polyol than the latter. Chain extender such as butanediol could improve the strength of lignin-containing RPFs. PMID:23356502

  6. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic polyurethane foam and its application for continuous oil removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Dong; Gu, Bin; Yuan, Wei-Feng; He, Qi

    2018-02-01

    A new polyurethane foam with superhydrophobicity and excellent lipophilicity is presented and demonstrated experimentally in this work. The superhydrophobic foam is synthesized by dip coating the polyurethane foam with a mixture solution of silicone resine and silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Its superhydrophobic and oleophilic capacity is characterized and verified via the SEM images, the water contact angle measurement, the adsorption tests and recyclability tests for water and some typical oils. Combining with the vacuum assisted oil-water separation technology (VAST), continuous recovery of oil spill at the lab scale is realized on the new superhydrophobic foam. Moreover, the break through pressure for water penetrating through the superhydrophobic foam is determined experimentally and referred as the maximum operation pressure in the VAST.

  7. 3D simulation of polyurethane foam injection and reacting mold flow in a complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Fırat

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a flow model which can be used to determine the paths of the polyurethane foam in the mold filling process of a refrigerator cabinet so that improvements in the distribution and the size of the venting holes can be achieved without the expensive prototyping and experiments. For this purpose, the multi-component, two-phase chemically reacting flow is described by Navier Stokes and 12 scalar transport equations. The air and the multi-component foam zones are separated by an interface, which moves only with advection since the mass diffusion of species are set zero in the air zone. The inverse density, viscosity and other diffusion coefficients are calculated by a mass fraction weighted average of the corresponding temperature-dependent values of all species. Simulations are performed in a real refrigerator geometry, are able to reveal the problematical zones where air bubbles and voids trapped in the solidified foam are expected to occur. Furthermore, the approach proves itself as a reliable design tool to use in deciding the locations of air vents and sizing the channel dimensions.

  8. Bio-based rigid polyurethane foam from liquefied products of wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols

    Treesearch

    Zhifeng Zheng; Hui Pan; Yuanbo Huang; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were prepared from the liquefied wood polyols, which was obtained by the liquefaction of southern pine wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols with sulfuric acid catalyst by using microwave-assistant as an energy source. The properties of liquefied biomass-based polyols and the rigid polyurethane foams were investigated. The results...

  9. Effect of the carbonyl iron particles on acoustic absorption properties of magnetic polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jialu; Wang, Caiping; Zhu, Honglang; Wang, Xiaojie

    2018-03-01

    Elastomeric matrix embedded with magnetic micro-sized particles has magnetically controllable properties, which has been investigated extensively in the last decades. In this study we develop a new magnetically controllable elastomeric material for acoustic applications at lower frequencies. The soft polyurethane foam is used as matrix material due to its extraordinary elastic and acoustic absorption properties. One-step method is used to synthesize polyurethane foam, in which all components including polyether polyols 330N, MDI, deionized water, silicone oil, carbonyl iron particle (CIP) and catalyst are put into one container for curing. Changing any component can induce the change of polyurethane foam's properties, such as physical and acoustic properties. The effect of the content of MDI on acoustic absorption is studied. The CIPs are aligned under extra magnetic field during the foaming process. And the property of polyurethane foam with aligned CIPs is also investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to observe the structure of pore and particle-chain. The two-microphone impedance tube and the transfer function method are used to test acoustic absorption property of the magnetic foams.

  10. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J

    2011-08-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the T(g) of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the T(g) from 67 °C to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h.

  11. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the Tg of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the Tg from 67 °C to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h. PMID:21949469

  12. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood-contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the Tg of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the Tg from 67 to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h.

  13. [Cost-effectiveness of a TLC-NOSF polyurethane foam dressing].

    PubMed

    Arroyo Ana, Abejón; Alvarez Vázquez, Juan Carlos; Blasco García, Carmen; Bermejo Martínez, Mariano; López Casanova, Pablo; Cuesta Cuesta, Juan José; De Haro Fernández, Francisco; Mateo Marín, Emilia; Segovia Gómez, Teresa; Villar Rojas, Antonio Erasto

    2012-11-01

    Chronic wounds represent a drain on the Spanish health system, nowdays is necessary an optimization of the resources used and that is for this that is necessary justify the use of the products over others through cost-effective studies for to show the economic benefit to professionals and the life quality of patient. This article compares the use of a new technology for format polyurethane foam, TLC-NOSF, with the most commonly used products for treating wounds. This comparison is made using a cost-effectiveness model (Markov Model). The results demonstrate that treatment with polyurethane foam dressing with TLC-NOSF are cost-effective versus treatments with polyurethane foams most commonly used in Spain.

  14. Parameters estimation of sandwich beam model with rigid polyurethane foam core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Nilson; Barbieri, Renato; Winikes, Luiz Carlos

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the physical parameters of sandwich beams made with the association of hot-rolled steel, Polyurethane rigid foam and High Impact Polystyrene, used for the assembly of household refrigerators and food freezers are estimated using measured and numeric frequency response functions (FRFs). The mathematical models are obtained using the finite element method (FEM) and the Timoshenko beam theory. The physical parameters are estimated using the amplitude correlation coefficient and genetic algorithm (GA). The experimental data are obtained using the impact hammer and four accelerometers displaced along the sample (cantilevered beam). The parameters estimated are Young's modulus and the loss factor of the Polyurethane rigid foam and the High Impact Polystyrene.

  15. Polyurethane rigid foam, a proven thermal insulating material for applications between +130°C and -196°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demharter, Anton

    Polyurethanes are high molecular weight polymers based on the polyaddition of polyfunctional hydroxyl-group containing compounds and polyisocyanates. A wide variety of properties can be tailored to fulfil the requirements of different applications: soft to hard, plastic, elastic or thermoset, compact or foamed. Compared with other insulating materials, PUR rigid foam is highly competitive. There are five product-related advantages: lowest thermal conductivity, high mechanical and chemical properties at both high and low temperatures, all major international fire safety requirements can be satisfied, the ability to form sandwich structures with various facer materials, and the new generation of PUR is CFC-free and recyclable. Rigid polyurethane foams perform well in most areas of low-temperature insulations. Products in density ranging from approximately 30 to 200 kg m -3 withstand temperatures down to -196°C. Typical applications are: refrigerated vehicles, road and rail tankers, vessels for refrigerated cargo, pipelines, liquid gas tanks for LPG and LNG and cryogenic wind tunnels. The paper presents applications, corresponding properties of the rigid foams used, and also other insulating materials in competition to PUR are discussed.

  16. [Modified polyurethane foam as a local hemostatic agent after dental extractions].

    PubMed

    Selten, M H A; Broekema, F I; Zuidema, J; van Oeveren, W; Bos, R R M

    2013-01-01

    In this split mouth experiment, the feasibility ofpolyurethane foam as a local hemostatic agent after dental extractions was studied. Ten healthy patients underwent 2 extractions ofa dental element in 1 treatment session. The 10 patients were subsequently randomly divided in a gelatin group and a collagen group. In the gelatin group, a polyurethane foam (PU) was applied in 1 extraction socket, while in the other socket a commercially available gelatin foam was applied. In the collagen group, a PU was applied in 1 socket, and a collagen wadding in the other. All hemostats were removed after 2 minutes, after which the degree of coagulation was measured using a thrombin/antithrombin test and a fibrinogen test. This study suggests that polyurethane foam has hemostatic capacity. Large scale clinical research is needed to confirm this finding, and should indicate whether this hemostatic capacity is clinically relevant.

  17. Flexible and Lightweight Pressure Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Thermoplastic Polyurethane-Aligned Conductive Foam with Superior Compressibility and Stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenju; Dai, Kun; Zhai, Yue; Liu, Hu; Zhan, Pengfei; Gao, Jiachen; Zheng, Guoqiang; Liu, Chuntai; Shen, Changyu

    2017-12-06

    Flexible and lightweight carbon nanotube (CNT)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) conductive foam with a novel aligned porous structure was fabricated. The density of the aligned porous material was as low as 0.123 g·cm -3 . Homogeneous dispersion of CNTs was achieved through the skeleton of the foam, and an ultralow percolation threshold of 0.0023 vol % was obtained. Compared with the disordered foam, mechanical properties of the aligned foam were enhanced and the piezoresistive stability of the flexible foam was improved significantly. The compression strength of the aligned TPU foam increases by 30.7% at the strain of 50%, and the stress of the aligned foam is 22 times that of the disordered foam at the strain of 90%. Importantly, the resistance variation of the aligned foam shows a fascinating linear characteristic under the applied strain until 77%, which would benefit the application of the foam as a desired pressure sensor. During multiple cyclic compression-release measurements, the aligned conductive CNT/TPU foam represents excellent reversibility and reproducibility in terms of resistance. This nice capability benefits from the aligned porous structure composed of ladderlike cells along the orientation direction. Simultaneously, the human motion detections, such as walk, jump, squat, etc. were demonstrated by using our flexible pressure sensor. Because of the lightweight, flexibility, high compressibility, excellent reversibility, and reproducibility of the conductive aligned foam, the present study is capable of providing new insights into the fabrication of a high-performance pressure sensor.

  18. Prototype Salvage Foaming System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-04

    providing buoyancy to refloat sunken ships, the density and strength of polyurethane foam , combined with its compact pre-blown form , make it a very...is not a true solvent of polyol and MDI, polyurethane foam can form in the presence of DOP. In the full-scale machine, the head flushing chemical is...hose between the foaming machine and foaming gun, standard grade hydraulic hose is used. This type of hose is also much more resistant to kinking than

  19. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers.

    PubMed

    Świerczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Wittczak, Tomasz; Dudek, Wojciech; Bonczarowska, Marzena; Wesolowski, Wiktor; Czerczak, Sławomir; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC) among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined. The most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. Spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction of a mild degree was observed in 5 workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) were not detected in any of the patients' serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP) did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged 0.2-58.9 μg/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI) value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV - 1 μmol amine/mol creatinine). We didn't find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA) in the post shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use. Determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be an adequate method for occupational exposure monitoring of DIC, which may

  20. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  1. Direct determination of gallium on polyurethane foam by X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M S; Medeiros, J A; Nóbrega, A W; Mantovano, J L; Rocha, V P

    1995-01-01

    Gallium chloride is easily extracted from 6M HCl by comminuted polyether-type polyurethane foam. After the extraction step, the gallium absorbed by the PU foam can be quantitatively determined by X-ray fluorescence. A procedure for the direct determination of gallium absorbed by PU foam by XRFS is thus described. Gallium is determined at levels as low as 60 ng/ml (C(L)), with a calibration sensitivity of 424 cps ml/mug, within a linear range 0.1-2.30 mug/ml. The procedure investigated was successfully applied to determination of gallium in aluminum alloys, bauxite and industrial residue samples.

  2. Managing burn wounds with SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Imran, Farrah-Hani; Karim, Rahamah; Maat, Noor Hidayah

    2016-05-12

    Successful wound healing depends on various factors, including exudate control, prevention of microbial contaminants, and moisture balance. We report two cases of managing burn wounds with SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam dressing. In Case 1, a 2-year-old Asian girl presented with a delayed (11 days) wound on her right leg. She sustained a thermal injury from a hot iron that was left idle on the floor. Clinical inspection revealed an infected wound with overlying eschar that traversed her knee joint. As her parents refused surgical debridement under general anesthesia, hydrotherapy and wound dressing using SMARTPORE Technology Polyurethane foam were used. Despite the delay in presentation of this linear thermal pediatric burn injury that crossed the knee joint, the patient's response to treatment and its outcome were highly encouraging. She was cooperative and tolerated each dressing change without the need of supplemental analgesia. Her wound was healed by 24 days post-admission. In Case 2, a 25-year-old Asian man presented with a mixed thickness thermal flame burn on his left leg. On examination, the injury was a mix of deep and superficial partial thickness burn, comprising approximately 3% of his total body surface area. SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam was used on his wound; his response to the treatment was very encouraging as the dressing facilitated physiotherapy and mobility. The patient rated the pain during dressing change as 2 on a scale of 10 and his pain score remained the same in every subsequent change. His wound showed evidence of epithelialization by day 7 post-burn. There were no adverse events reported. Managing burn wounds with SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam resulted in reduced pain during dressing changes and the successful healing of partial and mixed thickness wounds. The use of SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam dressings showed encouraging results and requires further research as a desirable management option in

  3. Solvent stimulated actuation of polyurethane-based shape memory polymer foams using dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, A. J.; Weems, A. C.; Hasan, S. M.; Nash, L. D.; Monroe, M. B. B.; Maitland, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Solvent exposure has been investigated to trigger actuation of shape memory polymers (SMPs) as an alternative to direct heating. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH) to stimulate polyurethane-based SMP foam actuation and the required solvent concentrations in water for rapid actuation of hydrophobic SMP foams. SMP foams exhibited decreased T g when submerged in DMSO and EtOH when compared to water submersion. Kinetic DMA experiments showed minimal or no relaxation for all SMP foams in water within 30 min, while SMP foams submerged in EtOH exhibited rapid relaxation within 1 min of submersion. SMP foams expanded rapidly in high concentrations of DMSO and EtOH solutions, where complete recovery over 30 min was observed in DMSO concentrations greater than 90% and in EtOH concentrations greater than 20%. This study demonstrates that both DMSO and EtOH are effective at triggering volume recovery of polyurethane-based SMP foams, including in aqueous environments, and provides promise for use of this actuation technique in various applications.

  4. Investigation on the mechanical properties of palm-based flexible polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On, Ahmad Zuhdi Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2015-09-01

    A series of modification polyurethane (PU) system was prepared by introducing palm kernel based polyol (PKO-p) to progressively replaced commercial polyether polyol from petrochemical based material. This paper describes the effect of PKO-p on the physical-mechanical properties of polyurethane foams. Stress-strain analysis in tensile mode was conducted with physicochemical analysis by performing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The morphological studies were observed by the optical microscope. The foam showed an increment on the modulus up to 458.3kPa as more incorporation of PKO-p introduced to the system. In contrast, tensile strength of PU foam depicted the highest up to 162 kPa at 60:40. The elongation at break showed decrement as the composition of the renewable polyol increased to a ratio 60/40 of PKO-p to petrochemical based polyol.

  5. In vivo tissue response following implantation of shape memory polyurethane foam in a porcine aneurysm model

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Clubb, Fred J.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Miller, Matthew W.; Fossum, Theresa W.; Hartman, Jonathan; Tuzun, Egemen; Singhal, Pooja; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms treated by traditional endovascular methods using platinum coils have a tendency to be unstable, either due to chronic inflammation, compaction of coils, or growth of the aneurysm. We propose to use alternate filling methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using polyurethane based shape memory polymer (SMP) foams. SMP polyurethane foams were surgically implanted in a porcine aneurysm model to determine biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a stable filler material within an aneurysm. The degree of healing was evaluated via gross observation, histopathology and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) imaging after zero, thirty and ninety days. Clotting was initiated within the SMP foam at time zero (less than one hour exposure to blood prior to euthanization), partial healing was observed at thirty days, and almost complete healing had occurred at ninety days in vivo, with minimal inflammatory response. PMID:23650278

  6. In vivo response to an implanted shape memory polyurethane foam in a porcine aneurysm model.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N; Clubb, Fred J; Wilson, Thomas S; Miller, Matthew W; Fossum, Theresa W; Hartman, Jonathan; Tuzun, Egemen; Singhal, Pooja; Maitland, Duncan J

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral aneurysms treated by traditional endovascular methods using platinum coils have a tendency to be unstable, either due to chronic inflammation, compaction of coils, or growth of the aneurysm. We propose to use alternate filling methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using polyurethane-based shape memory polymer (SMP) foams. SMP polyurethane foams were surgically implanted in a porcine aneurysm model to determine biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a stable filler material within an aneurysm. The degree of healing was evaluated via gross observation, histopathology, and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy imaging after 0, 30, and 90 days. Clotting was initiated within the SMP foam at time 0 (<1 h exposure to blood before euthanization), partial healing was observed at 30 days, and almost complete healing had occurred at 90 days in vivo, with minimal inflammatory response. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A sticky situation: management of spray polyurethane foam insulation in body orifices.

    PubMed

    Sowerby, Robert J; Sowerby, Leigh J; Vinden, Chris

    2011-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foam insulation is commonly used in the construction industry to fill gaps, seal, and insulate. We present three cases of intentional spray foam insertion in body orifices and discuss the management of such situations in the emergency department. This series includes a case of oral foam insertion used in a suicide attempt by suffocation and two cases of rectal insertion. All of these cases had potential long-term consequences; one was life-threatening. To our knowledge, this is the first published report on the medical management and removal of foam insulation from body orifices. In all three cases, the foam insulation material was successfully removed after allowing the material to harden.

  8. Properties of polyurethane foam/coconut coir fiber as a core material and as a sandwich composites component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.; Idris, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core. The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane foams in which later were applied as the core in sandwich composites ranged from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The physical and mechanical properties found to be significant at 5 wt% coconut coir fiber in polyurethane foam cores as well as in sandwich composites. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction.

  9. Closure of oroantral communications using biodegradable polyurethane foam: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Susan H; van Minnen, Baucke; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of biodegradable polyurethane (PU) foam for closure of oroantral communications (OACs). Ten consecutive patients with OACs (existing <24 hours) were treated with PU foam. Standardized evaluations were performed at 2 weeks and 8 weeks after closure of the OAC. In 5 patients, the OACs were closed successfully without complications. Three patients developed sinusitis, which was conservatively managed with antibiotics in 2 cases. In 1 case the sinus was reopened for irrigation, after which a buccal flap procedure was performed. In 2 patients the OAC recurred and was surgically closed with a buccal flap after thorough irrigation. In this feasibility study, closure was achieved in 7 of the 10 patients without further surgical intervention. Complications of the procedure using PU foam may be related to the fit of the foam in the socket and the size of the perforation. In general, closure of OACs with biodegradable polyurethane foam is feasible and has the potential to spare a large number of patients with OACs a surgical procedure. Furthermore, in case the treatment with PU foam fails to close the OAC, the attending physician can always fall back on the standard surgical procedure. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rigid polyurethane foam/cellulose whisker nanocomposites: preparation, characterization, and properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ren, Hongfeng; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-08-01

    Novel rigid polyurethane nanocomposite foams have been prepared by the polymerization of a sucrose-based polyol, a glycerol-based polyol and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate in the presence of cellulose whiskers. Varying amounts of sulfuric acid hydrolyzed cellulose whiskers (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 wt%) prepared from a commercial fully bleached softwood kraft pulp were incorporated to investigate the effect of its dosage on the mechanical and thermal properties of polyurethane nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the nanocomposite foams suggested that additional hydrogen bonds were developed and crosslinking occurred between the hydroxyl groups of cellulose whiskers and isocyanate groups which increased the phase separation of soft and hard segments in the polyurethane. The closed cells of control foam and nanocomposite foams were homogeneously dispersed and the cell sizes were approximately 350 microm in diameter as observed by scanning electron microscope. A substantial improvement of mechanical properties at low whisker content (< or = 1.00 wt%) was obtained, especially the compressive strength and modulus at 1.00 wt% whiskers content which were increased by 269.7% and 210.0%, respectively. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites was also enhanced as determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. Piloted Ignition to Flaming in Smoldering Fire-Retarded Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putzeys, O.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Urban, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in the fire-retarded polyurethane foam Pyrell . The samples are small rectangular blocks with a square cross section, vertically placed in the wall of a vertical wind tunnel. Three of the vertical sample sides are insulated and the fourth side is exposed to an upward oxidizer flow of variable oxygen concentration and to a variable radiant heat flux. The gases emitted from the smoldering reaction pass upwards through a pilot, which consists of a coiled resistance heating wire. In order to compensate for the solid-phase and gas-phase effects of the fire retardants on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in Pyrell, it was necessary to assist the process by increasing the power supplied to the smolder igniter and the pilot (compared to that used for non-fire retarded foam). The experiments indicate that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming occurs when the gaseous mixture at the pilot passes the lean flammability limit. It was found that increasing the oxygen concentration or the external heat flux increases the likelihood of a piloted transition from smoldering to flaming, and generally decreases the time delay to transition. The piloted transition to flaming is observed in oxygen concentrations of 23% and above in both low-density and high-density Pyrell. Comparisons with previous experiments show that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming is possible under a wider range of external conditions (i.e. lower oxygen concentration) than the spontaneous transition from smoldering to flaming. The results show that the fire retardants in Pyrell are very effective in preventing the piloted transition to flaming in normal air, but Pyrell is susceptible to smoldering and the piloted transition to flaming in oxygen-enriched environments. Therefore, precautions should be taken in the design of applications of Pyrell in oxygen-enriched environments to reduce

  12. Tracking composition of microbial communities for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Yang, Ji-xian; Qiu, Shan

    2014-01-01

    The process of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) of immobilized microorganisms in polyurethane form is discussed. The effect of different positions within the polyurethane carrier on microbial community response for the SND process is investigated by a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that polyurethane, which consists of a unique porous structure, is an ideal platform for biofilm stratification of aerobe, anaerobe and facultative microorganisms in regard to the SND process. The community structure diversity response to different positions was distinct. The distributions of various functional microbes, detected from the surface aerobic stratification to the interior anaerobic stratification of polyurethane, were mainly nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. Meanwhile aerobic denitrifying bacteria such as Paracoccus sp., Agrobacterium rubi and Ochrobactrum sp. were also adhered to the interior and surface of polyurethane. The SND process occurring on polyurethane foam was carried out by two independent processes: nitrogen removal and aerobic denitrification.

  13. Soft and Flexible Bilayer Thermoplastic Polyurethane Foam for Development of Bioinspired Artificial Skin.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Sinha, Tridib K; Oh, Jeong Seok; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2018-04-25

    Inspired by the epidermis-dermis composition of human skin, here we have simply developed a lightweight, robust, flexible, and biocompatible single-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG)-based prototype of bilayer artificial skin, by attaching one induction electrode with unfoamed skin layer of microcellular thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) foam, which shows high-performance object manipulation [by responding differently toward different objects, viz., aluminum foil, balloon, cotton glove, human finger, glass, rubber glove, artificial leather, polyimide, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), paper, and wood], due to electrification and electrostatic induction during contact with the objects having different chemical functionalities. Comparative foaming behavior of ecofriendly supercritical fluids, viz., CO 2 over N 2 under variable temperatures (e.g., 130 and 150 °C) and constant pressure (15 MPa), have been examined here to pursue the soft and flexible triboelectric TPU foam. The foam derived by CO 2 foaming at 150 °C has been prioritized for development of S-TENG. Foam derived by CO 2 foaming at 130 °C did not respond as well due to the smaller cell size, higher hardness, and thicker skin. Inflexible N 2 -derived foam was not considered for S-TENG fabrication. Object manipulation performance has been visualized by principal component analysis (PCA), which shows good discrimination among responses to different objects.

  14. Effect of crumb-rubber particle size on mechanical response of polyurethane foam composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjay, Omer Sheik

    The compression properties of foam are governed by by three factors: i) cell edge bending ii) compression of cell fluid iii) membrane stresses in the cell faces. The effect of reinforcement, granular form of scrap tire rubber on contribution of each of these effects along with the physical properties of polyurethane foam is investigated. It is seen that the addition of crumb-rubber hinders the formation of cell membranes during the foaming process. Four different sizes of particles were chosen to closely study the effect of particle size on the physical properties of the foam composite. There is a definite pattern seen in each of the physical property of the composite with change in the particle size. Addition of crumb-rubber decreases the compressive strength but in turn increases the elastic modulus of the composite. The rubber particles act as the sites for stress concentration and hence the inclusion of rubber particles induces the capability to transfer the axial load laterally along the surface of the foam. Also, the filler material induces porosity into the foam, which is seen in the SEM images, and hence the addition of rubber particles induces brittleness, which makes the foam composites extensively applicable for structural application in sandwich components. The lightweight composite therefore is a potential substitute to the heavier metal foams and honeycombs as a protective layer.

  15. Two approaches for introduction of wheat straw lignin into rigid polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshanitsa, A.; Paberza, A.; Vevere, L.; Cabulis, U.; Telysheva, G.

    2014-05-01

    In present work the BIOLIGNIN{trade mark, serif} obtained in the result of wheat straw organosolv processing in CIMV pilot plant (France) was investigated as a component of rigid polyurethanes (PUR) foam systems. Different separate approaches of lignin introduction into PUR foam system were studied: as filler without chemical preprocessing and as liquid lignopolyol obtained by lignin oxypropylation in alkali conditions. The incorporation of increasing amount of lignin as filler into reference PUR foam systems on the basis of mixture of commercial polyethers Lupranol 3300 and Lupranol 3422 steadily decreased the compression characteristics of foams, their dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. The complete substitution of Lupranol 3300 by lignopolyol increases its cell structure uniformity and dimensional stability and does not reduce the physical-mechanical properties of foam. In both cases the incorporation of lignin into PUR foam leads to the decreasing of maximum values of thermodegradation rates. The lignin filler can be introduced into lignopolyol based PUR foam in higher quantity than in the reference Lupranol based PUR without reduction of compression characteristics of material. In this work the optimal lignin content in the end product - PUR foam as both polyol and filler is 16%.

  16. Modeling Heat Transfer and Pressurization of Polymeric Methylene Diisocyanate (PMDI) Polyurethane Foam in a Sealed Container.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Sarah Nicole

    Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container to protect the electronics from hostile en vironments, such as a crash that produces a fire. However, i n fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of the sealed system . In this work, a detailed study of thermally decomposing polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI) - polyether - polyol based polyurethane foam in a sealed container is presented . Both experimental and computational workmore » is discussed. Three models of increasing physics fidelity are presented: No Flow, Porous Media, and Porous Media with VLE. Each model us described in detail, compared to experiment , and uncertainty quantification is performed. While the Porous Media with VLE model matches has the best agreement with experiment, it also requires the most computational resources.« less

  17. Rigid palm oil-based polyurethane foam reinforced with diamine-modified montmorillonite nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haziq Dzulkifli, Mohd; Yazid Yahya, Mohd; Majid, Rohah A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents work on organically-modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay embedded in rigid palm oil-based polyurethane (PU) foam. MMT was modified with organic surfactant diamino propane (DAP). PU foam was fabricated in closed mold, and the amount of DAP-MMT was varied in each foam formulation. The obtained foam was tested for its microstructure and morphology. Appearance of peaks from infra-red spectra corresponding to N-H, C=O, and C-N confirms the formation of PU networks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed fine, closed-cellular structure at low clay loading; increasing DAP-MMT content induced larger cell sizes with blowholes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates fully-exfoliated clays at 1 wt. % and partial-exfoliation at 3 wt. % clay loading, suggesting clumping of clays as DAP-MMT content increased.

  18. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 andmore » September 1998.« less

  19. Rigid polyurethane foam as an efficient material for shock wave attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, P. V.; Borisov, A. A.; Sokolov, G. N.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    A new method for reducing parameters of blast waves generated by explosions of HE charges on ground is presented. Most of the traditional techniques reduce the wave parameters at a certain distance from the charge, i.e. as a matter of fact the damping device interacts with a completely formed shock wave. The proposed approach is to use rigid polyurethane foam coating immediately the explosive charge. A distributed structure of such a foam block that provides most efficient shock wave attenuation is suggested. Results of experimental shock wave investigations recorded in tests in which HE charges have been exploded with damping devices and without it are compared.

  20. Toluene diisocyanate emission to air and migration to a surface from a flexible polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Vangronsveld, Erik; Berckmans, Steven; Spence, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyols. Because of the potential for respiratory sensitization following exposure to TDI, concerns have been raised about potential consumer exposure to TDI from residual 'free TDI' in FPF products. Limited and conflicting results exist in the literature concerning the presence of unreacted TDI remaining in FPF as determined by various solvent extraction and analysis techniques. Because residual TDI results are most often intended for application in assessment of potential human exposure to TDI from FPF products, testing techniques that more accurately simulated human contact with foam were designed. To represent inhalation exposure to TDI from polyurethane foam, a test that measured the emission of TDI to air was conducted. For simulation of human dermal exposure to TDI from polyurethane foam, a migration test technique was designed. Emission of TDI to air was determined for a representative FPF using three different emission test cells. Two were commercially available cells that employ air flow over the surface of the foam [the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC®) and the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extraction™ cell]. The third emission test cell was of a custom design and features air flow through the foam sample rather than over the foam surface. Emitted TDI in the air of the test cells was trapped using glass fiber filters coated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine (MP), a commonly used derivatizing agent for diisocyanates. The filters were subsequently desorbed and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Measurement of TDI migration from representative foam was accomplished by placing glass fiber filters coated with MP on the outer surfaces of a foam disk and then compressing the filters against the disk using a clamping apparatus for periods of 8 and 24 h. The sample filters were subsequently desorbed and analyzed in the same manner as for the

  1. Center for the Polyurethanes Industry summary of unpublished industrial hygiene studies related to the evaluation of emissions of spray polyurethane foam insulation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard D

    2017-09-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight-year period from 2007-2014. These studies address emissions from medium density closed cell and low density open cell formulations. This article summarizes the results of personal and area air samples collected during application and post application of SPF to interior building surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. Chemicals of interest included: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), flame retardants, amine catalysts, blowing agents, and aldehydes. Overall, the results indicate that SPF applicators and workers in close proximity to the application are potentially exposed to MDI in excess of recommended and governmental occupational exposure limits and should use personal protective equipment (PPE) consisting of air supplied respirators and full-body protective clothing to reduce exposure. Catalyst emissions can be reduced by using reactive catalysts in SPF formulations, and mechanical ventilation is important in controlling emissions during and after application.

  2. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermine (SEA) Program - Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...05 MAY 1997 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

  3. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  4. Porous Polyurethane Foam for Use as a Particle Collection Substrate in a Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Mines, Levi W. D.; Park, Jae Hong; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Anthony, T. Renée; Grassian, Vicki H.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Porous polyurethane foam was evaluated to replace the eight nylon meshes used as a substrate to collect nanoparticles in the Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition (NRD) sampler. Cylindrical (25-mm diameter by 40-mm deep) foam with 110 pores per inch was housed in a 25-mm-diameter conductive polypropylene cassette cowl compatible with the NRD sampler. Pristine foam and nylon meshes were evaluated for metals content via elemental analysis. The size-selective collection efficiency of the foam was evaluated using salt (NaCl) and metal fume aerosols in independent tests. Collection efficiencies were compared to the nanoparticulate matter (NPM) criterion and a semi-empirical model for foam. Changes in collection efficiency and pressure drop of the foam and nylon meshes were measured after loading with metal fume particles as measures of substrate performance. Substantially less titanium was found in the foam (0.173 μg sampler−1) compared to the nylon mesh (125 μg sampler−1), improving the detection capabilities of the NRD sampler for titanium dioxide particles. The foam collection efficiency was similar to that of the nylon meshes and the NPM criterion (R2 = 0.98, for NaCl), although the semi-empirical model underestimated the experimental efficiency (R2 = 0.38). The pressure drop across the foam was 8% that of the nylon meshes when pristine and changed minimally with metal fume loading (~ 19 mg). In contrast, the pores of the nylon meshes clogged after loading with ~ 1 mg metal fume. These results indicate that foam is a suitable substrate to collect metal (except for cadmium) nanoparticles in the NRD sampler. PMID:28867869

  5. Effect of the chemical structure of the polymer matrix on the properties of foam polyurethanes at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V. A.; Stirna, U. K.; Zhmud', N. P.

    1999-07-01

    The dependence of physical and mechanical properties of oligoether-based foam polyurethanes on the molecular mass (Mc) of polymer chains between the nodes of the polymer network and on the content of rigid segments in the polymer is investigated at 293 and 98K. The values of Mc at which the foam plastics have the best mechanical properties at low temperatures are determined. The content of rigid segments in the polymer at which foam polyurethanes have the best combination of the linear thermal expansion coefficient and mechanical properties in tension at a temperature of 98K is found.

  6. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  7. Starch-based polyurethane/CuO nanocomposite foam: Antibacterial effects for infection control.

    PubMed

    Ashjari, Hamid Reza; Dorraji, Mir Saeed Seyed; Fakhrzadeh, Vahid; Eslami, Hosein; Rasoulifard, Mohammad Hossein; Rastgouy-Houjaghan, Mehrdad; Gholizadeh, Pourya; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a new method for the synthesis of the open cell flexible polyurethane foams (PUFs) was developed by using starch powder and the modification of closed cell foam formulation. Starch is the second largest polymeric carbohydrate as a macromolecule on this planet with a large number of glucose units. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) were synthesized by thermal degradation method at different temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C as antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity of CuO NPs and commercial CuO powder against the main causes of hospital infections were tested. CuO 600 was the most effective antimicrobial agent and enhanced polymer matrix tensile strength with starch powder as new polyurethane foams (PUFs) cell opener with high tensile strength. The effects of parameters on tensile strength were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). CuO NPs and PUF had optimal conditions and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Foam synthesized at the optimal conditions had an open cell structure with high tensile strength and efficient antimicrobial activity that made them suitable to be used as an antimicrobial hospital mattress to control hospital infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.

    Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation resultmore » is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.« less

  9. Elimination of toxicity from polyurethane foam plugs used for plant culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Langhans, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyurethane foam plugs commonly are used as collars or supports to grow plants in solution culture. Despite their utility, these foam plugs can be quite toxic to plants, particularly to small seedlings. We have observed tissue injury in tests using plugs to support lettuce, red beet, and potato plants in solution culture. Typically, the injury is initiated on the hypocotyl or stem tissue in direct contact with the foam, and appears within 30 hr as a brownish discoloration on the tissue surface. This discoloration can be followed by complete collapse of affected tissue and eventual death of the seedling. When injury does not progress beyond surface browning, the seedling survives but growth is slowed. In this paper, we report on different treatments that can be used to remove the toxicity of these plugs so they can be used in plant research.

  10. Experimental study of moisture uptake of polyurethane foam subjected to a heat sink below 30 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Chen, J. Y.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, K. H.; Yang, R. P.; Ma, X. J.; Liu, Z. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rigid closed-cell foam is widely used to thermally insulate liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks of space launch vehicles due to its lightweight, mechanical strength and thermal-insulating performance. Up to now, little information is available on the intrusion of moisture into the foam that subjects one side to liquid hydrogen temperatures and the other side to room temperatures and high relative humidity. A novel cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure the moisture uptake into the polyurethane foam. For safety and convenience, two identical single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers instead of liquid hydrogen are used to cool one side of the foam specimen to the lowest temperature of 26 K. Total of eight specimens in three groups, according to whether there is a butt-joint or weathering period, are tested respectively for both 5 h and 9 h. The additional weight due to moisture uptake of the foam for the 26 K cases is compared to previous measurements at 79 K. The results are instructive for the applications of foam to the insulation of liquid hydrogen tanks in space launch vehicles.

  11. Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prashant; Pradeep, T

    2005-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles can be coated on common polyurethane (PU) foams by overnight exposure of the foams to nanoparticle solutions. Repeated washing and air-drying yields uniformly coated PU foam, which can be used as a drinking water filter where bacterial contamination of the surface water is a health risk. Nanoparticles are stable on the foam and are not washed away by water. Morphology of the foam was retained after coating. The nanoparticle binding is due to its interaction with the nitrogen atom of the PU. Online tests were conducted with a prototypical water filter. At a flow rate of 0.5 L/min, in which contact time was of the order of a second, the output count of Escherichia coli was nil when the input water had a bacterial load of 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) per mL. Combined with the low cost and effectiveness in its applications, the technology may have large implications to developing countries. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Flexible polyurethane foam modelling and identification of viscoelastic parameters for automotive seating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, R.; Davies, P.; Bajaj, A. K.

    2003-05-01

    A hereditary model and a fractional derivative model for the dynamic properties of flexible polyurethane foams used in automotive seat cushions are presented. Non-linear elastic and linear viscoelastic properties are incorporated into these two models. A polynomial function of compression is used to represent the non-linear elastic behavior. The viscoelastic property is modelled by a hereditary integral with a relaxation kernel consisting of two exponential terms in the hereditary model and by a fractional derivative term in the fractional derivative model. The foam is used as the only viscoelastic component in a foam-mass system undergoing uniaxial compression. One-term harmonic balance solutions are developed to approximate the steady state response of the foam-mass system to the harmonic base excitation. System identification procedures based on the direct non-linear optimization and a sub-optimal method are formulated to estimate the material parameters. The effects of the choice of the cost function, frequency resolution of data and imperfections in experiments are discussed. The system identification procedures are also applied to experimental data from a foam-mass system. The performances of the two models for data at different compression and input excitation levels are compared, and modifications to the structure of the fractional derivative model are briefly explored. The role of the viscous damping term in both types of model is discussed.

  13. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. Themore » layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.« less

  14. A model of smoldering combustion applied to flexible polyurethane foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlemiller, T. J.; Rogers, F.; Bellan, J.

    1979-01-01

    Smoldering combustion, particularly in upholstery and bedding materials, has been proven a serious life hazard. The simplest representation of this hazard situation is one-dimensional downward propagation of a smolder wave against a buoyant upflow (cocurrent smolder); the configuration treated here is identical in all respects to this except for the presence of a forced flow replacing the buoyant one. The complex degradation chemistry of the polyurethanes is here reduced to the two major overall reactions of char formation and char oxidation. The model solutions, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental results, show the smolder process to be oxygen-limited, which leads to some very simple trends. More subtle behavior aspects determine actual propagation velocity, fraction of fuel consumed, and apparent equivalence ratio (all of which are variable). The self-insulating character of the smolder wave makes it viable in a wide-ranging set of conditions if the igniting stimulus is sufficiently long. These results have significant implications regarding the problem of smolder prevention or hindrance.

