Sample records for density structure suppress

  1. A pilot study examining density of suppression measurement in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Piano, Marianne; Newsham, David

    2015-01-01

    Establish whether the Sbisa bar, Bagolini filter (BF) bar, and neutral density filter (NDF) bar, used to measure density of suppression, are equivalent and possess test-retest reliability. Determine whether density of suppression is altered when measurement equipment/testing conditions are changed. Our pilot study had 10 subjects aged ≥18 years with childhood-onset strabismus, no ocular pathologies, and no binocular vision when manifest. Density of suppression upon repeated testing, with clinic lights on/off, and using a full/reduced intensity light source, was investigated. Results were analysed for test-retest reliability, equivalence, and changes with alteration of testing conditions. Test-retest reliability issues were present for the BF bar (median 6 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.021) and NDF bar (median 5 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.002). Density of suppression was unaffected by environmental illumination or fixation light intensity variations. Density of suppression measurements were higher when measured with the NDF bar (e.g. NDF bar = 1.5, medium suppression, vs BF bar = 6.5, light suppression). Test-retest reliability issues may be present for the two filter bars currently still under manufacture. Changes in testing conditions do not significantly affect test results, provided the same filter bar is used consistently for testing. Further studies in children with strabismus having active amblyopia treatment would be of benefit. Despite extensive use of these tests in the UK, this is to our knowledge the first study evaluating filter bar equivalence/reliability.

  2. Cloaks for suppression or enhancement of scattering of diffuse photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renthlei, Lalruatfela; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Wanare, Harshawardhan

    2018-07-01

    Enhancement of wave-like characteristics of heavily damped diffuse photon density waves in a random medium by amplification can induce strongly localised resonances. These resonances can be used to either suppress or enhance scattering from an inhomogeneity in the random medium by cloaking the inhomogeneous region by a shell of random medium with the correct levels of absorption or amplification. A spherical core-shell structure consisting of a shell of a random amplifying medium is shown to enhance or suppress specific resonant modes. A shell with an absorbing random medium is also shown to suppress scattering which can also be used for cloaking the core region.

  3. Potential synergistic effects of cereal rye biomass and soybean planting density on weed suppression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing crop density is a cultural weed management practice that can complement the use of cover crops for weed suppression. In this research, we created a range of cover crop biomass and soybean densities in order to assess their weed suppressive ability alone and in combination. The experiment ...

  4. Reexamining X-mode suppression and fine structure in artificial E region field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, R. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Munk, J.; McCarrick, M.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-09-01

    Artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs) were generated in the E region of the ionosphere above the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility during campaigns in May and August of 2012 and observed using a 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager in Homer, Alaska. The purpose of this ionospheric modification experiment was to measure the threshold pump power required to excite thermal parametric instabilities by O-mode heating and to investigate the suppression of the FAIs by simultaneous X-mode heating. We find that the threshold pump power for irregularity excitation was consistent with theoretical predictions and increased by approximately a factor of 2 when X-mode heating was present. A modified version of the Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) ionospheric model was used to simulate the threshold experiments and suggested that the increase was entirely due to enhanced D region absorption associated with X-mode heating. Additionally, a remarkable degree of fine structure possibly caused by natural gradient drift instability in the heater-modified volume was observed in experiments performed during geomagnetically active conditions.

  5. Density-induced suppression of the {alpha}-particle condensate in nuclear matter and the structure of {alpha}-cluster states in nuclei

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Funaki, Y.; Horiuchi, H.; International Institute for Advanced Studies, Kizugawa 619-0225

    2008-06-15

    At low densities, with decreasing temperatures, in symmetric nuclear matter {alpha} particles are formed, which eventually give raise to a quantum condensate with four-nucleon {alpha}-like correlations (quartetting). Starting with a model of {alpha} matter, where undistorted {alpha} particles interact via an effective interaction such as the Ali-Bodmer potential, the suppression of the condensate fraction at zero temperature with increasing density is considered. Using a Jastrow-Feenberg approach, it is found that the condensate fraction vanishes near saturation density. Additionally, the modification of the internal state of the {alpha} particle due to medium effects will further reduce the condensate. In finite systems,more » an enhancement of the S-state wave function of the center-of-mass orbital of {alpha}-particle motion is considered as the correspondence to the condensate. Wave functions have been constructed for self-conjugate 4n nuclei that describe the condensate state but are fully antisymmetrized on the nucleonic level. These condensate-like cluster wave functions have been successfully applied to describe properties of low-density states near the n{alpha} threshold. Comparison with orthogonality condition model calculations in {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O shows strong enhancement of the occupation of the S-state center-of-mass orbital of the {alpha} particles. This enhancement is decreasing if the baryon density increases, similar to the density-induced suppression of the condensate fraction in {alpha} matter. The ground states of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O show no enhancement at all, thus a quartetting condensate cannot be formed at saturation densities.« less

  6. Some observations of wood density and anatomical properties in a Douglas-fir sample with suppressed growth

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; David W. Vahey; C. Tim Scott

    2008-01-01

    This study used ring width correlations to examine the effects of tree-growth suppression on within-tree local wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. A wood core sample was taken from a 70-yr-old Douglas-fir that grew under various degrees of suppression in a natural forest setting. SilviScan and an imaging technique were used to obtain wood density and...

  7. Wood density and anatomical properties in suppressed-growth trees : comparison of two methods

    Treesearch

    David W. Vahey; J. Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the commercial value of small-diameter timber has led to testing core samples with SilviScan to characterize density and transverse fiber dimensions. Data showed that latewood density and tracheid diameter in suppressed-growth material can vary spatially on a scale comparable to the 50-_m resolution of the instrument used in our testing. An optical imaging...

  8. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants' individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the 'Tragedy of the Commons', providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of 'shade avoidance', but a collective, offensive 'shading' strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision.

  9. A data driven control method for structure vibration suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yangmin; Wang, Chao; Shi, Hang; Shi, Junwei

    2018-02-01

    High radio-frequency space applications have motivated continuous research on vibration suppression of large space structures both in academia and industry. This paper introduces a novel data driven control method to suppress vibrations of flexible structures and experimentally validates the suppression performance. Unlike model-based control approaches, the data driven control method designs a controller directly from the input-output test data of the structure, without requiring parametric dynamics and hence free of system modeling. It utilizes the discrete frequency response via spectral analysis technique and formulates a non-convex optimization problem to obtain optimized controller parameters with a predefined controller structure. Such approach is then experimentally applied on an end-driving flexible beam-mass structure. The experiment results show that the presented method can achieve competitive disturbance rejections compared to a model-based mixed sensitivity controller under the same design criterion but with much less orders and design efforts, demonstrating the proposed data driven control is an effective approach for vibration suppression of flexible structures.

  10. Structural and Thermodynamic Factors of Suppressed Interdiffusion Kinetics in Multi-component High-entropy Materials

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shou-Yi; Li, Chen-En; Huang, Yi-Chung; Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Lin, Su-Jien

    2014-01-01

    We report multi-component high-entropy materials as extraordinarily robust diffusion barriers and clarify the highly suppressed interdiffusion kinetics in the multi-component materials from structural and thermodynamic perspectives. The failures of six alloy barriers with different numbers of elements, from unitary Ti to senary TiTaCrZrAlRu, against the interdiffusion of Cu and Si were characterized, and experimental results indicated that, with more elements incorporated, the failure temperature of the barriers increased from 550 to 900°C. The activation energy of Cu diffusion through the alloy barriers was determined to increase from 110 to 163 kJ/mole. Mechanistic analyses suggest that, structurally, severe lattice distortion strains and a high packing density caused by different atom sizes, and, thermodynamically, a strengthened cohesion provide a total increase of 55 kJ/mole in the activation energy of substitutional Cu diffusion, and are believed to be the dominant factors of suppressed interdiffusion kinetics through the multi-component barrier materials. PMID:24561911

  11. Bone suppression technique for chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Jane; Zhao, Hui; Hobbs, Susan K.; Wandtke, John C.; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Paul, Narinder; Foos, David

    2014-03-01

    High-contrast bone structures are a major noise contributor in chest radiographic images. A signal of interest in a chest radiograph could be either partially or completely obscured or "overshadowed" by the highly contrasted bone structures in its surrounding. Thus, removing the bone structures, especially the posterior rib and clavicle structures, is highly desirable to increase the visibility of soft tissue density. We developed an innovative technology that offers a solution to suppress bone structures, including posterior ribs and clavicles, on conventional and portable chest X-ray images. The bone-suppression image processing technology includes five major steps: 1) lung segmentation, 2) rib and clavicle structure detection, 3) rib and clavicle edge detection, 4) rib and clavicle profile estimation, and 5) suppression based on the estimated profiles. The bone-suppression software outputs an image with both the rib and clavicle structures suppressed. The rib suppression performance was evaluated on 491 images. On average, 83.06% (±6.59%) of the rib structures on a standard chest image were suppressed based on the comparison of computer-identified rib areas against hand-drawn rib areas, which is equivalent to about an average of one rib that is still visible on a rib-suppressed image based on a visual assessment. Reader studies were performed to evaluate reader performance in detecting lung nodules and pneumothoraces with and without a bone-suppression companion view. Results from reader studies indicated that the bone-suppression technology significantly improved radiologists' performance in the detection of CT-confirmed possible nodules and pneumothoraces on chest radiographs. The results also showed that radiologists were more confident in making diagnoses regarding the presence or absence of an abnormality after rib-suppressed companion views were presented

  12. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    PubMed

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  13. Controlled suppression of the photoluminescence superlinear dependence on excitation density in quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that it is possible to tune, up to complete suppression, the photoluminescence superlinear dependence on the excitation density in quantum dot samples at high temperatures by annealing treatments. The effect has been attributed to the reduction of the defectivity of the material induced by annealing. PMID:23033918

  14. Binocular vision in amblyopia: structure, suppression and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin; Baker, Daniel H

    2014-03-01

    The amblyopic visual system was once considered to be structurally monocular. However, it now evident that the capacity for binocular vision is present in many observers with amblyopia. This has led to new techniques for quantifying suppression that have provided insights into the relationship between suppression and the monocular and binocular visual deficits experienced by amblyopes. Furthermore, new treatments are emerging that directly target suppressive interactions within the visual cortex and, on the basis of initial data, appear to improve both binocular and monocular visual function, even in adults with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies that have investigated the structure, measurement and treatment of binocular vision in observers with strabismic, anisometropic and mixed amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Power density of piezoelectric transformers improved using a contact heat transfer structure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei Wei; Chen, Li Juan; Pan, Cheng Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2012-01-01

    Based on contact heat transfer, a novel method to increase power density of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. A heat transfer structure is realized by directly attaching a dissipater to the piezoelectric transformer plate. By maintaining the vibration mode of the transformer and limiting additional energy losses from the contact interface, an appropriate design can improve power density of the transformer on a large scale, resulting from effective suppression of its working temperature rise. A prototype device was fabricated from a rectangular piezoelectric transformer, a copper heat transfer sheet, a thermal grease insulation pad, and an aluminum heat radiator. The experimental results show the transformer maintains a maximum power density of 135 W/cm(3) and an efficiency of 90.8% with a temperature rise of less than 10 °C after more than 36 h, without notable changes in performance. © 2012 IEEE

  16. Distinctive electrical properties in sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-Jiao; Zha, Jun-Wei; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-02-01

    The sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene (Al2O3/LDPE) nanocomposite dielectrics consisting of layer-by-layer with different concentration Al2O3 loading were prepared by melt-blending and following hot pressing method. The space charge distribution from pulsed electro-acoustic method and breakdown strength of the nanocomposites were investigated. Compared with the single-layer Al2O3/LDPE nanocomposites, the sandwich-structured nanocomposites remarkably suppressed the space charge accumulation and presented higher breakdown strength. The charges in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites decayed much faster than that in the single-layer nanocomposites, which was attributed to an effective electric field caused by the formation of the interfacial space charges. The energy depth of shallow and deep traps was estimated as 0.73 eV and 1.17 eV in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites, respectively, according to the thermal excitation theoretical model we proposed. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with excellent space charge suppression.

  17. Resolvability of regional density structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  18. Local suppression of the superfluid density of PuCoGa5 by strong onsite disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Graf, Matthias J.

    2011-10-01

    We present superfluid density calculations for the unconventional superconductor PuCoGa5 by solving the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations on a square lattice within the Swiss-cheese model in the presence of strong onsite disorder. We find that, despite strong electronic inhomogeneity, one can establish a one-to-one correspondence between the local maps of the density of states, superconducting order parameter, and superfluid density. In this model, strong onsite impurity scattering punches localized holes into the fabric of d-wave superconductivity similar to a Swiss cheese. Already, a two-dimensional impurity concentration of nimp=4% gives rise to a pronounced short-range suppression of the order parameter and a suppression of the superconducting transition temperature Tc by roughly 20% compared to its pure limit value Tc0, whereas the superfluid density ρs is reduced drastically by about 70%. This result is consistent with available experimental data for aged (400-day-old) and fresh (25-day-old) PuCoGa5 superconducting samples. In addition, we show that the T2 dependence of the low-T superfluid density, a signature of dirty d-wave superconductivity, originates from a combined effect in the density of states of “gap filling” and “gap closing.” Finally, we demonstrate that the Uemuera plot of Tc versus ρs deviates sharply from the conventional Abrikosov-Gor’kov theory for radiation-induced defects in PuCoGa5, but follows the same trend of short-coherence-length high-Tc cuprate superconductors.

  19. Dispersion of speckle suppression efficiency for binary DOE structures: spectral domain and coherent matrix approaches.

    PubMed

    Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Prygun, Olexandr; Fu, Minglei; Le, Zichun; Xiong, Qiyuan; Kryuchyn, Andriy

    2017-06-26

    We present the first general theoretical description of speckle suppression efficiency based on an active diffractive optical element (DOE). The approach is based on spectral analysis of diffracted beams and a coherent matrix. Analytical formulae are obtained for the dispersion of speckle suppression efficiency using different DOE structures and different DOE activation methods. We show that a one-sided 2D DOE structure has smaller speckle suppression range than a two-sided 1D DOE structure. Both DOE structures have sufficient speckle suppression range to suppress low-order speckles in the entire visible range, but only the two-sided 1D DOE can suppress higher-order speckles. We also show that a linear shift 2D DOE in a laser projector with a large numerical aperture has higher effective speckle suppression efficiency than the method using switching or step-wise shift DOE structures. The generalized theoretical models elucidate the mechanism and practical realization of speckle suppression.

  20. ELM Suppression and Pedestal Structure in I-Mode Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walk, John

    2013-10-01

    The I-mode regime is characterized by the formation of a temperature pedestal and enhanced energy confinement (H98 up to 1.2), without an accompanying density pedestal or drop in particle transport. Unlike ELMy H-modes, I-mode operation appears to have naturally-occurring suppression of large ELMs in addition to its highly favorable scalings of pedestal structure (and therefore overall performance). Instead, continuous Weakly Coherent Modes help to regulate density. Extensive study of the ELMy H-mode has led to the development of the EPED model, which utilizes calculations of coupled peeling-ballooning MHD modes and kinetic-ballooning mode (KBM) stability limits to predict the pedestal structure preceding an ELM crash. We apply similar tools to the structure and ELM stability of I-mode pedestals. Peeling-ballooning MHD calculations are completed using the ELITE code, showing I-mode pedestals to be generally MHD-stable. Under certain conditions, intermittent ELMs are observed in I-mode at reduced field, typically triggered by sawtooth crashes; modification of the temperature pedestal (and therefore the pressure profile stability) by sawtooth heat pulses is being examined in ELITE. Modeled stability to KBM turbulence in I-mode and ELMy H-mode suggests that typical I-modes are stable against KBM turbulence. Measured I-mode pedestals are significantly wider (more stable) than the width scaling with the square root of poloidal beta characteristic of the KBM-limited pedestals in ELMy H-mode. Finally, we explore scalings of pedestal structure with engineering parameters compared to ELMy H-modes on C-Mod. In particular, we focus on scalings of the pressure pedestal with heating power (and its relation to the favorable scaling of confinement with power in I-mode) and on relationships between heat flux and pedestal temperature gradients. This work is supported by DOE agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512. Theory work at General Atomics is supported by DOE agreement DE-FG02-99ER54309.

  1. Observation of Wakefield Suppression in a Photonic-Band-Gap Accelerator Structure

    DOE PAGES

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Buechler, Cynthia E.; ...

    2016-02-10

    We report experimental observation of higher order mode (HOM) wakefield suppression in a room-temperature traveling-wave photonic band gap (PBG) accelerating structure at 11.700 GHz. It has been long recognized that PBG structures have potential for reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. The first ever demonstration of acceleration in a room-temperature PBG structure was conducted in 2005. Since then, the importance of PBG accelerator research has been recognized by many institutions. However, the full experimental characterization of the wakefield spectrum and demonstration of wakefield suppression when the accelerating structure is excited by an electron beam has not been performed to date. Wemore » conducted an experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) test facility and observed wakefields excited by a single high charge electron bunch when it passes through a PBG accelerator structure. Lastly, excellent HOM suppression properties of the PBG accelerator were demonstrated in the beam test.« less

  2. Complete multipactor suppression in an X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jing, C.; Gold, S. H.; Fischer, Richard

    2016-05-09

    Multipactor is a major issue limiting the gradient of rf-driven Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structures. Theoretical models have predicted that an axial magnetic field applied to DLA structures may completely block the multipactor discharge. However, previous attempts to demonstrate this magnetic field effect in an X-band traveling-wave DLA structure were inconclusive, due to the axial variation of the applied magnetic field, and showed only partial suppression of the multipactor loading [Jing et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 213503 (2013)]. The present experiment has been performed under improved conditions with a uniform axial magnetic field extending along the length of an X-bandmore » standing-wave DLA structure. Multipactor loading began to be continuously reduced starting from 3.5 kG applied magnetic field and was completely suppressed at 8 kG. Dependence of multipactor suppression on the rf gradient inside the DLA structure was also measured.« less

  3. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein suppresses leukocyte NADPH oxidase activation by disrupting lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Peshavariya, Hitesh; Dusting, Gregory J; Di Bartolo, Belinda; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J; Jiang, Fan

    2009-08-01

    Reconstituted discoidal high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) has potent vascular protective actions. Native HDL suppresses cellular generation of reactive oxygen species, whereas this antioxidant effect of rHDL is less clear. This study examined the effects of rHDL on NADPH oxidase, a major source of cellular superoxide generation, in both leukocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Superoxide was measured with lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. Expression of NADPH oxidase sub-units was determined by real-time PCR. Pre-treatment of HL-60 cells with rHDL (10 and 25 microM) for 1 h significantly reduced phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated superoxide production. Treatment with rHDL for up to 24 h did not change the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase sub-units. In HL-60 cells, depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin mimicked the effect of rHDL, whereas cholesterol repletion blunted the effects of rHDL. Treatment with rHDL induced disruption of the lipid raft structures and blunted PMA-induced redistribution of p47phox into lipid rafts. In contrast, treatment of endothelial cells with rHDL for up to 18 h had no effect on either basal or tumour necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity, but markedly suppressed the cytokine-induced expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules. The results suggest that rHDL inhibits NADPH oxidase activation in leukocytes, probably by interrupting the assembly of NADPH oxidase sub-units at the lipid rafts. This effect may contribute to the vascular protective actions of rHDL against inflammation-mediated oxidative damage.

  4. Fingerprint-Based Structure Retrieval Using Electron Density

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuangye; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a computational approach that can quickly search a large protein structural database to identify structures that fit a given electron density, such as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We use geometric invariants (fingerprints) constructed using 3D Zernike moments to describe the electron density, and reduce the problem of fitting of the structure to the electron density to simple fingerprint comparison. Using this approach, we are able to screen the entire Protein Data Bank and identify structures that fit two experimental electron densities determined by cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:21287628

  5. Optimal Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) density and time of introduction for suppression of bruchid progeny in stored legumes

    Treesearch

    Sharlene E. Sing; Richard T. Arbogast

    2008-01-01

    The influences of both predator density and elapsed time between initial infestation and introduction of predators were determined for suppression of bruchids infesting stored grain legumes by Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Predator density treatments consisted of zero, one, two, three, or five male:female pairs of adult

  6. The edge of awareness: Mask spatial density, but not color, determines optimal temporal frequency for continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Jan; Zhu, Weina; Melcher, David

    2018-01-01

    The study of how visual processing functions in the absence of visual awareness has become a major research interest in the vision-science community. One of the main sources of evidence that stimuli that do not reach conscious awareness-and are thus "invisible"-are still processed to some degree by the visual system comes from studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS). Why and how CFS works may provide more general insight into how stimuli access awareness. As spatial and temporal properties of stimuli are major determinants of visual perception, we hypothesized that these properties of the CFS masks would be of significant importance to the achieved suppression depth. In previous studies however, the spatial and temporal properties of the masks themselves have received little study, and masking parameters vary widely across studies, making a metacomparison difficult. To investigate the factors that determine the effectiveness of CFS, we varied both the temporal frequency and the spatial density of Mondrian-style masks. We consistently found the longest suppression duration for a mask temporal frequency of around 6 Hz. In trials using masks with reduced spatial density, suppression was weaker and frequency tuning was less precise. In contrast, removing color reduced mask effectiveness but did not change the pattern of suppression strength as a function of frequency. Overall, this pattern of results stresses the importance of CFS mask parameters and is consistent with the idea that CFS works by disrupting the spatiotemporal mechanisms that underlie conscious access to visual input.

  7. Fingerprint-based structure retrieval using electron density.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuangye; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2011-03-01

    We present a computational approach that can quickly search a large protein structural database to identify structures that fit a given electron density, such as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We use geometric invariants (fingerprints) constructed using 3D Zernike moments to describe the electron density, and reduce the problem of fitting of the structure to the electron density to simple fingerprint comparison. Using this approach, we are able to screen the entire Protein Data Bank and identify structures that fit two experimental electron densities determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Intense conductivity suppression by edge defects in zigzag MoS2 and WSe2 nanoribbons: a density functional based tight-binding study.

    PubMed

    Silva, F W N; Costa, A L M T; Liu, Lei; Barros, E B

    2016-11-04

    The effects of edge vacancies on the electron transport properties of zigzag MoS2/WSe2 nanoribbons are studied using a density functional theory (DFT)-based tight-binding model with a sp(3)d(5) basis set for the electronic structure calculation and applying the Landauer-Büttiker approach for the electronic transport. Our results show that the presence of a single edge vacancy, with a missing MoS2/WSe2 triplet, is enough to suppress the conductance of the system by almost one half for most energies around the Fermi level. Furthermore, the presence of other single defects along the same edge has little effect on the overall conductance, indicating that the conductance of that particular edge has been strongly suppressed by the first defect. The presence of another defect on the opposite edge further suppresses the quantum conductance, independently of the relative position between the two defects in opposite edges. The introduction of other defects cause the suppression to be energy dependent, leading to conductance peaks which depend on the geometry of the edges. The strong conductance dependence on the presence of edge defects is corroborated by DFT calculations using SIESTA, which show that the electronic bands near the Fermi energy are strongly localized at the edge.

  9. Active and passive vibration suppression for space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The relative benefits of passive and active vibration suppression for large space structures (LSS) are discussed. The intent is to sketch the true ranges of applicability of these approaches using previously published technical results. It was found that the distinction between active and passive vibration suppression approaches is not as sharp as might be thought at first. The relative simplicity, reliability, and cost effectiveness touted for passive measures are vitiated by 'hidden costs' bound up with detailed engineering implementation issues and inherent performance limitations. At the same time, reliability and robustness issues are often cited against active control. It is argued that a continuum of vibration suppression measures offering mutually supporting capabilities is needed. The challenge is to properly orchestrate a spectrum of methods to reap the synergistic benefits of combined advanced materials, passive damping, and active control.

  10. Dopamine agonist suppression of rapid-eye-movement sleep is secondary to sleep suppression mediated via limbic structures

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miletich, R.S.

    The effects of pergolide, a direct dopamine receptor agonist, on sleep and wakefulness, motor behavior and /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding in limbic structures and striatum in rats was studied. The results show that pergolide induced a biphasic dose effect, with high doses increasing wakefulness and suppressing sleep while low dose decreased wakefulness, but increased sleep. It was shown that pergolide-induced sleep suppression was blocked by ..cap alpha..-glupenthixol and pimozide, two dopamine receptor antagonists. It was further shown that pergolide merely delayed the rebound resulting from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation, that dopamine receptors stimulation had no direct effect on the period,more » phase or amplitude of the circadian rhythm of REM sleep propensity and that there was no alteration in the coupling of REM sleep episodes with S/sub 2/ episodes. Rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation resulted in increased sensitivity to the pergolide-induced wakefulness stimulation and sleep suppression and pergolide-induced motor behaviors of locomotion and head bobbing. /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding to dopamine receptors was shown to be altered by REM sleep deprivation in the subcortical limbic structures. It is concluded that the REM sleep suppressing action of dopamine receptor stimulation is secondary to sleep suppression per se and not secondary to a unique effect on the REM sleep. Further, it is suggested that the wakefulness stimulating action of dopamine receptor agonists is mediated by activation of the dopamine receptors in the terminal areas of the mesolimbocortical dopamine projection system.« less

  11. Damage suppression system using embedded SMA (shape memory alloy) foils in CFRP laminate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogisu, Toshimichi; Shimanuki, Masakazu; Kiyoshima, Satoshi; Takaki, Junji; Takeda, Nobuo

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the demonstrator program with respect to the damage growth suppression effects using embedded SMA foils in CFRP laminates. The damage growth suppression effects were demonstrated for the technical verification in order to apply to aircraft structure. In our previous studies, the authors already confirmed the damage growth suppression effects of CFRP laminates with embedded pre-strained SMA foils through both coupon and structural element tests. It was founded that these effects were obtained by the suppression of the strain energy release rate based on the suppression of the crack opening displacement due to the recovery stress of SMA foils through the detail observation of the damage behavior. In this study, these results were verified using the demonstrator test article, which was 1/3-scaled model of commercial airliner fuselage structure. For the demonstration of damage growth suppression effects, the evaluation area was located in the lower panel, which was dominated in tension load during demonstration. The evaluation area is the integrated stiffened panel including both "smart area" (CFRP laminate with embedded pre-strained SMA foils) and "conventional area" (standard CFRP laminate) for the direct comparison. The demonstration was conducted at 80 degree Celsius in smart area and room temperature (RT) in conventional area during quasi-static load-unload test method. As the test results, the demonstrator test article presented that the damage onset strain in the smart area was improved by 30% for compared with the conventional area. Therefore, the successful technical verification of the damage onset/growth suppression effect using the demonstrator presented the feasibility of the application of smart material and structural system to aircraft structures.

  12. Suppression and Structure of Low Strain Rate Nonpremixed Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamins, Anthony; Bundy, Matthew; Park, Woe Chul; Lee, Ki Yong; Logue, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The agent concentration required to achieve suppression of low strain rate nonpremixed flames is an important fire safety consideration. In a microgravity environment such as a space platform, unwanted fires will likely occur in near quiescent conditions where strain rates are very low. Diffusion flames typically become more robust as the strain rate is decreased. When designing a fire suppression system for worst-case conditions, low strain rates should be considered. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of radiative emission, flame strain, agent addition, and buoyancy on the structure and extinction of low strain rate nonpremixed flames through measurements and comparison with flame simulations. The suppression effectiveness of a suppressant (N2) added to the fuel stream of low strain rate methane-air diffusion flames was measured. Flame temperature measurements were attained in the high temperature region of the flame (T greater than 1200 K) by measurement of thin filament emission intensity. The time varying temperature was measured and simulated as the flame made the transition from normal to microgravity conditions and as the flame extinguished.

  13. Number density structures in the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The origins and generation mechanisms of the slow solar wind are still unclear. Part of the slow solar wind is populated by number density structures, discrete patches of increased number density that are frozen in to and move with the bulk solar wind. In this paper we aimed to provide the first in-situ statistical study of number density structures in the inner heliosphere. Methods: We reprocessed in-situ ion distribution functions measured by Helios in the inner heliosphere to provide a new reliable set of proton plasma moments for the entire mission. From this new data set we looked for number density structures measured within 0.5 AU of the Sun and studied their properties. Results: We identified 140 discrete areas of enhanced number density. The structures occurred exclusively in the slow solar wind and spanned a wide range of length scales from 50 Mm to 2000 Mm, which includes smaller scales than have been previously observed. They were also consistently denser and hotter that the surrounding plasma, but had lower magnetic field strengths, and therefore remained in pressure balance. Conclusions: Our observations show that these structures are present in the slow solar wind at a wide range of scales, some of which are too small to be detected by remote sensing instruments. These structures are rare, accounting for only 1% of the slow solar wind measured by Helios, and are not a significant contribution to the mass flux of the solar wind.

  14. Large-Scale Structure and Hyperuniformity of Amorphous Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of amorphous ices and transitions between their different forms by quantifying their large-scale density fluctuations. Specifically, we simulate the isothermal compression of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and hexagonal ice to produce high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Both HDA and LDA are nearly hyperuniform; i.e., they are characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations. By contrast, in correspondence with the nonequilibrium phase transitions to HDA, the presence of structural heterogeneities strongly suppresses the hyperuniformity and the system becomes hyposurficial (devoid of "surface-area fluctuations"). Our investigation challenges the largely accepted "frozen-liquid" picture, which views glasses as structurally arrested liquids. Beyond implications for water, our findings enrich our understanding of pressure-induced structural transformations in glasses.

  15. Structurally-diverse, PPARγ-activating environmental toxicants induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Watt, James; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental obesogens are a newly recognized category of endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been implicated in contributing to the rising rates of obesity in the United States. While obesity is typically regarded as an increase in visceral fat, adipocyte accumulation in the bone has been linked to increased fracture risk, lower bone density, and osteoporosis. Exposure to environmental toxicants that activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a critical regulator of the balance of differentiation between adipogenesis and osteogenesis, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis. However, induction of adipogenesis and suppression of osteogenesis are separable activities of PPARγ, and ligands may selectively alter these activities. It currently is unknown whether suppression of osteogenesis is a common toxic endpoint of environmental PPARγ ligands. Using a primary mouse bone marrow culture model, we tested the hypothesis that environmental toxicants acting as PPARγ agonists divert the differentiation pathway of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells towards adipogenesis and away from osteogenesis. The toxicants tested included the organotins tributyltin and triphenyltin, a ubiquitous phthalate metabolite (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, MEHP), and two brominated flame retardants (tetrabromobisphenol-a, TBBPA, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, METBP). All of the compounds activated PPARγ1 and 2. All compounds increased adipogenesis (lipid accumulation, Fabp4 expression) and suppressed osteogenesis (alkaline phosphatase activity, Osx expression) in mouse primary bone marrow cultures, but with different potencies and efficacies. Despite structural dissimilarities, there was a strong negative correlation between efficacies to induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis, with the organotins being distinct in their exceptional ability to suppress osteogenesis. As human exposure to a mixture of

  16. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  17. Multilayered Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Structures for Suppressing Magnetic Field Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Atom O.; Raj, Pulugurtha Markondeya; Wong, Denny; Mullapudi, Ravi; Tummala, Rao

    2018-05-01

    Control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) represents a major challenge for emerging consumer electronics, the Internet of Things, automotive electronics, and wireless communication systems. This paper discusses innovative EMI shielding materials and structures that offer higher shielding effectiveness compared with copper. To create high shielding effectiveness in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, multilayered shielding topologies with electrically conductive and nanomagnetic materials were modeled, designed, fabricated, and characterized. In addition, suppression of out-of-plane and in-plane magnetic-field coupling noise with these structures is compared with that of traditional single-layer copper or nickel-iron films. Compared with single-layered copper shields, multilayered structures consisting of copper, nickel-iron, and titanium showed a 3.9 times increase in shielding effectiveness in suppressing out-of-plane or vertically coupled noise and 1.3 times increase in lateral coupling. The superiority of multilayered thin-film shields over conventional shielding enables greater design flexibility, higher shielding effectiveness, and further miniaturization of emerging radiofrequency (RF) and power modules.

  18. Wildfire and drought dynamics destabilize carbon stores of fire-suppressed forests.

    PubMed

    Earles, J Mason; North, Malcolm P; Hurteau, Matthew D

    2014-06-01

    Widespread fire suppression and thinning have altered the structure and composition of many forests in the western United States, making them more susceptible to the synergy of large-scale drought and fire events. We examine how these changes affect carbon storage and stability compared to historic fire-adapted conditions. We modeled carbon dynamics under possible drought and fire conditions over a 300-year simulation period in two mixed-conifer conditions common in the western United States: (1) pine-dominated with an active fire regime and (2) fir-dominated, fire suppressed forests. Fir-dominated stands, with higher live- and dead-wood density, had much lower carbon stability as drought and fire frequency increased compared to pine-dominated forest. Carbon instability resulted from species (i.e., fir's greater susceptibility to drought and fire) and stand (i.e., high density of smaller trees) conditions that develop in the absence of active management. Our modeling suggests restoring historic species composition and active fire regimes can significantly increase carbon stability in fire-suppressed, mixed-conifer forests. Long-term management of forest carbon should consider the relative resilience of stand structure and composition to possible increases in disturbance frequency and intensity under changing climate.

  19. Effect with high density nano dot type storage layer structure on 20 nm planar NAND flash memory characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Muraguchi, Masakazu; Seo, Moon-Sik; Park, Sung-kye; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The merits, concerns and design principle for the future nano dot (ND) type NAND flash memory cell are clarified, by considering the effect of storage layer structure on NAND flash memory characteristics. The characteristics of the ND cell for a NAND flash memory in comparison with the floating gate type (FG) is comprehensively studied through the read, erase, program operation, and the cell to cell interference with device simulation. Although the degradation of the read throughput (0.7% reduction of the cell current) and slower program time (26% smaller programmed threshold voltage shift) with high density (10 × 1012 cm-2) ND NAND are still concerned, the suppress of the cell to cell interference with high density (10 × 1012 cm-2) plays the most important part for scaling and multi-level cell (MLC) operation in comparison with the FG NAND. From these results, the design knowledge is shown to require the control of the number of nano dots rather than the higher nano dot density, from the viewpoint of increasing its memory capacity by MLC operation and suppressing threshold voltage variability caused by the number of dots in the storage layer. Moreover, in order to increase its memory capacity, it is shown the tunnel oxide thickness with ND should be designed thicker (>3 nm) than conventional designed ND cell for programming/erasing with direct tunneling mechanism.

  20. Communication: Disorder-suppressed vibrational relaxation in vapor-deposited high-density amorphous ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalit, Andrey; Perakis, Fivos; Hamm, Peter

    2014-04-01

    We apply two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to differentiate between the two polyamorphous forms of glassy water, low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ices, that were obtained by slow vapor deposition at 80 and 11 K, respectively. Both the vibrational lifetime and the bandwidth of the 1-2 transition of the isolated OD stretch vibration of HDO in H2O exhibit characteristic differences when comparing hexagonal (Ih), LDA, and HDA ices, which we attribute to the different local structures - in particular the presence of interstitial waters in HDA ice - that cause different delocalization lengths of intermolecular phonon degrees of freedom. Moreover, temperature dependent measurements show that the vibrational lifetime closely follows the structural transition between HDA and LDA phases.

  1. High cell density suppresses BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to produce macroscopic spatial patterning in a unidirectional perfusion culture chamber.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Shota; Le, Minh Nguyen Tuyet; Kusama, Yuta; Nakatani, Eri; Suga, Mika; Furue, Miho K; Satoh, Taku; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-04-19

    Spatial pattern formation is a critical step in embryogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitors are major factors for the formation of spatial patterns during embryogenesis. However, spatial patterning of the human embryo is unclear because of ethical issues and isotropic culture environments resulting from conventional culture dishes. Here, we utilized human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and a simple anisotropic (unidirectional perfusion) culture chamber, which creates unidirectional conditions, to measure the cell community effect. The influence of cell density on BMP4-induced differentiation was explored during static culture using a conventional culture dish. Immunostaining of the early differentiation marker SSEA-1 and the mesendoderm marker BRACHYURY revealed that high cell density suppressed differentiation, with small clusters of differentiated and undifferentiated cells formed. Addition of five-fold higher concentration of BMP4 showed similar results, suggesting that suppression was not caused by depletion of BMP4 but rather by high cell density. Quantitative RT-PCR array analysis showed that BMP4 induced multi-lineage differentiation, which was also suppressed under high-density conditions. We fabricated an elongated perfusion culture chamber, in which proteins were transported unidirectionally, and hiPSCs were cultured with BMP4. At low density, the expression was the same throughout the chamber. However, at high density, SSEA-1 and BRACHYURY were expressed only in upstream cells, suggesting that some autocrine/paracrine factors inhibited the action of BMP4 in downstream cells to form the spatial pattern. Human iPSCs cultured in a perfusion culture chamber might be useful for studying in vitro macroscopic pattern formation in human embryogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Density Effects on Post-shock Turbulence Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yifeng; Jaberi, Farhad; Livescu, Daniel; Li, Zhaorui; Michigan State University Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The effects of density variations due to mixture composition on post-shock turbulence structure are studied using turbulence-resolving shock-capturing simulations. This work extends the canonical Shock-Turbulence Interaction (STI) problem to involve significant variable density effects. The numerical method has been verified using a series of grid and LIA convergence tests, and is used to generate accurate post-shock turbulence data for a detailed flow study. Density effects on post-shock turbulent statistics are shown to be significant, leading to an increased amplification of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Eulerian and Lagrangian analyses show that the increase in the post-shock correlation between rotation and strain is weakened in the case with significant density variations (referred to as the ``multi-fluid'' case). Similar to previous single-fluid results and LIA predictions, the shock wave significantly changes the topology of the turbulent structures, exhibiting a symmetrization of the joint PDF of second and third invariant of the deviatoric part of velocity gradient tensor. In the multi-fluid case, this trend is more significant and mainly manifested in the heavy fluid regions. Lagrangian data are also used to study the evolution of turbulence structure away from the shock wave and assess the accuracy of Lagrangian dynamical models.

  3. Likelihood-based modification of experimental crystal structure electron density maps

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Thomas C [Sante Fe, NM

    2005-04-16

    A maximum-likelihood method for improves an electron density map of an experimental crystal structure. A likelihood of a set of structure factors {F.sub.h } is formed for the experimental crystal structure as (1) the likelihood of having obtained an observed set of structure factors {F.sub.h.sup.OBS } if structure factor set {F.sub.h } was correct, and (2) the likelihood that an electron density map resulting from {F.sub.h } is consistent with selected prior knowledge about the experimental crystal structure. The set of structure factors {F.sub.h } is then adjusted to maximize the likelihood of {F.sub.h } for the experimental crystal structure. An improved electron density map is constructed with the maximized structure factors.

  4. Effective suppression of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes: role of significant reduction of carrier density and built-in field.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yang-Seok; Na, Jong-Ho; Son, Sung Jin; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2016-10-19

    A critical issue in GaN-based high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is how to suppress the efficiency droop problem occurred at high current injection while improving overall quantum efficiency, especially in conventional c-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW), without using complicated bandgap engineering or unconventional materials and structures. Although increasing thickness of each QW may decrease carrier density in QWs, formation of additional strain and defects as well as increased built-in field effect due to enlarged QW thickness are unavoidable. Here, we propose a facile and effective method for not only reducing efficiency droop but also improving quantum efficiency by utilizing c-plane InGaN/GaN QWs having thinner barriers and increased QW number while keeping the same single well thickness and total active layer thickness. As the barrier thickness decreases and the QW number increases, both internal electric field and carrier density within QWs are simultaneously reduced without degradation of material quality. Furthermore, we found overall improved efficiency and reduced efficiency droop, which was attributed to the decrease of the built-in field and to less influence by non-radiative recombination processes at high carrier density. This simple and effective approach can be extended further for high power ultraviolet, green, and red LEDs.

  5. Effective suppression of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes: role of significant reduction of carrier density and built-in field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Yang-Seok; Na, Jong-Ho; Son, Sung Jin; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    A critical issue in GaN-based high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is how to suppress the efficiency droop problem occurred at high current injection while improving overall quantum efficiency, especially in conventional c-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW), without using complicated bandgap engineering or unconventional materials and structures. Although increasing thickness of each QW may decrease carrier density in QWs, formation of additional strain and defects as well as increased built-in field effect due to enlarged QW thickness are unavoidable. Here, we propose a facile and effective method for not only reducing efficiency droop but also improving quantum efficiency by utilizing c-plane InGaN/GaN QWs having thinner barriers and increased QW number while keeping the same single well thickness and total active layer thickness. As the barrier thickness decreases and the QW number increases, both internal electric field and carrier density within QWs are simultaneously reduced without degradation of material quality. Furthermore, we found overall improved efficiency and reduced efficiency droop, which was attributed to the decrease of the built-in field and to less influence by non-radiative recombination processes at high carrier density. This simple and effective approach can be extended further for high power ultraviolet, green, and red LEDs.

  6. Replication, checkpoint suppression and structure of centromeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Francesco; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication. We also showed that centromeric chromatin forms condensins enriched and topologically constrained DNA loops, which likely contribute to the overall structure of the centromere. These findings have important implications on how chromosomes are organized and genome stability is maintained in mammalian cells. PMID:27893298

  7. Evaluating the quality of NMR structures by local density of protons.

    PubMed

    Ban, Yih-En Andrew; Rudolph, Johannes; Zhou, Pei; Edelsbrunner, Herbert

    2006-03-01

    Evaluating the quality of experimentally determined protein structural models is an essential step toward identifying potential errors and guiding further structural refinement. Herein, we report the use of proton local density as a sensitive measure to assess the quality of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures. Using 256 high-resolution crystal structures with protons added and optimized, we show that the local density of different proton types display distinct distributions. These distributions can be characterized by statistical moments and are used to establish local density Z-scores for evaluating both global and local packing for individual protons. Analysis of 546 crystal structures at various resolutions shows that the local density Z-scores increase as the structural resolution decreases and correlate well with the ClashScore (Word et al. J Mol Biol 1999;285(4):1711-1733) generated by all atom contact analysis. Local density Z-scores for NMR structures exhibit a significantly wider range of values than for X-ray structures and demonstrate a combination of potentially problematic inflation and compression. Water-refined NMR structures show improved packing quality. Our analysis of a high-quality structural ensemble of ubiquitin refined against order parameters shows proton density distributions that correlate nearly perfectly with our standards derived from crystal structures, further validating our approach. We present an automated analysis and visualization tool for proton packing to evaluate the quality of NMR structures. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Structural lumber from suppressed-growth ponderosa pine from northern Arizona.

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Gorman; David W. Green; Aldo G. Cisternas; Roland Hernandez; Eini C. Lowell

    2007-01-01

    Lumber was sawn from 150 suppressed-growth ponderosa pine trees, 6 to 16 inches in diameter, harvested near Flagstaff, Arizona. This paper presents grade recover and properties for dry 2 by 4s sawn from the logs and graded by a variety of structural grading systems. Flexural properties met or exceeded those listed in the National Design Specification. When graded as...

  9. Assessment of the Density of Suppression to Identify Risk of Intractable Diplopia in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Newsham, David; O'Connor, Anna R

    2016-06-01

    Occlusion used to treat amblyopia towards the end of the developmental component of the critical period gives a risk of inducing intractable diplopia. In the United Kingdom, the density of suppression is assessed via the Sbisa/Bagolini filter bar, but there is very little research evidence to guide clinical practice or interpretation of the tests used. The aims of this study were to determine current practice and estimate the incidence of intractable diplopia following amblyopia treatment. Current practice and incidence of intractable diplopia following amblyopia were determined via a questionnaire distributed to head orthoptists in every eye department in the United Kingdom. The questionnaire explored testing and test conditions, interpretation of the test results, and cases of intractable diplopia over the last 5 years. There was considerable variation in clinical practice of the measurement of the density of suppression and interpretation of the results to guide the treatment of amblyopia. The minimum age of patients taking the test ranged from 2 to 8 years and the minimum filter considered still safe to continue treatment ranged from 4 to 17. It is estimated there were 24 cases of intractable diplopia over the last 5 years. The issue of intractable diplopia and amblyopia treatment is likely to become increasingly important as there appears to be greater plasticity and scope to treat amblyopia in teenagers and adults than was previously thought. Lack of knowledge of how to evaluate the risk may lead to more cases of intractable diplopia or alternatively treatment being withheld unnecessarily.

  10. How the laser-induced ionization of transparent solids can be suppressed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzdev, Vitaly

    2013-12-01

    A capability to suppress laser-induced ionization of dielectric crystals in controlled and predictable way can potentially result in substantial improvement of laser damage threshold of optical materials. The traditional models that employ the Keldysh formula do not predict any suppression of the ionization because of the oversimplified description of electronic energy bands underlying the Keldysh formula. To fix this gap, we performed numerical simulations of time evolution of conduction-band electron density for a realistic cosine model of electronic bands characteristic of wide-band-gap cubic crystals. The simulations include contributions from the photo-ionization (evaluated by the Keldysh formula and by the formula for the cosine band of volume-centered cubic crystals) and from the avalanche ionization (evaluated by the Drude model). Maximum conduction-band electron density is evaluated from a single rate equation as a function of peak intensity of femtosecond laser pulses for alkali halide crystals. Results obtained for high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses demonstrate that the ionization can be suppressed by proper choice of laser parameters. In case of the Keldysh formula, the peak electron density exhibits saturation followed by gradual increase. For the cosine band, the electron density increases with irradiance within the low-intensity multiphoton regime and switches to decrease with intensity approaching threshold of the strong singularity of the ionization rate characteristic of the cosine band. Those trends are explained with specific modifications of band structure by electric field of laser pulses.

  11. Modal density of rectangular structures in a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.

    2018-04-01

    A novel approach to investigate the modal density of a rectangular structure in a wide frequency range is presented. First, the modal density is derived, in the whole frequency range of interest, on the basis of sound transmission through the infinite counterpart of the structure; then, it is corrected by means of the low-frequency modal behavior of the structure, taking into account actual size and boundary conditions. A statistical analysis reveals the connection between the modal density of the structure and the transmission of sound through its thickness. A transfer matrix approach is used to compute the required acoustic parameters, making it possible to deal with structures having arbitrary stratifications of different layers. A finite element method is applied on coarse grids to derive the first few eigenfrequencies required to correct the modal density. Both the transfer matrix approach and the coarse grids involved in the finite element analysis grant high efficiency. Comparison with alternative formulations demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  12. High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2004-01-01

    A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya. PMID:15020433

  13. Vibration suppression and slewing control of a flexible structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Garcia, Ephrahim; Pokines, Brett

    1991-01-01

    Examined here are the effects of motor dynamics and secondary piezoceramic actuators on vibration suppression during the slewing of flexible structures. The approach focuses on the interaction between the structure, the actuators, and the choice of control law. The results presented here are all simulated, but are based on experimentally determined parameters for the motor, structure, piezoceramic actuators, and piezofilm sensors. The simulation results clearly illustrate that the choice of motor inertia relative to beam inertia makes a critical difference in the performance of the system. In addition, the use of secondary piezoelectric actuators reduces the load requirements on the motor and also reduces the overshoot of the tip deflection. The structures considered here are a beam and a frame. The majority of results are based on a Euler Bernoulli beam model. The slewing frame introduces substantial torsional modes and a more realistic model. The slewing frame results are incomplete and represent work in progress.

  14. Predation risk suppresses the positive feedback between size structure and cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ohno, Ayaka; Kuwano, Shinya; Ikawa, Takuya; Nishimura, Kinya

    2011-11-01

    1. Cannibalism can play a prominent role in the structuring and dynamics of ecological communities. Previous studies have emphasized the importance of size structure and density of cannibalistic species in shaping short- and long-term cannibalism dynamics, but our understanding of how predators influence cannibalism dynamics is limited. This is despite widespread evidence that many prey species exhibit behavioural and morphological adaptations in response to predation risk. 2. This study examined how the presence and absence of predation risk from larval dragonflies Aeshna nigroflava affected cannibalism dynamics in its prey larval salamanders Hynobius retardatus. 3. We found that feedback dynamics between size structure and cannibalism depended on whether dragonfly predation risk was present. In the absence of dragonfly risk cues, a positive feedback between salamander size structure and cannibalism through time occurred because most of the replicates in this treatment contained at least one salamander larvae having an enlarged gape (i.e. cannibal). In contrast, this feedback and the emergence of cannibalism were rarely observed in the presence of the dragonfly risk cues. Once salamander size divergence occurred, experimental reversals of the presence or absence of dragonfly risk cues did not alter existing cannibalism dynamics as the experiment progressed. Thus, the effects of risk on the mechanisms driving cannibalism dynamics likely operated during the early developmental period of the salamander larvae. 4. The effects of dragonfly predation risk on behavioural aspects of cannibalistic interactions among hatchlings may prohibit the initiation of dynamics between size structure and cannibalism. Our predation trials clearly showed that encounter rates among hatchlings and biting and ingestion rates of prospective prey by prospective cannibals were significantly lower in the presence vs. absence of dragonfly predation risk even though the size asymmetry

  15. Suppression of Structural Phase Transition in VO2 by Epitaxial Strain in Vicinity of Metal-insulator Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mengmeng; Yang, Yuanjun; Bin Hong; Wang, Liangxin; Hu, Kai; Dong, Yongqi; Xu, Han; Huang, Haoliang; Zhao, Jiangtao; Chen, Haiping; Song, Li; Ju, Huanxin; Zhu, Junfa; Bao, Jun; Li, Xiaoguang; Gu, Yueliang; Yang, Tieying; Gao, Xingyu; Luo, Zhenlin; Gao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strained VO2 thin films is very complicated and incompletely understood despite three scenarios with potential explanations including electronic correlation (Mott mechanism), structural transformation (Peierls theory) and collaborative Mott-Peierls transition. Herein, we have decoupled coactions of structural and electronic phase transitions across the MIT by implementing epitaxial strain on 13-nm-thick (001)-VO2 films in comparison to thicker films. The structural evolution during MIT characterized by temperature-dependent synchrotron radiation high-resolution X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping and Raman spectroscopy suggested that the structural phase transition in the temperature range of vicinity of the MIT is suppressed by epitaxial strain. Furthermore, temperature-dependent Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) revealed the changes in electron occupancy near the Fermi energy EF of V 3d orbital, implying that the electronic transition triggers the MIT in the strained films. Thus the MIT in the bi-axially strained VO2 thin films should be only driven by electronic transition without assistance of structural phase transition. Density functional theoretical calculations further confirmed that the tetragonal phase across the MIT can be both in insulating and metallic states in the strained (001)-VO2/TiO2 thin films. This work offers a better understanding of the mechanism of MIT in the strained VO2 films. PMID:26975328

  16. Disturbance rejection control for vibration suppression of piezoelectric laminated thin-walled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Li, H. N.; Schmidt, R.; Müller, P. C.

    2014-02-01

    Thin-walled piezoelectric integrated smart structures are easily excited to vibrate by unknown disturbances. In order to design and simulate a control strategy, firstly, an electro-mechanically coupled dynamic finite element (FE) model of smart structures is developed based on first-order shear deformation (FOSD) hypothesis. Linear piezoelectric constitutive equations and the assumption of constant electric field through the thickness are considered. Based on the dynamic FE model, a disturbance rejection (DR) control with proportional-integral (PI) observer using step functions as the fictitious model of disturbances is developed for vibration suppression of smart structures. In order to achieve a better dynamic behavior of the fictitious model of disturbances, the PI observer is extended to generalized proportional-integral (GPI) observer, in which sine or polynomial functions can be used to represent disturbances resulting in better dynamics. Therefore the disturbances can be estimated either by PI or GPI observer, and then the estimated signals are fed back to the controller. The DR control is validated by various kinds of unknown disturbances, and compared with linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) control. The results illustrate that the vibrations are better suppressed by the proposed DR control.

  17. Equatorial Density Irregularity Structures at Intermediate Scales and Their Temporal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kil, Hyosub; Heelis, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    We examine high resolution measurements of ion density in the equatorial ionosphere from the AE-E satellite during the years 1977-1981. Structure over spatial scales from 18 km to 200 m is characterized by the spectrum of irregularities at larger and smaller scales and at altitudes above 350 km and below 300 km. In the low-altitude region, only small amplitude large-scale (lambda greater than 5 km) density modulations are often observed, and thus the power spectrum of these density structures exhibits a steep spectral slope at kilometer scales. In the high-altitude region, sinusoidal density fluctuations, characterized by enhanced power near 1-km scale, are frequently observed during 2000-0200 LT. However, such fluctuations are confined to regions at the edges of larger bubble structures where the average background density is high. Small amplitude irregularity structures, observed at early local time hours, grow rapidly to high-intensity structures in about 90 min. Fully developed structures, which are observed at late local time hours, decay very slowly producing only-small differences in spectral characteristics even 4 hours later. The local time evolution of irregularity structure is investigated by using average statistics for low-(1% less than sigma less than 5%) and high-intensity (sigma greater than 10%) structures. At lower altitudes, little chance in the spectral slope is seen as a function of local time, while at higher attitudes the growth and maintenance of structures near 1 km scales dramatically affects the spectral slope.

  18. Research on Hydrodynamic Interference Suppression of Bottom-Mounted Monitoring Platform with Fairing Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Yi; Mao, Yu-feng; Wang, Ya-zhou; Yu, Yan-ting; Liu, Hong-ning

    2018-03-01

    In the disturbance of unsteady flow field under the sea, the monitoring accuracy and precision of the bottom-mounted acoustic monitoring platform will decrease. In order to reduce the hydrodynamic interference, the platform wrapped with fairing structure and separated from the retrieval unit is described. The suppression effect evaluation based on the correlation theory of sound pressure and particle velocity for spherical wave in infinite homogeneous medium is proposed and the difference value between them is used to evaluate the hydrodynamic restraining performance of the bottom-mounted platform under far field condition. Through the sea test, it is indicated that the platform with sparse layers fairing structure (there are two layers for the fairing, in which the inside layer is 6-layers sparse metal net, and the outside layer is 1-layer polyester cloth, and then it takes sparse layers for short) has no attenuation in the sound pressure response to the sound source signal, but obvious suppression in the velocity response to the hydrodynamic noise. The effective frequency of the fairing structure is decreased below 10 Hz, and the noise magnitude is reduced by 10 dB. With the comparison of different fairing structures, it is concluded that the tighter fairing structure can enhance the performance of sound transmission and flow restraining.

  19. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  20. Resolvability of regional density structure and the road to direct density inversion - a principal-component approach to resolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płonka, Agnieszka; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assess if 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within the crust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we perform principal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish the extent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrained independently. We apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density, potentially allowing for as independent as possible density resolution. We find that surface (mosty Rayleigh) waves have significant sensitivity to density, and that the trade-off with velocity is negligible. We also show the preliminary results of the inversion.