  15. Identification of Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Foam Collected from Baby Products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  16. Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Klosterhaus, Susan; Keller, Alex; Ferguson, P Lee; van Bergen, Saskia; Cooper, Ellen; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene

    2011-06-15

    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  17. A semi-phenomenological model to predict the acoustic behavior of fully and partially reticulated polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine; Dong, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    This paper proposes simple semi-phenomenological models to predict the sound absorption efficiency of highly porous polyurethane foams from microstructure characterization. In a previous paper [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064901 (2011)], the authors presented a 3-parameter semi-phenomenological model linking the microstructure properties of fully and partially reticulated isotropic polyurethane foams (i.e., strut length l, strut thickness t, and reticulation rate Rw) to the macroscopic non-acoustic parameters involved in the classical Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (i.e., porosity ϕ, airflow resistivity σ, tortuosity α∝, viscous Λ, and thermal Λ' characteristic lengths). The model was based on existing scaling laws, validated for fully reticulated polyurethane foams, and improved using both geometrical and empirical approaches to account for the presence of membrane closing the pores. This 3-parameter model is applied to six polyurethane foams in this paper and is found highly sensitive to the microstructure characterization; particularly to strut's dimensions. A simplified micro-/macro model is then presented. It is based on the cell size Cs and reticulation rate Rw only, assuming that the geometric ratio between strut length l and strut thickness t is known. This simplified model, called the 2-parameter model, considerably simplifies the microstructure characterization procedure. A comparison of the two proposed semi-phenomenological models is presented using six polyurethane foams being either fully or partially reticulated, isotropic or anisotropic. It is shown that the 2-parameter model is less sensitive to measurement uncertainties compared to the original model and allows a better estimation of polyurethane foams sound absorption behavior.

  18. Efficacy of a prehospital self-expanding polyurethane foam for noncompressible hemorrhage under extreme operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Adam P; Larentzakis, Andreas; Marini, John; Picard, Abby; Duggan, Michael J; Busold, Rany; Helmick, Marc; Zugates, Greg; Beagle, John; Sharma, Upma; King, David R

    2015-02-01

    Noncompressible abdominal hemorrhage is a significant cause of battlefield and civilian mortality. We developed a self-expanding polyurethane foam intended to provide temporary hemorrhage control and enable evacuation to a definitive surgical capability, for casualties who would otherwise die. We hypothesized that foam treatment would be efficacious over a wide range of out-of-hospital operational conditions. The foam was tested in an established lethal, closed-cavity hepatoportal injury model in four groups as follows. Group 1 involved baseline conditions, wherein foam was deployed from a pneumatically driven, first-generation delivery device at room temperature (n = 6). Group 2 involved foam deployment from a field-relevant, handheld delivery prototype (n = 12). Group 3 involved foam components that were conditioned to simulate 1-year shelf-life (n = 6). Group 4 involved foam that was conditioned to a range of temperatures (10 °C and 50 °C; n = 6 per group). In all studies, survival was monitored for up to 180 minutes and compared with an ongoing and accumulating control group with no intervention (n = 14). In Group 1 with a first-generation delivery system, foam treatment resulted in a significant survival advantage relative to the control group (p < 0.001), confirming previous results. In Group 2 with a handheld delivery system, survival was also improved, 83% at 3 hours, compared with 7% in the control group (p < 0.001). In Group 3, survival was 83% at 3 hours (p = 0.002). In Group 4 at temperature extremes, 3-hour survival was 83% (p = 0.002) and 67% (p = 0.014) in the low- and high-temperature groups, respectively. Temperature extremes did not result in hypothermia, hyperthermia, or thermal injury. In all studies, the bleeding rate in foam groups was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). Under a range of military operational conditions, foam treatment resulted in a survival advantage relative to the control group. This supports the

  19. Adjustable Polyurethane Foam as Filling Material for a Novel Spondyloplasty: Biomechanics and Biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongzhen; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim Hakan; Reinshagen, Clemens; Molcanyi, Marek; Zivcak, Jozef; Hudak, Radovan; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Weisser, Jürgen; Schäfer, Ute; Pinzer, Thomas; Schackert, Gabriele; Zhang, Xifeng; Wähler, Mario; Brautferger, Uta; Rieger, Bernhard

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the biomechanics and biocompatibility of polyurethane (PU) foam with adjustable stiffness as a filling material for a novel spondyloplasty that is designed to reduce the risk of postoperative adjacent level fractures. Sixty individual porcine lumbar vertebrae were randomly split into 4 groups: A, B, C, and D. Group A served as unmodified vertebral body controls. Groups B, C, and D consisted of hollowed vertebral bodies. Vertebrae of groups C and D were filled with adjustable PU foams of different stiffness. The compressive strength and stiffness of vertebrae from groups A-D were recorded and analyzed. 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured with preformed PU foams for 4 days to test biocompatibility. The strength and stiffness of the hollowed groups were lower than in group A. However, the differences were not statistically significant between group A and group C (P > 0.05), and were obviously different between group A and group B or group D (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Moreover, the strength and stiffness after filling foams in group C or group D were significantly greater than in group B (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Live/dead staining of 3T3 cells confirmed the biocompatibility of the PU foam. The new PU foam shows adaptability regarding its stiffness and excellent cytocompatibility in vitro. The results support the clinical translation of the new PU foams as augmentation material in the development of a novel spondyloplasty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasonic measurements of the reflection coefficient at a water/polyurethane foam interface.

    PubMed

    Sagers, Jason D; Haberman, Michael R; Wilson, Preston S

    2013-09-01

    Measured ultrasonic reflection coefficients as a function of normal incidence angle are reported for several samples of polyurethane foam submerged in a water bath. Three reflection coefficient models are employed as needed in this analysis to approximate the measured data: (1) an infinite plane wave impinging on an elastic halfspace, (2) an infinite plane wave impinging on a single fluid layer overlying a fluid halfspace, and (3) a finite acoustic beam impinging on an elastic halfspace. The compressional wave speed in each sample is calculated by minimizing the sum of squared error (SSE) between the measured and modeled data.

  1. Polyurethane Foam-Filled Skull Replica of Craniosynostosis for Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon Jin; Lee, Jun Yong

    2016-05-01

    Craniosynostosis has a relatively low incidence in the general population and its treatment requires cautious approaches. For these reasons, patients are usually referred to several specialists or a medical center. Therefore, most trainees and young surgeons do not have any chances to experience patients of craniosynostosis, but learn about it only from textbooks. And for a surgeon who tries to operate on a craniosynostosis patient, it is hard to make a proper preoperative plan.The authors suggest a polyurethane foam-filled skull replica of craniosynostosis for trainees that can also be used in planning a craniosynostosis operation.

  2. Retention of polyurethane foam fragments during VAC therapy: a complication to be considered.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Luca A; Serratore, Francesco; Corrias, Federico; Parisi, Paola; Mazzocchi, Marco; Carlesimo, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a closed-loop, non-invasive active system, characterised by a controlled and localised negative pressure applied on porous polyurethane absorbent foams. It promotes healing of acute and chronic wounds. Therapeutic effects of VAC therapy have been proved and demonstrated; however, this method can have some disadvantages. Even if it is a quite versatile device, only qualified medical/paramedical personnel should use it in order to avoid possible complications that can occur after an improper application. In this report, 11 cases of foam-fragment retention within the wound are presented. This rare complication did not promote healing, but further hindered it. On the basis of our experience, it is mandatory to define the indications, benefits and limitations of VAC therapy. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. RETENTION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FRAGMENTS DURING VAC-THERAPY, A COMPLICATION TO BE CONSIDERED

    PubMed Central

    Dessy, L.A.; Serratore, F.; Corrias, F.; Parisi, P.; Mazzocchi, M.; Carlesimo, B.

    2013-01-01

    VAC-therapy is a closed-loop, non-invasive active system, characterised by a controlled and localized negative pressure applied on porous polyurethane absorbent foams. It promotes healing of acute and chronic wounds. Therapeutic effects of VAC-therapy have been proved and demonstrated, however this method can have some disadvantages. Even if it is a quite versatile device, only qualified medical/paramedical personnel should use it in order to avoid possible complications that can occur after an improper application. In this report, 11 cases of foam fragment retention within the wound are presented. This rare complication did not promote healing, but further hindered it. On the basis of our experience, it is mandatory to define indications, benefits and limitations of the VAC-therapy. PMID:23590296

  4. Improving sound absorption property of polyurethane foams doped with natural fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Taufiq Zaliran, M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the acoustics behavior of wood fibre filler of Red Meranti - filled polyurethane foam as a sound absorbing material. Three different thicknesses have been selected which is 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm. By choosing percentage loading of Red Meranti (RM) wood fibre of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% added with polymer foam is namely as polymer foam (PF) composites of PF5%, PF10%, PF15% and PF20%. The sound absorption coefficient (α) and pore structure of the foam samples have been examined by using Impedance Tube test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the highest thickness of highest filler loading (PF20%) gives higher sound absorption coefficient (α). The absorption frequency level is observed at 0.9922 and 0.99889 which contributed from low and high frequency absorption level respectively. The smallest pores size structure was observed with highest filler loading of PF. The higher the thickness and the higher the percentage loading of wood filler gives smaller pore structure, consequently, increased the sound absorption coefficient level.

  5. Preparation and Structure Study of Water-Blown Polyurethane/RDX Gun Propellant Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weitao; Yang, Jianxing; Zhao, Yuhua; Zhang, Yucheng

    2018-01-01

    Water-blown polyurethane/RDX foamed propellants were prepared using polyols and isocyanate as reactive binder system, hexogen (RDX) as energetic component, triethanolamine (TEA)/Ditin butyl dilaurate (T-12) as composite catalysts, and H2O as blowing agent. The influences of catalyst ratio, blowing agent amount, and solid filler content on the inner porous structure were studied. The results show that the balance of gel rate and cream rate that could be adjusted by catalyst ratio is a major influencing factor on porous structure of foamed propellants. When the ratio of TEA/T-12 was adjusted to 1/0.7, the morphology of the foamed propellant exhibited spherical and closed porous structure. Besides, when the water amount was increased from 0.1% to 0.5%, the pore size increased from 0.43 to 0.64 mm. The contents of RDX particles affected the cell nucleation and thus, the cell geometry. When the blowing agent amount was constant, the increased content of RDX filler led to a decreased pore size. The closed bomb test results showed that foamed propellants burned progressively in an in-depth combustion mode.

  6. Polyurethane foam/nano hydroxyapatite composite as a suitable scaffold for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Meskinfam, M; Bertoldi, S; Albanese, N; Cerri, A; Tanzi, M C; Imani, R; Baheiraei, N; Farokhi, M; Farè, S

    2018-01-01

    In bone tissue regeneration, the use of biomineralized scaffolds to create the 3D porous structure needed for well-fitting with defect size and appropriate cell interactions, is a promising alternative to autologous and heterologous bone grafts. Biomineralized polyurethane (PU) foams are here investigated as scaffold for bone tissue regeneration. Biomineralization of the foams was carried out by activation of PU surface by a two steps procedure performed for different times (1 to 4 weeks). Scaffolds were investigated for morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties, as well as for in vitro interaction with rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs). Untreated and biomineralized PU samples showed a homogenous morphology and regular pore size (average Ø=407μm). Phase and structure of formed calcium phosphates (CaPs) layer onto the PU foam were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, proving the formation of bone-like nano hydroxyapatite. Biomineralization caused a significant increase of mechanical properties of treated foams compared to untreated ones. Biomineralization also affected the PU scaffold cytocompatibility providing a more appropriate surface for cell attachment and proliferation. Considering the obtained results, the proposed scaffold can be considered suitable for bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Graded porous polyurethane foam: a potential scaffold for oro-maxillary bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Basoli, F; Mozetic, P; Piva, P; Bartuli, F N; Luciani, F; Arcuri, C; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A; Licoccia, S

    2015-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering applications demand for biomaterials offering a substrate for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, while inferring suitable mechanical properties to the construct. In the present study, polyurethane (PU) foams were synthesized to develop a graded porous material-characterized by a dense shell and a porous core-for the treatment of oro-maxillary bone defects. Foam was synthesized via a one-pot reaction starting from a polyisocyanate and a biocompatible polyester diol, using water as a foaming agent. Different foaming conditions were examined, with the aim of creating a dense/porous functional graded material that would perform at the same time as an osteoconductive scaffold for bone defect regeneration and as a membrane-barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. The obtained PU was characterized in terms of morphological and mechanical properties. Biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Our findings confirm that the material is potentially suitable for guided bone regeneration applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk assessment for consumer exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) derived from polyurethane flexible foam.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Scott M; Collins, Michael A; Graham, Cynthia; Jolly, Athena T; Parod, Ralph J; Poole, Alan; Schupp, Thomas; Shiotsuka, Ronald N; Woolhiser, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made from diisocyanates and polyols for a variety of consumer products. It has been suggested that PU foam may contain trace amounts of residual toluene diisocyanate (TDI) monomers and present a health risk. To address this concern, the exposure scenario and health risks posed by sleeping on a PU foam mattress were evaluated. Toxicity benchmarks for key non-cancer endpoints (i.e., irritation, sensitization, respiratory tract effects) were determined by dividing points of departure by uncertainty factors. The cancer benchmark was derived using the USEPA Benchmark Dose Software. Results of previous migration and emission data of TDI from PU foam were combined with conservative exposure factors to calculate upper-bound dermal and inhalation exposures to TDI as well as a lifetime average daily dose to TDI from dermal exposure. For each non-cancer endpoint, the toxicity benchmark was divided by the calculated exposure to determine the margin of safety (MOS), which ranged from 200 (respiratory tract) to 3×10(6) (irritation). Although available data indicate TDI is not carcinogenic, a theoretical excess cancer risk (1×10(-7)) was calculated. We conclude from this assessment that sleeping on a PU foam mattress does not pose TDI-related health risks to consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyols from Microwave Liquefied Bagasse and Its Application to Rigid Polyurethane Foam.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiulong; Zhai, Xianglin; Hse, Chung Yun; Shupe, Todd F; Pan, Hui

    2015-12-08

    Bagasse flour (BF) was liquefied using bi-component polyhydric alcohol (PA) as a solvent and phosphoric acid as a catalyst in a microwave reactor. The effect of BF to solvent ratio and reaction temperatures on the liquefaction extent and characteristics of liquefied products were evaluated. The results revealed that almost 75% of the raw bagasse was converted into liquid products within 9 min at 150 °C with a BF to solvent ratio of 1/4. The hydroxyl and acid values of the liquefied bagasse (LB) varied with the liquefied conditions. High reaction temperature combining with low BF to solvent ratio resulted in a low hydroxyl number for the LB. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the LB from reactions of 150 °C was lower compared to that from 125 °C. Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared from LB and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and the structural, mechanical and thermal properties of the PU foam were evaluated. The PU foams prepared using the LB from high reaction temperature showed better physical and mechanical performance in comparison to those from low reaction temperature. The amount of PA in the LB has the ability of increasing thermal stability of LB-PU foams. The results in this study may provide fundamental information on integrated utilizations of sugarcane bagasse via microwave liquefaction process.

  10. Polyols from Microwave Liquefied Bagasse and Its Application to Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiulong; Zhai, Xianglin; Hse, Chung Yun; Shupe, Todd F.; Pan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Bagasse flour (BF) was liquefied using bi-component polyhydric alcohol (PA) as a solvent and phosphoric acid as a catalyst in a microwave reactor. The effect of BF to solvent ratio and reaction temperatures on the liquefaction extent and characteristics of liquefied products were evaluated. The results revealed that almost 75% of the raw bagasse was converted into liquid products within 9 min at 150 °C with a BF to solvent ratio of 1/4. The hydroxyl and acid values of the liquefied bagasse (LB) varied with the liquefied conditions. High reaction temperature combining with low BF to solvent ratio resulted in a low hydroxyl number for the LB. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the LB from reactions of 150 °C was lower compared to that from 125 °C. Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared from LB and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and the structural, mechanical and thermal properties of the PU foam were evaluated. The PU foams prepared using the LB from high reaction temperature showed better physical and mechanical performance in comparison to those from low reaction temperature. The amount of PA in the LB has the ability of increasing thermal stability of LB-PU foams. The results in this study may provide fundamental information on integrated utilizations of sugarcane bagasse via microwave liquefaction process. PMID:28793725

  11. Dynamic characterization of frequency response of shock mitigation of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Kolsky compression bar experiments were conducted to characterize the shock mitigation response of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam, abbreviated as PMDI foam in this study. The Kolsky bar experimental data was analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to impact energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation to perform a shock mitigation assessment on the foam material. The PMDI foam material exhibits excellent performance in both energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation, particularly for the impact frequency content over 1.5 kHz. This frequency (1.5 kHz) was observed to be independent of specimen thickness and impact speed, which may represent themore » characteristic shock mitigation frequency of the PMDI foam material under investigation. The shock mitigation characteristics of the PMDI foam material were insignificantly influenced by the specimen thickness. As a result, impact speed did have some effect.« less

  12. Dynamic characterization of frequency response of shock mitigation of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin

    Kolsky compression bar experiments were conducted to characterize the shock mitigation response of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam, abbreviated as PMDI foam in this study. The Kolsky bar experimental data was analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to impact energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation to perform a shock mitigation assessment on the foam material. The PMDI foam material exhibits excellent performance in both energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation, particularly for the impact frequency content over 1.5 kHz. This frequency (1.5 kHz) was observed to be independent of specimen thickness and impact speed, which may represent themore » characteristic shock mitigation frequency of the PMDI foam material under investigation. The shock mitigation characteristics of the PMDI foam material were insignificantly influenced by the specimen thickness. As a result, impact speed did have some effect.« less

  13. Diplogelasinospora grovesii IMI 171018 immobilized in polyurethane foam. An efficient biocatalyst for stereoselective reduction of ketones.

    PubMed

    Quezada, M A; Carballeira, J D; Sinisterra, J V

    2012-05-01

    Diplogelasinospora grovesii has been reported as a very active biocatalyst in the reduction of ketones. Along the text, the properties of this filamentous fungus as an immobilized catalyst are described. For this purpose, several immobilization supports as agar and polyurethane foam were tested. Experimental assays were also performed to test different co-substrates for the regeneration of the required enzyme cofactor. The fungus immobilized in polyurethane foam lead to the most stable and active catalyst. This derivative, using i-PrOH as co-substrate, could be reused at least 18 times without appreciable activity loss (>90% activity remains). Kinetic runs experiments shown that the reduction of cyclohexanone, selected as model substrate, followed a pseudo-first kinetic order and that the rate controlling step was the mass transfer through the cell wall. The deactivation kinetic constants were also determined. The reduction of different chiral ketones showed that the ketone reductase activity followed the Prelog's rule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks passive air samplers: wind effect on sampling rates.

    PubMed

    Tuduri, Ludovic; Harner, Tom; Hung, Hayley

    2006-11-01

    Different passive sampler housings were evaluated for their wind dampening ability and how this might translate to variability in sampler uptake rates. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk samplers were used as the sampling medium and were exposed to a PCB-contaminated atmosphere in a wind tunnel. The effect of outside wind speed on PUF disk sampling rates was evaluated by exposing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks to a PCB-contaminated air stream in a wind tunnel over air velocities in the range 0 to 1.75 m s-1. PUF disk sampling rates increased gradually over the range 0-0.9 m s-1 at approximately 4.5-14.6 m3 d-1 and then increased sharply to approximately 42 m3 d-1 at approximately 1.75 m s-1 (sum of PCBs). The results indicate that for most field deployments the conventional 'flying saucer' housing adequately dampens the wind effect and will yield approximately time-weighted air concentrations.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcing agent in solely palm based polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septevani, Athanasia Amanda; Annamalai, Pratheep K.; Martin, Darren J.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing awareness of the environment and the economy of petroleum resources has driven the development of alternative processes and raw materials based on sustainable and renewable biomaterials with excellent properties. This study is aimed to use biologically renewable cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as reinforcing agent to enhance the properties of polyurethane foams (PUF) based on solely palm-polyol. Rod-like shape cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was successfully isolated from cotton based resources via strong acid hydrolysis with the average width, length and aspect ratio about 14.7 ± 4.9 nm, 167.7 ± 23.2 nm and 11.4, respectively. The crystallinity of CNC was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and was found at 82.8% and 83.8%, respectively. This obtained cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) at a loading of 0.4 wt. % was then incorporated via solvent-free sonication method in the model of palm based polyurethane foam. The preliminary results showed that the effect of CNC on the mechanical properties afforded a significant improvement on the compressive strength and modulus without affecting much their tensile strength. The results on thermal stability and thermal transitions were found unchanged whereas the storage modulus revealed substantial improvement with the presence of CNC with almost two fold from 0.7 MPa to 1.3 MPa (˜86 %).

  16. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Kręcisz, Beata

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons). Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers). Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  17. An evaluation of biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam in patients following septoplasty: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Guven, Mehmet; Elicora, Sultan Sevik; Kaymaz, Recep

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the usability of biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam (BSPF) after septoplasty by comparing it with Merocel and silicone intranasal splints as packing materials in terms of patient comfort and efficiency. A prospective, unmasked, randomized trial. A tertiary referral center. This study was designed to be a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Sixty-eight patients who underwent septoplasty were included in this study. The patients were randomized to receive Merocel, silicone intranasal septal splint (INS), or BSPF after septoplasty. Clinical efficacy on bleeding, pain, and subjective symptoms related to packing materials was evaluated. There was a statistically significant difference between the Merocel group and the other 2 groups in terms of bleeding and adhesion. The average score on the pain scale was 2.47 ± 1.01 for BSPF, 3.68 ± 1.27 for INS, and 6 ± 2.21 for Merocel. Scores on general satisfaction scales were 6.95 ± 1.42 for Merocel, 8.44 ± 2.12 for INS, and 8.28 ± 1.88 for BSPF. The efficacy of BSPF was comparable with that of Merocel and INS. Biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam significantly reduced pain and patient discomfort during packing and removal, followed by INS, compared with Merocel.

  18. Experience gained from the use of polyurethane foam-insulated pipelines at OAO Moscow Heating-Network Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashinskii, V. I.; Lipovskikh, V. M.; Rotmistrov, Ya. G.

    2007-07-01

    Results from 10 years of experience using polyurethane foam-insulated pipelines at OAO Moscow Heating-Network Co. are presented. It is shown that the failure rate of such pipelines is considerably lower than that of pipelines laid in conduits.

  19. Effect of lignin derivatives in the bio-polyols from microwave liquefied bamboo on the properties of polyurethane foams

    Treesearch

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo residues were subjected to a microwave-assisted liquefaction process for the production of crude bio-polyols (CBP). The fractionated bio-polyols (FBP) were obtained by the removal of lignin derivatives from the crude bio-polyols (CBP) using a simple method. Polyurethane (PU) foams were successfully prepared from both CBP and FBP. The object of this study was to...

  20. Histological evaluation of capsules formed by silicon implants coated with polyurethane foam and with a textured surface in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduardo Nascimento; Ribas-Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Pachnicki, Jan Pawel Andrade; Netto, Mário Rodrigues Montemor; Lipinski, Leandro Cavalcante; Noronha, Lucia de; Colman, Joelmir; Zeni, João Otavio; Carvalho, Caroline Aragão de

    2016-12-01

    To assess the capsules formed by silicone implants coated with polyurethane foam and with a textured surface. Sixty-four Wistar albinus rats were divided into two groups of 32 each using polyurethane foam and textured surface. The capsules around the implants were analyzed for 30, 50, 70 and 90 days. Were analyzed the following parameters: foreign body reaction, granulation tissue, presence of myofibroblasts, neoangiogenesis, presence of synovial metaplasia, capsular thickness, total area and collagen percentage of type I and III, in capsules formed around silicone implants in both groups. The foreign body reaction was only present in the four polyurethane subgroups. The formation of granulation tissue and the presence of myofibroblasts were higher in the four polyurethane subgroups. Regarding to neoangiogenesis and synovial metaplasia, there was no statistical difference between the groups. Polyurethane group presented (all subgroups) a greater capsule thickness, a smaller total area and collagen percentage of type I and a higher percentage area of type III, with statistical difference. The use of polyurethane-coated implants should be stimulated by the long-term results in a more stable capsule and a lower incidence of capsular contracture, despite developing a more intense and delayed inflammatory reaction in relation to implants with textured surface.

  1. Development, optimisation and application of polyurethane foams as new polymeric phases for stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Neng, N R; Pinto, M L; Pires, J; Marcos, P M; Nogueira, J M F

    2007-11-09

    In this contribution, polyurethane foams are proposed as new polymeric phases for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). Assays performed for polyurethane synthesis demonstrated that four series of formulations (P(1), P(2), P(3) and P(4)) present remarkable stability and excellent mechanical resistance to organic solvents. For polymer clean-up treatment, acetonitrile proved to be the best solvent under sonification, ensuring the reduction of the contamination and interferences. SBSE assays performed on these polyurethane polymers followed by liquid desorption and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LD-HPLC-DAD) or large volume injection-capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LD-LVI-GC-MS), showed that P(2) presents the best recovery yields for atrazine, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and fluorene, used as model compounds in water samples at a trace level. SBSE(P(2)) assays performed on this polymer mixed up with several adsorbent materials, i.e. activated carbon, a mesoporous material and a calixarene, did not bring any advantages in relation with the polymeric matrix alone. The comparison between assays performed by SBSE(P(2)) and by the conventional SBSE(PDMS) showed much better performance for the former phase on aqueous samples spiked with atrazine, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and fluorene, in which the foremost two analytes present recovery values 3- and 10-fold higher, respectively. The polyurethanes proposed as new polymeric phases for SBSE provided powerful capabilities for the enrichment of organic compounds from aqueous matrices, showing to be indicated mainly in the case of the more polar analytes.

  2. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Rand, Peter B.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  3. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Rand, P.B.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  4. Hemostatic kaolin-polyurethane foam composites for multifunctional wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jeffrey G; McGann, Christopher L; Daniels, Grant C; Streifel, Benjamin C; Wynne, James H

    2017-10-01

    There are numerous challenges associated with the acute care of traumatic limb injuries in forward military settings. A lack of immediate medical facilities necessitates that the wound dressing perform multiple tasks including exudate control, infection prevention, and physical protection of the wound for extended periods of time. Here, kaolin was incorporated into recently developed robust polyurethane (PU) hydrogel foams at 1-10wt% in an effort to impart hemostatic character. ATR-IR and gel fraction analysis demonstrated that the facile, one-pot synthesis of the PU hydrogel was unaffected by kaolin loading, as well as the use of a non-toxic catalyst, which significantly improved cytocompatibility of the materials. Kaolin was generally well dispersed throughout the PU matrix, though higher loadings exhibited minor evidence of aggregation. Kaolin-PU composites exhibited burst release of ciprofloxacin over 2h, the initial release rates of which increased with kaolin loading. Kaolin loading imparted excellent hemostatic character to the PU foams at relatively low loading levels (5wt%). This work demonstrates the simple and inexpensive synthesis of robust, hemostatic, and absorptive kaolin-PU foams that have promising potential as multifunctional wound dressing materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of polyurethane/cellulose nanowhisker bimodal foam nanocomposites for osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.

    PubMed

    Shahrousvand, Ehsan; Shahrousvand, Mohsen; Ghollasi, Marzieh; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Jouibari, Iman Sahebi; Babaei, Amir; Salimi, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable polyurethanes (PUs) based on polycaprolactone diol (PCL) were prepared and filled with cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) obtained from wastepaper. The incorporated polyurethane nanocomposites were used to prepare foamed scaffolds with bimodal cell sizes through solvent casting/particulate leaching method. Sodium chloride and sugar porogens were also prepared to fabricate the scaffolds. The mechanical and thermal properties of PU/CNW nanocomposites were investigated. Incorporation of different CNWs resulted in various structures with tunable mechanical properties and biodegradability. All bimodal foam nanocomposites were biodegradable and also non-cytotoxic as revealed by MTT assay using SNL fibroblast cell line. PU/CNW foam scaffolds were used for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Based on the results, such PU/CNW nanocomposites could support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in three-dimensional synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of polyurethane foam as a sorbent for trace metal pre-concentration — A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, V. A.; Santos, M. S.; Santos, E. S.; Santos, M. J. S.; dos Santos, W. N. L.; Souza, A. S.; de Jesus, D. S.; das Virgens, C. F.; Carvalho, M. S.; Oleszczuk, N.; Vale, M. G. R.; Welz, B.; Ferreira, S. L. C.

    2007-01-01

    The first publication on the use of polyurethane foam (PUF) for sorption processes dates back to 1970, and soon after the material was applied for separation processes. The application of PUF as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of inorganic analytes for separation and pre-concentration purposes is reviewed. The physical and chemical characteristics of PUF (polyether and polyester type) are discussed and an introduction to the characterization of these sorption processes using different types of isotherms is given. Separation and pre-concentration methods using unloaded and loaded PUF in batch and on-line procedures with continuous flow and flow injection systems are presented. Methods for the direct solid sampling analysis of the PUF after pre-concentration are discussed as well as approaches for speciation analysis. Thermodynamic proprieties of some extraction processes are evaluated and the interpretation of determined parameters, such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy in light of the physico-chemical processes is explained.

  7. An assessment of polyurethane foam passive samplers for atmospheric metals compared with active samplers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qilu; Yang, Kong; Li, Jun; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Gan

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we conducted an assessment of polyurethane foam (PUF) passive sampling for metals combining active sampling. Remarkably, we found that the metals collected in the passive samples differed greatly from those collected in active samples. By composition, Cu and Ni accounted for significantly higher proportions in passive samples than in active samples, leading to significantly higher uptake rates of Cu and Ni. In assessing seasonal variation, metals in passive samples had higher concentrations in summer (excluding Heshan), which differed greatly from the pattern of active samples (winter > summer), indicating that the uptake rates of most metals were higher in summer than in winter. Overall, due to the stable passive uptake rates, we considered that PUF passive samplers can be applied to collect atmospheric metals. Additionally, we created a snapshot of the metal pollution in the Pearl River Delta using principal component analysis of PUF samples and their source apportionment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutagenicity of aerosols from the oxidative thermal decomposition of rigid polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Zitting, A; Falck, K; Skyttä, E

    1980-01-01

    The aerosol fraction of the oxidative thermal decomposition products (700 degrees C) of rigid polyurethane foam was collected on glass fiber filters and fractionated into either-soluble neutral, acidic, and basic fractions and water-soluble compounds. The fractions showed mutagenic activity in a bacterial fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or Escherichia coli CM891 as the tester strains. All the fractions induced mutations in both strains after metabolic activation with rat liver S-9 mix. The basic and the water-soluble fractions were mutagenic for S. typhimurium TA 98 even without activation. Thin-layer chromatography showed the presence of several primary aromatic amines in the aerosol. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected by glass capillary gas chromatogaphy.

  9. Polyurethane foam pica in a patient with excessive interdialytic weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Allington, Ying; Cafferkey, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining fluid balance in haemodialysis patients is important because of the adverse effects of excessive interdialytic weight gain. This often requires fluid restriction that patients often struggle with. We report a case of a 31-year-old female diabetic patient on haemodialysis with repeated excessive interdialytic weight gains despite fluid restriction and dry weight adjustment. It was subsequently discovered that she devised an unusual, albeit unsuccessful, strategy of eating the polyurethane foam from her dialysis chair while increasing her fluid intake hoping that it would absorb excess water in the gut! This under-diagnosed phenomenon known as pica has been reported in renal patients with substances such as ice, clay and baking soda. PMID:22767521

  10. Immobilization of Streptomyces thermotolerans 11432 on polyurethane foam to improve production of acetylisovaleryltylosin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongji; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Jiaheng; Caiyin, Qinggele; Qiao, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF) was chemically treated to immobilize Streptomyces thermotolerans 11432 for semi-continuous production of acetylisovaleryltylosin (AIV). Based on experimental results, positive cross-linked PUF (PCPUF) was selected as the most effective carrier according to immobilized cell mass. The effect of adsorption time on immobilized mass was investigated. AIV concentration (33.54 mg/l) in batch fermentations with immobilized cells was higher than with free cells (20.34 mg/l). In repeated batch fermentations with immobilized S. thermotolerans 11432 using PCPUF cubes, high AIV concentrations and conversion rates were attained, ranging from 25.56 to 34.37 mg/l and 79.93 to 86.31 %, respectively. Significantly, this method provides a feasible strategy for efficient AIV production and offers the potential for large-scale production.

  11. A randomized, controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy of pressure ulcers via a novel polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Marcus James Dermot; Driver, Sara; Coghlan, Patrick; Greenwood, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to look for any local, clinically apparent response, within and around a debrided wound, to a novel biocompatible polyurethane foam during repeated, short-term implantation, and (2) to assess the material's efficacy as a negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) interface compared with a widely used, commercially available foam. Twenty pressure ulcers in 18 patients underwent surgical debridement, then randomization to receive novel treatment or control foam as the wound interface for NPWT. Dressing changes every 2-3 days allowed qualitative wound assessment and quantitative measurement to compare outcomes. No adverse reaction was observed in any patient receiving the new foam. The new "novel foam" performed as a NPWT interface as effectively as the control "standard foam." In deep wounds, the new foam was easier to remove, fragmented less, and showed less retention than the control foam. No marginal in-growth occurred, making removal less traumatic and reducing bleeding from cavity wall granulations. The results support previous large animal studies, and independent ISO10993 testing, that the new foam is safe and biocompatible. Its efficacy as an NPWT interface, nontraumatic removal with low fragmentation and retention rate, favors the new material, especially in deep cavity wounds. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Polyurethane foams obtained from residues of PET manufacturing and modified with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiebra, L.; Cabulis, U.; Knite, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we report the preparation of rigid microcellular polyurethane/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with different CNT loadings (0.09-0.46%) and various isocyanate indexes (110-260). Water was used as a blowing agent for samples. Density of all obtained samples - 200 ± 10 kg/m3. Electrical properties, as well as heat conductivity, cellular structure and mechanical properties of these nanocomposites were investigated.

  13. Ventilation Guidance To Promote the Safe Use of Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation, Incluyendo la Versión de Español

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance describes basic ventilation principles and strategies to help protect workers and building occupants and promote the safe use of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. Guia para la ventilacion sobre la application del aerosol de espuma.

  14. Synthesis of Lipid Based Polyols from 1-butene Metathesized Palm Oil for Use in Polyurethane Foam Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan Pillai, Prasanth Kumar

    This thesis explores the use of 1-butene cross metathesized palm oil (PMTAG) as a feedstock for preparation of polyols which can be used to prepare rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. PMTAG is advantageous over its precursor feedstock, palm oil, for synthesizing polyols, especially for the preparation of rigid foams, because of the reduction of dangling chain effects associated with the omega unsaturated fatty acids. 1-butene cross metathesis results in shortening of the unsaturated fatty acid moieties, with approximately half of the unsaturated fatty acids assuming terminal double bonds. It was shown that the associated terminal OH groups introduced through epoxidation and hydroxylation result in rigid foams with a compressive strength approximately 2.5 times higher than that of rigid foams from palm and soybean oil polyols. Up to 1.5 times improvement in the compressive strength value of the rigid foams from the PMTAG polyol was further obtained following dry and/or solvent assisted fractionation of PMTAG in order to reduce the dangling chain effects associated with the saturated components of the PMTAG. Flexible foams with excellent recovery was achieved from the polyols of PMTAG and the high olein fraction of PMTAG indicating that these bio-derived polyurethane foams may be suitable for flexible foam applications. PMTAG polyols with controlled OH values prepared via an optimized green solvent free synthetic strategy provided flexible foams with lower compressive strength and higher recovery; i.e., better flexible foam potential compared to the PMTAG derived foams with non-controlled OH values. Overall, this study has revealed that the dangling chain issues of vegetable oils can be addressed in part using appropriate chemical and physical modification techniques such as cross metathesis and fractionation, respectively. In fact, the rigidity and the compressive strength of the polyurethane foams were in very close agreement with the percentage of terminal

  15. Protein adducts as biomarkers of exposure to aromatic diisocyanates in workers manufacturing polyurethane (PUR) foam.

    PubMed

    Säkkinen, Kirsi; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Hesso, Antti; Hirvonen, Ari; Vainio, Harri; Norppa, Hannu; Rosenberg, Christina

    2011-04-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of diisocyanate-related protein adducts in blood samples as biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI; 2,4- and 2,6-isomers) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Quantification of adducts as toluene diamines (TDAs) and methylenedianiline (MDA) was performed on perfluoroacylated derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in negative chemical ionisation mode. TDI-derived adducts were found in 77% of plasma and in 59% of globin samples from exposed workers manufacturing flexible polyurethane foam. The plasma levels ranged from 0.003 to 0.58 nmol mL(-1) and those in globin from 0.012 to 0.33 nmol g(-1). The 2,6-isomer amounted to about two-thirds of the sum concentration of TDA isomers. MDI-derived adducts were detected in 3.5% of plasma and in 7% of globin samples from exposed workers manufacturing rigid polyurethane foam. A good correlation was found between the sum of TDA isomers in urine and that in plasma. The relationship between globin adducts and urinary metabolites was ambiguous. Monitoring TDI-derived TDA in plasma thus appears to be an appropriate method for assessing occupational exposure. Contrary to TDI exposure, adducts in plasma or globin were not useful in assessing workers' exposure to MDI. An important outcome of the study was that no amine-related adducts were detected in globin samples from TDI- or MDI-exposed workers, alleviating concerns that TDI or MDI might pose a carcinogenic hazard. Further studies are nevertheless required to judge whether diisocyanates per se could be such a hazard.

  16. Effectiveness of Synthetic Polyurethane Foam as a Nasal Packing Material in Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonsik; Lee, Hwa; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Chang, Minwook; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2015-10-01

    To compare the effects of 2 nasal packing materials, synthetic polyurethane foam (absorbable) and expandable polyvinyl acetate (nonabsorbable), on the surgical success rate and postoperative complications after endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR). A retrospective medical review of 459 patients (580 eyes) who underwent EDCR for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction at Korea University Guro Hospitals from January 2009 to February 2014. Surgical success rate (anatomical, functional), postoperative complications (granuloma, synechia, bleeding, and infection) were compared between the 2 groups, absorbable (318 eyes) and nonabsorbable (262 eyes). The absorbable group showed better results in surgical success rate regarding anatomical (90.5% versus 76.3%, P = 0.00) and functional (89.3% versus 75.9%, P = 0.00). Granulomas developed less frequently in the absorbable group (24.5% versus 38.9%, P = 0.00). Also, bleeding and crust were less frequent in the absorbable group (P = 0.00). Infections were less frequent in the nonabsorbable group (1.52%) compared with the absorbable group (7.86%, P = 0.00). The rate of revision surgery was lower in the absorbable group (7.86% versus 20.9%, P = 0.00). As for the influence of secondary outcomes to the surgical success by multiple logistic regression, granulomas had the largest effect on surgical success either anatomical or functional (odds ratio = 82.393 to anatomical and 44.058 to functional). Synechia had the second largest effect on surgical success (odds ratio = 11.897 to anatomical and 9.605 to functional). The authors suggest that using a synthetic polyurethane foam as a nasal packing material is not only a surgical option, but also a crucial and essential procedure in EDCR.

  17. Rapid hemostatic and mild polyurethane-urea foam wound dressing for promoting wound healing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Niu, Yuqing; Chen, Kevin C; Chen, Shiguo

    2017-02-01

    A novel rapid hemostatic and mild polyurethane-urea foam (PUUF) wound dressing was prepared by the particle leaching method and vacuum freeze-drying method using 4, 4-Methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate), 4,4-diaminodicyclohexylmethane and poly (ethylene glycol) as raw materials. And X-ray diffraction (XRD), tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) were used to its crystallinity, stress and strain behavior, and thermal properties, respectively. Platelet adhesion, fibrinogen adhesion and blood clotting were performed to evaluate its hemostatic effect. And H&E staining and Masson Trichrome staining were used to its wound healing efficacy. The results revealed the pore size of PUUF is 50-130μm, and its porosity is 71.01%. Porous PUUF exhibited good water uptake that was benefit to adsorb abundant wound exudates to build a regional moist environment beneficial for wound healing. The PUUF wound dressing exhibit better blood coagulation effect than commercial polyurethane dressing (CaduMedi). Though both PUUF and CaduMedi facilitated wound healing generating full re-epithelialization within 13days, PUUF was milder and lead to more slight inflammatory response than CaduMedi. In addition, PUUF wound dressing exhibited lower cytotoxicity than CaduMedi against NIH3T3 cells. Overall, porous PUUF represents a novel mild wound dressing with excellent water uptake, hemostatic effect and low toxicity, and it can promote wound healing and enhance re-epithelialization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyurethane foam scaffold as in vitro model for breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Valentina; Contessi, Nicola; De Marco, Cinzia; Bertoldi, Serena; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Farè, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    to recapitulate the development of metastases in different body sites but, still, the crucial challenge is to correctly mimic the tissue to be modelled in terms of physical, mechanical and biological properties. Here, we prove the suitability of a porous polyurethane foam, synthesized using an appropriate formulaton, in mimicking the bone tissue microenvironment and in reproducing the metastatic colonization derived from human breast cancer, particularly evidencing the devastating effects on the bone extracellular matrix caused by metastatic spreading. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodium hydrogen carbonate as an alternative blowing agent in the preparation of palm-based polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Amira Shakim Abdul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Hua, Chia Chin

    2016-11-01

    An environmental-friendly blowing agent has been used to fabricate flexible polyurethane (PU) foam. Polyurethane foam was prepared from palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p) via prepolymerization method. Acetone has been used as solvent in this study. The developed polyurethane foam was characterized using tensile, differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), optical microscope and drop shape analyzer. The mechanical properties of the PU-reference (PU-R) and PU-NaHCO3 foam was analyzed by tensile using ASTM D 3574-01. From the results, the elongation of PU- NaHCO3 shows reduction to 26.3 % compared to PU-R. The DSC showed two glass transition temperatures in all samples that belonged to the PU-R and PU-NaHCO3. TGA revealed that the incorporation of sodium hydrogen carbonate into the PU system did not show significant difference as compared to the control PU. The morphology of both PU was investigated using optical microscope. Contact angle has been measured to determine the hydrophobicity of the PU. The PU- NaHCO3 exhibited an increase in contact angle (93.1°).

  20. Producing Lignin-Based Polyols through Microwave-Assisted Liquefaction for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bai-Liang; Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Lignin-based polyols were synthesized through microwave-assisted liquefaction under different microwave heating times (5–30 min). The liquefaction reactions were carried out using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400)/glycerol as liquefying solvents and 97 wt% sulfur acid as a catalyst at 140 °C. The polyols obtained were analyzed for their yield, composition and structural characteristics using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. FT-IR and NMR spectra showed that the liquefying solvents reacted with the phenol hydroxyl groups of the lignin in the liquefied product. With increasing microwave heating time, the viscosity of polyols was slightly increased and their corresponding molecular weight (MW) was gradually reduced. The optimal condition at the microwave heating time (5 min) ensured a high liquefaction yield (97.47%) and polyol with a suitable hydroxyl number (8.628 mmol/g). Polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared by polyols and methylene diphenylene diisocyanate (MDI) using the one-shot method. With the isocyanate/hydroxyl group ([NCO]/[OH]) ratio increasing from 0.6 to 1.0, their mechanical properties were gradually increased. This study provided some insight into the microwave-assisted liquefied lignin polyols for the production of rigid PU foam. PMID:28787959

  1. Producing Lignin-Based Polyols through Microwave-Assisted Liquefaction for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bai-Liang; Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-10

    Lignin-based polyols were synthesized through microwave-assisted liquefaction under different microwave heating times (5-30 min). The liquefaction reactions were carried out using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400)/glycerol as liquefying solvents and 97 wt% sulfur acid as a catalyst at 140 °C. The polyols obtained were analyzed for their yield, composition and structural characteristics using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. FT-IR and NMR spectra showed that the liquefying solvents reacted with the phenol hydroxyl groups of the lignin in the liquefied product. With increasing microwave heating time, the viscosity of polyols was slightly increased and their corresponding molecular weight ( M W ) was gradually reduced. The optimal condition at the microwave heating time (5 min) ensured a high liquefaction yield (97.47%) and polyol with a suitable hydroxyl number (8.628 mmol/g). Polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared by polyols and methylene diphenylene diisocyanate (MDI) using the one-shot method. With the isocyanate/hydroxyl group ([NCO]/[OH]) ratio increasing from 0.6 to 1.0, their mechanical properties were gradually increased. This study provided some insight into the microwave-assisted liquefied lignin polyols for the production of rigid PU foam.

  2. Elemental concentrations and bioaccessibilities in beached plastic foam litter, with particular reference to lead in polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Lau, Kwan S

    2016-11-15

    Seventy samples of foamed plastic collected from a high-energy, sandy beach in SW England have been characterised by FTIR and XRF. Most samples were polyurethane (PU; n=39) or polystyrene (PS; n=27) that were associated with variable concentrations of Br-Cl, Fe and Zn, indicative of the presence of halogenated flame retardants, iron oxides and Zn-based additives, respectively. Many samples of rigid PU contained Pb, historically used as a catalyst, at concentrations of up to 16,000μgg -1 . A physiological extraction test that simulates the conditions in the gizzard of plastic-ingesting seabirds was applied to selected samples and results revealed that while Br and Zn were not measurably bioaccessible, Pb mobilisation progressed logarithmically over a period of time with maximum accessibilities after 220h of ~10% of total metal. Foamed PU is a source of bioaccessible Pb in the marine environment that has not previously been documented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo hemostatic efficacy of polyurethane foam compared to collagen and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; van Oeveren, Wim; Selten, Maaike H A; Meijer, Rolf J H; de Wolf, Joost T M; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2013-05-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are used in all surgical disciplines. Most of these hemostats are based on animal-derived products like collagen and gelatin. They carry the potential risk of pathogen transmission. A newly developed biodegradable, fully synthetic hemostatic agent based on polyurethane foam (PU) with 55 % polyethylene glycol (PEG) would prevent these potential risks. The hemostatic efficacy of this new agent was compared to gelatin and collagen in humans who underwent extraction of an upper and lower molar (split-mouth model). After extraction of a molar in the maxilla and mandible, a PU foam and collagen or gelatin were inserted in the extraction socket for 2 min. Hereafter, the agents were removed and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to stop coagulation. Then, the concentration of coagulation parameters thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complexes, fibrinogen, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in blood extracts from the agents was measured. The concentrations were also determined in baseline blood samples which were collected from the extraction socket. The concentrations of TAT and TxB2 were significantly increased, and fibrinogen concentration was significantly reduced compared to baseline wound blood concentrations indicating enhanced hemostasis. No significant differences were seen in the concentrations of these coagulation parameters in the three different hemostatic agents. These results show that PU combined with 55 % PEG is a promising alternative for the animal-derived hemostatic agents. The synthetic hemostatic agent could replace the animal-derived products like collagen and gelatin and therewith prevent the potential risk of pathogen transmission.

  4. Preparation of polyurethane foams using liquefied oil palm mesocarp fibre (OPMF) and renewable monomer from waste cooking oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research is the production of polyurethane (PU) foams with biopolyols from liquefied oil palm mesocarp fibre (OPMF) and renewable monomer. Liquefaction of OPMF was studied using polyhydric alcohol (PA) which is PEG-400 as liquefaction solvents in conventional glass flask. In the second part of this paper was obtained the PU foams which presented good results when compared with commercial foams and include polyols from of fossil fuels. PU foams were prepared by mixing liquefied OPMF biopolyol, renewable monomer from waste cooking, additives and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Water was used as an environmental friendly blowing agent. The factors that influence the cell structure of foams (i.e., catalyst, surfactant, dosage of blowing agent, and mass ratio of biopolyol to renewable monomer were studied. The synthesized PU foams were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The formulation of the PU foams should be improved, but the results show that is possible the use biopolyols and renewable monomer to produce industrial foams with lower cost.

  5. Nitrogen removal in moving bed sequencing batch reactor using polyurethane foam cubes of various sizes as carrier materials.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Seng, Chye-Eng; Lim, Poh-Eng; Ng, Si-Ling; Sujari, Amat-Ngilmi Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    The performance of moving bed sequencing batch reactors (MBSBRs) added with 8 % (v/v) of polyurethane (PU) foam cubes as carrier media in nitrogen removal was investigated in treating low COD/N wastewater. The results indicate that MBSBR with 8-mL cubes achieved the highest total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 37% during the aeration period, followed by 31%, 24% and 19 % for MBSBRs with 27-, 64- and 125-mL cubes, respectively. The increased TN removal in MBSBRs was mainly due to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process which was verified by batch studies. The relatively lower TN removal in MBSBR with larger PU foam cubes was attributed to the observation that larger PU foam cubes were not fully attached by biomass. Higher concentrations of 8-mL PU foam cubes in batch reactors yielded higher TN removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber–Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Zhijie; Zhang, Fuqing; You, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation. PMID:29565321

  7. Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber-Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Zhijie; Zhang, Fuqing; You, Feng; Yao, Chu

    2018-03-22

    Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation.

  8. Geometric modeling of Plateau borders using the orthographic projection method for closed cell rigid polyurethane foam thermal conductivity prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; Wu, Tao; Peng, Chuang; Adegbite, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The geometric Plateau border model for closed cell polyurethane foam was developed based on volume integrations of approximated 3D four-cusp hypocycloid structure. The tetrahedral structure of convex struts was orthogonally projected into 2D three-cusp deltoid with three central cylinders. The idealized single unit strut was modeled by superposition. The volume of each component was calculated by geometric analyses. The strut solid fraction f s and foam porosity coefficient δ were calculated based on representative elementary volume of Kelvin and Weaire-Phelan structures. The specific surface area Sv derived respectively from packing structures and deltoid approximation model were put into contrast against strut dimensional ratio ɛ. The characteristic foam parameters obtained from this semi-empirical model were further employed to predict foam thermal conductivity.

  9. Healing efficiency of shape memory polyurethane fiber reinforced syntactic foam under applied load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmekan, Babatunde

    Shape memory composite materials have received a great deal of interest in recent structural developments, both in sandwich and in lightweight structures. Experimental procedures involving the free body healing of these materials have been carried out; however, it is important to investigate the healing behaviors of these SMP materials while under load. In this study, syntactic foams reinforced with strain-hardened short-shape memory polyurethane fibers (SMPUFs) were prepared to evaluate their ability to heal wide-opened cracks using the two-step biomimetic close-then-heal (CTH) self-healing scheme while under varying loads. The syntactic foam samples manufactured consisted of an epoxy matrix with dispersed thermoplastic particles, glass microballoons and short SMPUFs. The SMPUF strands were cold-drawn (stretched-then-released) for up to four cycles and then cut to 10 mm short fibers before casting the polymer matrix. Three types of syntactic foam specimens, consisting of 5%, 10%, and 15% thermoplastic particle volume fraction compositions, respectively, were manufactured, and notched beam samples were then prepared. Fracture-healing by uniaxial tension was conducted for five cycles on each sample. Material characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), were utilized to highlight the crack healing characteristics and thermal properties. In addition, a high-resolution charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a resolution of 3.7 x 3.7 μm/pixel was used to capture the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). It is seen that the healing ability of the composite varies with changes in both the load carried and the volume fraction of thermoplastic particles. As the thermoplastic volume fraction increased from 5% to 10% to 15%, the tensile strength values recorded decreased, but there was also an increase in the healing efficiency. Moreover, SEM images revealed partial healing in samples with lower

  10. Comparison of solvent/derivatization agent systems for determination of extractable toluene diisocyanate from flexible polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Vangronsveld, Erik; Berckmans, Steven; Spence, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyols. Limited and conflicting results exist in the literature concerning the presence of unreacted TDI remaining in FPF as determined by various solvent extraction and analysis techniques. This study reports investigations into the effect of several solvent/derivatization agent combinations on extractable TDI results and suggests a preferred method. The suggested preferred method employs a syringe-based multiple extraction of foam samples with a toluene solution of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine. Extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography using an ion trap mass spectrometry detection technique. Detection limits of the method are ~10ng TDI g(-1) foam (10 ppb, w/w) for each TDI isomer (i.e. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI). The method was evaluated by a three-laboratory interlaboratory comparison using two representative foam samples. The total extractable TDI results found by the three labs for the two foams were in good agreement (relative standard deviation of the mean of 30-40%). The method has utility as a basis for comparing FPFs, but the interpretation of extractable TDI results using any solvent as the true value for 'free' or 'unreacted' TDI in the foam is problematic, as demonstrated by the difference in the extracted TDI results from the different extraction systems studied. Further, a consideration of polyurethane foam chemistry raises the possibility that extractable TDI may result from decomposition of parts of the foam structure (e.g. dimers, biurets, and allophanates) by the extraction system.

  11. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  12. Resonant acoustic propagation and negative density in liquid foams.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Juliette; Dollet, Benjamin; Leroy, Valentin

    2014-04-11

    We measured the dispersion relation for acoustic longitudinal waves in liquid foams, over a broad frequency range (60-600 kHz). Strong dispersion was found, with two nondispersive behaviors, separated by a negative density regime. A new model, based on the coupled displacements of films, liquid channels, and gas in the foam, rationalizes all the experimental findings.

  13. Resonant Acoustic Propagation and Negative Density in Liquid Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Juliette; Dollet, Benjamin; Leroy, Valentin

    2014-04-01

    We measured the dispersion relation for acoustic longitudinal waves in liquid foams, over a broad frequency range (60-600 kHz). Strong dispersion was found, with two nondispersive behaviors, separated by a negative density regime. A new model, based on the coupled displacements of films, liquid channels, and gas in the foam, rationalizes all the experimental findings.

  14. Observation of ionization fronts in low density foam targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D.; Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Vickers, C.; Watt, R.; Nazarov, W.

    1999-05-01

    Ionization fronts have been observed in low density chlorinated foam targets and low density foams confined in gold tubes using time resolved K-shell absorption spectroscopy. The front was driven by an intense pulse of soft x-rays produced by high power laser irradiation. The density and temperature profiles inferred from the radiographs provided detailed measurement of the conditions. The experimental data were compared to radiation hydrodynamics simulations and reasonable agreement was obtained.

  15. Testing of Disposable Protective Garments Against Isocyanate Permeation From Spray Polyurethane Foam Insulation.

    PubMed

    Mellette, Michael P; Bello, Dhimiter; Xue, Yalong; Yost, Michael; Bello, Anila; Woskie, Susan

    2018-05-12

    Diisocyanates (isocyanates), including methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), are the primary reactive components of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. They are potent immune sensitizers and a leading cause of occupational asthma. Skin exposure to isocyanates may lead to both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and possibly contribute to systemic sensitization. More than sufficient evidence exists to justify the use of protective garments to minimize skin contact with aerosolized and raw isocyanate containing materials during SPF applications. Studies evaluating the permeation of protective garments following exposure to SPF insulation do not currently exist. To conduct permeation testing under controlled conditions to assess the effectiveness of common protective gloves and coveralls during SPF applications using realistic SPF product formulations. Five common disposable garment materials [disposable latex gloves (0.07 mm thickness), nitrile gloves (0.07 mm), vinyl gloves (0.07 mm), polypropylene coveralls (0.13 mm) and Tyvek coveralls (0.13 mm)] were selected for testing. These materials were cut into small pieces and assembled into a permeation test cell system and coated with a two-part slow-rise spray polyurethane foam insulation. Glass fiber filters (GFF) pretreated with 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine) (MAP) were used underneath the garment to collect permeating isocyanates. GFF filters were collected at predetermined test intervals between 0.75 and 20.00 min and subsequently analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For each garment material, we assessed (i) the cumulative concentration of total isocyanate, including phenyl isocyanate and three MDI isomers, that effectively permeated the material over the test time; (ii) estimated breakthrough detection time, average permeation rate, and standardized breakthrough time; from which (iii) recommendations were developed for the use of similar protective garments following

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing industry.

    PubMed Central

    Hagmar, L; Welinder, H; Mikoczy, Z

    1993-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenyldiisocyanate (MDI) are used in large quantities in the polyurethane foam manufacturing industry. Both substances are mutagenic and at least TDI is carcinogenic to animals, but the occupational hazard with respect to cancer is not known. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns were therefore investigated in a cohort of 4154 workers from nine Swedish plants manufacturing polyurethane foam, employed for at least one year. Each workplace and job task in the nine plants was categorically assessed for each calendar year by an experienced occupational hygienist, for "no exposure", "low or intermittent exposure", or "apparent exposure" to TDI and MDI. The observed deficit for all cause mortality (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.78, (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.93) became smaller (SMR 0.92) excluding the first 10 years since the start of exposure and was ascribed to a healthy worker effect. No increased risk for death from bronchial obstructive diseases was found. An almost statistically significant deficit occurred for all malignant neoplasms (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.63-1.02); slight (not significant) increased risks were found for rectal cancer (SIR 1.66) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 1.53). The SIR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma increased to 2.80 (95% CI 0.76-7.16) when the first 10 years since first exposure were excluded from the observation period. The corresponding figure for rectal cancer was 1.92 (95% CI 0.52-4.92). Further restricting the analysis to those who had experienced an apparent exposure to TDI or MDI increased the SIR for both rectal cancer (3.19, 95% CI 0.66-9.33), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (3.03, 95% CI 0.37-10.9). These estimates were based, however, on few incident cases. As the cohort is still young and little time has elapsed since the start of exposure, future follow ups will enable a more conclusive evaluation. PMID:8392362

  17. Understanding and Improving the Elastic Compressive Modulus of Fibre Reinforced Soy-Based Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sadakat

    Soy-based polyurethane foams (PUFs) were reinforced with fibres of different aspect ratios to improve the compressive modulus. Each of the three fibre types reinforced PUF differently. Shorter micro-crystalline cellulose fibres were found embedded inside the cell struts of PUF and reinforced them. The reinforcement was attributed to be stress transfer from the matrix to the fibre by comparing the experimental results to those predicted by micro-mechanical models for short fibre reinforced composites. The reinforced cell struts increased the overall compressive modulus of the foam. Longer glass fibres (470 microns, length) provided the best reinforcement. These fibres were found to be larger than the cell diameters. The micro-mechanical models could not predict the reinforcement provided by the longer glass fibres. The models predicted negligible reinforcement because the very low modulus PUF should not transfer load to the higher modulus fibres. However, using a finite element model, it was determined that the fibres were providing reinforcement through direct fibre interaction with each other. Intermediate length glass fibres (260 microns, length) were found to poorly reinforce the PUF and should be avoided. These fibres were too short to interact with each other and were on average too large to embed and reinforce cell struts. In order to produce natural fibre reinforced PUFs in the future, a novel device was invented. The purpose of the device is to deliver natural fibres at a constant mass flow rate. The device was found to consistently meter individual loose natural fibre tufts at a mass flow rate of 2 grams per second. However, the device is not robust and requires further development to deliver a fine stream of natural fibre that can mix and interact with the curing polymeric components of PUF. A design plan was proposed to address the remaining issues with the device.

  18. Transition from Forward Smoldering to Flaming in Small Polyurethane Foam Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Ilan, A.; Putzeys, O.; Rein, G.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental observations are presented of the effect of the flow velocity and oxygen concentration, and of a thermal radiant flux, on the transition from smoldering to flaming in forward smoldering of small samples of polyurethane foam with a gas/solid interface. The experiments are part of a project studying the transition from smolder to flaming under conditions encountered in spacecraft facilities, i.e., microgravity, low velocity variable oxygen concentration flows. Because the microgravity experiments are planned for the International Space Station, the foam samples had to be limited in size for safety and launch mass reasons. The feasible sample size is too small for smolder to self propagate because of heat losses to the surrounding environment. Thus, the smolder propagation and the transition to flaming had to be assisted by reducing the heat losses to the surroundings and increasing the oxygen concentration. The experiments are conducted with small parallelepiped samples vertically placed in a wind tunnel. Three of the sample lateral-sides are maintained at elevated temperature and the fourth side is exposed to an upward flow and to a radiant flux. It is found that decreasing the flow velocity and increasing its oxygen concentration, and/or increasing the radiant flux enhances the transition to flaming, and reduces the delay time to transition. Limiting external ambient conditions for the transition to flaming are reported for the present experimental set-up. The results show that smolder propagation and the transition to flaming can occur in relatively small fuel samples if the external conditions are appropriate. The results also indicate that transition to flaming occurs in the char left behind by the smolder reaction, and it has the characteristics of a gas-phase ignition induced by the smolder reaction, which acts as the source of both gaseous fuel and heat.

  19. Effect of DMMP on the pyrolysis products of polyurethane foam materials in the gaseous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.; He, J.; Gao, N.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been used as a flame retardant containing phosphorus to decrease the flammability of the polyurethane foam material (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results show that LOI values of all PUF/DMMP samples are higher than that of the neat PUF sample and the LOI value of the samples increases with both DMMP concentration and the %P value. Thermal analysis indicates that flame retardant PUF shows a dominant condensed flame retardant activity during combustion. Thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) has been used to study the influence of DMMP on the pyrolysis products in the gaseous phase during the thermal degradation of the PUF sample. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) spectra of the PUF sample at the maximum evolution rates and the generated trends of water and the products containing -NCO have been examined to obtain more information about the pyrolysis product evolutions of the samples at high temperature. These results reveal that although DMMP could improve the thermal stability of PUF samples through the formation of the residual char layer between fire and the decomposed materials, the influence of DMMP on the gaseous phase can be also observed during the thermal degradation process of materials.

  20. One-pot, bioinspired coatings to reduce the flammability of flexible polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rick; Li, Yu-Chin; Gervasio, Michelle; Luu, Jason; Kim, Yeon Seok

    2015-03-25

    In this manuscript, natural materials were combined into a single "pot" to produce flexible, highly fire resistant, and bioinspired coatings on flexible polyurethane foam (PUF). In one step, PUF was coated with a fire protective layer constructed of a polysaccharide binder (starch or agar), a boron fire retardant (boric acid or derivative), and a dirt char former (montmorillonite clay). Nearly all coatings produced a 63% reduction in a critical flammability value, the peak heat release rate (PHRR). One formulation produced a 75% reduction in PHRR. This technology was validated in full-scale furniture fire tests, where a 75% reduction in PHRR was measured. At these PHRR values, this technology could reduce the fire threat of furniture from significant fire damage in and beyond the room of fire origin to being contained to the burning furniture. This flammability reduction was caused by three mechanisms-the gas-phase and condensed-phase processes of the boron fire retardant and the condensed-phase process of the clay. We describe the one-pot coating process and the impact of the coating composition on flammability.

  1. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  2. Evaluation of the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler: Computational modeling and experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Andrew A.; Ashman, Paul; Huang, Jiaoyan; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations coupled with wind tunnel-experiments were used to determine the sampling rate (SR) of the widely used polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive sampler. In the wind-tunnel experiments, water evaporation rates from a water saturated PUF disk installed in the sampler housing were determined by measuring weight loss over time. In addition, a modified passive sampler designed to collect elemental mercury (Hg 0) with gold-coated filters was used. Experiments were carried out at different wind speeds and various sampler angles. The SRs obtained from wind-tunnel experiments were compared to those obtained from the field by scaling the values by the ratios of air diffusivities. Three-dimensional (3D) CFD simulations were also used to generate SRs for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Hg 0. Overall, the modeled and measured SRs agree well and are consistent with the values obtained from field studies. As previously observed, the SRs increased linearly with increasing wind speed. In addition, it was determined that the SR was strongly dependent on the angle of the ambient wind. The SRs increased when the base was tilted up pointing into the wind and when the base was tilted down (i.e., such that the top of the sampler was facing the wind) the SR decreased initially and then increased. The results suggest that there may be significant uncertainty in concentrations obtained from passive sampler measurements without knowledge of wind speed and wind angle relative to the sampler.

  3. Studies of Ventilatory Capacity and Histamine Response during Exposure to Isocyanate Vapour in Polyurethane Foam Manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, Bryan

    1963-01-01

    Complaints of respiratory symptoms amongst workers in a factory using isocyanate to produce polyurethane foam led to a study of changes in ventilatory capacity in the course of several working days. Mean decreases of the order of 0·181. were observed in the forced expiratory volume at one second in 15 employees during each of three normal working shifts. No significant change occurred on days when a process involving the liberation of isocyanate was stopped, or when the men were given an oral aminophylline compound prophylactically. An aerosol of isoprenaline failed to reverse the decrease in ventilatory capacity observed during one normal working day. Approximately half the subjects studied were found to show increased bronchial sensitivity to a histamine aerosol; all were smokers, whereas none of the non-smokers showed a significant (over 10%) reduction in ventilatory capacity after histamine. Smokers and/or positive histamine reactors tended to show a greater decrease in ventilatory capacity during a working day than non-smokers or non-reactors. The present findings, which confirm clinical reports of adverse respiratory effects of isocyanate in low concentrations, are compared with other studies of ventilatory capacity during occupational exposure to respiratory irritants. PMID:14046157

  4. Kinetics and bioreactor studies of immobilized invertase on polyurethane rigid adhesive foam.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Pabyton G; Wiggers, Frank N; Silva, Roberto A; Lima Filho, José L; Pimentel, Maria C B

    2011-01-01

    A new support, polyurethane rigid adhesive foam (PRAF), which can be used to cover internal surface of metallic tubes, was used to immobilize invertase for application in an enzymatic bioreactor. The kinetic parameters were: Km--46.5±1.9 mM (PRAF-invertase) and 61.2±0.1 mM (free enzyme) and Vmax 42.0±4.3 U/mg protein/min (PRAF-invertase) and 445.3±24.0 U/mg protein/min (free invertase). The PRAF-invertase derivative maintained 50.1% of initial activity (69.17 U/g support) for 8 months (4°C) and was not observed microbial contamination. The bioreactor showed the best production of inverted sugar syrup using up-flow rate (0.48 L/h) with average conversion of 10.64±1.5% h(-1) at feeding rate (D) of 104 h(-1). The operational inactivation rate constant (kopi) and half-life were 1.92×10(-4) min(-1) and 60 h (continue use). The PRAF spray support looks promising as a new alternative to produce immobilized derivatives on reactor surfaces. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal, Morphological and Rheological Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams as Thermal Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Mun; Han, Mi Sun; Kim, Youn Hee; Kim, Woo Nyon

    2008-07-01

    The polyurethane foams (PUFs) were prepared by polyether polyols, polymeric 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI), silicone surfactants, amine catalysts and cyclopentane as a blowing agent. Solid and liquid type fillers were used as a nucleating agent to decrease a cell size of the PUFs as well as improve the thermal insulating properties of the PUFs. The PUFs were prepared by adding solid and liquid type fillers in the range of 1 to 3 wt%. For the liquid type fillers, the cell size of the PUFs showed minimum and found to decrease compared the PUF without adding fillers. Also, thermal conductivity of the PUFs with adding fillers showed minimum. For the solid type fillers, cell size and thermal conductivity of the PUFs were observed to decrease with the filler content up to 3 wt%. From these results, it is suggested that the thermal insulating property of the PUFs can be improved by adding fillers as a nucleating agent. Also, storage and loss modulus of the PUFs will be presented to study gelling points of the PUFs.

  6. Field calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for PCBs and OC pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Barber, Jonathan L; Gocht, Tilman; Harner, Tom; Holoubek, Ivan; Klanova, Jana; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-12-01

    Different passive air sampler (PAS) strategies have been developed for sampling in remote areas and for cost-effective simultaneous spatial mapping of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) over differing geographical scales. The polyurethane foam (PUF) disk-based PAS is probably the most widely used. In a PUF-based PAS, the PUF disk is generally mounted inside two stainless steel bowls to buffer the air flow to the disk and to shield it from precipitation and light. The field study described in this manuscript was conducted to: compare performance of 3 different designs of sampler; to further calibrate the sampler against the conventional active sampler; to derive more information on field-based uptake rates and equilibrium times of the samplers. Samplers were also deployed at different locations across the field site, and at different heights up a meteorological tower, to investigate the possible influence of sampler location. Samplers deployed <5m above ground, and not directly sheltered from the wind gave similar uptake rates. Small differences in dimensions between the 3 designs of passive sampler chamber had no discernable effect on accumulation rates, allowing comparison with previously published data.

  7. Physicochemical characterization of chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam chemically cross-linked ternary blends.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, S; Sudha, P N

    2013-03-15

    Chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam (CS/Ny6/PUF) ternary blend was prepared and chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Structural, thermal and morphological studies were performed for the prepared ternary blends. Characterizations of the ternary blends were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FTIR results showed that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds took place between CS, Ny6 and PUF. TGA and DSC studies reveal that the thermal stability of the blend is enhanced by glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Results of XRD indicated that the relative crystalline of pure CS film was reduced when the polymeric network was reticulated by glutaraldehyde. Finally, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the morphology of the blend is rough and heterogeneous, further it confirms the interaction between the functional groups of the blend components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiadhesive effect of polyurethane foam packing in the guinea pig middle ear.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheol Hee; Jang, Chul Ho

    2015-02-01

    No significant subepithelial healing differences were found between Gelfoam and polyurethane foam (PUF). However, levels of hyperplasia of the mucosal lining and inflammation were lower with PUF packing. PUF packing is not feasible as a middle ear packing material for abraded mucosa. Further studies are required before clinical application. To date, there have been few reports on the antiadhesive effect of PUF as a middle ear packing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiadhesive effect of PUF soaked with saline in an animal model of mucosal trauma. Bioresorbable PUF soaked with saline was placed over abraded mucosa in the experimental group (n = 7), and compressed Gelfoam soaked with saline was placed in the control group (n = 7). After measurement of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), the animals were sacrificed 3 weeks after packing placement for histological observation. The ABR results at postoperative week 3 showed no statistically significant difference between the preoperative and post-packing values. An adhesion pattern with subepithelial thickening was observed in the control group. Adhesion was not observed in the experimental group; however, subepithelial fibrous thickening was noted.

  9. Hemostatic action of polyurethane foam with 55% polyethylene glycol compared to collagen and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; van Oeveren, Wim; Boerendonk, Andrea; Sharma, Prashant K; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2016-08-12

    For most topical hemostatic agents the mechanism of hemostatic action is not fully understood. This work aimed to investigate the hemostatic mechanism of action and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane foam (PU) in comparison to the widely used collagen and gelatin. The hemostatic mechanism of action of the materials was tested using human whole blood and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The ability of the hemostatic agent to exert pressure on the wound was quantified in terms of its viscoelastic properties both under dry and wet conditions using a low load compression tester (LLCT). It has been shown that collagen and PU initiate hemostasis through both thrombocyte aggregation and contact activation of the coagulation cascade. Gelatin did not show improved thrombocyte aggregation or initiation of the coagulation cascade compared to the negative control group. PU is more firm under wet conditions and shows more springback than collagen and gelatin. We conclude that PU is promising as a topical hemostatic agent because it initiates both the coagulation cascade and thrombocyte aggregation. Furthermore, it has favorable viscoelastic properties compared to collagen and gelatin which leads to increased pressure on a wound.

  10. Biogas biodesulfurization in an anoxic biotrickling filter packed with open-pore polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Maikel; Ramírez, Martín; Gómez, José Manuel; Cantero, Domingo

    2014-01-15

    Biogas biodesulfurization by an anoxic biotrickling filter packed with open pore polyurethane foam at the laboratory scale (packed volume 2.4L) has been studied. The biotrickling system was operated for 620 days with biogas supplied continuously and two nitrate feeding regimes were tested (manual and programmed). Biomass immobilization was carried out under the manual nitrate feeding regime and a study was then carried out on the effects on removal efficiency of the following parameters: nitrate source, H2S inlet load, nitrate concentration, sulfate accumulation, temperature, pH and trickling liquid velocity. The effect of increased H2S inlet load was studied under the programmed nitrate feeding regime. The results show that a removal efficiency of 99% can be obtained when working under the following conditions: inlet loads below 130gSm(-3)h(-1), a programmed nitrate feeding system, temperature of 30°C, sulfate concentration below 33gL(-1), a pH between 7.3 and 7.5, and a trickling liquid velocity higher than 4.6mh(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of acid modified polyurethane foam surface for detection and removing of organochlorine pesticides from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Moawed, E A; Radwan, A M

    2017-02-15

    The commercial polyurethane foam was acid modified to get an inexpensive adsorbent (AM-PUF) has highly surface polarity and sorption capacity. The elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization of AM-PUF. The surface of AM-PUF has amorphous character (broadband at 2θ, 21.75°) and contains several active sites e.g. NH, OH, CO, CC and COC groups. The electrical conductivity (σ), iodine value and methylene blue index of AM-PUF are 1.7×10 -5 Ω -1 m -1 , 208mg/g and 107mg/g. The AM-PUF has a high efficiency for completely removing (99-100%) of Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Lindane pesticides in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The removing rates of the organochlorine pesticides from wastewater are very rapid (t 1/2 =22s). The negative value of ΔG (-10.9kJ/mol) for removing of OCPs using AM-PUF showed that the feasibility of the removing process and its spontaneous nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Petroleum oil removal by immobilized bacterial cells on polyurethane foam under different temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Alessandrello, Mauricio J; Juárez Tomás, María S; Raimondo, Enzo E; Vullo, Diana L; Ferrero, Marcela A

    2017-09-15

    In this work, a mixed biofilm composed by Pseudomonas monteilii P26 and Gordonia sp. H19 was formed using polyurethane foam (PUF) as immobilization support, for crude oil removal from artificial sea water. Fresh immobilized cells and immobilized cells that were stored at 4°C for two months before use were assessed. The oil removal assays were carried out at microcosm scale at 4, 15 and 30°C. A viability loss of P. monteilii P26 was observed after the storage. The highest removal value (75%) was obtained at 30°C after 7days using fresh immobilized cells on PUF. Enhanced oil bioremoval was obtained at 4°C and 15°C with the previously stored immobilized cells compared to the fresh immobilized cells. Crude oil sorption on the different systems was responsible for the removal of 22-33% oil at the different temperatures. In conclusion, an economic tool for petroleum bioremediation is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetically-tunable rebound property for variable elastic devices made of magnetic elastomer and polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguro, Tsubasa; Endo, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Mika; Mitsumata, Tetsu

    2017-12-01

    A device consisting of a phase of magnetic elastomer, a phase of polyurethane foam (PUF), and permanent magnet was fabricated and the stress-strain curves for the two-phase magnetic elastomer were measured by a uniaxial compression measurement. A disk of magnetic elastomer was adhered on a disk of PUF by an adhesive agent. The PUF thickness was varied from 1 mm to 5 mm while the thickness of magnetic elastomers was constant at 5 mm. The stress at a strain of 0.15 for the two-phase magnetic elastomers was evaluated in the absence and in the presence of a magnetic field of 410 mT. The stress at 0 mT decreased remarkably with the PUF thickness due to the deformation of the PUF phase. On the other hand, the stress at 410 mT slightly decreased with the thickness; however, it kept high values even at high thickness. When the PUF thickness was 5 mm, the maximum stress increment with 45 times to the off-field stress was observed. An experiment using ping-pong balls demonstrated that the coefficient of restitution for the two-phase magnetic elastomers can be dramatically altered by the magnetic field.