  1. Passive vibration suppression using inerters for a multi-storey building structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sara Ying; Jiang, Jason Zheng; Neild, Simon

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of inerters for vibration suppression of a multistorey building structure. The inerter was proposed as a two-terminal replacement for the mass element, with the property that the applied force is proportional to the relative acceleration across its terminals. It completes the force-current mechanical-electrical network analogy, providing the mechanical equivalent to a capacitor. Thus allows all passive mechanical impedances to be synthesised. The inerter has been used in Formula 1 racing cars and applications to various systems such as vehicle suspension have been identified. Several devices that incoporate inerter(s), as well as spring(s) and damper(s), have also been identified for vibration suppression of building structures. These include the tuned inerter damper (TID) and the tuned viscous mass damper (TVMD). In this paper, a three-storey building model with an absorber located at the bottom subjected to base excitation is studied. Four simple absorber layouts, in terms of how spring, damper and inerter components should be arranged, have been studied. In order to minimise the maximum relative displacement of the building, the optimum parameter values for each of the layouts have been obtained with respect to the inerter's size.

  2. Fungal Community Structure in Disease Suppressive Soils Assessed by 28S LSU Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Penton, C. Ryan; Gupta, V. V. S. R.; Tiedje, James M.; Neate, Stephen M.; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Gillings, Michael; Harvey, Paul; Pham, Amanda; Roget, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Natural biological suppression of soil-borne diseases is a function of the activity and composition of soil microbial communities. Soil microbe and phytopathogen interactions can occur prior to crop sowing and/or in the rhizosphere, subsequently influencing both plant growth and productivity. Research on suppressive microbial communities has concentrated on bacteria although fungi can also influence soil-borne disease. Fungi were analyzed in co-located soils ‘suppressive’ or ‘non-suppressive’ for disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 at two sites in South Australia using 454 pyrosequencing targeting the fungal 28S LSU rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from a minimum of 125 g of soil per replicate to reduce the micro-scale community variability, and from soil samples taken at sowing and from the rhizosphere at 7 weeks to cover the peak Rhizoctonia infection period. A total of ∼994,000 reads were classified into 917 genera covering 54% of the RDP Fungal Classifier database, a high diversity for an alkaline, low organic matter soil. Statistical analyses and community ordinations revealed significant differences in fungal community composition between suppressive and non-suppressive soil and between soil type/location. The majority of differences associated with suppressive soils were attributed to less than 40 genera including a number of endophytic species with plant pathogen suppression potentials and mycoparasites such as Xylaria spp. Non-suppressive soils were dominated by Alternaria, Gibberella and Penicillum. Pyrosequencing generated a detailed description of fungal community structure and identified candidate taxa that may influence pathogen-plant interactions in stable disease suppression. PMID:24699870

  3. Leakage current suppression with a combination of planarized gate and overlap/off-set structure in metal-induced laterally crystallized polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Hee Jae; Seok, Ki Hwan; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2018-04-01

    A novel inverted staggered metal-induced laterally crystallized (MILC) polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a combination of a planarized gate and an overlap/off-set at the source-gate/drain-gate structure were fabricated and characterized. While the MILC process is advantageous for fabricating inverted staggered poly-Si TFTs, MILC TFTs reveal higher leakage current than TFTs crystallized by other processes due to their high trap density of Ni contamination. Due to this drawback, the planarized gate and overlap/off-set structure were applied to inverted staggered MILC TFTs. The proposed device shows drastic suppression of leakage current and pinning phenomenon by reducing the lateral electric field and the space-charge limited current from the gate to the drain.

  4. Vibration suppression of planar truss structures utilizing uniform damping control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, G. C.; Silverberg, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of methods has been devised for vibrational control of a structure using both passive and active controls. Presented in this paper is a relatively new method for vibration suppression, uniform damping control. This method consists of implementing a control law which tends to dampen each vibrational mode of the structure at the same desirable exponential rate. The unique aspects of this method are that the control law is not explicitly dependent on the structural stiffness, the control forces are directly proportional to the distribution of the structural mass, and the control law is natural and decentralized. The control law was applied to a flexible planar truss structure and the various aspects of implementation of the control law examined are: actuator/sensor number, placement, and the impact of the actuator/sensor number and placement on the necessary control 'power' requirements such as peak power loads, total power requirements, etc. Also examined are the effects of using a limited number of active members in terms of the vibrational performance when compared with the 'ideal' distributed control law.

  5. Gravity anomaly and density structure of the San Andreas fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi-Yuen; Rui, Feng; Zhengsheng, Yao; Xingjue, Shi

    1986-01-01

    A densely spaced gravity survey across the San andreas fault zone was conducted near Bear Valley, about 180 km south of San Francisco, along a cross-section where a detailed seismic reflection profile was previously made by McEvilly (1981). With Feng and McEvilly's velocity structure (1983) of the fault zone at this cross-section as a constraint, the density structure of the fault zone is obtained through inversion of the gravity data by a method used by Parker (1973) and Oldenburg (1974). Although the resulting density picture cannot be unique, it is better constrained and contains more detailed information about the structure of the fault than was previously possible. The most striking feature of the resulting density structure is a deeply seated tongue of low-density material within the fault zone, probably representing a wedge of fault gouge between the two moving plates, which projects from the surface to the base of the seismogenic zone. From reasonable assumptions concerning the density of the solid grains and the state of saturation of the fault zone the average porosity of this low-density fault gouge is estimated as about 12%. Stress-induced cracks are not expected to create so much porosity under the pressures in the deep fault zone. Large-scaled removal of fault-zone material by hydrothermal alteration, dissolution, and subsequent fluid transport may have occurred to produce this pronounced density deficiency. In addition, a broad, funnel-shaped belt of low density appears about the upper part of the fault zone, which probably represents a belt of extensively shattered wall rocks.

  6. Unequal density effect on static structure factor of coupled electron layers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Saini, L. K., E-mail: lks@ashd.svnit.ac.in; Nayak, Mukesh G., E-mail: lks@ashd.svnit.ac.in

    In order to understand the ordered phase, if any, in a real coupled electron layers (CEL), there is a need to take into account the effect of unequal layer density. Such phase is confirmed by a strong peak in a static structure factor. With the aid of quantum/dynamical version of Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjölander (so-called qSTLS) approximation, we have calculated the intra- and interlayer static structure factors, S{sub ll}(q) and S{sub 12}(q), over a wide range of density parameter r{sub sl} and interlayer spacing d. In our present study, the sharp peak in S{sub 22}(q) has been found atmore » critical density with sufficiently lower interlayer spacing. Further, to find the resultant effect of unequal density on intra- and interlayer static structure factors, we have compared our results with that of the recent CEL system with equal layer density and isolated single electron layer.« less

  7. A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Beck, Thomas L

    2015-12-21

    The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.

  8. Dietary saturated triacylglycerols suppress hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor activity in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1985-07-01

    The liver plays a key role in the regulation of circulating levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) because it is both the site for the production of and the major organ for the degradation of this class of lipoproteins. In this study, the effects of feeding polyunsaturated or saturated triacylglycerols on receptor-dependent and receptor-independent hepatic LDL uptake were measured in vivo in the hamster. In control animals, receptor-dependent LDL transport manifested an apparent Km value of 85 mg/dl (plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration) and reached a maximum transport velocity of 131 micrograms of LDL-cholesterol/hr per g, whereas receptor-independent uptake increased as a linear function of plasma LDL levels. Thus, at normal plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations, the hepatic clearance rate of LDL equaled 120 and 9 microliter/hr per g by receptor-dependent and receptor-independent mechanisms, respectively. As the plasma LDL-cholesterol was increased, the receptor-dependent (but not the receptor-independent) component declined. When cholesterol (0.12%) alone or in combination with polyunsaturated triacylglycerols was fed for 30 days, receptor-dependent clearance was reduced to 36-42 microliter/hr per g, whereas feeding of cholesterol plus saturated triacylglycerols essentially abolished receptor-dependent LDL uptake (5 microliter/hr per g). When compared to the appropriate kinetic curves, these findings indicated that receptor-mediated LDL transport was suppressed approximately equal to 30% by cholesterol feeding alone and this was unaffected by the addition of polyunsaturated triacylglycerols to the diet. In contrast, receptor-dependent uptake was suppressed approximately equal to 90% by the intake of saturated triacylglycerols. As compared to polyunsaturated triacylglycerols, the intake of saturated lipids was also associated with significantly higher plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower levels of cholesteryl esters in the liver.

  9. Shapes of Magnetically Controlled Electron Density Structures in the Dayside Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diéval, C.; Kopf, A. J.; Wild, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Nonhorizontal localized electron density structures associated with regions of near-radial crustal magnetic fields are routinely detected via radar oblique echoes on the dayside of Mars with the ionospheric sounding mode of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) radar onboard Mars Express. Previous studies mostly investigated these structures at a fixed plasma frequency and assumed that the larger apparent altitude of the structures compared to the normal surrounding ionosphere implied that they are bulges. However, the signal is subjected to dispersion when it propagates through the plasma, so interpretations based on the apparent altitude should be treated with caution. We go further by investigating the frequency dependence (i.e., the altitude dependence) of the shape of 48 density structure events, using time series of MARSIS electron density profiles corrected for signal dispersion. Four possible simplest shapes are detected in these time series, which can give oblique echoes: bulges, dips, downhill slopes, and uphill slopes. The altitude differences between the density structures and their edges are, in absolute value, larger at low frequency (high altitude) than at high frequency (low altitude), going from a few tens of kilometers to a few kilometers as frequency increases. Bulges dominate in numbers in most of the frequency range. Finally, the geographical extension of the density structures covers a wide range of crustal magnetic fields orientations, with near-vertical fields toward their center and near-horizontal fields toward their edges, as expected. Transport processes are suggested to be a key driver for these density structures.

  10. Founder takes all: density-dependent processes structure biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Waters, Jonathan M; Fraser, Ceridwen I; Hewitt, Godfrey M

    2013-02-01

    Density-dependent processes play a key role in the spatial structuring of biodiversity. Specifically, interrelated demographic processes, such as gene surfing, high-density blocking, and competitive exclusion, can generate striking geographic contrasts in the distributions of genes and species. Here, we propose that well-studied evolutionary and ecological biogeographic patterns of postglacial recolonization, progressive island colonization, microbial sectoring, and even the 'Out of Africa' pattern of human expansion, are fundamentally similar, underpinned by a 'founder takes all' density-dependent principle. Additionally, we hypothesize that older historic constraints of density-dependent processes are seen today in the dramatic biogeographic shifts that occur in response to human-mediated extinction events, whereby surviving lineages rapidly expand their ranges to replace extinct sister taxa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of Weakly Charged Polyelectrolyte Brushes: Monomer Density Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, O. V.; Zhulina, E. B.

    1997-03-01

    The internal structure (the monomer density profiles) of weakly charged polyelectrolyte brushes of different morphologies has been analyzed on the basis of the self-consistent-field approach. In contrast to previous studies based on the local electroneutrality approximation valid for sufficiently strongly charged or densely grafted (“osmotic") brushes we consider the opposite limit of sparse brushes which are unable to retain the counterions inside the brush. We have shown that an exact analytical solution of the SCF-equations is available in the case of a planar brush. In contrast to Gaussian monomer density profile known for “osmotic" polyelectrolyte brushes we have found that weakly charged brushes are characterized by constant monomer density. At the same time free ends of grafted polyions are distributed throughout the brush. Thus, the structural cross-over between polyelectrolyte “mushrooms" and dense brush regimes is established.

  12. Automated structure solution, density modification and model building.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Thomas C

    2002-11-01

    The approaches that form the basis of automated structure solution in SOLVE and RESOLVE are described. The use of a scoring scheme to convert decision making in macromolecular structure solution to an optimization problem has proven very useful and in many cases a single clear heavy-atom solution can be obtained and used for phasing. Statistical density modification is well suited to an automated approach to structure solution because the method is relatively insensitive to choices of numbers of cycles and solvent content. The detection of non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) in heavy-atom sites and checking of potential NCS operations against the electron-density map has proven to be a reliable method for identification of NCS in most cases. Automated model building beginning with an FFT-based search for helices and sheets has been successful in automated model building for maps with resolutions as low as 3 A. The entire process can be carried out in a fully automatic fashion in many cases.

  13. System and method for suppressing sublimation using opacified aerogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeff S. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Calliat, Thierry (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Jones, Steven M. (Inventor); Palk, Jong-Ah (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a castable, aerogel-based, ultra-low thermal conductivity opacified insulation to suppress sublimation. More specifically, the present invention relates to an aerogel opacified with various opacifying or reflecting constituents to suppress sublimation and provide thermal insulation in thermoelectric modules. The opacifying constituent can be graded within the aerogel for increased sublimation suppression, and the density of the aerogel can similarly be graded to achieve optimal thermal insulation and sublimation suppression.

  14. Anticipatory Attentional Suppression of Visual Features Indexed by Oscillatory Alpha-Band Power Increases: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Adam C.; Foxe, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Retinotopically specific increases in alpha-band (~10 Hz) oscillatory power have been strongly implicated in the suppression of processing for irrelevant parts of the visual field during the deployment of visuospatial attention. Here, we asked whether this alpha suppression mechanism also plays a role in the nonspatial anticipatory biasing of feature-based attention. Visual word cues informed subjects what the task-relevant feature of an upcoming visual stimulus (S2) was, while high-density electroencephalographic recordings were acquired. We examined anticipatory oscillatory activity in the Cue-to-S2 interval (~2 s). Subjects were cued on a trial-by-trial basis to attend to either the color or direction of motion of an upcoming dot field array, and to respond when they detected that a subset of the dots differed from the majority along the target feature dimension. We used the features of color and motion, expressly because they have well known, spatially separated cortical processing areas, to distinguish shifts in alpha power over areas processing each feature. Alpha power from dorsal regions increased when motion was the irrelevant feature (i.e., color was cued), and alpha power from ventral regions increased when color was irrelevant. Thus, alpha-suppression mechanisms appear to operate during feature-based selection in much the same manner as has been shown for space-based attention. PMID:20237273

  15. Effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density in rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss and suppressed endogenous adrenaline levels by metyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Isaoglu, Unal; Uslu, Turan; Yildirim, Kadir; Seven, Bedri; Akcay, Fatih; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in rats with overiectomy induced bone lose and suppressed endogenous adrenalin levels, and compared to alendronate. Materials and Methods: Severity of bone loss in the examined material (femur bones) was evaluated by BMD measurement. Results: The group with the highest BMD value was metyrosinemetyrosine + methylprednisolone combination (0.151 g/cm2), while that with the lowest BMD was methylprednisolone (0.123 g/cm2). Alendronate was effective only when used alone in ovariectomized rats (0.144 g/cm2), but not when used in combination with methylprednisolone (0.124 g/cm2). In the ovariectomized rat group which received only metyrosine, BMD value was statistically indifferent from ovariectomized control group. Conclusions: Methylprednisolone protected bone loss in rats with suppressed adrenaline levels because of metyrosinemetyrosine. PMID:24014908

  16. Strategies to suppress hydrogen-consuming microorganisms affect macro and micro scale structure and microbiology of granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Abreu, A A; Alves, J I; Pereira, M A; Sousa, D Z; Alves, M M

    2011-08-01

    Treatment of anaerobic granules with heat and two chemical treatments, contacting with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and with BES + Chloroform, were applied to suppress hydrogen-consuming microorganisms. Three mesophilic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors-R(Heat), R(BES), and R(BES + Chlo)--were inoculated with the treated sludges and fed with synthetic sugar-based wastewater (5 g(COD) L(-1), HRT 20-12 h). Morphological integrity of granules and bacterial communities were assessed by quantitative image analysis and 16S rRNA gene based techniques, respectively. Hydrogen production in R(Heat) was under 300 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1), with a transient peak of 1,000 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1) after decreasing HRT. In R(BES + Chlo) hydrogen production rate did not exceed 300 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1) and there was granule fragmentation, release of free filaments from aggregates, and decrease of granule density. In R(BES), there was an initial period with unstable hydrogen production, but a pulse of BES triggered its production rate to 700 ± 200 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1). This strategy did not affect granules structure significantly. Bacteria branching within Clostridiaceae and Ruminococcaceae were present in this sludge. This work demonstrates that, methods applied to suppress H(2)-consuming microorganisms can cause changes in the macro- and microstructure of granular sludge, which can be incompatible with the operation of high-rate reactors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Depth of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia (with or without microtropia).

    PubMed

    Firth, Alison Y; Stevenson, Clare

    2012-01-01

    There are conflicting reports concerning the relationship between depth of suppression and level of amblyopia in strabismics. Little attention has been given to anisometropes. This study examines the density of suppression in anisometropic amblyopes, with or without microtropia, and investigates whether there is a relationship with level of amblyopia. Patients with anisometropia (defined as a difference of 1D or 0.5 D cyl), binocular single vision and a difference in corrected visual acuity of at least 0.1 logMAR between eyes were recalled. The degree of amblyopia was expressed as the interocular difference using the Bailey-Lovie logMAR chart. Stereoacuity (Titmus test), binocular alignment and fixation were recorded. The depth of suppression was measured using the neutral density filter bar together with the Worth four dot test at 4.5m (subtending an angle of 0.5 degrees). Best spherical equivalent (BSE) was calculated to represent anisometropia. Thirteen participants aged 8.3 years to 12.1 years (mean 9.7 years) completed the study. No significant correlation was present (r=0.10, p=0.74) between the depth of suppression and degree of amblyopia. However, there was a correlation between depth of suppression and level of stereoacuity (r=0.59, p=0.03). Six participants had microtropia and showed stronger suppression (p=0.03) and worse stereoacuity (p=0.001) than the pure anisometropes. No evidence was found of a relationship between density of suppression and amblyopia in this cohort of anisometropic amblyopes.

  18. Knot soliton in DNA and geometric structure of its free-energy density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Shi, Xuguang

    2018-03-01

    In general, the geometric structure of DNA is characterized using an elastic rod model. The Landau model provides us a new theory to study the geometric structure of DNA. By using the decomposition of the arc unit in the helical axis of DNA, we find that the free-energy density of DNA is similar to the free-energy density of a two-condensate superconductor. By using the φ-mapping topological current theory, the torus knot soliton hidden in DNA is demonstrated. We show the relation between the geometric structure and free-energy density of DNA and the Frenet equations in differential geometry theory are considered. Therefore, the free-energy density of DNA can be expressed by the curvature and torsion of the helical axis.

  19. Relationships between thought-action fusion, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Rassin, E; Muris, P; Schmidt, H; Merckelbach, H

    2000-09-01

    Research has shown that there are strong similarities in content between the obsessions and compulsions that characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions. However, clinical and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions do differ with respect to characteristics like frequency, intensity, discomfort and elicited resistance. Two separate concepts have been invoked to explain how normal obsessions and compulsions may develop into clinical phenomena. First, it is suggested that thought-action fusion (TAF) contributes to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Second, thought suppression may intensify obsessive-compulsive symptoms due to its paradoxical effect on intrusive thoughts. Although both phenomena have been found to contribute to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, possible interactions between these two have never been investigated. The current study explored how TAF and thought suppression interact in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 173) completed questionnaires pertaining to TAF, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Covariances between the scores on these questionnaires were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. Results suggest that TAF triggers thought suppression, while thought suppression, in turn, promotes obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  20. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  1. The importance of bulk density determination in gravity data processing for structure interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildan, D.; Akbar, A. M.; Novranza, K. M. S.; Sobirin, R.; Permadi, A. N.; Supriyanto

    2017-07-01

    Gravity method use rock density variation for determining subsurface lithology and geological structure. In the "green area" where measurement of rock density has not been done, an attemp to find density is usually performed by calculating using Parasnis method, or by using using the average of rock density in the earth's crust (2,67 gr/cm3) or by using theoritical value of dominant rock density in the survey area (2,90 gr/cm3). Those three values of densities are applied to gravity data analysis in the hilly "X" area. And we have compared all together in order to observed which value has represented the structure better. The result showed that the higher value of rock density, the more obvious structure in the Bouguer anomaly profile. It is due to the contrast of maximum and minimum value of Bouguer anomaly that will affect the exageration in distance vs Bouguer anomaly graphic.

  2. Paucity and preferential suppression of transgenes in late replication domains of the D. melanogaster genome.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Vladimir N; Makunin, Igor V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Belyaeva, Elena S; Maksimov, Daniil A; Belyakin, Stepan N; Maroy, Peter; Vasil'eva, Lyubov A; Zhimulev, Igor F

    2010-05-21

    Eukaryotic genomes are organized in extended domains with distinct features intimately linking genome structure, replication pattern and chromatin state. Recently we identified a set of long late replicating euchromatic regions that are underreplicated in salivary gland polytene chromosomes of D. melanogaster. Here we demonstrate that these underreplicated regions (URs) have a low density of P-element and piggyBac insertions compared to the genome average or neighboring regions. In contrast, Minos-based transposons show no paucity in URs but have a strong bias to testis-specific genes. We estimated the suppression level in 2,852 stocks carrying a single P-element by analysis of eye color determined by the mini-white marker gene and demonstrate that the proportion of suppressed transgenes in URs is more than three times higher than in the flanking regions or the genomic average. The suppressed transgenes reside in intergenic, genic or promoter regions of the annotated genes. We speculate that the low insertion frequency of P-elements and piggyBacs in URs partially results from suppression of transgenes that potentially could prevent identification of transgenes due to complete suppression of the marker gene. In a similar manner, the proportion of suppressed transgenes is higher in loci replicating late or very late in Kc cells and these loci have a lower density of P-elements and piggyBac insertions. In transgenes with two marker genes suppression of mini-white gene in eye coincides with suppression of yellow gene in bristles. Our results suggest that the late replication domains have a high inactivation potential apparently linked to the silenced or closed chromatin state in these regions, and that such inactivation potential is largely maintained in different tissues.

  3. Simulated Tip Rub Testing of Low-Density Metal Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jones, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary acoustic studies have indicated that low-density, open-cell, metal foams may be suitable acoustic liner material for noise suppression in high by-pass engines. Metal foam response under simulated tip rub conditions was studied to assess whether its durability would be sufficient for the foam to serve both as a rub strip above the rotor as well as an acoustic treatment. Samples represented four metal alloys, nominal cell dimensions ranging from 60 to 120 cells per inch (cpi), and relative densities ranging from 3.4 to 10 percent. The resulting rubbed surfaces were relatively smooth and the open cell structure of the foam was not adversely affected. Sample relative density appeared to have significant influence on the forces induced by the rub event. Acoustic responses of various surface preparations were measured using a normal incidence tube. The results of this study indicate that the foam s open-cell structure was retained after rubbing and that the acoustic absorption spectra variation was minimal.

  4. Turbulence suppression at water density interfaces: observations under moderate wind forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Kanth, Lakshmi H.; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Barbariol, Francesco; Malačič, Vlado; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    from the open sea, with low sediment concentrations and a smaller vertical density gradient, was not able to suppress downward penetration of turbulence from the surface.

  5. Slingshot mechanism for clusters: Gas density regulates star density in the Orion Nebula Cluster (M42)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Amelia M.

    2018-02-01

    We characterize the stellar and gas volume density, potential, and gravitational field profiles in the central ∼0.5 pc of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), the nearest embedded star cluster (or rather, protocluster) hosting massive star formation available for detailed observational scrutiny. We find that the stellar volume density is well characterized by a Plummer profile ρstars(r) = 5755 M⊙ pc- 3 (1 + (r/a)2)- 5/2, where a = 0.36 pc. The gas density follows a cylindrical power law ρgas(R) = 25.9 M⊙ pc- 3 (R/pc)- 1.775. The stellar density profile dominates over the gas density profile inside r ∼ 1 pc. The gravitational field is gas-dominated at all radii, but the contribution to the total field by the stars is nearly equal to that of the gas at r ∼ a. This fact alone demonstrates that the protocluster cannot be considered a gas-free system or a virialized system dominated by its own gravity. The stellar protocluster core is dynamically young, with an age of ∼2-3 Myr, a 1D velocity dispersion of σobs = 2.6 km s-1, and a crossing time of ∼0.55 Myr. This time-scale is almost identical to the gas filament oscillation time-scale estimated recently by Stutz & Gould. This provides strong evidence that the protocluster structure is regulated by the gas filament. The protocluster structure may be set by tidal forces due to the oscillating filamentary gas potential. Such forces could naturally suppress low density stellar structures on scales ≳ a. The analysis presented here leads to a new suggestion that clusters form by an analogue of the 'slingshot mechanism' previously proposed for stars.

  6. Maximum likelihood density modification by pattern recognition of structural motifs

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2004-04-13

    An electron density for a crystallographic structure having protein regions and solvent regions is improved by maximizing the log likelihood of a set of structures factors {F.sub.h } using a local log-likelihood function: (x)+p(.rho.(x).vertline.SOLV)p.sub.SOLV (x)+p(.rho.(x).vertline.H)p.sub.H (x)], where p.sub.PROT (x) is the probability that x is in the protein region, p(.rho.(x).vertline.PROT) is the conditional probability for .rho.(x) given that x is in the protein region, and p.sub.SOLV (x) and p(.rho.(x).vertline.SOLV) are the corresponding quantities for the solvent region, p.sub.H (x) refers to the probability that there is a structural motif at a known location, with a known orientation, in the vicinity of the point x; and p(.rho.(x).vertline.H) is the probability distribution for electron density at this point given that the structural motif actually is present. One appropriate structural motif is a helical structure within the crystallographic structure.

  7. Theoretical prediction of low-density hexagonal ZnO hollow structures

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc, E-mail: tuoc.vungoc@hust.edu.vn; Huan, Tran Doan; Thao, Nguyen Thi

    2016-10-14

    Along with wurtzite and zinc blende, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been found in a large number of polymorphs with substantially different properties and, hence, applications. Therefore, predicting and synthesizing new classes of ZnO polymorphs are of great significance and have been gaining considerable interest. Herein, we perform a density functional theory based tight-binding study, predicting several new series of ZnO hollow structures using the bottom-up approach. The geometry of the building blocks allows for obtaining a variety of hexagonal, low-density nanoporous, and flexible ZnO hollow structures. Their stability is discussed by means of the free energy computed within the lattice-dynamicsmore » approach. Our calculations also indicate that all the reported hollow structures are wide band gap semiconductors in the same fashion with bulk ZnO. The electronic band structures of the ZnO hollow structures are finally examined in detail.« less

  8. Mantle viscosity structure constrained by joint inversions of seismic velocities and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of Earth's deep mantle affects the thermal evolution of Earth, the ascent of mantle upwellings, sinking of subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the mixing of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle. Modeling the long-wavelength dynamic geoid allows us to constrain the radial viscosity profile of the mantle. Typically, in inversions for the mantle viscosity structure, wavespeed variations are mapped into density variations using a constant- or depth-dependent scaling factor. Here, we use a newly developed joint model of anisotropic Vs, Vp, density and transition zone topographies to generate a suite of solutions for the mantle viscosity structure directly from the seismologically constrained density structure. The density structure used to drive our forward models includes contributions from both thermal and compositional variations, including important contributions from compositionally dense material in the Large Low Velocity Provinces at the base of the mantle. These compositional variations have been neglected in the forward models used in most previous inversions and have the potential to significantly affect large-scale flow and thus the inferred viscosity structure. We use a transdimensional, hierarchical, Bayesian approach to solve the inverse problem, and our solutions for viscosity structure include an increase in viscosity below the base of the transition zone, in the shallow lower mantle. Using geoid dynamic response functions and an analysis of the correlation between the observed geoid and mantle structure, we demonstrate the underlying reason for this inference. Finally, we present a new family of solutions in which the data uncertainty is accounted for using covariance matrices associated with the mantle structure models.

  9. Quantitative measurement of interocular suppression in anisometropic amblyopia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinrong; Hess, Robert F; Chan, Lily Y L; Deng, Daming; Yang, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the relationship between interocular suppression and visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia, (2) whether suppression can be simulated in matched controls using monocular defocus or neutral density filters, (3) the effects of spectacle or rigid gas-permeable contact lens correction on suppression in patients with anisometropic amblyopia, and (4) the relationship between interocular suppression and outcomes of occlusion therapy. Case-control study (aims 1-3) and cohort study (aim 4). Forty-five participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 45 matched controls (mean age, 8.8 years for both groups). Interocular suppression was assessed using Bagolini striated lenses, neutral density filters, and an objective psychophysical technique that measures the amount of contrast imbalance between the 2 eyes that is required to overcome suppression (dichoptic motion coherence thresholds). Visual acuity was assessed using a logarithm minimum angle of resolution tumbling E chart and stereopsis using the Randot preschool test. Interocular suppression assessed using dichoptic motion coherence thresholds. Patients exhibited significantly stronger suppression than controls, and stronger suppression was correlated significantly with poorer visual acuity in amblyopic eyes. Reducing monocular acuity in controls to match that of cases using neutral density filters (luminance reduction) resulted in levels of interocular suppression comparable with that in patients. This was not the case for monocular defocus (optical blur). Rigid gas-permeable contact lens correction resulted in less suppression than spectacle correction, and stronger suppression was associated with poorer outcomes after occlusion therapy. Interocular suppression plays a key role in the visual deficits associated with anisometropic amblyopia and can be simulated in controls by inducing a luminance difference between the eyes. Accurate quantification of suppression

  10. Jet noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  11. Effects of plantation density on wood density and anatomical properties of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott; Karen L. Scallon; Gary C. Myers

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrated that average ring width (or average annual radial growth rate) is a reliable parameter to quantify the effects of tree plantation density (growth suppression) on wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. The average ring width successfully correlated wood density and tracheid anatomical properties of red pines (Pinus resinosa Ait.) from a...

  12. MO-FG-204-01: Improved Noise Suppression for Dual-Energy CT Through Entropy Minimization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Petrongolo, M; Zhu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In dual energy CT (DECT), noise amplification during signal decomposition significantly limits the utility of basis material images. Since clinically relevant objects contain a limited number of materials, we propose to suppress noise for DECT based on image entropy minimization. An adaptive weighting scheme is employed during noise suppression to improve decomposition accuracy with limited effect on spatial resolution and image texture preservation. Methods: From decomposed images, we first generate a 2D plot of scattered data points, using basis material densities as coordinates. Data points representing the same material generate a highly asymmetric cluster. We orient an axis bymore » minimizing the entropy in a 1D histogram of these points projected onto the axis. To suppress noise, we replace pixel values of decomposed images with center-of-mass values in the direction perpendicular to the optimal axis. To limit errors due to cluster overlap, we weight each data point’s contribution based on its high and low energy CT values and location within the image. The proposed method’s performance is assessed on physical phantom studies. Electron density is used as the quality metric for decomposition accuracy. Our results are compared to those without noise suppression and with a recently developed iterative method. Results: The proposed method reduces noise standard deviations of the decomposed images by at least one order of magnitude. On the Catphan phantom, this method greatly preserves the spatial resolution and texture of the CT images and limits induced error in measured electron density to below 1.2%. In the head phantom study, the proposed method performs the best in retaining fine, intricate structures. Conclusion: The entropy minimization based algorithm with adaptive weighting substantially reduces DECT noise while preserving image spatial resolution and texture. Future investigations will include extensive investigations on material

  13. High energy density and efficiency achieved in nanocomposite film capacitors via structure modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yi; Shen, Zhong-Hui; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Flexible dielectric polymer films with high energy storage density and high charge-discharge efficiency have been considered as promising materials for electrical power applications. Here, we design hierarchical structured nanocomposite films using nonlinear polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-HFP) [P(VDF-HFP)] with inorganic h-boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets by electrospinning and hot-pressing methods. Our results show that the addition of h-BN nanosheets and the design of the hierarchical multilayer structure in the nanocomposites can remarkably enhance the charge-discharge efficiency and energy density. A high charge-discharge efficiency of 78% and an energy density of 21 J/cm3 can be realized in the 12-layered PVDF/h-BN nanocomposite films. Phase-field simulation results reveal that the spatial distribution of the electric field in these hierarchical structured films affects the charge-discharge efficiency and energy density. This work provides a feasible route, i.e., structure modulation, to improve the energy storage performances for nanocomposite films.

  14. Factor structure and clinical correlates of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Sawaoka, Takuya; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on the relations among eating behaviors and thought suppression is limited to a measure of general thought suppression, the White Bear Suppression Inventory. To address this limitation, researchers recently validated the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI). Analyses using this measure suggest that food thought suppression is distinct from and is more predictive of eating disorder psychopathology than is general thought suppression. The FTSI, however, has not yet been validated in clinical samples. The purpose of the current study is to examine the factor structure and clinical correlates of the FTSI within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 128). Analyses revealed a valid and reliable one-factor measure of food thought suppression that was related to higher levels of eating and general psychopathology. The findings provide evidence for the use of the FTSI with obese women with BED. Future research should examine the psychometric properties of the FTSI within larger and more diverse samples. PMID:23265399

  15. Density and structure of jadeite melt at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamaki, T.; Yu, T.; Jing, Z.; Park, C.; Shen, G.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of density of magma is important for understanding magma-related processes such as volcanic activity and differentiation in the Earth's early history. Since these processes take place in Earth's interior, we need to measure the density of magma in situ at high pressures. It is also necessary to relate the density with the structure of silicate melts at high pressure and temperature and further understand the densification mechanism of magma with pressure. Here we report the density and structural data for jadeite melt up to 7 GPa,. The density measurements were carried out using a DIA-type cubic press at the 13-BM-D beamline at APS using monochromatic radiation tuned to the desired energy (~20 keV) with a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator. Intensities of the incident and transmitted X-rays were measured by two ion chambers placed before and after the press for X-ray absorption measurements. Incident and transmitted X-ray intensities were obtained by moving the incident slits perpendicular to the X-ray beam direction at 0.010 mm steps crosses the sample. Lambert-Beer law was then applied to the normalized intensities as a function of the sample position across the assembly. Density of jadeite melt was determined up to 7 GPa and 2300 K. For structural determination, high-pressure and high-temperature energy-dispersive XRD experiments were carried out by using a Paris-Edinburgh press installed at the 16-BM-B of APS. Incident X-rays were collimated by a vertical slit (0.5 mm) and a horizontal slit (0.1 mm) to irradiate the sample. Diffracted X-rays were detected by a Ge solid state detector with a 4k multi-channel analyzer, through a collimator and 5.0mm (V) by and 0.1mm (H) receiving slits. Diffraction patterns were collected until the highest intensity reached 2000 counts, at 12 angles (2theta=3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 39.5 degrees). The structural measurements were carried out in the pressure range from 1 to 5 GPa and at 1600 to 2000 K

  16. Extracting galactic structure parameters from multivariated density estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B.; Creze, M.; Robin, A.; Bienayme, O.

    1992-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis, including includes cluster analysis (unsupervised classification), discriminant analysis (supervised classification) and principle component analysis (dimensionlity reduction method), and nonparameter density estimation have been successfully used to search for meaningful associations in the 5-dimensional space of observables between observed points and the sets of simulated points generated from a synthetic approach of galaxy modelling. These methodologies can be applied as the new tools to obtain information about hidden structure otherwise unrecognizable, and place important constraints on the space distribution of various stellar populations in the Milky Way. In this paper, we concentrate on illustrating how to use nonparameter density estimation to substitute for the true densities in both of the simulating sample and real sample in the five-dimensional space. In order to fit model predicted densities to reality, we derive a set of equations which include n lines (where n is the total number of observed points) and m (where m: the numbers of predefined groups) unknown parameters. A least-square estimation will allow us to determine the density law of different groups and components in the Galaxy. The output from our software, which can be used in many research fields, will also give out the systematic error between the model and the observation by a Bayes rule.

  17. Inherent length-scales of periodic solar wind number density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, N. M.; Kepko, L.; Spence, H. E.

    2008-07-01

    We present an analysis of the radial length-scales of periodic solar wind number density structures. We converted 11 years (1995-2005) of solar wind number density data into radial length series segments and Fourier analyzed them to identify all spectral peaks with radial wavelengths between 72 (116) and 900 (900) Mm for slow (fast) wind intervals. Our window length for the spectral analysis was 9072 Mm, approximately equivalent to 7 (4) h of data for the slow (fast) solar wind. We required that spectral peaks pass both an amplitude test and a harmonic F-test at the 95% confidence level simultaneously. From the occurrence distributions of these spectral peaks for slow and fast wind, we find that periodic number density structures occur more often at certain radial length-scales than at others, and are consistently observed within each speed range over most of the 11-year interval. For the slow wind, those length-scales are L ˜ 73, 120, 136, and 180 Mm. For the fast wind, those length-scales are L ˜ 187, 270 and 400 Mm. The results argue for the existence of inherent radial length-scales in the solar wind number density.

  18. Exaggeration and suppression of iridescence: the evolution of two-dimensional butterfly structural colours

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Shelley; Large, Maryanne C.J; Poladian, Leon; Jermiin, Lars S

    2005-01-01

    Many butterfly species possess ‘structural’ colour, where colour is due to optical microstructures found in the wing scales. A number of such structures have been identified in butterfly scales, including three variations on a simple multi-layer structure. In this study, we optically characterize examples of all three types of multi-layer structure, as found in 10 species. The optical mechanism of the suppression and exaggeration of the angle-dependent optical properties (iridescence) of these structures is described. In addition, we consider the phylogeny of the butterflies, and are thus able to relate the optical properties of the structures to their evolutionary development. By applying two different types of analysis, the mechanism of adaptation is addressed. A simple parsimony analysis, in which all evolutionary changes are given an equal weighting, suggests convergent evolution of one structure. A Dollo parsimony analysis, in which the evolutionary ‘cost’ of losing a structure is less than that of gaining it, implies that ‘latent’ structures can be reused. PMID:16849221

  19. Optimum element density studies for finite-element thermal analysis of hypersonic aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Olona, Timothy; Muramoto, Kyle M.

    1990-01-01

    Different finite element models previously set up for thermal analysis of the space shuttle orbiter structure are discussed and their shortcomings identified. Element density criteria are established for the finite element thermal modelings of space shuttle orbiter-type large, hypersonic aircraft structures. These criteria are based on rigorous studies on solution accuracies using different finite element models having different element densities set up for one cell of the orbiter wing. Also, a method for optimization of the transient thermal analysis computer central processing unit (CPU) time is discussed. Based on the newly established element density criteria, the orbiter wing midspan segment was modeled for the examination of thermal analysis solution accuracies and the extent of computation CPU time requirements. The results showed that the distributions of the structural temperatures and the thermal stresses obtained from this wing segment model were satisfactory and the computation CPU time was at the acceptable level. The studies offered the hope that modeling the large, hypersonic aircraft structures using high-density elements for transient thermal analysis is possible if a CPU optimization technique was used.

  20. Vibration Suppression Strategies for Large Tension-Aligned Array Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-19

    show vibration suppression. Practical issues related to actuator bandwidth were also addressed. 40 Dr. Ranjan Mukherjee (517) 355-1834 FINAL...third strategies, Lyapunov stability theory was used to show vibration suppression. Practical issues related to actuator bandwidth were also addressed...1 Publications Journal Papers : • Alsahlani, A. and Mukherjee, R., “Vibration Control of a String Using a Scabbard-Like Actuator”, Journal of Sound and

  1. Genomic structural variation-mediated allelic suppression causes hybrid male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rongxin; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xupeng; Wu, Jiang; Jin, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiucai; Xie, Xianrong; Zhu, Qinlong; Tang, Huiwu; Li, Qing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-03

    Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter. In Sc-j/Sc-i hybrids, the high-expression of Sc-i in sporophytic cells causes suppression of Sc-j expression in pollen and selective abortion of Sc-j-pollen, leading to transmission ratio distortion. Knocking out one or two of the three Sc-i copies by CRISPR/Cas9 rescues Sc-j expression and male fertility. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent allelic suppression as a mechanism of hybrid incompatibility, and provide an effective approach to overcome the reproductive barrier for hybrid breeding.

  2. Ground state structure of high-energy-density polymeric carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Kang; Sun, Jian; Pickard, Chris J.; Klug, Dennis D.; Needs, Richard J.

    2017-04-01

    Crystal structure prediction methods and first-principles calculations have been used to explore low-energy structures of carbon monoxide (CO). Contrary to the standard wisdom, the most stable structure of CO at ambient pressure was found to be a polymeric structure of P n a 21 symmetry rather than a molecular solid. This phase is formed from six-membered (four carbon + two oxygen) rings connected by C=C double bonds with two double-bonded oxygen atoms attached to each ring. Interestingly, the polymeric P n a 21 phase of CO has a much higher energy density than trinitrotoluene (TNT). On compression to about 7 GPa, P n a 21 is found to transform into another chainlike phase of C c symmetry which has similar ring units to P n a 21 . On compression to 12 GPa, it is energetically favorable for CO to polymerize into a purely single bonded C m c a phase, which is stable over a wide pressure range and transforms into the previously known C m c m phase at around 100 GPa. Thermodynamic stability of these structures was verified using calculations with different density functionals, including hybrid and van der Waals corrected functionals.

  3. Study on GaN nanostructures: Growth and the suppression of the yellow emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Fei; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2018-07-01

    GaN nanostructures were synthesized via a simple chemical vapor deposition using Ga2O3 and NH3 as precursors. Structural and morphological properties were systematically characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The configuration of GaN nanostructures was found to be strongly dependent on the growth temperature and the NH3 flow rate. Photoluminescence analysis revealed that all the fabricated GaN NSs exhibited a strong ultra-violet emission (∼364 nm), and the yellow emission of GaN nanorods can be suppressed at appropriate III/V ratio. The suppression of the yellow emission was attributed to the low density of surface or the VGa defect. The work demonstrates that the GaN nanostructures have potential applications in the optoelectronic and nanoelectronic devices.

  4. PGC1α is required for the induction of contact inhibition by suppressing ROS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seungyeon; Hwang, Sunsook; Jang, Jiho; Kim, Minjoong; Gwak, Jihye; Jeong, Seung Min

    2018-05-16

    Contact inhibition (CI) is an important tumor-suppressive mechanism that arrests cell cycle when cells reach high density. Indeed, CI is aberrantly absent in cancer cells and the dysregulation of this can contribute to tumorigenesis. Previously, it has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are repressed at high cell density, which is required for CI, but no molecular mechanism of this ROS regulation has been reported. Here, we show that PGC1α regulates cell density-dependent CI. PGC1α is markedly induced in response to high cell density and suppresses ROS production. Although cellular ROS levels are progressively decreased with increasing cell density, knockdown of PGC1α results in a defect of density-dependent ROS suppression. Importantly, PGC1α knockdown cells become less sensitive to high cell density and exhibit loss of CI. Mechanistically, PGC1α represses ROS production by inducing mitochondrial SIRT3, and thus SIRT3 overexpression rescues the defects of CI by PGC1α knockdown. These results demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS production is a crucial regulator of cell proliferation and identify a new role of PGC1α in CI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Layered interfaces between immiscible liquids studied by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Geysermans, P; Elyeznasni, N; Russier, V

    2005-11-22

    We present a study of the structure in the interface between two immiscible liquids by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics calculations. The liquids are modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials, which achieve immiscibility by suppressing the attractive interaction between unlike particles. The density profiles of the liquids display oscillations only in a limited part of the simple liquid-phase diagram (rho,T). When approaching the liquid-vapor coexistence, a significant depletion appears while the layering behavior of the density profile vanishes. By analogy with the liquid-vapor interface and the analysis of the adsorption this behavior is suggested to be strongly related to the drying transition.

  6. Optimal atomic structure of amorphous silicon obtained from density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Andreas; Pizzagalli, Laurent; Jónsson, Hannes

    2017-06-01

    Atomic structure of amorphous silicon consistent with several reported experimental measurements has been obtained from annealing simulations using electron density functional theory calculations and a systematic removal of weakly bound atoms. The excess energy and density with respect to the crystal are well reproduced in addition to radial distribution function, angular distribution functions, and vibrational density of states. No atom in the optimal configuration is locally in a crystalline environment as deduced by ring analysis and common neighbor analysis, but coordination defects are present at a level of 1%-2%. The simulated samples provide structural models of this archetypal disordered covalent material without preconceived notion of the atomic ordering or fitting to experimental data.

  7. Mammographic density measured as changes in tissue structure caused by HRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Nielsen, Mads

    2006-03-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relation between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. These studies indicate that women with high breast density have a four to six fold risk increase. An investigation of whether or not this relation is causal is important for, e.g., hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which has been shown to actually increase the density. No gold standard for automatic assessment of mammographic density exists. Manual methods such as Wolfe patterns and BI-RADS are helpful for communication of diagnostic sensitivity, but they are both time consuming and crude. They may be sufficient in certain cases and for single measurements, but for serial, temporal analysis it is necessary to be able to detect more subtle changes and, in addition, to be more reproducible. In this work an automated method for measuring the effect of HRT w.r.t. changes in biological density in the breast is presented. This measure is a novel measure, which provides structural information orthogonal to intensity-based methods. Hessian eigenvalues at different scales are used as features and a clustering of these is employed to divide a mammogram into four structurally different areas. Subsequently, based on the relative size of the areas, a density score is determined. In the experiments, two sets of mammograms of 50 patients from a double blind, placebo controlled HRT experiment were used. The change in density for the HRT group, measured with the new method, was significantly higher (p = 0.0002) than the change in the control group.

  8. Optimal spectral structure for simultaneous Stimulated Brillouin Scattering suppression and coherent property preservation in high power coherent beam combination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Zejin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the spectral manipulation technique, the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) suppression effect and the coherent beam combination (CBC) effect in multi-tone CBC system are researched theoretically and experimentally. To get satisfactory SBS suppression, the frequency interval of the multi-tone seed laser should be large enough, at least larger than the SBS gain bandwidth. In order to attain excellent CBC effect, the spectra of the multi-tone seed laser need to be matched with the optical path differences among the amplifier chains. Hence, a sufficiently separated matching spectrum is capable at both SBS mitigation and coherent property preservation. By comparing the SBS suppression effect and the CBC effect at various spectra, the optimal spectral structure for simultaneous SBS suppression and excellent CBC effect is found.

  9. Galactic cold cores. IX. Column density structures and radiative-transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvela, M.; Malinen, J.; Montillaud, J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Ristorcelli, I.; Tóth, L. V.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The Galactic Cold Cores (GCC) project has made Herschel photometric observations of interstellar clouds where Planck detected compact sources of cold dust emission. The fields are in different environments and stages of star formation. Aims: Our aim is to characterise the structure of the clumps and their parent clouds, and to study the connections between the environment and the formation of gravitationally bound objects. We also examine the accuracy to which the structure of dense clumps can be determined from sub-millimetre data. Methods: We use standard statistical methods to characterise the GCC fields. Individual clumps are extracted using column density thresholding. Based on sub-millimetre measurements, we construct a three-dimensional radiative transfer (RT) model for each field. These are used to estimate the relative radiation field intensities, to probe the clump stability, and to examine the uncertainty of column density estimates. We examine the structural parameters of the clumps, including their radial column density profiles. Results: In the GCC fields, the structure noise follows the relations previously established at larger scales and in lower-density clouds. The fractal dimension has no significant dependence on column density and the values DP = 1.25 ± 0.07 are only slightly lower than in typical molecular clouds. The column density probability density functions (PDFs) exhibit large variations, for example, in the case of externally compressed clouds. At scales r > 0.1 pc, the radial column density distributions of the clouds follow an average relation of N r-1. In spite of a great variety of clump morphologies (and a typical aspect ratio of 1.5), clumps tend to follow a similar N r-1 relation below r 0.1 pc. RT calculations indicate only factor 2.5 variation in the local radiation field intensity. The fraction of gravitationally bound clumps increases significantly in regions with AV > 5 mag but most bound objects appear to be

  10. Locating Structural Centers: A Density-Based Clustering Method for Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gongshen; Li, Jianhua; Nees, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Uncovering underlying community structures in complex networks has received considerable attention because of its importance in understanding structural attributes and group characteristics of networks. The algorithmic identification of such structures is a significant challenge. Local expanding methods have proven to be efficient and effective in community detection, but most methods are sensitive to initial seeds and built-in parameters. In this paper, we present a local expansion method by density-based clustering, which aims to uncover the intrinsic network communities by locating the structural centers of communities based on a proposed structural centrality. The structural centrality takes into account local density of nodes and relative distance between nodes. The proposed algorithm expands a community from the structural center to the border with a single local search procedure. The local expanding procedure follows a heuristic strategy as allowing it to find complete community structures. Moreover, it can identify different node roles (cores and outliers) in communities by defining a border region. The experiments involve both on real-world and artificial networks, and give a comparison view to evaluate the proposed method. The result of these experiments shows that the proposed method performs more efficiently with a comparative clustering performance than current state of the art methods. PMID:28046030

  11. MAIN software for density averaging, model building, structure refinement and validation

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    MAIN is software that has been designed to interactively perform the complex tasks of macromolecular crystal structure determination and validation. Using MAIN, it is possible to perform density modification, manual and semi-automated or automated model building and rebuilding, real- and reciprocal-space structure optimization and refinement, map calculations and various types of molecular structure validation. The prompt availability of various analytical tools and the immediate visualization of molecular and map objects allow a user to efficiently progress towards the completed refined structure. The extraordinary depth perception of molecular objects in three dimensions that is provided by MAIN is achieved by the clarity and contrast of colours and the smooth rotation of the displayed objects. MAIN allows simultaneous work on several molecular models and various crystal forms. The strength of MAIN lies in its manipulation of averaged density maps and molecular models when noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) is present. Using MAIN, it is possible to optimize NCS parameters and envelopes and to refine the structure in single or multiple crystal forms. PMID:23897458

  12. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular “Mondrian” CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS. PMID:22408039

  13. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  14. Observation of multipactor suppression in a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure using an applied axial magnetic field

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Antipov, S.

    2013-11-18

    Efforts by a number of institutions to develop a Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure capable of supporting high gradient acceleration when driven by an external radio frequency source have been ongoing over the past decade. Single surface resonant multipactor has been previously identified as one of the major limitations on the practical application of DLA structures in electron accelerators. In this paper, we report the results of an experiment that demonstrated suppression of multipactor growth in an X-band DLA structure through the use of an applied axial magnetic field. This represents an advance toward the practical use of DLA structures inmore » many accelerator applications.« less

  15. Structured DC Electric Fields With and Without Associated Plasma Density Gradients Observed with the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Liebrecht, C.; Roddy, P.; Hunton, D.

    2009-01-01

    DC electric field observations and associated plasma drifts gathered with the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite typically reveal considerable variation at large scales (approximately 100's of km), in both daytime and nighttime cases, with enhanced structures usually confined to the nightside. Although such electric field structures are typically associated with plasma density depletions and structures, as observed by the Planar Langmuir Probe on C/NOFS, what is surprising is the number of cases in which large amplitude, structured DC electric fields are observed without a significant plasma density counterpart structure, including their appearance at times when the ambient plasma density appears relatively quiescent. We investigate the relationship of such structured DC electric fields and the ambient plasma density in the C/NOFS satellite measurements observed thus far, taking into account both plasma density depletions and enhancements. We investigate the mapping of the electric fields along magnetic field lines from distant altitudes and latitudes to locations where the density structures, which presumably formed the original seat of the electric fields, are no longer discernible in the observations. In some cases, the electric field structures and spectral characteristics appear to mimic those associated with equatorial spread-F processes, providing important clues to their origins. We examine altitude, seasonal, and longitudinal effects in an effort to establish the origin of such structured DC electric fields observed both with, and without, associated plasma density gradients

  16. Influence of Tree Species Composition and Community Structure on Carbon Density in a Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanqiu; Su, Zhiyao; Li, Wenbin; Li, Jingpeng; Ke, Xiandong

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of species composition and stand structure on the spatial variation of forest carbon density using data collected from a 4-ha plot in a subtropical forest in southern China. We found that 1) forest biomass carbon density significantly differed among communities, reflecting a significant effect of community structure and species composition on carbon accumulation; 2) soil organic carbon density increased whereas stand biomass carbon density decreased across communities, indicating that different mechanisms might account for the accumulation of stand biomass carbon and soil organic carbon in the subtropical forest; and 3) a small number of tree individuals of the medium- and large-diameter class contributed predominantly to biomass carbon accumulation in the community, whereas a large number of seedlings and saplings were responsible for a small proportion of the total forest carbon stock. These findings demonstrate that both biomass carbon and soil carbon density in the subtropical forest are sensitive to species composition and community structure, and that heterogeneity in species composition and stand structure should be taken into account to ensure accurate forest carbon accounting. PMID:26317523

  17. Influence of Tree Species Composition and Community Structure on Carbon Density in a Subtropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanqiu; Su, Zhiyao; Li, Wenbin; Li, Jingpeng; Ke, Xiandong

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of species composition and stand structure on the spatial variation of forest carbon density using data collected from a 4-ha plot in a subtropical forest in southern China. We found that 1) forest biomass carbon density significantly differed among communities, reflecting a significant effect of community structure and species composition on carbon accumulation; 2) soil organic carbon density increased whereas stand biomass carbon density decreased across communities, indicating that different mechanisms might account for the accumulation of stand biomass carbon and soil organic carbon in the subtropical forest; and 3) a small number of tree individuals of the medium- and large-diameter class contributed predominantly to biomass carbon accumulation in the community, whereas a large number of seedlings and saplings were responsible for a small proportion of the total forest carbon stock. These findings demonstrate that both biomass carbon and soil carbon density in the subtropical forest are sensitive to species composition and community structure, and that heterogeneity in species composition and stand structure should be taken into account to ensure accurate forest carbon accounting.

  18. False-color representation of electron-density structures of the polar ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, K.

    The use of false-color displays to represent EISCAT electron-density measurements for the polar E and F regions is described and demonstrated. Consideration is given to images of a spring sunrise, wavelike structures, the total-electron-content trough, E-region structures, and midnight-sun phenomena. It is suggested that examination of false-color images can facilitate the selection of structures for more detailed analysis.

  19. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results.

  20. Relations for lipid bilayers. Connection of electron density profiles to other structural quantities.

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, J F; Wiener, M C

    1989-01-01

    Three relations are derived that connect low angle diffraction/scattering results obtained from lipid bilayers to other structural quantities of interest. The first relates the area along the surface of the bilayer, the measured specific volume, and the zeroth order structure factor, F(0). The second relates the size of the trough in the center of the electron density profile, the volume of the terminal methyl groups, and the volume of the methylene groups in the fatty acid chains. The third relates the size of the headgroup electron density peak, the volume of the headgroup, and the volumes of water and hydrocarbon in the headgroup region. These relations, which are easily modified for neutron diffraction, are useful for obtaining structural quantities from electron density profiles obtained by fitting model profiles to measured low angle x-ray intensities. PMID:2713444

  1. Charge-density analysis of a protein structure at subatomic resolution: the human aldose reductase case.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Benoît; Jelsch, Christian; Podjarny, Alberto; Lecomte, Claude

    2008-05-01

    The valence electron density of the protein human aldose reductase was analyzed at 0.66 angstroms resolution. The methodological developments in the software MoPro to adapt standard charge-density techniques from small molecules to macromolecular structures are described. The deformation electron density visible in initial residual Fourier difference maps was significantly enhanced after high-order refinement. The protein structure was refined after transfer of the experimental library multipolar atom model (ELMAM). The effects on the crystallographic statistics, on the atomic thermal displacement parameters and on the structure stereochemistry are analyzed. Constrained refinements of the transferred valence populations Pval and multipoles Plm were performed against the X-ray diffraction data on a selected substructure of the protein with low thermal motion. The resulting charge densities are of good quality, especially for chemical groups with many copies present in the polypeptide chain. To check the effect of the starting point on the result of the constrained multipolar refinement, the same charge-density refinement strategy was applied but using an initial neutral spherical atom model, i.e. without transfer from the ELMAM library. The best starting point for a protein multipolar refinement is the structure with the electron density transferred from the database. This can be assessed by the crystallographic statistical indices, including Rfree, and the quality of the static deformation electron-density maps, notably on the oxygen electron lone pairs. The analysis of the main-chain bond lengths suggests that stereochemical dictionaries would benefit from a revision based on recently determined unrestrained atomic resolution protein structures.

  2. Energy density and rate limitations in structural composite supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, J. F.; Gienger, E.; Wetzel, E. D.; Xu, K.

    2012-06-01

    The weight and volume of conventional energy storage technologies greatly limits their performance in mobile platforms. Traditional research efforts target improvements in energy density to reduce device size and mass. Enabling a device to perform additional functions, such as bearing mechanical load, is an alternative approach as long as the total mass efficiency exceeds that of the individual materials it replaces. Our research focuses on structural composites that function as batteries and supercapacitors. These multifunctional devices could be used to replace conventional structural components, such as vehicle frame elements, to provide significant system-level weight reductions and extend mission times. Our approach is to design structural properties directly into the electrolyte and electrode materials. Solid polymer electrolyte materials bind the system and transfer load to the fibers while conducting ions between the electrodes. Carbon fiber electrodes provide a route towards optimizing both energy storage and load-bearing capabilities, and may also obviate the need for a separate current collector. The components are being integrated using scalable, cost-effective composite processing techniques that are amenable to complex part shapes. Practical considerations of energy density and rate behavior are described here as they relate to materials used. Our results highlight the viability as well as the challenges of this multifunctional approach towards energy storage.

  3. Connections between density, wall-normal velocity, and coherent structure in a heated turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxton-Fox, Theresa; Gordeyev, Stanislav; Smith, Adam; McKeon, Beverley

    2015-11-01

    Strong density gradients associated with turbulent structure were measured in a mildly heated turbulent boundary layer using an optical sensor (Malley probe). The Malley probe measured index of refraction gradients integrated along the wall-normal direction, which, due to the proportionality of index of refraction and density in air, was equivalently an integral measure of density gradients. The integral output was observed to be dominated by strong, localized density gradients. Conditional averaging and Pearson correlations identified connections between the streamwise gradient of density and the streamwise gradient of wall-normal velocity. The trends were suggestive of a process of pick-up and transport of heat away from the wall. Additionally, by considering the density field as a passive marker of structure, the role of the wall-normal velocity in shaping turbulent structure in a sheared flow was examined. Connections were developed between sharp gradients in the density and flow fields and strong vertical velocity fluctuations. This research is made possible by the Department of Defense through the National Defense & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant # FA9550-12-1-0060.

  4. Density, structure, and dynamics of water: The effect of van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jue; Román-Pérez, G.; Soler, Jose M.; Artacho, Emilio; Fernández-Serra, M.-V.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of liquid water at ambient conditions, based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT), with commonly used functionals fail to produce structural and diffusive properties in reasonable agreement with experiment. This is true for canonical, constant temperature simulations where the density of the liquid is fixed to the experimental density. The equilibrium density, at ambient conditions, of DFT water has recently been shown by Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B, 113, 11959 (2009)] to be underestimated by different GGA functionals for exchange and correlation, and corrected by the addition of interatomic pair potentials to describe van der Waals (vdW) interactions. In this contribution we present a DFT-AIMD study of liquid water using several GGA functionals as well as the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) of Dion et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)]. As expected, we find that the density of water is grossly underestimated by GGA functionals. When a vdW-DF is used, the density improves drastically and the experimental diffusivity is reproduced without the need of thermal corrections. We analyze the origin of the density differences between all the functionals. We show that the vdW-DF increases the population of non-H-bonded interstitial sites, at distances between the first and second coordination shells. However, it excessively weakens the H-bond network, collapsing the second coordination shell. This structural problem is partially associated to the choice of GGA exchange in the vdW-DF. We show that a different choice for the exchange functional is enough to achieve an overall improvement both in structure and diffusivity.

  5. Development of damage suppression system using embedded SMA foil sensor and actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogisu, Toshimichi; Nomura, Masato; Ando, Norio; Takaki, Junji; Song, Dong Y.; Takeda, Nobuo

    2000-06-01

    The recent studies suggest possible applications of shape memory alloy (SMA) for a smart health monitoring and suppression of damage growth. The authors have been conducting research and development studies on applications of embedded SMA foil sensors and actuators in CFRP laminates. The goal of this research is suppression of damage growth in CFRP laminates. At first, the authors proposed a concept of damage suppression in CFRP laminates. Then, the development studies are conducted in three phases. The first phase is the improvement of interlaminar shear strength between SMA and CFRP laminates. Some surface treatments were investigated for the improvement of bonding property by peel resistance test and single lap shear strength test. The second phase is the investigation of fabrication technique for producing a CFRP panel with embedded SMA foils. Fixture jigs were devised to introduce tensile loads during the fabrication process. The third phase is the strength demonstration of CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils. Some strength test were conducted to obtain the design data for aircraft structures. It is confirmed that the shrinking force of pre-strained SMA influences to the strength and the crack density of CFRP panel.

  6. Modelling the structural response of cotton plants to mepiquat chloride and population density

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shenghao; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen; Mao, Lili; Zhang, Siping; Zhao, Xinhua; Liu, Shaodong; van der Werf, Wopke; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) has indeterminate growth. The growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) is used worldwide to restrict vegetative growth and promote boll formation and yield. The effects of MC are modulated by complex interactions with growing conditions (nutrients, weather) and plant population density, and as a result the effects on plant form are not fully understood and are difficult to predict. The use of MC is thus hard to optimize. Methods To explore crop responses to plant density and MC, a functional–structural plant model (FSPM) for cotton (named CottonXL) was designed. The model was calibrated using 1 year's field data, and validated by using two additional years of detailed experimental data on the effects of MC and plant density in stands of pure cotton and in intercrops of cotton with wheat. CottonXL simulates development of leaf and fruits (square, flower and boll), plant height and branching. Crop development is driven by thermal time, population density, MC application, and topping of the main stem and branches. Key Results Validation of the model showed good correspondence between simulated and observed values for leaf area index with an overall root-mean-square error of 0·50 m2 m−2, and with an overall prediction error of less than 10 % for number of bolls, plant height, number of fruit branches and number of phytomers. Canopy structure became more compact with the decrease of leaf area index and internode length due to the application of MC. Moreover, MC did not have a substantial effect on boll density but increased lint yield at higher densities. Conclusions The model satisfactorily represents the effects of agronomic measures on cotton plant structure. It can be used to identify optimal agronomic management of cotton to achieve optimal plant structure for maximum yield under varying environmental conditions. PMID:24489020

  7. Sharp magnetic structures from dynamos with density stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Sarah; Brandenburg, Axel; Kleeorin, Nathan; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2017-05-01

    Recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) of large-scale turbulent dynamos in strongly stratified layers have resulted in surprisingly sharp bipolar structures at the surface. Here, we present new DNS of helically and non-helically forced turbulence with and without rotation and compare with corresponding mean-field simulations (MFS) to show that these structures are a generic outcome of a broader class of dynamos in density-stratified layers. The MFS agree qualitatively with the DNS, but the period of oscillations tends to be longer in the DNS. In both DNS and MFS, the sharp structures are produced by converging flows at the surface and might be driven in non-linear stage of evolution by the Lorentz force associated with the large-scale dynamo-driven magnetic field if the dynamo number is at least 2.5 times supercritical.

  8. Feedbacks of Composition and Neutral Density Changes on the Structure of the Cusp Density Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Clemmons, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs cause large wind and temperature changes in the cusp region. Measurements by the CHAMP satellite (460-390- km altitude) have shown strongly enhanced density in the cusp region. The Streak mission (325-123 km), on the other hand, showed a relative depletion. The atmospheric response in the cusp can be sensitive to composition and neutral density changes. In response to heating in the cusp, air of heavier mean molecular weight is brought up from lower altitudes significantly affecting pressure gradients. This opposes the effects of temperature change due to heating and in-turn affects the density and winds produced in the cusp. Also changes in neutral density change the interaction between precipitating particles and the atmosphere and thus change heating rates and ionization in the region affected by cusp precipitation. In this study we assess the sensitivity of the wind and neutral density structure in the cusp region to changes in the mean molecular weight induced by neutral dynamics, and the changes in particle heating rates and ionization which result from changes in neutral density. We use a high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent nonhydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model where inputs can be systematically altered. The resolution of the model allows us to examine the complete range of cusp widths. We compare the current simulations to observations by CHAMP and Streak. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Technical Investment program

  9. Phage-Bacterial Dynamics with Spatial Structure: Self Organization around Phage Sinks Can Promote Increased Cell Densities

    PubMed Central

    Bull, James J.; Christensen, Kelly A.; Scott, Carly; Crandall, Cameron J.; Krone, Stephen M.

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria growing on surfaces appear to be profoundly more resistant to control by lytic bacteriophages than do the same cells grown in liquid. Here, we use simulation models to investigate whether spatial structure per se can account for this increased cell density in the presence of phages. A measure is derived for comparing cell densities between growth in spatially structured environments versus well mixed environments (known as mass action). Maintenance of sensitive cells requires some form of phage death; we invoke death mechanisms that are spatially fixed, as if produced by cells. Spatially structured phage death provides cells with a means of protection that can boost cell densities an order of magnitude above that attained under mass action, although the effect is sometimes in the opposite direction. Phage and bacteria self organize into separate refuges, and spatial structure operates so that the phage progeny from a single burst do not have independent fates (as they do with mass action). Phage incur a high loss when invading protected areas that have high cell densities, resulting in greater protection for the cells. By the same metric, mass action dynamics either show no sustained bacterial elevation or oscillate between states of low and high cell densities and an elevated average. The elevated cell densities observed in models with spatial structure do not approach the empirically observed increased density of cells in structured environments with phages (which can be many orders of magnitude), so the empirical phenomenon likely requires additional mechanisms than those analyzed here. PMID:29382134

  10. ELM suppression in helium plasmas with 3D magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, T. E.; Loarte, A.; Orlov, D. M.; ...

    2017-06-21

    Experiments in DIII-D, using non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation fields in high-purity low toroidal rotation, 4He plasmas have resulted in Type-I edge localized mode (ELM) suppression and mitigation. Suppression is obtained in plasmas with zero net input torque near the L–H power threshold using either electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) or balanced co- and counter-I p neutral beam injection (NBI) resulting in conditions equivalent to those expected in ITER's non-active operating phase. In low-power ECRH H-modes, periods with uncontrolled density and impurity radiation excursions are prevented by applying n = 3 non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation fields. ELM suppression results from a reduction andmore » an outward shift of the electron pressure gradient peak compared to that in the high-power ELMing phase. Here, the change in the electron pressure gradient peak is primarily due to a drop in the pedestal temperature rather than the pedestal density.« less

  11. ELM suppression in helium plasmas with 3D magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. E.; Loarte, A.; Orlov, D. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Knölker, M. M.; Lyons, B. C.; Cui, L.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T. H.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    Experiments in DIII-D, using non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation fields in high-purity low toroidal rotation, 4He plasmas have resulted in Type-I edge localized mode (ELM) suppression and mitigation. Suppression is obtained in plasmas with zero net input torque near the L-H power threshold using either electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) or balanced co- and counter-I p neutral beam injection (NBI) resulting in conditions equivalent to those expected in ITER’s non-active operating phase. In low-power ECRH H-modes, periods with uncontrolled density and impurity radiation excursions are prevented by applying n  =  3 non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation fields. ELM suppression results from a reduction and an outward shift of the electron pressure gradient peak compared to that in the high-power ELMing phase. The change in the electron pressure gradient peak is primarily due to a drop in the pedestal temperature rather than the pedestal density.

  12. The Relationships Between ELM Suppression, Pedestal Profiles, and Lithium Wall Coatings in NSTX

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    D.P. Boyle, R. Maingi, P.B. Snyder, J. Manickam, T.H. Osborne, R.E. Bell, B.P. LeBlanc, and the NSTX Team

    2012-08-17

    Recently in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), increasing lithium wall coatings suppressed edge localized modes (ELMs), gradually but not quite monotonically. This work details profile and stability analysis as ELMs disappeared throughout the lithium scan. While the quantity of lithium deposited between discharges did not uniquely determine the presence of ELMs, profile analysis demonstrated that lithium was correlated to wider density and pressure pedestals with peak gradients farther from the separatrix. Moreover, the ELMy and ELM-free discharges were cleanly separated by their density and pedestal widths and peak gradient locations. Ultimately, ELMs were only suppressed when lithium caused themore » density pedestal to widen and shift inward. These changes in the density gradient were directly reflected in the pressure gradient and calculated bootstrap current. This supports the theory that ELMs in NSTX are caused by peeling and/or ballooning modes, as kink/peeling modes are stabilized when the edge current and pressure gradient shift away from the separatrix. Edge stability analysis using ELITE corroborated this picture, as reconstructed equilibria from ELM-free discharges were generally farther from their kink/peeling stability boundaries than ELMy discharges. We conclude that density profile control provided by lithium is the key first step to ELM suppression in NSTX« less

  13. Electron-density descriptors as predictors in quantitative structure--activity/property relationships and drug design.

    PubMed

    Matta, Chérif F; Arabi, Alya A

    2011-06-01

    The use of electron density-based molecular descriptors in drug research, particularly in quantitative structure--activity relationships/quantitative structure--property relationships studies, is reviewed. The exposition starts by a discussion of molecular similarity and transferability in terms of the underlying electron density, which leads to a qualitative introduction to the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). The starting point of QTAIM is the topological analysis of the molecular electron-density distributions to extract atomic and bond properties that characterize every atom and bond in the molecule. These atomic and bond properties have considerable potential as bases for the construction of robust quantitative structure--activity/property relationships models as shown by selected examples in this review. QTAIM is applicable to the electron density calculated from quantum-chemical calculations and/or that obtained from ultra-high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments followed by nonspherical refinement. Atomic and bond properties are introduced followed by examples of application of each of these two families of descriptors. The review ends with a study whereby the molecular electrostatic potential, uniquely determined by the density, is used in conjunction with atomic properties to elucidate the reasons for the biological similarity of bioisosteres.

  14. Electromagnetic density of modes for a finite-size three-dimensional structure.

    PubMed

    D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Nadia; Centini, Marco; Scalora, Michael; Bloemer, Mark J

    2004-05-01

    The concept of the density of modes has been lacking a precise mathematical definition for a finite-size structure. With the explosive growth in the fabrication of photonic crystals and nanostructures, which are inherently finite in size, a workable definition is imperative. We give a simple and physically intuitive definition of the electromagnetic density of modes based on the Green's function for a generic three-dimensional open cavity filled with a linear, isotropic, dielectric material.

  15. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Ludeña, E V; Echevarría, L; Lopez, X; Ugalde, J M

    2012-02-28

    We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities can be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.

  16. Phonon and magnetic structure in δ-plutonium from density-functional theory

    DOE PAGES

    Söderlind, Per; Zhou, F.; Landa, A.; ...

    2015-10-30

    We present phonon properties of plutonium metal obtained from a combination of density-functional-theory (DFT) electronic structure and the recently developed compressive sensing lattice dynamics (CSLD). The CSLD model is here trained on DFT total energies of several hundreds of quasi-random atomic configurations for best possible accuracy of the phonon properties. The calculated phonon dispersions compare better with experiment than earlier results obtained from dynamical mean-field theory. The density-functional model of the electronic structure consists of disordered magnetic moments with all relativistic effects and explicit orbital-orbital correlations. The magnetic disorder is approximated in two ways: (i) a special quasi-random structure andmore » (ii) the disordered-local-moment (DLM) method within the coherent potential approximation. Magnetism in plutonium has been debated intensely, However, the present magnetic approach for plutonium is validated by the close agreement between the predicted magnetic form factor and that of recent neutron-scattering experiments.« less

  17. Multi-instrument observations of the ionospheric and plasmaspheric density structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2008-05-01

    : The density within the ionosphere and plasmasphere can be monitored using a combination of techniques that use both ground- and space-based instruments. We are combining diagnostic observations of everything, but the kitchen sink. These include observations of GPS TEC, TOPEX and JASON TEC, IMAGE EUV and FUV, GUVI composition data, ULF resonances, and many other multi-satellite data sets such as DMSP in situ observations. The dramatically growing number of GPS receivers on the ground and onboard Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites offers an excellent opportunity for remote sensing and monitoring of the ionospheric and plasmaspheric density structure using GPS TEC tomographic reconstruction technique. This allows us to clearly quantify magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling dynamics, as well as confirm the long-standing conjecture that the mid-latitude trough and plasmapause are on the same field line. This has been demonstrated globally, for the first time, using a combination of data from IMAGE EUV and ground- and space-based GPS receivers. The two dimensional tomographic image of the ionosphere and plasmasphere, using data from the GPS receiver onboard LEO satellites, such as FedSat, CHAMP, COSMIC, etc, also provides a new ability to image the flux tube structure of ionospheric ion outflows, tracking flux tube structure up to 3.17Re (20,200 km) altitude for the first time. The combination of data from the altimeter on JASON and ground-based GPS network also provides an excellent opportunity to experimentally estimate the plasmaspheric density contribution to the ground-based GPS TEC and thus to the degradation of navigation and communication accuracy.

  18. Martian interior structure models with different crustal density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkova, T. V.; Zharkov, V. N.

    2007-08-01

    The information necessary to construct a model of Mars (observation data, a choice of a chemical model, a cosmogonic aspect of the problem) is discussed. We consider an interior structure model which comprises four submodels - a model of the outer porous layer, a model of the crust, a model of the mantle and a model of the core. The first 10-11 km layer is considered as an averaged transition from regolith to consolidated rock. The mineral composition of the crustal basaltic rock varies with depth because of the gabbro-eclogite phase transition. Mineralogical and seismic models of the Martian crust were constructed by numerical thermodynamic simulation by Babeiko and Zharkov (2000). For the obtained from this simulation densities at the crust-mantle boundary (about 3.3-3.4 g/cm3) a density contrast between the crust and the mantle is low enough. However, the joint interpretation of gravity and topography data assumes that there is a noticeable density jump at the crust-mantle boundary. As discussed by many authors a plausible range of bulk crustal densities is from 2.7 to 3.1 g/ cm3. It can be interpreted as either the composition of rocks at the surface of Mars is somewhat different than those of the Martian basaltic meteorites or a certain amount of crustal porosity might be expected if water (or some other substances) is present in the subsurface. Assuming a range of crustal densities (2.7-3.2 g/cm3) and the average thickness of the martian crust of 50 and 100 km we have recalculated a set of interior structure models of Mars to determine this effect on the other model parameters. The models are stronly constrained by new values of Love number k2 and the mean moment of inertia have been derived by Konopliv et al. (2006). The inferred radius of Martian core (from the Love number k2) is between 1700 and 1800 km. Keeping in mind that the estimated value of the correction introduced to the Love number k2 due to the inelasticity of the interior can be both somewhat

  19. Iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild wizard.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Afonine, Pavel V; Moriarty, Nigel W; Zwart, Peter H; Hung, Li Wei; Read, Randy J; Adams, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    The PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE model building, RESOLVE statistical density modification and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model-completion algorithms and automated solvent-molecule picking. Model-completion algorithms in the AutoBuild wizard include loop building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 A, resulting in a mean R factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density and is relatively independent of resolution.

  20. Iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild wizard

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Zwart, Peter H.; Hung, Li-Wei; Read, Randy J.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE model building, RESOLVE statistical density modification and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model-completion algorithms and automated solvent-molecule picking. Model-completion algorithms in the AutoBuild wizard include loop building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 Å, resulting in a mean R factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density and is relatively independent of resolution. PMID:18094468

  1. Application of Sub-Bottom Profiler to Study Riverbed Structure and Sediment Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Wang; Changzheng, Li; Xiaofei, Yan

    2018-03-01

    In this pater, we present a study on the riverbed structure and sediment density in-situ test by using sub-bottom profiler. Compared with traditional direct observation methods, the sub-bottom profiler method based on sonar technology is non-contact, low-disturbance and high-efficient. We finish the investigation of several sections in Sanmenxia and Xiaolangdi reservoirs, which located on the main channel of lower reaches of Yellow River. Collected data show a detailed layered structure of the riverbed sediment which believed caused by sedimentary processes in different periods. Further more, we analyse the reflection coefficient of water-sediment interface and inverse the sediment density data from the raw wave record. The inversion method is based on the effective density fluid model and Kozeny-Carman formula. The comparison of the inversion results and sample tests shows that the in-situ test is reliable and useable.

  2. Feedbacks of Composition and Neutral Density Changes on the Structure of the Cusp Density Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Clemmons, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs cause large wind and temperature changes in the cusp region. Measurements by the CHAMP satellite (460-390- km altitude) have shown strongly enhanced density in the cusp region. The Streak mission (325-123 km), on the other hand, showed a relative depletion. The atmospheric response in the cusp can be sensitive to composition and neutral density changes. In response to heating in the cusp, air of heavier mean molecular weight is brought up from lower altitudes significantly affecting pressure gradients. This opposes the effects of temperature change due to heating and in-turn affects the density and winds produced in the cusp. Also changes in neutral density change the interaction between precipitating particles and the atmosphere and thus change heating rates and ionization in the region affected by cusp precipitation. In this study we assess the sensitivity of the wind and neutral density structure in the cusp region to changes in the mean molecular weight induced by neutral dynamics via advection, and the changes in particle heating rates and ionization which result from changes in neutral density. We use a high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent nonhydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model where inputs can be systematically altered. The resolution of the model allows us to examine the complete range of cusp widths. We compare the current simulations to observations by CHAMP and Streak. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant: NNX16AH46G issues through the Heliophysics Supporting Research Program. This research was also supported by The Aerospace

  3. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates

    DOE PAGES

    Tulk, Christopher A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; ...

    2015-01-16

    The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection of the mechanisms associated with pressure induced amorphization in these systems, as well as the structure of the recovered phase. It is observed that, between 14.7 and 35 GPa the second peak in the structure factor function gradually disappears. Analysis of the radial distribution function extracted from those data indicate that this feature is associated with gradual cage collapse and breakdown of the tetrahedral structure with themore » consequent systematic lengthening of the nearest-neighbor framework bonds. This suggests an overall local coordination change to an even higher density amorphous form. Upon recovery from high pressure, the sample remains amorphous, and while there is some indication of the guest-host cage reforming, it doesn't seem that the tetrahedral coordination is recovered. As such, the compresion-decompression process in this systems gives rise to three distict amorphous forms.« less

  4. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: Non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ludena, E. V.; Echevarria, L.; Lopez, X.

    2012-02-28

    We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities canmore » be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.« less

  5. Suppressing Manganese Dissolution from Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel Cathodes with Single-Layer Graphene

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Puntambekar, Kanan P.; Kim, Soo

    2015-06-24

    Spinel-structured LiMn 2 O 4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, abundance, and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, it is shown that single-layer graphene coatings suppress manganese dissolution, thus enhancing the performance and lifetime of LMO cathodes. Relative to lithium cells with uncoated LMO cathodes, cells with graphene-coated LMO cathodes provide improved capacity retention with enhanced cycling stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that graphene coatings inhibit manganese depletion from the LMO surface. Additionally, transmissionmore » electron microscopy demonstrates that a stable solid electrolyte interphase is formed on graphene, which screens the LMO from direct contact with the electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations provide two mechanisms for the role of graphene in the suppression of manganese dissolution. First, common defects in single-layer graphene are found to allow the transport of lithium while concurrently acting as barriers for manganese diffusion. Second, graphene can chemically interact with Mn 3+ at the LMO electrode surface, promoting an oxidation state change to Mn 4+ , which suppresses dissolution.« less

  6. Nuclear structure and dynamics with density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetcu, Ionel

    2015-10-01

    Even in the absence of ab initio methods capable of tackling heavy nuclei without restrictions, one can obtain an ab initio description of ground-state properties by means of the density functional theory (DFT), and its extension to superfluid systems in its local variant, the superfluid local density approximation (SLDA). Information about the properties of excited states can be obtained in the same framework by using an extension to the time-dependent (TD) phenomena. Unlike other approaches in which the nuclear structure information is used as a separate input into reaction models, the TD approach treats on the same footing the nuclear structure and dynamics, and is well suited to provide more reliable description for a large number of processes involving heavy nuclei, from the nuclear response to electroweak probes, to nuclear reactions, such as neutron-induced reactions, or nuclear fusion and fission. Such processes, sometimes part of integrated nuclear systems, have important applications in astrophysics, energy production, global security, etc. In this talk, I will present the simulation of a simple reaction, that is the Coulomb excitation of a 238U nucleus, and discuss the application of the TD-DFT formalism to the description of induced fission. I gratefully acknowledge partial support of the U.S. Department of Energy through an Early Career Award of the LANL/LDRD Program.

  7. Deficits in Neurite Density Underlie White Matter Structure Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rae, Charlotte L; Davies, Geoff; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Gabel, Matt C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Seth, Anil K; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Medford, Nick; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-11-15

    Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity images were also derived. Tract-based spatial statistics compared white matter structure between patients and control subjects and tested associations with age, symptom severity, and medication. Patients with first-episode psychosis had lower regional FA in multiple commissural, corticospinal, and association tracts. These abnormalities predominantly colocalized with regions of reduced neurite density, rather than aberrant fiber bundle arrangement (orientation dispersion index). There was no direct relationship with active symptoms. FA decreased and orientation dispersion index increased with age in patients, but not control subjects, suggesting accelerated effects of white matter geometry change. Deficits in neurite density appear fundamental to abnormalities in white matter integrity in early psychosis. In the first application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in psychosis, we found that processes compromising axonal fiber number, density, and myelination, rather than processes leading to spatial disruption of fiber organization, are implicated in the etiology of psychosis. This accords with a neurodevelopmental origin of aberrant brain-wide structural connectivity predisposing individuals to

  8. Assessment and management of soil microbial community structure for disease suppression.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Identification of the biological properties contributing to the function of suppressive soils is a necessary first step to the management of such systems for use in the control of soilborne diseases. The development and application of molecular methods for the characterization and monitoring of soil microbial properties will enable a more rapid and detailed assessment of the biological nature of soil suppressiveness. Although suppressive soils have provided a wealth of microbial resources that have subsequently been applied for the biological control of soilborne plant pathogens, the full functional capabilities of the phenomena have not been realized in production agricultural ecosystems. Cultural practices, such as the application of soil amendments, have the capacity to enhance disease suppression, though the biological modes of action may vary from that initially resident to the soil. Plants have a distinct impact on characteristics and activity of resident soil microbial communities, and therefore play an important role in determining the development of the disease-suppressive state. Likewise, plant genotype will modulate these same biological communities, and should be considered when developing strategies to exploit the potential of such a natural disease control system. Implementation of consistently effective practices to manage this resource in an economically and environmentally feasible manner will require more detailed investigation of these biologically complex systems and refinement of currently available methodologies.

  9. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes suppress potassium channel activities in PC12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haifei; Bai, Juan; Meng, Jie; Hao, Wei; Xu, Haiyan; Cao, Ji-Min

    2009-07-01

    The advancement in nanotechnology has produced technological and conceptual breakthroughs but the effects nanomaterials have on organisms at the cellular level are poorly understood. Here we report that carboxyl-terminated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as antagonists of three types of potassium channels as assessed by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology on undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results showed that carboxyl-terminated MWCNTs suppress the current densities of Ito, IK and IK1 in a time-dependent and irreversible manner. The suppressions were most distinct 24 h after incubation with MWCNTs. However, MWCNTs did not significantly change the expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or intracellular free calcium and also did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in PC12 cells. These results suggest that oxidative stress was not involved in the MWCNTs suppression of Ito, IK and IK1 current densities. Nonetheless, the suppression of potassium currents by MWCNTs will impact on electrical signaling of excitable cells such as neurons and muscles.

  10. Fragmentation of Massive Dense Cores Down to <~ 1000 AU: Relation between Fragmentation and Density Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, Aina; Estalella, Robert; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asunción; Fontani, Francesco; Commerçon, Benoit; Busquet, Gemma; Bontemps, Sylvain; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Hennebelle, Patrick; di Francesco, James

    2014-04-01

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and the National Research Council of Canada.

  11. Best density and structure for uneven-aged northern hardwood management in New England

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    2003-01-01

    Choice of the best residual density (basal area per acre) and structure (diameter distribution) for uneven-aged management of northern hardwoods is a complex decision that depends on the manager's decision rules, product objectives, site conditions, and - perhaps most important - current stand conditions. In contrast to other recommendations on residual density...

  12. Structural basis for the suppression of skin cancers by DNA polymerase [eta

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Silverstein, Timothy D.; Johnson, Robert E.; Jain, Rinku

    2010-09-13

    DNA polymerase {eta} (Pol{eta}) is unique among eukaryotic polymerases in its proficient ability for error-free replication through ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and inactivation of Pol{eta} (also known as POLH) in humans causes the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV). We present the crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol{eta} (also known as RAD30) in ternary complex with a cis-syn thymine-thymine (T-T) dimer and with undamaged DNA. The structures reveal that the ability of Pol{eta} to replicate efficiently through the ultraviolet-induced lesion derives from a simple and yet elegant mechanism, wherein the two Ts of the T-T dimer are accommodated in anmore » active site cleft that is much more open than in other polymerases. We also show by structural, biochemical and genetic analysis that the two Ts are maintained in a stable configuration in the active site via interactions with Gln55, Arg73 and Met74. Together, these features define the basis for Pol{eta}'s action on ultraviolet-damaged DNA that is crucial in suppressing the mutagenic and carcinogenic consequences of sun exposure, thereby reducing the incidence of skin cancers in humans.« less

  13. Characterization of the Interior Density Structure of Near Earth Objects with Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Sykes, M. V.; Miller, R. S.; Pinsky, L. S.; Empl, A.; Nolan, M. C.; Koontz, S. L.; Lawrence, D. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Reddell, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are a diverse population of short-lived asteroids originating from the main belt and Jupiter family comets. Some have orbits that are easy to access from Earth, making them attractive as targets for science and exploration as well as a potential resource. Some pose a potential impact threat. NEOs have undergone extensive collisional processing, fragmenting and re-accreting to form rubble piles, which may be compositionally heterogeneous (e.g., like 2008 TC3, the precursor to Almahata Sitta). At present, little is known about their interior structure or how these objects are held together. The wide range of inferred NEO macroporosities hint at complex interiors. Information about their density structure would aid in understanding their formation and collisional histories, the risks they pose to human interactions with their surfaces, the constraints on industrial processing of NEO resources, and the selection of hazard mitigation strategies (e.g., kinetic impactor vs nuclear burst). Several methods have been proposed to characterize asteroid interiors, including radar imaging, seismic tomography, and muon imaging (muon radiography and tomography). Of these, only muon imaging has the potential to determine interior density structure, including the relative density of constituent fragments. Muons are produced by galactic cosmic ray showers within the top meter of asteroid surfaces. High-energy muons can traverse large distances through rock with little deflection. Muons transmitted through an Itokawa-sized asteroid can be imaged using a compact hodoscope placed on or near the surface. Challenges include background rejection and correction for variations in muon production with surface density. The former is being addressed by hodoscope design. Surface density variations can be determined via radar or muon limb imaging. The performance of muon imaging is evaluated for prospective NEO interior-mapping missions.

  14. U1snRNP-mediated suppression of polyadenylation in conjunction with the RNA structure controls poly (A) site selection in foamy viruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During reverse transcription, retroviruses duplicate the long terminal repeats (LTRs). These identical LTRs carry both promoter regions and functional polyadenylation sites. To express full-length transcripts, retroviruses have to suppress polyadenylation in the 5′LTR and activate polyadenylation in the 3′LTR. Foamy viruses have a unique LTR structure with respect to the location of the major splice donor (MSD), which is located upstream of the polyadenylation signal. Results Here, we describe the mechanisms of foamy viruses regulating polyadenylation. We show that binding of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1snRNP) to the MSD suppresses polyadenylation at the 5′LTR. In contrast, polyadenylation at the 3′LTR is achieved by adoption of a different RNA structure at the MSD region, which blocks U1snRNP binding and furthers RNA cleavage and subsequent polyadenylation. Conclusion Recently, it was shown that U1snRNP is able to suppress the usage of intronic cryptic polyadenylation sites in the cellular genome. Foamy viruses take advantage of this surveillance mechanism to suppress premature polyadenylation at the 5’end of their RNA. At the 3’end, Foamy viruses use a secondary structure to presumably block access of U1snRNP and thereby activate polyadenylation at the end of the genome. Our data reveal a contribution of U1snRNP to cellular polyadenylation site selection and to the regulation of gene expression. PMID:23718736

  15. The relation between the column density structures and the magnetic field orientation in the Vela C molecular complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, J. D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Angilè, F. E.; Ashton, P.; Benton, S. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Fissel, L. M.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gandilo, N. N.; Hennebelle, P.; Klein, J.; Li, Z.-Y.; Korotkov, A. L.; Martin, P. G.; Matthews, T. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Santos, F. P.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2017-07-01

    We statistically evaluated the relative orientation between gas column density structures, inferred from Herschel submillimetre observations, and the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimetre Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) at 250, 350, and 500 μm, towards the Vela C molecular complex. First, we find very good agreement between the polarization orientations in the three wavelength-bands, suggesting that, at the considered common angular resolution of 3.´0 that corresponds to a physical scale of approximately 0.61 pc, the inferred magnetic field orientation is not significantly affected by temperature or dust grain alignment effects. Second, we find that the relative orientation between gas column density structures and the magnetic field changes progressively with increasing gas column density, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation at low column densities to mostly perpendicular at the highest column densities. This observation is in agreement with previous studies by the Planck collaboration towards more nearby molecular clouds. Finally, we find a correspondencebetween (a) the trends in relative orientation between the column density structures and the projected magnetic field; and (b) the shape of the column density probability distribution functions (PDFs). In the sub-regions of Vela C dominated by one clear filamentary structure, or "ridges", where the high-column density tails of the PDFs are flatter, we find a sharp transition from preferentially parallel or having no preferred relative orientation at low column densities to preferentially perpendicular at highest column densities. In the sub-regions of Vela C dominated by several filamentary structures with multiple orientations, or "nests", where the maximum values of the column density are smaller than in the ridge-like sub-regions and the high-column density

  16. Density and temperature structure over northern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philbrick, C. R.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Grossmann, K. U.; Lange, G.; Offermann, D.; Baker, K. D.; Krankowsky, D.; Von Zahn, U.

    1985-01-01

    During the Energy Budget Campaign, a number of profiles of the density and temperature were obtained to study the structure and variability of the atmosphere. The measurements were made using rocketborne instrumentation launched from Esrange, Sweden, and Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, during November and December 1980. The techniques included meteorological temperature sondes, passive falling sphere, accelerometer instrumented falling spheres, density gauges, mass spectrometers and infrared emission experiments. The instruments provided data covering the altitude range from 20 to 150 km. The measurements were made during periods which have been grouped into three categories by level of geomagnetic activity. Analysis has been made to compare the results and to examine the wave features and variations in the vertical profiles for scales ranging between hundreds of meters and tens of kilometers. Most of the features observed fit qualitatively within the range expected for internal gravity waves. However, the features in the profiles during one of the measurement periods are unusual and may be due to aurorally generated shock waves. The geomagnetic storm conditions caused temperature increases in the lower thermosphere which maximized in the 120-140 km region.

  17. Suppression of starch synthase I expression affects the granule morphology and granule size and fine structure of starch in wheat endosperm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Studies in Arabidopsis and rice suggest that manipulation of starch synthase I (SSI) expression in wheat may lead to the production of wheat grains with novel starch structure and properties. This work describes the suppression of SSI expression in wheat grains using RNAi technology, which leads to a low level of enzymatic activity for SSI in the developing endosperm, and a low abundance of SSI protein inside the starch granules of mature grains. The amylopectin fraction of starch from the SSI suppressed lines showed an increased frequency of very short chains (degree of polymerization, dp 6 and 7), a lower proportion of short chains (dp 8–12), and more intermediate chains (dp 13–20) than in the grain from their negative segregant lines. In the most severely affected line, amylose content was significantly increased, the morphology of starch granules was changed, and the proportion of B starch granules was significantly reduced. The change of the fine structure of the starch in the SSI-RNAi suppression lines alters the gelatinization temperature, swelling power, and viscosity of the starch. This work demonstrates that the roles of SSI in the determination of starch structure and properties are similar among different cereals and Arabidopsis. PMID:24634486

  18. Atomic density functional and diagram of structures in the phase field crystal model

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ankudinov, V. E., E-mail: vladimir@ankudinov.org; Galenko, P. K.; Kropotin, N. V.

    2016-02-15

    The phase field crystal model provides a continual description of the atomic density over the diffusion time of reactions. We consider a homogeneous structure (liquid) and a perfect periodic crystal, which are constructed from the one-mode approximation of the phase field crystal model. A diagram of 2D structures is constructed from the analytic solutions of the model using atomic density functionals. The diagram predicts equilibrium atomic configurations for transitions from the metastable state and includes the domains of existence of homogeneous, triangular, and striped structures corresponding to a liquid, a body-centered cubic crystal, and a longitudinal cross section of cylindricalmore » tubes. The method developed here is employed for constructing the diagram for the homogeneous liquid phase and the body-centered iron lattice. The expression for the free energy is derived analytically from density functional theory. The specific features of approximating the phase field crystal model are compared with the approximations and conclusions of the weak crystallization and 2D melting theories.« less

  19. Density and delay of punishment of free-operant avoidance1

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Alan; Kaufman, Arnold; Fazzini, Dan

    1969-01-01

    In two experiments, the free-operant shock-avoidance behavior of rats was punished by electric shock. Two aspects of the schedule of response-produced shock were varied: the frequency of punishment over time (punishment density) and the temporal interval between the punished response and the punishment (punishment delay). The general finding was that response-produced shock suppressed avoidance responding under most of the density-delay combinations studied, and suppression increased as a function of increases in density and decreases in delay. Rate increases of small magnitude also were observed, usually as an initial reaction to the lesser densities and longer delays. Response suppression, while decreasing the number of punishment shocks received, also increased the number of avoidance shocks, so that the total number of shocks received usually was greater than the minimal number possible. The results were discussed from the standpoint of similarities between the effects of punishing positively and negatively reinforced behavior. The finding that subjects did not minimize the total number of shocks suggested that when avoidance behavior is punished, responding is controlled more by the local consequences of responding than by overall shock frequencies during the course of the session. PMID:16811408

  20. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  1. A model of activity-dependent changes in dendritic spine density and spine structure.

    PubMed

    Crook, S M; Dur-E-Ahmad, M; Baer, S M

    2007-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the morphology and density of dendritic spines are regulated during synaptic plasticity. See, for instance, a review by Hayashi and Majewska [9]. In this work, we extend previous modeling studies [27] by combining a model for activity-dependent spine density with one for calcium-mediated spine stem restructuring. The model is based on the standard dimensionless cable equation, which represents the change in the membrane potential in a passive dendrite. Additional equations characterize the change in spine density along the dendrite, the current balance equation for an individual spine head, the change in calcium concentration in the spine head, and the dynamics of spine stem resistance. We use computational studies to investigate the changes in spine density and structure for differing synaptic inputs and demonstrate the effects of these changes on the input-output properties of the dendritic branch. Moderate amounts of high-frequency synaptic activation to dendritic spines result in an increase in spine stem resistance that is correlated with spine stem elongation. In addition, the spine density increases both inside and outside the input region. The model is formulated so that this long-term potentiation-inducing stimulus eventually leads to structural stability. In contrast, a prolonged low-frequency stimulation paradigm that would typically induce long-term depression results in a decrease in stem resistance (correlated with stem shortening) and an eventual decrease in spine density.

  2. Structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of curium dioxide: Density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ling; Li, Wei-Dong; Wang, Fangwei; Eriksson, Olle; Wang, Bao-Tian

    2017-12-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the structural, magnetic, electronic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of CmO2 with the local density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+U approaches. The strong Coulomb repulsion and the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects on the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps are carefully studied, and compared with other A O2 (A =U , Np, Pu, and Am). The ferromagnetic configuration with half-metallic character is predicted to be energetically stable while a charge-transfer semiconductor is predicted for the antiferromagnetic configuration. The elastic constants and phonon spectra show that the fluorite structure is mechanically and dynamically stable. Based on the first-principles phonon density of states, the lattice vibrational energy is calculated using the quasiharmonic approximation. Then, the Gibbs free energy, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, and entropy are obtained and compared with experimental data. The mode Grüneisen parameters are presented to analyze the anharmonic properties. The Slack relation is applied to obtain the lattice thermal conductivity in temperature range of 300-1600 K. The phonon group velocities are also calculated to investigate the heat transfer. For all these properties, if available, we compare the results of CmO2 with other A O2 .

  3. Suppression of superconductivity and structural phase transitions under pressure in tetragonal FeS

    DOE PAGES

    Lai, Xiaofang; Liu, Ying; Lu, Xujie; ...

    2016-08-08

    Pressure is a powerful tool to study iron-based superconductors. Here, we report systematic high-pressure transport and structural characterizations of the newly discovered superconductor FeS. It is found that superconductor FeS (tetragonal) partly transforms to a hexagonal structure at 0.4 GPa, and then completely transforms to an orthorhombic phase at 7.4 GPa and finally to a monoclinic phase above 9.0 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature of tetragonal FeS was gradually depressed by pressure, different from the case in tetragonal FeSe. With pressure increasing, the S-Fe-S angles only slightly change but the anion height deviates farther from 1.38 Å. This change ofmore » anion height, together with the structural instability under pressure, should be closely related to the suppression of superconductivity. We also observed an anomalous metal-semiconductor transition at 6.0 GPa and an unusual increased resistance with further compression above 9.6 GPa. The former can be ascribed to the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition, and the latter to the electronic structure changes of the high-pressure monoclinic phase. Lastly, a phase diagram of tetragonal FeS as functions of pressure and temperature was mapped out for the first time, which will shed new light on understanding of the structure and physics of the superconducting FeS.« less

  4. Magnetic penetration-depth measurements of a suppressed superfluid density of superconducting Ca0.5Na0.5Fe2As2 single crystals by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeehoon; Haberkorn, N.; Graf, M. J.; Usov, I.; Ronning, F.; Civale, L.; Nazaretski, E.; Chen, G. F.; Yu, W.; Thompson, J. D.; Movshovich, R.

    2012-10-01

    We report on the dramatic effect of random point defects, produced by proton irradiation, on the superfluid density ρs in superconducting Ca0.5Na0.5Fe2As2 single crystals. The magnitude of the suppression is inferred from measurements of the temperature-dependent magnetic penetration depth λ(T) using magnetic force microscopy. Our findings indicate that a radiation dose of 2×1016 cm-2 produced by 3 MeV protons results in a reduction of the superconducting critical temperature Tc by approximately 10%. In contrast, ρs(0) is suppressed by approximately 60%. This breakdown of the Abrikosov-Gorkov theory may be explained by the so-called “Swiss cheese model,” which accounts for the spatial suppression of the order parameter near point defects similar to holes in Swiss cheese. Both the slope of the upper critical field and the penetration depth λ(T/Tc)/λ(0) exhibit similar temperature dependences before and after irradiation. This may be due to a combination of the highly disordered nature of Ca0.5Na0.5Fe2As2 with large intraband and simultaneous interband scattering as well as the s±-wave nature of short coherence length superconductivity.

  5. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  6. Three-dimensional structure of dilute pyroclastic density currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Unconfined experimental density currents dynamically similar to pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) suggest that cross-stream motions of the currents and air entrainment through currents' lateral margins strongly affects PDC behavior. Experiments are conducted within an air-filled tank 8.5 m long by 6.1 m wide by 2.6 m tall. Currents are generated by feeding heated powders down a chute into the tank at controlled rates to form dilute, particle-laden, turbulent gravity currents that are fed for 30 to 600 seconds. Powders include 5 μm aluminum oxide, 25 μm talc, 27 μm walnut, 76 μm glass beads and mixtures thereof. Experiments are scaled such that Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, particle Stokes and Settling numbers, and thermal to kinetic energy densities are all in agreement with dilute PDCs; experiments have lower Reynolds numbers that natural currents, but the experiments are fully turbulent, thus the large scale structures should be similar. The experiments are illuminated with 3 orthogonal laser sheets (650, 532, and 450 nm wavelengths) and recorded with an array of HD video cameras and a high speed camera (up to 3000 fps); this system provides synchronous observation of a vertical streamwise and cross-stream planes, and a horizontal plane. Ambient temperature currents tend to spread out radially from the source and have long run out distances, whereas warmer currents tend to focus along narrow sectors and have shorter run outs. In addition, when warm currents lift off to form buoyant plumes, lateral spreading ceases. The behavior of short duration currents are dominated by the current head; as eruption duration increases, current transport direction tends to oscillate back and forth (this is particularly true for ambient temperature currents). Turbulent structures in the horizontal plane show air entrainment and advection downstream. Eddies illuminated by the vertical cross-stream laser sheet often show vigorous mixing along the current margins

  7. Structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of high-density amorphous silicon: a first-principles molecular-dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Tetsuya

    2009-05-21

    We report a first-principles study of the structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of high-density amorphous (HDA) silicon, which was found to be formed by pressurizing low-density amorphous (LDA) silicon (a normal amorphous Si) [T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 055503 (2004); P. F. McMillan, M. Wilson, D. Daisenberger, and D. Machon, Nature Mater. 4, 680 (2005)]. Striking structural differences between HDA and LDA are revealed. The LDA structure holds a tetrahedral network, while the HDA structure contains a highly distorted tetrahedral network. The fifth neighboring atom in HDA tends to be located at an interstitial position of a distorted tetrahedron composed of the first four neighboring atoms. Consequently, the coordination number of HDA is calculated to be approximately 5 unlike that of LDA. The electronic density of state (EDOS) shows that HDA is metallic, which is consistent with a recent experimental measurement of the electronic resistance of HDA Si. We find from local EDOS that highly distorted tetrahedral configurations enhance the metallic nature of HDA. The vibrational density of state (VDOS) also reflects the structural differences between HDA and LDA. Some of the characteristic vibrational modes of LDA are dematerialized in HDA, indicating the degradation of covalent bonds. The overall profile of the VDOS for HDA is found to be an intermediate between that for LDA and liquid Si under pressure (high-density liquid Si).

  8. Suppressed star formation by a merging cluster system

    DOE PAGES

    Mansheim, A. S.; Lemaux, B. C.; Tomczak, A. R.; ...

    2017-03-24

    We examine the effects of an impending cluster merger on galaxies in the large scale structure (LSS) RX J0910 at z =1.105. Using multi-wavelength data, including 102 spectral members drawn from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey and precise photometric redshifts, we calculate star formation rates and map the specific star formation rate density of the LSS galaxies. These analyses along with an investigation of the color-magnitude properties of LSS galaxies indicate lower levels of star formation activity in the region between the merging clusters relative to the outskirts of the system. We suggest thatmore » gravitational tidal forces due to the potential of the merging halos may be the physical mechanism responsible for the observed suppression of star formation in galaxies caught between the merging clusters.« less

  9. Simulated effects of YY-male stocking and manual suppression for eradicating nonnative Brook Trout populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis populations is difficult to achieve with standard techniques, such as electrofishing removal or piscicides; new approaches are needed. A novel concept is to stock “supermale” hatchery fish with wild conspecifics. Supermales (MYY) have two Y-chromosomes, resulting in offspring that are all males; over time, successful supermale reproduction could eradicate the wild population. We constructed an age-structured stochastic model to investigate the effects of manually suppressing wild fish and stocking MYY fingerlings on the long-term viability of hypothetical nonnative Brook Trout populations. In streams, an annual stocking rate of supermales equivalent to 50% of wild age-0 Brook Trout density combined with an annual selective suppression rate equivalent to 50% of wild Brook Trout density resulted in a time to extirpation of only 2–4 years if supermale fitness was equivalent to wild male fitness. However, time to extirpation in streams was 5–15 years if supermale fitness was 80% lower than wild male fitness. In alpine lakes, higher supermale stocking rates and nonselective gillnetting were required to eradicate Brook Trout populations. If supermales were assumed to be as fit as wild males, however, any supermale stocking rate greater than 49% in alpine lakes or 60% in streams achieved eradication in 10 years or less, regardless of the suppression rate. Because manual suppression and the stocking of MYY fingerlings can readily be conducted at the levels assumed in our simulations, use of such an integrated pest management (IPM) approach could extirpate undesirable Brook Trout populations within reasonably short periods of time. Given the recent successful development of an MYY Brook Trout broodstock capable of producing large numbers of MYY fingerlings and given the positive results of the present simulations for both streams and alpine lakes, field testing of MYY stocking is warranted within an

  10. From cluster structures to nuclear molecules: The role of nodal structure of the single-particle wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2018-02-01

    The nodal structure of the density distributions of the single-particle states occupied in rod-shaped, hyper- and megadeformed structures of nonrotating and rotating N ˜Z nuclei has been investigated in detail. The single-particle states with the Nilsson quantum numbers of the [N N 0 ]1 /2 (with N from 0 to 5) and [N ,N -1 ,1 ]Ω (with N from 1 to 3 and Ω =1 /2 , 3/2) types are considered. These states are building blocks of extremely deformed shapes in the nuclei with mass numbers A ≤50 . Because of (near) axial symmetry and large elongation of such structures, the wave functions of the single-particle states occupied are dominated by a single basis state in cylindrical basis. This basis state defines the nodal structure of the single-particle density distribution. The nodal structure of the single-particle density distributions allows us to understand in a relatively simple way the necessary conditions for α clusterization and the suppression of the α clusterization with the increase of mass number. It also explains in a natural way the coexistence of ellipsoidal mean-field-type structures and nuclear molecules at similar excitation energies and the features of particle-hole excitations connecting these two types of the structures. Our analysis of the nodal structure of the single-particle density distributions does not support the existence of quantum liquid phase for the deformations and nuclei under study.

  11. Buoyancy Effects on Flow Structure and Instability of Low-Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasumarthi, Kasyap Sriramachandra

    2004-01-01

    A low-density gas jet injected into a high-density ambient gas is known to exhibit self-excited global oscillations accompanied by large vortical structures interacting with the flow field. The primary objective of the proposed research is to study buoyancy effects on the origin and nature of the flow instability and structure in the near-field of low-density gas jets. Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Linear stability analysis were the techniques employed to scale the buoyancy effects. The formation and evolution of vortices and scalar structure of the flow field are investigated in buoyant helium jets discharged from a vertical tube into quiescent air. Oscillations at identical frequency were observed throughout the flow field. The evolving flow structure is described by helium mole percentage contours during an oscillation cycle. Instantaneous, mean, and RMS concentration profiles are presented to describe interactions of the vortex with the jet flow. Oscillations in a narrow wake region near the jet exit are shown to spread through the jet core near the downstream location of the vortex formation. The effects of jet Richardson number on characteristics of vortex and flow field are investigated and discussed. The laminar, axisymmetric, unsteady jet flow of helium injected into air was simulated using CFD. Global oscillations were observed in the flow field. The computed oscillation frequency agreed qualitatively with the experimentally measured frequency. Contours of helium concentration, vorticity and velocity provided information about the evolution and propagation of vortices in the oscillating flow field. Buoyancy effects on the instability mode were evaluated by rainbow schlieren flow visualization and concentration measurements in the near-field of self-excited helium jets undergoing gravitational change in the microgravity environment of 2.2s drop tower at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center. The jet

  12. Hybrid-exchange density-functional theory study of the electronic structure of MnV2O4 : Exotic orbital ordering in the cubic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The electronic structures of cubic and tetragonal MnV2O4 have been studied using hybrid-exchange density-functional theory. The computed electronic structure of the tetragonal phase shows an antiferro-orbital ordering on V sites and a ferrimagnetic ground state (the spins on V and Mn are antialigned). These results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical result obtained from the local-density approximation + U methods [S. Sarkar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 216405 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.216405]. Moreover, the electronic structure, especially the projected density of states of the cubic phase, has been predicted with good agreement with the recent soft x-ray spectroscopy experiment. Similar to the tetragonal phase, the spins on V and Mn in the cubic structure favor a ferrimagnetic configuration. Most interesting is that the computed charge densities of the spin-carrying orbitals on V in the cubic phase show an exotic orbital ordering, i.e., a ferro-orbital ordering along [110] but an antiferro-orbital ordering along [1 ¯10 ] .

  13. Suppression of the Hall number due to charge density wave order in high-Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Girish; Nandy, S.; Taraphder, A.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the pseudogap phase in hole-doped high-temperature cuprate superconductors remains a central challenge in condensed-matter physics. From a host of recent experiments there is now compelling evidence of translational-symmetry-breaking charge density wave (CDW) order in a wide range of doping inside this phase. Two distinct types of incommensurate charge order, bidirectional at zero or low magnetic fields and unidirectional at high magnetic fields close to the upper critical field Hc 2, have been reported so far in approximately the same doping range between p ≃0.08 and p ≃0.16 . In concurrent developments, recent high-field Hall experiments have also revealed two indirect but striking signatures of Fermi surface reconstruction in the pseudogap phase, namely, a sign change of the Hall coefficient to negative values at low temperatures in the intermediate range of hole doping and a rapid suppression of the positive Hall number without a change in sign near optimal doping p ˜0.19 . We show that the assumption of a unidirectional incommensurate CDW (with or without a coexisting weak bidirectional order) at high magnetic fields near optimal doping and the coexistence of both types of orders of approximately equal magnitude at high magnetic fields in the intermediate range of doping may help explain the striking behavior of the low-temperature Hall effect in the entire pseudogap phase.