  14. Adsorption of the herbicides diquat and difenzoquat on polyurethane foam: Kinetic, equilibrium and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Nege, Kassem K; Lage, Mateus R; de M Carneiro, José Walkimar; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2017-11-01

    This work reports a study about the adsorption of the herbicides diquat and difenzoquat from aqueous medium employing polyurethane foam (PUF) as the adsorbent and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as the counter ion. The adsorption efficiency was shown to be dependent on the concentration of SDS in solution, since the formation of an ion-associate between cationic herbicides (diquat and difenzoquat) and anionic dodecylsulfate is a fundamental step of the process. A computational study was carried out to identify the possible structure of the ion-associates that are formed in solution. They are probably formed by three units of dodecylsulfate bound to one unit of diquat, and two units of dodecylsulfate bound to one unit of difenzoquat. The results obtained also showed that 95% of both herbicides present in 45mL of a solution containing 5.5mgL -1 could be retained by 300mg of PUF. The experimental data were well adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm (r 2 ≥ 0.95) and to the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Also, the application of Morris-Weber and Reichenberg equations indicated that an intraparticle diffusion process is active in the control of adsorption kinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Breakthrough during air sampling with polyurethane foam: What do PUF 2/PUF 1 ratios mean?

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Tysklind, Mats

    2018-02-01

    Frontal chromatography theory is applied to describe movement of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through a column of polyurethane foam (PUF). Collected mass fractions (F C ) are predicted for sample volume/breakthrough volume ratios (τ = V S /V B ) up to 6.0 and PUF bed theoretical plate numbers (N) from 2 to 16. The predictions assume constant air concentrations and temperatures. Extension of the calculations is done to relate the collection efficiency of a 2-PUF train (F C1+2 ) to the PUF 2/PUF 1 ratio. F C1+2 exceeds 0.9 for PUF 2/PUF 1 ≤ 0.5 and lengths of PUF commonly used in air samplers. As the PUF 2/PUF 1 ratio approaches unity, confidence in these predictions is limited by the analytical ability to distinguish residues on the two PUFs. Field data should not be arbitrarily discarded because some analytes broke through to the backup PUF trap. The fractional collection efficiencies can be used to estimate air concentrations from quantities retained on the PUF trap when sampling is not quantitative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chromatographic matrix based on hydrogel-coated reticulated polyurethane foams, prepared by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Mirna L.; Giménez, Claudia Y.; Delgado, Juan F.; Martínez, Leandro J.; Grasselli, Mariano

    2017-12-01

    Novel chromatographic materials for protein purification with high adsorption capacity and fouling resistance are highly demanded to improve downstream processes. Here, we describe a novel adsorptive material based on reticulated polyurethane foam (rPUF) coated with a functional hydrogel layer. rPUF provides physical rigidity through its macroscopic structure, whereas the hydrogel layer provides capacity to adsorb proteins by specific interactions. The hydrogel coating process was performed by the dip-coating method, using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution. The PVA hydrogel was linked to the rPUF material by using a radiation-induced crosslinking process in aqueous ethanol solution. The ethanol in the solvent mixture allowed a balance between PVA swelling and PVA dissolution during the irradiation step. The resulting material showed higher thermal stability than the non-irradiated one. In addition, a simultaneous radiation-induced grafting polymerization (SRIGP) was done by simple addition of glycidyl methacrylate monomer into the irradiation solution. In a further step, sulfonic ligands were included specifically in the hydrogel layer, which contained around 200% of PVA respect to the original rPUF. Materials were characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, SEM microscopy and EDX analysis. The cation-exchange rPUF material was functionally characterized by the Langmuir isotherm and a dynamic adsorption experiment to analyze the chromatographic properties for protein purification processes.

  17. Pollutant emissions during the pyrolysis and combustion of flexible polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Garrido, María A; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Thermal decomposition of flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was studied under nitrogen and air atmospheres at 550°C and 850°C using a laboratory scale reactor to analyse the evolved products. Ammonia, hydrogen cyanide and nitrile compounds were obtained in high yields in pyrolysis at the lower temperature, whereas at 850°C polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other semivolatile compounds, especially compounds containing nitrogen (benzonitrile, aniline, quinolone and indene) were the most abundant products. Different behaviour was observed in the evolution of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) at 550°C and 850°C. At 550°C, the less chlorinated congeners, mainly PCDF, were more abundant. Contrarily, at 850°C the most chlorinated PCDD were dominant. In addition, the total yields of PCDD/Fs in the pyrolysis and combustion runs at 850°C were low and quite similar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Xanthan production on polyurethane foam and its enhancement by air pressure pulsation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Chen, Hong-zhang

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on polyurethane foam (PUF) for xanthan production. The effects of air pressure pulsation (APP) on biomass accumulation and final xanthan concentration were also studied. Under suitable conditions (15% inoculum, 0.5-cm (side length) PUF cubes, 15 mL medium per gram cubes and 4.5 cm bed depth), the broth was dispersed on the PUF as a film. When the initial glucose concentration in the media was low (20 and 40 g L⁻¹), there was no significant difference between the final xanthan concentration in static SSF and submerged fermentation (SMF). When high initial glucose concentrations (60 and 80 g L⁻¹) were used, the final gum concentrations in SSF were much higher than those in SMF. When the APP technique was applied in xanthan production with a medium containing a high glucose concentration (80 g L⁻¹), the oxygen consumption rate of Xanthomonas campestris was significantly enhanced at the later stages of fermentation, and both the biomass and xanthan concentration were improved. The results indicated that SSF on PUF is suitable for xanthan preparation, especially when the initial glucose concentration ranged from 60 to 80 g L⁻¹. Those results also demonstrated that APP technology can be used to enhance xanthan yields.

  19. Exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in spray polyurethane foam applicators: Role of dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Bello, Anila; Carignan, Courtney C; Xue, Yalong; Stapleton, Heather M; Bello, Dhimiter

    2018-04-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) is a highly effective thermal insulation material that has seen considerable market growth in the past decade. Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are added to SPF formulations to meet fire code requirements. A common flame retardant used in SPF formulations is tris 1-chloro 2-propyl phosphate (TCIPP), a suspected endocrine disruptor. Exposure monitoring efforts during SPF applications have focused primarily on the isocyanate component, a potent respiratory and dermal sensitizer. However, to our knowledge, there is no monitoring data for TCIPP. To characterize occupational exposures to TCIPP and other flame retardants during SPF insulation. Workers at four SPF insulation sites and one foam removal site (total n = 14) were recruited as part of this pilot study. Personal inhalation exposure to TCIPP was monitored with a CIP-10MI inhalable sampler and potential dermal exposure was assessed through the use of a glove dosimeter. Biomarkers of TCIPP and three other PFRs were measured in urine collected from workers pre-and post-shift. Linear mixed effect models were used to analyze associations of urinary biomarkers with inhalation and dermal exposures and paired t-tests were used to examine the difference on the means of urinary biomarkers pre-and post-shift. Chemical analysis of all species was performed with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of TCIPP in personal air monitors and glove dosimeters collected from SPF applicators, 294.7 μg/m 3 and 18.8 mg/pair respectively. Overall, GM concentrations of the two TCIPP urinary biomarkers BCIPP and BCIPHIPP and (6.2 and 88.8 μg/mL) were 26-35 times higher than reported in the general population. Post-shift levels of TCIPP biomarkers were higher than pre-shift even though workers at insulation sites wore supplied air respirators, gloves and coveralls. The urinary biomarkers for the other PFRs were not

  20. Low-density microcellular foam and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Low-density microcellular foam having a cell size of not greater than 2 .mu.m and method of making by dissolving cellulose acetate in an acetone-based solvent, gelling the solution in a water bath maintained at 0.degree.-10.degree. C for a selected period of time to allow impurities to diffuse out, freezing the gel, and then freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into low-density microcellular foam. The foam has a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3 and cell size of about 0.3 to 2 .mu.m. The small cell size foam is particularly applicable for encapsulation of laser targets.

  1. Method of making a cellulose acetate low density microcellular foam

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Low-density microcellular foam having a cell size of not greater than 2 .mu.m and method of making by dissolving cellulose acetate in an acetone-based solvent, gelling the solution in a water bath maintained at 0-10.degree. C for a selected period of time to allow impurities to diffuse out, freezing the gel, and then freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into low-density microcellular foam. The foam has a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3 and cell size of about 0.3 to 2 .mu.m. The small cell size foam is particularly adaptable for encapsulation of laser targets.

  2. Pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft bone plugs: a comparison of cadaver tibia and rigid polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan

    2013-09-01

    To compare the load-to-failure pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allografts in human cadaver tibias and rigid polyurethane foam blocks. Twenty BPTB allografts were trimmed creating 25 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm tibial plugs. Ten-millimeter tunnels were drilled in 10 human cadaver tibias and 10 rigid polyurethane foam blocks. The BPTB anterior cruciate ligament allografts were inserted into these tunnels and secured with metal interference screws, with placement of 10 of each type in each material. After preloading (10 N), cyclic loading (500 cycles, 10 to 150 N at 200 mm/min) and load-to-failure testing (200 mm/min) were performed. The endpoints were ultimate failure load, cyclic loading elongation, and failure mode. No difference in ultimate failure load existed between grafts inserted into rigid polyurethane foam blocks (705 N) and those in cadaver tibias (669 N) (P = .69). The mean rigid polyurethane foam block elongation (0.211 mm) was less than that in tibial bone (0.470 mm) (P = .038), with a smaller standard deviation (0.07 mm for foam) than tibial bone (0.34 mm). All BPTB grafts successfully completed 500 cycles. The rigid polyurethane foam block showed less variation in test results than human cadaver tibias. Rigid polyurethane foam blocks provide an acceptable substitute for human cadaver bone tibia for biomechanical testing of BPTB allografts and offer near-equivalent results. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A life-cycle comparison of several auxiliary blowing agents used for the manufacture of rigid polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Katz, Seton; Lindner, Angela S

    2003-04-01

    In a commitment to zero ozone depletion, the United Nations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have called for the phase-out of the manufacture and import of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), used as auxiliary blowing agents (ABAs) in the manufacture of polyurethane foams. As a result, more environmentally benign alternative ABAs are being sought by the foam-blowing industry. This study examined the life cycle of HCFC-22, hydrofluorocarbon-134a (HFC-134a), and cyclopentane, which are currently used or considered as potential alternative ABAs in the manufacture of rigid polyurethane foams that serve as insulation in a model North American refrigerator. The raw material extraction/refining, manufacturing, use, and disposal stages of the life cycle of each ABA were considered, and their resulting relative impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were compared. The manufacturing, use, and disposal stages were determined to affect ozone depletion and global warming to the largest extent, emphasizing the need for a greater focus on pollution prevention opportunities in these stages. The HFC-134a life cycle yields no impact on ozone depletion and a significantly decreased global warming impact compared with its predecessor, HCFC-22, and a tradeoff of slightly higher global warming impact and fewer added safety concerns compared with its more flammable counterpart, cyclopentane.

  4. Impact of the irregular microgeometry of polyurethane foam on the macroscopic acoustic behavior predicted by a unit-cell model.

    PubMed

    Doutres, O; Ouisse, M; Atalla, N; Ichchou, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the macroscopic sound absorption behavior of highly porous polyurethane foams using two unit-cell microstructure-based models recently developed by Doutres, Atalla, and Dong [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064901 (2011); J. Appl. Phys. 113, 054901 (2013)]. In these models, the porous material is idealized as a packing of a tetrakaidecahedra unit-cell representative of the disordered network that constitutes the porous frame. The non-acoustic parameters involved in the classical Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (i.e., porosity, airflow resistivity, tortuosity, etc.) are derived from characteristic properties of the unit-cell and semi-empirical relationships. A global sensitivity analysis is performed on these two models in order to investigate how the variability associated with the measured unit-cell characteristics affects the models outputs. This allows identification of the possible limitations of a unit-cell micro-macro approach due to microstructure irregularity. The sensitivity analysis mainly shows that for moderately and highly reticulated polyurethane foams, the strut length parameter is the key parameter since it greatly impacts three important non-acoustic parameters and causes large uncertainty on the sound absorption coefficient even if its measurement variability is moderate. For foams with a slight inhomogeneity and anisotropy, a micro-macro model associated to cell size measurements should be preferred.

  5. Value-added conversion of waste cooking oil and post-consumer PET bottles into biodiesel and polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yu; Luo, Xiaolan; Wang, Feng; Li, Yebo

    2016-06-01

    A sustainable process of value-added utilization of wastes including waste cooking oil (WCO) and post-consumer PET bottles for the production of biodiesel and polyurethane (PU) foams was developed. WCO collected from campus cafeteria was firstly converted into biodiesel, which can be used as vehicle fuel. Then crude glycerol (CG), a byproduct of the above biodiesel process, was incorporated into the glycolysis process of post-consumer PET bottles collected from campus to produce polyols. Thirdly, PU foams were synthesized through the reaction of the above produced polyols with isocyanate in the presence of catalysts and other additives. The characterization of the produced biodiesel demonstrated that its properties meet the specification of biodiesel standard. The effect of crude glycerol loading on the properties of polyols and PU foams were investigated. All the polyols showed satisfactory properties for the production of rigid PU foams which had performance comparable to those of some petroleum-based analogs. A mass balance and a cost analysis for the conversion of WCO and waste PET into biodiesel and PU foams were also discussed. This study demonstrated the potential of WCO and PET waste for the production of value-added products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of different methods for immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB lipase) in polyurethane foam and its application in the production of geranyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Gabrieli; Cipolatti, Eliane P; Valério, Alexsandra; Carbonera, NatáliaThaisa Gamba; Soares, Nicole Spillere; Theilacker, Eron; Ninow, Jorge L; de Oliveira, Débora

    2015-09-01

    With the aim of studying the best method for the interaction of polyurethane (PU) foam and Candida antarctica lipase B, different methods of CalB immobilization were studied: adsorption (PU-ADS), bond (using polyethyleneimine) (PU-PEI), ionic adsorption by PEI with cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (PU-PEI-GA) and entrapment (PU). The characterization of immobilized enzyme derivatives was performed by apparent density and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The free enzyme and enzyme preparations were evaluated at different pH values and temperatures. The highest enzyme activity was obtained using the PU method (5.52 U/g). The methods that stood out to compare the stabilities and kinetic parameters were the PU and PU-ADS. Conversions of 83.5 and 95.9 % for PU and PU-ADS derivatives were obtained, in 24 h reaction, using citronella oil and propionic acid as substrates.

  7. Observations on persistent organic pollutants in indoor and outdoor air using passive polyurethane foam samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Pernilla; Jones, Kevin C.; Tovalin, Horacio; Strandberg, Bo

    Air quality data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) indoors and outdoors are sparse or lacking in several parts of the world, often hampered by the cost and inconvenience of active sampling techniques. Cheap and easy passive air sampling techniques are therefore helpful for reconnaissance surveys. As a part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) project in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in 2006, a range of POPs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) were analyzed in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks used as passive samplers in indoor and outdoor air. Results were compared to those from samplers deployed simultaneously in Gothenburg (Sweden) and Lancaster (United Kingdom). Using sampling rates suggested in the literature, the sums of 13 PAHs in the different sites were estimated to be 6.1-180 ng m -3, with phenanthrene as the predominant compound. Indoor PAH levels tended to be higher in Gothenburg and outdoor levels higher in Mexico City. The sum of PCBs ranged 59-2100 ng m -3, and seemed to be highest indoors in Gothenburg and Lancaster. PBDE levels (sum of seven) ranged 0.68-620 ng m -3, with the highest levels found in some indoor locations. OCPs (i.e. DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes) were widely dispersed both outdoors and indoors at all three studied areas. In Gothenburg all POPs tended to be higher indoors than outdoors, while indoor and outdoor levels in Mexico City were similar. This could be due to the influence of indoor and outdoor sources, air exchange rates, and lifestyle factors. The study demonstrates how passive samplers can provide quick and cheap reconnaissance data simultaneously at many locations which can shed light on sources and other factors influencing POP levels in air, especially for the gaseous fractions.

  8. Evaluation of polyurethane foam passive air sampler (PUF) as a tool for occupational PAH measurements.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Bo; Julander, Anneli; Sjöström, Mattias; Lewné, Marie; Koca Akdeva, Hatice; Bigert, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Routine monitoring of workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed mainly via active sampling. However, active samplers have several drawbacks and, in some cases, may even be unusable. Polyurethane foam (PUF) as personal passive air samplers constitute good alternatives for PAH monitoring in occupational air (8 h). However, PUFs must be further tested to reliably yield detectable levels of PAHs in short exposure times (1-3 h) and under extreme occupational conditions. Therefore, we compared the personal exposure monitoring performance of a passive PUF sampler with that of an active air sampler and determined the corresponding uptake rates (Rs). These rates were then used to estimate the occupational exposure of firefighters and police forensic specialists to 32 PAHs. The work environments studied were heavily contaminated by PAHs with (for example) benzo(a)pyrene ranging from 0.2 to 56 ng m -3 , as measured via active sampling. We show that, even after short exposure times, PUF can reliably accumulate both gaseous and particle-bound PAHs. The Rs-values are almost independent of variables such as the concentration and the wind speed. Therefore, by using the Rs-values (2.0-20 m 3 day -1 ), the air concentrations can be estimated within a factor of two for gaseous PAHs and a factor of 10 for particulate PAHs. With very short sampling times (1 h), our method can serve as a (i) simple and user-friendly semi-quantitative screening tool for estimating and tracking point sources of PAH in micro-environments and (ii) complement to the traditional active pumping methods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of 2-butoxyethanol gaseous emissions by biotrickling filtration packed with polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M C; Álvarez-Hornos, F J; Engesser, K H; Dobslaw, D; Gabaldón, C

    2016-03-25

    The removal of 2-butoxyethanol from gaseous emissions was studied using two biotrickling filters (BTF1 and BTF2) packed with polyurethane foam. Two different inoculum sources were used: a pure culture of Pseudomonas sp. BOE200 (BTF1) and activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (BTF2). The bioreactors were operated at inlet loads (ILs) of 130 and 195 g m(-3) hour(-1) and at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 12.5s. Under an IL of ∼130 g m(-3) hour(-1), BTF1 presented higher elimination capacities (ECs) than BTF2, with average values of 106±7 and 68±8 g m(-3) hour(-1), respectively. However, differences in ECs between BTFs were decreased by reducing the irrigation intervals from 1 min every 12 min to 1 min every 2 hours in BTF2. Average values of EC were 111±25 and 90±7 g m(-3) hour(-1) for BTF1 and BTF2, respectively, when working at an IL of ∼195 g m(-3) hour(-1). Microbial analysis revealed a significant shift in the microbial community of BTF1 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. BOE200. At the end of the experiment, the species Microbacterium sp., Chryseobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp. were detected. In BTF2 inoculated with activated sludge, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique showed a diverse microbial community including species that was able to use 2-butoxyethanol as its carbon source, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida as representative species. Although BTF1 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. BOE200 and higher gas velocity (probably greater gas/liquid mass transfer rate) showed a slight improvement in performance, the use of activated sludge as inoculum seems to be a more feasible option for the industrial application of this technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulated Tip Rub Testing of Low-Density Metal Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jones, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary acoustic studies have indicated that low-density, open-cell, metal foams may be suitable acoustic liner material for noise suppression in high by-pass engines. Metal foam response under simulated tip rub conditions was studied to assess whether its durability would be sufficient for the foam to serve both as a rub strip above the rotor as well as an acoustic treatment. Samples represented four metal alloys, nominal cell dimensions ranging from 60 to 120 cells per inch (cpi), and relative densities ranging from 3.4 to 10 percent. The resulting rubbed surfaces were relatively smooth and the open cell structure of the foam was not adversely affected. Sample relative density appeared to have significant influence on the forces induced by the rub event. Acoustic responses of various surface preparations were measured using a normal incidence tube. The results of this study indicate that the foam s open-cell structure was retained after rubbing and that the acoustic absorption spectra variation was minimal.

  11. Use of polyurethane foam inside plaster casts to prevent the onset of heel sores in the population at risk. A controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; Loro, Loretta; Tremosini, Morena; Mini, Sandra; Pignotti, Elettra; Bigoni, Ombretta; Guzzo, Giuseppe; Bellini, Laura; Trofa, Carmela; Di Cataldo, Anna M; Guzzi, Marilena

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of polyurethane foam in contact with the heel inside a plaster cast to decrease the rate of pressure sores in the population at most risk. The rate of pressure sores caused by the plaster cast is reported to be 14-15% in the paediatric population, 33.3% in patients having undergone chemotherapy for bone tumours and 43% in orthopaedic patients who already have sore skin when the cast is applied (grade 1 lesion) to the heel. Controlled clinical trial. From November 2007-January 2009, all consecutive subjects requiring lower limb casts having undergone chemotherapy and/or presenting heel soreness received polyurethane foam in contact with the skin of the heel before applying the cast. The results were compared with those of patients with the same risk factors but were not administered the foam and were enrolled from May 2005-August 2006. In total, 156 patients were enrolled, 85 in the control group and 71 in the experimental group. In the experimental group, 2 of the 56 patients (3.6%) with sore skin developed a pressure sore compared with 21 of 49 (42.9%) in the control group without polyurethane foam (p < 0.0005). In the experimental group, one of the 24 patients (4.2%) patients undergoing chemotherapy developed a pressure sore compared with 18 of 54 (33.3%) in the control group (p = 0.005). Placing polyurethane foam in contact with the skin of the heel inside a plaster cast prevents the formation of pressure sores. This study provides evidence that using polyurethane foam to prevent sores even inside plaster casts in populations at most risk is a simple and cost-effective strategy and decreases the discomfort, pain and risks in these patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The effects of neutralized particles on the sampling efficiency of polyurethane foam used to estimate the extrathoracic deposition fraction.

    PubMed

    Tomyn, Ronald L; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-01-01

    In addition to chemical composition, the site of deposition of inhaled particles is important for determining the potential health effects from an exposure. As a result, the International Organization for Standardization adopted a particle deposition sampling convention. This includes extrathoracic particle deposition sampling conventions for the anterior nasal passages (ET1) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2). This study assessed how well a polyurethane foam insert placed in an Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler can match an extrathoracic deposition sampling convention, while accounting for possible static buildup in the test particles. In this way, the study aimed to assess whether neutralized particles affected the performance of this sampler for estimating extrathoracic particle deposition. A total of three different particle sizes (4.9, 9.5, and 12.8 µm) were used. For each trial, one particle size was introduced into a low-speed wind tunnel with a wind speed set a 0.2 m/s (∼40 ft/min). This wind speed was chosen to closely match the conditions of most indoor working environments. Each particle size was tested twice either neutralized, using a high voltage neutralizer, or left in its normal (non neutralized) state as standard particles. IOM samplers were fitted with a polyurethane foam insert and placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel. Foam sampling efficiencies were calculated for all trials to compare against the normalized ET1 sampling deposition convention. The foam sampling efficiencies matched well to the ET1 deposition convention for the larger particle sizes, but had a general trend of underestimating for all three particle sizes. The results of a Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test also showed that only at 4.9 µm was there a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.03) between the foam sampling efficiency using the standard particles and the neutralized particles. This is interpreted to mean that static

  13. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.

    1996-01-01

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm.sup.3 and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  14. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1996-03-19

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam are disclosed. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm{sup 3} and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  15. Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Pope, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe cause specific mortality and site specific cancer morbidity among workers employed in factories that produce polyurethane foams, and to determine if any part of the experience may be due to occupation, and in particular to exposure to diisocyanates. DESIGN--Historical prospective cohort study. SETTING--11 factories in England and Wales. SUBJECTS--8288 male and female production employees with some employment in the period 1958-79, and with a minimum period of employment of six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Observed and expected numbers of deaths for the period 1958-88, and corresponding figures for cancer registrations for the period 1971-86. RESULTS--Compared with the general population of England and Wales, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes and all neoplasms were 97 (observed deaths (Obs) 816) and 88 (Obs 221) respectively. Statistically significant excesses were found among women for cancer of the pancreas (expected deaths (Exp) 2.2, Obs 6, SMR 271, 95% CI 100-595) and cancer of the lung (Exp 9.1, Obs 16, SMR 176, 95% CI 100-285). Similar excesses were not found among male employees, and the SMRs for cancers of the lung and pancreas among the total study population were 100 (Obs 81) and 136 (Obs 14) respectively. Overall incidence of cancer was also below expectation (SRR 94, Obs 277), although statistically significant excesses among women were found for cancers of the larynx and kidney, based on three and four cases respectively. Incident cancers of the lung and pancreas among women were also in excess, although these findings were not independent of the findings for mortality. Poison regression did not indicate that ever having been employed in jobs attracting either higher or lower exposure to isocyanates was a risk factor for the mentioned cancers. A nested case-control design was used to investigate any associations with nine other occupational exposures. No statistically significant association was found

  16. An indoor air quality evaluation in a residential retrofit project using spray polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shen; Ecoff, Scott; Sebroski, John; Miller, Jason; Rickenbacker, Harold; Bilec, Melissa

    2018-05-01

    Understanding of indoor air quality (IAQ) during and after spray polyurethane foam (SPF) application is essential to protect the health of both workers and building occupants. Previous efforts such as field monitoring, micro-chamber/spray booth emission studies, and fate/transport modeling have been conducted to understand the chemical exposure of SPF and guide risk mitigation strategies. However, each type of research has its limitation and can only reveal partial information on the relationship between SPF and IAQ. A comprehensive study is truly needed to integrate the experimental design and analytical testing methods in the field/chamber studies with the mathematical tools employed in the modeling studies. This study aims to bridge this gap and provide a more comprehensive understanding on the impact of SPF to IAQ. The field sampling plan of this research aims to evaluate the airborne concentrations of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, tris(1-chlor-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP), trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (Solstice TM ), and airborne particles. Modifications to existing MDI sampling and analytical methods were made so that level of quantification was improved. In addition, key fate and transport modeling input parameters such as air changes per hour and airborne particle size distribution were measured. More importantly, TCPP accumulation onto materials was evaluated, which is important to study the fate and transport of semi-volatile organic compounds. The IAQ results showed that after spray application was completed in the entire building, airborne concentrations decreased for all chemicals monitored. However, it is our recommendation that during SPF application, no one should return to the application site without proper personal protection equipment as long as there are active spray activities in the building. The comparison between this field study and a recent chamber study proved surface sorption

  17. Field estimates of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Nygren, Olle; Tysklind, Mats

    2016-09-01

    Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of mitigating transverse joint faulting on portland cement concrete pavement with polyurethane foam on LA 1 Bypass, state project number 034-30-0023.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-02-01

    A case study was conducted by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) to assess the effectiveness of reducing faulting on jointed concrete : pavement (JCP) with polyurethane foam (PF) on LA 1 Bypass, S.P. 034-30-0023. The PF fault correct...

  19. Checklist of Safe Work Practices for Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) for Contractors, Incluyendo la Versión de Español

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A contractor checklist aimed at helping spray polyurethane foam (SPF) professional contractors protect themselves, workers and others. Guía de las prácticas seguras en el lugar de trabajo para la aplicación del aerosol de espuma aislante de poliuretano.

  20. Preparation, testing, and delivery of low density polyimide foam panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, G. L., III; Post, L. K.; Salyer, I. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plastic foams based on polyimide resins were shown to be stable at relatively high temperatures, and to possess very low flame spread and smoke generation characteristics. A system and process were developed to prepare low-density polyimide foam from a liquid formulation. The system is based on the reaction of micropulverized grade pyromellitic dianhydride with a polymeric diisocyanate. The panels produced were postcured at elevated temperatures to achieve maximum thermal and fire resistance, and incorporation of a fire retardant into the formulation was considered. The effects of a flame retardant (Flameout 5600B1) were investigated, but eliminated in preference to the postcuring approach.

  1. Quantification of isocyanates and amines in polyurethane foams and coated products by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Yamaguchi, Miku; Kawamura, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method for the identification and quantification of 10 different isocyanates and 11 different amines in polyurethane (PUR) foam and PUR-coated products was developed and optimized. Isocyanates were extracted and derivatized with di-n-butylamine, while amines were extracted with methanol. Quantification was subsequently performed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Using this methodology, residual levels of isocyanates and amines in commercial PUR products were quantified. Although the recoveries of certain isocyanates and amines were low, the main compounds used as monomers in the production of PUR products, and their decomposition species, were clearly identified at quantifiable levels. 2,4-and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate were detected in most PUR foam samples and a pastry bag in the range of 0.02–0.92 mg/kg, with their decomposition compounds, 2,4-and 2,6-toluenediamine, detected in all PUR foam samples in the range of 9.5–59 mg/kg. PUR-coated gloves are manufactured using 4,4′-methylenebisphenyl diisocyanate as the main raw material, and a large amount of this compound, in addition to 4,4′-methylenedianiline and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4′-diamine were found in these samples. PMID:24804074

  2. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    PubMed

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-07

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  3. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Balthaser, Susan A.; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R.

    2016-01-01

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device. PMID:26959046

  4. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Pooja

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a rapidly emerging class of smart materials that can be stored in a deformed temporary shape, and can actively return to their original shape upon application of an external stimulus such as heat, pH or light. This behavior is particularly advantageous for minimally invasive biomedical applications comprising embolic/regenerative scaffolds, as it enables a transcatheter delivery of the device to the target site. The focus of this work was to exploit this shape memory behavior of polyurethanes, and develop an efficient embolic SMP foam device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.In summary, this work reports amore » novel family of ultra low density polymer foams which can be delivered via a minimally invasive surgery to the aneurysm site, actuated in a controlled manner to efficiently embolize the aneurysm while promoting physiological fluid/blood flow through the reticulated/open porous structure, and eventually biodegrade leading to complete healing of the vasculature.« less

  5. Effects of oxygen and water content on microbial distribution in the polyurethane foam cubes of a biofilter for SO2 removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingying; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin; Wang, Yanjie

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a biofilter for off-gas treatment relies on the activity of microorganisms and adequate O 2 and H 2 O. In present study, a microelectrode was applied to analyze O 2 in polyurethane foam cubes (PUFCs) packed in a biofilter for SO 2 removal. The O 2 distribution varied with the density and water-containing rate (WCR) of PUFCs. The O 2 concentration dropped sharply from 10.2 to 0.8mg/L from the surface to the center of a PUFC with 97.20% of WCR. The PUFCs with high WCR presented aerobic-anoxic-aerobic areas. Three-dimensional simulated images demonstrated that the structure of PUFCs with high WCR consisted of an aerobic "shell" and an anoxic "core", with high-density PUFCs featuring a larger anoxic area than low-density PUFCs. Moreover, the H 2 O distribution in the PUFC was uneven and affected the O 2 concentration. Whereas aerobic bacteria were observed in the PUFC surface, facultative anaerobic microorganisms were found at the PUFC core, where the O 2 concentration was relatively low. O 2 and H 2 O distributions differed in the PUFCs, and the distribution of microorganisms varied accordingly. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Study of nonuniformity of mechanical properties of rigid polyurethane foam in blocks obtained by free foaming. 1. Blocks with cylindrical form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhmud, N. P.; Solodovnik, P. I.; Yakushin, V. Ya.

    1983-05-01

    In PUF blocks with vertical walls and circular cross section (H/D=0.4-8) obtained by free foaming, a regular change in the mechanical properties in the bulk of the material is observed, which is not related to a change in density,

  7. Development of high-performance biodegradable rigid polyurethane foams using all bioresource-based polyols: Lignin and soy oil-derived polyols.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaogang; Xiao, Yuqin; Wu, Qiangxian; Zeng, Jian

    2018-04-25

    Development of biodegradable polyurethane materials is the most promising in the wider context of the "greening" of industrial chemistry. To tackle this challenge, a novel biodegradable polyurethane foam from all bioresource-based polyols (lignin and soy oil-derived polyols) and polymeric methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) have been synthesized via a one-pot and self-rising process. All these foam samples have the internal cellular morphology and microstructure. FTIR result exhibits characteristic peaks of polyurethane, and indicates covalent bonds between soy-based polyurethane and lignin, and the lignin powders can react with pMDI via active -H and -CNO. In addition, hydrogen bonding also plays an important role in forming the 3D structures. These interactions and chemical bonds made the prepared foam samples form the 3D macromolecular structure with improved mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable properties. The reaction process is time-saving and cost-effective as it requires no blowing agent and minimum processing steps, while exploring the potential of using the higher content of nature bioresource constituents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyurethane Foam Wound Dressing Technique for Areola Skin Graft Stabilization and Nipple Protection After Nipple-Areola Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Satake, Toshihiko; Muto, Mayu; Nagashima, Yu; Haga, Shoko; Homma, Yuki; Nakasone, Reiko; Kadokura, Marina; Kou, Seiko; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2018-04-01

    We describe a new wound management technique using a soft dressing material to stabilize the areola skin graft and protect the nipple after nipple-areola reconstruction at the final stage of breast reconstruction. We introduced a center-fenestrated multilayered hydrocellular polyurethane foam dressing material that provides adequate pressure and retains a moist environment for a smooth skin graft "take." Moreover, the reconstructed nipple can be monitored at any time through the fenestrated window for adequate blood circulation. Altogether, this simple and inexpensive wound dressing technique improves the clinical outcome. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Mortality Among Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate in the US Polyurethane Foam Industry: Update and Exposure-Response Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Lynne E.; Yiin, James H.; Daniels, Robert D.; Fent, Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mortality among 4,545 toluene diisocyante (TDI)-exposed workers was updated through 2011. The primary outcome of interest was lung cancer. Methods Life table analyses, including internal analyses by exposure duration and cumulative TDI exposure, were conducted. Results Compared with the US population, all cause and all cancer mortality was increased. Lung cancer mortality was increased but was not associated with exposure duration or cumulative TDI exposure. In post hoc analyses, lung cancer mortality was associated with employment duration in finishing jobs, but not in finishing jobs involving cutting polyurethane foam. Conclusions Dermal exposure, in contrast to inhalational exposure, to TDI is expected to be greater in finishing jobs and may play a role in the observed increase in lung cancer mortality. Limitations include the lack of smoking data, uncertainty in the exposure estimates, and exposure estimates that reflected inhalational exposure only. PMID:27346061

  10. Influence of azo dye concentration on activated sludge bacterial community in the presence of functionalized polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Wang, Jing; Lu, Shuilong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Quan, Zhexue

    2015-03-01

    Immobilized quinones exhibit good catalytic performance in the biodecolorization of azo dyes. However, in practical activated sludge systems, little is known about the effect of azo dye concentration on microbial communities in the presence of immobilized quinones. 454 Pyrosequencing was used to investigate structural changes and to determine the key microorganisms involved in Reactive Red X-3B decolorization in the presence of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate immobilized on polyurethane foam (AQS-PUF). Our results show that the AQS-PUF-supplemented system exhibited better stability and decolorization performance during a 30-day run than polyurethane-foam-only (PUF-supplemented) and control systems. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that the AQS-PUF-supplemented system had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by the control and PUF-supplemented systems during decolorization. Reactive Red X-3B and AQS-PUF significantly influenced bacterial communities at the class level: Erysipelotrichia and the most dominant Deltaproteobacteria showed significant positive correlations with Reactive Red X-3B, while unclassified Firmicutes were found to be significantly correlated with AQS-PUF. At the genus level, Desulfomicrobium, which represents 8-44 % of the total population, displayed a significant positive correlation with Reactive Red X-3B. Some bacteria, including Desulfovibrio, Shewanella, and Clostridium with relative abundances of less than 6 %, were positively correlated with AQS-PUF. These findings provide a novel insight into the changes that occur in the bacterial community during immobilized AQS-mediated decolorization. Less abundant quinone-reducing bacteria play important roles in accelerating the effect of AQS-PUF on biodecolorization.