  14. The relationships between edge localized modes suppression, pedestal profiles and lithium wall coatings in NSTX

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Boyle, D. P.; Maingi, R.; Snyder, P. B.

    2011-01-01

    Recently in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), increasing lithium wall coatings suppressed edge localized modes (ELMs), gradually but not quite monotonically. This work details profile and stability analysis as ELMs disappeared throughout the lithium scan. While the quantity of lithium deposited between discharges did not uniquely determine the presence of ELMs, profile analysis demonstrated that lithium was correlated with wider density and pressure pedestals with peak gradients farther from the separatrix. Moreover, the ELMy and ELM-free discharges were cleanly separated by their density and pedestal widths and peak gradient locations. Ultimately, ELMs were only suppressed when lithium caused themore » density pedestal to widen and shift inward. These changes in the density gradient were directly reflected in the pressure gradient and calculated bootstrap current. This supports the theory that ELMs in NSTX are caused by peeling and/or ballooning modes, as kink/peeling modes are stabilized when the edge current and pressure gradient shift away from the separatrix. Edge stability analysis using ELITE corroborated this picture, as reconstructed equilibria from ELM-free discharges were generally farther from their kink/peeling stability boundaries than ELMy discharges. We conclude that density profile control provided by lithium is the key first step to ELM suppression in NSTX.« less

  15. The effects of wetland habitat structure on Florida apple snail density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karunaratne, L.B.; Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands often support a variety of juxtaposed habitat patches (e.g., grass-, shrub- or tree-dominated) differentially suited to support the inhabiting fauna. The proportion of available habitat types has been affected by human activity and consequently has contributed to degrading habitat quality for some species. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has drawn attention as a critical prey item for wetlands wildlife and as an indicator of wetlands restoration success in peninsular Florida, USA. An apparent contradiction has evolved wherein this species appears intolerant of drying events, but these disturbances may be necessary to maintain suitable habitat structure for apple snails. We recently reported that assertions regarding intolerance to dry downs in this species were inaccurate. Here, we compared snail density in habitats with (wet prairie) and without (slough) emergent macrophytes, as well as evaluating the effects of structural attributes within the broad wet prairie habitat type. Snail densities were greater in prairies relative to sloughs (??2= 12.90, df=1, P=0.0003), often by a factor of two to three. Within wet prairie habitats, we found greater snail densities in Panicum hemitomon as compared to Eleocharis cellulosa (??2=31.45, df=1, P=0.0001). Significantly fewer snails were found in dense E. cellulosa as compared to habitats with lower stem density (??2= 10.73, df=1, P=0.011). Our results indicate that wet prairie habitat supports greater snail densities than nymphaea-dominatd slough. Our results have implications for wetlands water management in that continuous inundation has been shown to convert wet prairie to slough habitat, and we suggest this should be avoided in support of apple snails and their predators. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Suppression of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Asymmetric Current Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the suppression of asymmetric reconnection in the limit where the diamagnetic drift speed >> Alfven speed and the magnetic shear angle is moderate. We demonstrate that the slippage between electrons and the magnetic flux mitigates the suppression and can even result in fast reconnection that lacks one of the outflow jets. Through comparing a case where the diamagnetic drift is supported by the temperature gradient with a companion case that has a density gradient instead, we identify a robust suppression mechanism. The drift of the x-line is slowed down locally by the asymmetric nature of the x-line, and then the x-line is run over and swallowed by the faster-moving following flux.

  17. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhibing

    2015-12-01

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quasiparticle trapping and the density of states in superconducting proximity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, P. A.; Blamire, M. G.

    1994-08-01

    An experimental study of quasiparticle trapping in epitaxial and polycrystalline Ta films on epitaxial Nb is presented using three-terminal double tunnel junction devices. It is shown that polycrystalline Ta is a more effective trap than epitaxial Ta. The experimentally measured tunneling density of states is used to calculate the inelastic quasiparticle scattering rates in the two types of Ta using the standard theory of Kaplan et a. (1976).The agreement of this calculation with the experimental results shows that the tunneling density of states may be used to determine scattering rates in proximitized superconducting films whose thickness is greater than the coherence length. This result is important since no existing theory satisfactorily describes the density of states in such proximity structures, which are currently being developed for use in high-resolution particle spectrometers.

  19. Effect of land use and soil organic matter quality on the structure and function of microbial communities in pastoral soils: Implications for disease suppression

    PubMed Central

    O’Callaghan, Maureen; Condron, Leo M.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A.

    2018-01-01

    Cropping soils vary in extent of natural suppression of soil-borne plant diseases. However, it is unknown whether similar variation occurs across pastoral agricultural systems. We examined soil microbial community properties known to be associated with disease suppression across 50 pastoral fields varying in management intensity. The composition and abundance of the disease-suppressive community were assessed from both taxonomic and functional perspectives. Pseudomonas bacteria were selected as a general taxonomic indicator of disease suppressive potential, while genes associated with the biosynthesis of a suite of secondary metabolites provided functional markers (GeoChip 5.0 microarray analysis). The composition of both the Pseudomonas communities and disease suppressive functional genes were responsive to land use. Underlying soil properties explained 37% of the variation in Pseudomonas community structure and up to 61% of the variation in the abundance of disease suppressive functional genes. Notably, measures of soil organic matter quality, C:P ratio, and aromaticity of the dissolved organic matter content (carbon recalcitrance), influenced both the taxonomic and functional disease suppressive potential of the pasture soils. Our results suggest that key components of the soil microbial community may be managed on-farm to enhance disease suppression and plant productivity. PMID:29734390

  20. Effect of land use and soil organic matter quality on the structure and function of microbial communities in pastoral soils: Implications for disease suppression.

    PubMed

    Dignam, Bryony E A; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Condron, Leo M; Kowalchuk, George A; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Cropping soils vary in extent of natural suppression of soil-borne plant diseases. However, it is unknown whether similar variation occurs across pastoral agricultural systems. We examined soil microbial community properties known to be associated with disease suppression across 50 pastoral fields varying in management intensity. The composition and abundance of the disease-suppressive community were assessed from both taxonomic and functional perspectives. Pseudomonas bacteria were selected as a general taxonomic indicator of disease suppressive potential, while genes associated with the biosynthesis of a suite of secondary metabolites provided functional markers (GeoChip 5.0 microarray analysis). The composition of both the Pseudomonas communities and disease suppressive functional genes were responsive to land use. Underlying soil properties explained 37% of the variation in Pseudomonas community structure and up to 61% of the variation in the abundance of disease suppressive functional genes. Notably, measures of soil organic matter quality, C:P ratio, and aromaticity of the dissolved organic matter content (carbon recalcitrance), influenced both the taxonomic and functional disease suppressive potential of the pasture soils. Our results suggest that key components of the soil microbial community may be managed on-farm to enhance disease suppression and plant productivity.

  1. Effects of sudden density changes in disordered superconductors and semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assi, Hiba; Chaturvedi, Harshwardhan; Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe

    Vortices in type-II superconductors in the presence of extended, linear defects display the strongly pinned Bose glass phase at low temperatures. This disorder-dominated thermodynamic state is characterized by suppressed lateral flux line fluctuations and very slow structural relaxation kinetics: The vortices migrate between different columnar pinning centers to minimize the mutual repulsive interactions and eventually optimize the system's pinning configuration. To monitor the flux lines' late-time structural relaxations, we employ a mapping between an effectively two-dimensional Bose glass system and a modified Coulomb glass model, originally developed to describe disordered semiconductors at low temperatures. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the effects of the introduction of random bare site energies and sudden changes in the vortex or charge carrier density on the soft Coulomb gap that appears in the density of states due to the emerging spatial anticorrelations. The non-equilibrium relaxation properties of the Bose and Coulomb glass states and the ensuing aging kinetics are studied through the two-time density autocorrelation function and its various scaling forms. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-09ER46613.

  2. A common factor suppresses thickening in young women with malar area port wine stains and delays low density lipoprotein elevation: is it estrogen?

    PubMed

    Klapman, M H; Sosa, V B; Yao, J F

    2014-06-01

    Port wine stains in the malar area of the face can develop thickening in early adult life. We began a study with a hypothesis that this thickening can be associated with elevation of low density lipoprotein. In a retrospective review, we divided 53 subjects with malar port wine stains into 4 groups, adults 25-39 years of age with thickening, that age group without thickening, adults 40+ years of age with thickening, and that age group without thickening. Low density lipoprotein levels in the subjects were compared to age and sex matched controls randomly selected from the general Dermatology clinic. The younger subjects with thickening demonstrated significantly higher low density lipoprotein levels than their controls (p .0082) and without thickening lower low density lipoprotein levels than their controls with great significance (p .00058). The subjects without thickening also consisted mainly of women. The low density lipoprotein levels in the older age groups, whether thickened or not, demonstrated no significant difference in low density lipoprotein levels between subjects and controls. This led to a new hypothesis that there is a factor in a subgroup of young adult women with malar port wine stains that suppresses thickening and delays the elevation of low density lipoprotein and that this factor might be estrogen. The implications of this hypothesis are that it could define a marker for a subset of the population that might be protected from the diseases associated with early elevation of low density lipoprotein and provide a source of cutaneous tissue for studying the basic science of this protection (although limited by cosmetic considerations). Future laboratory research to test the new hypothesis might include testing blood of women with malar port wine stains with or without thickening for estrogen and other sex hormones. It might also include skin biopsies to study receptors for estrogen, other sex hormones, and angiogenic factors in malar port wine

  3. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-06-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins.

  4. Suppression of competing speech through entrainment of cortical oscillations

    PubMed Central

    D'Zmura, Michael; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    People are highly skilled at attending to one speaker in the presence of competitors, but the neural mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. Recent studies have argued that the auditory system enhances the gain of a speech stream relative to competitors by entraining (or “phase-locking”) to the rhythmic structure in its acoustic envelope, thus ensuring that syllables arrive during periods of high neuronal excitability. We hypothesized that such a mechanism could also suppress a competing speech stream by ensuring that syllables arrive during periods of low neuronal excitability. To test this, we analyzed high-density EEG recorded from human adults while they attended to one of two competing, naturalistic speech streams. By calculating the cross-correlation between the EEG channels and the speech envelopes, we found evidence of entrainment to the attended speech's acoustic envelope as well as weaker yet significant entrainment to the unattended speech's envelope. An independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the data revealed sources in the posterior temporal cortices that displayed robust correlations to both the attended and unattended envelopes. Critically, in these components the signs of the correlations when attended were opposite those when unattended, consistent with the hypothesized entrainment-based suppressive mechanism. PMID:23515789

  5. Suppression in high-order above-threshold ionization: destructive interference from quantum orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xuan Yang; Quan, Wei; Yu, Shao Gang; Huang, Yi Yi; Liu, Xiao Jun

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally study the above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of noble gas argon in an intense laser field and focus on a novel suppression structure in the high-order ATI (HATI) spectra. It is found that, when a well-documented resonancelike enhancement feature appears in the HATI spectra, a significant suppression structure is followed in a higher energy region of the spectra. The observation is well reproduced by a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. In terms of quantum-orbit theory, the observed suppression structure can be ascribed to the destructive interference from longer quantum orbits. Furthermore, an intrinsic relation between the ionization suppression and the ionization enhancement in the HATI spectra is well established.

  6. High density lipoproteins improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by suppressing hepatic inflammation[S

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C.; Li, Xiao Hong; Whitworth, Phillippa T.; Kasz, Robert; Tan, Joanne T.; McLennan, Susan V.; Celermajer, David S.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Heather, Alison K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced liver inflammation can drive insulin resistance. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, so we hypothesized that low levels of HDL would perpetuate inflammatory responses in the liver and that HDL treatment would suppress liver inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lipid-free apoAI on hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. We also investigated apoAI as a component of reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) in hepatocytes to confirm results we observed in vivo. To test our hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and administered either saline or lipid-free apoAI. Injections of lipid-free apoAI twice a week for 2 or 4 weeks with lipid-free apoAI resulted in: i) improved insulin sensitivity associated with decreased systemic and hepatic inflammation; ii) suppression of hepatic mRNA expression for key transcriptional regulators of lipogenic gene expression; and iii) suppression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells exposed to rHDLs showed suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, correlating with decreased NF-κB target gene expression. We conclude that apoAI suppresses liver inflammation in HFD mice and improves insulin resistance via a mechanism that involves a downregulation of NF-κB activation. PMID:24347528

  7. Iridescence from photonic crystals and its suppression in butterfly scales

    PubMed Central

    Poladian, Leon; Wickham, Shelley; Lee, Kwan; Large, Maryanne C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Regular three-dimensional periodic structures have been observed in the scales of over half a dozen butterfly species. We compare several of these structures: we calculate their photonic bandgap properties; measure the angular variation of the reflection spectra; and relate the observed iridescence (or its suppression) to the structures. We compare the mechanisms for iridescence suppression in different species and conclude with some speculations about form, function, development and evolution. PMID:18980932

  8. Spatial and Global Sensory Suppression Mapping Encompassing the Central 10° Field in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Li, Jinrong; Chen, Zidong; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Junpeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the efficacy of a novel dichoptic mapping paradigm in evaluating visual function of anisometropic amblyopes. Using standard clinical measures of visual function (visual acuity, stereo acuity, Bagolini lenses, and neutral density filters) and a novel quantitative mapping technique, 26 patients with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age = 19.15 ± 4.42 years) were assessed. Two additional psychophysical interocular suppression measurements were tested with dichoptic global motion coherence and binocular phase combination tasks. Luminance reduction was achieved by placing neutral density filters in front of the normal eye. Our study revealed that suppression changes across the central 10° visual field by mean luminance modulation in amblyopes as well as normal controls. Using simulation and an elimination of interocular suppression, we identified a novel method to effectively reflect the distribution of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia. Additionally, the new quantitative mapping technique was in good agreement with conventional clinical measures, such as interocular acuity difference (P < 0.001) and stereo acuity (P = 0.005). There was a good consistency between the results of interocular suppression with dichoptic mapping paradigm and the results of the other two psychophysical methods (suppression mapping versus binocular phase combination, P < 0.001; suppression mapping versus global motion coherence, P = 0.005). The dichoptic suppression mapping technique is an effective method to represent impaired visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia. It offers a potential in "micro-"antisuppression mapping tests and therapies for amblyopia.

  9. Density functional study of molecular interactions in secondary structures of proteins.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yu; Kusaka, Ayumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play diverse and vital roles in biology, which are dominated by their three-dimensional structures. The three-dimensional structure of a protein determines its functions and chemical properties. Protein secondary structures, including α-helices and β-sheets, are key components of the protein architecture. Molecular interactions, in particular hydrogen bonds, play significant roles in the formation of protein secondary structures. Precise and quantitative estimations of these interactions are required to understand the principles underlying the formation of three-dimensional protein structures. In the present study, we have investigated the molecular interactions in α-helices and β-sheets, using ab initio wave function-based methods, the Hartree-Fock method (HF) and the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), density functional theory, and molecular mechanics. The characteristic interactions essential for forming the secondary structures are discussed quantitatively.

  10. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, p<0.0001), and negatively related to stereoacuity (beta=-0.16, p=0.019). The interocular difference in logMAR acuity was negatively related to stereoacuity (beta=-0.13, p=0.009). Colour rivalry suppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  11. Interplanetary scintillation at large elongation angles: Response to solar wind density structure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Erskine, F.T.; Cronyn, W.M.; Shawhan, S.D.

    1978-09-01

    Synoptic interplanetary scintillation (IPS) index measurements were taken at 34.3 MHz during May-December 1974 using the University of Iowa Coca Cross radiotelescope on a 'grid' of 150 selected radio sources covering solar elongation angles up to 180/sup 0/. Over 80 of these sources displayed definite IPS. The solar elongation dependence of the 34.3-MHz IPS index is consistent with the elongation angle dependence measured at higher frequencies. Large enhancements (factors of> or approx. =2) of the IPS index are found to coincide with the solar wind (proton density increases greater than 10 cm/sup -3/ as measured by Imp 7 and 8more » for nearly all observed IPS sources throughout the sky. These 'all-sky' IPS enhancements appear to be caused by incresed contributions to the scintillation power by turbulent plasma in regions close to the earth (< or approx. =0.3AU) in all directions. Correlation analysis confirms the IPS response to solar wind density and indicates that the events are due primarily to the corotating solar wind turbulent plasma structures which dominated the interplanetary medium during 1974. The expected IPS space-time signature for a simple model of an approaching corotating turbulent structure is not apparent in our observations. In some cases, the enhancement variatons can be attributed to structural differences in the solar wind density turbulence in and out of the ecliptic.« less

  12. Structure, ionic conductivity and mobile carrier density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yao, Wenlong

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M 2S + (0.1 Ga 2S 3 + 0.9 GeS 2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass formingmore » range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga 2S 3 + 0.9 GeS 2 was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M 2S + (0.1Ga 2S 3 + 0.9 GeS 2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na 2S + B 2S 3 (x ≤ 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Similar results were obtained both in neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments. The results provide direct structural

  13. Effects of release from suppression on wood functional characteristics in young Douglas-fir and western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    H.J. Renninger; B.L. Gartner; F.C. Meinzer

    2006-01-01

    We assessed differences in growth-ring width, specific conductivity (Ks), tracheid dimensions, moisture content, and wood density in suppressed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) trees and trees released from suppression. Growth-ring width was 370 percent...

  14. Using multi-ring structure for suppression of mode competition in stable single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2017-12-01

    In this demonstration, a stable and tunable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with multiple-ring configuration is proposed and investigated. The proposed compound-ring structure can create different free spectrum ranges (FSRs) to result in the mode-filter effect based on the Vernier effect for suppressing the other modes. Additionally, the output stabilization of power and wavelength in the proposed EDF multiple-ring laser are also discussed.

  15. Density functional studies of the defect-induced electronic structure modifications in bilayer boronitrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukpong, A. M.; Chetty, N.

    2012-05-01

    The van der Waals interaction-corrected density functional theory is used in this study to investigate the formation, energetic stability, and inter-layer cohesion in bilayer hexagonal boronitrene. The effect of inter-layer separation on the electronic structure is systematically investigated. The formation and energetic stability of intrinsic defects are also investigated at the equilibrium inter-layer separation. It is found that nonstoichiometric defects, and their complexes, that induce excess nitrogen or excess boron, in each case, are relatively more stable in the atmosphere that corresponds to the excess atomic species. The modifications of the electronic structure due to formation of complexes are also investigated. It is shown that van der Waals density functional theory gives an improved description of the cohesive properties but not the electronic structure in bilayer boronitrene compared to other functionals. We identify energetically favourable topological defects that retain the energy gap in the electronic structure, and discuss their implications for band gap engineering in low-n layer boronitrene insulators. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the functionals in predicting the properties of bilayer boronitrene are also discussed.

  16. Density functional theory determination of structural and electronic properties of struvite.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Zbigniew; Kempisty, Paweł; Prywer, Jolanta; Krukowski, Stanisław; Torzewska, Agnieszka

    2010-07-29

    Crystallographic structure, total energy, electronic structure, and the most important elastic properties of struvite, NH(4)MgPO(4).6H(2)O, the main component of infectious urinary stones, are presented. The calculations were performed using ab initio full-electron calculations within the density functional theory-generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA) framework. The obtained crystallographic symmetry and the calculated lattice parameters and also the elastic constants are in good agreement with the experimental data. The elastic properties are essential for establishing an optimal response of urinary stones during shock-wave lithotripsy. The calculated electronic charge distribution confirms the layered structure of the struvite crystals. The polar character of the crystal, well-known from crystal growth experiments, was also confirmed by the magnitude of spontaneous polarization which was obtained from direct determination of the electrical dipole density. The calculated value of spontaneous polarization is equal to -8.8 microC cm(-2). This feature may play a key role in struvite crystallization, electrically binding the charged active impurities and other active species, and consequently determining urinary stone formation. We also present the results of our own experiment of the mineralization of struvite induced to growth by Proteus bacteria which are mainly isolated from infectious urinary stones.

  17. Using ring width correlations to study the effects of plantation density on wood density and anatomical properties of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; C. T. Scott; K. L. Scallon; G. C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrated that average ring width (or average annual radial growth rate) is a reliable parameter to quantify the effects of tree plantation ndensity (growth suppression) on wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. The average ring width successfully correlated wood density and tracheid anatomical properties of red pines (Pinus resinosa Ait.) from...

  18. Suppressing explosive synchronization by contrarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiyun; Guan, Shuguang; Zou, Yong; Chen, Xiaosong; Liu, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Explosive synchronization (ES) has recently received increasing attention and studies have mainly focused on the conditions of its onset so far. However, its inverse problem, i.e. the suppression of ES, has not been systematically studied so far. As ES is usually considered to be harmful in certain circumstances such as the cascading failure of power grids and epileptic seizure, etc., its suppression is definitely important and deserves to be studied. We here study this inverse problem by presenting an efficient approach to suppress ES from a first-order to second-order transition, without changing the intrinsic network structure. We find that ES can be suppressed by only changing a small fraction of oscillators into contrarians with negative couplings and the critical fraction for the transition from the first order to the second order increases with both the network size and the average degree. A brief theory is presented to explain the underlying mechanism. This finding underlines the importance of our method to improve the understanding of neural interactions underlying cognitive processes.

  19. Auditory cortex stimulation to suppress tinnitus: mechanisms and strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Brain stimulation is an important method used to modulate neural activity and suppress tinnitus. Several auditory and non-auditory brain regions have been targeted for stimulation. This paper reviews recent progress on auditory cortex (AC) stimulation to suppress tinnitus and its underlying neural mechanisms and stimulation strategies. At the same time, the author provides his opinions and hypotheses on both animal and human models. The author also proposes a medial geniculate body (MGB)-thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN)-Gating mechanism to reflect tinnitus-related neural information coming from upstream and downstream projection structures. The upstream structures include the lower auditory brainstem and midbrain structures. The downstream structures include the AC and certain limbic centers. Both upstream and downstream information is involved in a dynamic gating mechanism in the MGB together with the TRN. When abnormal gating occurs at the thalamic level, the spilled-out information interacts with the AC to generate tinnitus. The tinnitus signals at the MGB-TRN-Gating may be modulated by different forms of stimulations including brain stimulation. Each stimulation acts as a gain modulator to control the level of tinnitus signals at the MGB-TRN-Gate. This hypothesis may explain why different types of stimulation can induce tinnitus suppression. Depending on the tinnitus etiology, MGB-TRN-Gating may be different in levels and dynamics, which cause variability in tinnitus suppression induced by different gain controllers. This may explain why the induced suppression of tinnitus by one type of stimulation varies across individual patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Suppressive Shields Structural Design and Analysis Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-18

    of this disturbance to steepen as it passes through the air until it exhibits nearly discontinuous increases in pressure, density, and temperature ...sure. density, and temperature of the reflected wave are all in- creased above the values in the incident wave. The ove-nressure at the wall surface...limiting thickness of concrete at which per- foration will occur can be obtained from Fig. 3-18 and is a function of the coefficient C1, the fragment weight

  1. Structural, Electronic and Dynamical Properties of Curium Monopnictides: Density Functional Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roondhe, Basant; Upadhyay, Deepak; Som, Narayan; Pillai, Sharad B.; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of CmX (X = N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) compounds are studied using first principles calculations within density functional theory. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof spin polarized generalized gradient approximation and Perdew-Wang (PW) spin polarized local density approximation as the exchange correlational functionals are used in these calculations. There is a good agreement between the present and previously reported data. The calculated electronic density of states suggests that the curium monopnictides are metallic in nature, which is consistent with earlier studies. The significant values of magnetic moment suggest their magnetic nature. The phonon dispersion curves and phonon density of states are also calculated, which depict the dynamical stability of these compounds. There is a significant separation between the optical and acoustical phonon branches. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamical functions are also calculated and discussed. Internal energy and vibrational contribution to the Helmholtz free energy increases and decreases, respectively, with temperature. The entropy increases with temperature. The specific heat at constant volume and Debye temperature obey Debye theory. The temperature variation of the considered thermodynamical functions is in line with those of other crystalline solids.

  2. Mast cells mediate the immune suppression induced by dermal exposure to JP-8 jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Limón-Flores, Alberto Y; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; Ramos, Gerardo; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2009-11-01

    Applying jet propulsion-8 (JP-8) jet fuel to the skin of mice induces immune suppression. Applying JP-8 to the skin of mice suppresses T-cell-mediated immune reactions including, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) delayed-type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. Because dermal mast cells play an important immune regulatory role in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells mediate jet fuel-induced immune suppression. When we applied JP-8 to the skin of mast cell deficient mice CHS was not suppressed. Reconstituting mast cell deficient mice with wild-type bone marrow derived mast cells (mast cell "knock-in mice") restored JP-8-induced immune suppression. When, however, mast cells from prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-deficient mice were used, the ability of JP-8 to suppress CHS was not restored, indicating that mast cell-derived PGE(2) was activating immune suppression. Examining the density of mast cells in the skin and lymph nodes of JP-8-treated mice indicated that jet fuel treatment caused an initial increase in mast cell density in the skin, followed by increased numbers of mast cells in the subcutaneous space and then in draining lymph nodes. Applying JP-8 to the skin increased mast cell expression of CXCR4, and increased the expression of CXCL12 by draining lymph node cells. Because CXCL12 is a chemoattractant for CXCR4+ mast cells, we treated JP-8-treated mice with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist. AMD3100 blocked the mobilization of mast cells to the draining lymph node and inhibited JP-8-induced immune suppression. Our findings demonstrate the importance of mast cells in mediating jet fuel-induced immune suppression.

  3. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  4. Various background pattern-effect on saccadic suppression.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, L; Radil-Weiss, T; Yakimoff, N; Mateeff, S; Bozkov, V

    1975-09-01

    It has been proved that the saccadic suppression is a phenomenon closely related to the presence of contours and structures in the visual field. Experiments were performed to clarify whether the structured background influences the pattern of attention distribution (making the stimulus detection more difficult) or whether the elevation of visual threshold is due to the "masking' effect of the moving background image over the retina. Two types of backgrounds were used therefore: those with symbolic meaning in the processing of which "psychological' mechanisms are presumably involved like picture reproductions of famous painters and photographs of nudes, and those lacking semantic significance like computer figures composed of randomly distributed black and white squares with different grain expressed as the entropy of the pattern. The results show that saccadic suppression is primarily a consequence of peripheral mechanisms, probably of lateral inhibition in the visual field occurring in the presence of moving edges over the retina. Psychological factors have to be excluded as being fundamental for saccadic suppression.

  5. Bone Density and Cortical Structure after Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, Anniek M.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Foster, Bethany J.; Strife, C. Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of renal transplantation on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure is unknown. We obtained quantitative computed tomography scans of the tibia in pediatric renal transplant recipients at transplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months; 58 recipients completed at least two visits. We used more than 700 reference participants to generate Z-scores for trabecular BMD, cortical BMD, section modulus (a summary measure of cortical dimensions and strength), and muscle and fat area. At baseline, compared with reference participants, renal transplant recipients had significantly lower mean section modulus and muscle area; trabecular BMD was significantly greater than reference participants only in transplant recipients younger than 13 years. After transplantation, trabecular BMD decreased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure. Cortical BMD increased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure and greater decreases in parathyroid hormone levels. Muscle and fat area both increased significantly, but section modulus did not improve. At 12 months, transplantation associated with significantly lower section modulus and greater fat area compared with reference participants. Muscle area and cortical BMD did not differ significantly between transplant recipients and reference participants. Trabecular BMD was no longer significantly elevated in younger recipients and was low in older recipients. Pediatric renal transplant associated with persistent deficits in section modulus, despite recovery of muscle, and low trabecular BMD in older recipients. Future studies should determine the implications of these data on fracture risk and identify strategies to improve bone density and structure. PMID:22282589

  6. Suppression of pyritic sulphur during flotation tests using the bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Townsley, C C; Atkins, A S; Davis, A J

    1987-07-01

    Environmental concern about sulphur dioxide emissions has led to the examination of the possibility of removing pyritic sulphur from coal prior to combustion during froth flotation, a routine method for coal cleaning at the pit-head. The bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was effective in leaching 80% and 63% -53 mum pyrite at 2% and 6% pulp density in shake flasks in 240 and 340 h, respectively.The natural floatability of pyrite was significantly reduced in the Hallimond tube following 2.5 min of conditioning in membrane-filtered bacterial liquor prior to flotation. The suppression effect was greatly enhanced in the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. A bacterial suspension in pH 2.0 distilled water showed 85% suppression, whereas in spent growth liquor this value was 95%. The optimum bacterial density was 3.25 x 10(10) cells/g pyrite in 230-ml distilled water (2% pulp density) in the Hallimond tube. The degree of suppression by the cells was related to particle size but not to pH or temperature. The sulphur content of a synthetic coal/pyrite mixture was reduced from 10.9 to 2.1% by flotation after bacterial preconditioning. It is postulated that pyrite removal in coals which are cleaned by froth flotation could be significantly reduced using a bacterial preconditioning stage with a short residence time of 2.5 min.

  7. Spatial arrangements affect suppression of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides by native Hemarthria compressa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianxiong; Tao, Min; Jiang, Mingxi

    2014-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that differences in spatial arrangements change the relative frequency of intra- and interspecific encounters between plant species. Manipulating spatial arrangement may play a role in invasive plant suppression when native species are used as competitors against introduced species. In this study, a replacement series experiment was performed to investigate the effects of intraspecifically random and aggregated spatial arrangements on interactions between the native plant Hemarthria compressa and the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides, to test the possibility and effectiveness of H. compressa in suppressing A. philoxeroides. When both species were planted in intraspecifically random spatial patterns, H. compressa had a competitive advantage over A. philoxeroides at relative densities of 2:2 and 3:1. However, aggregation increased the strength, and therefore the cost, of intraspecific competition in H. compressa, resulting in lower biomass production, which reduced its effectiveness as an interspecific competitor. As the relative density of H. compressa in mixtures decreased, plants allocated more biomass to belowground parts, but fewer interspecific encounters lowered its inhibitory effects on A. philoxeroides. The results not only confirm that the frequency of conspecific and heterospecific encounters can influence competitive outcomes, but also suggest that a reduction in the degree of spatial aggregation in H. compressa and an increase in its relative densities may be essential to increase the suppression of A. philoxeroides.

  8. Measurements of localized core turbulence & turbulence suppression on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Morgan W.

    The crucial dynamics of turbulent-driven cross-field transport in tokamak plasmas reside in the two-dimensional (2D) radial/poloidal plane. Thus, 2D measurements of turbulence are needed to test theoretical models and validate sophisticated gyrokinetic codes. Furthermore, measurements are important for understanding the role of turbulence suppression in enhanced confinement regimes. The Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak measures localized, long-wavelength (k⊥rho i≤1) density fluctuations in the 2D radial/poloidal plane and is suitable for these studies. Measurements of turbulence amplitude, S(kr,k theta) spectra, correlation lengths, decorrelation rates and group velocities are obtained via BES in the core (0.3< r/a <0.9) and compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations from the GYRO code. The 2D measurements show a tilted eddy structure in the core that is consistent with ExB shear. The S(kr,ktheta) spectra are directly compared to GYRO simulations. These comparisons show the 2D structure is in reasonable agreement at r/a = 0.5 where the predicted turbulence amplitude and heat flux agree well with the measurements. However, the simulations show a strongly tilted eddy structure that extends to high-kr at r/a = 0.75, where the simulations under-predict the turbulence amplitude and heat flux. This is not observed in the experiment and suggests a possible over-exaggeration of an ExB or zonal flow shearing mechanism in the simulations. Measurements demonstrate local turbulence suppression near low-order rational q-surfaces at low magnetic shear. This interaction can lead to an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) provided sufficient equilibrium ExB shear (largely due to the toroidal rotation of neutral beam heated rotating plasmas) sustains the barrier. Related GYRO simulations suggest these ITBs are triggered by zonal flows that form near the q = 2 surface. Consistent with the simulations, localized measurements demonstrate increased

  9. Magnetic charges suppress effects of anisotropy in polycrystalline soft ferromagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrott, Anthony S.; Williams, Conrad M.; Negusse, Ezana

    2018-05-01

    Micromagnetic simulations of polycrystalline iron washers show that grain boundary charges, ρ = -div M, suppress bad effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. A single domain wall divides the washer into two domains with opposite magnetization; M is almost = ± Ms ϕ, where ϕ circulates about the hole in the washer. There is a ripple structure. M tilts back and forth toward the inner and outer surfaces. Magnetic charge densities, σm = n.M, on the surfaces keep M at the surfaces very close to lying in the surfaces. The exchange ɛx and magnetostatic ɛd energy densities try to keep M parallel to the surfaces throughout the washer, except at the domain wall. An anisotropy energy in each grain is reduced linearly in the angle of rotation away from the circulating pattern towards the nearest anisotropy axis. Both ɛx and ɛd near grain boundaries increase as the square of these angles. Anisotropy wins for small rotations. However, the coefficients of the positive quadratic terms are so much larger than the coefficients of the negative linear terms that the rotations are quite small. If the height of the washer is sufficiently greater than 300 nm, M in the washer no longer acts as it would in a thin film. If 300 nm washers are stacked with a spacing of 4 nm, the ripple structure is not lost. The stacked washers can then be used as the core of a transformer. The most remarkable effect is that starting with M = Ms ϕ everywhere, the reversal of M by the field from a current along the z-axis produces a single domain wall. It is stable even in zero field because the wall has Néel caps that act as springs against the surfaces. The suppression of crystalline anisotropy in polycrystalline iron also occurs for geometries other than the toroid; some might be better for creating transformers.

  10. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  11. Molecular structure and charge density analysis of p-methoxybenzoic acid (anisic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausto, R.; Matos-Beja, A.; Paixão, J. A.

    1997-12-01

    A concerted X-ray and ab initio SCF-MO study of the structure and charge density of p-methoxybenzoic acid (anisic acid) is reported. An extensive X-ray data set (7401 reflections) was measured on a single crystal using Mo K α radiation and the structure refined with 2121 unique reflections, leading to a final R( F)-factor of 0.047 calculated for reflections with I>2 σ. The molecular geometry of crystalline anisic acid, where the molecules dimerize via a moderately strong CO-H⋯O hydrogen bond, is compared with that of the isolated molecule, resulting from SCF-MO ab initio calculations. A topological analysis of the molecular charge density was performed using Bader's method to gain insight into the dominant intra- and intermolecular interactions in this compound. In particular, the effects of the substituents on the observed distortions of the benzene ring were investigated as well as the internal rotation of the methyl group.

  12. Fine Structures of Solar Radio Type III Bursts and Their Possible Relationship with Coronal Density Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingyao; Kontar, Eduard P.; Yu, Sijie; Yan, Yihua; Huang, Jing; Tan, Baolin

    2018-03-01

    Solar radio type III bursts are believed to be the most sensitive signatures of near-relativistic electron beam propagation in the corona. A solar radio type IIIb-III pair burst with fine frequency structures, observed by the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) with high temporal (∼10 ms) and spectral (12.5 kHz) resolutions at 30–80 MHz, is presented. The observations show that the type III burst consists of many striae, which have a frequency scale of about 0.1 MHz in both the fundamental (plasma) and the harmonic (double plasma) emission. We investigate the effects of background density fluctuations based on the observation of striae structure to estimate the density perturbation in the solar corona. It is found that the spectral index of the density fluctuation spectrum is about ‑1.7, and the characteristic spatial scale of the density perturbation is around 700 km. This spectral index is very close to a Kolmogorov turbulence spectral index of ‑5/3, consistent with a turbulent cascade. This fact indicates that the coronal turbulence may play the important role of modulating the time structures of solar radio type III bursts, and the fine structure of radio type III bursts could provide a useful and unique tool to diagnose the turbulence in the solar corona.

  13. From Structural Complexity to Structure-Property Relationships in Intermetallics: Development of Density Functional Theory-Chemical Pressure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelkemier, Joshua

    The unparalleled structural diversity of intermetallic compounds provides nearly unlimited potential for the discovery and optimization of materials with useful properties, such as thermoelectricity, superconductivity, magnetism, hydrogen storage, superelasticity, and catalysis. This same diversity, however, creates challenges for understanding and controlling the unpredictable structure of intermetallic phases. Moreover, the fundamental design principles that have proven so powerful in molecular chemistry do not have simple analogues for metallic, solid state materials. One of these basic principles is the concept of atomic size effects. Especially in densely packed crystal structures where the need to fill space is in competition with the atoms' preferences for ideal interatomic distances, substitution of one element in a compound for another with similar chemical properties yet different atomic size can have dramatic effects on the ordering of the atoms (which in turn affects the electronic structure, vibrational properties, and materials properties). But because the forces that hold metallic phases together are less easily understood from a local perspective than covalent or ionic interactions in other kinds of materials, it is usually unclear whether the atoms are organized to optimize stabilizing, bonding interactions or rather forced to be close together despite repulsive, steric interactions. This dissertation details the development of a theoretical method, called Density Functional Theory-Chemical Pressure (DFT-CP) analysis, to address this issue. It works by converting the distribution of total energy density from a DFT calculation into a map of chemical pressure through a numerical approximation of the first derivative of energy with respect to voxel volume. The CP distribution is then carefully divided into contact volumes between neighboring atoms, from which it is possible to determine whether atoms are too close together (positive CP) or too far

  14. Mast Cells Mediate the Immune Suppression Induced by Dermal Exposure to JP-8 Jet Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Limón-Flores, Alberto Y.; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; Ramos, Gerardo; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Applying jet propulsion-8 (JP-8) jet fuel to the skin of mice induces immune suppression. Applying JP-8 to the skin of mice suppresses T-cell–mediated immune reactions including, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) delayed-type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. Because dermal mast cells play an important immune regulatory role in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells mediate jet fuel–induced immune suppression. When we applied JP-8 to the skin of mast cell deficient mice CHS was not suppressed. Reconstituting mast cell deficient mice with wild-type bone marrow derived mast cells (mast cell “knock-in mice”) restored JP-8–induced immune suppression. When, however, mast cells from prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–deficient mice were used, the ability of JP-8 to suppress CHS was not restored, indicating that mast cell–derived PGE2 was activating immune suppression. Examining the density of mast cells in the skin and lymph nodes of JP-8-treated mice indicated that jet fuel treatment caused an initial increase in mast cell density in the skin, followed by increased numbers of mast cells in the subcutaneous space and then in draining lymph nodes. Applying JP-8 to the skin increased mast cell expression of CXCR4, and increased the expression of CXCL12 by draining lymph node cells. Because CXCL12 is a chemoattractant for CXCR4+ mast cells, we treated JP-8-treated mice with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist. AMD3100 blocked the mobilization of mast cells to the draining lymph node and inhibited JP-8–induced immune suppression. Our findings demonstrate the importance of mast cells in mediating jet fuel–induced immune suppression. PMID:19726579

  15. Assessing the efficiency of Wolbachia driven Aedes mosquito suppression by delay differential equations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mugen; Luo, Jiaowan; Hu, Linchao; Zheng, Bo; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-12-14

    To suppress wild population of Aedes mosquitoes, the primary transmission vector of life-threatening diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Zika, an innovative strategy is to release male mosquitoes carrying the bacterium Wolbachia into natural areas to drive female sterility by cytoplasmic incompatibility. We develop a model of delay differential equations, incorporating the strong density restriction in the larval stage, to assess the delicate impact of life table parameters on suppression efficiency. Through mathematical analysis, we find the sufficient and necessary condition for global stability of the complete suppression state. This condition, combined with the experimental data for Aedes albopictus population in Guangzhou, helps us predict a large range of releasing intensities for suppression success. In particular, we find that if the number of released infected males is no less than four times the number of mosquitoes in wild areas, then the mosquito density in the peak season can be reduced by 95%. We introduce an index to quantify the dependence of suppression efficiency on parameters. The invariance of some quantitative properties of the index values under various perturbations of the same parameter justifies the applicability of this index, and the robustness of our modeling approach. The index yields a ranking of the sensitivity of all parameters, among which the adult mortality has the highest sensitivity and is considerably more sensitive than the natural larvae mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffuse optical tomography with structured-light patterns to quantify breast density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Zheng, Jie; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-02-01

    Breast density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer, where women with denser breasts are more likely to develop cancer. By identifying women at higher risk, healthcare providers can suggest screening at a younger age to effectively diagnose and treat breast cancer in its earlier stages. Clinical risk assessment models currently do not incorporate breast density, despite its strong correlation with breast cancer. Current methods to measure breast density rely on mammography and MRI, both of which may be difficult to use as a routine risk assessment tool. We propose to use diffuse optical tomography with structured-light to measure the dense, fibroglandular (FGT) tissue volume, which has a different chromophore signature than the surrounding adipose tissue. To test the ability of this technique, we performed simulations by creating numerical breast phantoms from segmented breast MR images. We looked at two different cases, one with a centralized FGT distribution and one with a dispersed distribution. As expected, the water and lipid volumes segmented at half-maximum were overestimated for the dispersed case. However, it was noticed that the recovered water and lipid concentrations were lower and higher, respectively, than the centralized case. This information may provide insight into the morphological distribution of the FGT and can be a correction in estimating the breast density.

  17. Estimating stand structure using discrete-return lidar: an example from low density, fire prone ponderosa pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, S. A.; Burke, I.C.; Box, D. O.; Kaufmann, M. R.; Stoker, Jason M.

    2005-01-01

    The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA, have historically been subjected to wildfires. Recent large burns have increased public interest in fire behavior and effects, and scientific interest in the carbon consequences of wildfires. Remote sensing techniques can provide spatially explicit estimates of stand structural characteristics. Some of these characteristics can be used as inputs to fire behavior models, increasing our understanding of the effect of fuels on fire behavior. Others provide estimates of carbon stocks, allowing us to quantify the carbon consequences of fire. Our objective was to use discrete-return lidar to estimate such variables, including stand height, total aboveground biomass, foliage biomass, basal area, tree density, canopy base height and canopy bulk density. We developed 39 metrics from the lidar data, and used them in limited combinations in regression models, which we fit to field estimates of the stand structural variables. We used an information–theoretic approach to select the best model for each variable, and to select the subset of lidar metrics with most predictive potential. Observed versus predicted values of stand structure variables were highly correlated, with r2 ranging from 57% to 87%. The most parsimonious linear models for the biomass structure variables, based on a restricted dataset, explained between 35% and 58% of the observed variability. Our results provide us with useful estimates of stand height, total aboveground biomass, foliage biomass and basal area. There is promise for using this sensor to estimate tree density, canopy base height and canopy bulk density, though more research is needed to generate robust relationships. We selected 14 lidar metrics that showed the most potential as predictors of stand structure. We suggest that the focus of future lidar studies should broaden to include low density forests, particularly systems where the vertical structure of the canopy is important

  18. Analysis of population structure and genetic history of cattle breeds based on high-density SNP data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advances in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping microarrays have facilitated a new understanding of population structure and evolutionary history for several species. Most existing studies in livestock were based on low density SNP arrays. The first wave of low density SNP studies on cat...

  19. Suppressing magnetic island growth by resonant magnetic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the growth of magnetic islands is investigated based on two-fluid equations. It is found that if the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity at the resonant surface is sufficiently large, static RMPs of the same helicity and of moderate amplitude can suppress the growth of magnetic islands in high-temperature plasmas. These islands will otherwise grow, driven by an unfavorable plasma current density profile and bootstrap current perturbation. These results indicate that the error field can stabilize island growth, if the error field amplitude is not too large and the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity is not too low. They also indicate that applied rotating RMPs with an appropriate frequency can be utilized to suppress island growth in high-temperature plasmas, even for a low bi-normal electron fluid velocity. A significant change in the local equilibrium plasma current density gradient by small amplitude RMPs is found for realistic plasma parameters, which are important for the island stability and are expected to be more important for fusion reactors with low plasma resistivity.

  20. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Matanovic, Ivana; Kent, Paul; Garzon, Fernando

    2013-03-14

    We used density functional theory to study the difference in the structure, stability and catalytic reactivity between ultrathin, 0.5–1.0 nm diameter, platinum nanotubes and nanowires. Model nanowires were formed by inserting an inner chain of platinum atoms in small diameter nanotubes. In this way more stable, non-hollow structures were formed. The difference in the electronic structure of platinum nanotubes and nanowires was examined by inspecting the density of surface states and band structure. Furthermore, reactivity toward the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum nanowires was assessed by studying the change in the chemisorption energies of oxygen, hydroxyl, and hydroperoxyl groups, inducedmore » by converting the nanotube models to nanowires. Both ultrathin platinum nanotubes and nanowires show distinct properties compared to bulk platinum. Single-wall nanotubes and platinum nanowires with diameters larger than 1 nm show promise for use as oxygen reduction catalysts.« less

  1. The impact of stellar feedback on the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisdale, Kearn; Agertz, Oscar; Romeo, Alessandro B.; Renaud, Florent; Read, Justin I.

    2017-04-01

    We study the impact of stellar feedback in shaping the density and velocity structure of neutral hydrogen (H I) in disc galaxies. For our analysis, we carry out ˜4.6 pc resolution N-body+adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies, set up to mimic a Milky Way and a Large and Small Magellanic Cloud. We quantify the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium using power spectra and compare the simulated galaxies to observed H I in local spiral galaxies from THINGS (The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey). Our models with stellar feedback give an excellent match to the observed THINGS H I density power spectra. We find that kinetic energy power spectra in feedback-regulated galaxies, regardless of galaxy mass and size, show scalings in excellent agreement with supersonic turbulence (E(k) ∝ k-2) on scales below the thickness of the H I layer. We show that feedback influences the gas density field, and drives gas turbulence, up to large (kpc) scales. This is in stark contrast to density fields generated by large-scale gravity-only driven turbulence. We conclude that the neutral gas content of galaxies carries signatures of stellar feedback on all scales.

  2. Suppression of electron temperature gradient turbulence via negative magnetic shear in NSTX.

    PubMed

    Yuh, H Y; Kaye, S M; Levinton, F M; Mazzucato, E; Mikkelsen, D R; Smith, D R; Bell, R E; Hosea, J C; LeBlanc, B P; Peterson, J L; Park, H K; Lee, W

    2011-02-04

    Negative magnetic shear is found to suppress electron turbulence and improve electron thermal transport for plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Sufficiently negative magnetic shear results in a transition out of a stiff profile regime. Density fluctuation measurements from high-k microwave scattering are verified to be the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode by matching measured rest frequency and linear growth rate to gyrokinetic calculations. Fluctuation suppression under negligible E×B shear conditions confirm that negative magnetic shear alone is sufficient for ETG suppression. Measured electron temperature gradients can significantly exceed ETG critical gradients with ETG mode activity reduced to intermittent bursts, while electron thermal diffusivity improves to below 0.1 electron gyro-Bohms.

  3. Structural validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) in a sample of the general Spanish population.

    PubMed

    González Rodríguez, Manuel; Avero Delgado, Pedro; Rovella, Anna Teresa; Cubas León, Rosario

    2008-11-01

    This paper introduces the validation of the Spanish adaptation of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) by Wegner and Zanakos (1994). A sample of 833 people from the general population completed the WBSI along with other questionnaires. The exploratory factor analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution accounting for 51.8% of the cumulative variance. This structure is comprised of the two following factors: unwanted intrusive thoughts (alpha = .87, r = .70) and actions of distraction and suppression of thoughts (alpha = .80, r = .60). Both internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89) and test-retest reliability (r = .71) showed adequate homogeneity, sound consistency, and stability over time. The results are discussed bearing in mind both isolated factors and the possible relationships of the suppression factor with automatic negative thoughts and insomnia.

  4. Dosimetric impact of a CT metal artefact suppression algorithm for proton, electron and photon therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jikun; Sandison, George A.; Hsi, Wen-Chien; Ringor, Michael; Lu, Xiaoyi

    2006-10-01

    Accurate dose calculation is essential to precision radiation treatment planning and this accuracy depends upon anatomic and tissue electron density information. Modern treatment planning inhomogeneity corrections use x-ray CT images and calibrated scales of tissue CT number to electron density to provide this information. The presence of metal in the volume scanned by an x-ray CT scanner causes metal induced image artefacts that influence CT numbers and thereby introduce errors in the radiation dose distribution calculated. This paper investigates the dosimetric improvement achieved by a previously proposed x-ray CT metal artefact suppression technique when the suppressed images of a patient with bilateral hip prostheses are used in commercial treatment planning systems for proton, electron or photon therapies. For all these beam types, this clinical image and treatment planning study reveals that the target may be severely underdosed if a metal artefact-contaminated image is used for dose calculations instead of the artefact suppressed one. Of the three beam types studied, the metal artefact suppression is most important for proton therapy dose calculations, intermediate for electron therapy and least important for x-ray therapy but still significant. The study of a water phantom having a metal rod simulating a hip prosthesis indicates that CT numbers generated after image processing for metal artefact suppression are accurate and thus dose calculations based on the metal artefact suppressed images will be of high fidelity.

  5. Superheating Suppresses Structural Disorder in Layered BiI3 Semiconductors Grown by the Bridgman Method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In the work presented here, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate this structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals; thus the technique was here explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient tomore » the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, x-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.« less

  6. Improving energy conversion efficiency for triboelectric nanogenerator with capacitor structure by maximizing surface charge density.

    PubMed

    He, Xianming; Guo, Hengyu; Yue, Xule; Gao, Jun; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-02-07

    Nanogenerators with capacitor structures based on piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, triboelectricity and electrostatic induction have been extensively investigated. Although the electron flow on electrodes is well understood, the maximum efficiency-dependent structure design is not clearly known. In this paper, a clear understanding of triboelectric generators with capacitor structures is presented by the investigation of polydimethylsiloxane-based composite film nanogenerators, indicating that the generator, in fact, acts as both an energy storage and output device. Maximum energy storage and output depend on the maximum charge density on the dielectric polymer surface, which is determined by the capacitance of the device. The effective thickness of polydimethylsiloxane can be greatly reduced by mixing a suitable amount of conductive nanoparticles into the polymer, through which the charge density on the polymer surface can be greatly increased. This finding can be applied to all the triboelectric nanogenerators with capacitor structures, and it provides an important guide to the structural design for nanogenerators. It is demonstrated that graphite particles with sizes of 20-40 nm and 3.0% mass mixed into the polydimethylsiloxane can reduce 34.68% of the effective thickness of the dielectric film and increase the surface charges by 111.27% on the dielectric film. The output power density of the triboelectric nanogenerator with the composite polydimethylsiloxane film is 3.7 W m(-2), which is 2.6 times as much as that of the pure polydimethylsiloxane film.

  7. Fire Suppression Properties of Very Fine Water Mist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    with the University of Heidelberg, developed an in situ oxygen sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy ( TDLAS ) to provide absolute... oxygen number densities in the presence of mist.3 Th e TDLAS oxygen sensor provides real-time, calibra- tion-free, quantitative oxygen ...Determination of Molecular Oxygen Concentrations in Full-Scale Fire Suppression Tests Using TDLAS ,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 353-360 (2002).

  8. Periodic Density Structures and the Origin of the Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viall-Kepko, Nicholeen M.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The source of the slow solar wind has challenged scientists for years. Periodic density structures (PDSs), observed regularly in the solar wind at 1 AU (Astronomical Unit), can be used to address this challenge. These structures have length scales of hundreds to several thousands of megameters and frequencies of tens to hundreds of minutes. Two lines of evidence indicate that PDSs are formed in the solar corona as part of the slow solar wind release and/or acceleration processes. The first is corresponding changes in compositional data in situ, and the second is PDSs observed in the inner Heliospheric Imaging data on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite. The periodic nature of these density structures is both a useful identifier as well as an important physical constraint on their origin. In this paper, we present the results of tracking periodic structures identified in the inner Heliospheric Imager in SECCHI back in time through the corresponding outer coronagraph (COR2) images. We demonstrate that the PDSs are formed around or below 2.5 solar radii-the inner edge of the COR2 field of view. We compute the occurrence rates of PDSs in 10 days of COR2 images both as a function of their periodicity and location in the solar corona, and we find that this set of PDSs occurs preferentially with a periodicity of approximately 90 minutes and occurs near streamers. Lastly, we show that their acceleration and expansion through COR2 is self-similar, thus their frequency is constant at distances beyond 2.5 solar radii.

  9. Active vibration suppression of self-excited structures using an adaptive LMS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danda Roy, Indranil

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the feasibility of an adaptive feedforward controller for active flutter suppression in representative linear wing models. The ability of the controller to suppress limit-cycle oscillations in wing models having root springs with freeplay nonlinearities has also been studied. For the purposes of numerical simulation, mathematical models of a rigid and a flexible wing structure have been developed. The rigid wing model is represented by a simple three-degree-of-freedom airfoil while the flexible wing is modelled by a multi-degree-of-freedom finite element representation with beam elements for bending and rod elements for torsion. Control action is provided by one or more flaps attached to the trailing edge and extending along the entire wing span for the rigid model and a fraction of the wing span for the flexible model. Both two-dimensional quasi-steady aerodynamics and time-domain unsteady aerodynamics have been used to generate the airforces in the wing models. An adaptive feedforward controller has been designed based on the filtered-X Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm. The control configuration for the rigid wing model is single-input single-output (SISO) while both SISO and multi-input multi-output (MIMO) configurations have been applied on the flexible wing model. The controller includes an on-line adaptive system identification scheme which provides the LMS controller with a reasonably accurate model of the plant. This enables the adaptive controller to track time-varying parameters in the plant and provide effective control. The wing models in closed-loop exhibit highly damped responses at airspeeds where the open-loop responses are destructive. Simulations with the rigid and the flexible wing models in a time-varying airstream show a 63% and 53% increase, respectively, over their corresponding open-loop flutter airspeeds. The ability of the LMS controller to suppress wing store flutter in the two models has

  10. Topological entanglement Rényi entropy and reduced density matrix structure.

    PubMed

    Flammia, Steven T; Hamma, Alioscia; Hughes, Taylor L; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-12-31

    We generalize the topological entanglement entropy to a family of topological Rényi entropies parametrized by a parameter alpha, in an attempt to find new invariants for distinguishing topologically ordered phases. We show that, surprisingly, all topological Rényi entropies are the same, independent of alpha for all nonchiral topological phases. This independence shows that topologically ordered ground-state wave functions have reduced density matrices with a certain simple structure, and no additional universal information can be extracted from the entanglement spectrum.

  11. Topological Entanglement Rényi Entropy and Reduced Density Matrix Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flammia, Steven T.; Hamma, Alioscia; Hughes, Taylor L.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-12-01

    We generalize the topological entanglement entropy to a family of topological Rényi entropies parametrized by a parameter α, in an attempt to find new invariants for distinguishing topologically ordered phases. We show that, surprisingly, all topological Rényi entropies are the same, independent of α for all nonchiral topological phases. This independence shows that topologically ordered ground-state wave functions have reduced density matrices with a certain simple structure, and no additional universal information can be extracted from the entanglement spectrum.

  12. Topics in QCD at Nonzero Temperature and Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangeni, Kamal

    fundamental four dimensional field theory turns out to be complex but CK symmetric. The existence of CK symmetry results in complex mass eigenvalues, which in turn leads to damped oscillatory behavior of the density-density correlation function. In the last part of this thesis, we study the effect of large amplitude density oscillations on the transport properties of superfluid nuclear matter. In nuclear matter at neutron-star densities and temperature, Cooper pairing leads to the formations of a gap in the nucleon excitation spectra resulting in exponentially strong Boltzmann suppression of many transport coefficients. Previous calculations have shown evidence that density oscillations of sufficiently large amplitude can overcome this suppression for flavor-changing beta processes via the mechanism of "gap-bridging". We address the simplifications made in that initial work, and show that gap bridging can counteract Boltzmann suppression of neutrino emissivity for the realistic case of modified Urca processes in matter with 3 P2 neutron pairing.

  13. Fabrication of a high-density nano-porous structure on polyimide by using ultraviolet laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Won; Jeong, Myung Yung; Lee, Sang-Mae; Shin, Bo Sung

    2016-03-01

    A new approach for fabricating a high-density nano-porous structure on polyimide (PI) by using a 355-nm UV laser is presented here. When PI was irradiated by using a laser, debris that had electrical conductivity was generated. Accordingly, that debris caused electrical defects in the field of electronics. Thus, many researchers have tried to focus on a clean processing without debris. However, this study focused on forming a high density of debris so as to fabricate a nano-porous structure consisting of nanofibers on the PI film. A PI film with closed pores and open pores was successfully formed by using a chemical blowing agent (azodicarbonamide, CBA) in an oven. Samples were precured at 130 °C and cured at 205 °C in sequence so that the closed pores might not coalesce in the film. When the laser irradiated the PI film with closed pores, nanofibers were generated because polyimide was not completely decomposed by photochemical ablation. Our results indicated that a film with micro-closed pores, in conjunction with a 355-nm pulsed laser, can facilitate the fabrication of a high-density nano-porous structure.

  14. Vinculin in subsarcolemmal densities in chicken skeletal muscle: localization and relationship to intracellular and extracellular structures.

    PubMed

    Shear, C R; Bloch, R J

    1985-07-01

    Using immunocytochemical methods we have studied the distribution of vinculin in the anterior and posterior latissimus dorsi skeletal (ALD and PLD, respectively) muscles of the adult chicken. The ALD muscle is made up of both tonic (85%) and twitch (15%) myofibers, and the PLD muscle is made up entirely of twitch myofibers. In indirect immunofluorescence, antivinculin antibodies stained specific regions adjacent to the sarcolemma of the ALD and PLD muscles. In the central and myotendinous regions of the ALD, staining of the tonic fibers was intense all around the fiber periphery. Staining of the twitch fibers of both ALD and PLD muscles was intense only at neuromuscular junctions and myotendinous regions. Electron microscopy revealed subsarcolemmal, electron-dense plaques associated with the membrane only in those regions where vinculin was localized by immunofluorescence. Using antivinculin antibody and protein A conjugated to colloidal gold, we found that the electron-dense subsarcolemmal densities in the tonic fibers of the ALD contain vinculin; no other structures were labeled. The basal lamina overlying the densities appeared to be connected to the sarcolemma by fine, filamentous structures, more enriched at these sites than elsewhere along the muscle fiber. Increased amounts of endomysial connective tissue were often found just outside the basal lamina near the densities. In tonic ALD muscle fibers, the subsarcolemmal densities were present preferentially over the I-bands. In partially contracted ALD muscle, subsarcolemmal densities adjacent to the Z-disk appeared to be connected to that structure by short filaments. We propose that in the ALD muscle, through their association with the extracellular matrix, the densities stabilize the muscle membrane and perhaps assist in force transmission.

  15. Determination of the structures of small gold clusters on stepped magnesia by density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Damianos, Konstantina; Ferrando, Riccardo

    2012-02-21

    The structural modifications of small supported gold clusters caused by realistic surface defects (steps) in the MgO(001) support are investigated by computational methods. The most stable gold cluster structures on a stepped MgO(001) surface are searched for in the size range up to 24 Au atoms, and locally optimized by density-functional calculations. Several structural motifs are found within energy differences of 1 eV: inclined leaflets, arched leaflets, pyramidal hollow cages and compact structures. We show that the interaction with the step clearly modifies the structures with respect to adsorption on the flat defect-free surface. We find that leaflet structures clearly dominate for smaller sizes. These leaflets are either inclined and quasi-horizontal, or arched, at variance with the case of the flat surface in which vertical leaflets prevail. With increasing cluster size pyramidal hollow cages begin to compete against leaflet structures. Cage structures become more and more favourable as size increases. The only exception is size 20, at which the tetrahedron is found as the most stable isomer. This tetrahedron is however quite distorted. The comparison of two different exchange-correlation functionals (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and local density approximation) show the same qualitative trends. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. Large-scale Density Structures in Magneto-rotational Disk Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youdin, Andrew; Johansen, A.; Klahr, H.

    2009-01-01

    Turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is a strong candidate to drive accretion flows in disks, including sufficiently ionized regions of protoplanetary disks. The MRI is often studied in local shearing boxes, which model a small section of the disk at high resolution. I will present simulations of large, stratified shearing boxes which extend up to 10 gas scale-heights across. These simulations are a useful bridge to fully global disk simulations. We find that MRI turbulence produces large-scale, axisymmetric density perturbations . These structures are part of a zonal flow --- analogous to the banded flow in Jupiter's atmosphere --- which survives in near geostrophic balance for tens of orbits. The launching mechanism is large-scale magnetic tension generated by an inverse cascade. We demonstrate the robustness of these results by careful study of various box sizes, grid resolutions, and microscopic diffusion parameterizations. These gas structures can trap solid material (in the form of large dust or ice particles) with important implications for planet formation. Resolved disk images at mm-wavelengths (e.g. from ALMA) will verify or constrain the existence of these structures.

  17. Pair-density waves, charge-density waves, and vortices in high-Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhehao; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Senthil, T.; Lee, Patrick A.

    2018-05-01

    A recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment reports the observation of a charge-density wave (CDW) with a period of approximately 8a in the halo region surrounding the vortex core, in striking contrast to the approximately 4a period CDWs that are commonly observed in the cuprates. Inspired by this work, we study a model where a bidirectional pair-density wave (PDW) with period 8 is at play. This further divides into two classes: (1) where the PDW is a competing state of the d -wave superconductor and can exist only near the vortex core where the d -wave order is suppressed and (2) where the PDW is the primary order, the so-called "mother state" that persists with strong phase fluctuations to high temperature and high magnetic field and lies behind the pseudogap phenomenology. We study the charge-density wave structures near the vortex core in these models. We emphasize the importance of the phase winding of the d -wave order parameter. The PDW can be pinned by the vortex core due to this winding and become static. Furthermore, the period-8 CDW inherits the properties of this winding, which gives rise to a special feature of the Fourier transform peak, namely, it is split in certain directions. There is also a line of zeros in the inverse Fourier transform of filtered data. We propose that these are key experimental signatures that can distinguish between the PDW-driven scenario from the more mundane option that the period-8 CDW is primary. We discuss the pro's and con's of the options considered above. Finally, we attempt to place the STM experiment in the broader context of pseudogap physics of underdoped cuprates and relate this observation to the unusual properties of x-ray scattering data on CDW carried out to very high magnetic field.

  18. Hypergravity suppresses bone resorption in ovariectomized rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Tesshu; Kawaguchi, Amu; Okabe, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamichi, Yuko; Nakamura, Midori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

    2011-04-01

    The effects of gravity on bone metabolism are unclear, and little has been reported about the effects of hypergravity on the mature skeleton. Since low gravity has been shown to decrease bone volume, we hypothesized that hypergravity increases bone volume. To clarify this hypothesis, adult female rats were ovariectomized and exposed to hypergravity (2.9G) using a centrifugation system. The rats were killed 28 days after the start of loading, and the distal femoral metaphysis of the rats was studied. Bone architecture was assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone mineral density was measured using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). Hypergravity increased the trabecular bone volume of ovariectomized rats. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that hypergravity suppressed both bone formation and resorption and increased bone volume in ovariectomized rats. Further, the cell morphology, activity, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts exposed to hypergravity were evaluated in vitro. Hypergravity inhibited actin ring formation in mature osteoclasts, which suggested that the osteoclast activity was suppressed. However, hypergravity had no effect on osteoblasts. These results suggest that hypergravity can stimulate an increase in bone volume by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

  19. Pain-Related Suppression of Beta Oscillations Facilitates Voluntary Movement

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gaurav; Ofori, Edward; Chung, Jae Woo; Coombes, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Increased beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex are antikinetic. Motor- and pain-related processes separately suppress beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex leading to the prediction that ongoing pain should facilitate movement. In the current study, we used a paradigm in which voluntary movements were executed during an ongoing pain-eliciting stimulus to test the hypothesis that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations would facilitate the initiation of a subsequent voluntary movement. Using kinematic measures, electromyography, and high-density electroencephalography, we demonstrate that ongoing pain leads to shorter reaction times without affecting the kinematics or accuracy of movement. Reaction time was positively correlated with beta power prior to movement in contralateral premotor areas. Our findings corroborate the view that beta-band oscillations are antikinetic and provide new evidence that pain primes the motor system for action. Our observations provide the first evidence that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations over contralateral premotor areas leads to shorter reaction times for voluntary movement. PMID:26965905

  20. Three-dimensional printing and deformation behavior of low-density target structures by two-photon polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Stein, Ori; Campbell, John H.; Jiang, Lijia; Petta, Nicole; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP), a 3D nano to microscale additive manufacturing process, is being used for the first time to fabricate small custom experimental packages ("targets") to support laser-driven high-energy-density (HED) physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print low-density, low atomic-number (CHO) polymer matrices ("foams") at millimeter scale with sub-micrometer resolution. Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial photo-resins; here we compare use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. The mechanical strength of polymeric beam and foam structures is examined particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage in the two resins in quantified by printing sample structures and by use of FEA to simulate the deformation. Capillary drying forces are shown to be small and likely below the elastic limit of the core foam structure. In contrast the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip ( 5-10%) cause large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation particularly near constrained boundaries such as the substrate and locations with sharp density variation. The inherent weakness of stitching boundaries is also evident and in certain cases can lead to delamination. Use of IP-S shows marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of print resolution

  1. Ginger Treatment Ameliorates Alcohol-induced Myocardial Damage by Suppression of Hyperlipidemia and Cardiac Biomarkers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Ganjikunta Venkata; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Shanmugam, Bhasha; Ravi, Sahukari; Taj, Patan Usnan; Reddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia is positively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. Several herbal extracts have been reported to protect the cardiac injury and suppress the hyperlipidemia. However, the effect of ginger extracts on alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia and associated myocardial damage remains unclear. This study investigated the cardio-protective properties of ginger ethanolic extract (Gt) against alcohol-induced myocardial damage, and further distinguished the association between hyperlipidemia and occurrence of myocardial damage in rats. Twenty four Wistar male albino rats (250 ± 20 g) were divided into four groups including, Normal control (NC) (0.9% NaCl), Ginger treated (Gt) (200 mg/Kg b.w.), Alcohol treated (At) (20% of 6g/kg b.w. alcohol), and Alcohol along with Ginger treatment (At+Gt). In this study, lipid profiles such as fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoproteins, and cardiac biomarkers, including LDH, AST, CK-MB, cTn-T and cTn-I were examined in rats. Furthermore, histopathological studies were also conducted. We found that alcohol-induced myocardial damage was associated with increased lipid profile except high density lipoprotein in alcohol treated (20%, 6g/kg b.w.) rats compared with control. Ginger treatment significantly reduced the alcohol-induced lipid profiles except high density lipoproteins. Furthermore, elevated cardiac biomarkers activity with alcohol intoxication was substantially suppressed by ginger treatment. In addition, ginger treatment for 7-weeks significantly minimized the alcohol-induced myocardial damage. Our results concluded that ginger could protect alcohol-induced myocardial damage by suppression of hyperlipidemia and cardiac biomarkers. Ginger extract could alleviate the myocardial injury partially due to the suppression of circulating FFAs and TG levels.Increased circulating cholesterol, LDL and phospholipids with alcohol intake were

  2. A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.

  3. Partially suppressed shot noise in hopping conduction: observation in SiGe quantum wells

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov; Mendez; Zuo; Snider; Croke

    2000-07-10

    We have observed shot noise in the hopping conduction of two-dimensional carriers confined in a p-type SiGe quantum well at a temperature of 4 K. Moreover, shot noise is suppressed relative to its "classical" value 2eI by an amount that depends on the length of the sample and the carrier density. We have found a suppression factor to the classical value of about one-half for a 2 &mgr;m long sample, and of one-fifth for a 5 &mgr;m sample. In each case, the factor decreased slightly as the density increased toward the insulator-metal transition. We explain these results in terms of the characteristic length ( approximately 1 &mgr;m in our case) of the inherent inhomogeneity of hopping transport, obtained from percolation theory.

  4. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

  5. Suppression of the Rayleigh Taylor instability and its implication for the impact ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, H.; Shiraga, H.; Nakai, M.; Shigemori, K.; Fujioka, S.; Sakaiya, T.; Tamari, Y.; Ohtani, K.; Murakami, M.; Sunahara, A.; Nagatomo, H.; Nishihara, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Izawa, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability with material ablation through an unstable interface is the key physics that determines the success or failure of inertial fusion energy (IFE) generation, as the RT instability potentially quenches ignition and burn by disintegrating the IFE target. We present two suppression schemes of the RT growth without significant degradation of the target density. The first scheme is to generate a double ablation structure in high-Z doped plastic targets. In addition to the electron ablation surface, a new ablation surface is created by x-ray radiation from the high-Z ions. Contrary to the previous thought, the electron ablation surface is almost completely stabilized by extremely high flow velocity. On the other hand, the RT instability on the radiative ablation surface is significantly moderated. The second is to enhance the nonlocal nature of the electron heat transport by illuminating the target with long wavelength laser light, whereas the high ablation pressure is generated by irradiating with short wavelength laser light. The significant suppression of the RT instability may increase the possibility of impact ignition which uses a high-velocity fuel colliding with a preformed main fuel.

  6. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Suppresses Expression of Prostaglandin E Receptor Subtype EP3 in Human THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuxia; Liu, Yanmin; Li, Qi; Liu, Gefei; Song, Xuhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chang, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yingbi; Liang, Bin; Huang, Dongyang

    2014-01-01

    EP3, one of four prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors, is significantly lower in atherosclerotic plaques than in normal arteries and is localized predominantly in macrophages of the plaque shoulder region. However, mechanisms behind this EP3 expression pattern are still unknown. We investigated the underlying mechanism of EP3 expression in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) treatment. We found that oxLDL decreased EP3 expression, in a dose-dependent manner, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, oxLDL inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent transcription of the EP3 gene by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed decreased binding of NF-κB to the EP3 promoter with oxLDL and PPAR-γ agonist treatment. Our results show that oxLDL suppresses EP3 expression by activation of PPAR-γ and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB in macrophages. These results suggest that down-regulation of EP3 expression by oxLDL is associated with impairment of EP3-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, and that EP3 receptor activity may exert a beneficial effect on atherosclerosis. PMID:25333975

  7. UNFOLD-SENSE: a parallel MRI method with self-calibration and artifact suppression.

    PubMed

    Madore, Bruno

    2004-08-01

    This work aims at improving the performance of parallel imaging by using it with our "unaliasing by Fourier-encoding the overlaps in the temporal dimension" (UNFOLD) temporal strategy. A self-calibration method called "self, hybrid referencing with UNFOLD and GRAPPA" (SHRUG) is presented. SHRUG combines the UNFOLD-based sensitivity mapping strategy introduced in the TSENSE method by Kellman et al. (5), with the strategy introduced in the GRAPPA method by Griswold et al. (10). SHRUG merges the two approaches to alleviate their respective limitations, and provides fast self-calibration at any given acceleration factor. UNFOLD-SENSE further includes an UNFOLD artifact suppression scheme to significantly suppress artifacts and amplified noise produced by parallel imaging. This suppression scheme, which was published previously (4), is related to another method that was presented independently as part of TSENSE. While the two are equivalent at accelerations < or = 2.0, the present approach is shown here to be significantly superior at accelerations > 2.0, with up to double the artifact suppression at high accelerations. Furthermore, a slight modification of Cartesian SENSE is introduced, which allows departures from purely Cartesian sampling grids. This technique, termed variable-density SENSE (vdSENSE), allows the variable-density data required by SHRUG to be reconstructed with the simplicity and fast processing of Cartesian SENSE. UNFOLD-SENSE is given by the combination of SHRUG for sensitivity mapping, vdSENSE for reconstruction, and UNFOLD for artifact/amplified noise suppression. The method was implemented, with online reconstruction, on both an SSFP and a myocardium-perfusion sequence. The results from six patients scanned with UNFOLD-SENSE are presented.

  8. The effect of structural complexity, prey density, and "predator-free space" on prey survivorship at created oyster reef mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, Austin T.; La Peyre, Megan K.; Decossas, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and “predator-free space” to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of “predator-free space” was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require “predator-free space” measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of “predator-free space” are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats.

  9. Gold-film coating assisted femtosecond laser fabrication of large-area, uniform periodic surface structures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pin; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xin; Rong, Wenlong; Zhang, Kaihu; Cao, Qiang

    2015-02-20

    A simple, repeatable approach is proposed to fabricate large-area, uniform periodic surface structures by a femtosecond laser. 20 nm gold films are coated on semiconductor surfaces on which large-area, uniform structures are fabricated. In the case study of silicon, cross-links and broken structures of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) are significantly reduced on Au-coated silicon. The good consistency between the scanning lines facilitates the formation of large-area, uniform LIPSSs. The diffusion of hot electrons in the Au films increases the interfacial carrier densities, which significantly enhances interfacial electron-phonon coupling. High and uniform electron density suppresses the influence of defects on the silicon and further makes the coupling field more uniform and thus reduces the impact of laser energy fluctuations, which homogenizes and stabilizes large-area LIPSSs.

  10. Plasma Density Effects on Toroidal Flow Stabilization of Edge Localized Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shikui; Zhu, Ping; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2016-10-01

    Recent EAST experiments have demonstrated mitigation and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) with toroidal rotation flow in higher collisionality regime, suggesting potential roles of plasma density. In this work, the effects of plasma density on the toroidal flow stabilization of the high- n edge localized modes have been extensively studied in linear calculations for a circular-shaped limiter H-mode tokamak, using the initial-value extended MHD code NIMROD. In the single MHD model, toroidal flow has a weak stabilizing effects on the high- n modes. Such a stabilization, however, can be significantly enhanced with the increase in plasma density. Furthermore, our calculations show that the enhanced stabilization of high- n modes from toroidal flow with higher edge plasma density persists in the 2-fluid MHD model. These findings may explain the ELM mitigation and suppression by toroidal rotation in higher collisionality regime due to the enhancement of plasma density obtained in EAST experiment. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China under Grant Nos. 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program and the President International Fellowship Initiative of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. The topology of the Coulomb potential density. A comparison with the electron density, the virial energy density, and the Ehrenfest force density.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lizé-Mari; Eaby, Alan; Dillen, Jan

    2017-12-15

    The topology of the Coulomb potential density has been studied within the context of the theory of Atoms in Molecules and has been compared with the topologies of the electron density, the virial energy density and the Ehrenfest force density. The Coulomb potential density is found to be mainly structurally homeomorphic with the electron density. The Coulomb potential density reproduces the non-nuclear attractor which is observed experimentally in the molecular graph of the electron density of a Mg dimer, thus, for the first time ever providing an alternative and energetic foundation for the existence of this critical point. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Analysis of shot noise suppression for electron beams

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ratner, Daniel; Huang, Zhirong; Stupakov, Gennady

    2011-06-24

    Shot noise can affect the performance of free-electron lasers (FELs) by driving instabilities (e.g., the microbunching instability) or by competing with seeded density modulations. Recent papers have proposed suppressing shot noise to enhance FEL performance. In this paper we use a onedimensional (1D) model to calculate the noise amplification from an energy modulation (e.g., electron interactions from space charge or undulator radiation) followed by a dispersive section. We show that, for a broad class of interactions, selecting the correct dispersive strength suppresses shot noise across a wide range of frequencies. The final noise level depends on the beam’s energy spreadmore » and the properties of the interaction potential. As a result, we confirm and illustrate our analytical results with 1D simulations.« less

  13. Analysis of Shot Noise Suppression for Electron Beams

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ratner, Daniel; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Huang, Zhirong

    2012-05-07

    Shot noise can affect the performance of free-electron lasers (FELs) by driving instabilities (e.g., the microbunching instability) or by competing with seeded density modulations. Recent papers have proposed suppressing shot noise to enhance FEL performance. In this paper we use a one-dimensional (1D) model to calculate the noise amplification from an energy modulation (e.g., electron interactions from space charge or undulator radiation) followed by a dispersive section. We show that, for a broad class of interactions, selecting the correct dispersive strength suppresses shot noise across a wide range of frequencies. The final noise level depends on the beam's energy spreadmore » and the properties of the interaction potential. We confirm and illustrate our analytical results with 1D simulations.« less

  14. Occurrence of the dayside three-peak density structure in the F2 and the topside ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, Elvira; Zakharenkova, Irina; Pineau, Yann

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we discuss the occurrence of the dayside three-peak electron density structure in the ionosphere. We first use a set of ground-based and satellite-borne instruments to demonstrate the development of a large-amplitude electron density perturbation at the recovery phase of a moderate storm of 11 October 2008. The perturbation developed in the F2 and low topside ionospheric regions over the American sector; it was concentrated on the north from the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) but was clearly separated from it. At the F2 region height, the amplitude of the observed perturbation was comparable or even exceeded that of the EIA. Further analysis of the observational data together with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics model simulation results showed that a particular local combination of the thermospheric wind surges provided favorable conditions for the generation of the three-peak EIA structure. We further proceed with a statistical study of occurrence of the three-peak density structure in the ionosphere in general. Based on the analysis of 7 years of the in situ data from CHAMP satellite, we found that such three-peak density structure occurs sufficiently often during geomagnetically quiet time. The third ionization peak develops in the afternoon hours in the summer hemisphere at solstice periods. Based on analysis of several quiet time events, we conclude that during geomagnetically quiet time, the prevailing summer-to-winter thermospheric circulation acts in similar manner as the storm-time enhanced thermospheric winds, playing the decisive role in generation of the third ionization peak in the daytime ionosphere.

  15. Vibration isolation/suppression: research experience for undergraduates in mechatronics and smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, James; Rao, Vittal S.; Sana, Sridhar

    2001-08-01

    This paper provides an account of a student research project conducted under the sponsoring of the National Science Foundation (NSF) program on Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) in Mechatronics and Smart Strictures in the summer of 2000. The objective of the research is to design and test a stand-alone controller for a vibration isolation/suppression system. The design specification for the control system is to suppress the vibrations induced by the external disturbances by at least fiver times and hence to achieve vibration isolation. Piezo-electric sensors and actuators are utilized for suppression of unwanted vibrations. Various steps such as modeling of the system, controller design, simulation, closed-loop testing using d- Space rapid prototyping system, and analog control implementation are discussed in the paper. Procedures for data collection, the trade-offs carried out in the design, and analog controller implementation issues are also presented in the paper. The performances of various controllers are compared. The experiences of an undergraduate student are summarized in the conclusion of the paper.

  16. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Density structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaban, M.K.; Mooney, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate a density model of the lithosphere of the southwestern United States through an integrated analysis of gravity, seismic refraction, drill hole, and geological data. Deviations from the average upper mantle density are as much as ?? 3%. A comparison with tomographic images of seismic velocities indicates that a substantial part (>50%) of these density variations is due to changes in composition rather than temperature. Pronounced mass deficits are found in the upper mantle under the Basin and Range Province and the northern part of the California Coast Ranges and adjacent ocean. The density structure of the northern and central/southern Sierra Nevada is remarkably different. The central/southern part is anomalous and is characterized by a relatively light crust underlain by a higher-density upper mantle that may be associated with a cold, stalled subducted plate. High densities are also determined within the uppermost mantle beneath the central Transverse Ranges and adjoining continental slope. The average density of the crystalline crust under the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada is estimated to be up to 200 kg m~3 higher than the regional average, consistent with tectonic models for the obduction of oceanic crust and uppermost mantle in this region.

  18. Increased electron temperature turbulence during suppression of edge localized mode by resonant magnetic perturbations in the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, C.; Wang, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Smith, S. P.; Osborne, T. H.; Ono, M.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Groebner, R. J.; Davis, E. M.; Zeng, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Evans, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    The first observation of increased electron temperature turbulence during edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is presented. These are long wavelength fluctuations (kθρs ≤ 0.2, where kθ = poloidal wavenumber and ρs = ion sound gyroradius) observed during H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D. This increase occurs only after ELMs are suppressed and are not observed during the initial RMP application. The T˜ e/Te increases ( >60%) are coincident with changes in normalized density and electron temperature gradients in the region from the top of the pedestal outward to the upper portion of the steep edge gradient. Density turbulence (kθρs ≤ 0.4) in this location was also observed to increase only after ELM suppression. These results are significant since they indicate that increased gradient-driven turbulent transport is one possible mechanism to regulate and maintain ELM-free H-mode operation. Investigation of linear stability of drift wave instabilities using the CGYRO code [Candy et al., J. Comput. Phys. 324, 73 (2016)] shows that the dominant mode moves closer to the electron mode branch from the ion mode branch only after ELMs are suppressed, correlated with the increased turbulence. The increased turbulence during ELM suppression, rather than with the initial RMP application, indicates that the often observed RMP induced "density pump-out" cannot be attributed to long wavelength edge turbulence level changes.

  19. Fatal Attraction? Intraguild Facilitation and Suppression among Predators.

    PubMed

    Sivy, Kelly J; Pozzanghera, Casey B; Grace, James B; Prugh, Laura R

    2017-11-01

    Competition and suppression are recognized as dominant forces that structure predator communities. Facilitation via carrion provisioning, however, is a ubiquitous interaction among predators that could offset the strength of suppression. Understanding the relative importance of these positive and negative interactions is necessary to anticipate community-wide responses to apex predator declines and recoveries worldwide. Using state-sponsored wolf (Canis lupus) control in Alaska as a quasi experiment, we conducted snow track surveys of apex, meso-, and small predators to test for evidence of carnivore cascades (e.g., mesopredator release). We analyzed survey data using an integrative occupancy and structural equation modeling framework to quantify the strengths of hypothesized interaction pathways, and we evaluated fine-scale spatiotemporal responses of nonapex predators to wolf activity clusters identified from radio-collar data. Contrary to the carnivore cascade hypothesis, both meso- and small predator occupancy patterns indicated guild-wide, negative responses of nonapex predators to wolf abundance variations at the landscape scale. At the local scale, however, we observed a near guild-wide, positive response of nonapex predators to localized wolf activity. Local-scale association with apex predators due to scavenging could lead to landscape patterns of mesopredator suppression, suggesting a key link between occupancy patterns and the structure of predator communities at different spatial scales.

  20. Fatal attraction? Intraguild facilitation and suppression among predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Pozzanghera, Casey B.; Grace, James B.; Prugh, Laura R.

    2017-01-01

    Competition and suppression are recognized as dominant forces that structure predator communities. Facilitation via carrion provisioning, however, is a ubiquitous interaction among predators that could offset the strength of suppression. Understanding the relative importance of these positive and negative interactions is necessary to anticipate community-wide responses to apex predator declines and recoveries worldwide. Using state-sponsored wolf (Canis lupus) control in Alaska as a quasi experiment, we conducted snow track surveys of apex, meso-, and small predators to test for evidence of carnivore cascades (e.g., mesopredator release). We analyzed survey data using an integrative occupancy and structural equation modeling framework to quantify the strengths of hypothesized interaction pathways, and we evaluated fine-scale spatiotemporal responses of nonapex predators to wolf activity clusters identified from radio-collar data. Contrary to the carnivore cascade hypothesis, both meso- and small predator occupancy patterns indicated guild-wide, negative responses of nonapex predators to wolf abundance variations at the landscape scale. At the local scale, however, we observed a near guild-wide, positive response of nonapex predators to localized wolf activity. Local-scale association with apex predators due to scavenging could lead to landscape patterns of mesopredator suppression, suggesting a key link between occupancy patterns and the structure of predator communities at different spatial scales.

  1. Suppressing hillock formation in Si-supported pure Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. Z.; Liu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    To suppress the hillock formation and hence improve the service performance of pure Al thin films deposited on Si substrate, dependence of hillock formation on film thickness and annealing temperature was systematically investigated. Experimental results revealed that the hillock volume increased linearly with both the film thickness and annealing temperature. While the evolution of hillock density with film thickness was complicated, strongly depending on the annealing temperature. It was evident that the hillock formation could be effectively suppressed at a critical annealing temperature especially in thinner thickness, similar to the previous findings in Mo/glass-supported pure Al films. These experimental evidences clearly demonstrated that the hillock formation should be controlled by the plastic deformation in the surrounding film, which was further rationalized by a micromechanics model.

  2. Superfluid Density of Neutrons in the Inner Crust of Neutron Stars: New Life for Pulsar Glitch Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Pethick, C. J.

    2017-08-01

    Calculations of the effects of band structure on the neutron superfluid density in the crust of neutron stars made under the assumption that the effects of pairing are small [N. Chamel, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035801 (2012)] lead to moments of inertia of superfluid neutrons so small that the crust alone is insufficient to account for the magnitude of neutron star glitches. Inspired by earlier work on ultracold atomic gases in an optical lattice, we investigate fermions with attractive interactions in a periodic lattice in the mean-field approximation. The effects of band structure are suppressed when the pairing gap is of order or greater than the strength of the lattice potential. By applying the results to the inner crust of neutron stars, we conclude that the reduction of the neutron superfluid density is considerably less than previously estimated and, consequently, it is premature to rule out models of glitches based on neutron superfluidity in the crust.

  3. Superfluid Density of Neutrons in the Inner Crust of Neutron Stars: New Life for Pulsar Glitch Models.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Pethick, C J

    2017-08-11

    Calculations of the effects of band structure on the neutron superfluid density in the crust of neutron stars made under the assumption that the effects of pairing are small [N. Chamel, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035801 (2012)PRVCAN0556-2813] lead to moments of inertia of superfluid neutrons so small that the crust alone is insufficient to account for the magnitude of neutron star glitches. Inspired by earlier work on ultracold atomic gases in an optical lattice, we investigate fermions with attractive interactions in a periodic lattice in the mean-field approximation. The effects of band structure are suppressed when the pairing gap is of order or greater than the strength of the lattice potential. By applying the results to the inner crust of neutron stars, we conclude that the reduction of the neutron superfluid density is considerably less than previously estimated and, consequently, it is premature to rule out models of glitches based on neutron superfluidity in the crust.

  4. NASA Instep/mdmsc Jitter Suppression Experiment (JITTER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Edward V.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives are the following: (1) to develop and demonstrate in-space performance of both passive and active damping systems for suppression of micro-amplitude vibration on an actual application structure and operate despite uncertain dynamics and uncertain disturbance characteristics; and (2) to correlate ground and in-space performance - the performance metric is vibration attenuation. The goals are to achieve vibration suppression equivalent to 5 percent passive damping in selected models and 15 percent active damping in selected modes. Various aspects of this experiment are presented in viewgraph form.

  5. High density liquid structure enhancement in glass forming aqueous solution of LiCl.

    PubMed

    Camisasca, G; De Marzio, M; Rovere, M; Gallo, P

    2018-06-14

    We investigate using molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical and structural properties of LiCl:6H 2 O aqueous solution upon supercooling. This ionic solution is a glass forming liquid of relevant interest in connection with the study of the anomalies of supercooled water. The LiCl:6H 2 O solution is easily supercooled and the liquid state can be maintained over a large decreasing temperature range. We performed simulations from ambient to 200 K in order to investigate how the presence of the salt modifies the behavior of supercooled water. The study of the relaxation time of the self-density correlation function shows that the system follows the prediction of the mode coupling theory and behaves like a fragile liquid in all the range explored. The analysis of the changes in the water structure induced by the salt shows that while the salt preserves the water hydrogen bonds in the system, it strongly affects the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network. Following the interpretation of the anomalies of water in terms of a two-state model, the modifications of the oxygen radial distribution function and the angular distribution function of the hydrogen bonds in water indicate that LiCl has the role of enhancing the high density liquid component of water with respect to the low density component. This is in agreement with recent experiments on aqueous ionic solutions.

  6. High density liquid structure enhancement in glass forming aqueous solution of LiCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisasca, G.; De Marzio, M.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate using molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical and structural properties of LiCl:6H2O aqueous solution upon supercooling. This ionic solution is a glass forming liquid of relevant interest in connection with the study of the anomalies of supercooled water. The LiCl:6H2O solution is easily supercooled and the liquid state can be maintained over a large decreasing temperature range. We performed simulations from ambient to 200 K in order to investigate how the presence of the salt modifies the behavior of supercooled water. The study of the relaxation time of the self-density correlation function shows that the system follows the prediction of the mode coupling theory and behaves like a fragile liquid in all the range explored. The analysis of the changes in the water structure induced by the salt shows that while the salt preserves the water hydrogen bonds in the system, it strongly affects the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network. Following the interpretation of the anomalies of water in terms of a two-state model, the modifications of the oxygen radial distribution function and the angular distribution function of the hydrogen bonds in water indicate that LiCl has the role of enhancing the high density liquid component of water with respect to the low density component. This is in agreement with recent experiments on aqueous ionic solutions.

  7. Failure of Fixation Suppression of Spontaneous Nystagmus in Cerebellar Infarction: Frequency, Pattern, and a Possible Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the frequency and pattern of failure of the fixation suppression (FFS) of spontaneous nystagmus (SN) in unilateral cerebellar infarction, and to identify the structure responsible for FFS, 29 patients with acute, mainly unilateral, isolated cerebellar infarction who had SN with a predominantly horizontal component were enrolled in this study. The ocular fixation index (OFI) was defined as the mean slow phase velocity (SPV) of the horizontal component of SN with fixation divided by the mean SPV of the horizontal component of SN without fixation. The OFI from age- and sex-matched patients with vestibular neuritis was calculated and used as the control data. The FFS of SN was only found in less than half (41 %, 12/29) of the patients. Approximately 65 % (n = 7) of the patients with isolated anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory cerebellar infarction showed FFS, whereas only a quarter (n = 3) of the patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory cerebellar infarction showed FFS. The proportion of gaze-evoked nystagmus (6/12 [50 %] vs. 2/17 [12 %], p = 0.04) and deficient gain of ipsilesional pursuit (10/12 [83 %] vs. 6/17 [35 %], p = 0.05) was more frequent in the FFS group than in the group without FFS. Lesion subtraction analysis in isolated PICA territory cerebellar infarction revealed that the nodulus was commonly damaged in patients with FFS, compared to that of patients without FFS. Our study shows that FFS of SN due to acute cerebellar infarction is less common than previously thought and the nodulus may be an important structure for the suppression of SN in humans.

  8. Structural and phase transformations in zinc and brass wires under heating with high-density current pulse

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pervikov, A. V.

    The work is focused on revealing the mechanism of structure and phase transformations in the metal wires under heating with a high-density current pulse (the electric explosion of wires, EEWs). It has been demonstrated on the example of brass and zinc wires that the transition of a current pulse with the density of j ≈ 3.3 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} results in homogeneous heating of the crystalline structure of the metal/alloy. It has been determined that under heating with a pulse of high-density current pulse, the electric resistance of the liquid phases of zinc and brass decreases as the temperature increases. The results obtainedmore » allow for a conclusion that the presence of the particles of the condensed phase in the expanding products of EEW is the result of overheating instabilities in the liquid metal.« less

  9. Band dependence of charge density wave in quasi-one-dimensional Ta2NiSe7 probed by orbital magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiaming; Zhang, Yiran; Wen, Libin; Yang, Yusen; Liu, Jinyu; Wu, Yueshen; Lian, Hailong; Xing, Hui; Wang, Shun; Mao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Ta2NiSe7 is a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) transition-metal chalcogenide with Ta and Ni chain structures. An incommensurate charge-density wave (CDW) in this quasi-1D structure was well studied previously using tunnelling spectrum, X-ray, and electron diffraction, whereas its transport property and the relation to the underlying electronic states remain to be explored. Here, we report our results of the magnetoresistance (MR) on Ta2NiSe7. A breakdown of Kohler's rule is found upon entering the CDW state. Concomitantly, a clear change in curvature in the field dependence of MR is observed. We show that the curvature change is well described by the two-band orbital MR, with the hole density being strongly suppressed in the CDW state, indicating that the p orbitals from Se atoms dominate the change in transport through CDW transition.

  10. Understanding PGM-free Catalysts by Linking Density Functional Theory Calculations and Structural Analysis: Perspectives and Challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Gonzales, Ivana; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    2018-03-13

    Here, we discuss perspectives and challenges in applying density functional theory for the calculation of spectroscopic properties of platinum group metal (PGM)-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. More specifically, we discuss recent advances in the density functional theory calculations of core-level shifts in binding energies of N 1s electrons as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The link between the density functional theory calculations, the electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts, and structural analysis using modern spectroscopic techniques is expected to significantly increase our understanding of PGM-free catalysts at the molecular level.

  11. Understanding PGM-free Catalysts by Linking Density Functional Theory Calculations and Structural Analysis: Perspectives and Challenges

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gonzales, Ivana; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    Here, we discuss perspectives and challenges in applying density functional theory for the calculation of spectroscopic properties of platinum group metal (PGM)-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. More specifically, we discuss recent advances in the density functional theory calculations of core-level shifts in binding energies of N 1s electrons as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The link between the density functional theory calculations, the electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts, and structural analysis using modern spectroscopic techniques is expected to significantly increase our understanding of PGM-free catalysts at the molecular level.

  12. Structure of the charge density wave in cuprate superconductors: Lessons from NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. A.; Ufkes, S.; Kampf, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Using a mix of numerical and analytic methods, we show that recent NMR 17O measurements provide detailed information about the structure of the charge-density wave (CDW) phase in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6 +x . We perform Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) calculations of both the local density of states and the orbitally resolved charge density, which are closely related to the magnetic and electric quadrupole contributions to the NMR spectrum, using a microscopic model that was shown previously to agree closely with x-ray experiments. The BdG results reproduce qualitative features of the experimental spectrum extremely well. These results are interpreted in terms of a generic "hot-spot" model that allows one to trace the origins of the NMR line shapes. We find that four quantities—the orbital character of the Fermi surface at the hot spots, the Fermi surface curvature at the hot spots, the CDW correlation length, and the magnitude of the subdominant CDW component—are key in determining the line shapes.

  13. Apical Dominance and Planting Density Effects on Weed Suppression by Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Citra, Florida to evaluate the effects of seeding rate and removal of apical dominance of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on weed suppression and seed production of sunn hemp. Three seeding rates of sunn hemp were used; a representative seed producti...

  14. Cheetahs and wild dogs show contrasting patterns of suppression by lions.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alexandra; Caro, Tim; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Mills, Michael G L; Macdonald, David W; Borner, Markus; Masenga, Emmanuel; Packer, Craig

    2014-11-01

    Top predators can dramatically suppress populations of smaller predators, with cascading effects throughout communities, and this pressure is often unquestioningly accepted as a constraint on mesopredator populations. In this study, we reassess whether African lions suppress populations of cheetahs and African wild dogs and examine possible mechanisms for coexistence between these species. Using long-term records from Serengeti National Park, we tested 30 years of population data for evidence of mesopredator suppression, and we examined six years of concurrent radio-telemetry data for evidence of large-scale spatial displacement. The Serengeti lion population nearly tripled between 1966 and 1998; during this time, wild dogs declined but cheetah numbers remained largely unchanged. Prior to their local extinction, wild dogs primarily occupied low lion density areas and apparently abandoned the long-term study area as the lion population 'saturated' the region. In contrast, cheetahs mostly utilized areas of high lion density, and the stability of the cheetah population indicates that neither high levels of lion-inflicted mortality nor behavioural avoidance inflict sufficient demographic consequences to translate into population-level effects. Population data from fenced reserves in southern Africa revealed a similar contrast between wild dogs and cheetahs in their ability to coexist with lions. These findings demonstrate differential responses of subordinate species within the same guild and challenge a widespread perception that lions undermine cheetah conservation efforts. Paired with several recent studies that document fine-scale lion-avoidance by cheetahs, this study further highlights fine-scale spatial avoidance as a possible mechanism for mitigating mesopredator suppression. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  15. Density Structures, Dynamics, and Seasonal and Solar Cycle Modulations of Saturn's Inner Plasma Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, M. K. G.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Morooka, M. W.; Vigren, E.; André, N.; Garnier, P.; Persoon, A. M.; Génot, V.; Gilbert, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    We present statistical results from the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Langmuir probe measurements recorded during the time interval from orbit 3 (1 February 2005) to 237 (29 June 2016). A new and improved data analysis method to obtain ion density from the Cassini LP measurements is used to study the asymmetries and modulations found in the inner plasma disk of Saturn, between 2.5 and 12 Saturn radii (1 RS=60,268 km). The structure of Saturn's plasma disk is mapped, and the plasma density peak, nmax, is shown to be located at ˜4.6 RS and not at the main neutral source region at 3.95 RS. The shift in the location of nmax is due to that the hot electron impact ionization rate peaks at ˜4.6 RS. Cassini RPWS plasma disk measurements show a solar cycle modulation. However, estimates of the change in ion density due to varying EUV flux is not large enough to describe the detected dependency, which implies that an additional mechanism, still unknown, is also affecting the plasma density in the studied region. We also present a dayside/nightside ion density asymmetry, with nightside densities up to a factor of 2 larger than on the dayside. The largest density difference is found in the radial region 4 to 5 RS. The dynamic variation in ion density increases toward Saturn, indicating an internal origin of the large density variability in the plasma disk rather than being caused by an external source origin in the outer magnetosphere.

  16. Electronic structure modeling of InAs/GaSb superlattices with hybrid density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwood, T.; Modine, N. A.; Krishna, S.

    2017-03-01

    The application of first-principles calculations holds promise for greatly improving our understanding of semiconductor superlattices. Developing a procedure to accurately predict band gaps using hybrid density functional theory lays the groundwork for future studies investigating more nuanced properties of these structures. Our approach allows a priori prediction of the properties of SLS structures using only the band gaps of the constituent materials. Furthermore, it should enable direct investigation of the effects of interface structure, e.g., intermixing or ordering at the interface, on SLS properties. In this paper, we present band gap data for various InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures calculated using the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory. A PBE0-type hybrid functional was used, and the portion of the exact exchange was tuned to fit the band gaps of the binary compounds InAs and GaSb with the best agreement to bulk experimental values obtained with 18% of the exact exchange. The heterostructures considered in this study are 6 monolayer (ML) InAs/6 ML GaSb, 8 ML InAs/8 ML GaSb and 10 ML InAs/10 ML GaSb with deviations from the experimental band gaps ranging from 3% to 11%.

  17. The Postsynaptic Density Proteins Homer and Shank Form a Polymeric Network Structure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hayashi, M.; Tang, C; Verpelli, C

    2009-01-01

    The postsynaptic density (PSD) is crucial for synaptic functions, but the molecular architecture retaining its structure and components remains elusive. Homer and Shank are among the most abundant scaffolding proteins in the PSD, working synergistically for maturation of dendritic spines. Here, we demonstrate that Homer and Shank, together, form a mesh-like matrix structure. Crystallographic analysis of this region revealed a pair of parallel dimeric coiled coils intercalated in a tail-to-tail fashion to form a tetramer, giving rise to the unique configuration of a pair of N-terminal EVH1 domains at each end of the coiled coil. In neurons, the tetramerization ismore » required for structural integrity of the dendritic spines and recruitment of proteins to synapses. We propose that the Homer-Shank complex serves as a structural framework and as an assembly platform for other PSD proteins.« less

  18. Evolution of Radial Electric Field due to RMP-induced density pump-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groebner, R. J.; Smith, S. P.; Evans, T. E.; Chen, X.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Nazikian, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D.; Chrystal, C.; McKee, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    The time history of shear in the ExB field during application of resonant 3D magnetic perturbations (RMP) in DIII-D is studied with CER spectroscopy. Application of the RMP typically causes density pump-out and can ultimately lead to ELM suppression. Thus, understanding the origin of the density transport is an important issue for understanding ELM suppression by this technique. One hypothesis is that the RMP causes a reduction of ExB shear at the pedestal top, which then allows for an increase in density transport. The ExB shear is examined in a new experiment in which the RMP was varied by a small amount around the threshold for causing density pump-out. In and on top of the pedestal, Er is observed to become more positive coincident with density pumpout. Er and its shear are examined over a range of RMP fields to determine if there is a relation between these quantities and the magnitude of density pumpout. Work supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-05ER54809, DE-FG02-89ER53296, and DE-FG02-08ER54999.

  19. High-Energy-Density LCA-Coupled Structural Energetic Materials for Counter WMD Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    reactive ( thermite ) fillers as high-energy-density structural energetic materials. The specific objectives include performing fundamental studies to...a) investigate mechanics of dynamic densification and reaction initiation in Ta+Fe2O3 and Ta+Bi2O3 thermite powder mixtures and to (b) design and...initiation in the thermite filler and allow controlled fragmentation. Linear Cellular A; counter WMDs; shock-compression and impact-initiated reactions

  20. Forest stand structure and pattern of old-growth western hemlock/Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Jiquan Chen; Brian Oakley; Bo Song; Mark Rudnicki; Andrew Gray; Jim Innes

    2004-01-01

    With fire suppression, many western forests are expected to have fewer gaps and higher stem density of shade-tolerant species as light competition becomes a more significant influence on stand pattern and composition. We compared species composition, structure, spatial pattern, and environmental factors such as light and soil moisture between two old-growth forests:...

  1. Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection Suppression at Saturn's Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mukherjee, J.; Steven, P. M.; Masters, A.

    2017-12-01

    At Earth, one of the fundamental processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is magnetic reconnection. It remains to be seen how significant a role magnetic reconnection plays in the magnetospheric dynamics of the outer planets. In particular, there may be conditions that cause suppression of reconnection. For fast rotators, like Saturn, the strong co-rotation may be dominant throughout the magnetosphere, out to the magnetopause. These strong internal co-rotational flows may create a shear flow across the magnetopause that may act to suppress reconnection, especially on the dawn flank. Cassini has given us an extraordinary insight into the plasma environment around Saturn. The electron spectrometer (ELS) on the Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) instrument provides data on the plasma density and temperatures as well as electron pitch angle distributions and their associated energies. In this study we examine magnetopause crossing events where heated electrons were observed in the magnetosheath. We use a modified empirical model for the location of the reconnection X-line to show where reconnection may be taking place at Saturn's magnetopause. From these results, we determine if any events considered fall in the predicted suppression region along the dawn flanks.

  2. Pain-Related Suppression of Beta Oscillations Facilitates Voluntary Movement.

    PubMed

    Misra, Gaurav; Ofori, Edward; Chung, Jae Woo; Coombes, Stephen A

    2017-04-01

    Increased beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex are antikinetic. Motor- and pain-related processes separately suppress beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex leading to the prediction that ongoing pain should facilitate movement. In the current study, we used a paradigm in which voluntary movements were executed during an ongoing pain-eliciting stimulus to test the hypothesis that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations would facilitate the initiation of a subsequent voluntary movement. Using kinematic measures, electromyography, and high-density electroencephalography, we demonstrate that ongoing pain leads to shorter reaction times without affecting the kinematics or accuracy of movement. Reaction time was positively correlated with beta power prior to movement in contralateral premotor areas. Our findings corroborate the view that beta-band oscillations are antikinetic and provide new evidence that pain primes the motor system for action. Our observations provide the first evidence that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations over contralateral premotor areas leads to shorter reaction times for voluntary movement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Connection between plasma response and resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) edge localized mode (ELM) suppression in DIII-D [Connection between plasma response and RMP ELM suppression in DIII-D

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wingen, Andreas; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; Shafer, Morgan W.

    Calculations of the plasma response to applied non-axisymmetric fields in several DIII-D discharges show that predicted displacements depend strongly on the edge current density. This result is found using both a linear two-fluid-MHD model (M3D-C1) and a nonlinear ideal-MHD model (VMEC). Furthermore, it is observed that the probability of a discharge being edge localized mode (ELM)-suppressed is most closely related to the edge current density, as opposed to the pressure gradient. It is found that discharges with a stronger kink response are closer to the peeling–ballooning stability limit in ELITE simulations and eventually cross into the unstable region, causing ELMsmore » to reappear. Thus for effective ELM suppression, the RMP has to prevent the plasma from generating a large kink response, associated with ELM instability. Experimental observations are in agreement with the finding; discharges which have a strong kink response in the MHD simulations show ELMs or ELM mitigation during the RMP phase of the experiment, while discharges with a small kink response in the MHD simulations are fully ELM suppressed in the experiment by the applied resonant magnetic perturbation. The results are cross-checked against modeled 3D ideal MHD equilibria using the VMEC code. The procedure of constructing optimal 3D equilibria for diverted H-mode discharges using VMEC is presented. As a result, kink displacements in VMEC are found to scale with the edge current density, similar to M3D-C1, but the displacements are smaller. A direct correlation in the flux surface displacements to the bootstrap current is shown.« less

  4. Connection between plasma response and resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) edge localized mode (ELM) suppression in DIII-D [Connection between plasma response and RMP ELM suppression in DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Wingen, Andreas; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; Shafer, Morgan W.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Calculations of the plasma response to applied non-axisymmetric fields in several DIII-D discharges show that predicted displacements depend strongly on the edge current density. This result is found using both a linear two-fluid-MHD model (M3D-C1) and a nonlinear ideal-MHD model (VMEC). Furthermore, it is observed that the probability of a discharge being edge localized mode (ELM)-suppressed is most closely related to the edge current density, as opposed to the pressure gradient. It is found that discharges with a stronger kink response are closer to the peeling–ballooning stability limit in ELITE simulations and eventually cross into the unstable region, causing ELMsmore » to reappear. Thus for effective ELM suppression, the RMP has to prevent the plasma from generating a large kink response, associated with ELM instability. Experimental observations are in agreement with the finding; discharges which have a strong kink response in the MHD simulations show ELMs or ELM mitigation during the RMP phase of the experiment, while discharges with a small kink response in the MHD simulations are fully ELM suppressed in the experiment by the applied resonant magnetic perturbation. The results are cross-checked against modeled 3D ideal MHD equilibria using the VMEC code. The procedure of constructing optimal 3D equilibria for diverted H-mode discharges using VMEC is presented. As a result, kink displacements in VMEC are found to scale with the edge current density, similar to M3D-C1, but the displacements are smaller. A direct correlation in the flux surface displacements to the bootstrap current is shown.« less

  5. Demonstration of suppressed phonon tunneling losses in phononic bandgap shielded membrane resonators for high-Q optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Barg, Andreas; Simonsen, Anders; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan; Schliesser, Albert; Polzik, Eugene S

    2014-03-24

    Dielectric membranes with exceptional mechanical and optical properties present one of the most promising platforms in quantum opto-mechanics. The performance of stressed silicon nitride nanomembranes as mechanical resonators notoriously depends on how their frame is clamped to the sample mount, which in practice usually necessitates delicate, and difficult-to-reproduce mounting solutions. Here, we demonstrate that a phononic bandgap shield integrated in the membrane's silicon frame eliminates this dependence, by suppressing dissipation through phonon tunneling. We dry-etch the membrane's frame so that it assumes the form of a cm-sized bridge featuring a 1-dimensional periodic pattern, whose phononic density of states is tailored to exhibit one, or several, full band gaps around the membrane's high-Q modes in the MHz-range. We quantify the effectiveness of this phononic bandgap shield by optical interferometry measuring both the suppressed transmission of vibrations, as well as the influence of frame clamping conditions on the membrane modes. We find suppressions up to 40 dB and, for three different realized phononic structures, consistently observe significant suppression of the dependence of the membrane's modes on sample clamping-if the mode's frequency lies in the bandgap. As a result, we achieve membrane mode quality factors of 5 × 10(6) with samples that are tightly bolted to the 8 K-cold finger of a cryostat. Q × f -products of 6 × 10(12) Hz at 300 K and 14 × 10(12) Hz at 8 K are observed, satisfying one of the main requirements for optical cooling of mechanical vibrations to their quantum ground-state.

  6. H2 suppression with shocking inflows: testing a pathway for supermassive black hole formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ricardo; Bryan, Greg L.; Haiman, Zoltan; Li, Miao

    2014-04-01

    The presence of quasars at redshifts z > 6 indicates the existence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) as massive as a few times 109 M⊙, challenging models for SMBH formation. One pathway is through the direct collapse of gas in Tvir ≳ 104 K haloes; however, this requires the suppression of H2 cooling to prevent fragmentation. In this paper, we examine a proposed new mechanism for this suppression which relies on cold-mode accretion flows leading to shocks at high densities (n > 104 cm-3) and temperatures (T > 104 K). In such gas, H2 is efficiently collisionally dissociated. We use high-resolution numerical simulations to test this idea, demonstrating that such haloes typically have lower temperature progenitors, in which cooling is efficient. Those haloes do show filamentary flows; however, the gas shocks at or near the virial radius (at low densities), thus preventing the proposed collisional mechanism from operating. We do find that if we artificially suppress H2 formation with a high-UV background, so as to allow gas in the halo centre to enter the high-temperature, high-density `zone of no return', it will remain there even if the UV flux is turned off, collapsing to high density at high temperature. Due to computational limitations, we simulated only three haloes. However, we demonstrate, using Monte Carlo calculations of 106 halo merger histories, that a few rare haloes could assemble rapidly enough to avoid efficient H2 cooling in all of their progenitor haloes, provided that the UV background exceeds J21 ˜ few at redshifts as high as z ˜ 20.

  7. Core structure of two-dimensional Fermi gas vortices in the BEC-BCS crossover region

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Madeira, Lucas; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2017-05-02

    We report T = 0 diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground-state and vortex excitation of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a two-dimensional disk. We investigate how vortex core structure properties behave over the BEC-BCS crossover. We calculate the vortex excitation energy, density pro les, and vortex core properties related to the current. We nd a density suppression at the vortex core on the BCS side of the crossover and a depleted core on the BEC limit. Size-effect dependencies in the disk geometry were carefully studied.