  11. Characterization of polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent impregnated PUF (SIP) disk passive air samplers for measuring organophosphate flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Atousa; Eng, Anita; Jantunen, Liisa M; Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Parnis, J Mark; Harner, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the uptake of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers (PAS). Atmospheric OPE concentrations were monitored with high-volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) that were co-deployed with passive air samplers. Samples were analyzed for tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tri(phenyl) phosphate (TPhP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The mean concentration of ∑OPEs in air was 2650 pg/m 3 for the HV-AAS. Sampling rates and the passive sampler medium (PSM)-air partition coefficient (K PSM-Air ) were calculated for individual OPEs. The average calculated sampling rates (R) for the four OPEs were 3.6 ± 1.2 and 4.2 ± 2.0 m 3 /day for the PUF and SIP disks, respectively, and within the range of the recommended default value of 4 ± 2 m 3 /day. Since most of the OPEs remained in the linear uptake phase during the study, COSMO-RS solvation theory and an oligomer-based model were used to estimate K PUF-Air for the OPEs. The estimated values of log K PUF-Air were 7.45 (TCIPP), 9.35 (TPhP), 8.44 (TCEP), and 9.67 (TDCIPP). Finally, four configurations of the PUF and SIP disks were tested by adjusting the distance of the gap opening between the upper and lower domes of the sampler housing: i.e. 2 cm, 1 cm, no gap and 1 cm overlap. The sampling rate did not differ significantly between these four configurations (p < 0.05). Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the potential of polyurethane-based soft foam as cell-free scaffold for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gerges, Irini; Tamplenizza, Margherita; Martello, Federico; Recordati, Camilla; Martelli, Cristina; Ottobrini, Luisa; Tamplenizza, Mariacaterina; Guelcher, Scott A; Tocchio, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Reconstructive treatment after trauma and tumor resection would greatly benefit from an effective soft tissue regeneration. The use of cell-free scaffolds for adipose tissue regeneration in vivo is emerging as an attractive alternative to tissue-engineered constructs, since this approach avoids complications due to cell manipulation and lack of synchronous vascularization. In this study, we developed a biodegradable polyurethane-based scaffold for soft tissue regeneration, characterized by an exceptional combination between softness and resilience. Exploring the potential as a cell-free scaffold required profound understanding of the impact of its intrinsic physico-chemical properties on the biological performance in vivo. We investigated the effect of the scaffold's hydrophilic character, degradation kinetics, and internal morphology on (i) the local inflammatory response and activation of MGCs (foreign body response); (ii) its ability to promote rapid vascularisation, cell infiltration and migration through the scaffold over time; and (iii) the grade of maturation of the newly formed tissue into vascularized soft tissue in a murine model. The study revealed that soft tissue regeneration in vivo proceeded by gradual infiltration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells though the periphery toward the center of the scaffold, where the rapid formation of a functional and well-formed vascular network supported cell viability overtime. Exploring the potential of polyurethane-based soft foam as cell-free scaffold for soft tissue regeneration. In this work, we address the unmet need for synthetic functional soft tissue substitutes that provide adequate biological and mechanical support to soft tissue. We developed a series of flexible cross-linked polyurethane copolymer scaffolds with remarkable fatigue-resistance and tunable physico-chemical properties for soft tissue regeneration in vivo. Accordingly, we could extend the potential of this class of biomaterials, which was

  13. Utilization of microbial oil obtained from crude glycerol for the production of polyol and its subsequent conversion to polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Uprety, Bijaya K; Reddy, Jayanth Venkatarama; Dalli, Sai Swaroop; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2017-07-01

    We have demonstrated possible use of microbial oil in biopolymer industries. Microbial oil was produced from biodiesel based crude glycerol and subsequently converted into polyol. Fermentation of crude glycerol in a batch bioreactor using Rhodosporidium toruloides ATCC 10788 produced 18.69g/L of lipid at the end of 7days. The microbial oil was then chemically converted to polyol and characterized using FT-IR and 1 H NMR. For comparison, canola oil and palm oil were also converted into their respective polyols. The hydroxyl numbers of polyols from canola, palm and microbial oil were found to be 266.86, 222.32 and 230.30 (mgKOH/g of sample) respectively. All the polyols were further converted into rigid and semi-rigid polyurethanes (maintaining the molar -NCO/-OH ratio of 1.1) to examine their suitability in polymer applications. Conversion of microbial lipid to polyurethane foam also provides a new route for the production of polymers using biodiesel based crude glycerol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid for biodiesel production from attached growth Chlorella vulgaris biomass cultivating in fluidized bed bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam material.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Sahib, Ainur-Assyakirin; Lim, Jun-Wei; Lam, Man-Kee; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ho, Chii-Dong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Wong, Chung-Yiin; Rosli, Siti-Suhailah

    2017-09-01

    The potential to grow attached microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in fluidized bed bioreactor was materialized in this study, targeting to ease the harvesting process prior to biodiesel production. The proposed thermodynamic mechanism and physical property assessment of various support materials verified polyurethane to be suitable material favouring the spontaneous adhesion by microalgae cells. The 1-L bioreactor packed with only 2.4% (v/v) of 1.00-mL polyurethane foam cubes could achieve the highest attached growth microalgae biomass and lipid weights of 812±122 and 376±37mg, respectively, in comparison with other cube sizes. The maturity of attached growth microalgae biomass for harvesting could also be determined from the growth trend of suspended microalgae biomass. Analysis of FAME composition revealed that the harvested microalgae biomass was dominated by C16-C18 (>60%) and mixture of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (>65%), satiating the biodiesel standard with adequate cold flow property and oxidative stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of heat transfer, thermal decomposition, and container pressurization of polyurethane foam using mean value and Latin hypercube sampling approaches

    DOE PAGES

    Scott, Sarah N.; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; ...

    2014-12-09

    In this study, polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container in order to protect them from hostile environments or from accidents such as fire. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI)-polyether-polyol based polyurethane foam is presented and compared to experimental results to assess the validity of a 3-D finite element model of themore » heat transfer and degradation processes. In this series of experiments, 320 kg/m 3 PMDI foam in a 0.2 L sealed steel container is heated to 1,073 K at a rate of 150 K/min. The experiment ends when the can breaches due to the buildup of pressure. The temperature at key location is monitored as well as the internal pressure of the can. Both experimental uncertainty and computational uncertainty are examined and compared. The mean value method (MV) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. The results of the both the MV method and the LHS approach show that while the model generally can predict the temperature at given locations in the system, it is less successful at predicting the pressure response. Also, these two approaches for propagating uncertainty agree with each other, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation results is also investigated, showing that for the temperature response the conductivity of the steel container and the effective conductivity of the foam, are the most important parameters. For the pressure response, the activation energy, effective conductivity, and specific heat are most important. The comparison to experiments and the identification of the drivers of uncertainty allow

  16. Validation of heat transfer, thermal decomposition, and container pressurization of polyurethane foam using mean value and Latin hypercube sampling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Sarah N.; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.

    In this study, polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container in order to protect them from hostile environments or from accidents such as fire. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI)-polyether-polyol based polyurethane foam is presented and compared to experimental results to assess the validity of a 3-D finite element model of themore » heat transfer and degradation processes. In this series of experiments, 320 kg/m 3 PMDI foam in a 0.2 L sealed steel container is heated to 1,073 K at a rate of 150 K/min. The experiment ends when the can breaches due to the buildup of pressure. The temperature at key location is monitored as well as the internal pressure of the can. Both experimental uncertainty and computational uncertainty are examined and compared. The mean value method (MV) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. The results of the both the MV method and the LHS approach show that while the model generally can predict the temperature at given locations in the system, it is less successful at predicting the pressure response. Also, these two approaches for propagating uncertainty agree with each other, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation results is also investigated, showing that for the temperature response the conductivity of the steel container and the effective conductivity of the foam, are the most important parameters. For the pressure response, the activation energy, effective conductivity, and specific heat are most important. The comparison to experiments and the identification of the drivers of uncertainty allow

  17. Magnesium Matrix Composite Foams-Density, Mechanical Properties, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-24

    to syntactic foam densities in the range 1–1.5 g/cc, which directly compete with polymer matrix composites. Their inherently high modulus, ductility ...nomenclature of these alloys A, Z, and C refer to aluminum, zinc and copper, respectively. The two letters are followed by two numbers, which correspond to...respectively [27]. Usually, the increased strength of Mg alloys due to the addition of Al or Cu comes at the expense of ductility . Addition of Zn along

  18. Bonding of reusable surface insulation with low density silicone foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltz, A. A.; Hockridge, R. R.; Curtis, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a reduced density, high reliable foamed bond strain isolation system for attaching reusable surface insulation to the space shuttle structure are reported. Included are data on virgin materials as well as on materials that received 100 cycles of exposure to 650 F for approximately 20 minutes per cycle. Room temperature vulcanizing silicon elastomers meet all the requirments for an adhesive bonding system.

  19. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    SciTech Connect

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth; Nissen, April; Massey, Lee Taylor

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  20. Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2013-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  1. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extreme toxicity from combustion products of a fire-retarded polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Petajan, J H; Voorhees, K J; Packham, S C; Baldwin, R C; Einhorn, I N; Grunnet, M L; Dinger, B G; Birky, M M

    1975-02-28

    The products from nonflaming combustion of wood and a trimethylol-propane-based rigid-urethane foam that was not fire-retarded produced elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels but no abnormal neurological effects. However, when this type of foam contained a reactive phosphate fire retardant, the combustion products caused grand mal seizures and death in rats. The toxic combustion product responsible for the seizures has been identified as 4-ethyl-1-phospha-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo(2.2.2.)octane-1-oxide.

  3. Enhancing oil removal from water by immobilizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes on the surface of polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Alireza; Zilouei, Hamid; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Asadinezhad, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    A surface modification method was carried out to enhance the light crude oil sorption capacity of polyurethane foam (PUF) through immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the foam surface at various concentrations. The developed sorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and tensile elongation test. The results obtained from thermogravimetric and tensile elongation tests showed the improvement of thermal and mechanical resistance of surface-modified foam. The experimental data also revealed that the immobilization of MWCNT on PUF surface enhanced the sorption capacity of light crude oil and reduced water sorption. The highest oil removal capacity was obtained for 1 wt% MWCNT on PUF surface which was 21.44% enhancement in light crude oil sorption compared to the blank PUF. The reusability of surface modified PUF was determined through four cycles of chemical regeneration using petroleum ether. The adsorption of light crude oil with 30 g initial mass showed that 85.45% of the initial oil sorption capacity of this modified sorbent was remained after four regeneration cycles. Equilibrium isotherms for adsorption of oil were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models through linear and non-linear regression methods. Results of equilibrium revealed that Langmuir isotherm is the best fitting model and non-linear method is a more accurate way to predict the parameters involved in the isotherms. The overall findings suggested the promising potentials of the developed sorbent in order to be efficiently used in large-scale oil spill cleanup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short- and long-term releases of fluorocarbons from disposal of polyurethane foam waste.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-11-01

    Several halocarbons having very high global warming or ozone depletion potentials have been used as a blowing agent (BA) for insulation foam in home appliances, such as refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam blown with the blowing agents CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HCF-134fa, and HFC-245fa revealed that not all blowing agents are released during a 6-week period following the shredding process. The experiments confirmed the hypothesis that the release could be divided into three segments: By shredding foam panels, a proportion of the closed cells is either split or damaged to a degree allowing for a sudden release of the contained atmosphere in the cell (the instantaneous release). Cells adjacent to the cut surface may be only slightly damaged by tiny cracks or holes allowing a relative slow release of the BA to the surroundings (the short-term release). A significant portion of the cells in the foam particle will be unaffected and only allows release governed by slow diffusion through the PUR cell wall (the long-term release). The magnitude of the releases is for all three types highly dependent on how fine the foam is shredded. The residual blowing agent remaining after the 6-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusion properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste on landfills. It is shown by setting up a national model simulating the BA releases following decommissioning of used domestic refrigerators/freezers in the United States that the release patterns are highly dependent on how the appliances are shredded.

  5. Randomized clinical trial to compare negative-pressure wound therapy approaches with low and high pressure, silicone-coated dressing, and polyurethane foam dressing.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Lawrence A; La Fontaine, Javier; Thakral, Gaurav; Kim, Paul J; Bhavan, Kavita; Davis, Kathryn E

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to compare two approaches to negative-pressure wound therapy: 125-mmHg pressure with a polyurethane foam dressing and 75-mmHg pressure with a silicone-coated dressing. Forty patients with diabetic foot wounds, after incision and drainage or amputation for infection, were assigned randomly to negative-pressure wound therapy with 75-mmHg continuous pressure with a silicone-covered dressing (75-mmHg group) or 125-mmHg with a polyurethane foam dressing (125-mmHg group) for up to 4 weeks or until surgical closure. There was no difference in the proportion of wounds that were closed surgically (75-mmHg group, 50 percent; 125-mmHg group, 60 percent), wounds that demonstrated 50 percent wound area reduction (75-mmHg group, 65 percent; 125-mmHg group, 80 percent), or wounds that demonstrated 50 percent wound volume reduction after 4 weeks of therapy (75-mmHg group, 95 percent; 125-mmHg group, 90 percent). The authors' results suggest that there was no difference in outcomes in wounds treated with low pressure (75 mmHg) with a silicone-coated interface and high pressure (125 mmHg) with a polyurethane foam interface. Therapeutic, II.

  6. [First experience of a polyurethane foam composition "Locus" use to stop intra-abdominal hemorrhage as a result of liver damage of V degree. (An experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Litinskii, M A; Denisov, A V; Sokhranov, M V; Telitskii, S Yu; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-04-01

    Today self-expanding polymers are considered as the most promising as means for intracavitary hemostasis in case of continuing bleeding after trauma. Testing of domestic open-cell polyurethane foam composition "Locus" was carried out on the developed experimental model simulating liver trauma of V degree. After damaging 6 experimental rabbits were injected intraperitoneally with 80 ml of the composition. 5 experimental rabbits were included into to control group (haemostatic agent was not given). Estimated blood loss was 111-124 ml. The two-hour survival rate didn't differ significantly: 3 animals survived in the experimental group; 2 animal survived in the control. Despite the 3-4-fold widening of the foam, due to open cells it absorbed 72.6 +/- 8.3 g of blood. Thus, open-cell polyurethane foam intraperitoneal administration of the composition didn't provide a temporary intra-abdominal hemostasis in liver. In order to enhance the hemostatic effect it requires changing the formulation of the polyurethane composition. For a more accurate assessment of the results it is neccessary to perform additional researches on larger animals.

  7. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOEpatents

    Viecelli, James A [Orinda, CA; Wood, Lowell L [Simi Valley, CA; Ishikawa, Muriel Y [Livermore, CA; Nuckolls, John H [Danville, CA; Pagoria, Phillip F [Livermore, CA

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  8. The insertion torque-depth curve integral as a measure of implant primary stability: An in vitro study on polyurethane foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-07-08

    Recent research has shown that dynamic parameters correlate with insertion energy-that is, the total work needed to place an implant into its site-might convey more reliable information concerning immediate implant primary stability at insertion than the commonly used insertion torque (IT), the reverse torque (RT), or the implant stability quotient (ISQ). Yet knowledge on these dynamic parameters is still limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether an energy-related parameter, the torque-depth curve integral (I), could be a reliable measure of primary stability. This was done by assessing if (I) measurement was operator-independent, by investigating its correlation with other known primary stability parameters (IT, RT, or ISQ) by quantifying the (I) average error and correlating (I), IT, RT, and ISQ variations with bone density. Five operators placed 200 implants in polyurethane foam blocks of different densities using a micromotor that calculated the (I) during implant placement. Primary implant stability was assessed by measuring the ISQ, IT, and RT. ANOVA tests were used to evaluate whether measurements were operator independent (P>.05 in all cases). A correlation analysis was performed between (I) and IT, ISQ, and RT. The (I) average error was calculated and compared with that of the other parameters by ANOVA. (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density plots were drawn, and their slopes were compared by ANCOVA. The (I) measurements were operator independent and correlated with IT, ISQ, and RT. The average error of these parameters was not significantly different (P>.05 in all cases). The (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density curves were linear in the 0.16 to 0.49 g/cm³ range, with the (I)-density curves having a significantly greater slope than those regarding the other parameters (P≤.001 in all cases). The torque-depth curve integral (I) provides a reliable assessment of primary stability and shows a greater

  9. Alternating air-medium exposure in rotating bioreactors optimizes cell metabolism in 3D novel tubular scaffold polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Tresoldi, Claudia; Stefani, Ilaria; Ferracci, Gaia; Bertoldi, Serena; Pellegata, Alessandro F; Farè, Silvia; Mantero, Sara

    2017-04-26

    In vitro dynamic culture conditions play a pivotal role in developing engineered tissue grafts, where the supply of oxygen and nutrients, and waste removal must be permitted within construct thickness. For tubular scaffolds, mass transfer is enhanced by introducing a convective flow through rotating bioreactors with positive effects on cell proliferation, scaffold colonization and extracellular matrix deposition. We characterized a novel polyurethane-based tubular scaffold and investigated the impact of 3 different culture configurations over cell behavior: dynamic (i) single-phase (medium) rotation and (ii) double-phase exposure (medium-air) rotation; static (iii) single-phase static culture as control. A new mixture of polyol was tested to create polyurethane foams (PUFs) as 3D scaffold for tissue engineering. The structure obtained was morphologically and mechanically analyzed tested. Murine fibroblasts were externally seeded on the novel porous PUF scaffold, and cultured under different dynamic conditions. Viability assay, DNA quantification, SEM and histological analyses were performed at different time points. The PUF scaffold presented interesting mechanical properties and morphology adequate to promote cell adhesion, highlighting its potential for tissue engineering purposes. Results showed that constructs under dynamic conditions contain enhanced viability and cell number, exponentially increased for double-phase rotation; under this last configuration, cells uniformly covered both the external surface and the lumen. The developed 3D structure combined with the alternated exposure to air and medium provided the optimal in vitro biochemical conditioning with adequate nutrient supply for cells. The results highlight a valuable combination of material and dynamic culture for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Biomimetic CO2 capture using a highly thermostable bacterial α-carbonic anhydrase immobilized on a polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Migliardini, Fortunato; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Rossi, Mosè; Corbo, Pasquale; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    The biomimetic approach represents an interesting strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, offering advantages over other methods, due to its specificity for CO2 and its eco-compatibility, as it allows concentration of CO2 from other gases, and its conversion to water soluble ions. This approach uses microorganisms capable of fixing CO2 through metabolic pathways or via the use of an enzyme, such as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Recently, our group cloned and purified a novel bacterial α-CA, named SspCA, from the thermophilic bacteria, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1 living in hot springs at temperatures of up to 110 °C. This enzyme showed an exceptional thermal stability, retaining its high catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction even after being heated at 70 °C for several hours. In the present paper, the SspCA was immobilized within a polyurethane (PU) foam. The immobilized enzyme was found to be catalytically active and showed a long-term stability. A bioreactor containing the "PU-immobilized enzyme" (PU-SspCA) as shredded foam was used for experimental tests aimed to verify the CO2 capture capability in conditions close to those of a power plant application. In this bioreactor, a gas phase, containing CO2, was put into contact with a liquid phase under conditions, where CO2 contained in the gas phase was absorbed and efficiently converted into bicarbonate by the extremo-α-CA.

  11. The performance of lightweight plastic foams developed for fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a low density, polyurethane based foam to suppress a fire and to provide protection for the structure of an aircraft or spacecraft is discussed. The mechanism by which foams provide protection from heat and create a nonflammable surface is described. Various materials and their application to specific types of structures are examined.

  12. Back to the future: a 15-year experience with polyurethane foam-covered breast implants using the partial-subfascial technique.

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Salcedo, Jose Abel; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Salguero, Jose Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Implants with a polyurethane foam cover have been used by plastic surgeons since Ashley described them in 1970. Overwhelming evidence confirms the benefits of these implants, especially the extremely low incidence of capsular contracture (grades 3 and 4, Baker classification). On the other hand, except for a transient and self-limited rash, there is no evidence that polyurethane implants present more complications than texturized or smooth gel implants. Due to concerns of polyurethane-induced cancer, these implants were withdrawn in United States after approximately 110,000 American women had received them. This fact, together with the probability that these implants will be reintroduced in the United States, suggests that continued monitoring of their long-term safety and effectiveness is mandatory. A retrospective study analyzed the outcomes of 996 implants inserted during a period of 15 years. The incidence of early and late complications was analyzed as well as the aesthetic outcome. The complications evaluated included hematoma (0.6%), infection (0.4%), seroma (0.8%), rash (4.3%), wound dehiscence (0%), capsular contracture (0.4%), implant malposition (0.8%), need for revisional surgery (1.2%), implant rupture (0.7%), rippling (1.8%), and polyurethane-related cancer (0%). Regarding the aesthetic outcome, 95% of the patients expressed satisfaction with their final result. The polyurethane foam-covered implants have been proven safe for use in breast surgery. They provide the lowest rate of capsular contracture (0.4% in the current study) and excellent aesthetic results.

  13. Potentialities of polyurethane foams for trace level analysis of triazinic metabolites in water matrices by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Fátima C M; Pinto, Moisés L; Pires, João; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-06-04

    Polyurethane (PU) foams were applied for stir bar sorptive extraction of five triazinic metabolites (desethyl-2-hydroxyatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, desethylatrazine, 2-hydroxyatrazine and desethylterbuthylazine) in water matrices, followed by liquid desorption and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (SBSE(PU)-LD/HPLC-DAD). The optimum conditions for SBSE(PU)-LD were 5h of extraction (1000 rpm) and 5% (v/v) of methanol for the analysis of desethyl-2-hydroxyatrazine and 2-hydroxyatrazine, 15% (w/v) of sodium chloride for the remaining compounds and acetonitrile as back-extraction solvent (5 mL) under ultrasonic treatment (60 min). The methodology provided recoveries up to 26.3%, remarkable precision (RSD<2.4%), excellent linear dynamic ranges between 5.0 and 122.1 microg/L (r(2)>0.9993) and convenient detection limits (0.4-1.3 microg/L). The proposed method was applied in the analysis of triazinic metabolites in tap, river and ground waters, with remarkable performance and negligible matrix effects. The comparison of the recoveries obtained by PU and commercial stir bars was also performed, where the yields achieved with the former were up to ten times higher proving that PU is appropriate for analysis at trace level of this type of polar compounds in water matrices. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Repeated batch cultivation of the hydrocarbon-degrading, micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryohei; Wada, Shun; Urano, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the stability of the cells of a heterotrophic green micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes during degradation of mixed hydrocarbon substrate, which was composed of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in 5 successive cycles of repeated batch cultivation at 30 degrees C. Both RND16 cells and mixed hydrocarbon substrate components had been entrapped in PUF cubes through cultivation. PUF-immobilized RND16 degraded n-alkanes almost completely, whereas the strain hardly degraded PAHs in PUFs, rather they accumulated in the matrices. It is noteworthy that this result is strikingly different from that of the free-living cell culture, where RND16 reduced concentrations of both n-alkanes and PAHs. However, PAHs accumulation in the PUFs did not impair the performance of the immobilized alga to utilize n-alkanes. These results suggest that the PUFs harboring RND16 cells could be used repeatedly for selective retrieval of PAHs from oil-polluted waters after preferential biodegradation of n-alkanes by algae.

  15. A Comparison of ACQ, AIE and AEE-Based Polymers Loaded on Polyurethane Foams as Sensors for Explosives Detection.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhiwei; Fan, Zhuxin; Zhang, Xiang; Tan, Xiaofeng; Li, Dongxu; Chen, Guohua; Zhao, Qinghua

    2018-05-15

    An aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ)-active polymer (PF), an aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active polymer (PFTPE) and an aggregation-enhanced emission (AEE)-active polymer (PTTPE) were synthesized by tetraphenylethane (TPE), fluorene and thiophene moieties. Polyurethane (PU) foams modified by PF, PFTPE and PTTPE, namely PU-PF, PU-PFTPE and PU-PTTPE, using ultrasonication-assisted method have been prepared. A comparative study of PU-PF, PU-PFTPE and PU-PTTPE for detection explosives had been performed, and significant fluorescence quenching was observed with the introduction of PA solutions. The as-prepared PU-PF, PU-PFTPE and PU-PTTPE sensors exhibited a superior sensitivity for PA solutions with different concentrations. Remarkably, PU-PF gave a quenching efficiency of 96.2%, higher than 93.5% for PU-PFTPE and 86.7% for PU-PTTPE at a PA concentration of 180 µg·mL -1 in methanol, which was attributed to the effective energy transfer from the fluorophore (PF) to the nitro explosive (PA). This suggested that some ACQ polymers, applied to detect explosives, could afford better performances than AIE or AEE polymers through modification of structures and selection of adequate carriers. At the same time, these chemical sensors can be recycled many times.

  16. A Comparison of ACQ, AIE and AEE-Based Polymers Loaded on Polyurethane Foams as Sensors for Explosives Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zhiwei; Fan, Zhuxin; Zhang, Xiang; Tan, Xiaofeng; Chen, Guohua; Zhao, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    An aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ)-active polymer (PF), an aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active polymer (PFTPE) and an aggregation-enhanced emission (AEE)-active polymer (PTTPE) were synthesized by tetraphenylethane (TPE), fluorene and thiophene moieties. Polyurethane (PU) foams modified by PF, PFTPE and PTTPE, namely PU-PF, PU-PFTPE and PU-PTTPE, using ultrasonication-assisted method have been prepared. A comparative study of PU-PF, PU-PFTPE and PU-PTTPE for detection explosives had been performed, and significant fluorescence quenching was observed with the introduction of PA solutions. The as-prepared PU-PF, PU-PFTPE and PU-PTTPE sensors exhibited a superior sensitivity for PA solutions with different concentrations. Remarkably, PU-PF gave a quenching efficiency of 96.2%, higher than 93.5% for PU-PFTPE and 86.7% for PU-PTTPE at a PA concentration of 180 µg·mL−1 in methanol, which was attributed to the effective energy transfer from the fluorophore (PF) to the nitro explosive (PA). This suggested that some ACQ polymers, applied to detect explosives, could afford better performances than AIE or AEE polymers through modification of structures and selection of adequate carriers. At the same time, these chemical sensors can be recycled many times. PMID:29762497

  17. Immunological evaluation of four arc welders exposed to fumes from ignited polyurethane (isocyanate) foam: antibodies and immune profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, A.; Thrasher, J.D.; Gard, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Four arc welders having a flu-like illness with multiple health complaints following an exposure to high concentrations of isocyanate fumes from ignited polyurethane foam underwent immunological tests as follows: ELISA antibody assays, activated lymphocyte profiles, and lymphocyte blastogenesis. ELISA procedures revealed the presence of antibodies to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and formaldehyde (F) conjugated to human serum albumin (HDI-SA and F-SA). The results from the activated lymphocyte profiles showed deviations from the norm as follows: three welders had elevated helper/suppressor (H/S) ratios; all four had elevated percentages of Tal positive cells; two had decreases in B cells; and one had lowmore » total white cell and lymphocyte counts. In contrast, the percentage and absolute numbers of ILS receptor cells were normal in the four subjects. T cell blastogenesis to PHA, Con A and PWM resulted in the following: T-cells from one subject responded normally; in another, a high response (212% of controls) to PHA occurred with normal mitogenesis to Con A and PWM. In the remaining two welders, the T cells responded abnormally low (50 to 75% of controls) to the three mitogens. In conclusion, the existence of IgG antibodies to HDI-SA and F-SA, the altered activated immune profiles, the elevated Tal cells, and the abnormal blastogenesis are interpreted as being linked with the episode of HDI and F exposure and the subsequent flu-like illness of the four welders.« less

  18. Polyurethane foam loaded with SDS for the adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous medium: Multivariate optimization of the loading process.

    PubMed

    Robaina, Nicolle F; Soriano, Silvio; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2009-08-15

    This paper reports the development of a new procedure for the adsorption of four cationic dyes (Rhodamine B, Methylene Blue, Crystal Violet and Malachite Green) from aqueous medium employing polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as solid phase. PUF loading process was based on the stirring of 200mg PUF cylinders with acidic solutions containing SDS. The conditions for loading were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Doehlert design with three variables that were SDS and HCl concentrations and stirring time. Results obtained in the optimization process showed that the stirring time is not a relevant parameter in the PUF loading, evidencing that the transport of SDS from solution to PUF surface is fast. On the other hand, both SDS and HCl concentrations were important parameters causing significant variation in the efficiency of the resulting solid phase for the removal of dyes from solution. At optimized conditions, SDS and HCl concentrations were 4.0 x 10(-4) and 0.90 mol L(-1), respectively. The influence of stirring time was evaluated by univariate methodology. A 20 min stirring time was established in order to make the PUF loading process fast and robust without losing efficiency. The procedure was tested for the removal of the four cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and removal efficiencies always better than 90% were achieved for the two concentrations tested (2.0 x 10(-5) and 1.0 x 10(-4)mol L(-1)).

  19. Catalytic and thermodynamic properties of a tannase produced by Aspergillus niger GH1 grown on polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Erika L; Mata-Gómez, Marco A; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Belmares, Ruth E; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noe

    2011-11-01

    Tannase is an inducible enzyme with important applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This enzyme was produced by the fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 under solid-state fermentation using polyurethane foam as solid support and tannic acid as sole carbon source and tannase inducer. Physicochemical properties of A. niger tannase were characterized, and the kinetic and thermodynamics parameters on methyl gallate hydrolysis were evaluated. The enzyme was stable in a pH range of 2-8 and a functional temperature range of 25-65 °C. The highest k(cat) value was 2,611.10 s(-1) at 65 °C. Tannase had more affinity for methyl gallate at 45 °C with a K(M) value of 1.82 mM and an efficiency of hydrolysis (k(cat)/K(M)) of 330.01 s(-1) mM(-1). The lowest E(a) value was found to be 21.38 kJ/mol at 4.4 mM of methyl gallate. The lowest free energy of Gibbs (ΔG) and enthalpy (ΔH) were found to be 64.86 and 18.56 kJ/mol, respectively. Entropy (ΔS) was -0.22 kJ/mol K. Results suggest that the A. niger GH1 tannase is an attractive enzyme for industrial applications due its catalytic and thermodynamical properties.

  20. Simulating and explaining passive air sampling rates for semi-volatile compounds on polyurethane foam passive samplers

    PubMed Central

    Petrich, Nicholas T.; Spak, Scott N.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Hu, Dingfei; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    Passive air samplers (PAS) including polyurethane foam (PUF) are widely deployed as an inexpensive and practical way to sample semi-volatile pollutants. However, concentration estimates from PAS rely on constant empirical mass transfer rates, which add unquantified uncertainties to concentrations. Here we present a method for modeling hourly sampling rates for semi-volatile compounds from hourly meteorology using first-principle chemistry, physics, and fluid dynamics, calibrated from depuration experiments. This approach quantifies and explains observed effects of meteorology on variability in compound-specific sampling rates and analyte concentrations; simulates nonlinear PUF uptake; and recovers synthetic hourly concentrations at a reference temperature. Sampling rates are evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners at a network of Harner model samplers in Chicago, Illinois during 2008, finding simulated average sampling rates within analytical uncertainty of those determined from loss of depuration compounds, and confirming quasi-linear uptake. Results indicate hourly, daily and interannual variability in sampling rates, sensitivity to temporal resolution in meteorology, and predictable volatility-based relationships between congeners. We quantify importance of each simulated process to sampling rates and mass transfer and assess uncertainty contributed by advection, molecular diffusion, volatilization, and flow regime within the PAS, finding PAS chamber temperature contributes the greatest variability to total process uncertainty (7.3%). PMID:23837599

  1. Modeling, kinetic, and equilibrium characterization of paraquat adsorption onto polyurethane foam using the ion-pairing technique.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lage, Mateus R; Carneiro, José Walkimar M; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2015-06-01

    We studied the adsorption of paraquat onto polyurethane foam (PUF) when it was in a medium containing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The adsorption efficiency was dependent on the concentration of SDS in solution, because the formation of an ion-associate between the cationic paraquat and the dodecylsulfate anion was found to be a fundamental step in the process. A computational study was carried out to identify the possible structure of the ion-associate in aqueous medium. The obtained data demonstrated that the structure is probably formed from four units of dodecylsulfate bonded to one paraquat moiety. The results showed that 94% of the paraquat present in 45 mL of a solution containing 3.90 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) could be retained by 300 mg of PUF, resulting in the removal of 2.20 mg of paraquat. The experimental data were reasonably adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm and to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Also, the application of Morris-Weber and Reichenberg models indicated that both film-diffusion and intraparticle-diffusion processes were active during the control of the adsorption kinetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of using polyurethane foam passive samplers and tree bark samples from Western China to determine atmospheric organochlorine pesticide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Lu, Yao; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Li, Peng; He, Chang; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were deployed and tree bark samples were collected at 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the samples were determined. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the PUF samples and tree bark samples. The mean DDTs, HCHs and HCB concentrations were 33, 22 and 18ng/sample in the PUF samples, and 428, 74, and 43ng/(g lipid weight (lw)) in the tree bark, respectively. The OCP concentrations in the air, calculated using PUF-air and tree-bark-air partitioning models, were of the same order of magnitude. Both sample types showed that relatively fresh inputs of DDT and HCHs to the environment have occurred in western China. Meanwhile, PUF passive samplers were compared with the use of tree bark samples as passive samplers. The OCP compositions in the PUF and tree bark samples were different. Only the relatively stable OCPs (such as HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE)) were consistent in the PUF and tree bark samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Determinations of airborne synthetic musks by polyurethane foam coupled with triple quadrupole gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ting Ivy; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Tsai, Shih-Wei

    2014-02-21

    Synthetic musk is widely used in various scented consumer products. However, the exposure via inhalation is often ignored due to pleasant smells. In addition, the information regarding the distribution of synthetic musk in air is limited. Hence, this research is aimed to develop a highly sensitive and widely applicable method for the determination of airborne synthetic musk. In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF) and filter were employed for active air sampling. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and nitrogen evaporator were performed for sample preparation. A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (GC/MS-MS) with specific multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition pairs was applied for sample analysis. Compared with using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode traditionally, the sensitivities were improved in this study about an order at least. In terms of air concentration, as low as 0.48ngm(-3) can be determined when sampling at 3.5Lmin(-1) for 8h. The method established was further applied to the analysis of synthetic musk compounds in air samples collected in a cosmetics plant. The results showed that the airborne concentrations of gaseous polycyclic musk, gaseous nitro-musk, and particle-phase polycyclic musk were 6.4×10(2), 4.0×10(1) and 3.1×10(2)ngm(-3), respectively. Meanwhile, Cashmeran, Celstolide, Galaxolide, and Tonalide were found as the dominant musk compounds in the factory investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mortality among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in the US polyurethane foam industry: Update and exposure-response analyses.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Lynne E; Yiin, James H; Daniels, Robert D; Fent, Kenneth W

    2016-08-01

    Mortality among 4,545 toluene diisocyante (TDI)-exposed workers was updated through 2011. The primary outcome of interest was lung cancer. Life table analyses, including internal analyses by exposure duration and cumulative TDI exposure, were conducted. Compared with the US population, all cause and all cancer mortality was increased. Lung cancer mortality was increased but was not associated with exposure duration or cumulative TDI exposure. In post hoc analyses, lung cancer mortality was associated with employment duration in finishing jobs, but not in finishing jobs involving cutting polyurethane foam. Dermal exposure, in contrast to inhalational exposure, to TDI is expected to be greater in finishing jobs and may play a role in the observed increase in lung cancer mortality. Limitations include the lack of smoking data, uncertainty in the exposure estimates, and exposure estimates that reflected inhalational exposure only. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:630-643, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. On-line Determination of Zinc in Water and Biological Samples after Its Preconcentration onto Zincon Anchored Polyurethane Foam.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Sami M Abdel; Hanafi, Hassan A; El-Shahat, M F

    2015-01-01

    A fast and sensitive on-line procedure for the determination of zinc in water and biological samples was developed. Zinc was preconcentrated in a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) chemically modified with zincon via -N=N- bonding. The optimal conditions for preconcentration were pH 8.5 and sample flow rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). Quantitative desorption of Zn(II) was obtained by 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid and subsequent spectrophotmetric determination using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol at 498 nm. The obtained detection limit was found to be 3.0 ng mL(-1), precision (RSD) was 4.8 and 6.7% at 20 and 110 ng mL(-1), respectively, for 60 s preconcentration time and enrichment factor was 31. The linearity range was from 10 to 120 ng mL(-1) and maximum sample throughput was 20 h(-1). Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of zinc in tap water, Nile River water and human urine samples with RSD in the range of 1.1 - 8.3%.

  6. Polyurethane foams based on crude glycerol-derived biopolyols: One-pot preparation of biopolyols with branched fatty acid ester chains and its effects on foam formation and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cong; Luo, Xiaolan; Li, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally friendly biopolyols have been produced with crude glycerol as the sole feedstock using a one-pot thermochemical conversion process without the addition of extra catalysts and reagents. Structural features of these biopolyols were characterized by rheology analysis. Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were obtained from these crude glycerol-based biopolyols and the foaming mechanism was explored. Investigations revealed that partial carbonyl groups hydrogen-bonded with NeH were replaced by aromatic rings after the introduction of branched fatty acid ester chains in the “urea rich” phase, and that distinct microphases had formed in the foams. Studies showed that branched fatty acid ester chains inmore » the biopolyols played an important role in reducing the degree of microphase separation and stabilizing bubbles during foaming processes. PU foams with thermal conductivity comparable to commercial products made from petroleum-based polyols were obtained. These studies show the potential for development of PU foams based on crude glycerol, a renewable resource.« less

  7. Effect of CNT as a Nucleating Agent on Cell Morphology and Thermal Insulation Property of the Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    PubMed

    Ahn, WonSool; Lee, Joon-Man

    2015-11-01

    The effects of MWCNT on the cell sizes, cell uniformities, thermal conductivities, bulk densities, foaming kinetics, and compressive mechanical properties of the rigid PUFs were investigated. To obtain the better uniform dispersed state of MWCNT, grease-type master batch of MWCNT/surfactant was prepared by three-roll mill. Average cell size of the PUF samples decreased from 185.1 for the neat PUF to 162.9 μm for the sample of 0.01 phr of MWCNT concentration. Cell uniformity was also enhanced showing the standard cell-size deviation of 61.7 and 35.2, respectively. While the thermal conductivity of the neat PUF was 0.0222 W/m(o)K, that of the sample with 0.01 phr of MWCNT showed 0.0204 W/m(o)K, resulting 8.2% reduction of the thermal conductivity. Bulk density of the PUF samples was observed as nearly the same values as 30.0 ± 1.0 g/cm3 regardless of MWCNT. Temperature profiles during foaming process showed that an indirect indication of the nucleation effect of MWCNT for the PUF foaming system, showing faster and higher temperature rising with time. The compressive yield stress is nearly the same as 0.030 x 10(5) Pa regardless of MWCNT.