  8. Electronic structure of LiCoO2 thin films: A combined photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensling, David; Thissen, Andreas; Laubach, Stefan; Schmidt, Peter C.; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2010-11-01

    The electronic properties of LiCoO2 have been studied by theoretical band-structure calculations (using density functional theory) and experimental methods (photoemission). Synchrotron-induced photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy (ResPES), and soft x-ray absorption (XAS) have been applied to investigate the electronic structure of both occupied and unoccupied states. High-quality PES spectra were obtained from stoichiometric and highly crystalline LiCoO2 thin films deposited “in situ” by rf magnetron sputtering. An experimental approach of separating oxygen- and cobalt-derived (final) states by ResPES in the valence-band region is presented. The procedure takes advantage of an antiresonant behavior of cobalt-derived states at the 3p-3d excitation threshold. Information about the unoccupied density of states has been obtained by OK XAS. The structure of the CoL absorption edge is compared to semiempirical charge-transfer multiplet calculations. The experimental results are furthermore compared with band-structure calculations considering three different exchange potentials [generalized gradient approximation (GGA), using a nonlocal Hubbard U (GGA+U) and using a hybrid functional (Becke, three-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr [B3LYP])]. For these different approaches total density of states and partial valence-band density of states have been investigated. The best qualitative agreement with experimental results has been obtained by using a GGA+U functional with U=2.9eV .

  9. Suppression of retroviral MA deletions by the amino-terminal membrane-binding domain of p60src.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, J W; Craven, R C; Weldon, R A; Nelle, T D; Erdie, C R

    1991-01-01

    The molecular mechanism by which retroviral Gag proteins are directed to the plasma membrane for the formation of particles (budding) is unknown, but it is widely believed that the MA domain, located at the amino terminus, plays a critical role. Consistent with this idea, we found that small deletions in this segment of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein completely blocked particle formation. The mutant proteins appear to have suffered only localized structural damage since they could be rescued (i.e., packaged into particles) when coexpressed with Gag proteins that are competent for particle formation. To our surprise, the effects of the MA deletions could be completely suppressed by fusing as few as seven residues of the myristylated amino terminus of the oncoprotein p60src to the beginning of the mutant Gag proteins. Particles produced by the chimeras were of the same density as the wild type. Two myristylated peptides having sequences distinct from that of p60src were entirely unable to suppress MA deletions, indicating that myristate alone is not a sufficient membrane targeting signal. We hypothesize that the amino terminus of p60src suppresses the effects of MA deletions by diverting the Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein from its normal site of assembly to the Src receptor for particle formation. Images PMID:1710290

  10. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Normalized Plasma Pressure on RMP ELM Suppression in DIII-D

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R.A.; Evans, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of normalized plasma pressure as characterized by normalized pressure parameter (beta(N)) on the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is studied in low-collisionality (nu* <= 0.2) H-mode plasmas with low-triangularity ( = 0.25) and ITER similar shapes ( = 0.51). Experimental results have suggested that ELM suppression by RMPs requires a minimum threshold in plasma pressure as characterized by beta(N). The variations in the vacuum field topology with beta(N) due to safety factor profile and island overlap changes caused by variation of the Shafranov shift and pedestal bootstrap current are examined numerically withmore » the field line integration code TRIP3D. The results show very small differences in the vacuum field structure in terms of the Chirikov (magnetic island overlap) parameter, Poincare sections and field line loss fractions. These differences do not appear to explain the observed threshold in beta(N) for ELM suppression. Linear peeling-ballooning stability analysis with the ELITE code suggests that the ELMs which persist during the RMPs when beta(N) is below the observed threshold are not type I ELMs, because the pedestal conditions are deep within the stable regime for peeling-ballooning modes. These ELMs have similarities to type III ELMs or low density ELMs.« less

  11. RISC-Target Interaction: Cleavage and Translational Suppression

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Arjen; Mols, Johann; Han, Jiahuai

    2008-01-01

    Summary Small RNA molecules have been known and utilized to suppress gene expression for more than a decade. The discovery that these small RNA molecules are endogenously expressed in many organisms and have a critical role in controlling gene expression have led to the arising of a whole new field of research. Termed small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) these ~22 nt RNA molecules have the capability to suppress gene expression through various mechanisms once they are incorporated in the multi-protein RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) and interact with their target mRNA. This review introduces siRNAs and microRNAs in a historical perspective and focuses on the key molecules in RISC, structural properties and mechanisms underlying the process of small RNA regulated post-transcriptional suppression of gene expression. PMID:18692607

  12. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2–6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non-suppressive

  13. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non-suppressive

  14. Structure of a Reconnection Layer Poleward of the Cusp Under Extreme Density Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzamil, F. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Mozer, F.; Pritchett, P. L.; Scudder, J. D.; Sandholt, P. E.; Russell, C. T.; Denig, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    We present in situ observations made by the Polar spacecraft of a reconnection layer poleward of the northern cusp. Interplanetary conditions monitored by Wind showed an ICME with a strong (~ 20 nT ) northward pointing field component (clock angle ~ 200) lasting for ~13 hours. Polar traversed the layer several times from the magnetosphere (MSP) and magnetosheath (MSH). It recorded an event characterized by extreme density (over two orders of magnitude) and temperature (about one order of magnitude) asymmetries between the two regimes. By contrast the magnetic field on either side of the reconnection was practically equal (ratio= 0.85) and sheared by 1530. During each crossing of the layer, Polar intercepted sunward-flowing jets reaching up to 500km/s. Supplementing the Polar data by low-altitude, polar orbiting, DMSP observations, we show continued patterns of reverse convection in the northern hemisphere which lasted for as long as the external field was northward pointing. Here, we examine one Polar crossing in detail. The observations show (1) a prominent density dip region lasting for ~18 seconds is detected at the separatrix on the MSP side. (2) A clear, though much less pronounced, density dip at the separatrix on MSH side was also detected. (3) Intense electric field fluctuations reaching up to 60 mV/m mostly in the normal component to MP (Hall E field). (4) The ion bulk outflow jet was strongly biased towards to the MSP side. (5) The Hall, out-of-plane magnetic field has a unipolar structure. We compare our findings with those from 2D PIC simulations of Tanaka et al. (Ann. Geophys. 26, 2008) who also focused on density asymmetry (NMSH/NMSP=10) with no guide field. We find good agreement. In our case, however we find (1) a more intense EN field and (2) the ion bulk ouflow jet being more strongly biased towards the MSP side. An interesting feature of our observations is the presence of a clear structure in the outflow jet bearing similarities to a micro FTEs

  15. MRI correlates of interaction between gender and expressive suppression among the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangcheng; Huang, Hui; Chen, Li; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Junyi; Hao, Xin; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-07

    Expressive suppression is a kind of emotion regulation strategies by suppressing behaviors related to emotional responding. Despite the amount of behavioral research on expressive suppression, the structural and functional mechanisms underlying the interaction between gender and expressive suppression in Chinese healthy subjects have remained unknown. In the current study, we assessed the levels of expressive suppression and acquired the structural and functional imaging data from 273 Chinese individuals. A nearly automatic cortical processing technique was used to calculate cortical thickness for each subject. The results from cortical thickness analyses revealed a significant interaction between gender and expressive suppression in the superior frontal gyrus. Then, we conducted the whole-brain functional connectivity analysis with the seed of the superior frontal gyrus to explore the functionally related regions of brain. Subsequent analysis of the interaction between gender and expressive suppression indicated a significant functional connectivity between the superior frontal gyrus and default mode network (DMN) core regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus. Our results provided the robust empirical evidence illustrating the role of the superior frontal gyrus and DMN in gender difference of expressive suppression among the Chinese population. These findings might have implications for understanding gender difference in emotion processing and regulation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a high-density nonwoven structure to improve the stab resistance of protective clothing material.

    PubMed

    Bao, Limin; Wang, Yanling; Baba, Takeichiro; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Wakatsuki, Kaoru; Morikawa, Hideaki

    2017-12-07

    The purpose of this research was to enhance the stab resistance of protective clothing material by developing a new high-density nonwoven structure. Ice picks often injure Japanese police officers due to the strict regulation of swords in the country. Consequently, this study was designed to improve stab resistance against ice picks. Most existing anti-stab protective clothing research has focused on various fabrics impregnated with resin, an approach that brings with it problems of high cost and complicated processing. Seldom has research addressed the potential for improving stab resistance by using nonwoven structures, which exhibit better stab resistance than fabric. In this research, we prepared a series of nonwoven structures with densities ranging from about 0.14 g/cm 3 to 0.46 g/cm 3 by varying the number of stacked layers of Kevlar/polyester nonwoven under a hot press. We then proposed two methods for producing such hot-press nonwovens: the multilayer hot-press method and the monolayer hot-press method. Stab resistance was evaluated according to NIJ Standard-0115.00. We also investigated the relationship among nonwoven density, stab resistance, and flexural rigidity, and here we discuss the respective properties of the two proposed methods. Our results show that stab resistance and flexural rigidity increase with nonwoven density, but flexural rigidity of nonwovens prepared using the monolayer hot-press method only shows a slight change as nonwoven density increases. Though the two methods exhibit little difference in maximum load, the flexural rigidity of nonwovens prepared using the monolayer hot-press method is much lower, which contributes to superior wear comfort. Finally, we investigated the mechanism behind the stabbing process. Stabbing with an ice pick is a complicated process that involves many factors. Our findings indicate that nonwovens stop penetration primarily in two ways: nonwoven deformation and fiber fractures.

  17. Development of a high-density nonwoven structure to improve the stab resistance of protective clothing material

    PubMed Central

    BAO, Limin; WANG, Yanling; BABA, Takeichiro; FUKUDA, Yasuhiro; WAKATSUKI, Kaoru; MORIKAWA, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to enhance the stab resistance of protective clothing material by developing a new high-density nonwoven structure. Ice picks often injure Japanese police officers due to the strict regulation of swords in the country. Consequently, this study was designed to improve stab resistance against ice picks. Most existing anti-stab protective clothing research has focused on various fabrics impregnated with resin, an approach that brings with it problems of high cost and complicated processing. Seldom has research addressed the potential for improving stab resistance by using nonwoven structures, which exhibit better stab resistance than fabric. In this research, we prepared a series of nonwoven structures with densities ranging from about 0.14 g/cm3 to 0.46 g/cm3 by varying the number of stacked layers of Kevlar/polyester nonwoven under a hot press. We then proposed two methods for producing such hot-press nonwovens: the multilayer hot-press method and the monolayer hot-press method. Stab resistance was evaluated according to NIJ Standard-0115.00. We also investigated the relationship among nonwoven density, stab resistance, and flexural rigidity, and here we discuss the respective properties of the two proposed methods. Our results show that stab resistance and flexural rigidity increase with nonwoven density, but flexural rigidity of nonwovens prepared using the monolayer hot-press method only shows a slight change as nonwoven density increases. Though the two methods exhibit little difference in maximum load, the flexural rigidity of nonwovens prepared using the monolayer hot-press method is much lower, which contributes to superior wear comfort. Finally, we investigated the mechanism behind the stabbing process. Stabbing with an ice pick is a complicated process that involves many factors. Our findings indicate that nonwovens stop penetration primarily in two ways: nonwoven deformation and fiber fractures. PMID:28978816

  18. Structural transitions in electron beam deposited Co-carbonyl suspended nanowires at high electrical current densities.

    PubMed

    Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suspended nanowires (SNWs) have been deposited from Co-carbonyl precursor (Co2(CO)8) by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The SNWs dimensions are about 30-50 nm in diameter and 600-850 nm in length. The as-deposited material has a nanogranular structure of mixed face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) Co phases, and a composition of 80 atom % Co, 15 atom % O and 5 atom % C, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurements with current densities up to 10(7) A/cm(2) determine different structural transitions in the SNWs, depending on the I-V history. A single measurement with a sudden current burst leads to a polycrystalline FCC Co structure extended over the whole wire. Repeated measurements at increasing currents produce wires with a split structure: one half is polycrystalline FCC Co and the other half is graphitized C. The breakdown current density is found at 2.1 × 10(7) A/cm(2). The role played by resistive heating and electromigration in these transitions is discussed.

  19. Electron-density critical points analysis and catastrophe theory to forecast structure instability in periodic solids.

    PubMed

    Merli, Marcello; Pavese, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The critical points analysis of electron density, i.e. ρ(x), from ab initio calculations is used in combination with the catastrophe theory to show a correlation between ρ(x) topology and the appearance of instability that may lead to transformations of crystal structures, as a function of pressure/temperature. In particular, this study focuses on the evolution of coalescing non-degenerate critical points, i.e. such that ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 ≠ 0 [λ being the eigenvalues of the Hessian of ρ(x) at x c ], towards degenerate critical points, i.e. ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and at least one λ equal to zero. The catastrophe theory formalism provides a mathematical tool to model ρ(x) in the neighbourhood of x c and allows one to rationalize the occurrence of instability in terms of electron-density topology and Gibbs energy. The phase/state transitions that TiO 2 (rutile structure), MgO (periclase structure) and Al 2 O 3 (corundum structure) undergo because of pressure and/or temperature are here discussed. An agreement of 3-5% is observed between the theoretical model and experimental pressure/temperature of transformation.

  20. Density Functional Study of Stacking Structures and Electronic Behaviors of AnE-PV Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuan-Ding; Beenken, Wichard J D

    2016-10-10

    In this work, we report an in-depth investigation on the π-stacking and interdigitating structures of poly(p-anthracene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) copolymer with octyl and ethyl-hexyl side chains and the resulting electronic band structures using density functional theory calculations. We found that in the π-stacking direction, the preferred stacking structure, determined by the steric effect of the branched ethyl-hexyl side chains, is featured by the anthracene-ethynylene units stacking on the phenylene-vinylene units of the neighboring chains and vice versa. This stacking structure, combined with the interdigitating structure where the branched side chains of the laterally neighboring chains are isolated, defines the energetically favorable structure of the ordered copolymer phase, which provides a good compromise between light absorption and charge-carrier transport.

  1. Nonequilibrium phase transitions of sheared colloidal microphases: Results from dynamical density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopper, Daniel; Roth, Roland

    2018-06-01

    By means of classical density functional theory and its dynamical extension, we consider a colloidal fluid with spherically symmetric competing interactions, which are well known to exhibit a rich bulk phase behavior. This includes complex three-dimensional periodically ordered cluster phases such as lamellae, two-dimensional hexagonally packed cylinders, gyroid structures, or spherical micelles. While the bulk phase behavior has been studied extensively in earlier work, in this paper we focus on such structures confined between planar repulsive walls under shear flow. For sufficiently high shear rates, we observe that microphase separation can become fully suppressed. For lower shear rates, however, we find that, e.g., the gyroid structure undergoes a kinetic phase transition to a hexagonally packed cylindrical phase, which is found experimentally and theoretically in amphiphilic block copolymer systems. As such, besides the known similarities between the latter and colloidal systems regarding the equilibrium phase behavior, our work reveals further intriguing nonequilibrium relations between copolymer melts and colloidal fluids with competing interactions.

  2. Validation of experimental molecular crystal structures with dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    van de Streek, Jacco; Neumann, Marcus A

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the validation of a dispersion-corrected density functional theory (d-DFT) method for the purpose of assessing the correctness of experimental organic crystal structures and enhancing the information content of purely experimental data. 241 experimental organic crystal structures from the August 2008 issue of Acta Cryst. Section E were energy-minimized in full, including unit-cell parameters. The differences between the experimental and the minimized crystal structures were subjected to statistical analysis. The r.m.s. Cartesian displacement excluding H atoms upon energy minimization with flexible unit-cell parameters is selected as a pertinent indicator of the correctness of a crystal structure. All 241 experimental crystal structures are reproduced very well: the average r.m.s. Cartesian displacement for the 241 crystal structures, including 16 disordered structures, is only 0.095 Å (0.084 Å for the 225 ordered structures). R.m.s. Cartesian displacements above 0.25 A either indicate incorrect experimental crystal structures or reveal interesting structural features such as exceptionally large temperature effects, incorrectly modelled disorder or symmetry breaking H atoms. After validation, the method is applied to nine examples that are known to be ambiguous or subtly incorrect.

  3. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling.

    PubMed

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-06-22

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar density and vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  4. Bacterial density and community structure associated with aggregate size fractions of soil-feeding termite mounds.

    PubMed

    Fall, S; Nazaret, S; Chotte, J L; Brauman, A

    2004-08-01

    The building and foraging activities of termites are known to modify soil characteristics such as the heterogeneity. In tropical savannas the impact of the activity of soil-feeding termites ( Cubitermes niokoloensis) has been shown to affect the properties of the soil at the aggregate level by creating new soil microenvironments (aggregate size fractions) [13]. These changes were investigated in greater depth by looking at the microbial density (AODC) and the genetic structure (automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis: ARISA) of the communities in the different aggregate size fractions (i.e., coarse sand, fine sand, coarse silt, fine silt, and dispersible clays) separated from compartments (internal and external wall) of three Cubitermes niokoloensis mounds. The bacterial density of the mounds was significantly higher (1.5 to 3 times) than that of the surrounding soil. Within the aggregate size fractions, the termite building activity resulted in a significant increase in bacterial density within the coarser fractions (>20 mum). Multivariate analysis of the ARISA profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic structures of unfractionated soil and soil aggregate size fractions of the three mounds was noticeably different from the savanna soil used as a reference. Moreover, the microbial community associated with the different microenvironments in the three termite mounds revealed three distinct clusters formed by the aggregate size fractions of each mound. Except for the 2-20 mum fraction, these results suggest that the mound microbial genetic structure is more dependent upon microbial pool affiliation (the termite mound) than on the soil location (aggregate size fraction). The causes of the specificity of the microbial community structure of termite mound aggregate size fractions are discussed.

  5. Suppression of turbulent particle flux during biased rotation in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, T. A.

    2005-10-01

    The edge plasma in LAPD is rotated through the application of a bias voltage (typically 100V-200V) between the plasma source cathode and the vacuum vessel wall. Without bias, cross-field turbulent particle transport causes the density profile to extend well past the cathode edge, with a fairly gentle gradient (Ln˜10 cm). As the bias voltage is applied and increased past a threshold value, the measured density profile steepens dramatically (Ln˜2 cm) at a radius near the peak of the flow shear. Turbulent transport flux measurements in this region show that the flux is reduced and then suppressed completely as the threshold is approached. As the bias voltage is increased further, the measured turbulent transport flux reverses direction. The amplitude of the density and azimuthal electric field fluctuations is observed to decrease during biased rotation, the product of the amplitudes decreasing by a factor of 5. However the dominant change appears in the cross-phase, which is altered dramatically, leading to the observed suppression and reversal of the turbulent flux. Detailed two-dimensional turbulent correlation measurements have been performed using the high repetition rate (1 Hz) and high reproducibility of LAPD plasmas. In unbiased plasmas, the correlation is localized to around 5 cm radially and a slightly smaller distance azimuthally (ρs˜0.5-1 cm). During biased rotation, a dramatic increase in the azimuthal correlation is observed, however there is little change in the radial correlation length.

  6. Structured Low-Density Parity-Check Codes with Bandwidth Efficient Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Divsalar, Dariush; Duy, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the performance of structured Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Codes together with bandwidth efficient modulations. We consider protograph-based LDPC codes that facilitate high-speed hardware implementations and have minimum distances that grow linearly with block sizes. We cover various higher- order modulations such as 8-PSK, 16-APSK, and 16-QAM. During demodulation, a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples into reliability information that feeds the binary LDPC decoder. We will compare various low-complexity demappers and provide simulation results for assorted coded-modulation combinations on the additive white Gaussian noise and independent Rayleigh fading channels.

  7. Experiment evaluation of speckle suppression efficiency of 2D quasi-spiral M-sequence-based diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Lapchuk, A; Pashkevich, G A; Prygun, O V; Yurlov, V; Borodin, Y; Kryuchyn, A; Korchovyi, A A; Shylo, S

    2015-10-01

    The quasi-spiral 2D diffractive optical element (DOE) based on M-sequence of length N=15 is designed and manufactured. The speckle suppression efficiency by the DOE rotation is measured. The speckle suppression coefficients of 10.5, 6, and 4 are obtained for green, violet, and red laser beams, respectively. The results of numerical simulation and experimental data show that the quasi-spiral binary DOE structure can be as effective in speckle reduction as a periodic 2D DOE structure. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the speckle suppression efficiency of the 2D DOE structure decreases approximately twice at the boundaries of the visible range. It is shown that a replacement of this structure with the bilateral 1D DOE allows obtaining the maximum speckle suppression efficiency in the entire visible range of light.

  8. Persistence and Suppressiveness of Pasteuria penetrans to Meloidogyne arenaria Race.

    PubMed

    Cetintas, R; Dickson, D W

    2004-12-01

    The long-term persistence and suppressiveness of Pasteuria penetrans against Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 were investigated in a formerly root-knot nematode suppressive site following 9 years of continuous cultivation of three treatments and 4 years of continuous peanut. The three treatments were two M. arenaria race 1 nonhost crops, bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum cv. Pensacola var. Tifton 9), rhizomal peanut (Arachis glabrata cv. Florigraze), and weed fallow. Two root-knot nematode susceptible weeds commonly observed in weed fallow plots were hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) and alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis). The percentage of J2 with endospores attached reached the highest level of 87% in 2000 in weed fallow, and 63% and 53% in 2002 in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut, respectively. The percentage of endospore-filled females extracted from peanut roots grown in weed fallow plots increased from nondetectable in 1999 to 56% in 2002, whereas the percentages in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut plots were 41% and 16%, respectively. Over 4 years, however, there was no strong evidence that endospores densities reached suppressive levels because peanut roots, pods, and pegs were heavily galled, and yields were suppressed. This might be attributed to the discovery of M. javanica infecting peanut in this field in early autumn 2001. A laboratory test confirmed that although the P. penetrans isolate specific to M. arenaria attached to M. javanica J2, no development occurred. In summary, P. penetrans increased on M. arenaria over a 4-year period, but apparently because of infection of M. javanica on peanut at the field site root-knot disease was not suppressed. This was confirmed by a suppressive soil test that showed a higher level of soil suppressiveness than occurred in the field (P

  9. Suppression and dissolution of amyloid aggregates using ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takekiyo, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2018-04-25

    Amyloid aggregates are composed of protein fibrils with a dominant β-sheet structure, are water-insoluble, and are involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Development of pharmaceuticals to treat these diseases and the design of recovery agents for amyloid-type inclusion bodies require the successful suppression and dissolution of such aggregates. Since ionic liquids (ILs) are composed of both a cation and anion and are known to suppress protein aggregation and to dissolve water-insoluble compounds such as cellulose; they may also have potential use as suppression/dissolution agents for amyloid aggregates. In the following review, we present the suppression and dissolution effects of ILs on amyloid aggregates so far reported. The protein-IL affinity (the ability of ILs to interact with amyloid proteins) was found to be the biochemical basis for ILs' suppression of amyloid formation, and the hydrogen-bonding basicity of ILs might be the basis for their ability to dissolve amyloid aggregates. These findings present the potential of ILs to serve as novel pharmaceuticals to treat neurodegenerative diseases and as recovery agents for various amyloid aggregates.

  10. Effect of mungbean (Vigna radiate) living mulch on density and dry weight of weeds in corn (Zea mays) field.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, M Bakhtiari; Vazan, S; Darvishi, B; Golzardi, F; Farahani, M Esfini

    2011-01-01

    Living mulch is a suitable solution for weeds ecological management and is considered as an effective method in decreasing of weeds density and dry weight. In order to evaluate of mungbean living mulch effect on density and dry weight of weeds in corn field, an experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four blocks in Research Field of Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University in 2010. Main plots were time of mungbean suppression with 2,4-D herbicide in four levels (4, 6, 8 and 10 leaves stages of corn) and control without weeding and sub plots were densities of mungbean in three levels (50%, 100% and 150% more than optimum density). Density and dry weight of the weeds were measured in all plots with a quadrate (60 x 100 cm) in 10 days after tasseling. Totally, 9 species of weeds were identified in the field, which included 4 broad leave species that were existed in all plots. The results showed that the best time for suppression of mungbean is the 8 leaves stage of corn, which decreased density and dry weight of weeds, 53% and 51% in comparison with control, respectively. Increase of density of mungbean from 50% into 150% more than optimum density, decrease the density and dry weight of weeds, 27.5% and 22%, respectively. It is concluded that the best time and density for suppression mungbean was 8 leaves stage of corn, and 150% more than optimum density, which decreased density and dry weight of the weeds 69% and 63.5% in comparison with control, respectively.

  11. Structure-based coarse-graining for inhomogeneous liquid polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Motoo; Zhang, Hedong; Ishiguro, Takahiro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Itoh, Shintaro

    2013-08-07

    The iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) method is used to derive interaction potentials for coarse-grained (CG) systems by matching structural properties of a reference atomistic system. However, because it depends on such thermodynamic conditions as density and pressure of the reference system, the derived CG nonbonded potential is probably not applicable to inhomogeneous systems containing different density regimes. In this paper, we propose a structure-based coarse-graining scheme to devise CG nonbonded potentials that are applicable to different density bulk systems and inhomogeneous systems with interfaces. Similar to the IBI, the radial distribution function (RDF) of a reference atomistic bulk system is used for iteratively refining the CG nonbonded potential. In contrast to the IBI, however, our scheme employs an appropriately estimated initial guess and a small amount of refinement to suppress transfer of the many-body interaction effects included in the reference RDF into the CG nonbonded potential. To demonstrate the application of our approach to inhomogeneous systems, we perform coarse-graining for a liquid perfluoropolyether (PFPE) film coated on a carbon surface. The constructed CG PFPE model favorably reproduces structural and density distribution functions, not only for bulk systems, but also at the liquid-vacuum and liquid-solid interfaces, demonstrating that our CG scheme offers an easy and practical way to accurately determine nonbonded potentials for inhomogeneous systems.

  12. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: the spatial distribution of star formation and its dependence on mass, structure, and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Ashley; Wake, David; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Masters, Karen; Thomas, Daniel; Westfall, Kyle; Wild, Vivienne

    2018-05-01

    We study the spatially resolved star formation of 1494 galaxies in the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey. Star formation rates (SFRs) are calculated using a two-step process, using H α in star-forming regions and Dn4000 in regions identified as active galactic nucleus/low-ionization (nuclear) emission region [AGN/LI(N)ER] or lineless. The roles of secular and environmental quenching processes are investigated by studying the dependence of the radial profiles of specific star formation rate on stellar mass, galaxy structure, and environment. We report on the existence of `centrally suppressed' galaxies, which have suppressed Specific Star Formation Rate (SSFR) in their cores compared to their discs. The profiles of centrally suppressed and unsuppressed galaxies are distributed in a bimodal way. Galaxies with high stellar mass and core velocity dispersion are found to be much more likely to be centrally suppressed than low-mass galaxies, and we show that this is related to morphology and the presence of AGN/LI(N)ER like emission. Centrally suppressed galaxies also display lower star formation at all radii compared to unsuppressed galaxies. The profiles of central and satellite galaxies are also compared, and we find that satellite galaxies experience lower specific star formation rates at all radii than central galaxies. This uniform suppression could be a signal of the stripping of hot halo gas in the process known as strangulation. We find that satellites are not more likely to be suppressed in their cores than centrals, indicating that the core suppression is an entirely internal process. We find no correlation between the local environment density and the profiles of star formation rate surface density.

  14. Evolution of stochastic demography with life history tradeoffs in density-dependent age-structured populations.

    PubMed

    Lande, Russell; Engen, Steinar; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2017-10-31

    We analyze the stochastic demography and evolution of a density-dependent age- (or stage-) structured population in a fluctuating environment. A positive linear combination of age classes (e.g., weighted by body mass) is assumed to act as the single variable of population size, [Formula: see text], exerting density dependence on age-specific vital rates through an increasing function of population size. The environment fluctuates in a stationary distribution with no autocorrelation. We show by analysis and simulation of age structure, under assumptions often met by vertebrate populations, that the stochastic dynamics of population size can be accurately approximated by a univariate model governed by three key demographic parameters: the intrinsic rate of increase and carrying capacity in the average environment, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the environmental variance in population growth rate, [Formula: see text] Allowing these parameters to be genetically variable and to evolve, but assuming that a fourth parameter, [Formula: see text], measuring the nonlinearity of density dependence, remains constant, the expected evolution maximizes [Formula: see text] This shows that the magnitude of environmental stochasticity governs the classical trade-off between selection for higher [Formula: see text] versus higher [Formula: see text] However, selection also acts to decrease [Formula: see text], so the simple life-history trade-off between [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-selection may be obscured by additional trade-offs between them and [Formula: see text] Under the classical logistic model of population growth with linear density dependence ([Formula: see text]), life-history evolution in a fluctuating environment tends to maximize the average population size. Published under the PNAS license.

  15. Suppression of Low Strain Rate Nonpremixed Flames by an Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamins, A.; Bundy, M.; Puri, I. K.; McGrattan, K.; Park, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    The agent concentration required to achieve the suppression of low strain rate nonpremixed flames is an important consideration for fire protection in a microgravity environment such as a space platform. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of the structure and extinction of low strain rate (<20 s(exp -1)) nonpremixed flames. The exception to this statement is the study by Maruta et al., who reported measurements of low strain rate suppression of methane-air diffusion flames with N2 added to the fuel stream under microgravity conditions. They found that the nitrogen concentration required to achieve extinction increased as the strain rate decreased until a critical value was obtained. As the strain rate was further decreased, the required N2 concentration decreased. This phenomenon was termed "turning point" behavior and was attributed to radiation-induced nonpremixed flame extinction. In terms of fire safety, a critical agent concentration assuring suppression under all flow conditions represents a fundamental limit for nonpremixed flames. Counterflow flames are a convenient configuration for control of the flame strain rate. In high and moderately strained near-extinction nonpremixed flames, analysis of flame structure typically neglects radiant energy loss because the flames are nonluminous and the hot gas species are confined to a thin reaction zone. In counterflowing CH4-air flames, for example, radiative heat loss fractions ranging from 1 to 6 percent have been predicted and measured. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of radiative emission, flame strain, agent addition, and buoyancy on the structure and extinction of low strain rate nonpremixed flames through measurements and comparison with flame simulations. The suppression effectiveness of a number of suppressants (N2, CO2, or CF3Br) was considered as they were added to either the fuel or oxidizer streams of low strain rate methane-air diffusion flames.

  16. Metal-like Band Structures of Ultrathin Si {111} and {112} Surface Layers Revealed through Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chih-Shan; Huang, Michael H

    2017-09-04

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed on Si (100), (110), (111), and (112) planes with tunable number of planes for evaluation of their band structures and density of states profiles. The purpose is to see whether silicon can exhibit facet-dependent properties derived from the presence of a thin surface layer having different band structures. No changes have been observed for single to multiple layers of Si (100) and (110) planes with a consistent band gap between the valence band and the conduction band. However, for 1, 2, 4, and 5 Si (111) and (112) planes, metal-like band structures were obtained with continuous density of states going from the valence band to the conduction band. For 3, 6, and more Si (111) planes, as well as 3 and 6 Si (112) planes, the same band structure as that seen for Si (100) and (110) planes has been obtained. Thus, beyond a layer thickness of five Si (111) planes at ≈1.6 nm, normal semiconductor behavior can be expected. The emergence of metal-like band structures for the Si (111) and (112) planes are related to variation in Si-Si bond length and bond distortion plus 3s and 3p orbital electron contributions in the band structure. This work predicts possession of facet-dependent electrical properties of silicon with consequences in FinFET transistor design. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Suppression in the electrical hysteresis by using CaF2 dielectric layer for p-GaN MIS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-04-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis in the bidirectional measurements of the p-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor is suppressed by using a CaF2 dielectric layer and a post annealing treatment. The density of trapped charge states at the CaF2/p-GaN interface is dramatically reduced from 1.3 × 1013 cm2 to 1.1 × 1011/cm2 compared to that of the Al2O3/p-GaN interface with a large C-V hysteresis. It is observed that the disordered oxidized interfacial layer can be avoided by using the CaF2 dielectric. The downward band bending of p-GaN is decreased from 1.51 to 0.85 eV as a result of the low-density oxides-related trap states. Our work indicates that the CaF2 can be used as a promising dielectric layer for the p-GaN MIS structures.

  18. How can we model selectively neutral density dependence in evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Argasinski, Krzysztof; Kozłowski, Jan

    2008-03-01

    The problem of density dependence appears in all approaches to the modelling of population dynamics. It is pertinent to classic models (i.e., Lotka-Volterra's), and also population genetics and game theoretical models related to the replicator dynamics. There is no density dependence in the classic formulation of replicator dynamics, which means that population size may grow to infinity. Therefore the question arises: How is unlimited population growth suppressed in frequency-dependent models? Two categories of solutions can be found in the literature. In the first, replicator dynamics is independent of background fitness. In the second type of solution, a multiplicative suppression coefficient is used, as in a logistic equation. Both approaches have disadvantages. The first one is incompatible with the methods of life history theory and basic probabilistic intuitions. The logistic type of suppression of per capita growth rate stops trajectories of selection when population size reaches the maximal value (carrying capacity); hence this method does not satisfy selective neutrality. To overcome these difficulties, we must explicitly consider turn-over of individuals dependent on mortality rate. This new approach leads to two interesting predictions. First, the equilibrium value of population size is lower than carrying capacity and depends on the mortality rate. Second, although the phase portrait of selection trajectories is the same as in density-independent replicator dynamics, pace of selection slows down when population size approaches equilibrium, and then remains constant and dependent on the rate of turn-over of individuals.

  19. 3D Density Structure of Oceanic Lithosphere Affected by A Plume: A Case Study from the Greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Sippel, J.; Breivik, A. J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Meeßen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the density structure of the oceanic lithosphere north of Iceland is key for understanding the effects of the Iceland Plume on the mid-ocean ridges of the greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region. We use a data-integrative approach for 3D gravity modeling to develop new insights into the crust and upper mantle density structure of this region. First, we obtain the 3D density structure of the sediments and crust from interpretations of regional reflection and refraction seismic lines. Then, the temperature and density structure of the mantle between 50 and 250 km are derived from a published shear-wave velocity (Vs) tomography model. To assess the density configuration between the Moho and 50 km depth, we follow a combined forward and inverse 3D gravity modeling approach. The Vs tomography and derived density of the deeper mantle (>50 km depth) reveal that the low-density anomaly related to the Iceland plume gets weaker with increasing distance from the plume, i.e. from the strongly influenced Middle Kolbeinsey Ridge (MKR) to the Mohn's Ridge. The West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone is identified as a main mantle density contrast, indicative of differences in the thermal evolution of the ridge systems it separates. Beneath the MKR region, the low-density anomaly at depths of >50 km continues upwards into the uppermost mantle, where its lateral dimensions narrow considerably. This elongated density anomaly is consistent with a basement high and indicates a channelization of the Iceland plume effects. The NE-SW elongated mantle anomaly does not, however, coincide with the topographical NNE-SSW striking ridge axis. Thus, the modelled plume-affected oceanic lithosphere reveals discrepancies with the half-space cooling model. We discuss the 3D density model in terms of such spatial relations between deeper mantle anomalies and the shallow crustal structure.

  20. Electronic structure modeling of InAs/GaSb superlattices with hybrid density functional theory

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Garwood, Tristan; Modine, Normand A.; Krishna, S.

    2016-12-18

    The application of first-principles calculations holds promise for greatly improving our understanding of semiconductor superlattices. By developing a procedure to accurately predict band gaps using hybrid density functional theory, it lays the groundwork for future studies investigating more nuanced properties of these structures. Our approach allows a priori prediction of the properties of SLS structures using only the band gaps of the constituent materials. Furthermore, it should enable direct investigation of the effects of interface structure, e.g., intermixing or ordering at the interface, on SLS properties. In this paper, we present band gap data for various InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structuresmore » calculated using the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory. A PBE0-type hybrid functional was used, and the portion of the exact exchange was tuned to fit the band gaps of the binary compounds InAs and GaSb with the best agreement to bulk experimental values obtained with 18% of the exact exchange. The heterostructures considered in this study are 6 monolayer (ML) InAs/6 ML GaSb, 8 ML InAs/8 ML GaSb and 10 ML InAs/10 ML GaSb with deviations from the experimental band gaps ranging from 3% to 11%.« less

  1. A robust multi-frequency mixing algorithm for suppression of rivet signal in GMR inspection of riveted structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdernejad, Morteza S.; Karpenko, Oleksii; Ye, Chaofeng; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-02-01

    The advent of Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) technology permits development of novel highly sensitive array probes for Eddy Current (EC) inspection of multi-layer riveted structures. Multi-frequency GMR measurements with different EC pene-tration depths show promise for detection of bottom layer notches at fastener sites. However, the distortion of the induced magnetic field due to flaws is dominated by the strong fastener signal, which makes defect detection and classification a challenging prob-lem. This issue is more pronounced for ferromagnetic fasteners that concentrate most of the magnetic flux. In the present work, a novel multi-frequency mixing algorithm is proposed to suppress rivet signal response and enhance defect detection capability of the GMR array probe. The algorithm is baseline-free and does not require any assumptions about the sample geometry being inspected. Fastener signal suppression is based upon the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method, which iteratively estimates parameters of a mathematical model from a set of observed data with outliers. Bottom layer defects at fastener site are simulated as EDM notches of different length. Performance of the proposed multi-frequency mixing approach is evaluated on finite element data and experimental GMR measurements obtained with unidirectional planar current excitation. Initial results are promising demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.

  2. Impaired Insulin Suppression of VLDL-Triglyceride Kinetics in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Marianne K; Nellemann, Birgitte; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen B; Grønbæk, Henning; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with glucose and lipid metabolic abnormalities. However, insulin suppression of very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) kinetics is not fully understood. The objective of the study was to determine VLDL-TG, glucose, and palmitate kinetics during fasting and hyperinsulinemia in men with (NAFLD+) and without NAFLD (NAFLD−). Twenty-seven nondiabetic, upper-body obese (waist to hip ratio > 0.9, body mass index > 28 kg/m2) men, 18 NAFLD+, and nine NAFLD− determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy were enrolled.14C-labeled VLDL-TG and 3H-labeled glucose and palmitate tracers were applied in combination with indirect calorimetry and breath samples to assess kinetics and substrate oxidations postabsorptively and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Dual-X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging assessed body composition. Liver fat content was greater in NAFLD+ than NAFLD− men (21.0% vs 3.7%), even though body composition, metabolites (except triglycerides), and insulin were similar in the groups. Insulin suppression of VLDL-TG secretion (P = .0001), oxidation (P = .0003), and concentration (P= .008) as well as percentage decreases were lower in NAFLD+ than NAFLD− men (secretion: 31.9% ± 17.2% vs 64.7% ± 19.9%; oxidation: −9.0% ± 24.7% vs 46.5% ± 36.6%; concentration: 11.9% ± 20.7% vs 56.2% ± 22.9%, all P < .001). Likewise, lower insulin suppression of very low-density lipoprotein particle size was present in NAFLD+ than NAFLD− men (P = .0002). Conversely, insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production was similar in the groups. Compared with endogenous glucose production, the inability of NAFLD+ men to suppress VLDL-TG kinetics to compensate for the increased liver fat content seems to be an early pathophysiological manifestation of male NAFLD+. These data suggest therapeutic targets reducing liver fat content may ameliorate metabolic abnormalities associated with

  3. Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-12-01

    Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we found that anti-androgens-mt-ARs have similar binary structure to the 5α-dihydrotestosterone-wt-AR. Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and the AR. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed AR transactivation, interrupted AR N-C interaction, and suppressed AR-mediated cell growth. Combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis may serve as a new strategy for developing anti-ARs that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear ``pasta'' structures in low-density nuclear matter and properties of the neutron-star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2013-08-01

    In the neutron-star crust, nonuniform structure of nuclear matter—called the “pasta” structure—is expected. From recent studies of giant flares in magnetars, these structures might be related to some observables and physical quantities of the neutron-star crust. To investigate the above quantities, we numerically explore the pasta structure with a fully three-dimensional geometry and study the properties of low-density nuclear matter, based on the relativistic mean-field model and the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We observe typical pasta structures for fixed proton number fraction and two of them for cold catalyzed matter. We also discuss the crystalline configuration of “pasta.”

  5. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

  6. Global Distribution of Density Irregularities in the Equatorial Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kil, Hyosub; Heelis, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed measurements of ion number density made by the retarding potential analyzer aboard the Atmosphere Explorer-E (AE-E) satellite, which was in an approximately circular orbit at an altitude near 300 km in 1977 and later at an altitude near 400 km. Large-scale (greater than 60 km) density measurements in the high-altitude regions show large depletions of bubble-like structures which are confined to narrow local time longitude, and magnetic latitude ranges, while those in the low-altitude regions show relatively small depletions which are broadly distributed,in space. For this reason we considered the altitude regions below 300 km and above 350 km and investigated the global distribution of irregularities using the rms deviation delta N/N over a path length of 18 km as an indicator of overall irregularity intensity. Seasonal variations of irregularity occurrence probability are significant in the Pacific regions, while the occurrence probability is always high in die Atlantic-African regions and is always low in die Indian regions. We find that the high occurrence probability in the Pacific regions is associated with isolated bubble structures, while that near 0 deg longitude is produced by large depictions with bubble structures which are superimposed on a large-scale wave-like background. Considerations of longitude variations due to seeding mechanisms and due to F region winds and drifts are necessary to adequately explain the observations at low and high altitudes. Seeding effects are most obvious near 0 deg longitude, while the most easily observed effect of the F region is the suppression of irregularity growth by interhemispheric neutral winds.

  7. Reflection/suppression coatings for 900 - 1200 A radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    The design and performance of multiple-layer, selective-reflection, selective-suppression coatings for the 900 - 1200 A band are described. These coatings are designed to optimize both high reflectivity at a desirable wavelength and low reflectivity at an undesirable wavelength. The minimum structure for a selective coating consists of a thin metal or metal oxide layer (50 - 150 A thickness) over an aluminum substrate protected with a semi-transparent dielectric (100 - 1000 A thickness). Predicted coating performance is strongly effected by varying the layer combination and thickness. A graphical method of optimizing the coating layer structure is developed. Aluminum, silicon, their oxides, and gold have been investigated as coating layer materials. A very simple coating with a 1026 to 1216 A reflectivity ratio greater than 100 was fabricated. Such reflection/suppression coatings may be of great utility to spaceborne EUV spectrographs.

  8. Structural Reliability Using Probability Density Estimation Methods Within NESSUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Chrisos C. (Technical Monitor); Godines, Cody Ric

    2003-01-01

    A reliability analysis studies a mathematical model of a physical system taking into account uncertainties of design variables and common results are estimations of a response density, which also implies estimations of its parameters. Some common density parameters include the mean value, the standard deviation, and specific percentile(s) of the response, which are measures of central tendency, variation, and probability regions, respectively. Reliability analyses are important since the results can lead to different designs by calculating the probability of observing safe responses in each of the proposed designs. All of this is done at the expense of added computational time as compared to a single deterministic analysis which will result in one value of the response out of many that make up the density of the response. Sampling methods, such as monte carlo (MC) and latin hypercube sampling (LHS), can be used to perform reliability analyses and can compute nonlinear response density parameters even if the response is dependent on many random variables. Hence, both methods are very robust; however, they are computationally expensive to use in the estimation of the response density parameters. Both methods are 2 of 13 stochastic methods that are contained within the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) program. NESSUS is a probabilistic finite element analysis (FEA) program that was developed through funding from NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). It has the additional capability of being linked to other analysis programs; therefore, probabilistic fluid dynamics, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer are only a few of what is possible with this software. The LHS method is the newest addition to the stochastic methods within NESSUS. Part of this work was to enhance NESSUS with the LHS method. The new LHS module is complete, has been successfully integrated with NESSUS, and been used to study four different test cases that have been

  9. Vibration suppression using a proofmass actuator operating in stroke/force saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, D. K.; Celano, T. P.; Ide, E. N.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the control-loop structure for a feedback control system which contains a proofmass actuator for suppressing vibration is discussed. The loop structure is composed of inner control loops, which determine the frequency of the actuator and which are directly related to the actuator and the outer loops which add damping to the structure. When the frequency response of the actuator is matched to the stroke/force saturation curve, the actuator is most effective in the vibration suppression loops, and, since the stroke/force saturation curve is characterized by the stroke length, the mass of the proofmass, and the maximum current delivered by the motor electronics, the size of the actuator can be easily determined. The results of the loop-structure model calculations are verified by examining linear DC motors as proofmass actuators for the Mast in NASA's Control of Flexible Structures program.

  10. Prediction of local proximal tibial subchondral bone structural stiffness using subject-specific finite element modeling: Effect of selected density-modulus relationship.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, S Majid; Amini, Morteza; Kontulainen, Saija A; Milner, Jaques S; Holdsworth, David W; Masri, Bassam A; Wilson, David R; Johnston, James D

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative computed tomography based subject-specific finite element modeling has potential to clarify the role of subchondral bone alterations in knee osteoarthritis initiation, progression, and pain initiation. Calculation of bone elastic moduli from image data is a basic step when constructing finite element models. However, different relationships between elastic moduli and imaged density (known as density-modulus relationships) have been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to apply seven different trabecular-specific and two cortical-specific density-modulus relationships from the literature to finite element models of proximal tibia subchondral bone, and identify the relationship(s) that best predicted experimentally measured local subchondral structural stiffness with highest explained variance and least error. Thirteen proximal tibial compartments were imaged via quantitative computed tomography. Imaged bone mineral density was converted to elastic moduli using published density-modulus relationships and mapped to corresponding finite element models. Proximal tibial structural stiffness values were compared to experimentally measured stiffness values from in-situ macro-indentation testing directly on the subchondral bone surface (47 indentation points). Regression lines between experimentally measured and finite element calculated stiffness had R(2) values ranging from 0.56 to 0.77. Normalized root mean squared error varied from 16.6% to 337.6%. Of the 21 evaluated density-modulus relationships in this study, Goulet combined with Snyder and Schneider or Rho appeared most appropriate for finite element modeling of local subchondral bone structural stiffness. Though, further studies are needed to optimize density-modulus relationships and improve finite element estimates of local subchondral bone structural stiffness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale density structures in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Gordon, G. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Science experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft has measured the solar wind density from 1 to 38 AU. Over this distance, the solar wind density decreases as the inverse square of the heliocentric distance. However, there are large variations in this density at a given radius. Such changes in density are the dominant cause of changes in the solar wind ram pressure in the outer heliosphere and can cause large perturbations in the location of the termination shock of the solar wind. Following a simple model suggested by Suess, we study the non-equilibrium, dynamic location of the termination shock as it responds to these pressure changes. The results of this study suggest that the termination shock is rarely if ever at its equilibrium distance and may depart from that distance by as much as 50 AU at times.

  12. Weed suppression greatly increased by plant diversity in intensively managed grasslands: A continental-scale experiment.

    PubMed

    Connolly, John; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Kirwan, Laura; Finn, John Anthony; Llurba, Rosa; Suter, Matthias; Collins, Rosemary P; Porqueddu, Claudio; Helgadóttir, Áslaug; Baadshaug, Ole H; Bélanger, Gilles; Black, Alistair; Brophy, Caroline; Čop, Jure; Dalmannsdóttir, Sigridur; Delgado, Ignacio; Elgersma, Anjo; Fothergill, Michael; Frankow-Lindberg, Bodil E; Ghesquiere, An; Golinski, Piotr; Grieu, Philippe; Gustavsson, Anne-Maj; Höglind, Mats; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Jørgensen, Marit; Kadziuliene, Zydre; Lunnan, Tor; Nykanen-Kurki, Paivi; Ribas, Angela; Taube, Friedhelm; Thumm, Ulrich; De Vliegher, Alex; Lüscher, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development".Across sites, years and sown densities, annual weed biomass in mixtures and monocultures was 0.5 and 2.0 t  DM ha -1 (7% and 33% of total biomass respectively). Over 95% of mixtures had weed biomass lower than the average of monocultures, and in two-thirds of cases, lower than in the most suppressive monoculture (transgressive suppression). Suppression was significantly transgressive for 58% of site-years. Transgressive suppression by mixtures was maintained across years, independent of site productivity.Based on models, average weed biomass in mixture over the whole experiment was 52% less (95% confidence interval: 30%-75%) than in the most suppressive monoculture. Transgressive suppression of weed biomass was significant at each year across all mixtures and for each mixture.Weed biomass was consistently low across all mixtures and years and was in some cases significantly but not largely different from that in the equiproportional mixture. The average variability (standard deviation) of annual weed biomass within a site was much lower for mixtures (0.42) than for monocultures (1.77). Synthesis and applications . Weed invasion can be diminished through a combination of forage species selected for complementarity and persistence traits in systems designed to reduce reliance on fertiliser nitrogen. In this study, effects of diversity on weed suppression were

  13. Extensive Sampling of Forest Carbon using High Density Power Line Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, H. M.; Chen, Q.; Dye, D. G.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from forest management, natural processes, and disturbance is of growing interest for mitigating global warming. Ponderosa pine is common at mid-elevations throughout the western United States and is a dominant tree species in southwestern forests. Existing unmanaged "relict" sites and stand reconstructions of southwestern ponderosa pine forests from before European settlement (late 1800s) provide evidence of forests of larger trees of lower density and less vulnerability to severe fires than today's typical conditions of high densities of small trees that have resulted from a century of fire suppression. Forest treatments to improve forest health in the region include tree cutting focused on small-diameter trees (thinning), low-intensity prescribed burning, and monitoring rather than suppressing wildfires. Stimulated by several uncharacteristically-intense fires in the last decade, a collaborative process found strong stakeholder agreement to accelerate forest treatments to reduce fire risk and restore ecological conditions. Land use planning to ramp up management is underway and could benefit from quick and inexpensive techniques to inventory tree-level carbon because existing inventory data are not adequate to capture the range of forest structural conditions. Our approach overcomes these shortcomings by employing recent breakthroughs in estimating aboveground biomass from high resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing. Lidar is an active remote sensing technique, analogous to radar, which measures the time required for a transmitted pulse of laser light to return to the sensor after reflection from a target. Lidar data can capture 3-dimensional forest structure with greater detail and broader spatial coverage than is feasible with conventional field measurements. We developed a novel methodology for extensive sampling and field validation of forest carbon, applicable to managed and

  14. Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schaub, S. C., E-mail: sschaub@mit.edu; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.

    2016-08-15

    Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal tomore » the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.« less

  15. β₂ adrenergic receptor activation suppresses bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takayuki; Ezura, Yoichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Moriya, Shuichi; Shirakawa, Jumpei; Notomi, Takuya; Arayal, Smriti; Kawasaki, Makiri; Izu, Yayoi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    β adrenergic stimulation suppresses bone formation in vivo while its actions in osteoblastic differentiation are still incompletely understood. We therefore examined the effects of β2 adrenergic stimulation on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells focusing on BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression. Morphologically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced increase in the numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive small foci in the cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells. Biochemically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner. Isoproterenol suppression of alkaline phosphatase activity is observed even when the cells are treated with high concentrations of BMP. With respect to cell density, isoproterenol treatment tends to suppress BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression more in osteoblasts cultured at higher cell density. In terms of treatment protocol, continuous isoproterenol treatment is compared to cyclic treatment. Continuous isoproterenol treatment is more suppressive against BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression than cyclic regimen. At molecular level, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enhancement of alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression. Regarding the mode of isoproterenol action, isoproterenol suppresses BMP-induced BRE-luciferase activity. These data indicate that isoproterenol regulates BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  17. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  18. CHANGES IN EARTHWORM DENSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE DURING SECONDARY SUCCESSION IN ABANDONED TROPICAL PASTURES

    Treesearch

    Xiaoming Zou; Grizelle Gonzalez

    1997-01-01

    Plant community succession alters the quantity and chemistry of organic inputs to soils. These differences in organic input may trigger changes in soil fertility and fauna1 activity. We examined earthworm density and community structure along a successional sequence of plant communities in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico. The chronological sequence of these...

  19. Edge-localized mode avoidance and pedestal structure in I-mode plasmasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walk, J. R.; Hughes, J. W.; Hubbard, A. E.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; White, A. E.; Baek, S. G.; Reinke, M. L.; Theiler, C.; Churchill, R. M.; Rice, J. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Osborne, T.; Dominguez, A.; Cziegler, I.

    2014-05-01

    I-mode is a high-performance tokamak regime characterized by the formation of a temperature pedestal and enhanced energy confinement, without an accompanying density pedestal or drop in particle and impurity transport. I-mode operation appears to have naturally occurring suppression of large Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs) in addition to its highly favorable scalings of pedestal structure and overall performance. Extensive study of the ELMy H-mode has led to the development of the EPED model, which utilizes calculations of coupled peeling-ballooning MHD modes and kinetic-ballooning mode (KBM) stability limits to predict the pedestal structure preceding an ELM crash. We apply similar tools to the structure and ELM stability of I-mode pedestals. Analysis of I-mode discharges prepared with high-resolution pedestal data from the most recent C-Mod campaign reveals favorable pedestal scalings for extrapolation to large machines—pedestal temperature scales strongly with power per particle Pnet/n ¯e, and likewise pedestal pressure scales as the net heating power (consistent with weak degradation of confinement with heating power). Matched discharges in current, field, and shaping demonstrate the decoupling of energy and particle transport in I-mode, increasing fueling to span nearly a factor of two in density while maintaining matched temperature pedestals with consistent levels of Pnet/n ¯e. This is consistent with targets for increased performance in I-mode, elevating pedestal βp and global performance with matched increases in density and heating power. MHD calculations using the ELITE code indicate that I-mode pedestals are strongly stable to edge peeling-ballooning instabilities. Likewise, numerical modeling of the KBM turbulence onset, as well as scalings of the pedestal width with poloidal beta, indicates that I-mode pedestals are not limited by KBM turbulence—both features identified with the trigger for large ELMs, consistent with the observed suppression of

  20. Differential suppression of glial nitric oxide synthase induction by structurally related tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Galea, E; Reddi, J; Feinstein, D L

    1995-11-24

    Incubation of C6 astrocytoma cells with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), or with a combination of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL1-beta, and IFN-gamma) leads to high levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Previous results demonstrated a requirement for tyrosine kinase (TK) activities for iNOS induction. In the present study, a set of structurally related TK inhibitors, the tyrphostins (TYRs), were used to characterize possible differences between LPS and cytokine iNOS induction. All TYRs tested suppressed both types of induction. However, dose-response curves revealed significant differences in the IC50 values obtained for some TYRs (T25 and T56), and significant differences in the IC50 potency rank order when comparing inhibition of LPS versus cytokine-dependent iNOS induction. These results are consistent with differential TK utilization by the LPS versus cytokine pathways of iNOS induction, and establish a basis for developing further selective inhibitors of iNOS expression.

  1. In situ hydrostatic pressure induced improvement of critical current density and suppression of magnetic relaxation in Y(Dy0.5)Ba2Cu3O7‑δ coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Lina; Gutiérrez, Joffre; Cai, Chuanbing; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Xiaolin

    2018-07-01

    We report on the effect of in situ hydrostatic pressure on the enhancement of the in-magnetic-field critical current density parallel to the crystallographic c-axis and vortex pinning in epitaxial Y(Dy0.5)Ba2Cu3O7‑δ coated conductors prepared by metal organic deposition. Our results show that in situ hydrostatic pressure greatly enhances the critical current density at high fields and high temperatures. At 80 K and 5 T we observe a ten-fold increase in the critical current density under the pressure of 1.2 GPa, and the irreversibility line is shifted to higher fields without changing the critical temperature. The normalized magnetic relaxation rate shows that vortex creep rates are strongly suppressed due to applied pressure, and the pinning energy is significantly increased based on the collective creep theory. After releasing the pressure, we recover the original superconducting properties. Therefore, we speculate that the in situ hydrostatic pressure exerted on the coated conductor enhances the pinning of existing extended defects. This is totally different from what has been observed in REBa2Cu3O7‑δ melt-textured crystals, where the effect of pressure generates point-like defects.

  2. Viscous-pendulum damper suppresses structural vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1964-01-01

    The viscous pendulum damper consists of a cylinder containing round trays on which round lead slugs rest. When assembled, the container is filled with a viscous liquid and attached, with axis vertical, to the structure. The device permits varying the damping of structural vibrations.

  3. STRONG EVIDENCE FOR THE DENSITY-WAVE THEORY OF SPIRAL STRUCTURE IN DISK GALAXIES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pour-Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2016-08-10

    The density-wave theory of galactic spiral-arm structure makes a striking prediction that the pitch angle of spiral arms should vary with the wavelength of the galaxy’s image. The reason is that stars are born in the density wave but move out of it as they age. They move ahead of the density wave inside the co-rotation radius, and fall behind outside of it, resulting in a tighter pitch angle at wavelengths that image stars (optical and near-infrared) than those that are associated with star formation (far-infrared and ultraviolet). In this study we combined large sample size with wide range ofmore » wavelengths, from the ultraviolet to the infrared to investigate this issue. For each galaxy we used an optical wavelength image ( B -band: 445 nm) and images from the Spitzer Space Telescope at two infrared wavelengths (infrared: 3.6 and 8.0 μ m) and we measured the pitch angle with the 2DFFT and Spirality codes. We find that the B -band and 3.6 μ m images have smaller pitch angles than the infrared 8.0 μ m image in all cases, in agreement with the prediction of density-wave theory. We also used images in the ultraviolet from Galaxy Evolution Explorer , whose pitch angles agreed with the measurements made at 8 μ m.« less

  4. Suppressing epidemic spreading in multiplex networks with social-support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Ruijie; Tang, Ming; Cai, Shimin; Stanley, H. Eugene; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2018-01-01

    Although suppressing the spread of a disease is usually achieved by investing in public resources, in the real world only a small percentage of the population have access to government assistance when there is an outbreak, and most must rely on resources from family or friends. We study the dynamics of disease spreading in social-contact multiplex networks when the recovery of infected nodes depends on resources from healthy neighbors in the social layer. We investigate how degree heterogeneity affects the spreading dynamics. Using theoretical analysis and simulations we find that degree heterogeneity promotes disease spreading. The phase transition of the infected density is hybrid and increases smoothly from zero to a finite small value at the first invasion threshold and then suddenly jumps at the second invasion threshold. We also find a hysteresis loop in the transition of the infected density. We further investigate how an overlap in the edges between two layers affects the spreading dynamics. We find that when the amount of overlap is smaller than a critical value the phase transition is hybrid and there is a hysteresis loop, otherwise the phase transition is continuous and the hysteresis loop vanishes. In addition, the edge overlap allows an epidemic outbreak when the transmission rate is below the first invasion threshold, but suppresses any explosive transition when the transmission rate is above the first invasion threshold.

  5. Central depression in nuclear density and its consequences for the shell structure of superheavy nuclei

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, LV 2169 Salaspils, Miera str. 31; Frauendorf, S.

    The influence of the central depression in the density distribution of spherical superheavy nuclei on the shell structure is studied within the relativistic mean-field theory. A large depression leads to the shell gaps at the proton Z=120 and neutron N=172 numbers, whereas a flatter density distribution favors N=184 and leads to the appearance of a Z=126 shell gap and to the decrease of the size of the Z=120 shell gap. The correlations between the magic shell gaps and the magnitude of the central depression are discussed for relativistic and nonrelativistic mean field theories.

  6. Some new approaches in hail suppression experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, K. A.; Atlas, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that progress in hail suppression research requires simultaneous improvements in methods of evaluating seeding effects and in monitoring the physical structure of the hailstorm and the hail growth processes. On this basis a case is made for the extensive use of multiple Doppler radar and chemical tracer techniques.

  7. Nuclear structure and reaction properties of Ne, Mg and Si isotopes with RMF densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, R. N.; Sharma, Mahesh K.; Patra, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied nuclear structure and reaction properties of Ne, Mg and Si isotopes, using relativistic mean field (RMF) densities, in the framework of Glauber model. Total reaction cross-section σR for Ne isotopes on 12C target have been calculated at incident energy 240 MeV. The results are compared with the experimental data and with the recent theoretical study [W. Horiuchi et al., Phys. Rev. C 86, 024614 (2012)]. Study of σR using deformed densities have shown a good agreement with the data. We have also predicted total reaction cross-section σR for Ne, Mg and Si isotopes as projectiles and 12C as target at different incident energies.

  8. Evaluation of Suppressiveness of Soils Exhibiting Soil-Borne Disease Suppression after Long-Term Application of Organic Amendments by the Co-cultivation Method of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and Indigenous Soil Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2018-03-29

    Preventive measures against soil-borne diseases need to be implemented before cultivation because very few countermeasures are available after the development of diseases. Some soils suppress soil-borne diseases despite the presence of a high population density of pathogens. If the suppressiveness of soil against soil-borne diseases may be predicted and diagnosed for crop fields, it may be possible to reduce the labor and cost associated with excessive disinfection practices. We herein evaluated the suppressiveness of soils in fields with the long-term application of organic amendments by examining the growth of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum co-cultivated with indigenous soil microorganisms on agar plates. Soils treated with coffee residue compost or rapeseed meal showed suppressiveness against spinach wilt disease by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or spinach wilt and lettuce root rot diseases by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae and F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, respectively, and the growth of pathogenic Fusarium spp. on agar plates was suppressed when co-cultured with microorganisms in a suspension from these soils before crop cultivation. These results indicate the potential of the growth degree of pathogenic F. oxysporum estimated by this method as a diagnostic indicator of the suppressiveness of soil associated with the inhabiting microorganisms. A correlation was found between the incidence of spinach wilt disease in spinach and the growth degree of F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae by this co-cultivation method, indicating that suppressiveness induced by organic amendment applications against F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae is evaluable by this method. The co-cultivation method may be useful for predicting and diagnosing suppressiveness against soil-borne diseases.

  9. Evaluation of Suppressiveness of Soils Exhibiting Soil-Borne Disease Suppression after Long-Term Application of Organic Amendments by the Co-cultivation Method of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and Indigenous Soil Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    Preventive measures against soil-borne diseases need to be implemented before cultivation because very few countermeasures are available after the development of diseases. Some soils suppress soil-borne diseases despite the presence of a high population density of pathogens. If the suppressiveness of soil against soil-borne diseases may be predicted and diagnosed for crop fields, it may be possible to reduce the labor and cost associated with excessive disinfection practices. We herein evaluated the suppressiveness of soils in fields with the long-term application of organic amendments by examining the growth of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum co-cultivated with indigenous soil microorganisms on agar plates. Soils treated with coffee residue compost or rapeseed meal showed suppressiveness against spinach wilt disease by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or spinach wilt and lettuce root rot diseases by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae and F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, respectively, and the growth of pathogenic Fusarium spp. on agar plates was suppressed when co-cultured with microorganisms in a suspension from these soils before crop cultivation. These results indicate the potential of the growth degree of pathogenic F. oxysporum estimated by this method as a diagnostic indicator of the suppressiveness of soil associated with the inhabiting microorganisms. A correlation was found between the incidence of spinach wilt disease in spinach and the growth degree of F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae by this co-cultivation method, indicating that suppressiveness induced by organic amendment applications against F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae is evaluable by this method. The co-cultivation method may be useful for predicting and diagnosing suppressiveness against soil-borne diseases. PMID:29459498

  10. Emotion suppression, emotional eating, and eating behavior among parent-adolescent dyads.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A

    2017-10-01

    Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Highly Shocked Low Density Sedimentary Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a detailed investigation of the shock effects in highly shocked, low density sedimentary rocks from the Haughton impact structure. We suggest that some textural features can be explained by carbonate-silicate immiscibility. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Forest service large fire area burned and suppression expenditure trends, 1970-2002.

    Treesearch

    David E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; J. Greg Jones; Ronald P. Neilson

    2005-01-01

    Extreme fire seasons in recent years and associated high suppression expenditures have brought about a chorus of calls for reform of federal firefighting structure and policy. Given the political nature of the topic, a critical review of past trends in area burned, size of fires, and suppression expenditures is warranted. We examined data relating to emergency wildland...

  13. A decentralized approach to vibration suppression in segmented reflector telescopes. [large spaceborne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryaciotaki-Boussalis, Helen A.; Wang, Shyh Jong

    1989-01-01

    The problem of vibration suppression in segmented reflector telescopes is considered. The decomposition of the structure into smaller components is discussed, and control laws for vibration suppression as well as conditions for stability at the local level are derived. These conditions and the properties of the interconnecting patterns are then utilized to obtain sufficient conditions for global stability.

  14. From Two‐ to Three‐Dimensional Structures of a Supertetrahedral Boran Using Density Functional Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Getmanskii, Iliya V.; Steglenko, Dmitrii V.; Koval, Vitaliy V.; Zaitsev, Stanislav A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract With help of the DFT calculations and imposing of periodic boundary conditions the geometrical and electronic structures were investigated of two‐ and three‐dimensional boron systems designed on the basis of graphane and diamond lattices in which carbons were replaced with boron tetrahedrons. The consequent studies of two‐ and three‐layer systems resulted in the construction of a three‐dimensional supertetrahedral borane crystal structure. The two‐dimensional supertetrahedral borane structures with less than seven layers are dynamically unstable. At the same time the three‐dimensional superborane systems were found to be dynamically stable. Lack of the forbidden electronic zone for the studied boron systems testifies that these structures can behave as good conductors. The low density of the supertetrahedral borane crystal structures (0.9 g cm−3) is close to that of water, which offers the perspective for their application as aerospace and cosmic materials. PMID:28402596

  15. Molecular structure and vibrational spectra of Irinotecan: a density functional theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Chinna Babu, P; Sundaraganesan, N; Sudha, S; Aroulmoji, V; Murano, E

    2012-12-01

    The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of Irinotecan have been recorded in the regions 400-4000 and 50-4000 cm(-1), respectively. The spectra were interpreted in terms of fundamentals modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule was optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with 6-31G(d) as basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated for Irinotecan by DFT method and were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. The infrared spectrum was also simulated from the calculated intensities. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brickworx builds recurrent RNA and DNA structural motifs into medium- and low-resolution electron-density maps

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chojnowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: gchojnowski@genesilico.pl; Waleń, Tomasz; University of Warsaw, Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw

    2015-03-01

    A computer program that builds crystal structure models of nucleic acid molecules is presented. Brickworx is a computer program that builds crystal structure models of nucleic acid molecules using recurrent motifs including double-stranded helices. In a first step, the program searches for electron-density peaks that may correspond to phosphate groups; it may also take into account phosphate-group positions provided by the user. Subsequently, comparing the three-dimensional patterns of the P atoms with a database of nucleic acid fragments, it finds the matching positions of the double-stranded helical motifs (A-RNA or B-DNA) in the unit cell. If the target structure ismore » RNA, the helical fragments are further extended with recurrent RNA motifs from a fragment library that contains single-stranded segments. Finally, the matched motifs are merged and refined in real space to find the most likely conformations, including a fit of the sequence to the electron-density map. The Brickworx program is available for download and as a web server at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/brickworx.« less

  17. Central depression in nucleonic densities: Trend analysis in the nuclear density functional theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2017-08-01

    Background: The central depression of nucleonic density, i.e., a reduction of density in the nuclear interior, has been attributed to many factors. For instance, bubble structures in superheavy nuclei are believed to be due to the electrostatic repulsion. In light nuclei, the mechanism behind the density reduction in the interior has been discussed in terms of shell effects associated with occupations of s orbits. Purpose: The main objective of this work is to reveal mechanisms behind the formation of central depression in nucleonic densities in light and heavy nuclei. To this end, we introduce several measures of the internal nucleonic density. Through the statistical analysis, we study the information content of these measures with respect to nuclear matter properties. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme functionals. Using the statistical tools of linear least square regression, we inspect correlations between various measures of central depression and model parameters, including nuclear matter properties. We study bivariate correlations with selected quantities as well as multiple correlations with groups of parameters. Detailed correlation analysis is carried out for 34Si for which a bubble structure has been reported recently, 48Ca, and N =82 , 126, and 184 isotonic chains. Results: We show that the central depression in medium-mass nuclei is very sensitive to shell effects, whereas for superheavy systems it is firmly driven by the electrostatic repulsion. An appreciable semibubble structure in proton density is predicted for 294Og, which is currently the heaviest nucleus known experimentally. Conclusion: Our correlation analysis reveals that the central density indicators in nuclei below 208Pb carry little information on parameters of nuclear matter; they are predominantly driven by shell structure. On the other hand, in the superheavy nuclei there exists a clear relationship between the central nucleonic density and symmetry energy.

  18. Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Sumpter, David T. J.; Silverberg, Jesse L.

    2016-11-01

    Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

  19. Flutter suppression for the Active Flexible Wing - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, M. R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of a control law for an active flutter suppression system for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design was accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach relied on a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple control law structure. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in the design model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a rolling maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  20. Molecular Probe Dynamics Reveals Suppression of Ice-Like Regions in Strongly Confined Supercooled Water

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Debamalya; Bhat, Shrivalli N.; Bhat, Subray V.; Leporini, Dino

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the hydrogen bond network is a key element for understanding water's thermodynamic and kinetic anomalies. While ambient water is strongly believed to be a uniform, continuous hydrogen-bonded liquid, there is growing consensus that supercooled water is better described in terms of distinct domains with either a low-density ice-like structure or a high-density disordered one. We evidenced two distinct rotational mobilities of probe molecules in interstitial supercooled water of polycrystalline ice [Banerjee D, et al. (2009) ESR evidence for 2 coexisting liquid phases in deeply supercooled bulk water. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 11448–11453]. Here we show that, by increasing the confinement of interstitial water, the mobility of probe molecules, surprisingly, increases. We argue that loose confinement allows the presence of ice-like regions in supercooled water, whereas a tighter confinement yields the suppression of this ordered fraction and leads to higher fluidity. Compelling evidence of the presence of ice-like regions is provided by the probe orientational entropy barrier which is set, through hydrogen bonding, by the configuration of the surrounding water molecules and yields a direct measure of the configurational entropy of the same. We find that, under loose confinement of supercooled water, the entropy barrier surmounted by the slower probe fraction exceeds that of equilibrium water by the melting entropy of ice, whereas no increase of the barrier is observed under stronger confinement. The lower limit of metastability of supercooled water is discussed. PMID:23049747

  1. Flutter suppression by active control and its benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Townsend, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A general discussion of the airplane applications of active flutter suppression systems is presented with focus on supersonic cruise aircraft configurations. Topics addressed include a brief historical review; benefits, risks, and concerns; methods of application; and applicable configurations. Results are presented where the direct operating costs and performance benefits of an arrow wing supersonic cruise vehicle equipped with an active flutter suppression system are compared with corresponding costs and performance of the same baseline airplane where the flutter deficiency was corrected by passive methods (increases in structural stiffness). The design, synthesis, and conceptual mechanization of the active flutter suppression system are discussed. The results show that a substantial weight savings can be accomplished by using the active system. For the same payload and range, airplane direct operating costs are reduced by using the active system. The results also indicate that the weight savings translates into increased range or payload.

  2. Associations between body composition and bone density and structure in men and women across the adult age spectrum.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joshua F; Davis, Matthew; Alexander, Ruben; Zemel, Babette S; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Shults, Justine; Sulik, Michael; Schiferl, Daniel J; Leonard, Mary B

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify independent associations between body composition and bone outcomes, including cortical structure and cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) across the adult age spectrum. This cross-sectional study evaluated over 400 healthy adults (48% male, 44% black race), ages 21-78years. Multivariable linear regression models evaluated associations between whole-body DXA measures of lean body mass index (LBMI) and fat mass index (FMI) and tibia peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) measures of cortical section modulus, cortical and trabecular vBMD and muscle density (as a measure of intramuscular fat), adjusted for age, sex, and race. All associations reported below were statistically significant (p<0.05). Older age and female sex were associated with lower LBMI and muscle strength. Black race was associated with greater LBMI but lower muscle density. Greater FMI was associated with lower muscle density. Cortical section modulus was positively associated with LBMI and muscle strength and negatively associated with FMI. Adjustment for body composition eliminated the greater section modulus observed in black participants and attenuated the lower section modulus in females. Greater LBMI was associated with lower cortical BMD and greater trabecular BMD. FMI was not associated with either BMD outcome. Greater muscle density was associated with greater trabecular and cortical BMD. Associations between body composition and bone outcomes did not vary by sex (no significant tests for interaction). These data highlight age-, sex- and race-specific differences in body composition, muscle strength and muscle density, and demonstrate discrete associations with bone density and structure. These data also show that age-, sex- and race-related patterns of bone density and strength are independent of differences in body composition. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the temporal relations between changes in bone and body

  3. Associations between Body Composition and Bone Density and Structure in Men and Women across the Adult Age Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joshua F.; Davis, Matthew; Alexander, Ruben; Zemel, Babette S.; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Shults, Justine; Sulik, Michael; Schiferl, Daniel J.; Leonard, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose The objective of this study was identify independent associations between body composition and bone outcomes, including cortical structure and cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) across the adult age spectrum. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated over 400 healthy adults (48% male, 44% black race), ages 21–78 years. Multivariable linear regression models evaluated associations between whole-body DXA measures of lean body mass index (LBMI) and fat mass index (FMI) and tibia peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) measures of cortical section modulus, cortical and trabecular vBMD and muscle density (as a measure of intramuscular fat), adjusted for age, sex, and race. All associations reported below were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Results Older age and female sex were associated with lower LBMI and muscle strength. Black race was associated with greater LBMI but lower muscle density. Greater FMI was associated with lower muscle density. Cortical section modulus was positively associated with LBMI and muscle strength and negatively associated with FMI. Adjustment for body composition eliminated the greater section modulus observed in black participants and attenuated the lower section modulus in females. Greater LBMI was associated with lower cortical BMD and greater trabecular BMD. FMI was not associated with either BMD outcome. Greater muscle density was associated with greater trabecular and cortical BMD. Associations between body composition and bone outcomes did not vary by sex (no significant tests for interaction). Conclusions These data highlight age, sex- and race-specific differences in body composition, muscle strength and muscle density, and demonstrate discrete associations with bone density and structure. These data also show that age, sex- and race- related patterns of bone density and strength are independent of differences in body composition. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the

  4. Structures in Ionospheric Number Density and Velocity Associated with Polar Cap Ionization Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivanc, O.; Heelis, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of polar cap F region irregularities on large density gradients associated with polar ionization patches are studied using in situ measurements made by the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) spacecraft. The 18 patches studied in this paper were identified by the algorithm introduced by Coley and Heelis, and they were encountered during midnight-noon passes of the spacecraft. Density and velocity spectra associated with these antisunward convecting patches are analyzed in detail. Observations indicate the presence of structure on most patches regardless of the distance between the patch and the cusp where they are believed to develop. Existence of structure on both leading and trailing edges is established when such edges exist. Results, which show no large dependence of Delta N/N power on the sign of the edge gradient del N, do not allow the identification of leading and trailing edges of the patch. The Delta N/N is an increasing function of gradient del N regardless of the sign of the gradient. The correlation between Delta N/N and Delta V is generally poor, but for a given intensity in Delta V, Delta N/N maximizes in regions of large gradients in N. There is evidence for the presence of unstructured patches that seem to co-exist with unstructured horizontal velocities. Slightly smaller spectral indices for trailing edges support the presence of the E X B drift instability. Although this instability is found to be operating in some cases, results suggest that stirring may be a significant contributor to kilometer-size structures in the polar cap.

  5. Studies of structure-activity relationship on plant polyphenol-induced suppression of human liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Loa, Jacky; Chow, Pierce; Zhang, Kai

    2009-05-01

    To study anticancer activities of 68 plant polyphenols with different backbone structures and various substitutions and to analyze the structure-activity relationships. Antiproliferative activity of 68 plant polyphenols on human liver cancer cells were screened by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Structure-activity relationships were analyzed by comparison of their activities with selected structures. Cell cycle progression was assayed by flow cytometry analysis and apoptosis was analyzed by DNA fragment assay. Based on their backbone structures, 68 polyphenols were sub-classed to flavonoids (chalcones, flavanones, flavones and isoflavones), chromones and coumarins. The order of their potency to suppress the human liver cancer cells is chalcones > flavones > chromones > isoflavones > flavanones > coumarins. Chalcones comprise the most potent group with IC(50) values ranging from 21.69 to 197 microM. Top nine most potent chalcones in the group have hydroxylation at 2'-carbon position in B-ring. Flavones ranked second in their potencies. Quercetin, 4-hydroxyflavone and luteolin are three hydroxyflavones with highest potencies in this group. Their IC(50) values are 30.81, 39.29 and 71.17 microM, respectively. Chromones, isoflavones, flavanones and coumarins showed much lower potencies when compared to the first two groups with IC(50) ranges of 61 to >400, 131 to >400, 138 to >400 and 360.85 to >400 microM, respectively. In mechanistic studies, the most potent chalcone, 2,2'-dihydroxychalcone could induce G2/M arrest and then apoptosis of the cancer cells. An analysis of structure-activity relationship showed that following structures are required for their inhibitory potencies on human liver cancer cells: (1) of the six sub-classes of the polyphenols tested, the unique backbone structure of chalcones with a open C-ring; (2) within the chalcone group, hydroxyl substitution at 2'-carbon of B-ring; (3) hydroxyl substitution at 3

  6. Increased InAs quantum dot size and density using bismuth as a surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasika, Vaishno D.; Krivoy, E. M.; Nair, H. P.; Maddox, S. J.; Park, K. W.; Jung, D.; Lee, M. L.; Yu, E. T.; Bank, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the growth of self-assembled InAs quantum dots using bismuth as a surfactant to control the dot size and density. We find that the bismuth surfactant increases the quantum dot density, size, and uniformity, enabling the extension of the emission wavelength with increasing InAs deposition without a concomitant reduction in dot density. We show that these effects are due to bismuth acting as a reactive surfactant to kinetically suppress the surface adatom mobility. This mechanism for controlling quantum dot density and size has the potential to extend the operating wavelength and enhance the performance of various optoelectronic devices.

  7. Hippo signaling regulates Microprocessor and links cell density-dependent miRNA biogenesis to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masaki; Triboulet, Robinson; Mohseni, Morvarid; Schlegelmilch, Karin; Shrestha, Kriti; Camargo, Fernando D.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in human cancers and can have a causative role in tumorigenesis. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that YAP, the downstream target of the tumor-suppressive Hippo signaling pathway regulates miRNA biogenesis in a cell density-dependent manner. At low cell density, nuclear YAP binds and sequesters p72 (DDX17), a regulatory component of the miRNA processing machinery. At high cell density, Hippo-mediated cytoplasmic retention of YAP facilitates p72 association with Microprocessor and binding to a specific sequence motif in pri-miRNAs. Inactivation of the Hippo pathway or expression of constitutively active YAP causes widespread miRNA suppression in cells and tumors and a corresponding post-transcriptional induction of MYC expression. Thus, the Hippo pathway links contact-inhibition regulation to miRNA biogenesis and may be responsible for the widespread miRNA repression observed in cancer. PMID:24581491

  8. Morphological Modifications in Myofibrils by Suppressing Tropomyosin 4α in Chicken Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoji; Fujitsuka, Chiaki; Ishibashi, Goushi; S Yoshida, Lucia; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Tropomyosin (TPM) localizes along F-actin and, together with troponin T (TnT) and other components, controls calcium-sensitive muscle contraction. The role of the TPM isoform (TPM4α) that is expressed in embryonic and adult cardiac muscle cells in chicken is poorly understood. To analyze the function of TPM4α in myofibrils, the effects of TPM4α-suppression were examined in embryonic cardiomyocytes by small interference RNA transfection. Localization of myofibril proteins such as TPM, actin, TnT, α-actinin, myosin and connectin was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy on day 5 when almost complete TPM4α-suppression occurred in culture. A unique large structure was detected, consisting of an actin aggregate bulging from the actin bundle, and many curved filaments projecting from the aggregate. TPM, TnT and actin were detected on the large structure, but myosin, connectin, α-actinin and obvious myofibril striations were undetectable. It is possible that TPM4α-suppressed actin filaments are sorted and excluded at the place of the large structure. This suggests that TPM4α-suppression significantly affects actin filament, and that TPM4α plays an important role in constructing and maintaining sarcomeres and myofibrils in cardiac muscle.

  9. Joint-inversion of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux to detect shallow subsurface density structure beneath volcanoes: Testing the method at a well-characterized site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Lewis, M.; George, N. K.; Johnson, A.; Dichter, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Guardincerri, E.

    2016-12-01

    The joint-inversion of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux measurements has been utilized by a number of groups to image subsurface density structure in a variety of settings, including volcanic edifices. Cosmic ray muons are variably-attenuated depending upon the density structure of the material they traverse, so measuring muon flux through a region of interest provides an independent constraint on the density structure. Previous theoretical studies have argued that the primary advantage of combining gravity and muon data is enhanced resolution in regions not sampled by crossing muon trajectories, e.g. in sensing deeper structure or structure adjacent to the region sampled by muons. We test these ideas by investigating the ability of gravity data alone and the joint-inversion of gravity and muon flux to image subsurface density structure, including voids, in a well-characterized field location. Our study area is a tunnel vault located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory within Quaternary ash-flow tuffs on the Pajarito Plateau, flanking the Jemez Volcano in New Mexico. The regional geology of the area is well-characterized (with density measurements in nearby wells) and the geometry of the tunnel and the surrounding terrain is known. Gravity measurements were made using a Lacoste and Romberg D meter and the muon detector has a conical acceptance region of 45 degrees from the vertical and track resolution of several milliradians. We obtain individual and joint resolution kernels for gravity and muon flux specific to our experimental design and plan to combine measurements of gravity and muon flux both within and above the tunnel to infer density structure. We plan to compare our inferred density structure against the expected densities from the known regional hydro-geologic framework.

  10. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. © 2013 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Improvement in current density of nano- and micro-structured Si solar cells by cost-effective elastomeric stamp process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kiseok; Jee, Hongsub; Lim, Sangwoo; Park, Min Joon; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2018-03-01

    Effective incident light should be controlled for improving the current density of solar cells by employing nano- and micro-structures on silicon surface. The elastomeric stamp process, which is more cost effective and simpler than conventional photolithography, was proposed for the fabrication of nano- and micro-structures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was poured on a mother pattern with a diameter of 6 μm and a spacing of 2 μm; then, curing was performed to create a PDMS mold. The regular micropattern was stamped on a low-viscosity resin-coated silicon surface, followed by the simple reactive ion etching process. Nano-structures were formed using the Ag-based electroless etching process. As etching time was increased to 6 min, reflectance decreased to 4.53% and current density improved from 22.35 to 34.72 mA/cm2.

  12. From Two- to Three-Dimensional Structures of a Supertetrahedral Boran Using Density Functional Calculations.

    PubMed

    Getmanskii, Iliya V; Minyaev, Ruslan M; Steglenko, Dmitrii V; Koval, Vitaliy V; Zaitsev, Stanislav A; Minkin, Vladimir I

    2017-08-14

    With help of the DFT calculations and imposing of periodic boundary conditions the geometrical and electronic structures were investigated of two- and three-dimensional boron systems designed on the basis of graphane and diamond lattices in which carbons were replaced with boron tetrahedrons. The consequent studies of two- and three-layer systems resulted in the construction of a three-dimensional supertetrahedral borane crystal structure. The two-dimensional supertetrahedral borane structures with less than seven layers are dynamically unstable. At the same time the three-dimensional superborane systems were found to be dynamically stable. Lack of the forbidden electronic zone for the studied boron systems testifies that these structures can behave as good conductors. The low density of the supertetrahedral borane crystal structures (0.9 g cm -3 ) is close to that of water, which offers the perspective for their application as aerospace and cosmic materials. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Understanding star formation in molecular clouds. I. Effects of line-of-sight contamination on the column density structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Ossenkopf, V.; Csengeri, T.; Klessen, R. S.; Federrath, C.; Tremblin, P.; Girichidis, P.; Bontemps, S.; André, Ph.

    2015-03-01

    Column-density maps of molecular clouds are one of the most important observables in the context of molecular cloud- and star-formation (SF) studies. With the Herschel satellite it is now possible to precisely determine the column density from dust emission, which is the best tracer of the bulk of material in molecular clouds. However, line-of-sight (LOS) contamination from fore- or background clouds can lead to overestimating the dust emission of molecular clouds, in particular for distant clouds. This implies values that are too high for column density and mass, which can potentially lead to an incorrect physical interpretation of the column density probability distribution function (PDF). In this paper, we use observations and simulations to demonstrate how LOS contamination affects the PDF. We apply a first-order approximation (removing a constant level) to the molecular clouds of Auriga and Maddalena (low-mass star-forming), and Carina and NGC 3603 (both high-mass SF regions). In perfect agreement with the simulations, we find that the PDFs become broader, the peak shifts to lower column densities, and the power-law tail of the PDF for higher column densities flattens after correction. All corrected PDFs have a lognormal part for low column densities with a peak at Av ~ 2 mag, a deviation point (DP) from the lognormal at Av(DP) ~ 4-5 mag, and a power-law tail for higher column densities. Assuming an equivalent spherical density distribution ρ ∝ r- α, the slopes of the power-law tails correspond to αPDF = 1.8, 1.75, and 2.5 for Auriga, Carina, and NGC 3603. These numbers agree within the uncertainties with the values of α ≈ 1.5,1.8, and 2.5 determined from the slope γ (with α = 1-γ) obtained from the radial column density profiles (N ∝ rγ). While α ~ 1.5-2 is consistent with a structure dominated by collapse (local free-fall collapse of individual cores and clumps and global collapse), the higher value of α > 2 for NGC 3603 requires a physical

  14. Alteration of a recombinant protein N-glycan structure in silkworms by partial suppression of N-acetylglucosaminidase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Kikuta, Kotaro; Kanematsu, Ayumi; Kondo, Sachiko; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kato, Koichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2017-09-01

    To synthesize complex type N-glycans in silkworms, shRNAs against the fused lobe from Bombyx mori (BmFDL), which codes N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) in the Golgi, was expressed by recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) in silkworm larvae. Expression was under the control of the actin promoter of B. mori or the U6-2 and i.e.-2 promoters from Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV). The reduction of specific GlcNAcase activity was observed in Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using the U6-2 promoter. In silkworm larvae, the partial suppression of BmFDL gene expression was observed. When shRNA against BmFDL was expressed under the control of U6-2 promoter, the Man 3 GlcNAc(Fuc)GlcNAc structure appeared in a main N-glycans of recombinant human IgG. These results suggested that the control of BmFDL expression by its shRNA in silkworms caused the modification of its N-glycan synthetic pathway, which may lead to the alteration of N-glycans in the expressed recombinant proteins. Suppression of BmFDL gene expression by shRNA is not sufficient to synthesize complex N-glycans in silkworm larvae but can modify the N-glycan synthetic pathway.

  15. Design and experimental validation of a flutter suppression controller for the active flexible wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and extensive simulation based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite modeling errors in predicted flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with another controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  16. Recovery of African wild dogs suppresses prey but does not trigger a trophic cascade.

    PubMed

    Ford, Adam T; Goheen, Jacob R; Augustine, David J; Kinnaird, Margaret F; O'Brien, Timothy G; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly, the restoration of large carnivores is proposed as a means through which to restore community structure and ecosystem function via trophic cascades. After a decades-long absence, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) recolonized the Laikipia Plateau in central Kenya, which we hypothesized would trigger a trophic cascade via suppression of their primary prey (dik-dik, Madoqua guentheri) and the subsequent relaxation of browsing pressure on trees. We tested the trophic-cascade hypothesis using (1) a 14-year time series of wild dog abundance; (2) surveys of dik-dik population densities conducted before and after wild dog recovery; and (3) two separate, replicated, herbivore-exclusion experiments initiated before and after wild dog recovery. The dik-dik population declined by 33% following wild dog recovery, which is best explained by wild dog predation. Dik-dik browsing suppressed tree abundance, but the strength of suppression did not differ between before and after wild dog recovery. Despite strong, top-down limitation between adjacent trophic levels (carnivore-herbivore and herbivore-plant), a trophic cascade did not occur, possibly because of a time lag in indirect effects, variation in rainfall, and foraging by herbivores other than dik-dik. Our ability to reject the trophic-cascade hypothesis required two important approaches: (1) temporally replicated herbivore exclusions, separately established before and after wild dog recovery; and (2) evaluating multiple drivers of variation in the abundance of dik-dik and trees. While the restoration of large carnivores is often a conservation priority, our results suggest that indirect effects are mediated by ecological context, and that trophic cascades are not a foregone conclusion of such recoveries.

  17. Stray light suppression of optical and mechanical system for telescope detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Ma, Wenli

    2013-09-01

    During telescope detection, there is atmosphere overflow and other stray light affecting the system which leads to background disturbance. Thus reduce the detection capability of the system. So it is very necessary to design mechanical structure to suppress the stray light for the telescope detection system. It can both improve the signal-to-noise and contrast of the object. This paper designs the optical and mechanical structure of the 400mm telescope. And then the main baffle, baffle vane, field stop and coating technology are used to eliminate the effect of stray light on the optical and mechanical system. Finally, software is used to analyze and simulate stray light on the whole optical and mechanical system. Using PST as the evaluating standard, separate and integrated analysis of the suppressing effect of main baffle, baffle vane and field aperture is completed. And also get the results of PST before and after eliminating the stray light. Meanwhile, the results of stray light analysis can be used to guide the design of the optical and mechanical structure. The analysis results demonstrate that reasonable optical and mechanical structure and stray light suppression measure can highly reduce the PST and also improve the detection capability of the telescope system, and the designed outside baffle, inside baffle, vanes and coating technique etc. can decrease the PST approximately 1 to 3 level.

  18. Aluminum manganese oxides with mixed crystal structure: high-energy-density cathodes for rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Wook; Ku, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Ryoung-Hee; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seok-Soo; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2014-07-01

    We report a new discovery for enhancing the energy density of manganese oxide (Nax MnO2 ) cathode materials for sodium rechargeable batteries by incorporation of aluminum. The Al incorporation results in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 with a mixture of tunnel and layered crystal structures. NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 shows a much higher initial discharge capacity and superior cycling performance compared to pristine Na(0.65) MnO2 . We ascribe this enhancement in performance to the formation of a new orthorhombic layered NaMnO2 phase merged with a small amount of tunnel Na(0.44) MnO2 phase in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , and to improvements in the surface stability of the NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 particles caused by the formation of Al-O bonds on their surfaces. Our findings regarding the phase transformation and structure stabilization induced by incorporation of aluminum, closely related to the structural analogy between orthorhombic Na(0.44) MnO2 and NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , suggest a strategy for achieving sodium rechargeable batteries with high energy density and stability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural Insights into High Density Lipoprotein: Old Models and New Facts

    PubMed Central

    Gogonea, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    The physiological link between circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and cardiovascular disease is well-documented, albeit its intricacies are not well-understood. An improved appreciation of HDL function and overall role in vascular health and disease requires at its foundation a better understanding of the lipoprotein's molecular structure, its formation, and its process of maturation through interactions with various plasma enzymes and cell receptors that intervene along the pathway of reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on summarizing recent developments in the field of lipid free apoA-I and HDL structure, with emphasis on new insights revealed by newly published nascent and spherical HDL models constructed by combining low resolution structures obtained from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation and geometrical constraints derived from hydrogen–deuterium exchange (HDX), crosslinking mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, Förster resonance energy transfer, and electron spin resonance. Recently published low resolution structures of nascent and spherical HDL obtained from SANS with contrast variation and isotopic labeling of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) will be critically reviewed and discussed in terms of how they accommodate existing biophysical structural data from alternative approaches. The new low resolution structures revealed and also provided some answers to long standing questions concerning lipid organization and particle maturation of lipoproteins. The review will discuss the merits of newly proposed SANS based all atom models for nascent and spherical HDL, and compare them with accepted models. Finally, naturally occurring and bioengineered mutations in apoA-I, and their impact on HDL phenotype, are reviewed and discuss together with new therapeutics employed for restoring HDL function. PMID:26793109

  20. Density Functional Theory Calculations Revealing Metal-like Band Structures for Ultrathin Ge {111} and {211} Surface Layers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chih-Shan; Huang, Michael Hsuan-Yi

    2018-05-21

    To find out if germanium should also possess facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties, surface state density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on 1-6 layers of Ge (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes. Tunable Ge (100) and (110) planes always present the same semiconducting band structure with a band gap of 0.67 eV expected of bulk germanium. In contrast, 1, 2, 4, and 5 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models show metal-like band structures with continuous density of states (DOS) throughout the entire band. For 3 and 6 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models, the normal semiconducting band structure was obtained. The plane layers with metal-like band structures also show Ge-Ge bond length deviations and bond distortions, as well as significantly different 4s and 4p frontier orbital electron count and their relative percentages integrated over the valence and conduction bands from those of the semiconducting state. These differences should contribute to strikingly dissimilar band structures. The calculation results suggest observation of facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties of germanium materials, and transistors made of germanium may also need to consider the facet effects with shrinking dimensions approaching 3 nm. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Grey matter density changes of structures involved in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after recovery following Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy.

    PubMed

    Boukezzi, Sarah; El Khoury-Malhame, Myriam; Auzias, Guillaume; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Pierre-François; Richard, Emmanuel; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Roques, Jacques; Castelli, Nathalie; Correard, Nadia; Guyon, Valérie; Gellato, Caroline; Samuelian, Jean-Claude; Cancel, Aida; Comte, Magali; Latinus, Marianne; Guedj, Eric; Khalfa, Stéphanie

    2017-08-30

    Recovery of stress-induced structural alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether symptoms improvement is associated with grey matter (GM) density changes of brain structures involved in PTSD. Two groups of PTSD patients were involved in this study. The first group was treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and recovered from their symptoms (recovery group) (n = 11); Patients were scanned prior to therapy (T1), one week (T2) and five months after the end of therapy (T3). The second group included patients which followed a supportive therapy and remained symptomatic (wait-list group) (n = 7). They were scanned at three time-steps mimicking the same inter-scan intervals. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to characterize GM density evolution. GM density values showed a significant group-by-time interaction effect between T1 and T3 in prefrontal cortex areas. These interaction effects were driven by a GM density increase in the recovery group with respect to the wait-list group. Symptoms removal goes hand-in-hand with GM density enhancement of structures involved in emotional regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  3. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-01-01

    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin. PMID:23679639

  4. Arginase Inhibition Suppresses Native Low-Density Lipoprotein-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by NADPH Oxidase Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon Hyeock; Yi, Bong Gu; Wang, Wi Kwang; Ko, In Young; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kwon, Young Guen; Won, Moo Ho; Kim, Young Myeong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2018-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  5. Arginase Inhibition Suppresses Native Low-Density Lipoprotein-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by NADPH Oxidase Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wi-Kwang; Ko, In-Young; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kwon, Young-Guen; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. Materials and Methods Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. Results Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Conclusion Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation. PMID

  6. Suppression on your own terms: internally generated displays of craving suppression predict rebound effects.

    PubMed

    Sayers, W Michael; Sayette, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotion suppression has shown a rebound effect, in which expression of the targeted emotion increases following a suppression attempt. In prior investigations, participants have been explicitly instructed to suppress their responses, which has drawn the act of suppression into metaconsciousness. Yet emerging research emphasizes the importance of nonconscious approaches to emotion regulation. This study is the first in which a craving rebound effect was evaluated without simultaneously raising awareness about suppression. We aimed to link spontaneously occurring attempts to suppress cigarette craving to increased smoking motivation assessed immediately thereafter. Smokers (n = 66) received a robust cued smoking-craving manipulation while their facial responses were videotaped and coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Following smoking-cue exposure, participants completed a behavioral choice task previously found to index smoking motivation. Participants evincing suppression-related facial expressions during cue exposure subsequently valued smoking more than did those not displaying these expressions, which suggests that internally generated suppression can exert powerful rebound effects.

  7. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic effects of stomatal density in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyejung; Feakins, Sarah J.; Sternberg, Leonel da S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomata are key gateways mediating carbon uptake and water loss from plants. Varied stomatal densities in fossil leaves raise the possibility that isotope effects associated with the openness of exchange may have mediated plant wax biomarker isotopic proxies for paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the geological record. Here we use Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely used model organism, to provide the first controlled tests of stomatal density on carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of cuticular waxes. Laboratory grown wildtype and mutants with suppressed and overexpressed stomatal densities allow us to directly test the isotope effects of stomatal densities independent of most other environmental or biological variables. Hydrogen isotope (D/H) measurements of both plant waters and plant wax n-alkanes allow us to directly constrain the isotopic effects of leaf water isotopic enrichment via transpiration and biosynthetic fractionations, which together determine the net fractionation between irrigation water and n-alkane hydrogen isotopic composition. We also measure carbon isotopic fractionations of n-alkanes and bulk leaf tissue associated with different stomatal densities. We find offsets of +15‰ for δD and -3‰ for δ13C for the overexpressed mutant compared to the suppressed mutant. Since the range of stomatal densities expressed is comparable to that found in extant plants and the Cenozoic fossil record, the results allow us to consider the magnitude of isotope effects that may be incurred by these plant adaptive responses. This study highlights the potential of genetic mutants to isolate individual isotope effects and add to our fundamental understanding of how genetics and physiology influence plant biochemicals including plant wax biomarkers.

  8. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  9. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  10. Density functional theory study of the structural and bonding mechanism of molecular oxygen (O2) with C3Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Saroj K.; Behera, C.; Sahu, Sridhar

    2018-07-01

    The investigations of pure and heteroatom doped carbon clusters have created great interest because of their enormous prospective applications in various research zones, for example, optoelectronics, semiconductors, material science, energy storage devices, astro-science and so on. In this article, the interaction of molecular oxygen (O2) with C3Si has explored within a density functional theory (DFT). Different possible types of structure for C3SiO2 have collected. Among five different kinds of structure, the structure-1a, 1A1 is more energetically stable. The nature of the bonding of O2 and C3Si, in C3SiO2 has been studied by using Bader's topological analysis of the electron charge density distribution ρ(r) , Laplacian ∇2 ρ(r) and total energy density H(r) at the bond critical points (BCPs) of the structures within the framework of the atoms in molecules theory (AIM). The bonding mechanism of O2 and C3Si in C3SiO2 prompts to the fundamental understanding of the interaction of C3Si with oxygen molecule. It is interesting to note that, two types of bonding mechanism are established in same C3SiO2 system such as (i) shared-kind interactions (ii) closed-shell interactions. From various kinds of structure, Csbnd C bonds in all structures are shown as shared-kind interactions whereas Csbnd Si, Osbnd O bonds are classified as closed-shell type interactions with a certain degree of covalent character.

  11. Density functional theory calculations establish the experimental evidence of the DX center atomic structure in CdTe.

    PubMed

    Lany, Stephan; Wolf, Herbert; Wichert, Thomas

    2004-06-04

    The In DX center and the DX-like configuration of the Cd host atom in CdTe are investigated using density functional theory. The simultaneous calculation of the atomic structure and the electric field gradient (EFG) allows one to correlate the theoretically predicted structure of the DX center with an experimental observable, namely, the EFG obtained from radioactive 111In/111Cd probe atoms in In doped CdTe. In this way, the experimental identification of the DX center structure is established.

  12. Electronic structure and electron-phonon interaction in hexagonal yttrium by density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prabhakar P.

    2007-03-01

    To understand the pressure-induced changes in the electronic structure and the electron-phonon interaction in yttrium, we have studied hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) yttrium, stable at ambient pressure, and double hexagonal-close-packed (dhcp) yttrium, stable up to around 44GPa , using density-functional-based methods. Our results show that as one goes from hcp yttrium to dhcp yttrium, there are (i) a substantial charge transfer from s→d with extensive modifications of the d band and a sizable reduction in the density of states at the Fermi energy, (ii) a substantial stiffening of phonon modes with the electron-phonon coupling covering the entire frequency range, and (iii) an increase in the electron-phonon coupling constant λ from 0.55 to 1.24, leading to a change in the superconducting transition temperature Tc from 0.3to15.3K for μ*=0.2 .

  13. Increased electron temperature turbulence during suppression of edge localized mode by resonant magnetic perturbations in the DIII-D tokamak [Increased electron temperature turbulence during edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Sung, Choongki; Wang, G.; Rhodes, Terry L.; ...

    2017-11-16

    We report the first observation of increased edge electron temperature turbulence correlated with changes in gradients and the ELM suppression time which occurs after the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) on DIII-D H-mode plasmas. This increase (T ~ e/T e approximately doubles) occurs in the region extending from the top of the pedestal outward to the upper part of the edge steep gradient region. This is significant as it is consistent with increased turbulence driven transport potentially replacing some part of the edge localized mode (ELM) driven transport. However, temperature turbulence does not change with the initial RMP applicationmore » while ELMs are still present, indicating the turbulence changes are not causative in the development of ELM suppression or initial profile evolution with RMP – but rather a response to these effects. This temperature turbulence is broadband and long wavelength, k θρ s < 0.5, where k θ = poloidal wavenumber, ρ s = ion sound gyroradius. As has been reported previously, long wavelength density turbulence (k θρ s < 1.0) in the same location also increases after ELMs were suppressed by the RMP. Since the decrease of the density starts nearly immediately with RMP application, these results suggest that the so-called RMP “density pump-out” is not linked to these long wavelength turbulent transport changes. Comparison with linear stability analysis finds both consistencies and inconsistencies in this important region.« less

  14. Increased electron temperature turbulence during suppression of edge localized mode by resonant magnetic perturbations in the DIII-D tokamak [Increased electron temperature turbulence during edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sung, Choongki; Wang, G.; Rhodes, Terry L.

    We report the first observation of increased edge electron temperature turbulence correlated with changes in gradients and the ELM suppression time which occurs after the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) on DIII-D H-mode plasmas. This increase (T ~ e/T e approximately doubles) occurs in the region extending from the top of the pedestal outward to the upper part of the edge steep gradient region. This is significant as it is consistent with increased turbulence driven transport potentially replacing some part of the edge localized mode (ELM) driven transport. However, temperature turbulence does not change with the initial RMP applicationmore » while ELMs are still present, indicating the turbulence changes are not causative in the development of ELM suppression or initial profile evolution with RMP – but rather a response to these effects. This temperature turbulence is broadband and long wavelength, k θρ s < 0.5, where k θ = poloidal wavenumber, ρ s = ion sound gyroradius. As has been reported previously, long wavelength density turbulence (k θρ s < 1.0) in the same location also increases after ELMs were suppressed by the RMP. Since the decrease of the density starts nearly immediately with RMP application, these results suggest that the so-called RMP “density pump-out” is not linked to these long wavelength turbulent transport changes. Comparison with linear stability analysis finds both consistencies and inconsistencies in this important region.« less

  15. Atomistic Design of CdSe/CdS Core-Shell Quantum Dots with Suppressed Auger Recombination.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-10-12

    We design quasi-type-II CdSe/CdS core-shell colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) exhibiting a suppressed Auger recombination rate. We do so using fully atomistic tight-binding wave functions and microscopic Coulomb interactions. The recombination rate as a function of the core and shell size and shape is tested against experiments. Because of a higher density of deep hole states and stronger hole confinement, Auger recombination is found to be up to six times faster for positive trions compared to negative ones in 4 nm core/10 nm shell CQDs. Soft-confinement at the interface results in weak suppression of Auger recombination compared to same-bandgap sharp-interface CQDs. We find that the suppression is due to increased volume of the core resulting in delocalization of the wave functions, rather than due to soft-confinement itself. We show that our results are consistent with previous effective mass models with the same system parameters. Increasing the dot volume remains the most efficient way to suppress Auger recombination. We predict that a 4-fold suppression of Auger recombination can be achieved in 10 nm CQDs by increasing the core volume by using rodlike cores embedded in thick shells.

  16. Origin of the 20-electron structure of Mg3 MnH7 : Density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M.; Singh, D. J.; Gupta, R.

    2005-03-01

    The electronic structure and stability of the 20-electron complex hydride, Mg3MnH7 is studied using density functional calculations. The heat of formation is larger in magnitude than that of MgH2 . The deviation from the 18-electron rule is explained by the predominantly ionic character of the band structure and a large crystal-field splitting of the Mn d bands. In particular, each H provides one deep band accomodating two electrons, while the Mn t2g bands hold an additional six electrons per formula unit.

  17. CC-Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) Suppresses High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Internalization and Cholesterol Efflux via CC-Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) Induction and p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation in Human Endothelial Cells *

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Run-Lu; Huang, Can-Xia; Bao, Jin-Lan; Jiang, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Cai, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to be internalized and to promote reverse cholesterol transport in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism underlying these processes has not been studied. In this study, we aim to characterize HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux in ECs and regulatory mechanisms. We found mature HDL particles were reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which was associated with an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In cultured primary human coronary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we determined that CCL2 suppressed the binding (4 °C) and association (37 °C) of HDL to/with ECs and HDL cellular internalization. Furthermore, CCL2 inhibited [3H]cholesterol efflux to HDL/apoA1 in ECs. We further found that CCL2 induced CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and siRNA-CCR2 reversed CCL2 suppression on HDL binding, association, internalization, and on cholesterol efflux in ECs. Moreover, CCL2 induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation via CCR2, and p42/44 MAPK inhibition reversed the suppression of CCL2 on HDL metabolism in ECs. Our study suggests that CCL2 was elevated in CAD patients. CCL2 suppressed HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux via CCR2 induction and p42/44 MAPK activation in ECs. CCL2 induction may contribute to impair HDL function and form atherosclerosis in CAD. PMID:27458015

  18. The Influence of Stand Density and Structure on Growth of Northern Hardwoods in New England

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon

    1977-01-01

    Growth of northern hardwoods over a 10-year period was studied in plots that were treated to produce residual densities of 40, 60, 80, and 100 square feet of basal area per acre with stand structures of 30, 45 and 60 percent sawtimber. Both diameter and basal area growth are tabulated by treatment and species.

  19. Numerical Study of Hydrothermal Wave Suppression in Thermocapillary Flow Using a Predictive Control Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldoon, F. H.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal waves in flows driven by thermocapillary and buoyancy effects are suppressed by applying a predictive control method. Hydrothermal waves arise in the manufacturing of crystals, including the "open boat" crystal growth process, and lead to undesirable impurities in crystals. The open boat process is modeled using the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation and the linear approximation of the surface thermocapillary force. The flow is controlled by a spatially and temporally varying heat flux density through the free surface. The heat flux density is determined by a conjugate gradient optimization algorithm. The gradient of the objective function with respect to the heat flux density is found by solving adjoint equations derived from the Navier-Stokes ones in the Boussinesq approximation. Special attention is given to heat flux density distributions over small free-surface areas and to the maximum admissible heat flux density.

  20. Structural discrimination via density functional theory and lattice dynamics: Monoclinic Mg2NiH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J. F.; Hector, L. G., Jr.

    2009-04-01

    Two distinct crystal structures for the monoclinic, low-temperature phase of Mg2NiH4 , which we designate as LTI and LTII, are available in the published literature. We demonstrate that density functional theory and lattice dynamics can easily identify LTII as the preferable structure at two levels of inquiry. First, enthalpies of formation ΔH calculated using three different forms for the exchange-correlation energy functional are in better agreement with experiment for LTII. Second, the phonon spectrum calculated for LTII contains no anomalies while that for LTI exhibits a variety of soft modes. By analyzing the soft modes in LTI as well as those we find for the known CaMgNiH4 structure with Ca replaced by Mg we derive a crystal structure that closely approximates LTII.

  1. Suppression of invasive lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredenberg, C. R.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Syslo, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Fisheries managers have implemented suppression programmes to control non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), in several lakes throughout the western United States. This study determined the feasibility of experimentally suppressing lake trout using gillnets in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, for the conservation of threatened bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley). The demographics of the lake trout population during suppression (2009–2013) were described, and those data were used to assess the effects of suppression scenarios on population growth rate (λ) using an age-structured population model. Model simulations indicated that the population was growing exponentially (λ = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.28) prior to suppression. However, suppression resulted in declining λ(0.61–0.79) for lake trout, which was concomitant with stable bull trout adult abundances. Continued suppression at or above observed exploitation levels is needed to ensure continued population declines.

  2. Spatial Structure of Large-Scale Plasma Density Perturbations HF-Induced in the Ionospheric F 2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Komrakov, G. P.; Glukhov, Ya. V.; Andreeva, E. S.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Kurbatov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the experimental results obtained by studying the large-scale structure of the HF-disturbed ionospheric region. The experiments were performed using the SURA heating facility. The disturbed ionospheric region was sounded by signals radiated by GPS navigation satellite beacons as well as by signals of low-orbit satellites (radio tomography). The results of the experiments show that large-scale plasma density perturbations induced at altitudes higher than the F2 layer maximum can contribute significantly to the measured variations of the total electron density and can, with a certain arrangement of the reception points, be measured by the GPS sounding method.

  3. Three-Dimensional Isotropic Fat-Suppressed Proton Density-Weighted MRI at 3 Tesla Using a T/R-Coil Can Replace Multiple Plane Two-Dimensional Sequences in Knee Imaging.