  8. Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 and Fe-Mn Oxide Foams with Highly Tunable Magnetic Properties by the Replication Method from Polyurethane Templates

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yuping; Fornell, Jordina; Zhang, Huiyan; Solsona, Pau; Barό, Maria Dolors; Suriñach, Santiago; Sort, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Open cell foams consisting of Fe and Fe-Mn oxides are prepared from metallic Fe and Mn powder precursors by the replication method using porous polyurethane (PU) templates. First, reticulated PU templates are coated by slurry impregnation. The templates are then thermally removed at 260 °C and the debinded powders are sintered at 1000 °C under N2 atmosphere. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties are studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. The obtained Fe and Fe-Mn oxide foams possess both high surface area and homogeneous open-cell structure. Hematite (α-Fe2O3) foams are obtained from the metallic iron slurry independently of the N2 flow. In contrast, the microstructure of the FeMn-based oxide foams can be tailored by adjusting the N2 flow. While the main phases for a N2 flow rate of 180 L/h are α-Fe2O3 and FeMnO3, the predominant phase for high N2 flow rates (e.g., 650 L/h) is Fe2MnO4. Accordingly, a linear magnetization versus field behavior is observed for the hematite foams, while clear hysteresis loops are obtained for the Fe2MnO4 foams. Actually, the saturation magnetization of the foams containing Mn increases from 5 emu/g to 52 emu/g when the N2 flow rate (i.e., the amount of Fe2MnO4) is increased. The obtained foams are appealing for a wide range of applications, such as electromagnetic absorbers, catalysts supports, thermal and acoustic insulation systems or wirelessly magnetically-guided porous objects in fluids. PMID:29439450

  9. Synthesis of α-Fe₂O₃ and Fe-Mn Oxide Foams with Highly Tunable Magnetic Properties by the Replication Method from Polyurethane Templates.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuping; Fornell, Jordina; Zhang, Huiyan; Solsona, Pau; Barό, Maria Dolors; Suriñach, Santiago; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2018-02-11

    Open cell foams consisting of Fe and Fe-Mn oxides are prepared from metallic Fe and Mn powder precursors by the replication method using porous polyurethane (PU) templates. First, reticulated PU templates are coated by slurry impregnation. The templates are then thermally removed at 260 °C and the debinded powders are sintered at 1000 °C under N₂ atmosphere. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties are studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. The obtained Fe and Fe-Mn oxide foams possess both high surface area and homogeneous open-cell structure. Hematite (α-Fe₂O₃) foams are obtained from the metallic iron slurry independently of the N₂ flow. In contrast, the microstructure of the FeMn-based oxide foams can be tailored by adjusting the N₂ flow. While the main phases for a N₂ flow rate of 180 L/h are α-Fe₂O₃ and FeMnO₃, the predominant phase for high N₂ flow rates (e.g., 650 L/h) is Fe₂MnO₄. Accordingly, a linear magnetization versus field behavior is observed for the hematite foams, while clear hysteresis loops are obtained for the Fe₂MnO₄ foams. Actually, the saturation magnetization of the foams containing Mn increases from 5 emu/g to 52 emu/g when the N₂ flow rate (i.e., the amount of Fe₂MnO₄) is increased. The obtained foams are appealing for a wide range of applications, such as electromagnetic absorbers, catalysts supports, thermal and acoustic insulation systems or wirelessly magnetically-guided porous objects in fluids.

  10. In vivo degradation of polyurethane foam with 55 wt % polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; Van Leeuwen, M Barbara M; Van Minnen, Baucke; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2015-11-01

    Most topical hemostatic agents are based on animal-derived products like collagen and gelatin. They carry the potential risk of pathogen transmission while adjustments in the production process of these materials are limited. A synthetic hemostatic agent based on polyurethane (PU) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed to overcome these disadvantages. The goal of this study was to compare the degradation process of this biomaterial to collagen and gelatin hemostatic agents. Samples of the test materials were implanted subcutaneously in both rats and rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at certain time intervals up to three years and the explanted samples were microscopically assessed. The histological examination showed a comparable pattern of degradation for the different test materials. Remnants of gelatin and collagen were seen up to 26 and 39 weeks, respectively. For PU, it took up to three years before micro-particles of the material were no longer detected. All biomaterials showed a good biocompatibility and no severe foreign body reactions occurred. The good biocompatibility and predictable pattern of resorption indicate that PU can be used as a topical hemostatic agent. However, a degradation time comparable to collagen and gelatin would be favorable. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Polyurethane Masks Large Areas in Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Polyurethane foam provides effective mask in electroplating of copper or nickel. Thin layer of Turco maskant painted on area to be masked: Layer ensures polyurethane foam removed easily after served its purpose. Component A, isocyanate, and component B, polyol, mixed together and brushed or sprayed on mask area. Mixture reacts, yielding polyurethane foam. Foam prevents deposition of nickel or copper on covered area. New method saves time, increases productivity and uses less material than older procedures.

  12. Simplification and validation of a large volume polyurethane foam sampler for the analysis of persistent hydrophobic compounds in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Kannan, K

    2008-08-01

    The use of a large volume polyurethane foam (PUF) sampler was validated for rapid extraction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in raw water and treated water from drinking water plants. To validate the recovery of target compounds in the sampling process, a (37)Cl-labeled standard was spiked into the 1st PUF plug prior to filtration. An accelerated solvent extraction method, as a pressurized liquid extractor (PLE), was optimized to extract the PUF plug. For sample preparation, tandem column chromatography (TCC) clean-up was used for rapid analysis. The recoveries of labeled compounds in the analytical method were 80-110% (n = 9). The optimized PUF-PLE-TCC method was applied in the analysis of raw water and treated potable water from seven drinking water plants in South Korea. The sample volume used was between 18 and 102 L for raw water at a flow rate of 0.4-2 L min(-1), 95 and 107 L for treated water at a flow rate of 1.5-2.2 L min(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was a function of sample volume and it decreased with increasing sample volume. The LOQ of PCDD/Fs in raw waters analyzed by this method was 3-11 times lower than that described using large-size disk-type solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The LOQ of PCDD/F congeners in raw water and treated water were 0.022-3.9 ng L(-1) and 0.018-0.74 ng L(-1), respectively. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was found in some raw water samples, while their concentrations were well below the tentative criterion set by the Japanese Environmental Ministry for drinking water. OCDD was below the LOQ in the treated drinking water.

  13. Development of mass production type rigid polyurethane foam for LNG carrier using ozone depletion free blowing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeongbeom; Baek, Kye Hyun; Choe, Kunhyung; Han, Chonghun

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays the price of natural gas has become higher and the efficiency of propulsion system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers has improved. Due to these trends, required boil-off rate (BOR) for LNG carrier has been lowered from 0.15%/day to 0.12%/day for conventional LNG carriers with sizes between 125,000 m3 and 170,000 m3. This requirement of BOR can be satisfied by using a rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) blown by 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) as an insulator. However, ozone depletion potential (ODP) of HCFC-141b requires alternative blowing agents with zero ODP such as hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) because of tougher environmental regulations. This paper introduces use of HFCs and additives to enhance properties of rigid PUFs under a mass production environment. Among the additives, perfluoroalkane (PFA) reduces thermal conductivity down to 12% and increases compressive strength up to 15% of a rigid PUF prepared in a laboratory scale. Based on this result, a mass production type rigid PUF is manufactured and is evaluated for BOR, mechanical strengths over operation temperature range, and thermal shock stability for LNG carriers. The BOR of the manufactured rigid PUF is below 0.12%/day, which satisfies the recent BOR specification for LNG carriers. The other required properties are also met the specifications for a conventional LNG carrier. Consequently, it is expected that the results in this paper will bring low BOR (<0.12%/day) LNG carries with rigid PUFs using ODP free blowing agents and contribute environmental protection through saving energy and preserving the ozone layer in the stratosphere.

  14. Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.

    PubMed

    Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zirconium-based metal organic frameworks loaded on polyurethane foam membrane for simultaneous removal of dyes with different charges.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Peng; Song, Biao; Cao, Wei-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Yu; Huan, Shuang-Yan

    2018-10-01

    Treating dye wastewater by membrane filtration technology has received much attention from researchers all over the world, however, current studies mainly focused on the removal of singly charged dyes but actual wastewater usually contains dyes with different charges. In this study, the removal of neutral, cationic and anionic dyes in binary or ternary systems was conducted by using zirconium-based metal organic frameworks loaded on polyurethane foam (Zr-MOFs-PUF) membrane. The Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane was fabricated by an in-situ hydrothermal synthesis approach and a hot-pressing process. Neutrally charged Rhodamine B (RB), positively charged Methylene blue (MB), and negatively charged Congo red (CR) were chosen as model pollutants for investigating filtration performance of the membrane. The results of filtration experiments showed that the Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane could simultaneously remove RB, MB, and CR not only from their binary system including RB/MB, RB/CR, and MB/CR mixtures, but also from RB/MB/CR ternary system. The removal of dyes by Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane was mainly attributed to the electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bond interaction, and Lewis acid-base interactions between the membrane and dye molecules. The maximum removal efficiencies by Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane were 98.80% for RB at pH ≈ 7, 97.57% for MB at pH ≈ 9, and 87.39% for CR at pH ≈ 3. Additionally, when the NaCl concentration reached 0.5 mol/L in single dye solutions, the removal efficiencies of RB, MB, and CR by Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane were 93.08%, 79.52%, and 97.82%, respectively. All the results suggested that the as-prepared Zr-MOFs-PUF membrane has great potential in practical treatment of dye wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Startup and long-term performance of biotrickling filters packed with polyurethane foam and poplar wood chips treating a mixture of ethylmercaptan, H2S, and NH3.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J; Lafuente, J; Prado, O J; Gabriel, D

    2013-04-01

    Treatment of a mixture of NH3, H2S, and ethylmercaptan (EM) was investigated for more than 15 months in two biotrickling filters packed with poplar wood chips and polyurethane foam. Inlet loads ranging from 5 to 10 g N-NH3 m-3 hr-1, from 5 to 16 g S-H2S m-3 hr-1, and from 0 to 5 g EM m-3 hr-1 were applied. During startup, the biotrickling filter packed with polyurethane foam was re-inoculated due to reduced biomass retention as well as a stronger effect of nitrogen compounds inhibition compared with the biotrickling filter packed with poplar wood. Accurate pH control between 7 and 7.5 favored pollutants abatement. In the long run, complete NH3 removal in the gas phase was achieved in both reactors, while H2S removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. EM abatement was significantly different in both reactors. A systematically lower elimination capacity was found in the polyurethane foam bioreactor. N fractions in the liquid phase proved that high nitrification rates were reached throughout steady-state operation in both bioreactors. CO2 production showed the extent of the organic packing material degradation, which allowed estimating its service lifetime in around 2 years. In the long run, the bioreactor packed with the organic packing material had a lower stability. However, an economic analysis indicated that poplar wood chips are a competitive alternative to inorganic packing materials in biotrickling filters. We provide new insights in the use of organic packing materials in biotrickling filters for the treatment of H2S, NH3, and mercaptans and compare them with polyurethane foam, a packing commonly used in biotrickling filters. We found interesting features related with the startup of the reactors and parameterized both the performance under steady-state conditions and the influence of the gas contact time. We provide relevant conclusions in the profitability of organic packing materials under a biotrickling filter configuration, which is infrequent but proven reliable

  17. Optimum hot electron production with low-density foams for laser fusion by fast ignition.

    PubMed

    Lei, A L; Tanaka, K A; Kodama, R; Kumar, G R; Nagai, K; Norimatsu, T; Yabuuchi, T; Mima, K

    2006-06-30

    We propose a foam cone-in-shell target design aiming at optimum hot electron production for the fast ignition. A thin low-density foam is proposed to cover the inner tip of a gold cone inserted in a fuel shell. An intense laser is then focused on the foam to generate hot electrons for the fast ignition. Element experiments demonstrate increased laser energy coupling efficiency into hot electrons without increasing the electron temperature and beam divergence with foam coated targets in comparison with solid targets. This may enhance the laser energy deposition in the compressed fuel plasma.

  18. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  19. Method and composition for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles

    DOEpatents

    Lula, James W.; Schicker, James R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and a composition are provided for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles. A low density molded desiccant article may be made as a syntactic foam by blending a thermosetting resin, microspheres and molecular sieve desiccant powder, molding and curing. Such articles have densities of 0.2-0.9 g/cc, moisture capacities of 1-12% by weight, and can serve as light weight structural supports.

  20. Ultra-low density metallic foams synthesized by contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE) for laser experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocher, Sandrine; Botrel, Ronan; Durut, Frédéric; Chicanne, Cédric; Theobald, Marc; Vignal, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this work is to realize metallic foams synthesized by contact glow discharge electrolysis with specific characteristics. In this paper, we show the results of our studies, consisting in investigating parameters that influence the foams characteristics. Thus, the morphology of metallic foams is examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations with the acid nature. Moreover, the evolution of the mass and the volume of metallic foams with two experimental parameters (overvoltage and gold concentration) is also investigated. The acid nature affects the foams microscopic structure highlighted by the SEM observations, but for now no valid explanation to this behaviour was found. We prove that the mass deposited on the electrode is dependent on the ionic salt concentration, whereas the overvoltage only affects the foam overall density. Contribution to the topical issue "Plasma Sources and Plasma Processes (PSPP)", edited by Luis Lemos Alves, Thierry Belmonte and Tiberiu Minea.

  1. H2S removal and bacterial structure along a full-scale biofilter bed packed with polyurethane foam in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Yan, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide accumulated under a cover film in a landfill site was treated for 7 months by a full-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes. Sampling ports were set along the biofilter bed to investigate H2S removal and microbial characteristics in the biofilter. The H2S was removed effectively by the biofilter, and over 90% removal efficiency was achieved in steady state. Average elimination capacity of H2S was 2.21 g m(-3) h(-1) in lower part (LPB) and 0.41 g m(-3) h(-1) in upper part (UPB) of the biofilter. Most H2S was eliminated in LPB. H2S concentration varied along the polyurethane foam packed bed, the structure of the bacterial communities showed spatial variation in the biofilter, and H2S removal as well as products distribution changed accordingly. The introduction of odorants into the biofilter shifted the distribution of the existing microbial populations toward a specific culture that could metabolize the target odors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Halogenated flame-retardant concentrations in settled dust, respirable and inhalable particulates and polyurethane foam at gymnastic training facilities and residences.

    PubMed

    La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Halogenated flame-retardants (FRs) are used in a wide array of polymer-containing products. Animal studies and structure-activity modeling exercises suggest that FR exposure may result in detrimental toxicological effects. Workers with extended contact with such polymers (e.g., electronic dismantlers, carpet installers and aircraft personnel) have previously been observed to exhibit elevated body burdens of FRs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Recently, elevated PBDE blood levels were also reported in a non-occupational exposure group, gymnasts. These levels were hypothesized to be related to the large volumes of FR-treated polyurethane foam in gymnastics facilities. To further our understanding of workers' potential exposure, we analyzed FR concentrations in indoor dust and size-fractionated air particulates (respirable (<4 μm) and inhalable (>4 μm)) from gymnastic studios. Values were compared to samples from the homes of coaches employed at these facilities. Polyurethane foam blocks (i.e., pit foam) were also analyzed to characterize potential FR sources. FRs examined included those used to flame-retard polyurethane foam: 8 PBDE congeners, two brominated components of Firemaster 550 (2-ethylhexyl 2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH)) and three chlorinated organophosphates (tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)). Several additional FRs not used in polyurethane were also evaluated. These have also been detected in indoor dust and air and may also lead to adverse health effects. These include: BDE-183 and its replacement product (1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), two congeners of the deca-BDE formulation (BDE-206, -209) and their replacement decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β-, γ-HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)). Pit foam contained multiple

  3. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  4. Kinetics of thermal and photo-initiated release of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) flame retardant from polyurethane foam materials.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Raed A

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics of thermal and photo-initiated release of Tris (1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) from the polyurethane foam (PUF) materials were studied using a validated chromatographic method with linear calibration curve in the range of 0.03-400 μg mL(-1). Time dependence of TDCP leaching from foam samples was found to follow first-order kinetics; with rate constants directly dependent on ageing temperatures and intensity of UV radiation, rate constants for the thermally and photo initiated were 3.6 × 10(-3), 1.03 × 10(-2), 3.6 × 10(-2) and 3.94 × 10(-2) day(-1), respectively. Migration of TDCP from foam samples simulating skin or oral exposure were observed from all samples regardless of their ageing history, the presence of biological fluids found to enhance the migration rate. Oral exposure to foam material contains TDCP, which was simulated using the Head-over-Heels test, reveals that an average amount of ∼ 1.7% wt./wt. of the total amount of TDCP was found to leach into biological fluids, and it significantly increased to ∼ 6.0% wt./wt. due to ageing conditions. Direct contact between foam material and skin simulated by using the Contact Blotting test reveals that TDCP is transferred from both aged and un-aged samples at different rates, due to the presence of biological fluids; the transferred amount is increased with ageing conditions.

  5. A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Hamood, Abdul N; de Souza, Anselm; Schultz, Gregory; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Mehta, Dilip; Reid, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Reticulation of low density shape memory polymer foam with an in vivo demonstration of vascular occlusion

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Miller, Matthew W.; Boyle, Anthony; ...

    2014-08-11

    Recently, predominantly closed-cell low density shape memory polymer (SMP) foam was reported to be an effective aneurysm filling device in a porcine model (Rodriguez et al., Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2013: (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.34782)). Because healing involves blood clotting and cell migration throughout the foam volume, a more open-cell structure may further enhance the healing response. This research sought to develop a non-destructive reticulation process for this SMP foam to disrupt the membranes between pore cells. Non-destructive mechanical reticulation was achieved using a gravity-driven floating nitinol pin array coupled with vibratory agitation of the foam and supplemental chemical etching.more » Lastly, reticulation resulted in a reduced elastic modulus and increased permeability, but did not impede the shape memory behavior. Reticulated foams were capable of achieving rapid vascular occlusion in an in vivo porcine model.« less

  7. Reticulation of low density shape memory polymer foam with an in vivo demonstration of vascular occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Miller, Matthew W.; Boyle, Anthony; Horn, John; Yang, Cheng-Kang; Wilson, Thomas S.; Ortega, Jason M.; Small, Ward; Nash, Landon; Skoog, Hunter; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    Predominantly closed-cell low density shape memory polymer (SMP) foam was recently reported to be an effective aneurysm filling device in a porcine model (Rodriguez et al., Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2013: (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.34782)). Because healing involves blood clotting and cell migration throughout the foam volume, a more open-cell structure may further enhance the healing response. This research sought to develop a non-destructive reticulation process for this SMP foam to disrupt the membranes between pore cells. Non-destructive mechanical reticulation was achieved using a gravity-driven floating nitinol pin array coupled with vibratory agitation of the foam and supplemental chemical etching. Reticulation resulted in a reduced elastic modulus and increased permeability, but did not impede shape memory behavior. Reticulated foams were capable of achieving rapid vascular occlusion in an in vivo porcine model. PMID:25222869

  8. Strain compatibility tests for sprayed foam cryogenic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. L.; Kimberlin, D. O.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanical stress applied to foam-coated aluminum alloy specimens maintained at cryogenic temperature simulates actual use conditions of the foam insulation. The testing reveals defects in the polyurethane foam or in the foam to metal bond.

  9. Use of polyurethane foam and 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline for determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Ostrovskaya, V M; Anaev, E K; Zolotov, Y A

    2008-07-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) has been suggested as a solid polymeric reagent for determination of nitrite. The determination is based on the diazotization of end toluidine groups of PUF with nitrite in acidic medium followed by coupling of polymeric diazonium cation with 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline. The intensely colored polymeric azodye formed in this reaction can be used as a convenient analytic form for the determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (c (min) = 0.7 ng mL(-1)). The possibility of using a desktop scanner, digital camera, and computer data processing for the numerical evaluation of the color intensity of the polymeric azodye has been investigated. A scanner and digital camera can be used for determination of nitrite with the same sensitivity and reproducibility as with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The approach developed was applied for determination of nitrite in river water and human exhaled breath condensate.

  10. Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Flame retardant (FR) chemicals have often been added to polyurethane foam to meet required state and federal flammability standards. However, some FRs (e.g., PBDEs and TDCIPP) are associated with health hazards and are now restricted from use in some regions. In addition, California’s residential furniture flammability standard (TB-117) has undergone significant amendments over the past few years, and TDCIPP has been added to California’s Proposition 65 list. These events have likely led to shifts in the types of FRs used, and the products to which they are applied. To provide more information on the use of FRs in products containing polyurethane foam (PUF), we established a screening service for the general public. Participants residing in the US were allowed to submit up to 5 samples from their household for analysis, free of charge, and supplied information on the product category, labeling, and year and state of purchase. Between February 2014 and June 2016, we received 1141 PUF samples for analysis from various products including sofas, chairs, mattresses, car seats and pillows. Of these samples tested, 52% contained a FR at levels greater than 1% by weight. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) was the most common FR detected in PUF samples, and was the most common FR detected in all product categories. Analysis of the data by purchasing date suggests that the use of TDCIPP decreased in recent years, paralleled with an increase in the use of TCIPP and a nonhalogenated aryl phosphate mixture we call “TBPP.” In addition, we observed significant decreases in FR applications in furniture products and child car seats, suggesting the use of additive FRs in PUF may be declining, perhaps as a reflection of recent changes to TB-117 and Proposition 65. More studies are needed to determine how these changes in FR use relate to changes in exposure among the general population. PMID:27552529

  11. A case-controlled, retrospective, comparative study on the use of biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam versus polyvinyl acetate sponge after nasal fracture reduction.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H-S; Lee, H-K; Kim, H-S; Moon, M-S; Tark, K-C

    2014-06-01

    One of the most frequently used packing materials in closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture is the hydroxylated polyvinyl acetate sponge (PVAS; Merocel(®)); however this may cause synechia, epistaxis, and pain. Synthetic polyurethane foam (SPF; Nasopore(®) Forte) has recently been used in septoplasty to prevent synechia or restenosis and haematoma formation. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of PVAS and SPF on postoperative appearance and discomfort following the reduction of nasal bone fractures. We retrospectively reviewed all patient questionnaires and medical histories, and clinical photographs and computed tomography scans obtained before and after surgery. Outcomes were assessed using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, which were used to assess discomfort during the 6-month follow-up period. Postoperatively, there was no statistically significant difference in the GAIS for the two packing materials (P > 0.05). Postoperative epistaxis was observed at a significantly lower rate in the SPF group than in the PVAS group, whereas anterior rhinorrhea and posterior nasal drip occurred at significantly higher rates following removal of packing in the SPF group (P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that synthetic dissolvable polyurethane may be a reliable alternative material for nasal packing and postoperative management following the reduction of nasal bone fractures. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Open-pore polyurethane product

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, R.T.; Salyer, I.O.

    1974-02-17

    The method is described of producing an open-pore polyurethane foam having a porosity of at least 50% and a density of 0.1 to 0.5 g per cu cm, and which consists of coherent spherical particles of less than 10 mu diam separated by interconnected interstices. It is useful as a filter and oil absorbent. The product is admirably adapted to scavenging of crude oil from the surface of seawater by preferential wicking. The oil-soaked product may then be compressed to recover the oil or burned for disposal. The crosslinked polyurethane structures are remarkably solvent and heat-resistance as compared with known thermoplastic structures. Because of their relative inertness, they are useful filters for gasoline and other hydrocarbon compounds. (7 claims)

  13. Fire retardant foams developed to suppress fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R.; Gilwee, W. J.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Heat insulating polyurethane foam retards and suppresses fuel fires. Uniformly dispersed in the foam is a halogenated polymer capable of splitting off hydrogen halide upon heating and charring of the polyurethane.

  14. Response of Polyurethane to Shock Waves: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, V.; Rao, Keshava Subba; Thanganayaki, N.; Kumara, H. K. T.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    Formation of polyurethane (PU) in vacuum environment and controlling density of polyurethane foams are the present day challenges. Polyurethane exists in numerous forms ranging from flexible to rigid and lightweight foams to tough, stiff elastomers [1]. PU can be used to produce lightweight foams for insulation or hard rubber used as wheels to transport heavy loads and it can be used in high pressure applications. The largest volumes of commercial PU elastomers are made from toluene diisocyanate (TDI) or diphenylmethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate (MDI) [2]. Linear polyurethanes can be processed into final products by any of the standard thermoplastic processes (injection molding, extrusion, thermoforming) as well as by low pressure cast processes in presence of catalysts. Tin, tetrabutyl titanate and zirconium chelates are few effective catalysts used to produce polyurethane for particular application [3]. Thermoset elastomers are formed due to irreversible cross-links, when polymers are chemically cured. Highly porous biodegradable PU was synthesized by thermally induced phase separation technique used in tissue engineering and also in bio-degradable based fluids [4]. Properties of PU like hardness, stress/strain modulus, tear strength etc, was determine using ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard methods. PU possesses extremely high mechanical properties, excellent abrasion, tear and extrusion resistance. It has outstanding low-temperature limit (-600C) and high temperature limit up to (1500C).

  15. Performance evaluation of poly-urethane foam packed-bed chemical scrubber for the oxidative absorption of NH3 and H2S gases.

    PubMed

    Nisola, Grace M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Anonas, Alex V; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2018-01-02

    The feasibility of open-pore polyurethane (PU) foam as packing material for wet chemical scrubber was tested for NH 3 and H 2 S removals. The foam is inexpensive, light-weight, highly porous (low pressure drop) and provides large surface area per unit volume, which are desirable properties for enhanced gas/liquid mass transfer. Conventional HCl/HOCl (for NH 3 ) and NaOH/NaOCl (for H 2 S) scrubbing solutions were used to absorb and oxidize the gases. Assessment of the wet chemical scrubbers reveals that pH and ORP levels are important to maintain the gas removal efficiencies >95%. A higher re-circulation rate of scrubbing solutions also proved to enhance the performance of the NH 3 and H 2 S columns. Accumulation of salts was confirmed by the gradual increase in total dissolved solids and conductivity values of scrubbing solutions. The critical elimination capacities at >95% gas removals were found to be 5.24 g NH 3 -N/m 3 -h and 17.2 g H 2 S-S/m 3 -h at an empty bed gas residence time of 23.6 s. Negligible pressure drops (< 4 mm H 2 O) after continuous operation demonstrate the suitability of PU as a practical packing material in wet chemical scrubbers for NH 3 and H 2 S removals from high-volume dilute emissions.

  16. Determination of airborne, volatile amines from polyurethane foams by sorption onto a high-capacity cation-exchange resin based on poly(succinic acid).

    PubMed

    Seeber, G; Buchmeiser, M R; Bonn, G K; Bertsch, T

    1998-06-05

    A high-capacity carboxylic acid-functionalized resin prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization based on cross-linked endo,endo-poly(norborn-2-ene-5,6-dicarboxylic acid) was used for the sampling of volatile, airborne amines from polyurethane (PU) foams. Six tertiary amines which represent commonly used promotors for the formation of PUs from diisocyanates and polyols, namely pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, diazabicyclooctane, N-methylmorpholine, N-ethylmorphine, 1,4-dimethylpiperazine and N,N-dimethylethanolamine, were sorbed onto the new resin. The sorption behavior of the new material was investigated in terms of loading capacities, the influence of concentration, flow-rate as well as of the amount of resin. Breakthrough curves were recorded from each single component as well as of mixtures thereof. Finally, the resin was used for the sampling of amines evaporating from PU foams applied in buildings. Further information about time dependent concentration profiles were obtained using a combination of GC-MS and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.

  17. Suture anchor fixation strength with or without augmentation in osteopenic and severely osteoporotic bones in rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical study on polyurethane foam model.

    PubMed

    Er, Mehmet Serhan; Altinel, Levent; Eroglu, Mehmet; Verim, Ozgur; Demir, Teyfik; Atmaca, Halil

    2014-08-22

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of various types of anchor applications with or without augmentation in both osteopenic and severely osteoporotic bone models. Two different types of suture anchors were tested in severely osteoporotic (SOP) and osteopenic polyurethane (PU) foam blocks using an established protocol. An Instron machine applied static loading parallel to the axis of insertion until failure, and the mean anchor failure strengths were calculated. The mode of failure (anchor pullout, suture tear) was recorded. The anchors tested included the Corkscrew (CS) (Arthrex Inc., Naples, FL, USA) (without augmentation, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-augmented, and bioabsorbable tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cement-augmented) and Corkscrew FT II (CS FT II) 5.5 mm (without augmentation as used routinely). The mean failure loads for both SOP and osteopenic PU foam blocks, respectively, were as follows: CS, 16.2 and 212.4 N; CS with TCP, 75.2 and 396 N; CS with PMMA, 101.2 and 528.8 N; CS FT II, 13.8 and 339.8 N. Augmentation of CS with TCP or PMMA would be essential to SOP bones. In the osteopenic bone model, although anchor fixation augmented with PMMA is the best fixation method, CS augmented with TCP cement or CS FT II without any need for augmentation may also be used as an alternative.

  18. Suture anchor fixation strength with or without augmentation in osteopenic and severely osteoporotic bones in rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical study on polyurethane foam model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of various types of anchor applications with or without augmentation in both osteopenic and severely osteoporotic bone models. Methods Two different types of suture anchors were tested in severely osteoporotic (SOP) and osteopenic polyurethane (PU) foam blocks using an established protocol. An Instron machine applied static loading parallel to the axis of insertion until failure, and the mean anchor failure strengths were calculated. The mode of failure (anchor pullout, suture tear) was recorded. The anchors tested included the Corkscrew® (CS) (Arthrex Inc., Naples, FL, USA) (without augmentation, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-augmented, and bioabsorbable tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cement-augmented) and Corkscrew® FT II (CS FT II) 5.5 mm (without augmentation as used routinely). Results The mean failure loads for both SOP and osteopenic PU foam blocks, respectively, were as follows: CS, 16.2 and 212.4 N; CS with TCP, 75.2 and 396 N; CS with PMMA, 101.2 and 528.8 N; CS FT II, 13.8 and 339.8 N. Conclusions Augmentation of CS with TCP or PMMA would be essential to SOP bones. In the osteopenic bone model, although anchor fixation augmented with PMMA is the best fixation method, CS augmented with TCP cement or CS FT II without any need for augmentation may also be used as an alternative. PMID:25148925

  19. Metallized polymeric foam material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, B. A.; Bilow, N.

    1974-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foams can be coated uniformly with thin film of metal by vapor deposition of aluminum or by sensitization of foam followed by electroless deposition of nickel or copper. Foam can be further processed to increase thickness of metal overcoat to impart rigidity or to provide inert surface with only modest increase in weight.

  20. Reactive decomposition of low density PMDI foam subject to shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Scott; Reinhart, William; Brundage, Aaron; Peterson, David

    Low density polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) foam with a density of 5.4 pounds per cubic foot (0.087 g/cc) was tested to determine the equation of state properties under shock compression over the pressure range of 0.58 - 3.4 GPa. This pressure range encompasses a region approximately 1.0-1.2 GPa within which the foam undergoes reactive decomposition resulting in significant volume expansion of approximately three times the volume prior to reaction. This volume expansion has a significant effect on the high pressure equation of state. Previous work on similar foam was conducted only up to the region where volume expansion occurs and extrapolation of that data to higher pressure results in a significant error. It is now clear that new models are required to account for the reactive decomposition of this class of foam. The results of plate impact tests will be presented and discussed including details of the unique challenges associated with shock compression of low density foams. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Properties of Polymer-Infiltrated Carbon Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, W. A.; Bunning, T. J.; Farmer, B. L.; Kearns, K. M.; Anderson, D. A.; Roy, A. K.; Banerjee, T.; Jeon, H. G.

    2001-03-01

    There is considerable interest in extending the use-temperatures of both commodity and high performance polymers. There is also interest in improving the mechanical strength of carbon foams. Composites prepared by infiltrating carbon foam with polymers may offer significant improvements in both, the polymer helping to rigidize the foam and the foam providing thermal protection by virtue of its high thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties and thermal stability of carbon foams of various densities infiltrated with polyurethane have been studied. When used with a heat sink, the composite is able to maintain a substantial thermal gradient which provides stability of the polymer nominally above its decomposition temperature. The composite also has much improved strength properties without sacrificing tensile modulus. The composites may be very well suited for thermal management applications.

  2. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Zachary H.; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Chen, Joseph J.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below −400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic. PMID:19291968

  3. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Levine, Zachary H; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P; Yankelevitz, David F; Chen, Joseph J; Siegel, Eliot L; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N

    2009-02-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below -400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  4. Fabrication of Low-Density Foam Liners in Hohlraums for NIF Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandarkar, Suhas; Baumann, Ted; Alfonso, Noel

    Low-density foam liners are seen as a means to mitigate hohlraum wall motion that can interfere with the inner set of beams that are pointed toward the middle section of the hohlraum. These liners need to meet several requirements, most notably the material choice and the maximum allowable solid fraction and thickness, which necessitate development of new processing capabilities. In this paper, we discuss our strategy and work on fabrication of a tantalum oxide foam liner and its assembly into targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Finally, in particular, we discuss our approach to finding solutions to the uniquemore » challenges that come up in working with such low-density materials so as to be able establish a viable platform for production of cryogenic targets for NIF with foam-lined hohlraums.« less

  5. Fabrication of Low-Density Foam Liners in Hohlraums for NIF Targets

    DOE PAGES

    Bhandarkar, Suhas; Baumann, Ted; Alfonso, Noel; ...

    2018-01-15

    Low-density foam liners are seen as a means to mitigate hohlraum wall motion that can interfere with the inner set of beams that are pointed toward the middle section of the hohlraum. These liners need to meet several requirements, most notably the material choice and the maximum allowable solid fraction and thickness, which necessitate development of new processing capabilities. In this paper, we discuss our strategy and work on fabrication of a tantalum oxide foam liner and its assembly into targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Finally, in particular, we discuss our approach to finding solutions to the uniquemore » challenges that come up in working with such low-density materials so as to be able establish a viable platform for production of cryogenic targets for NIF with foam-lined hohlraums.« less

  6. Inception cohort study of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate at a polyurethane foam factory: initial one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gui, Wei; Wisnewski, Adam V; Neamtiu, Iulia; Gurzau, Eugen; Sparer, Judith A; Stowe, Meredith H; Liu, Jian; Slade, Martin D; Rusu, Olivia A; Redlich, Carrie A

    2014-11-01

    Isocyanates are one of the most commonly reported causes of occupational asthma; however, the risks of developing isocyanate asthma in modern production facilities remain poorly defined. We evaluated TDI exposure and respiratory health among an inception cohort of workers during their first year of employment at a new polyurethane foam production factory. Forty-nine newly hired workers were evaluated pre-employment, 6-months, and 12-months post-employment through questionnaire, spirometry, and TDI-specific serology. Airborne TDI levels were monitored by fixed-point air sampling and limited personal sampling. Qualitative surface SWYPE™ tests were performed to evaluate potential sources of skin exposure. Airborne TDI levels overall were low; over 90% of fixed-point air measurements were below the limit of detection (0.1 ppb). Over the first year of employment, 12 of the 49 original workers (24.5%) were lost to follow-up, no additional workers were enrolled, and seven of the 49 original workers (14.2%) developed either new asthma symptoms (N = 3), TDI-specific IgG (N = 1), new airflow obstruction (N = 1) and/or a decline in FEV1  ≥ 15% (N = 3), findings that could indicate TDI-related health effects. The prevalence of current asthma symptoms was significantly higher in the workers lost to follow-up compared to those who completed the 12-month follow-up (25% vs. 2.7%; P = 0.04). The findings suggest possible early TDI-related health effects in a modern polyurethane production plant. These findings also highlight the need for further longitudinal evaluation of these workers and the challenges of studying workers at risk for isocyanate asthma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inception Cohort Study of Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate at a Polyurethane Foam Factory: Initial One-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Wei; Wisnewski, Adam V.; Neamtiu, Iulia; Gurzau, Eugen; Sparer, Judith A.; Stowe, Meredith H.; Liu, Jian; Slade, Martin D.; Rusu, Olivia A.; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Isocyanates are one of the most commonly reported causes of occupational asthma; however, the risks of developing isocyanate asthma in modern production facilities remain poorly defined. We evaluated TDI exposure and respiratory health among an inception cohort of workers during their first year of employment at a new polyurethane foam production factory. Methods Forty-nine newly hired workers were evaluated pre-employment, 6-months, and 12-months post-employment through questionnaire, spirometry and TDI-specific serology. Airborne TDI levels were monitored by fixed-point air sampling and limited personal sampling. Qualitative surface SWYPE™ tests were performed to evaluate potential sources of skin exposure. Results Airborne TDI levels overall were low; over 90% of fixed-point air measurements were below the limit of detection (0.1 ppb). Over the first year of employment,12 of the 49 original workers (24.5%) were lost to follow-up, no additional workers were enrolled, and seven of the 49 original workers (14.2%) developed either new asthma symptoms (N=3), TDI-specific IgG (N=1), new airflow obstruction (N=1) and/or a decline in FEV1≥ 15% (N=3), findings that could indicate TDI-related health effects.The prevalence of current asthma symptoms was significantly higher in the workers lost to follow-up compared to those who completed the 12 month follow-up (25% vs.2.7%; p=0.04). Conclusions The findings suggest possible early TDI-related health effects in a modern polyurethane production plant. These findings also highlight the need for further longitudinal evaluation of these workers and the challenges of studying workers at risk for isocyanate asthma. PMID:25266741

  8. Direct Laser Writing of Low-Density Interdigitated Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping [Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Nanostitched Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping

    DOE PAGES

    Oakdale, James S.; Smith, Raymond F.; Forien, Jean -Baptiste; ...

    2017-09-27

    Monolithic porous bulk materials have many promising applications ranging from energy storage and catalysis to high energy density physics. High resolution additive manufacturing techniques, such as direct laser writing via two photon polymerization (DLW-TPP), now enable the fabrication of highly porous microlattices with deterministic morphology control. In this work, DLW-TPP is used to print millimeter-sized foam reservoirs (down to 0.06 g cm –3) with tailored density-gradient profiles, where density is varied by over an order of magnitude (for instance from 0.6 to 0.06 g cm –3) along a length of <100 µm. Taking full advantage of this technology, however, ismore » a multiscale materials design problem that requires detailed understanding of how the different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscopic dimensions, affect each other. The design of these 3D-printed foams is based on the brickwork arrangement of 100 × 100 × 16 µm 3 log-pile blocks constructed from sub-micrometer scale features. A block-to-block interdigitated stitching strategy is introduced for obtaining high density uniformity at all length scales. Lastly, these materials are used to shape plasma-piston drives during ramp-compression of targets under high energy density conditions created at the OMEGA Laser Facility.« less

  9. Direct Laser Writing of Low-Density Interdigitated Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping [Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Nanostitched Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping

    SciTech Connect

    Oakdale, James S.; Smith, Raymond F.; Forien, Jean -Baptiste

    Monolithic porous bulk materials have many promising applications ranging from energy storage and catalysis to high energy density physics. High resolution additive manufacturing techniques, such as direct laser writing via two photon polymerization (DLW-TPP), now enable the fabrication of highly porous microlattices with deterministic morphology control. In this work, DLW-TPP is used to print millimeter-sized foam reservoirs (down to 0.06 g cm –3) with tailored density-gradient profiles, where density is varied by over an order of magnitude (for instance from 0.6 to 0.06 g cm –3) along a length of <100 µm. Taking full advantage of this technology, however, ismore » a multiscale materials design problem that requires detailed understanding of how the different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscopic dimensions, affect each other. The design of these 3D-printed foams is based on the brickwork arrangement of 100 × 100 × 16 µm 3 log-pile blocks constructed from sub-micrometer scale features. A block-to-block interdigitated stitching strategy is introduced for obtaining high density uniformity at all length scales. Lastly, these materials are used to shape plasma-piston drives during ramp-compression of targets under high energy density conditions created at the OMEGA Laser Facility.« less

  10. On the implicit density based OpenFOAM solver for turbulent compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, Jiří

    The contribution deals with the development of coupled implicit density based solver for compressible flows in the framework of open source package OpenFOAM. However the standard distribution of OpenFOAM contains several ready-made segregated solvers for compressible flows, the performance of those solvers is rather week in the case of transonic flows. Therefore we extend the work of Shen [15] and we develop an implicit semi-coupled solver. The main flow field variables are updated using lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel method (LU-SGS) whereas the turbulence model variables are updated using implicit Euler method.

  11. Synthesis of nanostructured/macroscopic low-density copper foams based on metal-coated polymer core–shell particles [Templated synthesis of nanowalled low-density copper foams

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Ho; Bazin, Nick; Shaw, Jessica I.

    A robust, millimeter-sized low-density Cu foam with ~90% (v/v) porosity, ~30 nm thick walls, and ~1 μm diameter spherical pores is prepared by the slip-casting of metal-coated polymer core–shell particles followed by a thermal removal of the polymer. In this paper, we report our key findings that enable the development of the low-density Cu foams. First, we need to synthesize polystyrene (PS) particles coated with a very thin Cu layer (in the range of tens of nanometers). A simple reduction in the amount of Cu deposited onto the PS was not sufficient to form such a low-density Cu foams duemore » to issues related to foam collapse and densification upon the subsequent polymer removal step. Precise control over the morphology of the Cu coating on the particles is essential for the synthesis of a lower density of foams. Second, improving the dispersion of PS–Cu particles in a suspension used for the casting as well as careful optimization of a baking condition minimize the formation of irregular large voids, leading to Cu foams with a more uniform packing and a better connectivity of neighboring Cu hollow shells. Finally, we analyzed mechanical properties of the Cu foams with a depth-sensing indentation test. The uniform Cu foams show a significant improvement in mechanical properties (~1.5× modulus and ~3× hardness) compared to those of uncontrolled foam samples with a similar foam density but irregular large voids. As a result, higher surface areas and a good electric conductivity of the Cu foams present a great potential to future applications.« less

  12. Synthesis of nanostructured/macroscopic low-density copper foams based on metal-coated polymer core–shell particles [Templated synthesis of nanowalled low-density copper foams

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Sung Ho; Bazin, Nick; Shaw, Jessica I.; ...

    2016-12-06

    A robust, millimeter-sized low-density Cu foam with ~90% (v/v) porosity, ~30 nm thick walls, and ~1 μm diameter spherical pores is prepared by the slip-casting of metal-coated polymer core–shell particles followed by a thermal removal of the polymer. In this paper, we report our key findings that enable the development of the low-density Cu foams. First, we need to synthesize polystyrene (PS) particles coated with a very thin Cu layer (in the range of tens of nanometers). A simple reduction in the amount of Cu deposited onto the PS was not sufficient to form such a low-density Cu foams duemore » to issues related to foam collapse and densification upon the subsequent polymer removal step. Precise control over the morphology of the Cu coating on the particles is essential for the synthesis of a lower density of foams. Second, improving the dispersion of PS–Cu particles in a suspension used for the casting as well as careful optimization of a baking condition minimize the formation of irregular large voids, leading to Cu foams with a more uniform packing and a better connectivity of neighboring Cu hollow shells. Finally, we analyzed mechanical properties of the Cu foams with a depth-sensing indentation test. The uniform Cu foams show a significant improvement in mechanical properties (~1.5× modulus and ~3× hardness) compared to those of uncontrolled foam samples with a similar foam density but irregular large voids. As a result, higher surface areas and a good electric conductivity of the Cu foams present a great potential to future applications.« less

  13. Observation of Transonic Ionization Fronts in Low-Density Foam Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D.; Barringer, L.; Vickers, C.; Willi, O.; Nazarov, W.

    1999-04-01

    Transonic ionization fronts have been observed in low-density chlorinated foam targets using time-resolved K-shell absorption spectroscopy. The front was driven by an intense pulse of soft x rays produced by high-power laser irradiation of a thin foil. The density and temperature profiles inferred from the radiographs provided detailed measurement of the conditions at a number of times. The experimental data were compared to radiation hydrodynamics simulations and reasonable agreement was obtained.

  14. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their prepartion

    DOEpatents

    Hopper, Robert W.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  15. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, R.W.; Pekala, R.W.

    1987-04-30

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  16. On-line determination of Sb(III) and total Sb using baker's yeast immobilized on polyurethane foam and hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegário, Amauri A.; Silva, Ariovaldo José; Pozzi, Eloísa; Durrant, Steven F.; Abreu, Cassio H.

    2006-09-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was immobilized in cubes of polyurethane foam and the ability of this immobilized material to separate Sb(III) and Sb(V) was investigated. A method based on sequential determination of total Sb (after on-line reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) with thiourea) and Sb(III) (after on-line solid-liquid phase extraction) by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry is proposed. A flow system assembled with solenoid valves was used to manage all stages of the process. The effects of pH, sample loading and elution flow rates on solid-liquid phase extraction of Sb(III) were evaluated. Also, the parameters related to on-line pre-reduction (reaction coil and flow rates) were optimized. Detection limits of 0.8 and 0.15 μg L - 1 were obtained for total Sb and Sb(III), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water and effluent samples. The results obtained for the determination of total Sb were in agreement with expected values, including the river water Standard Reference Material 1640 certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Recoveries of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked samples were between 81 ± 19 and 111 ±15% when 120 s of sample loading were used.

  17. Development and application of stir bar sorptive extraction with polyurethane foams for the determination of testosterone and methenolone in urine matrices.

    PubMed

    Sequeiros, R C P; Neng, N R; Portugal, F C M; Pinto, M L; Pires, J; Nogueira, J M F

    2011-04-01

    This work describes the development, validation, and application of a novel methodology for the determination of testosterone and methenolone in urine matrices by stir bar sorptive extraction using polyurethane foams [SBSE(PU)] followed by liquid desorption and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The methodology was optimized in terms of extraction time, agitation speed, pH, ionic strength and organic modifier, as well as back-extraction solvent and desorption time. Under optimized experimental conditions, convenient accuracy were achieved with average recoveries of 49.7 8.6% for testosterone and 54.2 ± 4.7% for methenolone. Additionally, the methodology showed good precision (<9%), excellent linear dynamic ranges (>0.9963) and convenient detection limits (0.2-0.3 μg/L). When comparing the efficiency obtained by SBSE(PU) and with the conventional polydimethylsiloxane phase [SBSE(PDMS)], yields up to four-fold higher are attained for the former, under the same experimental conditions. The application of the proposed methodology for the analysis of testosterone and methenolone in urine matrices showed negligible matrix effects and good analytical performance.

  18. Defluoridation technology for drinking water and tea by green synthesized Fe3O4/Al2O3 nanoparticles coated polyurethane foams for rural communities.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sonu; Khan, Suphiya

    2017-08-14

    Fluoride (F) contaminated ground water poses a serious public health concern to rural population with unaffordable purification technologies. Therefore, development of a cost-effective, portable, environment and user-friendly defluoridation technique is imperative. In the present study, we report on the development of a green and cost-effective method that utilizes Fe 3 O 4 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized using jojoba defatted meal. These NPs were impregnated on to polyurethane foam (PUF) and made into tea infusion bags. The Al 2 O 3 NPs-PUF displayed a higher water defluoridation capacity of 43.47 mg g -1 of F as compared to 34.48 mg g -1 of F with Fe 3 O 4 NPs-PUF. The synthesized Al 2 O 3 -PUF infusion bags removed the F that was under the permissible limit of 1.5 mg L -1 . The sorption experiments were conducted to verify the effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, size of PUF and initial F concentration. The different properties of adsorbent were characterized using a combination of FESEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR techniques, respectively. The calculated total cost per NPs-PUF pouch developed is as low as US $0.05, which makes the technology most suitable for rural communities. This paper will be beneficial for researchers working toward further improvement in water purification technologies.

  19. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-06-16

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L-1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L-1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h-l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents.

  20. Assessing and monitoring the ecotoxicity of pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields using the polyurethane foam unit method based on monitoring protozoal communities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cheng; Chen, Tianming; Li, Zhaoxia; Yan, Jinlong

    2015-05-01

    Using the standardized polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, a preliminary investigation was carried out on the bioaccumulation and the ecotoxic effects of the pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields. Static ectoxicity test had shown protozoal communities were very sensitive to variations in toxin time and effective concentration (EC) of the pulp and paper wastewater. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) was a more suitable indicator of the extent of water pollution than Gleason and Margalef diversity index (d), Simpson's diversity index (D), and Pielou's index (J). The regression equation between S eq and EC was S eq  = - 0.118EC + 18.554. The relatively safe concentration and maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) of the wastewater for the protozoal communities were about 20 % and 42 %, respectively. To safely use this wastewater for irrigation, more than 58 % of the toxins must be removed or diluted by further processing. Monitoring of the wastewater in representative irrigated reed fields showed that the regularity of the protozoal colonization process was similar to the static ectoxicity, indicating that the toxicity of the irrigating pulp and paper wastewater was not lethal to protozoal communities in the reed fields. This study demonstrated the applicability of the PFU method in monitoring the ecotoxic effects of pulp and paper wastewater on the level of microbial communities and may guide the supervision and control of pulp and paper wastewater irrigating within the reed fields ecological system (RFES).

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) accumulation by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to biosolids-, polyurethane foam microparticle-, and Penta-BDE-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, Michael O; Harvey, Ellen; Hale, Robert C

    2013-12-03

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been used in consumer polymers at up to percent levels. While long viewed as biologically inaccessible therein, PBDEs may become bioaccessible following volatilization or polymer deterioration. PBDEs may then enter soils via polymer fragmentation or following land application of sewage sludge-derived biosolids. Studies of direct PBDE uptake from these materials by soil organisms are scarce. We thus exposed earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) to artificial soil amended with a Class B anaerobically digested biosolid (ADB), an exceptional quality composted biosolid (CB), PBDE-containing polyurethane foam (PUF) microparticles, and Penta-BDE-spiked artificial soil (SAS). Worms accumulated mg/kg (lipid) ∑Penta-PBDE burdens from all substrates. Biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for worms exposed to ADB- and CB-amended soils were comparable after 28 d. BSAFs generally decreased with increasing congener KOW and substrate dosage. Biosolids-associated PBDE bioavailability was lower than spiked PBDEs. BSAFs for worms exposed to PUF microparticles ranged from 3.9 to 33.4, with ∑Penta-PBDE tissue burdens reaching 3740 mg/kg lipid. Congener accumulation patterns were similar in worms and polyethylene passive sampling devices immersed in ADB-amended soil coincident with exposed worms. However, passive sampler accumulation factors were lower than BSAFs. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs may accumulate in organisms ingesting soils containing biosolids or waste plastics. Such organisms may then transfer their burdens to predators or translocate them from the site of application/disposal.

  2. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-01-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L−1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L−1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h−l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  3. Measurement of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for semivolatile organic compounds as a function of temperature: Application to passive air sampler monitoring.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Ana Paula; Harner, Tom; Eng, Anita

    2017-05-01

    Polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients (K PUF-air ) for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 10 alkyl-substituted PAHs, 4 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dibenzothiophene were measured as a function of temperature over the range 5 °C-35 °C, using a generator column approach. Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔH PUF-air , kJ/mol) were determined from the slopes of log K PUF-air versus 1000/T (K), and have an average value of 81.2 ± 7.03 kJ/mol. The log K PUF-air values at 22 °C ranged from 4.99 to 7.25. A relationship for log K PUF-air versus log K OA was shown to agree with a previous relationship based on only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and derived from long-term indoor uptake study experiments. The results also confirm that the existing K OA -based model for predicting log K PUF-air values is accurate. This new information is important in the derivation of uptake profiles and effective air sampling volumes for PUF disk samplers so that results can be reported in units of concentration in air. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Outdoor passive air monitoring of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs): a critical evaluation of performance and limitations of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, P; Audy, O; Škrdlíková, L; Kukučka, P; Přibylová, P; Prokeš, R; Vojta, Š; Klánová, J

    2014-03-01

    The most commonly used passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. polyurethane foam (PUF) disk) is cheap, versatile, and capable of accumulating compounds present both in gas and particle phases. Its performance for particle associated compounds is however disputable. In this study, twelve sets of triplicate PUF-PAS were deployed outdoors for exposure periods of 1-12 weeks together with continuously operated active samplers, to characterize sampling efficiency and derive sampling rates (RS) for compounds belonging to 7 SVOC classes (including particle associated compounds). PUF-PAS efficiently and consistently sampled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and eight novel brominated flame retardant (nBFR) compounds. Low accuracy and lack of sensitivity was observed for most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans PCDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (under the conditions of this study), with the exception of some congeners which may be used as qualitative markers for their respective classes. Application of compound specific RS was found crucial for all compounds except PCBs. Sampling efficiency of the particle associated compounds was often low.

  5. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Efstathiou, Christos; Pozo, Katerine; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano

    2015-10-01

    Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening of atmospheric short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in India and Pakistan using polyurethane foam based passive air sampler.

    PubMed

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Hussain Syed, Jabir; Naseem Malik, Riffat; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-05-06

    Production and use of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been increasing in India. Distribution of CPs in the area and vicinity have become a great concern due to their persistency and toxicity. Polyurethane foam based passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) was deployed in order to screen the presence of short- and medium- chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in the outdoor atmosphere at many sites in India (in winter 2006) and Pakistan (in winter 2011). Concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from not detected (ND) to 47.4 and 0 to 38.2 ng m(-3) with means of 8.11 and 4.83 ng m(-3), respectively. Indian concentrations showed higher average levels of both SCCPs and MCCPs India (10.2 ng m(-3) and 3.62 ng m(-3)than the samples from Pakistan (5.13 ng m(-3) and 4.21 ng m(-3)). Relative abundance patterns of carbon number are C10 > C11 > C12 ∼ C13 for SCCPs and C14 > C15 > C16 C17 for MCCP with similarity to the profiles of samples from China, the biggest CPs producer in the world. Principal Component Analysis suggested that detected SCCPs and MCCPs in this study originated from the same emission source.

  7. Incidence of cancer and exposure to toluene diisocyanate and methylene diphenyldiisocyanate: a cohort based case-referent study in the polyurethane foam manufacturing industry.

    PubMed Central

    Hagmar, L; Strömberg, U; Welinder, H; Mikoczy, Z

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the association between occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate or methylene diphenyldiisocyanate and risk of cancer. DESIGN--A cohort based case-referent study. STUDY BASE--7023 subjects employed during the period 1958 to 1987 in nine Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing plants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios adjusted with respect to the matching factors (age at risk, calendar year at risk, sex, and plant), calculated from the conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS--A non-significant association was found between high exposure to isocyanates and prostate cancer (OR 2.66, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.39-18.1), which was not enhanced when an induction latency period of 10 years was applied. An association between isocyanate exposure and colon cancer was even weaker. No associations were seen for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS--The tentative associations, derived from a previous cohort study, between isocyanate exposure and excess risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectal cancer were not supported. Instead, non-significant associations with prostate cancer, and possibly colon cancer, were seen. PMID:8280625

  8. Catalytic performance of quinone and graphene-modified polyurethane foam on the decolorization of azo dye Acid Red 18 by Shewanella sp. RQs-106.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Lu, Hong; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jiti; Leng, Xueying; Liu, Guangfei

    2018-08-15

    Quinone-modified graphene powder is not reusable in bio-treatment systems, and the roles of quinone and graphene during extracellular electron-transfer processes remain unclear. In this study, we prepared anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and reduced graphene-oxide-modified polyurethane foam (AQS-rGO-PUF) and found that AQS-rGO-PUF exhibited higher catalytic performance on Acid Red 18 (AR 18) bio-decolorization compared with AQS-PUF and rGO-PUF. We observed a significant synergistic effect between AQS and rGO in AQS-rGO-PUF-mediated system in the presence of 50 μM AQS and 1.63 mg/L rGO. The synergistic effect was mainly attributed to electron transfer from AQS to rGO either directly or via flavins secreted by strain RQs-106, and ultimately to AR 18, accounting for ∼33.47% of AR 18 removal during AQS-rGO-PUF-mediated decolorization. Additionally, AQS-rGO-PUF exhibited good mechanical properties and maintained its macroporous structure. Furthermore, after eight rounds of experiments using AQS-rGO-PUF, the bio-decolorization efficiency of AR 18 retained >98.18% of its original value. These results indicate that the combination of AQS-rGO-PUF and Shewanella strains show potential efficacy for enhancing the treatment of azo-dye-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On-line preconcentration/determination of lead in Ilex paraguariensis samples (mate tea) using polyurethane foam as filter and USN-ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, P F; Sales, A; Cerutti, S; Marchevski, E; Martinez, L D

    2005-09-30

    The present paper proposes an on-line preconcentration procedure for lead determination in Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) samples by ultrasonic nebulization associated to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (USN-ICP-OES). It is based on the precipitation of lead(II) ion on a minicolumn packed with polyurethane foam using 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridilazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) as precipitating reagent. The collected analyte precipitate was quantitatively eluted from the minicolumn with 20% (v/v) nitric acid. An enhancement factor of 225-fold was obtained (15 for USN and 15 for preconcentration). The detection limit (DL) value for the preconcentration of 10.0 ml of sample was 40.0 ng/l. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 3.0% for a Pb concentration of 1 microg/l, calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for lead was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 microg/l. The preconcentration procedure was successfully applied to the determination of lead in mate tea samples.

  10. Morphologies, Processing and Properties of Ceramic Foams from Pre-Ceramic Foams from Pre-Ceramic Polymer Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Simoes, Conan R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The current research is focused on processing ceramic foams that have potential as a thermal protection material. Ceramic foams with different architectures were formed from the pyrolysis of pre-ceramic polymers at 1200 C in different atmospheres. In some systems a sacrificial polyurethane was used as the blowing agent. We have also processed foams using sacrificial fillers to introduce controlled cell sizes. Each sacrificial filler or blowing agent leads to a unique morphology. The effect of different fillers on foam morphologies will be presented. The presentation will also focus on characterization of these foams in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. Foams processed using these approaches having bulk densities ranging from 0.15 to 0.9 g per cubic centimeter and a cell sizes from 5 to 500 micrometers. Compression strengths ranged from 2 to 7 MPa for these materials.

  11. Effect of Microstructural Parameters on the Relative Densities of Metal Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Kerr, Jacob A.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed quantitative microstructural analyses of primarily open cell FeCrAlY and 314 stainless steel metal foams with different relative densities and pores per inch (p.p.i.) were undertaken in the present investigation to determine the effect of microstructural parameters on the relative densities of metal foams. Several elements of the microstructure, such as longitudinal and transverse cell sizes, cell areas and perimeters, ligament dimensions, cell shapes and volume fractions of closed and open cells, were measured. The cross-sections of the foam ligaments showed a large number of shrinkage cavities, and their circularity factors and average sizes were determined. The volume fractions of closed cells increased linearly with increasing relative density. In contrast, the volume fractions of the open cells and ligaments decreased with increasing relative density. The relative densities and p.p.i. were not significantly dependent on cell size, cell perimeter and ligament dimensions within the limits of experimental scatter. A phenomenological model is proposed to rationalize the present microstructural observations.

  12. Experimental Characterization of the Energy Absorption of Functionally Graded Foam Filled Tubes Under Axial Crushing Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Saeed; Vahdatazad, Nader; Liaghat, Gholamhossein

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the energy absorption characterization of functionally graded foam (FGF) filled tubes under axial crushing loads by experimental method. The FGF tubes are filled axially by gradient layers of polyurethane foams with different densities. The mechanical properties of the polyurethane foams are firstly obtained from axial compressive tests. Then, the quasi-static compressive tests are carried out for empty tubes, uniform foam filled tubes and FGF filled tubes. Before to present the experimental test results, a nonlinear FEM simulation of the FGF filled tube is carried out in ABAQUS software to gain more insight into the crush deformation patterns, as well as the energy absorption capability of the FGF filled tube. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. Finally, the results of experimental test show that an FGF filled tube has excellent energy absorption capacity compared to the ordinary uniform foam-filled tube with the same weight.

  13. Flexible Foam Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented intomore » SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.« less

  14. Foaming Volume and Foam Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-02-01

    for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends...methodofmeasuringfoamingvolumeisdescribedandinvestigated to establishthecriticalfactorsin itsoperation.Dataon foaming ...zethatfoamstabll. # itymeasurementsshouldbe takenipcon@.n@ionwithmeasurementsof foam density.It iseasilyrecognizedthatinitialfoamdensities,asmeasured by

  15. Exposure to 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) during moulding of rigid polyurethane foam: determination of airborne MDI and urinary 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA).

    PubMed

    Kääriä, K; Hirvonen, A; Norppa, H; Piirilä, P; Vainio, H; Rosenberg, C

    2001-04-01

    Occupational exposure to 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was measured during moulding of rigid polyurethane foam. The aim of the study was to find out whether an MDI-derived urinary amine metabolite could be detected in the urine of workers exposed to apparently low levels of MDI. Airborne MDI was sampled on 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine (2MP)-impregnated glass fibre filters and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultraviolet (UV) and electrochemical (EC) detection. The limit of detection of MDI was 3 ng ml-1 for a 20 microliters injection. The precision of sample preparation, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was 1.3% with UV detection and 2.1% with EC detection at a concentration of 70 ng MDI ml-1 (n = 6). The 2MP-MDI derivative was stable at +4 degrees C up to eight weeks. The accuracy of the method was validated in an international quality control programme. Workers (n = 57) from three different factories participated in the study. Urinary 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) metabolite was determined after acid hydrolysis as heptafluorobutyric anhydride derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using chemical ionisation and monitoring negative ions. The limit of detection in urine was 0.2 nmol l-1. The precision of six analyses for a urine sample spiked to a concentration of 1 nmol l-1 was 29% (RSD). The MDI concentrations were below the limit of detection in most (64%) of the air samples collected in the worker's breathing zone. Still, detectable amounts of MDA were found in 97% of the urine samples. Monitoring of urinary MDA appears to be an appropriate method of assessing MDI exposure in work environments with low or undetectable MDI concentrations in the workplace air.

  16. Evaluation of model parameters for growth, tannic acid utilization and tannase production in Bacillus gottheilii M2S2 using polyurethane foam blocks as support.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Subbalaxmi; Vytla, Ramachandra Murty

    2017-10-01

    Production of tannase from B. gottheilii M2S2 was studied under solid-state fermentation with an optimized medium consisting of polyurethane foam matrix of dimension 40 × 40 × 5 mm, impregnated with a liquid medium comprising (w/v): 4% tannic acid; 2% NH 4 NO 3 ; 0.1% KH 2 PO 4 ; 0.2% MgSO 4 ; 0.1% NaCl and 0.05% CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O in distilled water, having a pH of 4.7. Maximum tannase production of 56.87 U/L was obtained after 32 h of fermentation at 32 °C in static condition. This study deals with the evaluation of unstructured kinetic models to understand the behavior of biomass, tannase production and tannic acid degradation, with the fermentation time. The growth rate of B. gottheilii M2S2 was 0.0703 h -1 at 32 h of fermentation. Product ( Y x/s ) and biomass yield ( Y p/s ) coefficients were estimated as 1.77 U/g of tannic acid and 0.276 g of biomass/g of tannic acid. All the kinetic constants µ , α , β , m and n were evaluated using MATLAB 2015Rb program. The experimental and model-generated data showed a good correlation, which indicated that these models will describe tannase production and fermentation process.

  17. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in the ambient air of Bursa-Turkey: Spatial and temporal variations and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Birgül, Aşkın; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Alegria, Henry; Gungormus, Elif; Celik, Halil; Cicek, Tugba; Güven, Emine Can

    2017-02-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were employed to assess air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in background, agricultural, semi-urban, urban and industrial sites in Bursa, Turkey. Samplers were deployed for approximately 2-month periods from February to December 2014 in five sampling campaign. Results showed a clear rural-agricultural-semi-urban-urban-industrial PCBs concentration gradient. Considering all sampling periods, ambient air concentrations of Σ 43 PCBs ranged from 9.6 to 1240 pg/m 3 at all sites with an average of 24.1 ± 8.2, 43.8 ± 24.4, 140 ± 190, 42.8 ± 24.6, 160 ± 280, 84.1 ± 105, 170 ± 150 and 280 ± 540 pg/m 3 for Mount Uludag, Uludag University Campus, Camlica, Bursa Technical University Osmangazi Campus, Hamitler, Agakoy, Kestel Organised Industrial District and Demirtas Organised Industrial District sampling sites, respectively. The ambient air PCB concentrations increased along a gradient from background to industrial areas by a factor of 1.7-11.4. 4-Cl PCBs (31.50-81.60%) was the most dominant homologue group at all sampling sites followed by 3-Cl, 7-Cl, 6-Cl and 5-Cl homologue groups. Sampling locations and potential sources grouped in principal component analysis. Results of PCA plots highlighted a large variability of the PCB mixture in air, hence possible related sources, in Bursa area. Calculated inhalation risk levels in this study indicated no serious adverse health effects. This study is one of few efforts to characterize PCB composition in ambient air seasonally and spatially for urban and industrial areas of Turkey by using passive samplers as an alternative sampling method for concurrent monitoring at multiple sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A preliminary study of silver sodium zirconium phosphate polyurethane foam wound dressing on wounds of the distal aspect of the forelimb in horses.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Maureen E; Kilcoyne, Isabelle; Dechant, Julie E; Hummer, Emma; Kass, Philip H; Snyder, Jack R

    2015-04-01

    To determine if application of silver sodium zirconium phosphate polyurethane semi-occlusive foam (SPF) dressing would improve measures of wound healing and decrease bacterial contamination compared with a non-adherent, absorbent dressing applied to wounds created on the distal aspect of the equine limb. Controlled randomized experimental study. Adult Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred horses (n = 5). One 6.25 cm(2) wound was created on the dorsomedial aspect of the proximal metacarpus on each forelimb. A SPF dressing was applied to 1 randomly assigned limb as a treatment and a non-adherent, absorbent dressing was applied to the opposite limb as control. Bandages were changed every 3 days for 60 days. Granulation tissue was scored every 3 days, wound area measured every 6 days, and wound bed was cultured every 12 days. SPF-treatment wounds had significantly decreased wound area and decreased granulation tissue scores when evaluated <30 days and over the 60 day study, although complete wound healing times were not significantly different. Bacteria were cultured from all wounds at varying times throughout the study. The SPF wound dressing improved some measures of wound healing compared with the control dressing, most significantly during the first 30 days. This suggests that the SPF wound dressing may be useful in the early management of wounds on the equine lower limb. Further studies using the SPF dressing are needed to characterize the temporal and cellular effects on wound healing and evaluate this dressing in a clinical environment. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Polyurethane foam containing rhEGF as a dressing material for healing diabetic wounds: Synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Do Gi; Choi, Hyun Jun; Yoon, Hyoung Soon; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Lee, Doo Sung

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic wounds are a major health issue associated with diabetes mellitus. To surmount this issue, we developed polyurethane foams (PUFs) incorporating varying amounts of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) (rhEGF-PUFs) as a wound dressing for diabetic wounds. From electron microscopy images, it was found that the pore size of the rhEGF-PUFs surface (the wound contact layer) was less than 100μm, regardless of rhEGF content. The release of rhEGF from the PUFs was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result showed that the release of rhEGF was time and concentration dependent, i.e., the amount of released rhEGF significantly increased as the immersion time and the rhEGF content of the PUFs increased. In vitro cytotoxicity testing showed that rhEGF-PUFs increased the viability of HaCaT human keratinocytes and CCD986-sk human fibroblasts, which indicated that the incorporated rhEGF maintained its biological activity. In an in vitro scratch wound healing assay, the wound closure rate was faster in CCD986-sk human fibroblasts than in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Finally, the rhEGF-PUFs were evaluated as an in vivo treatment in a full-thickness wound model in diabetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The result indicated that compared with PUFs, rhEGF-PUFs accelerated wound healing by promoting wound contraction, re-epithelialization, collagen deposition and the formation of a skin appendage. These findings demonstrate that rhEGF-PUFs are a promising dressing for diabetic wounds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Comparison of polyurethane foam and XAD-2 sampling matrices to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in an agricultural community

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Side-by-side active air sampling for the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxygen analog, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O) was conducted with two recommended air sampling matrices: OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes with XAD-2 resin, polyurethane foam (PUF) tubes, and passive PUF deposition disks. The study compared the proportion of artificially transformed CPF-O in the laboratory and in the field during a tree fruit application in Washington State. Lab results demonstrated that the NIOSH-recommended OVS tubes artificially transformed up to 32% of CPF to CPF-O during the sampling process, whereas PUF tubes had little to no artificial transformation (≤ 0.1%). In the field, the proportion of CPF-O in the sample was significantly higher on OVS tubes than on PUF tubes (p < 0.001), confirming that OVS tubes were converting a significant portion of CPF to CPF-O. In addition, PUF tubes reported measurable levels CPF-O in the field even when no artificial transformation was expected. We conclude that the PUF matrix is the superior sampling medium for OP oxygen analogs when compared to XAD-2 resin. Community-located PUF tube samples 24 hours post-application had considerably higher levels CPF-O (16–21 ng/m3) than near field samples during application (2–14 ng/m3), suggesting that the oxygen analog is volatile and formed during atmospheric transport. It is recommended that worker and community risk assessments begin to take into consideration the presence of the more toxic oxygen analogs when measuring for OP pesticide mixtures. PMID:23466277

  2. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2016-09-22

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer was used to obtain spatially-resolved measurements of Ti K-more » $$\\alpha$$ emission. Density profiles were measured from K-$$\\alpha$$ intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-$$\\alpha$$ spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This study shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.« less

  3. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2016-09-28

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer obtained spatially resolved measurements of Ti K-α emission. Density profiles were measured from K-α intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-α spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This work shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.

  4. Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Johannes; Fiegl, Tobias; Körner, Carolin

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present work is the variation of the structure of aluminum integral foams regarding the thickness of the integral solid skin as well as the density profile. A modified die casting process, namely integral foam molding, is used in which an aluminum melt and blowing agent particles (magnesium hydride MgH2) are injected in a permanent steel mold. The high solidification rates at the cooled walls of the mold lead to the formation of a solid skin. In the inner region, hydrogen is released by thermal decomposition of MgH2 particles. Thus, the pore formation takes place parallel to the continuing solidification of the melt. The thickness of the solid skin and the density profile of the core strongly depend on the interplay between solidification velocity and kinetics of hydrogen release. By varying the melt and blowing agent properties, the structure of integral foams can be systematically changed to meet the requirements of the desired field of application of the produced component.

  5. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Testing of Variable Density Multilayer Insulation with a Foam Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Hastings, L.

    2001-01-01

    The multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB), with an 18-cu m liquid hydrogen tank, was used to evaluate a combination foam/multilayer combination insulation (MLI) concept. The foam element (Isofoam SS-1171) insulates during ground hold/ascent flight, and allowed a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required. The 45-layer MLI was designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Unique WI features include a variable layer density, larger but fewer double-aluminized Mylar perforations for ascent to orbit venting, and a commercially established roll-wrap installation process that reduced assembly man-hours and resulted in a roust, virtually seamless MLI. Insulation performance was measured during three test series. The spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) successfully prevented purge gas liquefaction within the MLI and resulted in the expected ground hold heat leak of 63 W/sq m. The orbit hold tests resulted in heat leaks of 0.085 and 0.22 W/sq m with warm boundary temperatures of 164 and 305 K, respectively. Compared to the best previously measured performance with a traditional MLI system, a 41-percent heat leak reduction with 25 fewer MLI layers was achieved. The MHTB MLI heat leak is half that calculated for a constant layer density MLI.

  6. High power density microbial fuel cell with flexible 3D graphene-nickel foam as anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Qian, Fang; Song, Yang; Lu, Xihong; Chen, Shaowei; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-10-01

    The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible surface area for microbial colonization and electron mediators, but also a uniform macro-porous scaffold for effective mass diffusion of the culture medium. Significantly, at a steady state of the power generation, the MFC device with flexible rGO-Ni electrodes produced an optimal volumetric power density of 661 W m-3 calculated based on the volume of anode material, or 27 W m-3 based on the volume of the anode chamber. These values are substantially higher than that of plain nickel foam, and other conventional carbon based electrodes (e.g., carbon cloth, carbon felt, and carbon paper) measured in the same conditions. To our knowledge, this is the highest volumetric power density reported for mL-scale MFC device with a pure strain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We also demonstrated that the MFC device can be operated effectively in a batch-mode at least for a week. These new 3D rGO-Ni electrodes show great promise for improving the power generation of MFC devices.The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible

  7. Polysaccharide/Surfactant complexes at the air-water interface - effect of the charge density on interfacial and foaming behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ropers, M H; Novales, B; Boué, F; Axelos, M A V

    2008-11-18

    The binding of a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) to a negatively charged natural polysaccharide (pectin) at air-solution interfaces was investigated on single interfaces and in foams, versus the linear charge densities of the polysaccharide. Besides classical methods to investigate polymer/surfactant systems, we applied, for the first time concerning these systems, the analogy between the small angle neutron scattering by foams and the neutron reflectivity of films to measure in situ film thicknesses of foams. CTAB/pectin foam films are much thicker than the pure surfactant foam film but similar for high- and low-charged pectin/CTAB systems despite the difference in structure of complexes at interfaces. The improvement of the foam properties of CTAB bound to pectin is shown to be directly related to the formation of pectin-CTAB complexes at the air-water interface. However, in opposition to surface activity, there is no specific behavior for the highly charged pectin: foam properties depend mainly upon the bulk charge concentration, while the interfacial behavior is mainly governed by the charge density of pectin. For the highly charged pectin, specific cooperative effects between neighboring charged sites along the chain are thought to be involved in the higher surface activity of pectin/CTAB complexes. A more general behavior can be obtained at lower charge density either by using a low-charged pectin or by neutralizing the highly charged pectin in decreasing pH.

  8. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714; Kim, Sang Doo

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foammore » cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.« less

  9. Repairing Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, J.; Buras, D.

    1986-01-01

    Large holes in polyurethane foam insulation repaired reliably by simple method. Little skill needed to apply method, used for overhead repairs as well as for those in other orientations. Plug positioned in hole to be filled and held in place with mounting fixture. Fresh liquid foam injected through plug to bond it in place. As foam cures and expands, it displaces plug outward. Protrusion later removed.

  10. Ultra low density biodegradable shape memory polymer foams with tunable physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Pooja; Wilson, Thomas S.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    Compositions and/or structures of degradable shape memory polymers (SMPs) ranging in form from neat/unfoamed to ultra low density materials of down to 0.005 g/cc density. These materials show controllable degradation rate, actuation temperature and breadth of transitions along with high modulus and excellent shape memory behavior. A method of m ly low density foams (up to 0.005 g/cc) via use of combined chemical and physical aking extreme blowing agents, where the physical blowing agents may be a single compound or mixtures of two or more compounds, and other related methods, including of using multiple co-blowing agents of successively higher boilingmore » points in order to achieve a large range of densities for a fixed net chemical composition. Methods of optimization of the physical properties of the foams such as porosity, cell size and distribution, cell openness etc. of these materials, to further expand their uses and improve their performance.« less

  11. Electrostatic Safety with Explosion Suppressant Foams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    the foam, and (2) sorption of alkylphenol type substances, present as oxidation inhibitors in the fuel, by the foam. It had been previously reported... alkylphenol type substances. The use of antistatic ingredients in the reticulated polyurethane foam was suggested as a means of minimizing static...foam with JP-4 are: o Removal of diethylhexyl phthalate from the foam. o Sorption of alkylphenol type compounds by the foam. Tne latter of these two

  12. Supercritical CO2 foaming of radiation crosslinked polypropylene/high-density polyethylene blend: Cell structure and tensile property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenguang; Xing, Zhe; Zhang, Mingxing; Zhao, Quan; Wang, Mouhua; Wu, Guozhong

    2017-12-01

    A blend of isotactic polypropylene (PP) with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in different PP/HDPE ratios was irradiated by γ-ray to induce cross-linking and then foamed using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a blowing agent. Radiation effect on the melting point and crystallinity were analyzed in detail. The average cell diameter and cell density were compared for PP/HDPE foams prepared under different conditions. The optimum absorbed dose for the scCO2 foaming of PP/HDPE in terms of foaming ability and cell structure was 20 kGy. Tensile measurements showed that the elongation at break and tensile strength at break of the crosslinked PP/HDPE foams were higher than the non-crosslinked ones. Of particular interest was the increase in the foaming temperature window from 4 ℃ for pristine PP to 8-12 ℃ for the radiation crosslinked PP/HDPE blends. This implies much easier handling of scCO2 foaming of crosslinked PP with the addition of HDPE.

  13. Method and composition for molding low-density desiccant syntactic-foam articles

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-12-07

    These and other objects of the invention are achieved by a process for molding to size a desiccant syntactic foam article having a density of 0.2 to 0.9 g/cc and a moisture capacity of 1 to 12% by weight, comprising the steps of: charging a mold with a powdery mixture of an activated desiccant, microspheres and a thermosetting resin, the amount of the desiccant being sufficient to provide the required moisture capacity, and the amounts of the microspheres and resin being such that the microspheres/desiccant volume fraction exceeds the packing factor by an amount sufficient to substantially avoid shrinkage without causing excessively high molding pressures; covering the mold and heating the covered mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to melt the resin; and tightly closing the mold and heating the closed mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to cure the resin, and removing the resultant desiccant syntactic foam article from the mold. In a composition of matter aspect, the present invention provides desiccant syntactic foam articles, and a composition of matter for use in molding the same.

  14. Effectiveness of using a new polyurethane foam multi-layer dressing in the sacral area to prevent the onset of pressure ulcer in the elderly with hip fractures: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Gallerani, Pina; Genco, Rossana; Bolzon, Andrea; Bombino, Caterina; Mini, Sandra; Rocchegiani, Laura; Notarnicola, Teresa; Vitulli, Arianna; Amodeo, Alfredo; Celli, Guglielmo; Taddia, Patrizia

    2018-06-01

    Hip fractures in the elderly are a serious problem for the health service due to the high rate of complications. One of these complications is pressure ulcers that, according to the literature, occur in 8.8% to 55% of patients and mainly arise in the sacral area. The present randomised controlled trial tests whether applying a new innovative multi-layer polyurethane foam dressing (ALLEVYN LIFE™), reduces the onset of pressure ulcers in the sacral area. From March to December 2016, 359 fragility hip fracture patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 182 in the control group and 177 in the experimental group. Pressure ulcers occurred overall in 36 patients (10%): 8 patients (4.5%) in the experimental group compared to 28 (15.4%) in the control group: P = 0.001, relative risk 0.29 (95% CI 0.14-0.61) with NNT of 9 (95% CI 6-21). In the experimental group the onset of pressure ulcers occurred on average on the 6th day compared to the 4th day in the control group (HR 4.4). Using polyurethane foam is effective at reducing the rate of pressure ulcers in the sacrum in elderly patients with hip fracture. The adhesiveness of this device also enables costs to be kept down. © 2018 The Authors. International Wound Journal published by Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Quantum Chemical Simulation of the Interaction of Functional Groups in Polyurethanes with 3 d-Metal Ions During Their Extraction from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksenofontov, M. A.; Bobkova, E. Yu.; Shundalau, M. B.; Ostrovskaya, L. E.; Vasil'eva, V. S.

    2017-11-01

    The interaction of the functional groups in the polyurethane foam adsorbent Penopurm® with the cations of some 3d-metals upon their extraction from aqueous solutions has been studied by atomic emission spectroscopy, UV/Vis and vibrational IR spectroscopy, and quantum chemical simulation using density functional theory. Penopurm® absorbs 3d-metal cations from aqueous solutions in the pH range 5-7. Some spectral criteria have been found indicating a predominant interaction of Ni2+ ions with various fragments of the polyurethane foam structure.

  16. High Density Polyetherurethane Foam as a Fragmentation and Radiographic Surrogate for Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Christina L; Heiner, Anneliese D; Brandser, Eric A; Marsh, J Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D

    2000-01-01

    Background Although one of the most important factors in predicting outcome of articular fracture, the comminution of the fracture is only subjectively assessed. To facilitate development of objective, quantitative measures of comminution phenomena, there is need for a bone fragmentation surrogate. Methods Laboratory investigation was undertaken to develop and characterize a novel synthetic material capable of emulating the fragmentation and radiographic behavior of human cortical bone. Result Screening tests performed with a drop tower apparatus identified high-density polyetherurethane foam as having suitable fragmentation properties. The material's impact behavior and its quasi-static mechanical properties are here described. Dispersal of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in the resin achieved radio-density closely resembling that of bone, without detectably altering mechanical behavior. The surrogate material's ultimate strength, elastic modulus, and quasi-static toughness are within an order of magnitude of those of mammalian cortical bone. The spectrum of comminution patterns produced by this material when impacted with varying amounts of energy is very comparable to the spectrum of bone fragment comminution seen clinically. Conclusions A novel high-density polyetherurethane foam, when subjected to impact loading, sustains comminuted fracture in a manner strikingly similar to cortical bone. Moreover, since the material also can be doped with radio-opacifier so as to closely emulate bone's radiographic signature, it opens many new possibilities for CT-based systematic study of comminution phenomena. PMID:10934621

  17. Storage-stable foamable polyurethane is activated by heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Polyurethane foamable mixture remains inert in storage unit activated to produce a rapid foaming reaction. The storage-stable foamable composition is spread as a paste on the surface of an expandable structure and, when heated, yields a rigid open-cell polyurethane foam that is self-bondable to the substrate.

  18. Analysis of x-ray tomography data of an extruded low density styrenic foam: an image analysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jui-Ching; Heeschen, William

    2016-10-01

    Extruded styrenic foams are low density foams that are widely used for thermal insulation. It is difficult to precisely characterize the structure of the cells in low density foams by traditional cross-section viewing due to the frailty of the walls of the cells. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a non-destructive, three dimensional structure characterization technique that has great potential for structure characterization of styrenic foams. Unfortunately the intrinsic artifacts of the data and the artifacts generated during image reconstruction are often comparable in size and shape to the thin walls of the foam, making robust and reliable analysis of cell sizes challenging. We explored three different image processing methods to clean up artifacts in the reconstructed images, thus allowing quantitative three dimensional determination of cell size in a low density styrenic foam. Three image processing approaches - an intensity based approach, an intensity variance based approach, and a machine learning based approach - are explored in this study, and the machine learning image feature classification method was shown to be the best. Individual cells are segmented within the images after the images were cleaned up using the three different methods and the cell sizes are measured and compared in the study. Although the collected data with the image analysis methods together did not yield enough measurements for a good statistic of the measurement of cell sizes, the problem can be resolved by measuring multiple samples or increasing imaging field of view.

  19. A multi-center, randomized, clinical trial comparing adhesive polyurethane foam dressing and adhesive hydrocolloid dressing in patients with grade II pressure ulcers in primary care and nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Solà, Mireia; Soler Mieras, Aina; Tomàs-Vidal, Antònia M

    2013-12-21

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are ischemic wounds in the skin and underlying tissues caused by long-standing pressure force over an external bone or cartilaginous surface. PrUs are an important challenge for the overall health system because can prolong patient hospitalization and reduce quality of life. Moreover, 95% of PrUs are avoidable, suggesting they are caused by poor quality care assistance. PrUs are also costly, increasing national costs. For example, they represent about 5% of overall annual health expenses in Spain. Stages I and II PrUs have a combined prevalence of 65%. According main clinical guidelines, stage II PrUs (PrU-IIs) are usually treated by applying special dressings (polyurethane or hydrocolloid). However, little scientific evidence regarding their efficacy has been identified in scientific literature. Our aim is to assess the comparative efficacy of adhesive polyurethane foam and hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of PrU-IIs in terms of healed ulcer after 8 weeks of follow-up. This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a randomized clinical trial of two parallel treatment arms. A total of 820 patients with at least 1 PrU-II will be recruited from primary health care and home care centers. All patients will receive standardized healing procedures and preventive measures (e.g. positional changes and pressure-relieving support surfaces), following standardized procedures. The main outcome will be the percentage of wounds healed after 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes will include cost-effectiveness, as evaluated by cost per healed ulcer and cost per treated patient and safety evaluated by adverse events. This trial will address the hypothesis that hydrocolloid dressings will heal at least 10% more stage II PrUs and be more cost-effective than polyurethane foam dressings after 8 weeks. This trial has been registered with controlled-trials number ISCRCTN57842461 and EudraCT 2012-003945-14.

  20. A multi-wavelength, high-contrast contact radiography system for the study of low density aerogel foams

    DOE PAGES

    Opachich, Y.P.; Koch, J.A.; Haugh, M. J.; ...

    2017-07-01

    A multi wavelength, high contrast contact radiography system has been developed to characterize density variations in ultra-low density aerogel foams. These foams are used to generate a ramped pressure drive in materials strength experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and require precision characterization in order to reduce errors in measurements. The system was used to characterize density variations in carbon and silicon based aerogels to ~10.3% accuracy with ~30 μm spatial resolution. The system description, performance and measurement results collected using a 17.8 mg/cc carbon based JX–6 (C 20H 30) aerogel are discussed in this manuscript.

  1. Influence of polypropylene fibres on the tensile strength and thermal properties of various densities of foamed concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhatial, Ashfaque Ahmed; Inn, Goh Wan; Mohamad, Noridah; Johnson Alengaram, U.; Mo, Kim Hung; Abdullah, Redzuan

    2017-11-01

    As almost half of the world’s population now lives in the urban areas, the raise in temperature in these areas has necessitated the development of thermal insulating material. Conventional concrete absorbs solar radiation during the daytime while releasing it at night causing raise in temperature in urban areas. The thermal conductivity of 2200 kg/m3 density conventional concrete is 1.6 W/mK. Higher the thermal conductivity value, greater the heat flow through the material. To reduce this heat transfer, the construction industry has turned to lightweight foamed concrete. Foamed concrete, due to its air voids, gives excellent thermal properties and sound absorption apart from fire-resistance and self-leveling properties. But due to limited studies on different densities of foamed concrete, the thermal properties are not understood properly thus limiting its use as thermal insulating material. In this study, thermal conductivity is determined for 1400, 1600 and 1800 kg/m3 densities of foamed concrete. 0.8% of Polypropylene fibres (PP) is used to reinforce the foamed concrete and improve the mechanical properties. Based upon the results, it was found that addition of PP fibres enhances the tensile strength and slightly reduced the thermal conductivity for lower densities, while the reverse affect was noticed in 1800 kg/m3 density.

  2. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. N.; Iwawaki, T.; Morita, K.; Antici, P.; Baton, S. D.; Filippi, F.; Habara, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolaï , P.; Nazarov, W.; Rousseaux, C.; Starodubstev, M.; Tanaka, K. A.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5–10 eV and densities around 1021 cm−3 are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations. PMID:26923471

  3. Streaked x-ray backlighting with twin-slit imager for study of density profile and trajectory of low-density foam target filled with deuterium liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraga, H.; Mahigashi, N.; Yamada, T.

    2008-10-15

    Low-density plastic foam filled with liquid deuterium is one of the candidates for inertial fusion target. Density profile and trajectory of 527 nm laser-irradiated planer foam-deuterium target in the acceleration phase were observed with streaked side-on x-ray backlighting. An x-ray imager employing twin slits coupled to an x-ray streak camera was used to simultaneously observe three images of the target: self-emission from the target, x-ray backlighter profile, and the backlit target. The experimentally obtained density profile and trajectory were in good agreement with predictions by one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code ILESTA-1D.

  4. Radiation-Induced Grafting with One-Step Process of Waste Polyurethane onto High-Density Polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of waste polyurethane (PU) using radiation-induced grafting was investigated. The grafting of waste PU onto a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix was carried out using a radiation technique with maleic anhydride (MAH). HDPE pellets and PU powders were immersed in a MAH-acetone solution. Finally, the prepared mixtures were irradiated with an electron beam accelerator. The grafted composites were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), surface morphology, and mechanical properties. To make a good composite, the improvement in compatibility between HDPE and PU is an important factor. Radiation-induced grafting increased interfacial adhesion between the PU domain and the HDPE matrix. When the absorbed dose was 75 kGy, the surface morphology of the irradiated PU/HDPE composite was nearly a smooth and single phase, and the elongation at break increased by approximately three times compared with that of non-irradiated PU/HDPE composite. PMID:28787813

  5. Design and milling manufacture of polyurethane custom contoured cushions for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fabio Pinto; Beretta, Elisa Marangon; Prestes, Rafael Cavalli; Kindlein Junior, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The design of custom contoured cushions manufactured in flexible polyurethane foams is an option to improve positioning and comfort for people with disabilities that spend most of the day seated in the same position. These surfaces increase the contact area between the seat and the user. This fact contributes to minimise the local pressures that can generate problems like decubitus ulcers. The present research aims at establishing development routes for custom cushion production to wheelchair users. This study also contributes to the investigation of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining of flexible polyurethane foams. The proposed route to obtain the customised seat began with acquiring the user's contour in adequate posture through plaster cast. To collect the surface geometry, the cast was three-dimensionally scanned and manipulated in CAD/CAM software. CNC milling parameters such as tools, spindle speeds and feed rates to machine flexible polyurethane foams were tested. These parameters were analysed regarding the surface quality. The best parameters were then tested in a customised seat. The possible dimensional changes generated during foam cutting were analysed through 3D scanning. Also, the customised seat pressure and temperature distribution was tested. The best parameters found for foams with a density of 50kg/cm(3) were high spindle speeds (24000 rpm) and feed rates between 2400-4000mm/min. Those parameters did not generate significant deformities in the machined cushions. The custom contoured cushion satisfactorily increased the contact area between wheelchair and user, as it distributed pressure and heat evenly. Through this study it was possible to define routes for the development and manufacturing of customised seats using direct CNC milling in flexible polyurethane foams. It also showed that custom contoured cushions efficiently distribute pressure and temperature, which is believed to minimise tissue lesions such as pressure ulcers.

  6. Formulation and characterization of polyimide resilient foams of various densities for aircraft seating applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.

    1981-01-01

    Light weight, heat and fire resistant low smoke generating polyimide foams are developed for aircraft seating applications. The material is upgraded and classified into groups for fabrication of cushions possessing acceptable comfort properties. Refinement and selection of foaming processes using a variety of previously developd foaming techniques and definition of property relationships to arrive at the selection and classfication of polyimide foams into five groups in accordance with predetermined ILD values are emphasized.

  7. Tanshindiol C inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced macrophage foam cell formation via a peroxiredoxin 1 dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyu; Li, Xueyan; Peng, Liying; An, Lin; Sun, Ningyuan; Hu, Xuewen; Zhou, Ping; Xu, Yong; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2018-03-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to be protective in atherosclerosis. The loss of Nrf2 in macrophages enhances foam cell formation and promotes early atherogenesis. Tanshindiol C (Tan C) is isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases for many years. This study was aimed to test the potential role of Tan C against macrophage foam cell formation and to explore the underlying mechanism. Firstly, we observed that Tan C markedly suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced macrophage foam cell formation. Then, we found that Tan C was an activator of both Nrf2 and Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in macrophages. Nrf2 and Sirt1 synergistically activated the transcription of anti-oxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) after Tan C treatment. More important, we demonstrated that silencing of Prdx1 promoted oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Prdx1 upregulated adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and decreased intracellular lipid accumulation. Furthermore, Tan C ameliorated oxLDL induced macrophage foam cell formation in a Prdx1-dependent manner. These observations suggest that Tan C protects macrophages from oxLDL induced foam cell formation via activation of Prdx1/ABCA1 signaling and that Prdx1 may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  9. Study of Super- and Subsonic Ionization Fronts in Low-Density, Soft X-Ray-Irradiated Foam Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Vickers, C.; Hoarty, D.

    2000-04-01

    The transition from super- to subsonic propagation of an ionization front has been studied in X-ray irradiated, low-density foam targets using soft X-ray imaging and point projection absorption spectroscopy. The foams were doped with chlorine and irradiated with an intense pulse of soft X-ray radiation with a temperature up to 120 eV produced by laser heating a burnthrough converter foil. The cylindrical foam targets were radiographed side-on allowing the change in the chlorine ionization and hence the front to be observed. From the absolute target transmission the density profile was obtained. Comparison of experimental absorption spectra with simulated ones allowed the temperature of the heated material to be inferred for the first time without reliance on detailed hydrodynamic simulations to interpret the data. The experimental observations were compared to radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  10. On the Feasibility of Very-Low-Density Pure Metal Foams as Bright High-Energy X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeffrey; Felter, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    We have used the Busquet approximation (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5(11), 4191 (1993)) to explore calculationally what the possible x-ray conversion efficiencies into the K-band would be from irradiating very-low-density pure metal foams with tens of kilojoules of 1/3-micron laser light. We will discuss the advantages of pure metal foams as bright high-energy x-ray sources, and some results of this calculational study. We will also present our ideas for how to fabricate pure metal foams with densities of a few milligrams per cubic centimeter. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  11. Infrared-actuated recovery of polyurethane filled by reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrids with high energy density.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Mengmeng; Guo, Haiqiang; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2013-11-13

    Optically actuated shape recovery materials receive much interest because of their great ability to control the creation of mechanical motion remotely and precisely. An infrared (IR) triggered actuator based on shape recovery was fabricated using polyurethane (TPU) incorporated by sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO)/sulfonated carbon nanotube (SCNT) hybrid nanofillers. Interconnected SRGO/SCNT hybrid nanofillers at a low weight loading of 1% dispersed in TPU showed good IR absorption and improved the crystallization of soft segments for a large shape deformation. The output force, energy density and recovery time of IR-triggered actuators were dependent on weight ratios of SRGO to SCNT (SRGO:SCNT). TPU nanocomposites filled by a hybrid nanofiller with SRGO:SCNT of 3:1 showed the maximum IR-actuated stress recovery of lifting a 107.6 g weight up 4.7 cm in 18 s. The stress recovery delivered a high energy density of 0.63 J/g and shape recovery force up to 1.2 MPa due to high thermal conductivity (1.473 W/mK) and Young's modulus of 23.4 MPa. Results indicate that a trade-off between the stiffness and efficient heat transfer controlled by synergistic effect between SRGO and SCNT is critical for high mechanical power output of IR-triggered actuators. IR-actuated shape recovery of SRGO/SCNT/TPU nanocomposites combining high energy density and output forces can be further developed for advanced optomechanical systems.

  12. Composite foams

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Jr., Joel M.; Nyitray, Alice M.; Wilkerson, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Composite foams are provided comprising a first rigid, microcellular, open-celled organic polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 1 micron to about 30 microns, said first foam containing a second polymer having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 or a second polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 0.01 microns to about 1.0 micron within the open cells of said first foam.

  13. Composite foams

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Jr., Joel M.; Nyitray, Alice M.; Wilkerson, Mark H.

    1990-01-01

    Composite foams are provided comprising a first rigid, microcellular, open-celled organic polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 1 micron to about 30 microns, said first foam containing a second polymer having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 or a second polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 0.01 microns to about 1.0 micron within the open cells of said first foam.

  14. Stabilizing nanocellulose-nonionic surfactant composite foams by delayed Ca-induced gelation.

    PubMed

    Gordeyeva, Korneliya S; Fall, Andreas B; Hall, Stephen; Wicklein, Bernd; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-06-15

    Aggregation of dispersed rod-like particles like nanocellulose can improve the strength and rigidity of percolated networks but may also have a detrimental effect on the foamability. However, it should be possible to improve the strength of nanocellulose foams by multivalent ion-induced aggregation if the aggregation occurs after the foam has been formed. Lightweight and highly porous foams based on TEMPO-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were formulated with the addition of a non-ionic surfactant, pluronic P123, and CaCO3 nanoparticles. Foam volume measurements show that addition of the non-ionic surfactant generates wet CNF/P123 foams with a high foamability. Foam bubble size studies show that delayed Ca-induced aggregation of CNF by gluconic acid-triggered dissolution of the CaCO3 nanoparticles significantly improves the long-term stability of the wet composite foams. Drying the Ca-reinforced foam at 60 °C results in a moderate shrinkage and electron microscopy and X-ray tomography studies show that the pores became slightly oblate after drying but the overall microstructure and pore/foam bubble size distribution is preserved after drying. The elastic modulus (0.9-1.4 MPa) of Ca-reinforced composite foams with a density of 9-15 kg/m(3) is significantly higher than commercially available polyurethane foams used for thermal insulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A multi-center, randomized, clinical trial comparing adhesive polyurethane foam dressing and adhesive hydrocolloid dressing in patients with grade II pressure ulcers in primary care and nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are ischemic wounds in the skin and underlying tissues caused by long-standing pressure force over an external bone or cartilaginous surface. PrUs are an important challenge for the overall health system because can prolong patient hospitalization and reduce quality of life. Moreover, 95% of PrUs are avoidable, suggesting they are caused by poor quality care assistance. PrUs are also costly, increasing national costs. For example, they represent about 5% of overall annual health expenses in Spain. Stages I and II PrUs have a combined prevalence of 65%. According main clinical guidelines, stage II PrUs (PrU-IIs) are usually treated by applying special dressings (polyurethane or hydrocolloid). However, little scientific evidence regarding their efficacy has been identified in scientific literature. Our aim is to assess the comparative efficacy of adhesive polyurethane foam and hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of PrU-IIs in terms of healed ulcer after 8 weeks of follow-up. Methods/design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a randomized clinical trial of two parallel treatment arms. A total of 820 patients with at least 1 PrU-II will be recruited from primary health care and home care centers. All patients will receive standardized healing procedures and preventive measures (e.g. positional changes and pressure-relieving support surfaces), following standardized procedures. The main outcome will be the percentage of wounds healed after 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes will include cost-effectiveness, as evaluated by cost per healed ulcer and cost per treated patient and safety evaluated by adverse events. Discussion This trial will address the hypothesis that hydrocolloid dressings will heal at least 10% more stage II PrUs and be more cost-effective than polyurethane foam dressings after 8 weeks. Trial registration This trial has been registered with controlled-trials number ISCRCTN57842461 and Eudra

  16. Materials for foam type insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    An internal foam fabrication is one of the concepts being considered for cryogenic insulation on the hydrogen tanks of the shuttle vehicle. The three-dimensional polyurethane used on the S-4 B tanks failed to meet the higher temperature requirements of the shuttle vehicle, however, and other foams under consideration include polyisocyanurates, polyphenylene oxides, polyimides, and polybenzimidazoles. Improved adhesive systems for attaching the foams to the interior tank wall are under study.

  17. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA). The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr) of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased. PMID:28788022

  18. 40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of a new or existing rebond foam... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for rebond foam production...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of a new or existing rebond foam... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for rebond foam production...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of a new or existing rebond foam... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for rebond foam production...

  1. A multi-wavelength, high-contrast contact radiography system for the study of low-density aerogel foams

    SciTech Connect

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Koch, J. A.; Haugh, M. J.

    2016-07-15

    A multi-wavelength, high contrast contact radiography system has been developed to characterize density variations in ultra-low density aerogel foams. These foams are used to generate a ramped pressure drive in materials strength experiments at the National Ignition Facility and require precision characterization in order to reduce errors in measurements. The system was used to characterize density variations in carbon and silicon based aerogels to ∼10.3% accuracy with ∼30 μm spatial resolution. The system description, performance, and measurement results collected using a 17.8 mg/cc carbon based JX–6 (C{sub 20}H{sub 30}) aerogel are discussed in this manuscript.

  2. Floating matrix tablets based on low density foam powder: effects of formulation and processing parameters on drug release.

    PubMed

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and physicochemically characterize single unit, floating controlled drug delivery systems consisting of (i). polypropylene foam powder, (ii). matrix-forming polymer(s), (iii). drug, and (iv). filler (optional). The highly porous foam powder provided low density and, thus, excellent in vitro floating behavior of the tablets. All foam powder-containing tablets remained floating for at least 8 h in 0.1 N HCl at 37 degrees C. Different types of matrix-forming polymers were studied: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), polyacrylates, sodium alginate, corn starch, carrageenan, gum guar and gum arabic. The tablets eroded upon contact with the release medium, and the relative importance of drug diffusion, polymer swelling and tablet erosion for the resulting release patterns varied significantly with the type of matrix former. The release rate could effectively be modified by varying the "matrix-forming polymer/foam powder" ratio, the initial drug loading, the tablet geometry (radius and height), the type of matrix-forming polymer, the use of polymer blends and the addition of water-soluble or water-insoluble fillers (such as lactose or microcrystalline cellulose). The floating behavior of the low density drug delivery systems could successfully be combined with accurate control of the drug release patterns.

  3. Evaluation of Canisterized Foams and Evaluation of Radiation Hardened Foams for D&D Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, J. C.

    The introduction of polyurethane foams has previously been examined elsewhere within the DOE complex with regards to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, though its use has been prohibited as a result of excessive heat generation and flammability concerns per the safety basis. Should these foams be found compatible with respect to the facility safety basis requirements, D&D work involving large void containing structures such as gloveboxes could be eased through the fixation of residual contamination after decontamination efforts have concluded. To this end, SRNL embarked on a characterization of commercial epoxy foams to identify the characteristics that would be mostmore » important to safety basis requirements. Through SRNL’s efforts, the performance of commercial two-part epoxy foams was evaluated for their foaming characteristics, temperature profiles, loading capability with high-Z (high density) additives, and applicability for shielding gamma emission from isotopes including; Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60. It was found that these foams are capable of encapsulation of a desired volume, though the ideal and experimental expansion coefficients were found to differ. While heat is generated during the reaction, no samples generated heat above 70 °C. Of the down–selected materials, heating was on the order of 40 °C for the flexible foam and 60 °C for the rigid foam. Both were found to return to room temperature after 20 minutes regardless of the volume of foam cast. It was also found that the direct introduction of high-Z additives were capable of attenuating 98% of Am-241 gamma signal, 16% of Cs-137 signal, and 9.5% of Co-60 signal at 1:1 loading capacities of total liquid constituent weight to additive weight. These efforts are currently being reviewed for the ASTM January 2017 subcommittee discussions to address the lack of test methods and standards regarding these materials with respect to D&D environments.« less

  4. Probing nanodispersions of clays for reactive foaming.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, G; Lindsay, Chris I; Arunagirinathan, M A; Macosko, Christopher W

    2009-09-01

    Nanodispersions of clays in polyurethane components have been prepared. Nanoclays (both natural and organically modified) of various aspect ratios are used. The fillers are dispersed separately in polyurethane components, viz., polyol and polyisocyanate. The nanodispersions are characterized by the combined use of solution rheology, X-ray scattering, cryo-electron microscopy, and IR spectroscopy. Reactive foaming of these nanodispersions is carried out to make polyurethane nanocomposite foams. The status of the dispersion of fillers in components and in foams has been compared to investigate the effect of the foaming process in exfoliation. Interpretation of the results from different characterization techniques describes the state of the dispersion of fillers in components and in foam. The rheological and physicochemical behaviors of nanodispersions are shown to have a significant influence on the properties of nanocomposite foams.

  5. Theoretical Evaluation of Crosslink Density of Chain Extended Polyurethane Networks Based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene and Butanediol and Comparison with Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekkar, Venkataraman; Alex, Ancy Smitha; Kumar, Vijendra; Bandyopadhyay, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    Polyurethane networks between hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and butanediol (BD) were prepared using toluene diisocyanate (TDI) as the curative. HTPB and BD were taken at equivalent ratios viz.: 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, and 1:8. Crosslink density (CLD) was theoretically calculated using α-model equations developed by Marsh. CLD for the polyurethane networks was experimentally evaluated from equilibrium swell and stress-strain data. Young's modulus and Mooney-Rivlin approaches were adopted to calculate CLD from stress-strain data. Experimentally obtained CLD values were enormously higher than theoretical values especially at higher BD/HTPB equivalent ratios. The difference in the theoretical and experimental values for CLD was explained in terms of local crystallization due to the formation of hard segments and hydrogen bonded interactions.

  6. Correlation between structure and compressive strength in a reticulated glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite foam.

    PubMed

    Callcut, S; Knowles, J C

    2002-05-01

    Glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) foams were produced using reticulated foam technology using a polyurethane template with two different pore size distributions. The mechanical properties were evaluated and the structure analyzed through density measurements, image analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the mechanical properties, the use of a glass significantly improved the ultimate compressive strength (UCS) as did the use of a second coating. All the samples tested showed the classic three regions characteristic of an elastic brittle foam. From the density measurements, after application of a correction to compensate for the closed porosity, the bulk and apparent density showed a 1 : 1 correlation. When relative bulk density was plotted against UCS, a non-linear relationship was found characteristic of an isotropic open celled material. It was found by image analysis that the pore size distribution did not change and there was no degradation of the macrostructure when replicating the ceramic from the initial polyurethane template during processing. However, the pore size distributions did shift to a lower size by about 0.5 mm due to the firing process. The ceramic foams were found to exhibit mechanical properties typical of isotropic open cellular foams.

  7. Implementation of density-based solver for all speeds in the framework of OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chun; Sun, Fengxian; Xia, Xinlin

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of open source CFD code OpenFOAM, a density-based solver for all speeds flow field is developed. In this solver the preconditioned all speeds AUSM+(P) scheme is adopted and the dual time scheme is implemented to complete the unsteady process. Parallel computation could be implemented to accelerate the solving process. Different interface reconstruction algorithms are implemented, and their accuracy with respect to convection is compared. Three benchmark tests of lid-driven cavity flow, flow crossing over a bump, and flow over a forward-facing step are presented to show the accuracy of the AUSM+(P) solver for low-speed incompressible flow, transonic flow, and supersonic/hypersonic flow. Firstly, for the lid driven cavity flow, the computational results obtained by different interface reconstruction algorithms are compared. It is indicated that the one dimensional reconstruction scheme adopted in this solver possesses high accuracy and the solver developed in this paper can effectively catch the features of low incompressible flow. Then via the test cases regarding the flow crossing over bump and over forward step, the ability to capture characteristics of the transonic and supersonic/hypersonic flows are confirmed. The forward-facing step proves to be the most challenging for the preconditioned solvers with and without the dual time scheme. Nonetheless, the solvers described in this paper reproduce the main features of this flow, including the evolution of the initial transient.

  8. Fabrication of a Low Density Carbon Fiber Foam and Its Characterization as a Strain Gauge

    PubMed Central

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Daskam, Chris D.; Gonzalez, Edwin; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Samples of carbon nano-fiber foam (CFF), essentially a 3D solid mat of intertwined nanofibers of pure carbon, were grown using the Constrained Formation of Fibrous Nanostructures (CoFFiN) process in a steel mold at 550 °C from a palladium particle catalysts exposed to fuel rich mixtures of ethylene and oxygen. The resulting material was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Surface area analysis (BET), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Transient and dynamic mechanical tests clearly demonstrated that the material is viscoelastic. Concomitant mechanical and electrical testing of samples revealed the material to have electrical properties appropriate for application as the sensing element of a strain gauge. The sample resistance versus strain values stabilize after a few compression cycles to show a perfectly linear relationship. Study of microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of the low density samples confirm the uniqueness of the material: It is formed entirely of independent fibers of diverse diameters that interlock forming a tridimensional body that can be grown into different shapes and sizes at moderate temperatures. It regains its shape after loads are removed, is light weight, presents viscoelastic behavior, thermal stability up to 550 °C, hydrophobicity, and is electrically conductive. PMID:28788644

  9. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. W., E-mail: li-jiwei@iapcm.ac.cn; He, X. T.; Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smoothmore » the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion.« less

  10. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi, E-mail: paryanto-ds@yahoo.com; Sugiman,; Saputra, Yudhi

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing themore » core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.« less

  11. Hydrodynamics of wet foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Dominique; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Marze, Sébastien; Cox, Simon; Hutzler, Stefan; Drenckhan, Wiebke; Weaire, Denis; Caps, Hervé; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Adler, Micheàle; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Höhler, Reinhard; Ritacco, Hernan

    2005-10-01

    Foams and foaming pose important questions and problems to the chemical industry. As a material, foam is unusual in being a desired product while also being an unwanted byproduct within industry. Liquid foams are an essential part of gas/liquid contacting processes such as distillation and absorption, but over-production of foam in these processes can lead to downtime and loss of efficiency. Solid polymeric foams, such as polystyrene and polyurethane, find applications as insulation panels in the construction industry. Their combination of low weight and unique elastic/plastic properties make them ideal as packing and cushioning materials. Foams made with proteins are extensively used in the food industry. Despite the fact that foam science is a rapidly maturing field, critical aspects of foam physics and chemistry remain unclear. Several gaps in knowledge were identified to be tackled as the core of this MAP project. In addition, microgravity affords conditions for extending our understanding far beyond the possibilities offered by ground-based investigation. This MAP project addresses the challenges posed by the physics of foams under microgravity.

  12. High-power laser interaction with low-density C–Cu foams

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, F.; Colvin, J. D.; May, M. J.

    2015-11-15

    We study the propagation of high-power laser beams in micro-structured carbon foams by monitoring the x-ray output from deliberately introduced Cu content. In particular, we characterize this phenomenon measuring absolute time-resolved x-ray yields, time-resolved x-ray imaging, and x-ray spectroscopy. New experimental results for C–Cu foams show a faster heat front velocity than simulation that assumed homogeneous plasma. We suggest the foam micro-structure may explain this trend.

  13. High-power laser interaction with low-density C–Cu foams

    DOE PAGES

    Pérez, F.; Colvin, J. D.; May, M. J.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Here, we study the propagation of high-power laser beams in micro-structured carbon foams by monitoring the x-ray output from deliberately introduced Cu content. In particular, we characterize this phenomenon measuring absolute time-resolved x-ray yields, time-resolved x-ray imaging, and x-ray spectroscopy. New experimental results for C–Cu foams show a faster heat front velocity than simulation that assumed homogeneous plasma. We suggest the foam micro-structure may explain this trend.

  14. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOEpatents

    Kosny, Jan [Oak Ridge, TN; Gaskin, Sally [Houston, TX

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  15. Laser Backscatter and Propagation in Low-Density Ta2O5 and SiO2 Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal, Derek; Patankar, Siddarth; Goyon, Clement; Baker, Kevin; MacLaren, Stephan; Hammer, Jim; Baumann, Ted; Amendt, Peter; Menapace, Joseph; Berger, Robert; Afeyan, Bedros; Tabak, Max; Kim, Sung Ho; Dixit, Sham; Moody, John; Jones, Ogden; LLNL Team; Polymath Research Inc. Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL have investigated the propagation and backscatter of a laser in low-density foams (2-30 mg/cc) comprised of Ta2O5 and SiO2. The foams fill the volume of thin polyimide tubes (2 mm diameter, 0.5-2 mm length), while the laser is directed down the axis of the tubes. Time-resolved Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) spectrum, time-integrated Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) spectrum and power were measured in the focusing cone. In addition Near Backscatter Imaging (NBI) assessed SBS outside the focusing cone while X-ray diagnostics were used to assess laser propagation through the foams. While this experiment uses a 2-omega laser drive, the pulse shape, irradiance, and the ratio ne/nc are scaled to be similar to future tests using Ta2O5 foams at the NIF. Experimental results are directly compared to calculations of laser propagation and backscattered spectra. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, with funding support from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 15-ERD-073.

  16. Foam-filled cushions for sliding trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahin, S. B.; Robb, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene tube filled with polyurethane foam forms low friction sliding surface that cushions vibrations and absorbs manufacturing tolerances and misalignment. Possible uses include packaging of components for shipping and seals for doors in lockers, cars, and refrigerators.

  17. Phenolic cutter for machining foam insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, T. A.; Miller, A. C.; Price, B. W.; Stiles, W. S.

    1970-01-01

    Pre-pregged fiber glass is an efficient abrasive for machining polystyrene and polyurethane foams. It bonds easily to any cutter base made of aluminum, steel, or phenolic, is inexpensive, and is readily available.

  18. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  19. Cryogenic line insulation made from prefabricated polyurethane shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, G.

    1975-01-01

    Prefabricated polyurethane foam insulation is inexpensive and easily installed on cryogenic lines. Insulation sections are semicircular half shells. Pair of half shells is placed to surround cryogenic line. Cylindrically-shaped knit sock is pulled over insulation then covered with polyurethane resin to seal system.

  20. Influence of carbon source and inoculum type on anaerobic biomass adhesion on polyurethane foam in reactors fed with acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Renata P; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2011-04-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of carbon source and inoculum origin on the dynamics of biomass adhesion to an inert support in anaerobic reactors fed with acid mine drainage. Formic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were used as carbon sources. Two different inocula were evaluated: one taken from an UASB reactor and other from the sediment of a uranium mine. The values of average colonization rates and the maximum biomass concentration (C(max)) were inversely proportional to the number of carbon atoms in each substrate. The highest C(max) value (0.35 g TVS g(-1) foam) was observed with formic acid and anaerobic sludge as inoculum. Maximum colonization rates (v(max)) were strongly influenced by the type of inoculum when ethanol and lactic acid were used. For both carbon sources, the use of mine sediment as inoculum resulted in a v(max) of 0.013 g TVS g(-1) foam day(-1), whereas 0.024 g TVS g(-1) foam day(-1) was achieved with anaerobic sludge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.