    PubMed

    Homsi, R; Gieseke, J; Luetkens, J A; Kupczyk, P; Maedler, B; Kukuk, G M; Träber, F; Agha, B; Rauch, M; Rajakaruna, N; Willinek, W; Schild, H H; Hadizadeh, D R

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether a 3 D proton density-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (PDwFS) of the knee is able to replace multiplanar 2D-PDwFS. 52 patients (26 men, mean age: 41.9 ± 14.5years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at 3.0 Tesla using a T/R-coil. The imaging protocol included 3 planes of 2D-PDwFS (acquisition time (AT): 6:40 min; voxel sizes: 0.40 - 0.63 × 0.44 - 0.89 × 3mm³) and a 3D-PDwFS (AT: 6:31 min; voxel size: 0.63 × 0.68 × 0.63mm³). Homogeneity of fat suppression (HFS), artifacts, and image sharpness (IS) were evaluated on a 5-point scale (5[excellent] - 1[non-diagnostic]). The sum served as a measure for the overall image quality (OIQ). Contrast ratios (CR) compared to popliteal muscle were calculated for the meniscus (MEN), anterior (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL). In 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery, two radiologists evaluated the presence of meniscal, ligamental and cartilage lesions to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. The CR was higher in the ACL, PCL and MEN in 3D- PDwFS compared to 2D-PDwFS (p < 0.01 for ACL and PCL; p = 0.07 for MEN). Compared to 2 D images, the OIQ was rated higher in 3D-PDwFS images (p < 0.01) due to fewer artifacts and HFS despite the lower IS (p < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection in 3D- and 2D-PDwFS were similar. Compared to standard multiplanar 2D-PDwFS knee imaging, isotropic high spatial resolution 3D-PDwFS of the knee at 3.0 T can be acquired with high image quality in a reasonable scan time. Multiplanar reformations in arbitrary planes may serve as an additional benefit of 3D-PDwFS. • 3D-PDwFS of the knee is acquired with high image quality• 3D-PDwFS can be achieved in only one measurement with a reasonable scan time• 3D-PDwFS with the advantage of multiplanar reformation may replace 2D-PD-weighted knee MRI Citation Format: • Homsi R, Gieseke

  4. Calcitonin-typical suppression of osteoclastic activity by amphioxus calcitonin superfamily peptides and insights into the evolutionary conservation and diversity of their structures.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Shiraishi, Akira; Satake, Honoo; Kuwasako, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sato, Masayuki; Urata, Makoto; Wada, Shuichi; Endo, Masato; Ikari, Takahiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Srivastav, Ajai K; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2017-05-15

    Calcitonin (CT) is a hormone that decreases serum calcium level by suppressing osteoclastic activity in the vertebrate bone. In vertebrates, the structure-function relationship of CTs has been studied extensively. We recently identified three CT superfamily peptides, Bf-CTFP1 to 3, and clarified the molecular and functional characteristics of their receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. However, the CT activity of Bf-CTFPs has yet to be investigated. In the present study, a functional analysis of Bf-CTFPs was performed using goldfish scales having both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. All Bf-CTFPs suppressed osteoclastic activity via a goldfish CT receptor. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Bf-CTFPs showed low sequence similarity to vertebrate CTs, Bf-CTFP1 to 3 share three amino acids, Thr 25 , Thr 27 , and Pro 32 -NH 2 , that are required for receptor binding, with salmon CT. Moreover, homology model analysis revealed that the Bf-CTFPs form alpha-helical structures. The alpha-helical position and length of Bf-CTFP1 and 2 were conserved with those of a highly potent ligand, teleost CT. Interestingly, the composition of the alpha-helix of Bf-CTFP3 differed from those of teleost CT, despite that the action of Bf-CTFP3 on goldfish scales was the same as that of Bf-CTFP1 and 2. Collectively, the present study provides new insights into the structure-function relationship of CT and its functional evolution in chordates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Two-dimensional modeling of density and thermal structure of dense circumstellar outflowing disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfürst, P.; Feldmeier, A.; Krtička, J.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Evolution of massive stars is affected by a significant loss of mass either via (nearly) spherically symmetric stellar winds or by aspherical mass-loss mechanisms, namely the outflowing equatorial disks. However, the scenario that leads to the formation of a disk or rings of gas and dust around massive stars is still under debate. It is also unclear how various forming physical mechanisms of the circumstellar environment affect its shape and density, as well as its kinematic and thermal structure. Aims: We study the hydrodynamic and thermal structure of optically thick, dense parts of outflowing circumstellar disks that may be formed around various types of critically rotating massive stars, for example, Be stars, B[e] supergiant (sgB[e]) stars or Pop III stars. We calculate self-consistent time-dependent models of temperature and density structure in the disk's inner dense region that is strongly affected by irradiation from a rotationally oblate central star and by viscous heating. Methods: Using the method of short characteristics, we specify the optical depth of the disk along the line-of-sight from stellar poles. Within the optically thick dense region with an optical depth of τ > 2/3 we calculate the vertical disk thermal structure using the diffusion approximation while for the optically thin outer layers we assume a local thermodynamic equilibrium with the impinging stellar irradiation. For time-dependent hydrodynamic modeling, we use two of our own types of hydrodynamic codes: two-dimensional operator-split numerical code based on an explicit Eulerian finite volume scheme on a staggered grid, and unsplit code based on the Roe's method, both including full second-order Navier-Stokes shear viscosity. Results: Our models show the geometric distribution and contribution of viscous heating that begins to dominate in the central part of the disk for mass-loss rates higher than Ṁ ≳ 10-10 M⊙ yr-1. In the models of dense viscous disks with Ṁ > 10

  6. Structure and Stability of Molecular Crystals with Many-Body Dispersion-Inclusive Density Functional Tight Binding.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Majid; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Maurer, Reinhard J; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2018-01-18

    Accurate prediction of structure and stability of molecular crystals is crucial in materials science and requires reliable modeling of long-range dispersion interactions. Semiempirical electronic structure methods are computationally more efficient than their ab initio counterparts, allowing structure sampling with significant speedups. We combine the Tkatchenko-Scheffler van der Waals method (TS) and the many-body dispersion method (MBD) with third-order density functional tight-binding (DFTB3) via a charge population-based method. We find an overall good performance for the X23 benchmark database of molecular crystals, despite an underestimation of crystal volume that can be traced to the DFTB parametrization. We achieve accurate lattice energy predictions with DFT+MBD energetics on top of vdW-inclusive DFTB3 structures, resulting in a speedup of up to 3000 times compared with a full DFT treatment. This suggests that vdW-inclusive DFTB3 can serve as a viable structural prescreening tool in crystal structure prediction.

  7. Density of dislocations in CdHgTe heteroepitaxial structures on GaAs(013) and Si(013) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Yu. G.; Yakushev, M. V.; Varavin, V. S.; Kolesnikov, A. V.; Trukhanov, E. M.; Sabinina, I. V.; Loshkarev, I. D.

    2015-11-01

    Epitaxial layers of Cd x Hg1- x Te (MCT) on GaAs(013) and Si(013) substrates were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The introduction of ZnTe and CdTe intermediate layers into the structures made it possible to retain the orientation close to that of the substrate in MCT epitaxial layers despite the large mismatch between the lattice parameters. The structures were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The dislocation families predominantly removing the mismatch between the lattice parameters were found. Transmission electron microscopy revealed Γ-shaped misfit dislocations (MDs), which facilitated the annihilation of threading dislocations. The angles of rotation of the lattice due to the formation of networks of misfit dislocations were measured. It was shown that the density of threading dislocations in the active region of photodiodes is primarily determined by the network of misfit dislocations formed in the MCT/CdTe heterojunction. A decrease in the density of threading dislocations in the MCT film was achieved by cyclic annealing under conditions of the maximally facilitated nonconservative motion of dislocations. The dislocation density was determined from the etch pits.

  8. A weak-coupling immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interaction with low density ratio of solid to fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woojin; Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon

    2018-04-01

    We present a weak-coupling approach for fluid-structure interaction with low density ratio (ρ) of solid to fluid. For accurate and stable solutions, we introduce predictors, an explicit two-step method and the implicit Euler method, to obtain provisional velocity and position of fluid-structure interface at each time step, respectively. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with these provisional velocity and position at the fluid-structure interface, are solved in an Eulerian coordinate using an immersed-boundary finite-volume method on a staggered mesh. The dynamic equation of an elastic solid-body motion, together with the hydrodynamic force at the provisional position of the interface, is solved in a Lagrangian coordinate using a finite element method. Each governing equation for fluid and structure is implicitly solved using second-order time integrators. The overall second-order temporal accuracy is preserved even with the use of lower-order predictors. A linear stability analysis is also conducted for an ideal case to find the optimal explicit two-step method that provides stable solutions down to the lowest density ratio. With the present weak coupling, three different fluid-structure interaction problems were simulated: flows around an elastically mounted rigid circular cylinder, an elastic beam attached to the base of a stationary circular cylinder, and a flexible plate, respectively. The lowest density ratios providing stable solutions are searched for the first two problems and they are much lower than 1 (ρmin = 0.21 and 0.31, respectively). The simulation results agree well with those from strong coupling suggested here and also from previous numerical and experimental studies, indicating the efficiency and accuracy of the present weak coupling.

  9. Equilibrium Structures and Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular Clusters using Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-04

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--17-9723 Equilibrium Structures and Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular...Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular Clusters using Density Functional Theory L. Huang, S.G. Lambrakos, and L. Massa1 Naval Research Laboratory, Code...and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The size of the clusters considered is relatively large compared to those considered in

  10. Gravitational Effects on Near Field Flow Structure of Low Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, D. W.; Yep, T. W.; Agrawal, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Earth gravity and microgravity to acquire quantitative data on near field flow structure of helium jets injected into air. Microgravity conditions were simulated in the 2.2- second drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet flow was observed by quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a non-intrusive line of site measurement technique for the whole field. The flow structure was characterized by distributions of angular deflection and helium mole percentage obtained from color schlieren images taken at 60 Hz. Results show that the jet in microgravity was up to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. The global jet flow oscillations observed in Earth gravity were absent in microgravity, providing direct experimental evidence that the flow instability in the low density jet was buoyancy induced. The paper provides quantitative details of temporal flow evolution as the experiment undergoes change in gravity in the drop tower.

  11. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741; Jeon, Heeyoung

    2014-02-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup −5} gm{sup −2} day{sup −1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{submore » 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.« less

  12. A surface structural model for ferrihydrite I: Sites related to primary charge, molar mass, and mass density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2009-08-01

    A multisite surface complexation (MUSIC) model for ferrihydrite (Fh) has been developed. The surface structure and composition of Fh nanoparticles are described in relation to ion binding and surface charge development. The site densities of the various reactive surface groups, the molar mass, the mass density, the specific surface area, and the particle size are quantified. As derived theoretically, molecular mass and mass density of nanoparticles will depend on the types of surface groups and the corresponding site densities and will vary with particle size and surface area because of a relatively large contribution of the surface groups in comparison to the mineral core of nanoparticles. The nano-sized (˜2.6 nm) particles of freshly prepared 2-line Fh as a whole have an increased molar mass of M ˜ 101 ± 2 g/mol Fe, a reduced mass density of ˜3.5 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, both relatively to the mineral core. The specific surface area is ˜650 m 2/g. Six-line Fh (5-6 nm) has a molar mass of M ˜ 94 ± 2 g/mol, a mass density of ˜3.9 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, and a surface area of ˜280 ± 30 m 2/g. Data analysis shows that the mineral core of Fh has an average chemical composition very close to FeOOH with M ˜ 89 g/mol. The mineral core has a mass density around ˜4.15 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, which is between that of feroxyhyte, goethite, and lepidocrocite. These results can be used to constrain structural models for Fh. Singly-coordinated surface groups dominate the surface of ferrihydrite (˜6.0 ± 0.5 nm -2). These groups can be present in two structural configurations. In pairs, the groups either form the edge of a single Fe-octahedron (˜2.5 nm -2) or are present at a single corner (˜3.5 nm -2) of two adjacent Fe octahedra. These configurations can form bidentate surface complexes by edge- and double-corner sharing, respectively, and may therefore respond differently to the binding of ions such as uranyl, carbonate, arsenite, phosphate, and others. The relatively low PZC of

  13. Temperature as a third dimension in column-density mapping of dusty astrophysical structures associated with star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Whitworth, A. P.; Lomax, O.

    2015-12-01

    We present point process mapping (PPMAP), a Bayesian procedure that uses images of dust continuum emission at multiple wavelengths to produce resolution-enhanced image cubes of differential column density as a function of dust temperature and position. PPMAP is based on the generic `point process formalism, whereby the system of interest (in this case, a dusty astrophysical structure such as a filament or pre-stellar core) is represented by a collection of points in a suitably defined state space. It can be applied to a variety of observational data, such as Herschel images, provided only that the image intensity is delivered by optically thin dust in thermal equilibrium. PPMAP takes full account of the instrumental point-spread functions and does not require all images to be degraded to the same resolution. We present the results of testing using simulated data for a pre-stellar core and a fractal turbulent cloud, and demonstrate its performance with real data from the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL). Specifically, we analyse observations of a large filamentary structure in the CMa OB1 giant molecular cloud. Histograms of differential column density indicate that the warm material (T ≳ 13 K) is distributed lognormally, consistent with turbulence, but the column densities of the cooler material are distributed as a high-density tail, consistent with the effects of self-gravity. The results illustrate the potential of PPMAP to aid in distinguishing between different physical components along the line of sight in star-forming clouds, and aid the interpretation of the associated Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of column density.

  14. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  15. Why did the white bear return? Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and attributions for unsuccessful thought suppression

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Joshua C.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the nature and consequences of attributions about unsuccessful thought suppression. Undergraduate students with either high (N=67) or low (N=59) levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms rated attributions to explain their unsuccessful thought suppression attempts. We expected that self-blaming attributions and attributions ascribing importance to unwanted thoughts would predict more distress and greater recurrence of thoughts during time spent monitoring or suppressing unwanted thoughts. Further, we expected that these attributions would mediate the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom levels and the negative thought suppression outcomes (distress and thought recurrence). Structural equation models largely confirmed the hypotheses, suggesting that attributions may be an important factor in explaining the consequences of thought suppression. Implications are discussed for cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder and thought suppression. PMID:17825786

  16. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction and suppression of density limit disruptions in a current-carrying stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xinxing; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Maurer, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstructions have been routinely performed with the V3FIT code in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a stellarator/tokamak hybrid. In addition to 50 external magnetic measurements, 160 SXR emissivity measurements are incorporated into V3FIT to reconstruct the magnetic flux surface geometry and infer the current distribution within the plasma. Improved reconstructions of current and q profiles provide insight into understanding the physics of density limit disruptions observed in current-carrying discharges in CTH. It is confirmed that the final scenario of the density limit of CTH plasmas is consistent with classic observations in tokamaks: current profile shrinkage leads to growing MHD instabilities (tearing modes) followed by a loss of MHD equilibrium. It is also observed that the density limit at a given current linearly increases with increasing amounts of 3D shaping fields. Consequently, plasmas with densities up to two times the Greenwald limit are attained. Equilibrium reconstructions show that addition of 3D fields effectively moves resonance surfaces towards the edge of the plasma where the current profile gradient is less, providing a stabilizing effect. This work is supported by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  17. INFERRING THE CORONAL DENSITY IRREGULARITY FROM EUV SPECTRA

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W., E-mail: mhahn@astro.columbia.edu

    2016-09-20

    Understanding the density structure of the solar corona is important for modeling both coronal heating and the solar wind. Direct measurements are difficult because of line-of-sight integration and possible unresolved structures. We present a new method for quantifying such structures using density-sensitive extreme ultraviolet line intensities to derive a density irregularity parameter, a relative measure of the amount of structure along the line of sight. We also present a simple model to relate the inferred irregularities to physical quantities, such as the filling factor and density contrast. For quiet-Sun regions and interplume regions of coronal holes, we find a densitymore » contrast of at least a factor of 3–10 and corresponding filling factors of about 10%–20%. Our results are in rough agreement with other estimates of the density structures in these regions. The irregularity diagnostic provides a useful relative measure of unresolved structure in various regions of the corona.« less

  18. Structural, dielectric and impedance spectroscopy studies in Co doped La0.7Te0.3MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthaman, Bhagya; Revathy, R.; Job, Rojerce Brown; Varma, Manoj Raama

    2018-05-01

    The effect of cobalt doping on the structural and dielectric properties of the electron-doped manganite La0.7Te0.3Mn1-xCoxO3 (x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) has been investigated. Cobalt substitution induces a structural transition from rhombohedral structure (R-3 c space group) to orthorhombic structure (Pbnm space group). It is observed that, dielectric constant decreases with Co concentration which could be due to suppression of double exchange (DE) interaction between Mn2+ and Mn3+. Also, the effect of the grain and grain boundary density on the dielectric response is studied using Cole-Cole plots.

  19. Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

  20. Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.

  1. Rocket experiments for spectral estimation of electron density fine structure in the auroral and equatorial ionosphere and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomei, B. A.; Smith, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Sounding rockets equipped to monitor electron density and its fine structure were launched into the auroral and equatorial ionosphere in 1980 and 1983, respectively. The measurement electronics are based on the Langmuir probe and are described in detail. An approach to the spectral analysis of the density irregularities is addressed and a software algorithm implementing the approach is given. Preliminary results of the analysis are presented.

  2. Effects of Interactions among Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, and Host Genotype on Soybean Yield and Nematode Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Niblack, T. L.; Hussey, R. S.; Boerma, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of host genotype and initial nematode population densities (Pi) on yield of soybean and soil population densities of Heterodera glycines (Hg) race 3 and Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) race 3 were studied in a greenhouse and field microplots in 1983 and 1984. Centennial (resistant to Hg and Mi), Braxton (resistant to Mi, susceptible to Hg), and Coker 237 (susceptible to Hg and Mi) were planted in soil infested with 0, 31, or 124 eggs of Hg and Mi, individually and in all combinations, per 100 cm³ soil. Yield responses of the soybean cultivars to individual and combined infestations of Hg and Mi were primarily dependent on soybean resistance or susceptibility to each species separately. Yield of Centennial was stimulated or unaffected by nematode treatments, yield of Braxton was suppressed by Hg only, and yield suppressions caused by Hg and Mi were additive and dependent on Pi for Coker 237. Other plant responses to nematodes were also dependent on host resistance or susceptibility. Population densities of Mi second-stage juveniles (J2) in soil were related to Mi Pi and remained constant in the presence of Hg for all three cultivars. Population densities of Hg J2 on the two Hg-susceptible Cultivars, Braxton and Coker 237, were suppressed in the presence of Mi at low Hg Pi. PMID:19294208

  3. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  4. Density Functionals of Chemical Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of electrons in general many-electronic systems throughout the density functionals of energy is reviewed. The basic physico-chemical concepts of density functional theory are employed to highlight the energy role in chemical structure while its extended influence in electronic localization function helps in chemical bonding understanding. In this context the energy functionals accompanied by electronic localization functions may provide a comprehensive description of the global-local levels electronic structures in general and of chemical bonds in special. Becke-Edgecombe and author’s Markovian electronic localization functions are discussed at atomic, molecular and solid state levels. Then, the analytical survey of the main workable kinetic, exchange, and correlation density functionals within local and gradient density approximations is undertaken. The hierarchy of various energy functionals is formulated by employing both the parabolic and statistical correlation degree of them with the electronegativity and chemical hardness indices by means of quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis for basic atomic and molecular systems. PMID:19325846

  5. Local spin density functional investigations of a manganite with perovskite-type derived structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, S. F.; Studer, F.; Siberchicot, B.; Subramanian, M. A.; Demazeau, G.; Etourneau, J.

    1998-11-01

    The electronic and magnetic structures of the perovskite CaMnO3 are self-consistently calculated assuming two crystal structures at the same formula unit volume within the local spin density functional theory and the augmented spherical wave (ASW) method. From the comparisons of energy differences between the different magnetic states the ground state configuration is an insulator with G-type ordering. This result together with the magnitudes of the magnetic moments are in agreement with experiment. The influence of mixing between Mn and O is found spin dependent from the analysis of the crystal orbital overlap population (COOP) which enable to describe the chemical bond. The calculations underline a feature of a half metallic ferromagnet which could be connected with the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) property of related compounds.

  6. Multipactor suppression by micro-structured gold/silver coatings for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Valentin; González, Luis A.; Aguilera, Lydya; Montero, Isabel; Galán, Luis; Wochner, Ulrich; Raboso, David

    2014-10-01

    The secondary electron emission (SEE) from materials used in high power RF devices in space is the main trigger and sustaining mechanism of the resonant avalanche electron discharge known as the multipactor effect. It limits the attainable power of those devices. During recent decades, some scientific research has been focused on material properties for obtaining anti-multipactor coatings of low secondary emission yield (SEY). The European Space Agency (ESA) is leading a technological research on a new approach based on surface roughness that might perform as a kind of blackbody or Faraday cage effect. A multilayer coating structure was adopted for fulfilling the stringent requirements of the space. The surface of a standard silver plating was modified by a two-step treatment. First, a wet chemically etching process created a roughness of high aspect ratio, in the scale of microns. Secondly, the surface was coated with a protective 2 μm overlayer of gold, using magnetron sputtering. This anti-multipactor coating has been tested on several types of Ku-band WR75 waveguide transformers and band-pass filters, with excellent results. The multipactor effect was suppressed for two waveguides, even when applying the maximum available power levels. As for the other final four, the increase of multipactor power level was in the range of 4-6 dB. These results were obtained after more than one year of air exposure. In spite of the strong roughness, the insertion losses were diminished by 25% with respect to the values attained in the tests of the standard anti-multipactor coating, Alodine.

  7. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  8. Tree Spatial Structure, Host Composition and Resource Availability Influence Mirid Density or Black Pod Prevalence in Cacao Agroforests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  9. Response of bird species densities to habitat structure and fire history along a Midwestern open-forest gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas were historically common but are currently rare in the Midwestern United States. We assessed possible associations of bird species with savannas and other threatened habitats in the region by relating fire frequency and vegetation characteristics to seasonal densities of 72 bird species distributed across an open-forest gradient in northwestern Indiana. About one-third of the species did not exhibit statistically significant relationships with any combination of seven vegetation characteristics that included vegetation cover in five vertical strata, dead tree density, and tree height. For 40% of the remaining species, models best predicting species density incorporated tree density. Therefore, management based solely on manipulating tree density may not be an adequate strategy for managing bird populations along this open-forest gradient. Few species exhibited sharp peaks in predicted density under habitat conditions expected in restored savannas, suggesting that few savanna specialists occur among Midwestern bird species. When fire frequency, measured over fifteen years, was added to vegetation characteristics as a predictor of species density, it was incorporated into models for about one-quarter of species, suggesting that fire may modify habitat characteristics in ways that are important for birds but not captured by the structural habitat variables measured. Among those species, similar numbers had peaks in predicted density at low, intermediate, or high fire frequency. For species suggested by previous studies to have a preference for oak savannas along the open-forest gradient, estimated density was maximized at an average fire return interval of about one fire every three years. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  10. Porosity structure of green polybag of medium density fiberboard from seaweed waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamsjah, M. A.; Subekti, S.; Lamid, M.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Kurnia, H.; Rifadi, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    The last decade shown that the needs Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) rapidly growing in Asia Pacific and Europe up to more 15 % per year. MDF made up of fibers lignoselulosa which combined with synthetic resin or tied other suitable but high temperatures and pressure. Technology engineering for green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria verrucosa is an alternative effort for ecosystem stability and technological innovations that is environmentally friendly. Structure porosity from the shape of green polybag shows that performance seaweed waste of K. alvarezii is better than seaweed waste of G. verrucosa. The circulation of water happened more optimal in green polybag formed from MDF of seaweed waste of K. alvarezii with size porosity 3.976 µm, while size porosity of seaweed waste of G. verrucosa measurable 4.794 µm. Structure of green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste showed that C components greater 50 % to K. alvarezii while C components less than 50 % to G. verrucosa. This resulted in the ties to structure of MDF stronger found in green polybag derived from seaweed waste of K. alvarezii than G. verrucosa.

  11. Density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of trans and cis structures of thiothixene as a nano-drug.

    PubMed

    Noori Tahneh, Akram; Bagheri Novir, Samaneh; Balali, Ebrahim

    2017-11-25

    The geometrical structure, electronic and optical properties, electronic absorption spectra, vibrational frequencies, natural charge distribution, MEP analysis and thermodynamic properties of the trans and cis structures of the drug thiothixene were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) methods with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The results of the calculations demonstrate that the cis structure of thiothixene has appropriate quantum properties that can act as an active medicine. The relative energies of trans and cis structures of thiothixene shows that the cis structure is more stable than the trans structure, with a small energy difference. TDDFT calculations show that the cis structure of thiothixene has the best absorption properties. The calculated NLO properties show that the NLO properties of the cis structure of thiothixene are higher than the trans structure, and the fact that the chemical hardness of the cis structure is lower than that of the trans structure that indicates that the reactivity and charge transfer of the cis isomer of thiothixene is higher than that of trans thiothixene. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps of both structures of thiothixene demonstrate that the oxygen atoms of the molecule are appropriate areas for electrophilic reactions. The vibrational frequencies of the two conformations of thiothixene demonstrate that both structures of thiothixene have almost similar modes of vibrations. The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that these quantities increase with enhancing temperature due to the enhancement of molecular vibrational intensities with temperature. Graphical abstract Trans/Cis isomerization of thiothixene drug.

  12. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  13. Effect of structural distortion on the electronic band structure of NaOsO3 studied within density functional theory and a three-orbital model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Shubhajyoti; Bhandari, Churna; Satpathy, Sashi; Singh, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    Effects of the structural distortion associated with the OsO6 octahedral rotation and tilting on the electronic band structure and magnetic anisotropy energy for the 5 d3 compound NaOsO3 are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and within a three-orbital model. Comparison of the essential features of the DFT band structures with the three-orbital model for both the undistorted and distorted structures provides insight into the orbital and directional asymmetry in the electron hopping terms resulting from the structural distortion. The orbital mixing terms obtained in the transformed hopping Hamiltonian resulting from the octahedral rotations are shown to account for the fine features in the DFT band structure. Staggered magnetization and the magnetic character of states near the Fermi energy indicate weak coupling behavior.

  14. Structural Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV Care Attendance, and Viral Suppression among Adolescents and Young Adults Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Jenkins, Richard A.; Bruce, Douglas; Fernandez, Maria I.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States. Methods The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected) who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer–assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural) and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index) databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth) were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1) being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently; (2) being on ART for at least 6 months; (3) missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments) over the past 12 months; and (4) viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability). Results Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%); ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%); at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50); and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%). After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single

  15. Imaging Plasma Density Structures in the Soft X-Rays Generated by Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibeck, David G.; Allen, R.; Aryan, H.; Bodewits, D.; Brandt, P.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Brown, G.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Collier, M. R.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; Ezoe, Y.; Fok, M.-C.; Galeazzi, M.; Gutynska, O.; Holmström, M.; Hsieh, S.-Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Leutenegger, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Purucker, M. E.; Read, A. M.; Raeder, J.; Robertson, I. P.; Samsonov, A. A.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N. E.; von Steiger, R.; Walsh, B. M.; Wing, S.

    2018-06-01

    Both heliophysics and planetary physics seek to understand the complex nature of the solar wind's interaction with solar system obstacles like Earth's magnetosphere, the ionospheres of Venus and Mars, and comets. Studies with this objective are frequently conducted with the help of single or multipoint in situ electromagnetic field and particle observations, guided by the predictions of both local and global numerical simulations, and placed in context by observations from far and extreme ultraviolet (FUV, EUV), hard X-ray, and energetic neutral atom imagers (ENA). Each proposed interaction mechanism (e.g., steady or transient magnetic reconnection, local or global magnetic reconnection, ion pick-up, or the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) generates diagnostic plasma density structures. The significance of each mechanism to the overall interaction (as measured in terms of atmospheric/ionospheric loss at comets, Venus, and Mars or global magnetospheric/ionospheric convection at Earth) remains to be determined but can be evaluated on the basis of how often the density signatures that it generates are observed as a function of solar wind conditions. This paper reviews efforts to image the diagnostic plasma density structures in the soft (low energy, 0.1-2.0 keV) X-rays produced when high charge state solar wind ions exchange electrons with the exospheric neutrals surrounding solar system obstacles. The introduction notes that theory, local, and global simulations predict the characteristics of plasma boundaries such the bow shock and magnetopause (including location, density gradient, and motion) and regions such as the magnetosheath (including density and width) as a function of location, solar wind conditions, and the particular mechanism operating. In situ measurements confirm the existence of time- and spatial-dependent plasma density structures like the bow shock, magnetosheath, and magnetopause/ionopause at Venus, Mars, comets, and the Earth. However, in situ

  16. Gravitational Effects on Near Field Flow Structure of Low Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yep, Tze-Wing; Agrawal, Ajay K.; Griffin, DeVon; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Earth gravity and microgravity to acquire quantitative data on near field flow structure of helium jets injected into air. Microgravity conditions were simulated in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet flow was observed by quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a non-intrusive line of site measurement technique for the whole field. The flow structure was characterized by distributions of angular deflection and helium mole percentage obtained from color schlieren images taken at 60 Hz. Results show that the jet flow was significantly influenced by the gravity. The jet in microgravity was up to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. The jet flow oscillations observed in Earth gravity were absent in microgravity, providing direct experimental evidence that the flow instability in the low density jet was buoyancy induced. The paper provides quantitative details of temporal flow evolution as the experiment undergoes a change in gravity in the drop tower.

  17. Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with polyethylene of various densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, K. A.; Nikolaeva, G. Yu; Sagitova, E. A.; Pashinin, P. P.; Guseva, M. A.; Shklyaruk, B. F.; Gerasin, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with two grades of polyethylene: linear high-density and branched low-density polyethylenes. Raman methods, which had been suggested for the analysis of neat polyethylene and isotactic polypropylene, were modified in this study for quantitative analysis of polyethylene/polypropylene blends. We revealed the dependence of the degree of crystallinity and conformational composition of macromolecules in the blends on relative content of the blend components and preparation conditions (quenching or annealing). We suggested a simple Raman method for evaluation of the relative content of the components in polyethylene/polypropylene blends. The degree of crystallinity of our samples, evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, is in good agreement with the results of analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  18. Thought Suppression is Associated with Psychological Distress in Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Petkus, Andrew J.; Gum, Amber; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2014-01-01

    Background Engaging in thought suppression as a coping mechanism has been associated with higher rates of anxiety and depressive disorders in younger adults. Homebound older adults are a population of elders experiencing poor health and high levels of depression and anxiety. It is unclear the extent to which psychological factors, such as thought suppression, are associated with distress, given that their health and disability status may be more salient. The aim of this study was to investigate thought suppression in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms in homebound older adults. Methods Participants (N = 142) were clients of home-based case management services delivered by aging service agencies in Florida. Participants were administered a research interview that included the White Bear Suppression Inventory, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis (SCID), Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS). Case managers provided standard assessments containing functional and health status of the participant. Results After controlling for physical health and cognitive functioning, thought suppression was significantly associated with higher likelihood of clinically significant somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms on the BSI-18. Thought suppression was also associated with meeting criteria for a SCID depressive or adjustment disorder. Engaging in thought suppression was associated with worse mental health in this sample of homebound older adults even after taking into account physical health, disability, and cognitive functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest the need to develop and test interventions that may address thought suppression as a coping mechanism. PMID:22170756

  19. Groups of bats improve sonar efficiency through mutual suppression of pulse emissions.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Jenna; Jackson, William; Smotherman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    How bats adapt their sonar behavior to accommodate the noisiness of a crowded day roost is a mystery. Some bats change their pulse acoustics to enhance the distinction between theirs and another bat's echoes, but additional mechanisms are needed to explain the bat sonar system's exceptional resilience to jamming by conspecifics. Variable pulse repetition rate strategies offer one potential solution to this dynamic problem, but precisely how changes in pulse rate could improve sonar performance in social settings is unclear. Here we show that bats decrease their emission rates as population density increases, following a pattern that reflects a cumulative mutual suppression of each other's pulse emissions. Playback of artificially-generated echolocation pulses similarly slowed emission rates, demonstrating that suppression was mediated by hearing the pulses of other bats. Slower emission rates did not support an antiphonal emission strategy but did reduce the relative proportion of emitted pulses that overlapped with another bat's emissions, reducing the relative rate of mutual interference. The prevalence of acoustic interferences occurring amongst bats was empirically determined to be a linear function of population density and mean emission rates. Consequently as group size increased, small reductions in emission rates spread across the group partially mitigated the increase in interference rate. Drawing on lessons learned from communications networking theory we show how modest decreases in pulse emission rates can significantly increase the net information throughput of the shared acoustic space, thereby improving sonar efficiency for all individuals in a group. We propose that an automated acoustic suppression of pulse emissions triggered by bats hearing each other's emissions dynamically optimizes sonar efficiency for the entire group.

  20. Groups of bats improve sonar efficiency through mutual suppression of pulse emissions

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Jenna; Jackson, William; Smotherman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    How bats adapt their sonar behavior to accommodate the noisiness of a crowded day roost is a mystery. Some bats change their pulse acoustics to enhance the distinction between theirs and another bat's echoes, but additional mechanisms are needed to explain the bat sonar system's exceptional resilience to jamming by conspecifics. Variable pulse repetition rate strategies offer one potential solution to this dynamic problem, but precisely how changes in pulse rate could improve sonar performance in social settings is unclear. Here we show that bats decrease their emission rates as population density increases, following a pattern that reflects a cumulative mutual suppression of each other's pulse emissions. Playback of artificially-generated echolocation pulses similarly slowed emission rates, demonstrating that suppression was mediated by hearing the pulses of other bats. Slower emission rates did not support an antiphonal emission strategy but did reduce the relative proportion of emitted pulses that overlapped with another bat's emissions, reducing the relative rate of mutual interference. The prevalence of acoustic interferences occurring amongst bats was empirically determined to be a linear function of population density and mean emission rates. Consequently as group size increased, small reductions in emission rates spread across the group partially mitigated the increase in interference rate. Drawing on lessons learned from communications networking theory we show how modest decreases in pulse emission rates can significantly increase the net information throughput of the shared acoustic space, thereby improving sonar efficiency for all individuals in a group. We propose that an automated acoustic suppression of pulse emissions triggered by bats hearing each other's emissions dynamically optimizes sonar efficiency for the entire group. PMID:23781208

  1. Suppression of the Polar Tongue of Ionization During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Tong; Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; Burns, Alan; Zhang, Binzheng; Zhang, Shun-Rong

    2018-04-01

    It has long been recognized that during solar eclipses, the ionosphere-thermosphere system changes greatly within the eclipse shadow, due to the rapid reduction of solar irradiation. However, the concept that a solar eclipse impacts polar ionosphere behavior and dynamics as well as magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling has not been appreciated. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse on the polar tongue of ionization (TOI) using a high-resolution, coupled ionosphere-thermosphere-electrodynamics model. The reduction of electron densities by the eclipse in the middle latitude TOI source region leads to a suppressed TOI in the polar region. The TOI suppression occurred when the solar eclipse moved into the afternoon sector. The Global Positioning System total electron content observations show similar tendency of polar region total electron content suppression. This study reveals that a solar eclipse occurring at middle latitudes may have significant influences on the polar ionosphere and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  2. CC-Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) Suppresses High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Internalization and Cholesterol Efflux via CC-Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) Induction and p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation in Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Lu; Huang, Can-Xia; Bao, Jin-Lan; Jiang, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Cai, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ling

    2016-09-09

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to be internalized and to promote reverse cholesterol transport in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism underlying these processes has not been studied. In this study, we aim to characterize HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux in ECs and regulatory mechanisms. We found mature HDL particles were reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which was associated with an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In cultured primary human coronary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we determined that CCL2 suppressed the binding (4 °C) and association (37 °C) of HDL to/with ECs and HDL cellular internalization. Furthermore, CCL2 inhibited [(3)H]cholesterol efflux to HDL/apoA1 in ECs. We further found that CCL2 induced CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and siRNA-CCR2 reversed CCL2 suppression on HDL binding, association, internalization, and on cholesterol efflux in ECs. Moreover, CCL2 induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation via CCR2, and p42/44 MAPK inhibition reversed the suppression of CCL2 on HDL metabolism in ECs. Our study suggests that CCL2 was elevated in CAD patients. CCL2 suppressed HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux via CCR2 induction and p42/44 MAPK activation in ECs. CCL2 induction may contribute to impair HDL function and form atherosclerosis in CAD. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Octupole deformation in neutron-rich actinides and superheavy nuclei and the role of nodal structure of single-particle wavefunctions in extremely deformed structures of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.; Agbemava, S. E.

    2018-03-01

    Octupole deformed shapes in neutron-rich actinides and superheavy nuclei as well as extremely deformed shapes of the N∼ Z light nuclei have been investigated within the framework of covariant density functional theory. We confirmed the presence of new region of octupole deformation in neutron-rich actinides with the center around Z∼ 96,N∼ 196 but our calculations do not predict octupole deformation in the ground states of superheavy Z≥slant 108 nuclei. As exemplified by the study of 36Ar, the nodal structure of the wavefunction of occupied single-particle orbitals in extremely deformed structures allows to understand the formation of the α-clusters in very light nuclei, the suppression of the α-clusterization with the increase of mass number, the formation of ellipsoidal mean-field type structures and nuclear molecules.

  4. Efficient mixing scheme for self-consistent all-electron charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishidou, Tatsuya; Weinert, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In standard ab initio density-functional theory calculations, the charge density ρ is gradually updated using the ``input'' and ``output'' densities of the current and previous iteration steps. To accelerate the convergence, Pulay mixing has been widely used with great success. It expresses an ``optimal'' input density ρopt and its ``residual'' Ropt by a linear combination of the densities of the iteration sequences. In large-scale metallic systems, however, the long range nature of Coulomb interaction often causes the ``charge sloshing'' phenomenon and significantly impacts the convergence. Two treatments, represented in reciprocal space, are known to suppress the sloshing: (i) the inverse Kerker metric for Pulay optimization and (ii) Kerker-type preconditioning in mixing Ropt. In all-electron methods, where the charge density does not have a converging Fourier representation, treatments equivalent or similar to (i) and (ii) have not been described so far. In this work, we show that, by going through the calculation of Hartree potential, one can accomplish the procedures (i) and (ii) without entering the reciprocal space. Test calculations are done with a FLAPW method.

  5. Ab Initio study on structural, electronic, magnetic and dielectric properties of LSNO within Density Functional Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, John; Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Furthmüller, Jürgen; Scolfaro, Luisa

    LSNO (La2-xSrxNiO4) is of great interest due to its colossal dielectric constant (CDC) and rich underlying physics. While being an antiferromagnetic insulator, localized holes are present in the form of stripes in the Ni-O planes which are commensurate with the inverse of the Sr concentration. The stripes are a manifestation of charge density waves with period approximately 1/x and spin density waves with period approximately 2/x. Here, the spin ground state is calculated via LSDA + U with the PAW method implemented in VASP. Crystal structure and the effective Hubbard U parameter are optimized before calculating ɛ∞ within the independent particle approximation. ɛ∞ and the full static dielectric constant (including the lattice polarizability) ɛ0 are calculated within Density Functional Perturbation Theory.

  6. Sub-Poissonian light and photocurrent shot-noise suppression in closed opto-electronic loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masalov, A. V.; Putilin, A. A.; Vasilyev, Michael V.

    1994-01-01

    We examine experimentally photocurrent noise reduction in the opto-electronic closed loop. Photocurrent noise density 12.5 dB below the shot-noise was observed. So large suppression was not reached in previous experiments and cannot be explained in terms of an ordinary sub-Poissonian light in the loop. We propose the concept of anticorrelation state for the description of light in the loop.

  7. Unravelling Linkages between Plant Community Composition and the Pathogen-Suppressive Potential of Soils

    PubMed Central

    Latz, Ellen; Eisenhauer, Nico; Rall, Björn Christian; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Current disease control practices can be deleterious for the environment and human health, calling for alternative and sustainable management regimes. Soils harbour microorganisms that can efficiently suppress pathogens. Uncovering mediators driving their functioning in the field still remains challenging, but represents an essential step in order to develop strategies for increased soil health. We set up plant communities of varying richness to experimentally test the potential of soils differing in plant community history to suppress the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicate that plant communities shape soil-disease suppression via changes in abiotic soil properties and the abundance of bacterial groups including species of the genera Actinomyces, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Further, the results suggest that pairwise interactions between specific plant species strongly affect soil suppressiveness. Using structural equation modelling, we provide a pathway orientated framework showing how the complex interactions between plants, soil and microorganisms jointly shape soil suppressiveness. Our results stress the importance of plant community composition as a determinant of soil functioning, such as the disease suppressive potential of soils. PMID:27021053

  8. Scattered image artifacts from cone beam computed tomography and its clinical potential in bone mineral density estimation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hoon; Jeong, Kwanmoon; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Jun, Hong Young; Jeong, Changwon; Lee, Myeung Su; Nam, Yunyoung; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    Image artifacts affect the quality of medical images and may obscure anatomic structure and pathology. Numerous methods for suppression and correction of scattered image artifacts have been suggested in the past three decades. In this paper, we assessed the feasibility of use of information on scattered artifacts for estimation of bone mineral density (BMD) without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or quantitative computed tomographic imaging (QCT). To investigate the relationship between scattered image artifacts and BMD, we first used a forearm phantom and cone-beam computed tomography. In the phantom, we considered two regions of interest-bone-equivalent solid material containing 50 mg HA per cm(-3) and water-to represent low- and high-density trabecular bone, respectively. We compared the scattered image artifacts in the high-density material with those in the low-density material. The technique was then applied to osteoporosis patients and healthy subjects to assess its feasibility for BMD estimation. The high-density material produced a greater number of scattered image artifacts than the low-density material. Moreover, the radius and ulna of healthy subjects produced a greater number of scattered image artifacts than those from osteoporosis patients. Although other parameters, such as bone thickness and X-ray incidence, should be considered, our technique facilitated BMD estimation directly without DXA or QCT. We believe that BMD estimation based on assessment of scattered image artifacts may benefit the prevention, early treatment and management of osteoporosis.

  9. Neuronal Networks during Burst Suppression as Revealed by Source Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reinicke, Christine; Moeller, Friederike; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Pressler, Ronit; Deuschl, Günther; Stephani, Ulrich; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burst-suppression (BS) is an electroencephalography (EEG) pattern consisting of alternant periods of slow waves of high amplitude (burst) and periods of so called flat EEG (suppression). It is generally associated with coma of various etiologies (hypoxia, drug-related intoxication, hypothermia, and childhood encephalopathies, but also anesthesia). Animal studies suggest that both the cortex and the thalamus are involved in the generation of BS. However, very little is known about mechanisms of BS in humans. The aim of this study was to identify the neuronal network underlying both burst and suppression phases using source reconstruction and analysis of functional and effective connectivity in EEG. Material/Methods Dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) was applied to EEG segments of 13 neonates and infants with burst and suppression EEG pattern. The brain area with the strongest power in the analyzed frequency (1–4 Hz) range was defined as the reference region. DICS was used to compute the coherence between this reference region and the entire brain. The renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC) was used to describe the informational flow between the identified sources. Results/Conclusion Delta activity during the burst phases was associated with coherent sources in the thalamus and brainstem as well as bilateral sources in cortical regions mainly frontal and parietal, whereas suppression phases were associated with coherent sources only in cortical regions. Results of the RPDC analyses showed an upwards informational flow from the brainstem towards the thalamus and from the thalamus to cortical regions, which was absent during the suppression phases. These findings may support the theory that a “cortical deafferentiation” between the cortex and sub-cortical structures exists especially in suppression phases compared to burst phases in burst suppression EEGs. Such a deafferentiation may play a role in the poor neurological outcome of

  10. Edge-localized mode avoidance and pedestal structure in I-mode plasmas

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Walk, J. R., E-mail: jrwalk@psfc.mit.edu; Hughes, J. W.; Hubbard, A. E.

    I-mode is a high-performance tokamak regime characterized by the formation of a temperature pedestal and enhanced energy confinement, without an accompanying density pedestal or drop in particle and impurity transport. I-mode operation appears to have naturally occurring suppression of large Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs) in addition to its highly favorable scalings of pedestal structure and overall performance. Extensive study of the ELMy H-mode has led to the development of the EPED model, which utilizes calculations of coupled peeling-ballooning MHD modes and kinetic-ballooning mode (KBM) stability limits to predict the pedestal structure preceding an ELM crash. We apply similar tools to themore » structure and ELM stability of I-mode pedestals. Analysis of I-mode discharges prepared with high-resolution pedestal data from the most recent C-Mod campaign reveals favorable pedestal scalings for extrapolation to large machines—pedestal temperature scales strongly with power per particle P{sub net}/n{sup ¯}{sub e}, and likewise pedestal pressure scales as the net heating power (consistent with weak degradation of confinement with heating power). Matched discharges in current, field, and shaping demonstrate the decoupling of energy and particle transport in I-mode, increasing fueling to span nearly a factor of two in density while maintaining matched temperature pedestals with consistent levels of P{sub net}/n{sup ¯}{sub e}. This is consistent with targets for increased performance in I-mode, elevating pedestal β{sub p} and global performance with matched increases in density and heating power. MHD calculations using the ELITE code indicate that I-mode pedestals are strongly stable to edge peeling-ballooning instabilities. Likewise, numerical modeling of the KBM turbulence onset, as well as scalings of the pedestal width with poloidal beta, indicates that I-mode pedestals are not limited by KBM turbulence—both features identified with the trigger for large ELMs

  11. Hybrid density functional theory band structure engineering in hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozun, Zachary D.; Henkelman, Graeme

    2011-06-01

    We present a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) study of doping effects in α-Fe2O3, hematite. Standard DFT underestimates the band gap by roughly 75% and incorrectly identifies hematite as a Mott-Hubbard insulator. Hybrid DFT accurately predicts the proper structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of hematite and, unlike the DFT+U method, does not contain d-electron specific empirical parameters. We find that using a screened functional that smoothly transitions from 12% exact exchange at short ranges to standard DFT at long range accurately reproduces the experimental band gap and other material properties. We then show that the antiferromagnetic symmetry in the pure α-Fe2O3 crystal is broken by all dopants and that the ligand field theory correctly predicts local magnetic moments on the dopants. We characterize the resulting band gaps for hematite doped by transition metals and the p-block post-transition metals. The specific case of Pd doping is investigated in order to correlate calculated doping energies and optical properties with experimentally observed photocatalytic behavior.

  12. Canopy gaps decrease microbial densities and disease risk for a shade-intolerant tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Kurt O.; Royo, Alejandro A.; Kageyama, Stacie A.; Clay, Keith

    2010-11-01

    Canopy disturbances such as windthrow events have obvious impacts on forest structure and composition aboveground, but changes in soil microbial communities and the consequences of these changes are less understood. We characterized the densities of a soil-borne pathogenic oomycete ( Pythium) and a common saprotrophic zygomycete ( Mortierella) in nine pairs of forest gaps created by windthrows and adjacent forest understories. We determined the levels of Pythium necessary to cause disease by performing pathogenicity experiments using two Pythium species, a range of Pythium densities, and two common tree species ( Acer rubrum and Prunus serotina) from the study sites. Three years post-disturbance, densities of Mortierella remained suppressed in soil from forest gaps compared to levels in intact forest understories while varying across sites and sampling dates. Pythium were infrequently detected likely because of soil handling effects. Expression of disease symptoms increased with increasing inoculum density for seedlings of P. serotina with each Pythium spp. having a similar effect on this species. Conversely, A. rubrum appeared resistant to the two species of Pythium. These results suggest that Pythium densities at sites where they were detected are sufficient to cause disease and possibly affect establishment of susceptible species like P. serotina. Because early seral environments have lower loads of the saprotrophic Mortierella, pathogen loads may follow a similar pattern, causing susceptible species to establish more frequently in those habitats than in late-seral forests. Forest disturbances that alter the disease landscape may provide an additional mechanism for explaining succession of temperate forests in addition to the shade-tolerance paradigm.

  13. Photoemission study of the electronic structure and charge density waves of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, S. Y.; Jiang, J.; Ye, Z. R.; ...

    2015-04-30

    The electronic structure of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O single crystal is studied by photon energy and polarization dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The obtained band structure and Fermi surface agree well with the band structure calculation of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O in the non-magnetic state, which indicates that there is no magnetic order in Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O and the electronic correlation is weak. Polarization dependent ARPES results suggest the multi-band and multi-orbital nature of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O. Photon energy dependent ARPES results suggest that the electronic structure of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O is rather two-dimensional. Moreover, we find a density wave energy gap forms below the transition temperature and reaches 65 meV atmore » 7 K, indicating that Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O is likely a weakly correlated CDW material in the strong electron-phonon interaction regime. (author)« less

  14. Fourier imaging of non-linear structure formation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk

    We perform a Fourier space decomposition of the dynamics of non-linear cosmological structure formation in ΛCDM models. From N -body simulations involving only cold dark matter we calculate 3-dimensional non-linear density, velocity divergence and vorticity Fourier realizations, and use these to calculate the fully non-linear mode coupling integrals in the corresponding fluid equations. Our approach allows for a reconstruction of the amount of mode coupling between any two wavenumbers as a function of redshift. With our Fourier decomposition method we identify the transfer of power from larger to smaller scales, the stable clustering regime, the scale where vorticity becomes important,more » and the suppression of the non-linear divergence power spectrum as compared to linear theory. Our results can be used to improve and calibrate semi-analytical structure formation models.« less

  15. Improving Measurement of Forest Structural Parameters by Co-Registering of High Resolution Aerial Imagery and Low Density LiDAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huabing; Gong, Peng; Cheng, Xiao; Clinton, Nick; Li, Zengyuan

    2009-01-01

    Forest structural parameters, such as tree height and crown width, are indispensable for evaluating forest biomass or forest volume. LiDAR is a revolutionary technology for measurement of forest structural parameters, however, the accuracy of crown width extraction is not satisfactory when using a low density LiDAR, especially in high canopy cover forest. We used high resolution aerial imagery with a low density LiDAR system to overcome this shortcoming. A morphological filtering was used to generate a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and a CHM (Canopy Height Model) from LiDAR data. The LiDAR camera image is matched to the aerial image with an automated keypoints search algorithm. As a result, a high registration accuracy of 0.5 pixels was obtained. A local maximum filter, watershed segmentation, and object-oriented image segmentation are used to obtain tree height and crown width. Results indicate that the camera data collected by the integrated LiDAR system plays an important role in registration with aerial imagery. The synthesis with aerial imagery increases the accuracy of forest structural parameter extraction when compared to only using the low density LiDAR data. PMID:22573971

  16. Crustal Structure of the Andean Foreland in Northern Argentina: Results From Data-Integrative Three-Dimensional Density Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, C.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Heine, C.; Strecker, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    Previous thermomechanical modeling studies indicated that variations in the temperature and strength of the crystalline crust might be responsible for the juxtaposition of domains with thin-skinned and thick-skinned crustal deformation along strike the foreland of the central Andes. However, there is no evidence supporting this hypothesis from data-integrative models. We aim to derive the density structure of the lithosphere by means of integrated 3-D density modeling, in order to provide a new basis for discussions of compositional variations within the crust and for future thermal and rheological modeling studies. Therefore, we utilize available geological and geophysical data to obtain a structural and density model of the uppermost 200 km of the Earth. The derived model is consistent with the observed Bouguer gravity field. Our results indicate that the crystalline crust in northern Argentina can be represented by a lighter upper crust (2,800 kg/m3) and a denser lower crust (3,100 kg/m3). We find new evidence for high bulk crustal densities >3,000 kg/m3 in the northern Pampia terrane. These could originate from subducted Puncoviscana wackes or pelites that ponded to the base of the crystalline crust in the late Proterozoic or indicate increasing bulk content of mafic material. The precise composition of the northern foreland crust, whether mafic or felsic, has significant implications for further thermomechanical models and the rheological behavior of the lithosphere. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the input parameters indicates that the model results are robust with respect to the given uncertainties of the input data.

  17. Electronic Structures of Strained InAs x P1-x by Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Mi; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Young Heon

    2018-09-01

    We investigated the effects of strain on the electronic structures of InAsxP1-x using quantum mechanical density functional theory calculations. The electronic band gap and electron effective mass decreased with the increase of the uniaxial tensile strain along the [0001] direction of wurtzite InAs0.75P0.25. Therefore, faster electron movements are expected. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements of InAs0.75P0.25 nanowire.

  18. Variable density thinning promotes variable structural responses 14 years after treatment in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    John L. Willis; Scott D. Roberts; Constance A. Harrington

    2018-01-01

    Young stands are commonly assumed to require centuries to develop into late-successional forest habitat. This viewpoint reflects the fact that young stands often lack many of the structural features that define late-successional habitat, and that these features derive from complex stand dynamics that are difficult to mimic with forest management. Variable density...

  19. Heliospheric Imaging of 3D Density Structures During the Multiple Coronal Mass Ejections of Late July to Early August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, D. F.; Möstl, C.; Jackson, B. V.; Bisi, M. M.; Howard, T. A.; Mulligan, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Jian, L. K.; Davies, J. A.; de Koning, C. A.; Liu, Y.; Temmer, M.; Clover, J. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Harrison, R. A.; Nitta, N.; Odstrcil, D.; Tappin, S. J.; Yu, H.-S.

    2013-07-01

    It is usually difficult to gain a consistent global understanding of a coronal mass ejection (CME) eruption and its propagation when only near-Sun imagery and the local measurements derived from single-spacecraft observations are available. Three-dimensional (3D) density reconstructions based on heliospheric imaging allow us to "fill in" the temporal and spatial gaps between the near-Sun and in situ data to provide a truly global picture of the propagation and interactions of the CME as it moves through the inner heliosphere. In recent years the heliospheric propagation of dense structures has been observed and measured by the heliospheric imagers of the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and on the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. We describe the use of several 3D reconstruction techniques based on these heliospheric imaging data sets to distinguish and track the propagation of multiple CMEs in the inner heliosphere during the very active period of solar activity in late July - early August 2010. We employ 3D reconstruction techniques used at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) based on a kinematic solar wind model, and also the empirical Tappin-Howard model. We compare our results with those from other studies of this active period, in particular the heliospheric simulations made with the ENLIL model by Odstrcil et al. ( J. Geophys. Res., 2013) and the in situ results from multiple spacecraft provided by Möstl et al. ( Astrophys. J. 758, 10 - 28, 2012). We find that the SMEI results in particular provide an overall context for the multiple-density flows associated with these CMEs. For the first time we are able to intercompare the 3D reconstructed densities with the timing and magnitude of in situ density structures at five spacecraft spread over 150° in ecliptic longitude and from 0.4 to 1 AU in radial distance. We also model the magnetic flux-rope structures at three spacecraft using both force-free and non

  20. Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bin

    Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant