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Sample records for density wave properties

  1. Density Functional Study of the Transport and Electronic Properties of Waved Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammouri, Mahmoud; Vasiliev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    First principles ab initio calculations are employed to study the electronic and transport properties of waved graphene nanoribbons. Our calculations are performed using the SIESTA and TRANSIESTA density functional electronic structure codes. We find that the band gaps of graphene nanoribbons with symmetrical edges change very slightly with the increasing compression, whereas the band gaps of nanoribbons with asymmetrical edges change significantly. The computed IV-characteristics of the waved graphene nanoribbons with different compression ratios reveal the effect of compression on the transport properties of graphene nanoribbons. Supported by NMSU GREG Award and by NSF CHE-1112388.

  2. Electronic and magnetic properties of spiral spin-density-wave states in transition-metal chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanveer, M.; Ruiz-Díaz, P.; Pastor, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of one-dimensional (1D) 3 d transition-metal nanowires are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The relative stability of collinear and noncollinear (NC) ground-state magnetic orders in V, Mn, and Fe monoatomic chains is quantified by computing the frozen-magnon dispersion relation Δ E (q ⃗) as a function of the spin-density-wave vector q ⃗. The dependence on the local environment of the atoms is analyzed by varying systematically the lattice parameter a of the chains. Electron correlation effects are explored by comparing local spin-density and generalized-gradient approximations to the exchange and correlation functional. Results are given for Δ E (q ⃗) , the local magnetic moments μ⃗i at atom i , the magnetization-vector density m ⃗(r ⃗) , and the local electronic density of states ρi σ(ɛ ) . The frozen-magnon dispersion relations are analyzed from a local perspective. Effective exchange interactions Ji j between the local magnetic moments μ⃗i and μ⃗j are derived by fitting the ab initio Δ E (q ⃗) to a classical 1D Heisenberg model. The dominant competing interactions Ji j at the origin of the NC magnetic order are identified. The interplay between the various Ji j is revealed as a function of a in the framework of the corresponding magnetic phase diagrams.

  3. Properties and dynamic interaction of step density waves at a crystal surface during electromigration affected sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, S.; Tonchev, V.

    1998-07-01

    Electromigration affected sublimation is a complicated phenomenon, involving surface transport coupled to a process of atom exchange between the two-dimensional gas of adatoms and the crystal phase. The case of intensive exchange is theoretically treated and equations of step motion are derived for the case of ``nontransparent'' steps (kinetics with local conservation of adatoms). The numerical integration of these equations manifests step bunching (a formation of step density waves) at step-down direction of the electromigration of adatoms. We studied some properties of the step density waves: the amplitude (the maximum slope of the bunch) and its dependence on the number of steps in the bunch, the kinematic wave velocity and the dynamic interaction of waves of different amplitudes. The central result of this work is the dependence of the minimum interstep distance (in the steady state shape of the bunch) on the model parameters. This dependence, extracted from numerical study, is presented in terms of scaling laws lmin~N-r(A/F)q, where N is the number of steps in the bunch, A is the magnitude of step-step repulsion, and F is the force, inducing electromigration of the adatoms. Both scaling exponents r and q depend on the power n in the step-step repulsion dependence on the interstep distance (U=A/ln) and, therefore, they are a key to the problem of experimental evaluation of n. A striking result of this model is the constant value of lmin in a wide range of values of the average diffusion distance λs. Thus one cannot relate the temperature dependence of lmin to the temperature dependence of λs. Numerical analysis of the dynamics of steps at a crystal surface of small misorientation angle reveals two types of dynamic interaction of bunches of steps: ``bunch size exchange'' and ``effective coalescence.'' The former type of interaction is rather interesting - a smaller (and faster) bunch approaches a larger one and they travel together until the initially larger

  4. Physical properties of Uranian delta ring from a possible density wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, L. J.; Lane, A. L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Esposito, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of wavelength and amplitude behavior, as well as observed feature morphology, that are indicative of a density wave, the presently studied Voyager PPS stellar occultation observations of the Uranus delta ring are held to indicate the presence of a moonlet interior to the delta ring. Lindblad resonances are calculated for all 65 discrete possible locations for this moonlet; the locations are labeled by azimuth number of the resonance associated with each location that would excite the observed density wave in the delta ring.

  5. Global coherence of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André

    2014-06-15

    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  6. Holographic charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  7. Oblique dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  8. Optical properties of the Ce and La ditelluride charge density wave compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lavagnini, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    The La and Ce di-tellurides LaTe{sub 2} and CeTe{sub 2} are deep in the charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state even at 300 K. We have collected their electrodynamic response over a broad spectral range from the far infrared up to the ultraviolet. We establish the energy scale of the single particle excitation across the CDW gap. Moreover, we find that the CDW collective state gaps a very large portion of the Fermi surface. Similarly to the related rare earth tri-tellurides, we envisage that interactions and Umklapp processes play a role in the onset of the CDW broken symmetry ground state.

  9. Transport properties of disordered iron-pnictides in case of coexistence between superconducting and spin-density wave order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmanovski, Dushko; Vavilov, Maxim

    2012-02-01

    We present a theoretical description of the transport properties of a dirty multi-band superconductor in the case when both superconducting and spin-density wave orders coexist. We focus on differential conductance spectra of normal metal-superconductor junctions. In pure SC phase, we demonstrate that the interband impurity scattering broadens the coherent peak near the superconducting gap and significantly reduces its height even at relatively low scattering rates. This broadening is consistent with a number of recent experiments performed for both tunnel junctions and larger diffusive contacts. We further analyze the effect of the SDW order parameter on the differential conductance and other transport properties in the coexistence phase.

  10. Thermodynamic and critical properties of the charge density wave system ErTe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Paul, M.; Remenyi, G.; Guttin, C.; Lejay, P.; Monceau, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present specific heat and ultrasonic measurements on the rare earth tritelluride ErTe3 compound. Thermodynamic anomalies are observed at the upper charge density wave (CDW) phase transition TCDW1=265 K and the second one at TCDW2=155 K. Similar critical behaviors are found at both CDW phase transitions and that we tentatively described in terms of the 3D XY model. Different anisotropic stress dependences ∂TCDW1 / ∂σii and ∂TCDW2 / ∂σii are found at the two successive CDW phase transitions. Magnitude of the elastic constant anomalies at TCDW2 is ten times smaller than that at TCDW1. Anomalies in the elastic constants at the upper CDW TCDW1 exhibit two dimensional features in the layer planes while in contrast a three dimensional behavior is observed at TCDW2.

  11. Quantum critical properties of a metallic spin-density-wave transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Max H.; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Trebst, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We report on numerically exact determinantal quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the onset of spin-density-wave (SDW) order in itinerant electron systems captured by a sign-problem-free two-dimensional lattice model. Extensive measurements of the SDW correlations in the vicinity of the phase transition reveal that the critical dynamics of the bosonic order parameter are well described by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , consistent with Hertz-Millis theory, but are found to follow a finite-temperature dependence that does not fit the predicted behavior of the same theory. The presence of critical SDW fluctuations is found to have a strong impact on the fermionic quasiparticles, giving rise to a dome-shaped superconducting phase near the quantum critical point. In the superconducting state we find a gap function that has an opposite sign between the two bands of the model and is nearly constant along the Fermi surface of each band. Above the superconducting Tc, our numerical simulations reveal a nearly temperature and frequency independent self-energy causing a strong suppression of the low-energy quasiparticle weight in the vicinity of the hot spots on the Fermi surface. This indicates a clear breakdown of Fermi liquid theory around these points.

  12. Magnon gap formation and charge density wave effect on thermoelectric properties in SmNiC2 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Rhyee, Jong-Soo; Kwon, Yong Seung

    2013-03-01

    We studied the magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties of polycrystalline compound of SmNiC2. The electrical resistivity and magnetization measurement show the interplay between the charge density wave at TCDW = 157 K and the ferromagnetic ordering of Tc = 18 K. Below the ferromagnetic transition temperature, we observed the magnon gap formation of 4.3 ~ 4.4 meV by ρ(T) and Cp(T) measurements. The charge density wave is attributed to the increase of Seebeck coefficient resulting in the increase of power factor S2 σ . The thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT significantly increases due to the increase of power factor at TCDW = 157 K. Here we argue that the competing interaction between electron-phonon and electron-magnon couplings exhibits the unconventional behavior of electrical and thermal properties. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program (2011-0021335), Nano-Material Technology Development Program (2011-0030147), and Mid-career Research Program (Strategy) (No. 2012R1A2A1A03005174) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.

  13. Density waves in granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Flekkøy, E.; Nagel, K.; Peng, G.; Ristow, G.

    Ample experimental evidence has shown the existence of spontaneous density waves in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that these density fluctuations follow a 1/f spectrum. We compare this behaviour to deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. We also present Lattice Gas and Boltzmann Lattice Models which reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.

  14. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  15. Local Structure and Vibrational Properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-U, and the alpha-U Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Booth, C H

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure {alpha}-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}'-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}'-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  16. Pressure dependence of the optical properties of the charge-density-wave compound LaTe2

    SciTech Connect

    Lavagnini, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; Arcangeletti, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; Perucchi, A.; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    We report the pressure dependence of the optical response of LaTe{sub 2}, which is deep in the charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state even at 300 K. The reflectivity spectrum is collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 7 GPa. We extract the energy scale due to the single particle excitation across the CDW gap and the Drude weight. We establish that the gap decreases upon compressing the lattice, while the Drude weight increases. This signals a reduction in the quality of nesting upon applying pressure, therefore inducing a lesser impact of the CDW condensate on the electronic properties of LaTe{sub 2}. The consequent suppression of the CDW gap leads to a release of additional charge carriers, manifested by the shift of weight from the gap feature into the metallic component of the optical response. On the contrary, the power-law behavior, seen in the optical conductivity at energies above the gap excitation and indicating a weakly interacting limit within the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid scenario, seems to be only moderately dependent on pressure.

  17. Chiral symmetry and density waves in quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, E.; Tatsumi, T.

    2005-06-01

    A density wave in quark matter is discussed at finite temperature, which occurs along with the chiral condensation, and is described by a dual standing wave in scalar and pseudoscalar condensates on the chiral circle. The mechanism is quite similar to that for the spin density wave suggested by Overhauser and entirely reflects many-body effects. It is found within a mean-field approximation for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that the chiral-condensed phase with the density wave develops at a high-density region just outside the usual chiral-transition line in phase diagram. A magnetic property of the density wave is also elucidated.

  18. Plane wave density functional theory studies of the structural and the electronic properties of amino acids attached to graphene oxide via peptide bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byeong June; Jeong, Hae Kyung; Lee, ChangWoo

    2015-08-01

    We studied via plane wave pseudopotential total-energy calculations within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) the electronic and the structural properties of amino acids (alanine, glycine, and histidine) attached to graphene oxide (GO) by peptide bonding. The HOMO-LUMO gap, the Hirshfeld charges, and the equilibrium geometrical structures exhibit distinctive variations that depend on the species of the attached amino acid. The GO-amino acid system appears to be a good candidate for a biosensor.

  19. Transport properties of density wave phases in three-dimensional metals and semimetals under high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Tian; Shindou, Ryuichi

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) metals/semimetals under magnetic field have an instability toward a density wave (DW) ordering which breaks a translational symmetry along the field direction. Effective boson models for the DW phases take forms of X Y models with/without Potts terms. Longitudinal conductivity along the field direction is calculated in the DW phases with inclusion of effects of low-energy charge fluctuation (phason) and disorder. A single-particle imaginary-time Green function is identified with a partition function of 3D X Y models in the presence of pairs of magnetic monopoles. In terms of the celebrated electromagnetic duality, electronic spectral function is calculated near the DW phase transition. The calculated result shows that the single-particle spectral function acquires an additional low-energy feature due to the strong phason fluctuation. Relevance to an in-plane conductance due to surface chiral Fermi arc states is also discussed.

  20. Investigation of microalgae with photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankovitch, Christine; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2007-09-01

    Phototropic microalgae have a large potential for producing valuable substances for the feed, food, cosmetics, pigment, bioremediation, and pharmacy industries as well as for biotechnological processes. Today it is estimated that the microalgal aquaculture worldwide production is 5000 tons of dry matter per year (not taking into account processed products) making it an approximately $1.25 billion U.S. per year industry. For effective observation of the photosynthetic growth processes, fast on-line sensor systems that analyze the relevant biological and technical process parameters are preferred. The optical properties of the microalgae culture influence the transport of light in the photobioreactor and can be used to extract relevant information for efficient cultivation practices. Microalgae cultivation media show a combination of light absorption and scattering, which are influenced by the concentrations and the physical and chemical properties of the different absorbing and scattering species (e.g. pigments, cell components, etc.). Investigations with frequency domain photon density waves (PDW) allow for the examination of absorption and scattering properties of turbid media, namely the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The reduced scattering coefficient can be used to characterize physical and morphological properties of the medium, including the cell concentration, whereas the absorption coefficient correlates with the pigment content. Nannochloropsis oculata, a single-cell species of microalgae, were examined in a nutrient solution with photon density waves. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were experimentally determined throughout the cultivation process, and applied to gain information about the cell concentration and average cell radius.

  1. Whistler waves guided by density depletion ducts in a magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bakharev, P. V.; Zaboronkova, T. M.; Kudrin, A. V.; Krafft, C.

    2010-11-15

    The guided propagation of whistler waves along cylindrical density depletion ducts in a magneto-plasma is studied. It is shown that, under certain conditions, such ducts can support volume and surface eigenmodes. The dispersion properties and field structure of whistler modes guided by density depletion ducts are analyzed. The effect of collisional losses in the plasma on the properties of modes is discussed.

  2. ARPES study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 ( R=Y , La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Brouet, Veronique; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Hussain, Zahid; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, R.

    2008-01-16

    We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal"textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDWinstabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that theband structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tinorbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDWinteraction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n (EF), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  3. Angle-resolved photoemission study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 (R= Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Brouet, V.; Yang, W.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z.; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.

    2010-02-15

    We present a detailed ARPES investigation of the RTe{sub 3} family, which sets this system as an ideal 'textbook' example for the formation of a nesting driven Charge Density Wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi Surface (FS) (up to 0.4eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k-space. An additional advantage of RTe{sub 3} is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple 2D tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure, by comparing our ARPES measurements with Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and, for the first time, of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k-space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(Ef), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  4. Kinetic effects of Alfven wave nonlinearity. I - Ponderomotive density fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The Vlasov theory is used to study kinetic corrections to fluid descriptions of Alfven wave nonlinearity. The method is to obtain an expression for the second-order perturbed distribution function produced by a nonlinear Alfven wave. From this distribution function a kinetically correct expression is obtained for the plasma density perturbation associated with an envelope-modulated Alfven wave. This kinetic theory result differs substantially from the fluid expression when the plasma beta is greater than about 1, and the electron and ion temperatures are approximately equal. This result is of interest because density fluctuations are an observationally accessible indicator of wave nonlinearity in solar system Alfven waves. It also will assist in the determination of properties of Alfven waves in the interstellar medium. Finally, this analysis also yields a kinetically correct expression for u, the magnetic field-aligned component of the plasma fluid velocity.

  5. Holographic pair and charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonini, Sera; Li, Li; Ren, Jie

    2017-02-01

    We examine a holographic model in which a U (1 ) symmetry and translational invariance are broken spontaneously at the same time. Our construction provides an example of a system with pair-density wave order, in which the superconducting order parameter is spatially modulated but has a zero average. In addition, the charge density oscillates at twice the frequency of the scalar condensate. Depending on the choice of parameters, the model also admits a state with coexisting superconducting and charge-density wave orders, in which the scalar condensate has a uniform component.

  6. Lower hybrid wave phenomena associated with density depletions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyler, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid description of lower hybrid, whistler and magnetosonic waves is applied to study wave phenomena near the lower hybrid resonance associated with plasma density depletions. The goal is to understand the nature of lower hybrid cavitons and spikelets often associated with transverse ion acceleration events in the auroral ionosphere. Three-dimensional simulations show the ponderomotive force leads to the formation of a density cavity (caviton) in which lower hybrid wave energy is concentrated (spikelet) resulting in a three-dimensional collapse of the configuration. Plasma density depletions of the order of a few percent are shown to greatly modify the homogeneous linear properties of lower hybrid waves and account for many of the observed features of lower hybrid spikelets.

  7. Temporally Modulated Density Waves in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.; Sremcevic, M.

    2008-05-01

    The standard theory of density waves in planetary rings assumes that the orbit of the perturbing satellite is on a fixed orbit. However, resonant interactions between the moons of Saturn produce significant time-dependent variations in the orbital elements of the smaller satellites. Pandora, for example, is resonantly perturbed by Mimas and therefore exhibits a 1.4 km amplitude variation in its semimajor axis with an average period of 612 days (French et al. 2003, Icarus 162: 143). We will present a variational principle for slow, time-dependent modulations of linear density waves. The resulting wave equation describes how slow oscillations in the semimajor axis of the perturbing satellite produce temporal modulations that propagate with the local group velocity of the density wave. The amplitude of the modulations depends on the ratio of the fractional variation of the satellite's semimajor axis to the frequency of the variations. For the case of the Pandora 6:5 inner Lindblad resonance, the modulation is predicted to have an amplitude of about 5%, which agrees with observations reported by Miodrag Sremcevic at this meeting. These temporal modulations provide an important alternative method for measuring the group velocity, and hence the surface mass density, in density waves observed in Saturn's rings.

  8. Density Shock Waves in Confined Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Motile and driven particles confined in microfluidic channels exhibit interesting emergent behavior, from propagating density bands to density shock waves. A deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for these emergent structures is relevant to a number of physical and biomedical applications. Here, we study the formation of density shock waves in the context of an idealized model of microswimmers confined in a narrow channel and subject to a uniform external flow. Interestingly, these density shock waves exhibit a transition from "subsonic" with compression at the back to "supersonic" with compression at the front of the population as the intensity of the external flow increases. This behavior is the result of a nontrivial interplay between hydrodynamic interactions and geometric confinement, and it is confirmed by a novel quasilinear wave model that properly captures the dependence of the shock formation on the external flow. These findings can be used to guide the development of novel mechanisms for controlling the emergent density distribution and the average population speed, with potentially profound implications on various processes in industry and biotechnology, such as the transport and sorting of cells in flow channels.

  9. Density Wave Signatures In VIMS Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, M. M.; Cassini VIMS Team

    2012-10-01

    Spectral scans of Saturn's rings by the Cassini VIMS instrument have revealed both regional and local variations in the depths of the water ice bands at 1.5 and 2.0 microns, which have been interpreted in terms of variations in regolith grain size and the amount of non-icy "contaminants" (Filacchione et al. 2012; Hedman et al. 2012). Noteworthy among the local variations are distinctive patterns associated with the four strong density waves in the A ring. Within each wavetrain there is a peak in band strength relative to the surrounding material, while extending on both sides of the wave is a "halo" of reduced band strength. The typical width of these haloes is 400-500 km, about 2-3 times the visible extent of the density waves. The origin of these features is unknown, but may involve enhanced collisional erosion in the wave zones and transport of the smaller debris into nearby regions. A similar pattern of band depth variations is also seen at several locations in the more opaque B ring in association with the strong 3:2 ILRs of Janus, Pandora and Prometheus. The former shows a pattern just like its siblings in the A ring, while the latter two resonances show haloes, but without central peaks. In each case, the radial widths of the halo approaches 1000 km, but stellar occultation profiles show no detectable density wavetrain. We suggest that this spectral signature may be a useful diagnostic for the presence of strong density waves in regions where the rings are too opaque for occultations to reveal a typical wave profile. More speculatively, the displacement of the haloes' central radii from the calculated ILR locations of 600-700 km could imply a surface density in the central B ring in excess of 500 g/cm^2. This research was supported by the Cassini/Huygens project.

  10. Density waves in Titan's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Li, T.; Snowden, D. S.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer data reveals the omnipresence of density waves in various constituents of Titan's upper atmosphere, with quasi-periodical structures visible for N2, CH4,29N2, and some of the minor constituents. The N2 amplitude lies in the range of ≈4%-16%with a mean of ≈8%. Compositional variation is clearly seen as a sequence of decreasing amplitude with increasing scale height. The observed vertical variation of amplitude implies significant wave dissipation in different constituents, possibly contributed by molecular viscosity for N2but by both molecular viscosity and binary diffusion for the others. A wave train with near horizontally propagating wave energy and characterized by a wavelength of ≈730 km and a wave period of ≈10 h is found to best reproduce various aspects of the observations in a globally averaged sense. Some horizontal and seasonal trends in wave activity are identified, suggesting a connection between the mechanism driving the overall variability in the background atmosphere and the mechanism driving the waves. No clear association of wave activity with magnetospheric particle precipitation can be identified from the data.

  11. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhelchui; Li, Yang - Fang; Hou, Lujing; Jiang, Ke; Wu, De - Jin; Thomas, Hubertus M; Morfill, Gregor E

    2010-01-01

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  12. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wang Zhehui; Hou Lujing; Jiang Ke; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.; Wu Dejin

    2010-06-16

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  13. Obliquely propagating dust-density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.

    2008-02-01

    Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models.

  14. Density Wave Dispersion Behavior in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L. J.

    1999-09-01

    Wave dispersion profiles were generated for approximately 30 spiral density waves observed in the Voyager photopolarimeter stellar occultation data of Saturn's A ring. The majority of these density waves disperse linearly over the bulk of the wave. Some of the strongest density waves, however, do not begin to disperse linearly until well past the resonance location. An algorithm based on an autoregressive power spectral technique, Burg 2, generated the dispersion profiles. The dispersion behavior was then used to calculate local surface mass densities in the vicinity of each wave. Surface mass densities for the strongest density waves, when calculated using the region where the waves begin to disperse linearly, are in good agreement with surface mass densities calculated for nearby, weaker density waves. Some of the Prometheus density waves external to the Encke gap exhibit unusual spectral structure in the first part of the wave as the frequency increases by 60-70 radial interval. The nearby, related second-order resonances may produce density waves that distort the beginning of the first-order density waves. The separation distance between these first- and second-order resonances is only 0.4 to 1.5 km in this region of the rings. When the early part of each wave is systematically omitted in the surface mass density estimates, lower surface mass densities result for all of these density waves. This work was done at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.

  15. Density waves in the Calogero model - revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bardek, V. Feinberg, J. Meljanac, S.

    2010-03-15

    The Calogero model bears, in the continuum limit, collective excitations in the form of density waves and solitary modulations of the density of particles. This sector of the spectrum of the model was investigated, mostly within the framework of collective-field theory, by several authors, over the past 15 years or so. In this work we shall concentrate on periodic solutions of the collective BPS-equation (also known as 'finite amplitude density waves'), as well as on periodic solutions of the full static variational equations which vanish periodically (also known as 'large amplitude density waves'). While these solutions are not new, we feel that our analysis and presentation add to the existing literature, as we explain in the text. In addition, we show that these solutions also occur in a certain two-family generalization of the Calogero model, at special points in parameter space. A compendium of useful identities associated with Hilbert transforms, including our own proofs of these identities, appears in Appendix A. In Appendix B we also elucidate in the present paper some fine points having to do with manipulating Hilbert-transforms, which appear ubiquitously in the collective field formalism. Finally, in order to make this paper self-contained, we briefly summarize in Appendix C basic facts about the collective field formulation of the Calogero model.

  16. Magnetic properties of the charge density wave compounds RTe3, R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er & Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, N.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    The antiferromagnetic transition is investigated in the rare-earth (R) tritelluride RTe{sub 3} family of charge density wave (CDW) compounds via specific heat, magnetization and resistivity measurements. Observation of the opening of a superzone gap in the resistivity of DyTe{sub 3} indicates that additional nesting of the reconstructed Fermi surface in the CDW state plays an important role in determining the magnetic structure.

  17. Excitation of turbulence by density waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tichen, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear system describes the microdynamical state of turbulence that is excited by density waves. It consists of an equation of propagation and a master equation. A group-scaling generates the scaled equations of many interacting groups of distribution functions. The two leading groups govern the transport processes of evolution and eddy diffusivity. The remaining sub-groups represent the relaxation for the approach of diffusivity to equilibrium. In strong turbulence, the sub-groups disperse themselves and the ensemble acts like a medium that offers an effective damping to close the hierarchy. The kinetic equation of turbulence is derived. It calculates the eddy viscosity and identifies the effective damping of the assumed medium self-consistently. It formulates the coupling mechanism for the intensification of the turbulent energy at the expense of the wave energy, and the transfer mechanism for the cascade. The spectra of velocity and density fluctuations find the power law k sup-2 and k sup-4, respectively.

  18. Optical conductivity from pair density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhehao; Lee, Patrick A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a theory of optical conductivity in systems with finite-momentum Cooper pairs. In contrast to the BCS pairing where ac conductivity is purely imaginary in the clean limit, there is nonzero ac absorption across the superconducting gap for finite-momentum pairing if we break the Galilean symmetry explicitly in the electronic Hamiltonian. Vertex correction is crucial for maintaining the gauge invariance in the mean-field formalism and dramatically changes the optical conductivity in the direction of the pairing momentum. We carried out a self-consistent calculation and gave an explicit formula for optical conductivity in a simple case. This result applies to the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state and candidates with pair density waves proposed for high-Tc cuprates. It may help detect pair density waves and determine the pairing gap as well as the direction of the pairing momentum in experiments.

  19. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  20. Transport in mesoscopic charge density wave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Mark Ivar

    This thesis presents several theoretical studies on the electrical transport of charge density waves in mesoscopic systems. On this length scale the fields of mesoscopic physics and superconductivity merge with the physics of CDW's. The research is focussed on the demonstration of new (quantum) physics in both the quasi- particle and the collective transport modes. Using a Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk scattering approach, it is shown that the tunneling conductance reflects the local density of states, rather than the bulk density of states as in superconductors. The conductance depends also on the phase of the CDW relative to the interface. Characteristic oscillations remain present after an ensemble averaging. We investigate two types of Aharonov-Bohm effects in CDW conductors. It is noted that a parity effect exist for the number of electrons in the ring, which shifts the modulation of the observables with half of a flux quantum. The second problem addresses the collective CDW motion through an ensemble of columnar defects threaded by a magnetic flux. We show that the pinning properties of a single defect are periodically affected by the normal flux quantum. However, in an ensemble of uncorrelated Aharonov-Bohm rings, the effective (averaged) threshold field reflects a half flux quantum periodicity, similar to the Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations. These results are in qualitative agreement with experiments. We investigate the Josephson current through a superconductor-CDW-Superconductor (S/C/S) junction. For this system we formulate the kinetic equations within the Keldysh formalism. In the sliding regime, the narrow band noise frequency locks to the Josephson frequency. As a result, oscillations appear in the current-voltage characteristic, accompanied by plateaus in the collective CDW conductance. Furthermore, we investigate the 'Poor man's Josephson effect' in a C/N/C junction, in relation to the Josephson current through an S/N/S junction. The sliding

  1. Solar-Driven Neutral Density Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, P.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms flowing into the solar system are attracted by the solar gravitational force, repelled by solar hydrogen Ly-alpha radiation pressure, and are ionized, primarily, through charge exchange with the solar wind protons. The solar cycle variation of the radiation pressure causes the net central solar force to fluctuate between attraction and repulsion resulting in the modulation of the neutral hydrogen density about the usual time independent model. The calculation presented here shows that the time dependent downstream density is strongly modulated by a large number of travelling neutral density waves. The waves possess a continuous range of wavelengths as is to be expected for a Maxwellian gas subjected to several eleven year cycle variations during its journey through the solar system. The amplitudes of the density modulation were found to be quite large. The backscattered glow was found to depend on the position of the detector and the phase of the solar cycle. At the most favorable condition a deviation of the order of 25% from the time dependent glow might be observed.

  2. Low Temperature Properties of Charge-Density Wave Compounds POTASSIUM(0.3)-MOLYBDENUM-OXIDE, Tantalum-Sulfide and (TANTALUM-SELENIDE)(2)IODINE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting

    Electrical transport and dielectric properties above and below a threshold electric field in three quasi -one-dimensional inorganic charge-density wave compounds, K_{0.3}MoO_3 , TaS_3 and (TaSe _4)_2I, are studied in the liquid helium temperature range, where all three materials are good insulators with a typical zero-field resistivity exceeding 10^{11}Omegacm. Nonlinear dc current-voltage characteristics are measured at T = 4.2K along the chain direction in all three materials. A linear length dependence of the low-temperature threshold voltage V_sp{rm T} {*} is established, and the corresponding threshold field, E_sp{rm T} {*} = V_sp{ rm T}{*}/L, is found to have the same impurity dependence as that of the threshold field measured at T = 77K. Nonlinear conduction above the threshold field, in K_{0.3} MoO_3, is characterized by a large differential conductivity {rm djover dE} > 10Omega^{-1} cm^{-1}, and a conduction anisotropy kappa = sigma _parallel/sigma_| > 10 ^4. In K_{0.3}MoO _3, the low-frequency response at finite ac drive amplitudes below the threshold field is described by both linear and nonlinear complex dielectric constants, and the latter is characterized by the third harmonic generation. Also in K_{0.3}MoO _3, detailed time and field dependence of the dielectric polarization below E_sp {rm T}{*} is studied in the time range of 10^{-8} -10^3 sec. Both reversible and remnant polarizations are measured as the response to a step electric field drive on samples with different initial states. While the reversible polarization follows a linear field dependence, the remnant polarization leads to a field-dependent dielectric constant which diverges as E to E _sp{rm T}{*} . Furthermore, as E is increased from below to above E_sp{rm T}{* }, the transition from the insulating to the conducting state in response to a step electric field drive is proceeded by delayed-switching, and the delay-time tau_{rm D}(E)is found to divege sharply as E to E _sp{rm T}{*} from

  3. Raman scattering study of spin-density-wave-induced anisotropic electronic properties in A Fe2As2 (A =Ca , Eu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.-L.; Yin, Z. P.; Ignatov, A.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, Janusz; Sefat, Athena S.; Ding, H.; Richard, P.; Blumberg, G.

    2016-05-01

    We present a polarization-resolved and temperature-dependent Raman scattering study of A Fe2As2 (A =Ca , Eu). In the spin-density-wave phase, spectral weight redistribution is observed in the fully symmetric and nonsymmetric scattering channels at different energies. An anisotropic Raman response is observed in the fully symmetric channel in spontaneously detwinned CaFe2As2 samples. We calculate the orbital-resolved electronic structures using a combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory. We identify the electronic transitions corresponding to these two spectral features and find that the anisotropic Raman response originates from the lifted degeneracy of the dx z /y z orbitals in the broken-symmetry phase.

  4. Observational Confirmations of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Julia D.; Kennefick, Daniel; Shameer Abdeen, Mohamed; Berrier, Joel; Davis, Benjamin; Fusco, Michael; Pour Imani, Hamed; Shields, Doug; DMS, SINGS

    2017-01-01

    Using two techniques to reliably and accurately measure the pitch angles of spiral arms in late-type galaxies, we have compared pitch angles to directly measured black hole masses in local galaxies and demonstrated a strong correlation between them. Using the relation thus established we have developed a pitch angle distribution function of a statistically complete volume limited sample of nearby galaxies and developed a central black hole mass function for nearby spiral galaxies.We have further shown that density wave theory leads us to a three-way correlation between bulge mass, pitch angle, and disk gas density, and have used data from the Galaxy Disk Mass Survey to confirm this possible fundamental plane. Density wave theory also predicts that the pitch angle of spiral arms should change with observed waveband as each waveband is sampling a different stage in stellar population formation and evolution. We present evidence that this is indeed the case using a sample of galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey. Furthermore, the evolved spiral arms cross at the galaxy co-rotation radius. This gives a new method for determining the co-rotation radius of spiral galaxies that is found to agree with those found using previous methods.

  5. Damping properties of plasmonic waves on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2017-07-01

    By considering the friction force due to the interaction of plasmonic waves and graphene lattice, the damping properties (lifetime and propagation length) of long-wavelength plasmonic waves on a monolayer graphene are studied by means of a perturbative method. Electronic excitations on the graphene surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of massless electron gas, which is described by means of the linearized hydrodynamic theory. The analytical expressions for the frequency dependence of damping function, the propagation length and the lifetime of long-wavelength surface waves on graphene with small intrinsic damping are derived and analyzed. Also, simple expressions for the stored and dissipated energy densities of the surface waves are presented.

  6. Wave-function functionals for the density

    SciTech Connect

    Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-11-15

    We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

  7. On the convective properties of magnetospheric Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Recent plasma wave observations made by the ISEE and GEOS satellites of the electrostatic cyclotron harmonic waves have been consistent with and organized very well within the theoretical framework of Bernstein waves excited in magnetospheric plasma. Attention is given to an examination of a number of effects that result simply from the convective properties of Bernstein waves in a magnetospheric plasma environment. The roles of wave trapping in plasma density depressions and partial trappings near the magnetic equator are discussed. Certain future wave observations are suggested that can improve the understanding of this magnetospheric wave phenomenon.

  8. On the convective properties of magnetospheric Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Recent plasma wave observations made by the ISEE and GEOS satellites of the electrostatic cyclotron harmonic waves have been consistent with and organized very well within the theoretical framework of Bernstein waves excited in magnetospheric plasma. Attention is given to an examination of a number of effects that result simply from the convective properties of Bernstein waves in a magnetospheric plasma environment. The roles of wave trapping in plasma density depressions and partial trappings near the magnetic equator are discussed. Certain future wave observations are suggested that can improve the understanding of this magnetospheric wave phenomenon.

  9. Quantum mechanisms of density wave transport

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Wijesinghe, Asanga I.

    2012-01-01

    We report on new developments in the quantum picture of correlated electron transport in charge and spin density waves. The model treats the condensate as a quantum fluid in which charge soliton domain wall pairs nucleate above a Coulomb blockade threshold field. We employ a time-correlated soliton tunneling model, analogous to the theory of time-correlated single electron tunneling, to interpret the voltage oscillations and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics above threshold. An inverse scaling relationship between threshold field and dielectric response, originally proposed by Grüner, emerges naturally from the model. Flat dielectric and other ac responses below threshold in NbSe3 and TaS3, as well as small density wave phase displacements, indicate that the measured threshold is often much smaller than the classical depinning field. In some materials, the existence of two distinct threshold fields suggests that both soliton nucleation and classical depinning may occur. In our model, the ratio of electrostatic charging to pinning energy helps determine whether soliton nucleation or classical depinning dominates. PMID:22711979

  10. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-12-15

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  11. Electro-gravity spin density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. G.

    dimension N) under the Conformal Gauge Theory of Gravity (CGTG), here is considered an exact cosmological solution with Friedman’s asymptotic in the form of conformal flat Fock’s metrics at large times, describing the stage of decay on a cold dust-like medium of do-not-interacting-among-themselves particles and a light-like isotropic radiation. It is shown that at high times, indeed, the process of enlarging the space-time in the model metrics Friedman conformal is equivalent to Minkowski space with a gradient torsion trace in the CGTG Newtonian limit, accompanied by a polarization effect separation of electric charges induced by an electric field E⇀F is manifested in the formation of plasma-like medium with a zero complete electric charge, that in the later stages of evolution is identical to the Fock’s model of a cold dust-like medium of do-not-interacting-among-themselves particles moving here with the same speed. The trace of torsion on the CGTG formula is freezing into an electromagnetic field spin tensor trace density and E⇀F defined inside a spherical surface, moving at the speed of light, on which experiencing a gap. Therefore, this decision takes the form of an electro-gravity spin density wave, as performed in kinematic and dynamic close connection conditions for theorems on spin shock waves with spin flip at the front of the wave, moving at the speed of light in a vacuum. The theoretical dependence of electro-gravity wave energy output from the size of the emitting object is received. When applied to GRBs, this can give a new mechanism of nonthermal gamma rays production.

  12. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  13. Waves in relativistic electron beam in low-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, I.; Sheinman (Chernenco, J.

    2016-11-01

    Waves in electron beam in low-density plasma are analyzed. The analysis is based on complete electrodynamics consideration. Dependencies of dispersion laws from system parameters are investigated. It is shown that when relativistic electron beam is passed through low-density plasma surface waves of two types may exist. The first type is a high frequency wave on a boundary between the beam and neutralization area and the second type wave is on the boundary between neutralization area and stationary plasma.

  14. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; André, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of data from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.

  15. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; ...

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of datamore » from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.« less

  16. Theoretical study of pair density wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhichao

    In conventional superconductors, the Cooper pairs are formed from quasiparticles. We explore another type of superconducting state, a pair density wave (PDW) order, which spontaneously breaks some of the translational and point group symmetries. In a PDW superconductor, the order parameter is a periodic function of the center-of-mass coordinate, and the spatial average value of the superconducting order parameter vanishes. In the early 1960s, following the success of the BCS theory of superconductivity, Fulde and Ferrell and Larkin and Ovchinnikov (FFLO) developed theories of inhomogeneous superconducting states. Because of this Zeeman splitting in a magnetic field, the Cooper pairs having a nonzero center-of-mass momentum are more stable than the normal pairing, leading to the FFLO state. Experiments suggest possible occurrence of the FFLO state in the heavy-fermion compound CeCoIn5, and in quasi-low-dimensional organic superconductors. FFLO phases have also been argued to be of importance in understanding ultracold atomic Fermi gases and in the formation of color superconductivity in high density quark matter. In all Fermi superfluids known at the present time, Cooper pairs are composed of particles with spin 1/2. The spin component of a pair wave function can be characterized by its total spin S = 0 (singlet) and S = 1 (triplet). In the discovered broken inversion superconductors CePt3Si, Li2Pt3B, and Li2Pd3B, the magnetic field leads to novel inhomogeneous superconducting states, namely the helical phase and the multiple-q phase. Its order parameter exhibits periodicity similar to FFLO phase, and the consequences of both phases are same: the enhancement of transition temperature as a function of magnetic field. We have studied the PDW phases in broken parity superconductors with vortices included. By studying PDW vortex states, we find the usual Abrikosov vortex solution is unstable against a new solution with fractional vortex pairs. We have also studied the

  17. Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    We address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings.Already by Goldreich and Tremaine (1978) it has been argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring's viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper (Schmidt et al. 2016) we have pointed out that when - within a fluid description of the ring dynamics - the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping.We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model.This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts linear instability of density waves in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. In this case, sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. In general the model wave damping lengths depend on a set of input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability and the ground state surface mass density.Our new model compares reasonably well with the streamline model for nonlinear density waves of Borderies et al. 1986.Deviations become substantial in the highly nonlinear regime, corresponding to strong satellite forcing.Nevertheless, we generally observe good or at least qualitative agreement between the wave amplitude profiles of both models. The streamline approach is superior at matching the total wave profile of waves observed in Saturn's rings, while our new damping relation is a comparably handy tool to gain insight in the evolution of the wave amplitude with distance from resonance, and the different regimes of

  18. Competition between superconductivity and charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2007-02-01

    We derive an effective field theory for the competition between superconductivity (SC) and charge density waves (CDWs) by employing the SO(3) pseudospin representation of the SC and CDW order parameters. One important feature in the effective nonlinear σ model is the emergence of a Berry phase even at half filling, originating from the competition between SC and CDWs, i.e., the pseudospin symmetry. A-well known conflict between the previous studies of Oshikawa [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1535 (2000)] and Lee and Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1490 (1990)] is resolved by the appearance of the Berry phase. The Berry phase contribution allows a deconfined quantum critical point of fractionalized charge excitations with e instead of 2e in the SC-CDW quantum transition at half filling. Furthermore, we investigate the stability of the deconfined quantum criticality against quenched randomness by performing a renormalization group analysis of an effective vortex action. We argue that, although randomness results in a weak disorder fixed point differing from the original deconfined quantum critical point, deconfinement of the fractionalized charge excitations still survives at the disorder fixed point owing to a nonzero fixed point value of the vortex charge.

  19. STANDING WAVE PROBES FOR DIMENSIONAL METROLOGY OF LOW DENSITY FOAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Woody, S C; Bauza, M B

    2010-03-23

    Typically, parts and geometries of interest to LLNL are made from a combination of complex geometries and a wide array of different materials ranging from metals and ceramics to low density foams and plastic foils. These parts are combined to develop physics experiments for studying material properties, equation of state (EOS) and radiation transport. Understanding the dimensional uncertainty of the parts contained within an experiment is critical to the physical understanding of the phenomena being observed and represents the motivation for developing probe metrology capability that can address LLNL's unique problems. Standing wave probes were developed for measuring high aspect ratio, micrometer scaled features with nanometer resolution. Originally conceived of for the use in the automotive industry for characterizing fuel injector bores and similar geometries, this concept was investigated and improved for use on geometries and materials important to LLNL needs within target fabrication. As part of the original project, detailed understanding of the probe dynamics and interactions with the surface of the sample was investigated. In addition, the upgraded system was utilized for measuring fuel injector bores and micro-lenses as a means of demonstrating capability. This report discusses the use of the standing wave probe for measuring features in low density foams, 55 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} and 982 mg/cc (%6 relative density) copper foam respectively. These two foam materials represent a difficult metrology challenge because of their material properties and surface topography. Traditional non-contact metrology systems such as normal incident interferometry and/or confocal microscopy have difficulty obtaining a signal from the relatively absorptive characteristics of these materials. In addition to the foam samples, a solid copper and plastic (Rexolite{trademark}) sample of similar geometry was measured with the standing wave probe as a reference for both conductive and

  20. Emergent loop current order from pair density wave superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Manoj; Melchert, Drew; Agterberg, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In addition to charge density wave (CDW) order, there is evidence that the pseudogap phase in the cuprates breaks time reversal symmetry. Here we show that pair density wave (PDW) states give rise to a translational invariant non-superconducting order parameter that breaks time reversal and parity symmetries, but preserves their product. This secondary order parameter has a different origin, but shares the same symmetry properties as a magnetoelectric loop current order that has been proposed earlier in the context of the cuprates to explain the appearance of intra-cell magnetic order. We further show that, due to fluctuations, this secondary loop current order, which represents the breaking of discrete symmetries, can preempt PDW order, which breaks both continuous and discrete symmetries. In such a phase, the emergent loop current order coexists with spatial short range CDW and short range superconducting order. Finally, we propose a PDW phase that accounts for intra-cell magnetic order and the Kerr effect, has CDW order consistent with x-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance observations, and quasi-particle properties consistent with angle resolved photoemission scattering. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant No. DMR-1335215

  1. Emergent loop current order from pair density wave superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agterberg, D. F.; Melchert, Drew S.; Kashyap, M. K.

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence that the pseudogap phase in the cuprates breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here we show that pair density wave (PDW) states give rise to a translational invariant nonsuperconducting order parameter that breaks time-reversal and parity symmetries, but preserves their product. This secondary order parameter has a different origin, but shares the same symmetry properties as a magnetoelectric loop current order that has been proposed earlier in the context of the cuprates to explain the appearance of intracell magnetic order. We further show that, due to fluctuations, this secondary loop current order, which breaks only discrete symmetries, can preempt PDW order, which breaks both continuous and discrete symmetries. In such a phase, the emergent loop current order coexists with spatial short-range superconducting order and possibly short-range charge density wave (CDW) order. Finally, we propose a PDW phase that accounts for intracell magnetic order and the Kerr effect, has CDW order consistent with x-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance observations, and quasiparticle properties consistent with angle-resolved photoemission scattering.

  2. Density functional calculations of spin-wave dispersion curves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, Leonard; Niu, Qian

    1998-03-01

    Extending the density functional method of Kubler et al( J. Kubler et al, J. Phys. F 18, 469 (1983) and J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8155 (1989). ) for calcuating spin density wave ground states (but not making their atomic sphere approximation which requires a constant spin polarization direction in each WS sphere) we dicuss the calculation of frozen spin-wave eigenfunctions and their total energies. From these and the results of Niu's talk, we describe the calculation of spin-wave frequencies.

  3. Nonlinear density wave theory for the spiral structure of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, S; Teramoto, R; Yoshida, Z

    2000-05-01

    The theory of nonlinear waves for plasmas has been applied to the analysis of the density wave theory of galaxies which are many-body systems of gravity. A nonlinear Schrödinger equation has been derived by applying the reductive perturbation method on the fluid equations that describe the behavior of infinitesimally thin disk galaxies. Their spiral arms are characterized by a soliton and explained as a pattern of a propagating nonlinear density wave.

  4. Decay of Bloch oscillations in the charge-density-wave ordered phase of an all electronic charge density wave state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Oleg; Shvaika, Andrij; Devereaux, Thomas; Freericks, James

    The charge-density-wave phase of the Falicov-Kimball model displays a number of anomalous behavior including the appearance of subgap density of states as the temperature increases. These subgap states should have a significant impact on transport properties, particularly the nonlinear response of the system to a large dc electric field. Using the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism, we employ nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to exactly solve for this nonlinear response. We examine both the current and the order parameter of the conduction electrons as the ordered system is driven by a dc electric field. Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine.

  5. Laboratory Study of Nonlinear Trapping of Magnetized Langmuir Waves Inside a Density Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Starodubtsev, Mikhail V.; Nazarov, Vladimir V.; Kostrov, Alexander V.

    2007-05-11

    The formation of a small-scale plasma density depletion region extended along the ambient magnetic field and caused by the nonlinear interaction of the upper-hybrid plasma waves with a magnetoplasma has been observed under laboratory conditions modeling the ionospheric heating experiments. Plasma waves are trapped inside the depletion due to their specific dispersion properties. The threshold of the nonlinear wave trapping significantly increases in the vicinity of the harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency.

  6. Continuous Dependence on the Density for Stratified Steady Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Robin Ming; Walsh, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    There are two distinct regimes commonly used to model traveling waves in stratified water: continuous stratification, where the density is smooth throughout the fluid, and layer-wise continuous stratification, where the fluid consists of multiple immiscible strata. The former is the more physically accurate description, but the latter is frequently more amenable to analysis and computation. By the conservation of mass, the density is constant along the streamlines of the flow; the stratification can therefore be specified by prescribing the value of the density on each streamline. We call this the streamline density function. Our main result states that, for every smoothly stratified periodic traveling wave in a certain small-amplitude regime, there is an L ∞ neighborhood of its streamline density function such that, for any piecewise smooth streamline density function in that neighborhood, there is a corresponding traveling wave solution. Moreover, the mapping from streamline density function to wave is Lipschitz continuous in a certain function space framework. As this neighborhood includes piecewise smooth densities with arbitrarily many jump discontinues, this theorem provides a rigorous justification for the ubiquitous practice of approximating a smoothly stratified wave by a layered one. We also discuss some applications of this result to the study of the qualitative features of such waves.

  7. Experimental Evidence for Static Charge Density Waves in Iron Oxypnictides.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, A; Manfrinetti, P; Provino, A; Genovese, A; Caglieris, F; Lamura, G; Ritter, C; Putti, M

    2017-02-03

    In this Letter we report high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscope analysis of Mn-substituted LaFeAsO samples, demonstrating that a static incommensurate modulated structure develops across the low-temperature orthorhombic phase, whose modulation wave vector depends on the Mn content. The incommensurate structural distortion is likely originating from a charge-density-wave instability, a periodic modulation of the density of conduction electrons associated with a modulation of the atomic positions. Our results add a new component in the physics of Fe-based superconductors, indicating that the density wave ordering is charge driven.

  8. Experimental Evidence for Static Charge Density Waves in Iron Oxypnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Provino, A.; Genovese, A.; Caglieris, F.; Lamura, G.; Ritter, C.; Putti, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this Letter we report high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscope analysis of Mn-substituted LaFeAsO samples, demonstrating that a static incommensurate modulated structure develops across the low-temperature orthorhombic phase, whose modulation wave vector depends on the Mn content. The incommensurate structural distortion is likely originating from a charge-density-wave instability, a periodic modulation of the density of conduction electrons associated with a modulation of the atomic positions. Our results add a new component in the physics of Fe-based superconductors, indicating that the density wave ordering is charge driven.

  9. Spin Density Wave Phase Diagram in Thin Cr(110) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, Eli; Freelon, B. K.; Koh, H.; Rossnagel, K.; Kevan, S. D.

    2004-03-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission, we have mapped the antiferromagnetic phase diagram of Cr(110) thin films grown on Mo(110) and W(110) substrates systematically as a function of both film thickness and temperature. We find commensurate and incommensurate spin density wave and paramagnetic phases that are separated by nearly continuous transitions. We determine how the spin density wave band gap evolves near the Fermi level through these phases. Our results suggest a simple model to explain the delicate interplay between commensurate and incommensurate phases that involves a balance between spin density wave stabilization energy and surface and interface magnetic anisotropies.

  10. Impact of density information on Rayleigh surface wave inversion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Julian; Tsoflias, Georgios; Miller, Richard D.; Peterie, Shelby; Morton, Sarah; Xia, Jianghai

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the impact of density on the estimation of inverted shear-wave velocity (Vs) using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method. We considered the forward modeling theory, evaluated model sensitivity, and tested the effect of density information on the inversion of seismic data acquired in the Arctic. Theoretical review, numerical modeling and inversion of modeled and real data indicated that the density ratios between layers, not the actual density values, impact the determination of surface-wave phase velocities. Application on real data compared surface-wave inversion results using: a) constant density, the most common approach in practice, b) indirect density estimates derived from refraction compressional-wave velocity observations, and c) from direct density measurements in a borehole. The use of indirect density estimates reduced the final shear-wave velocity (Vs) results typically by 6-7% and the use of densities from a borehole reduced the final Vs estimates by 10-11% compared to those from assumed constant density. In addition to the improved absolute Vs accuracy, the resulting overall Vs changes were unevenly distributed laterally when viewed on a 2-D section leading to an overall Vs model structure that was more representative of the subsurface environment. It was observed that the use of constant density instead of increasing density with depth not only can lead to Vs overestimation but it can also create inaccurate model structures, such as a low-velocity layer. Thus, optimal Vs estimations can be best achieved using field estimates of subsurface density ratios.

  11. Density waves at the interface of a binary complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Schwabe, Mierk; Zhdanov, Sergey; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Lipaev, Andrey M.; Molotkov, Vladimir I.; Fortov, Vladimir E.; Zhang, Jing; Du, Cheng-Ran

    2017-01-01

    Density waves were studied in a phase-separated binary complex plasma under microgravity conditions. For the big particles, waves were self-excited by the two-stream instability, while for small particles, they were excited by heartbeat instability with the presence of reversed propagating pulses of a different frequency. By studying the dynamics of wave crests at the interface, we recognize a “collision zone” and a “merger zone” before and after the interface, respectively. The results provide a generic picture of wave-wave interaction at the interface between two “mediums”.

  12. Nonlinear upper hybrid waves and the induced density irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-08-15

    Upper hybrid waves are excited parametrically by the O-mode high-frequency heater waves in the ionospheric heating experiments. These waves grow to large amplitudes and self-induced density perturbations provide nonlinear feedback. The lower hybrid resonance modifies the nonlinear feedback driven by the ponderomotive force; the nonlinear equation governing the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is derived. Solutions in symmetric alternating functions, in non-alternating periodic functions, as well as in solitary functions are shown. The impact of lower hybrid resonance on the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is explored; the results show that both the spatial period and amplitude are enlarged. The average fluctuation level of induced density irregularities is also enhanced. In the soliton form, the induced density cavity is widened considerably.

  13. Propagation of terahertz waves in an atmospheric pressure microplasma with Epstein electron density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Zhang, Jingwen W.; Sun Hongguo; Wang He; Du Yanwei; Xiang Xiaoli

    2011-03-15

    Propagation properties of terahertz (THz) waves in a bounded atmospheric-pressure microplasma (AMP) are analyzed in this study. A modified Epstein profile model is used to simulate the electron density distribution caused by the plasma sheaths. By introducing the dielectric constant of a Drude-Lorentz model and using the method of dividing the plasma into a series of subslabs with uniform electron density, the coefficients of power reflection, transmission, and absorption are derived for a bounded microplasma structure. The effects of size of microplasma, electron density profile, and collision frequency on the propagation of THz waves are analyzed numerically. The results indicate that the propagation of THz waves in AMPs depend greatly on the above three parameters. It is demonstrated that the THz wave can play an important role in AMPs diagnostics; meanwhile, the AMP can be used as a novel potential tool to control THz wave propagation.

  14. Spin density waves in dilute CuMn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W. ); Tsunoda, Y. )

    1993-05-15

    Neutron scattering studies on concentrated CuMn alloys show static spin density waves (SDW) that are incommensurate with the lattice and which become dynamic above the freezing temperature [ital T][sub [ital f

  15. Modeling of photon density waves in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, V. L.; Zubkov, L. A.; Papazoglou, E.

    2012-08-01

    We have described the transfer of modulated radiation in a random medium in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Based on the obtained expression for the scattering intensity, we have developed an original technique of modeling the photon density waves in terms of the Monte Carlo method. Expressions for measurable parameters in the frequency domain have been derived, and, based on them, the amplitude and phase of the photon density waves have been calculated. We have studied how the parameters of the photon density waves depend on the scattering anisotropy for model states with the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. The range of applicability of the diffusion approximation for the interpretation of signals of photon density waves has been investigated.

  16. Spatial Frequency Clustering in Nonlinear Dust-Density Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, K. O.; Arp, O.; Piel, A.

    2010-06-11

    Self-excited density waves were studied in a strongly coupled dusty plasma of a radio-frequency discharge under microgravity conditions. The spatiotemporal evolution of the complicated three-dimensional wave field was investigated and analyzed for two different situations. The reconstructed instantaneous phase information of the wave field revealed a partial synchronization within multiple distinct domains. The boundaries of these regions coincide with the locations of topological defects.

  17. A traveling feature in Janus spiral density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehnberg, Morgan; Esposito, Larry W.; Brown, Zarah L.; Sremčević, Miodrag; Albers, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    Every 4.0 years on 21 January, the Saturnian co-orbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus move radially and switch relative positions. This swap also alters the locations of the resonances within the rings corresponding to these moons. In stellar occultations by the A and B rings observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph’s High Speed Photometer between 2005 and 2015, we report the detection of many density-wave interference structures as a result of these orbital swaps.Most prominent in the Janus 2:1, 4:3, 5:4, and 6:5 resonance regions is a soliton-like traveling wave which propagates through the rings. This wave moves at approximately twice the group velocity of the A-ring spiral density waves and at a similar velocity to that of the Janus 2:1 density wave in the B ring. The optical depth of the B ring near the Janus 3:2 spiral density wave is too great for it to be visible and no similar traveling features were detected within three Mimas and Prometheus density waves.

  18. The Mass of Saturn's B ring from hidden density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The B ring is Saturn's brightest and most opaque ring, but many of its fundamental parameters, including its total mass, are not well constrained. Elsewhere in the rings, the best mass density estimates come from spiral waves driven by mean-motion resonances with Saturn's various moons, but such waves have been hard to find in the B ring. We have developed a new wavelet-based technique, for combining data from multiple stellar occultations that allows us to isolate the density wave signals from other ring structures. This method has been applied to 5 density waves using 17 occultations of the star gamma Crucis observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Two of these waves (generated by the Janus 2:1 and Mimas 5:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances) are visible in individual occultation profiles, but the other three wave signatures ( associated with the Janus 3:2, Enceladus 3:1 and Pandora 3:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances ) are not visible in individual profiles and can only be detected in the combined dataset. Estimates of the ring's surface mass density derived from these five waves fall between 40 and 140 g/cm^2. Surprisingly, these mass density estimates show no obvious correlation with the ring's optical depth. Furthermore, these data indicate that the total mass of the B ring is probably between one-third and two-thirds the mass of Saturn's moon Mimas.

  19. GyPSuM: A Detailed Tomographic Model of Mantle Density and Seismic Wave Speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, N A; Forte, A M; Boschi, L; Grand, S P

    2010-03-30

    GyPSuM is a tomographic model fo mantle seismic shear wave (S) speeds, compressional wave (P) speeds and detailed density anomalies that drive mantle flow. the model is developed through simultaneous inversion of seismic body wave travel times (P and S) and geodynamic observations while considering realistic mineral physics parameters linking the relative behavior of mantle properties (wave speeds and density). Geodynamic observations include the (up to degree 16) global free-air gravity field, divergence of the tectonic plates, dynamic topography of the free surface, and the flow-induced excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. GyPSuM is built with the philosophy that heterogeneity that most closely resembles thermal variations is the simplest possible solution. Models of the density field from Earth's free oscillations have provided great insight into the density configuration of the mantle; but are limited to very long-wavelength solutions. Alternatively, simply scaling higher resolution seismic images to density anomalies generates density fields that do not satisfy geodynamic observations. The current study provides detailed density structures in the mantle while directly satisfying geodynamic observations through a joint seismic-geodynamic inversion process. Notable density field observations include high-density piles at the base of the superplume structures, supporting the fundamental results of past normal mode studies. However, these features are more localized and lower amplitude than past studies would suggest. When we consider all seismic anomalies in GyPSuM, we find that P and S-wave speeds are strongly correlated throughout the mantle. However, correlations between the high-velocity S zones in the deep mantle ({approx} 2000 km depth) and corresponding P-wave anomalies are very low suggesting a systematic divergence from simplified thermal effects in ancient subducted slab anomalies. Nevertheless, they argue that temperature variations are the

  20. Cassini RSS occultation observations of density waves in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, C. A.; French, R. G.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schinder, P. J.; Anabtawi, A.; Asmar, S.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Goltz, G.; Johnston, D.; Rochblatt, D.

    2005-08-01

    On May 3, 2005, the first of a series of eight nearly diametric occultations by Saturn's rings and atmosphere took place, observed by the Cassini Radio Science (RSS) team. Simultaneous high SNR measurements at the Deep Space Network (DSN) at S, X, and Ka bands (λ = 13, 3.6, and 0.9 cm) have provided a remarkably detailed look at the radial structure and particle scattering behavior of the rings. By virtue of the relatively large ring opening angle (B=-23.6o), the slant path optical depth of the rings was much lower than during the Voyager epoch (B=5.9o), making it possible to detect many density waves and other ring features in the Cassini RSS data that were lost in the noise in the Voyager RSS experiment. Ultimately, diffraction correction of the ring optical depth profiles will yield radial resolution as small as tens of meters for the highest SNR data. At Ka band, the Fresnel scale is only 1--1.5 km, and thus even without diffraction correction, the ring profiles show a stunning array of density waves. The A ring is replete with dozens of Pandora and Prometheus inner Lindblad resonance features, and the Janus 2:1 density wave in the B ring is revealed with exceptional clarity for the first time at radio wavelengths. Weaker waves are abundant as well, and multiple occultation chords sample a variety of wave phases. We estimate the surface mass density of the rings from linear density wave models of the weaker waves. For stronger waves, non-linear models are required, providing more accurate estimates of the wave dispersion relation, the ring surface mass density, and the angular momentum exchange between the rings and satellite. We thank the DSN staff for their superb support of these complex observations.

  1. Merlon-type density waves in a compartmentalized conveyor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, G.; van derWeele, K.

    2016-09-01

    Multi-particle flow through a cyclic array of K connected compartments with a preferential direction is known to be able to organize itself in the form of density waves [Kanellopoulos, Van der Meer, and Van der Weele, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022205 (2015)]. In this brief note we focus on the intriguing shape these waves take when K is even, in which case they travel through alternatingly dense and diluted compartments. We call them "merlon waves", since the sequence of high and low densities is reminiscent of the merlons and crenels on the battlements of medieval castles.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Low-Density Shock-Wave Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    1999-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations of low-density shock-wave interactions for an incident shock impinging on a cylinder have been performed. Flow-field density gradient and surface pressure and heating define the type of interference pattern and corresponding perturbations. The maximum pressure and heat transfer level and location for various interaction types (i.e., shock-wave incidence with respect to the cylinder) are presented. A time-accurate solution of the Type IV interference is employed to demonstrate the establishment and the steadiness of the low-density flow interaction.

  3. Alternative route to charge density wave formation in multiband systems.

    PubMed

    Eiter, Hans-Martin; Lavagnini, Michela; Hackl, Rudi; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A; Kemper, Alexander F; Devereaux, Thomas P; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Analytis, James G; Fisher, Ian R; Degiorgi, Leonardo

    2013-01-02

    Charge and spin density waves, periodic modulations of the electron, and magnetization densities, respectively, are among the most abundant and nontrivial low-temperature ordered phases in condensed matter. The ordering direction is widely believed to result from the Fermi surface topology. However, several recent studies indicate that this common view needs to be supplemented. Here, we show how an enhanced electron-lattice interaction can contribute to or even determine the selection of the ordering vector in the model charge density wave system ErTe(3). Our joint experimental and theoretical study allows us to establish a relation between the selection rules of the electronic light scattering spectra and the enhanced electron-phonon coupling in the vicinity of band degeneracy points. This alternative proposal for charge density wave formation may be of general relevance for driving phase transitions into other broken-symmetry ground states, particularly in multiband systems, such as the iron-based superconductors.

  4. Alternative route to charge density wave formation in multiband systems

    PubMed Central

    Eiter, Hans-Martin; Lavagnini, Michela; Hackl, Rudi; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A.; Kemper, Alexander F.; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Analytis, James G.; Fisher, Ian R.; Degiorgi, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Charge and spin density waves, periodic modulations of the electron, and magnetization densities, respectively, are among the most abundant and nontrivial low-temperature ordered phases in condensed matter. The ordering direction is widely believed to result from the Fermi surface topology. However, several recent studies indicate that this common view needs to be supplemented. Here, we show how an enhanced electron–lattice interaction can contribute to or even determine the selection of the ordering vector in the model charge density wave system ErTe3. Our joint experimental and theoretical study allows us to establish a relation between the selection rules of the electronic light scattering spectra and the enhanced electron–phonon coupling in the vicinity of band degeneracy points. This alternative proposal for charge density wave formation may be of general relevance for driving phase transitions into other broken-symmetry ground states, particularly in multiband systems, such as the iron-based superconductors. PMID:23248317

  5. Energy density of relic gravity waves from inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, V. )

    1990-07-15

    We evaluate both the spectral energy density and the total energy density for relic gravity waves produced during the transition from an early inflationary phase to a matter-dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-type expansion: {ital a}{similar to}{ital t}{sup {ital c}} ({ital c}{lt}1). We find that for power-law inflation the spectral energy density for gravity waves has more power on larger scales than for purely exponential inflation. Evaluating the energy density of created massless particles (both gravitons and massless scalars) we find that in the case of exponential inflation the ratio of the density of created particles to the total density of matter is a constant, if {ital c}{ge}1/2. This unusual behavior is a consequence of the fact that the equation of state for created particles mimics the equation of state for matter driving the expansion of the Universe. As a result, self-consistent solutions of the Einstein equations can be found, in which the expansion of the Universe is sustained solely by the ongoing production of massless particles, so that {ital G}{sub {mu}{nu}}=8{pi}{ital G}{l angle}{ital T}{sub {mu}{nu}}{r angle}. In the case of power-law and quasiexponential inflation we find that the ratio of the energy density of gravity waves to the background matter density increases with time, as gravity waves with longer wavelengths and larger amplitudes enter the horizon at successively later epochs. This could lead to the energy density of gravity waves becoming comparable to the energy density of matter at late times, if inflation commenced at Planckian energies.

  6. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  7. Constraints on primordial density perturbations from induced gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David

    2010-01-15

    We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced during the radiation-dominated hot big bang as a constraint on the primordial density perturbation on comoving length scales much smaller than those directly probed by the cosmic microwave background or large-scale structure. We place weak upper bounds on the primordial density perturbation from current data. Future detectors such as BBO and DECIGO will place much stronger constraints on the primordial density perturbation on small scales.

  8. Generation of ramp waves using variable areal density flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ramp loading using graded density impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacturing technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed-of-nails" (BON). A 2.5-mm-thick × 99.4-mm-diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 5.5 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 and 1100 m/s using the 100-mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College London. In each experiment, a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry (Het-V) was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ˜ 2.5 μs, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  9. Calculation of electronic excitations using wave-function in wave-function frozen-density embedding.

    PubMed

    Höfener, Sebastian; Visscher, Lucas

    2012-11-28

    Recently, a general framework suitable for general frozen-density embedding (FDE) methods was published [S. Höfener, A. S. P. Gomes, and L. Visscher, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 044104 (2012)]. In the present article, we report the fragmentation of a supermolecule while treating all subsystems with coupled-cluster theory and the interaction of the subsystems with density-functional theory. This variant is denoted wave-function theory in wave-function theory FDE, or coupled-cluster theory in coupled-cluster theory FDE. Main target of this approach is not the embedding of a single molecule in large solvation shells, but rather the possibility to divide a complex system consisting of several molecules when all subsystems are to be treated with, e.g., coupled-cluster methods to provide a balanced and unbiased description. We present numerical results for hydrogen-bonded complexes which exhibit rather strong interactions. Cases with weakly interacting subsystems are expected to exhibit even higher accuracy. This facilitates the study of properties of larger complexes such as DNA base pairs with coupled-cluster methods.

  10. Calculation of electronic excitations using wave-function in wave-function frozen-density embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfener, Sebastian; Visscher, Lucas

    2012-11-01

    Recently, a general framework suitable for general frozen-density embedding (FDE) methods was published [S. Höfener, A. S. P. Gomes, and L. Visscher, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 044104 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3675845. In the present article, we report the fragmentation of a supermolecule while treating all subsystems with coupled-cluster theory and the interaction of the subsystems with density-functional theory. This variant is denoted wave-function theory in wave-function theory FDE, or coupled-cluster theory in coupled-cluster theory FDE. Main target of this approach is not the embedding of a single molecule in large solvation shells, but rather the possibility to divide a complex system consisting of several molecules when all subsystems are to be treated with, e.g., coupled-cluster methods to provide a balanced and unbiased description. We present numerical results for hydrogen-bonded complexes which exhibit rather strong interactions. Cases with weakly interacting subsystems are expected to exhibit even higher accuracy. This facilitates the study of properties of larger complexes such as DNA base pairs with coupled-cluster methods.

  11. Scattering of radio frequency waves by cylindrical density filaments in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. Radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves, excited by antenna structures placed near the wall of a tokamak, have to propagate through the scrape-off layer before reaching the core of the plasma. While the effect of fluctuations on the properties of RF waves has not been quantified experimentally, it is of interest to carry out a theoretical study to determine if fluctuations can affect the propagation characteristics of RF waves. Usually, the difference between the plasma density inside the filament and the background plasma density is sizable, the ratio of the density difference to the background density being of order one. Generally, this precludes the use of geometrical optics in determining the effect of fluctuations, since the relevant ratio has to be much less than one, typically, of the order of 10% or less. In this paper, a full-wave, analytical model is developed for the scattering of a RF plane wave by a cylindrical plasma filament. It is assumed that the plasma inside and outside the filament is cold and uniform and that the major axis of the filament is aligned along the toroidal magnetic field. The ratio of the density inside the filament to the density of the background plasma is not restricted. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any cold plasma wave. In order to satisfy the boundary conditions at the interface between the filament and the background plasma, the electromagnetic fields inside and outside the filament need to have the same k∥ , the wave vector parallel to the ambient magnetic field, as the incident plane wave. Consequently, in contrast to the scattering of a RF wave by a spherical blob [Ram et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056110-1-056110-10 (2013)], the scattering by a field-aligned filament does not broaden the k∥ spectrum. However, the filament induces side-scattering leading to surface

  12. Momentum-space properties from coordinate-space electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Harbola, Manoj K.; Zope, Rajendra R.; Kshirsagar, Anjali; Pathak, Rajeev K.

    2005-05-22

    Electron density and electron momentum density, while independently tractable experimentally, bear no direct connection without going through the many-electron wave function. However, invoking a variant of the constrained-search formulation of density-functional theory, we develop a general scheme (valid for arbitrary external potentials) yielding decent momentum-space properties, starting exclusively from the coordinate-space electron density. A numerical illustration of the scheme is provided for the closed-shell atomic systems He, Be, and Ne in their ground state and for 1s{sup 1} 2s{sup 1} singlet electronic excited state for helium by calculating the Compton profiles and the expectation values derived from given coordinate-space electron densities.

  13. Propagation of radio frequency waves through density filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2015-12-10

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. In this paper we develop an analytical formalism for the scattering of radio frequency waves by filaments which are cylindrical with their major axis aligned along the toroidal magnetic field lines. Since the magnitude of the ratio of the density inside the filaments to the background density is generally of order 1, the geometric optics approximation cannot be used to describe the scattering. A full-wave model is formulated which assumes that the plasma is cold and that the plasma in the cylindrical filament has uniform density. The background plasma, in which the filament is present, is also assumed to be cold and uniform. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any plasma wave.

  14. Propagation of radio frequency waves through density filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2015-12-01

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. In this paper we develop an analytical formalism for the scattering of radio frequency waves by filaments which are cylindrical with their major axis aligned along the toroidal magnetic field lines. Since the magnitude of the ratio of the density inside the filaments to the background density is generally of order 1, the geometric optics approximation cannot be used to describe the scattering. A full-wave model is formulated which assumes that the plasma is cold and that the plasma in the cylindrical filament has uniform density. The background plasma, in which the filament is present, is also assumed to be cold and uniform. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any plasma wave.

  15. Effect of dilute strongly pinning impurities on charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Jun-ichi; Millis, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    We study theoretically the effects of strong pinning centers on a charge density wave in the limit that the charge density wave coherence length is shorter than the average interimpurity distance. An analysis based on a Ginzburg-Landau model shows that long-range forces arising from the elastic response of the charge density wave induce a kind of collective pinning which suppresses impurity-induced phase fluctuations, leading to a long-range ordered ground state. The correlations induced by impurities are characterized by a length scale parametrically longer than the average interimpurity distance. Long-wavelength fluctuations are found to be gapped, implying the stability of the ground state. We also present Monte Carlo simulations that confirm the basic features of the analytical results.

  16. Diffuse wave density and directionality in anisotropic solids.

    PubMed

    Norris, Andrew N

    2008-03-01

    Several general results are derived for diffuse waves in anisotropic solids, including concise expressions for the modal density per unit volume d(omega), and for the participation factor matrix G. The latter is a second-order tensor which describes the orientational distribution of diffuse wave or reverberant energy, and reduces to the identity I under isotropy. Calculations of G for a variety of example materials show significant deviation from I even under moderate levels of anisotropy.

  17. Spike wave location and density disturb sleep slow waves in patients with CSWS (continuous spike waves during sleep).

    PubMed

    Bölsterli Heinzle, Bigna K; Fattinger, Sara; Kurth, Salomé; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Ringli, Maya; Bast, Thomas; Critelli, Hanne; Schmitt, Bernhard; Huber, Reto

    2014-04-01

    In CSWS (continuous spike waves during sleep) activation of spike waves during slow wave sleep has been causally linked to neuropsychological deficits, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms are still unknown. In healthy subjects, the overnight decrease of the slope of slow waves in NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep has been linked to brain recovery to regain optimal cognitive performance. Here, we investigated whether the electrophysiologic hallmark of CSWS, the spike waves during sleep, is related to an alteration in the overnight decrease of the slope, and if this alteration is linked to location and density of spike waves. In a retrospective study, the slope of slow waves (0.5-2 Hz) in the first hour and last hour of sleep (19 electroencephalography [EEG] electrodes) of 14 patients with CSWS (3.1-13.5 years) was calculated. The spike wave "focus" was determined as the location of highest spike amplitude and the density of spike waves as spike wave index (SWI). There was no overnight change of the slope of slow waves in the "focus." Instead, in "nonfocal" regions, the slope decreased significantly. This difference in the overnight course resulted in a steeper slope in the "focus" compared to "nonfocal" electrodes during the last hour of sleep. Spike wave density was correlated with the impairment of the overnight slope decrease: The higher the SWI, the more hampered the slope decrease. Location and density of spike waves are related to an alteration of the physiologic overnight decrease of the slow wave slope. This overnight decrease of the slope was shown to be closely related to the recovery function of sleep. Such recovery is necessary for optimal cognitive performance during wakefulness. Therefore we propose the impairment of this process by spike waves as a potential mechanism leading to neuropsychological deficits in CSWS. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals

  18. Photoemission studies of novel charge density wave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Timothy Edward

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful tool for probing the properties of surfaces and interfaces. Linked with a tunable light source such as the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, WI, one is able to obtain information concerning the sample's crystal structure, the interfacial properties of thin films, valence band structure, and chemical environment. This thesis is mainly focused on the use of angle-resolved photoemission to study the electronic structure of charge density wave (CDW) systems. CDW systems undergo a temperature dependent structural phase transition accompanied by a modulation of the conduction electron density. These materials share many properties with complex systems. These systems display many novel properties including high-Tc superconductivity and the colossal magnetoresistance effect. One of the shared properties of these systems is a high sensitivity to doping and defects. This sensitivity will be explored in the context of two CDW systems in this thesis. The first system to be studied was the 1/3 ML Sn/Ge(111) surface. It is a simple 2D binary semiconductor system which appears to undergo a CDW phase transition at low temperatures. Photoemission spectroscopy was used to determine the mechanism for the phase transition, and the influence of defects upon the system. It appears the defects play a strong role in defining both the normal and ground state for the system, and are perhaps essential for the phase transition. The second system studied is the layered compound TiSe2. Unlike other group IV transition metal dichalcogenides, TiSe2 undergoes a CDW phase transition at low temperatures. Although the system has been studied for decades, there is still no consensus on the mechanism driving the phase transition. There is also some doubt as to whether the normal state is semi-metallic or semiconducting. Again, defects have a strong effect upon the system. Photoemission studies were used to measure the system's electronic structure near

  19. Spatial localization and temporal analysis of optical property fluctuations by multiplexed near-infrared photon density waves in turbid media: In vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiaci, Mattia Emidio

    2001-12-01

    In recent years the application of near infrared non- invasive methods for medical diagnostics and clinical studies has grown rapidly. The ease of use, low cost and portability of these methods is a clear advantage over other techniques such as MRI. The limitations in detection of optical property inhomogeneities in tissues, such as tumors or hematomas, is due to the diffusive, highly scattering nature of near infrared light propagation. I have studied and developed methods to improve the spatial localization of these inhomogeneities in biological tissues, especially for the application of functional studies of the human brain in vivo. Recently much attention has been given to the study of the processes in the human brain that lead to the changing of the optical parameters that characterize the tissue, measured by our frequency-domain instrumentation. These processes have been divided into two main categories with different time-scales. The slower one is mostly due to the fluctuations in the absorption coefficient caused by oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin changes in the tissue. The temporal analysis of the signal resulting from this process is studied in detail, and I also introduce a time-series data analysis technique that has not been applied to this field before but was introduced in another area very recently. The faster time-scale process has been attributed to the electrochemical excitation of the individual neurons in the brain that have been observed to cause a change in the scattering coefficient of the tissue. This is the other primary parameter that is measured by our frequency domain instrument. However, before this work it has not been clear how to go about to better localize these smaller fluctuations. I present a novel idea for improving spatial localization of macroscopic optical parameter fluctuations, and study the characteristics of this optical probe design using analytical solutions to the diffusion equation and Monte Carlo simulations that more

  20. Energy density and energy flow of magnetoplasmonic waves on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2017-03-01

    By means the linearized magnetohydrodynamic theory, expressions for energy density and energy flow are derived for the p-polarized surface magnetoplasmon polaritons on graphene in the Voigt configuration, where a static magnetic field is normal to the graphene surface. Numerical results show that the external magnetic field has significant impact on the energy density and energy transport velocity of magnetoplasmon waves in the long-wavelength region, while total power flow vary only weakly with magnetostatic field. The velocity of energy propagation is proved to be identical with group velocity of the surface waves.

  1. Adaptive density partitioning technique in the auxiliary plane wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2006-01-01

    We have developed the adaptive density partitioning technique (ADPT) in the auxiliary plane wave method, in which a part of the density is expanded to plane waves, for the fast evaluation of Coulomb matrix. Our partitioning is based on the error estimations and allows us to control the accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, we can drastically reduce the core Gaussian products that are left in Gaussian representation (its analytical integrals is the bottleneck in this method). For the taxol molecule with 6-31G** basis, the core Gaussian products accounted only for 5% in submicrohartree error.

  2. Problems with the equation for viscous damping of density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; Salo, H.; Spahn, F.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous resonances with external satellites excite density waves in Saturn's rings. A theoretical expression for the damping of these waves, when they propagate away from the resonance location, is derived from a fluid model (GT78: Goldreich and Tremaine, 1978, Icarus, 34, 240, see also: Shu et al., 1984, in Planetary Rings). The magnitude of the shear viscosity of Saturn's rings is inferred from comparison of this theory to the actual damping length of density waves observed in various data sets (e.g. Esposito et al., 1983, Lissauer et al., 1984, Tiscareno et al., 2007). In the theoretical expression for the damping length the fluid's bulk viscosity enters (in addition to the shear viscosity) as well as the dependence of both viscosities on the density of the ring matter. However, generally the bulk viscosity and the effects of the density dependences are neglected when the shear viscosity is inferred from the data. It has already been pointed out in the original paper (GT78) that this neglect lacks adequate justification. This raises the question in how far the inferred viscosities are representative for the rings. In particular, if one takes into acount the density dependence of the viscosities, the expression for the viscous damping transforms into a relation that is equivalent to the stability criterion for viscous overstability. In this case the theory implies that there might be ring regions where density waves do not damp at all but grow in amplitude (GT78). In this paper we re-derive the expression for the wave damping, including the terms stemming from the density dependence of the viscosities. We discuss their effect in the light of the presence of self-gravity wakes in the rings, contributing to viscosity, the probable detection of viscous overstability in parts of Saturn's ring system, and the behaviour of the Janus/Epimetheus m:m-1 wavetrains.

  3. Electron densities inferred from plasma wave spectra obtained by the Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; De Pascuale, S.; Faden, J. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Thaller, S.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    The twin Van Allen Probe spacecraft, launched in August 2012, carry identical scientific payloads. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science suite includes a plasma wave instrument (Waves) that measures three magnetic and three electric components of plasma waves in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 12 kHz using triaxial search coils and the Electric Fields and Waves triaxial electric field sensors. The Waves instrument also measures a single electric field component of waves in the frequency range of 10 to 500 kHz. A primary objective of the higher-frequency measurements is the determination of the electron density ne at the spacecraft, primarily inferred from the upper hybrid resonance frequency fuh. Considerable work has gone into developing a process and tools for identifying and digitizing the upper hybrid resonance frequency in order to infer the electron density as an essential parameter for interpreting not only the plasma wave data from the mission but also as input to various magnetospheric models. Good progress has been made in developing algorithms to identify fuh and create a data set of electron densities. However, it is often difficult to interpret the plasma wave spectra during active times to identify fuh and accurately determine ne. In some cases, there is no clear signature of the upper hybrid band, and the low-frequency cutoff of the continuum radiation is used. We describe the expected accuracy of ne and issues in the interpretation of the electrostatic wave spectrum.

  4. Spin-polarized local density of states in the vortex state of helical p -wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro

    2017-04-01

    Properties of the vortex state in helical p -wave superconductor are studied by the quasiclassical Eilenberger theory. We confirm the instability of the helical p -wave state at high fields and that the spin-polarized local density of states M (E ,r ) appears even when Knight shift does not change. This is because the vorticity couples to the chirality of up-spin pair or down-spin pair of the helical state. In order to identify the helical p -wave state at low fields, we investigate the structure of the zero-energy M (E =0 ,r ) in the vortex states, and also the energy spectra of M (E ,r ) .

  5. Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue waves, probability density functions, and spectral features.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, N; Soto-Crespo, J M; Devine, N

    2016-08-01

    Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue waves, the probability density functions of the chaotic wave fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the wave field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics.

  6. Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue waves, probability density functions, and spectral features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmediev, N.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Devine, N.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue waves, the probability density functions of the chaotic wave fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the wave field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics.

  7. Pair density wave superconducting states and statistical mechanics of dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto Garrido, Rodrigo Andres

    The following thesis is divided in two main parts. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 are devoted to the study of the so called pair-density-wave (PDW) superconducting state and some of its connections to electronic liquid crystal (ELC) phases, its topological aspects in a one dimensional model and its appearance in a quasi-one dimensional system. On the other hand, chapter 5 is focused on the investigation of the classical statistical mechanics properties of dimers, in particular, the dimer model on the Aztec diamond graph and its relation with the octahedron equation. In chapter 2 we present a theory of superconducting states where the Cooper pairs have a nonzero center-of-mass momentum, inhomogeneous superconducting states known as a pair-density-waves (PDWs) states. We show that in a system of spin-1/2 fermions in two dimensions in an electronic nematic spin-triplet phase where rotational symmetry is broken in both real and spin space PDW phases arise naturally in a theory that can be analysed using controlled approximations. We show that several superfluid phases that may arise in this phase can be treated within a controlled BCS mean field theory, with the strength of the spin-triplet nematic order parameter playing the role of the small parameter of this theory. We find that in a spin-triplet nematic phase, in addition to a triplet p-wave and spin-singlet d-wave (or s depending on the nematic phase) uniform superconducting states, it is also possible to have a d-wave (or s) PDW superconductor. The PDW phases found here can be either unidirectional, bidirectional, or tridirectional depending on the spin-triplet nematic phase and which superconducting channel is dominant. In addition, a triple-helix state is found in a particular channel. We show that these PDW phases are present in the weak-coupling limit, in contrast to the usual Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phases, which require strong coupling physics in addition to a large magnetic field (and often both). In chapter

  8. Whistler-Mode Waves inside Density Ducts Observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosborough, S.; Bengtson, M.; Stein, R. L.; Streltsov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes satellites launched by NASA in 2012 are currently orbiting in Earth's radiation belts collecting data about electromagnetic waves and charged particles in the near-earth space environment. Whistler-mode waves are naturally occurring right-hand polarized, very-low frequency waves (< 30 kHz), that can efficiently interact with the energetic electrons in the earth's radiation belts magnetosphere and remediate them from the magnetosphere by precipitating these particles into the atmosphere. The important property of the whistler-mode waves is that they can be guided by density inhomogeneities extended along the ambient magnetic field and localized in the direction perpendicular to the field. Such density channels can be formed by the density enhancement or depletion and they are called ducts. The primary goal of our research is to find density duct and whistler waves in the data recorded by the Van Allen Probes satellites in the magnetosphere, and to reproduce these data with numerical simulations of time-dependent, two-dimensional electron MHD model. In this paper, we present results from our analysis of the observations performed by the Van Allen Probes satellites on 15 October 2014. Data from the probes show the electric and magnetic fields and plasma density. In this event whistler-mode waves were observed from 01:42 to 01:54 UT inside the localized density enhancement coincided with the flux of energetic electrons. Short time intervals, high concentrated electron density, and electron flux gradient activity make this event very interesting for the investigation. Numerical simulations of the electron MHD model revels reasonable quantitative agreement between numerical results and satellite observations, suggesting that the electromagnetic disturbances recorded by the Van Allen Probes satellites, are the whistler-mode waves indeed.

  9. Magnetic catalysis and axionic charge density wave in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Bitan; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional Weyl and Dirac semimetals can support a chiral-symmetry-breaking, fully gapped, charge-density-wave order even for sufficiently weak repulsive electron-electron interactions, when placed in strong magnetic fields. In the former systems, due to the natural momentum space separation of Weyl nodes the ordered phase lacks the translational symmetry and represents an axionic phase of matter, while that in a Dirac semimetal (neglecting the Zeeman coupling) is only a trivial insulator. We present the scaling of this spectral gap for a wide range of subcritical (weak) interactions as well as that of the diamagnetic susceptibility with the magnetic field. A similar mechanism for charge-density-wave ordering at weak coupling is shown to be operative in double- and triple-Weyl semimetals, where the dispersion is linear (quadratic and cubic, respectively) for the z (planar) component(s) of the momentum. We here also address the competition between the charge-density-wave and a spin-density-wave orders, both of which breaks the chiral symmetry and leads to gapped spectrum, and show that at least in the weak coupling regime the former is energetically favored. The anomalous surface Hall conductivity, role of topological defects such as axion strings, existence of one-dimensional gapless dispersive modes along the core of such defects, and anomaly cancellation through the Callan-Harvey mechanism are discussed.

  10. Density inhomogeneity driven electrostatic shock waves in planetary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Rizvi, H.; Haque, Q.; Hasnain, H.

    2011-05-15

    Dust inertia and background density driven dust drift shock waves are theoretically studied in a rotating planetary environment and are subsequently applied to the planetary rings where the collisional effects are pronounced. It has been found that the system under consideration admits significant shock formation if the collision frequency is of the order of or less than the rotational frequency of the Saturn's rings.

  11. Pressure induced Superconductivity in the Charge Density Wave Compound Tritelluride

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, J.J.; Zocco, D.A.; Sayles, T.A.; Maple, M.B.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    A series of high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals of TbTe{sub 3} reveal a complex phase diagram involving the interplay of superconducting, antiferromagnetic and charge density wave order. The onset of superconductivity reaches a maximum of almost 4 K (onset) near {approx} 12.4 GPa.

  12. Phase velocity limit of high-frequency photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Madsen, Sten; Rojas, Fabio E.; Feng, T.-C.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    In frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM), two factors make high modulation frequencies desirable. First, with frequencies as high as a few GHz, the phase lag versus frequency plot has sufficient curvature to yield both the scattering and absorption coefficients of the tissue under examination. Second, because of increased attenuation, high frequency photon density waves probe smaller volumes, an asset in small volume in vivo or in vitro studies. This trend toward higher modulation frequencies has led us to re-examine the derivation of the standard diffusion equation (SDE) from the Boltzman transport equation. We find that a second-order time-derivative term, ordinarily neglected in the derivation, can be significant above 1 GHz for some biological tissue. The revised diffusion equation, including the second-order time-derivative, is often termed the P1 equation. We compare the dispersion relation of the P1 equation with that of the SDE. The P1 phase velocity is slower than that predicted by the SDE; in fact, the SDE phase velocity is unbounded with increasing modulation frequency, while the P1 phase velocity approaches c/sqrt(3) is attained only at modulation frequencies with periods shorter than the mean time between scatterings of a photon, a frequency regime that probes the medium beyond the applicability of diffusion theory. Finally we caution that values for optical properties deduced from FDPM data at high frequencies using the SDE can be in error by 30% or more.

  13. Diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthan, Juergen; Prapavat, Viravuth; Naber, Rolf-Dieter; Minet, Olaf; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory disease of interphalangeal joints. The utilization of conventional imaging systems (e.g. x-rays) for non invasive diagnostics at an early stage of the disease is difficult, since pathologically induced changes do not occur at this stage in hard tissue. Use of MR and ultrasound methods are both methodically problematic and expensive. Therefore investigations for optical diagnostics using photon density waves (PDW) were carried out. The PDW was realized with an intensity modulated laser diode (825 nm, fmod: 110 MHz) and an ac- and phase detection in a 2D transillumination scanner. Measurements of optical properties of synovia and synovialis of healthy and early RA stages were performed and indicated a significant pathological increase of (mu) s. The detected PDW-pictures provided corresponding results. Further investigations regarding the object- variation of the modulation transfer function provide a sufficient spatial resolution in order to assign functional changes to anatomical structures. The results are presented using photos.

  14. Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Laura M; Carpenter, John M; Andrews, Sean M; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea; Linz, Hendrik; Sargent, Anneila I; Wilner, David J; Henning, Thomas; Deller, Adam T; Chandler, Claire J; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Lazio, Joseph; Menten, Karl M; Corder, Stuartt A; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo; Tazzari, Marco; Kwon, Woojin; Calvet, Nuria; Greaves, Jane S; Harris, Robert J; Mundy, Lee G

    2016-09-30

    Gravitational forces are expected to excite spiral density waves in protoplanetary disks, disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars. However, previous observations that showed spiral structure were not able to probe disk midplanes, where most of the mass is concentrated and where planet formation takes place. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we detected a pair of trailing symmetric spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. The arms extend to the disk outer regions and can be traced down to the midplane. These millimeter-wave observations also reveal an emission gap closer to the star than the spiral arms. We argue that the observed spirals trace shocks of spiral density waves in the midplane of this young disk. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Carpenter, John M.; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea; Linz, Hendrik; Sargent, Anneila I.; Wilner, David J.; Henning, Thomas; Deller, Adam T.; Chandler, Claire J.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Lazio, Joseph; Menten, Karl M.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo; Tazzari, Marco; Kwon, Woojin; Calvet, Nuria; Greaves, Jane S.; Harris, Robert J.; Mundy, Lee G.

    2016-09-01

    Gravitational forces are expected to excite spiral density waves in protoplanetary disks, disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars. However, previous observations that showed spiral structure were not able to probe disk midplanes, where most of the mass is concentrated and where planet formation takes place. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we detected a pair of trailing symmetric spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. The arms extend to the disk outer regions and can be traced down to the midplane. These millimeter-wave observations also reveal an emission gap closer to the star than the spiral arms. We argue that the observed spirals trace shocks of spiral density waves in the midplane of this young disk.

  16. The B-ring's surface mass density from hidden density waves: Less than meets the eye?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's B ring is the most opaque ring in our Solar System, but many of its fundamental parameters, including its total mass, are not well constrained. Spiral density waves generated by mean-motion resonances with Saturn's moons provide some of the best constraints on the rings' mass density, but detecting and quantifying such waves in the B ring has been challenging because of this ring's high opacity and abundant fine-scale structure. Using a wavelet-based analyses of 17 occultations of the star γ Crucis observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft, we are able to examine five density waves in the B ring. Two of these waves are generated by the Janus 2:1 and Mimas 5:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances at 96,427 km and 101,311 km from Saturn's center, respectively. Both of these waves can be detected in individual occultation profiles, but the multi-profile wavelet analysis reveals unexpected variations in the pattern speed of the Janus 2:1 wave that might arise from the periodic changes in Janus' orbit. The other three wave signatures are associated with the Janus 3:2, Enceladus 3:1 and Pandora 3:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances at 115,959 km, 115,207 km and 108,546 km. These waves are not visible in individual profiles, but structures with the correct pattern speeds can be detected in appropriately phase-corrected average wavelets. Estimates of the ring's surface mass density derived from these five waves fall between 40 and 140 g/cm2, even though the ring's optical depth in these regions ranges from ∼1.5 to almost 5. This suggests that the total mass of the B ring is most likely between one-third and two-thirds the mass of Saturn's moon Mimas.

  17. Density Limit in TCABR Plasmas With Alfven Wave Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, C.; Bellintani, V.; Elfimov, A. G.; Elizondo, J. I.; Fagundes, A. N.; Galvao, R. M. O.; Kuznetsov, Yu K.; Nascimento, I. C.; Ozono, E. M.; Ruchko, L. F.; Sa, W. P. de; Sanada, E. K.; Usuriaga, O. C.

    2006-12-04

    Alfven Waves (AW) were launched in tokamak (TCABR) density limit plasmas for the first time. Experimental evidence of plasma heating is backed up by calculations from an 1-D numerical cylindrical code, based on the toroidal electric field diffusion. Simultaneously, increase in the density limit and plasma pressure with negligible impurities level launched by the AW antennas were also observed, without major appearance of a resistive disruption. The increase in the density limit and the heating might be related to the expected edge and off-axis AW power deposition, respectively, in agreement with the calculation performed by an 1-D numerical code linked to ASTRA.

  18. Density waves driven by a high harmonic cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A high harmonic cavity (HHC) with a certain phase modulation frequency can increase the longitudinal emittance and smooth the density distribution within a particle bunch. Such a cavity helps to prevent particle losses during passage through the transition energy. The speed of dilution and the quality of density redistribution depend on the phase modulation program. In this report, we show how to choose such a program which will create traveling waves which push the front of high density from the center of the bunch to its boundary. Supporting results from machine and computer experiments are presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. The imprint of crustal density heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a set of numerical experiments designed to observe the imprint of three-dimensional density heterogeneities on a seismogram. To compute the full seismic wavefield in a three-dimensional heterogeneous medium, we use numerical wave propagation based on a spectral-element discretization of the seismic wave equation. We consider a 2000 by 1000 km wide and 500 km deep spherical section, with the one-dimensional Earth model PREM, altered so that the crust is 40 km thick and all the parameters in the crust are constant, as a background. Onto the uppermost 40 km of the underlying one-dimensional model we superimpose three-dimensional randomly generated velocity and density heterogeneities of various correlation lengths. We use different random realizations of heterogeneity distribution. We compare the synthetic seismograms for three-dimensional velocity and density structure with three-dimensional velocity structure and one-dimensional density kept as PREM, calculating relative amplitude differences and time shifts as functions of time and frequency. The misfits in time shift and amplitude for different frequency bands, epicentral distances and medium complexities are then stacked into histograms and statistically analysed. We observe strong dependency on frequency of density-related amplitude difference. We also conclude potential sensitivity to distant density structures, and that scattering is essential to observe significant density imprint on a seismogram. The possible density-related bias in velocity and attenuation for regional tomographic models is calculated using mean misfit values for given epicentral distances. Whereas the bias in velocity does not exceed 0.5% of the model value, the density-related change in attenuation may be as big as 71% of the model value for the mean amplitude difference in the highest frequency band. The results suggest that density imprint on a seismogram is not negligible and with further theoretical

  20. Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.

  1. Polar cap electron densities from DE 1 plasma wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persoon, A. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Electric-field-spectum measurements from the plasma-wave instrument on the Dynamics Explorer 1 spacecraft are used to study the local electron density at high altitudes in the northern polar-cap region. The electron density is determined from the upper cutoff of whistler-mode radiation at the electron plasma frequency. Median density values over the polar cap at L greater than 10 are found to vary from 35.2 + or - 8.5 cu cm at 2.1 earth radii to 0.99 + or - 0.51 cu cm at 4.66 earth radii. The steady-state radial-outflow model is examined for consistency with the observed density profile. A power-law fit to the radial variation of the electron density yields an exponent of - 3.85 + or - 0.32, which for the radial-outflow model implies a flow velocity increasing nearly linearly with incresing radial distance. Comparison of the observed electron densities with theoretical polar-wind densities yields consistent results up to 2.8 earth radii. A comparison of the observed electron densities with low-altitude density profiles from the Alouette II and ISIS 1 spacecraft illustrates transitions in the slope of the profile at 1.16 earth radii and between 1.55 and 2.0 earth radii. The changes in the density profile suggest that changes occur in the basic radial-transport processes at these altitudes.

  2. Saturn A ring surface mass densities from spiral density wave dispersion behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pilorz, Stuart; Lane, Arthur L.; Nelson, Robert M.; Pollard, Benjamin; Russell, Christopher T.

    2004-10-01

    We have undertaken an analysis of the Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data of Saturn's A ring. The Voyager PPS observed the bright star δ Scorpii as it was occulted by Saturn's main rings during the spacecraft flyby of the Saturn system in 1981. The occultation measurement produced a ring profile with radial resolution of approximately 100 m, and radial structure is evident in the profile down to the resolution limit. We have applied an autoregressive technique to the data for estimating the power spectrum as a function of radius, which has allowed us to identify 40 spiral density waves in Saturn's A ring, associated with the strongest torques due to forcing from the moons. The majority of the detected waves are observed to disperse linearly in regions beginning a few kilometers from the resonance location. We have used the dispersion behavior for those waves to calculate local surface mass densities in the vicinity of each wave. We find that the inner three-quarters of the A ring (up to the beginning of the Encke gap) has an average surface mass density of 43.8±7.9 g cm-2, while the outer region has an average surface mass density of 28.3±10.8 g cm-2. The two regions have different mean surface mass densities with a significance of approximately 0.999993, as estimated with a T-statistic, which corresponds to about 4.5 σ. While the mean optical depth of the A ring increases slightly with increasing distance from Saturn, we find that it is not significantly correlated with the surface mass density; the two quantities having a linear Pearson's correlation coefficient of rcorr≈-0.03. The variation of mass density, independent of PPS optical depth, is consistent with previous conjectures that the particle size distribution and composition are not constant across the entire A ring, particularly in the very outer portion. We estimate the mass of Saturn's A ring from our surface mass density estimates as 4.9×10 21 gm, or 8.61×10 -9 of the mass

  3. A gravitational test of wave reinforcement versus fluid density models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jacqueline Umstead

    1990-10-01

    Spermatozoa, protozoa, and algae form macroscopic patterns somewhat analogous to thermally driven convection cells. These bioconvective patterns have attracted interest in the fluid dynamics community, but whether in all cases these waves were gravity driven was unknown. There are two conflicting theories, one gravity dependent (fluid density model), the other gravity independent (wave reinforcement theory). The primary objectives of the summer faculty fellows were to: (1) assist in sample collection (spermatozoa) and preparation for the KC-135 research airplane experiment; and (2) to collaborate on ground testing of bioconvective variables such as motility, concentration, morphology, etc., in relation to their macroscopic patterns. Results are very briefly given.

  4. A gravitational test of wave reinforcement versus fluid density models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jacqueline Umstead

    1990-01-01

    Spermatozoa, protozoa, and algae form macroscopic patterns somewhat analogous to thermally driven convection cells. These bioconvective patterns have attracted interest in the fluid dynamics community, but whether in all cases these waves were gravity driven was unknown. There are two conflicting theories, one gravity dependent (fluid density model), the other gravity independent (wave reinforcement theory). The primary objectives of the summer faculty fellows were to: (1) assist in sample collection (spermatozoa) and preparation for the KC-135 research airplane experiment; and (2) to collaborate on ground testing of bioconvective variables such as motility, concentration, morphology, etc., in relation to their macroscopic patterns. Results are very briefly given.

  5. Frequency clusters in self-excited dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Kristoffer O.; Arp, Oliver; Piel, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    Self-excited dust density waves were studied under microgravity conditions. Their non-sinusoidal shape and high degrees of modulation suggests that nonlinear effects play an important role in their spatio-temporal dynamics. The resulting complex wave pattern is analyzed in great detail by means of the Hilbert transform, which provides instantaneous wave attributes, such as the phase and the frequency. Our analysis showed that the spatial frequency distribution of the DDWs is usually not constant over the dust cloud. In contrast, the wave field is divided into regions of different but almost constant frequencies [1]. The boundaries of these so-called frequency clusters coincide with the locations of phase defects in the wave field. It is found that the size of the clusters depends on the strength of spatial gradients in the plasma parameters. We attribute the formation of frequency clusters to synchronization phenomena as a consequence of the nonlinear character of the wave.[1] K. O. Menzel, O. Arp, A.Piel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 235002 (2010)

  6. Electrical effects of spin density wave quantization and magnetic domain walls in chromium.

    PubMed

    Kummamuru, Ravi K; Soh, Yeong-Ah

    2008-04-17

    The role of magnetic domains (and the walls between domains) in determining the electrical properties of ferromagnetic materials has been investigated in great detail for many years, not least because control over domains offers a means of manipulating electron spin to control charge transport in 'spintronic' devices. In contrast, much less attention has been paid to the effects of domains and domain walls on the electrical properties of antiferromagnets: antiferromagnetic domains show no net external magnetic moment, and so are difficult to manipulate or probe. Here we describe electrical measurements on chromium--a simple metal and quintessential spin density wave antiferromagnet--that show behaviour directly related to spin density wave formation and the presence of antiferromagnetic domains. Two types of thermal hysteresis are seen in both longitudinal and Hall resistivity: the first can be explained by the quantization of spin density waves due to the finite film thickness (confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements) and the second by domain-wall scattering of electrons. We also observe the striking influence of the electrical lead configuration (a mesoscopic effect) on the resistivity of macroscopic samples in the spin density wave state. Our results are potentially of practical importance, in that they reveal tunable electrical effects of film thickness and domain walls that are as large as the highest seen for ferromagnets.

  7. Skyrmions in a Density-Wave State: A Mechanism for Chiral Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sudip; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan

    Broken symmetry states characterizing density waves of higher angular momentum in correlated electronic systems are intriguing objects. In the scheme of characterization by angular momentum, conventional charge and spin density waves correspond to zero angular momentum. Here we explore a class of exotic density wave states that have topological properties observed in recently discovered topological insulators. These rich topological density wave states deserve closer attention in not only high temperature superconductors but in other correlated electron states, as in heavy fermions, of which an explicit example will be discussed. The state discussed has non-trivial charge 2e skyrmionic spin texture. These skyrmions can condense into a charged superfluid. Alternately, they can fractionalize into merons and anti-merons. The fractionalized particles that are confined in skyrmions in the insulating phase, can emerge at a deconfined quantum critical point, which separates the insulating and the superconducting phases. These fractional particles form a two-component spin-singlet chiral (dx2-y2 ± idxy) wave superconducting state that breaks time reversal symmetry. Possible connections of this exotic order to the superconducting state in the heavy-fermion material URu2Si2 are suggested. The direct evidence of such a chiral superconducting state is polar Kerr effect that was observed recently.

  8. Wave induced density modification in RF sheaths and close to wave launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Crombé, K.; Lu, Ling-Feng

    2015-12-01

    With the return to full metal walls - a necessary step towards viable fusion machines - and due to the high power densities of current-day ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) or RF (radio frequency) antennas, there is ample renewed interest in exploring the reasons for wave-induced sputtering and formation of hot spots. Moreover, there is experimental evidence on various machines that RF waves influence the density profile close to the wave launchers so that waves indirectly influence their own coupling efficiency. The present study presents a return to first principles and describes the wave-particle interaction using a 2-time scale model involving the equation of motion, the continuity equation and the wave equation on each of the time scales. Through the changing density pattern, the fast time scale dynamics is affected by the slow time scale events. In turn, the slow time scale density and flows are modified by the presence of the RF waves through quasilinear terms. Although finite zero order flows are identified, the usual cold plasma dielectric tensor - ignoring such flows - is adopted as a first approximation to describe the wave response to the RF driver. The resulting set of equations is composed of linear and nonlinear equations and is tackled in 1D in the present paper. Whereas the former can be solved using standard numerical techniques, the latter require special handling. At the price of multiple iterations, a simple 'derivative switch-on' procedure allows to reformulate the nonlinear problem as a sequence of linear problems. Analytical expressions allow a first crude assessment - revealing that the ponderomotive potential plays a role similar to that of the electrostatic potential arising from charge separation - but numerical implementation is required to get a feeling of the full dynamics. A few tentative examples are provided to illustrate the phenomena involved.

  9. Wave induced density modification in RF sheaths and close to wave launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Lu, Ling-Feng

    2015-12-10

    With the return to full metal walls - a necessary step towards viable fusion machines - and due to the high power densities of current-day ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) or RF (radio frequency) antennas, there is ample renewed interest in exploring the reasons for wave-induced sputtering and formation of hot spots. Moreover, there is experimental evidence on various machines that RF waves influence the density profile close to the wave launchers so that waves indirectly influence their own coupling efficiency. The present study presents a return to first principles and describes the wave-particle interaction using a 2-time scale model involving the equation of motion, the continuity equation and the wave equation on each of the time scales. Through the changing density pattern, the fast time scale dynamics is affected by the slow time scale events. In turn, the slow time scale density and flows are modified by the presence of the RF waves through quasilinear terms. Although finite zero order flows are identified, the usual cold plasma dielectric tensor - ignoring such flows - is adopted as a first approximation to describe the wave response to the RF driver. The resulting set of equations is composed of linear and nonlinear equations and is tackled in 1D in the present paper. Whereas the former can be solved using standard numerical techniques, the latter require special handling. At the price of multiple iterations, a simple ’derivative switch-on’ procedure allows to reformulate the nonlinear problem as a sequence of linear problems. Analytical expressions allow a first crude assessment - revealing that the ponderomotive potential plays a role similar to that of the electrostatic potential arising from charge separation - but numerical implementation is required to get a feeling of the full dynamics. A few tentative examples are provided to illustrate the phenomena involved.

  10. Observations of ULF wave related equatorial electrojet and density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Anad, F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    Global magnetospheric Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) pulsations with frequencies in the Pc 4-5 range (f = 1.0 - 8 mHz) have been observed for decades in space and on Earth. ULF pulsations contribute to magnetospheric particle transport and diffusion and play an important role in magnetospheric dynamics. However, only a few studies have been performed on ionospheric observations of ULF wave-related perturbations in the vicinity of the equatorial region. In this paper we report on Pc5 wave related electric field and thus vertical drift velocity oscillations at the equator as observed by ground magnetometers and radar. We show that the magnetometer estimated equatorial ExB drift oscillate with the same frequency as ULF Pc5 waves, creating significant ionospheric density fluctuations. For independent confirmation of the vertical drift velocity fluctuation, we used JULIA 150 km radar drift velocities and found similar fluctuation with the period of 8-10 minutes. We also show ionospheric density fluctuations during the period when we observed ULF wave activities. All these demonstrate that the Pc5 wave can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere and modulate the equatorial electrodynamics. Finally, in order to detect the ULF activities both on the ground and in space, we use groundbased magnetometer data from African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and the South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA). From space, we use magnetic field observations from the GOES 12 and the Communication/Navigation Outage and Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellites. Using the WIND spacecraft as the upstream solar wind monitor, we present direct evidence that solar wind number density and ram pressure fluctuations observed far upstream from the terrestrial magnetosphere are the main drivers of ULF wave activity inside the magnetosphere. Finally, we show that the ULF waves in the same frequency range are observed in the magnetosphere by the geosynchronous GOES spacecraft, in the

  11. Interrupted orbital motion in density-wave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkreiz, Maxim; Brydon, P. M. R.; Timm, Carsten

    2016-11-01

    In conventional metals, electronic transport in a magnetic field is characterized by the motion of electrons along orbits on the Fermi surface, which usually causes an increase in the resistivity through averaging over velocities. Here, we show that large deviations from this behavior can arise in density-wave systems close to their ordering temperature. Specifically, enhanced scattering off collective fluctuations can lead to a change of direction of the orbital motion on reconstructed pockets. In weak magnetic fields, this leads to linear magnetoconductivity, the sign of which depends on the electric-field direction. At a critical magnetic field, the conductivity crosses zero for certain directions, signifying a thermodynamic instability of the density-wave state.

  12. Itinerant density wave instabilities at classical and quantum critical points

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yejun; van Wezel, Jasper; Wang, Jiyang; Flicker, Felix; Silevitch, D. M.; Littlewood, P. B.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2015-07-27

    Charge ordering in metals is a fundamental instability of the electron sea, occurring in a host of materials and often linked to other collective ground states such as superconductivity. What is difficult to parse, however, is whether the charge order originates among the itinerant electrons or whether it arises from the ionic lattice. Here in this study we employ high-resolution X-ray diffraction, combined with high-pressure and low-temperature techniques and theoretical modelling, to trace the evolution of the ordering wavevector Q in charge and spin density wave systems at the approach to both thermal and quantum phase transitions. The non-monotonic behaviour of Q with pressure and the limiting sinusoidal form of the density wave point to the dominant role of the itinerant instability in the vicinity of the critical points, with little influence from the lattice. Fluctuations rather than disorder seem to disrupt coherence.

  13. Protostellar angular momentum transport by spiral density waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, C.; Cassen, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of rotational stability criteria to a specific model of star formation leads to the conclusion that the growth of stellar angular momentum is limited by its transfer to the disk. Excess accreted angular momentum can be transferred by torques connected with spiral density waves induced by even a slight protostellar triaxiality. In addition, viscous damping of the density waves is likely to cause the excess angular momentum to be deposited within a small region close to the protostar. Thus, it would be appropriate to treat that part of the growing protostellar disk beyond the outer Lindblad resonance as an accretion disk with a torque applied to its inner edge. It is noted that this situation is directly relevant to certain models of the evolution of the protosun and solar nebula.

  14. Itinerant density wave instabilities at classical and quantum critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yejun; van Wezel, Jasper; Wang, Jiyang; Flicker, Felix; Silevitch, D. M.; Littlewood, P. B.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2015-10-01

    Charge ordering in metals is a fundamental instability of the electron sea, occurring in a host of materials and often linked to other collective ground states such as superconductivity. What is difficult to parse, however, is whether the charge order originates among the itinerant electrons or whether it arises from the ionic lattice. Here we employ high-resolution X-ray diffraction, combined with high-pressure and low-temperature techniques and theoretical modelling, to trace the evolution of the ordering wavevector Q in charge and spin density wave systems at the approach to both thermal and quantum phase transitions. The non-monotonic behaviour of Q with pressure and the limiting sinusoidal form of the density wave point to the dominant role of the itinerant instability in the vicinity of the critical points, with little influence from the lattice. Fluctuations rather than disorder seem to disrupt coherence.

  15. Photoinduced Enhancement of the Charge Density Wave Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, A.; Patel, S. K. K.; Kukreja, R.; Uhlíř, V.; Wingert, J.; Festersen, S.; Zhu, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Kozina, M.; Rossnagel, K.; Bauer, M.; Murphy, B. M.; Magnussen, O. M.; Fullerton, E. E.; Shpyrko, O. G.

    2016-07-01

    Symmetry breaking and the emergence of order is one of the most fascinating phenomena in condensed matter physics. It leads to a plethora of intriguing ground states found in antiferromagnets, Mott insulators, superconductors, and density-wave systems. Exploiting states of matter far from equilibrium can provide even more striking routes to symmetry-lowered, ordered states. Here, we demonstrate for the case of elemental chromium that moderate ultrafast photoexcitation can transiently enhance the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude by up to 30% above its equilibrium value, while strong excitations lead to an oscillating, large-amplitude CDW state that persists above the equilibrium transition temperature. Both effects result from dynamic electron-phonon interactions, providing an efficient mechanism to selectively transform a broad excitation of the electronic order into a well-defined, long-lived coherent lattice vibration. This mechanism may be exploited to transiently enhance order parameters in other systems with coupled degrees of freedom.

  16. Itinerant density wave instabilities at classical and quantum critical points

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Yejun; van Wezel, Jasper; Wang, Jiyang; ...

    2015-07-27

    Charge ordering in metals is a fundamental instability of the electron sea, occurring in a host of materials and often linked to other collective ground states such as superconductivity. What is difficult to parse, however, is whether the charge order originates among the itinerant electrons or whether it arises from the ionic lattice. Here in this study we employ high-resolution X-ray diffraction, combined with high-pressure and low-temperature techniques and theoretical modelling, to trace the evolution of the ordering wavevector Q in charge and spin density wave systems at the approach to both thermal and quantum phase transitions. The non-monotonic behaviourmore » of Q with pressure and the limiting sinusoidal form of the density wave point to the dominant role of the itinerant instability in the vicinity of the critical points, with little influence from the lattice. Fluctuations rather than disorder seem to disrupt coherence.« less

  17. Charge-Density Waves Observed with a Tunneling Microscope.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    RD-R158 779 CHRGE-DENSITY UAVES OBSERVED WITH A TUNNELING / NICROSCOPE(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SANTA BARBARA DEPT OF PHYSICS R V COLEMAN ET AL. 91 JUL 85...Physical review Letters, lyAg t195 IS, KEY WORDS (Continue On reverse aide of necessary md identify by block nimbe) Charge Density, waves, tunneling ...showe only atoms. The tunneling microscope was ooerated under licuid nitrogen with a Pt(O3 1 02 tp for both types of samples.. D OR",m3 1473 EDITION

  18. Electron densities inferred from plasma wave spectra obtained by the Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, W S; De Pascuale, S; Faden, J B; Kletzing, C A; Hospodarsky, G B; Thaller, S; Wygant, J R

    2015-01-01

    The twin Van Allen Probe spacecraft, launched in August 2012, carry identical scientific payloads. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science suite includes a plasma wave instrument (Waves) that measures three magnetic and three electric components of plasma waves in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 12 kHz using triaxial search coils and the Electric Fields and Waves triaxial electric field sensors. The Waves instrument also measures a single electric field component of waves in the frequency range of 10 to 500 kHz. A primary objective of the higher-frequency measurements is the determination of the electron density ne at the spacecraft, primarily inferred from the upper hybrid resonance frequency fuh. Considerable work has gone into developing a process and tools for identifying and digitizing the upper hybrid resonance frequency in order to infer the electron density as an essential parameter for interpreting not only the plasma wave data from the mission but also as input to various magnetospheric models. Good progress has been made in developing algorithms to identify fuh and create a data set of electron densities. However, it is often difficult to interpret the plasma wave spectra during active times to identify fuh and accurately determine ne. In some cases, there is no clear signature of the upper hybrid band, and the low-frequency cutoff of the continuum radiation is used. We describe the expected accuracy of ne and issues in the interpretation of the electrostatic wave spectrum. PMID:26167442

  19. Unconventional Density Wave and Superfluidity in Cold Atom Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    are still some non-perfect nesting particle-hole processes with net momentum equal to a reciprocal lattice vector, (2π, 0) or (0, 2π), which are...fermions on the FS, the net momentum transfer in the inter-species process gcf1 is no longer equal to a reciprocal lattice vector but has a small shortage...2211 cold atoms, optical lattices , Hubbard model, fermion mixture, unconventional density wave, superfluidity, superconductivity, renormalization

  20. Measurements of elastic anomalies in charge-density-wave conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Xiaodong.

    1989-01-01

    For the last two decades, extensive studies have been done to understand the underlying physics of charge-density-wave (CDW) conductors. The most interesting phenomenon is the collective electron conduction process analogous to that in superconductors. While the anomalous transport properties associated with the CDW phase transition and its dynamics have been relatively well studied, the elastic anomalies are poorly understood. My research motivation was to further study the latter by extending the elastic measurements to different materials, different elastic moduli, and most importantly, to a wider frequency range. Two types of elastic anomalies are associated with the CDW: (a) the transition anomaly, which is associated with the formation of the CDW around and below the CDW phase transition temperature {Tc}, and (b) the depinning anomaly, which is associated with the depinning of the CDW condensate from impurities when the applied electric field exceeds a threshold field (E > ET). Using a dc vibrating reed technique, the author had studied the transition anomalies in Young's modulus (Y) of ZrTe{sub 3} and Nb{sub 3}Te{sub 4} and both anomalies in the shear modulus (G) and Y of TaS{sub 3} and NbSe{sub 3}. Unexpectedly large depinning anomalies in G (larger than those in Y) have been observed for both TaS{sub 3} and NbSe{sub 3}. In order to study the frequency dependence of the anomalies, he has developed an rf helical resonator detector to improve the sensitivity of the vibrating reed technique. The theoretical analysis of the sensitivity for such an rf resonator detector has been conducted and the result shows that the limiting sensitivity is much higher than that of lumped LC circuit or dc detectors. With the new apparatus, many resonant overtones of the sample can be detected and therefore, elastic measurements can be performed in much a wider frequency range.

  1. Higgs modes in the pair density wave superconducting state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Garrido, Rodrigo; Wang, Yuxuan; Fradkin, Eduardo; Cooper, S. Lance

    2017-06-01

    The pair density wave (PDW) superconducting state has been proposed to explain the layer-decoupling effect observed in the La2 -xBaxCuO4 compound at x =1 /8 [E. Berg, E. Fradkin, E.-A. Kim, S. A. Kivelson, V. Oganesyan, J. M. Tranquada, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127003 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.127003]. In this state the superconducting order parameter is spatially modulated, in contrast with the usual superconducting (SC) state where the order parameter is uniform. In this paper, we study the properties of the amplitude (Higgs) modes in a unidirectional PDW state. To this end we consider a phenomenological model of PDW-type states coupled to a Fermi surface of fermionic quasiparticles. In contrast to conventional superconductors that have a single Higgs mode, unidirectional PDW superconductors have two Higgs modes. While in the PDW state the Fermi surface largely remains gapless, we find that the damping of the PDW Higgs modes into fermionic quasiparticles requires exceeding an energy threshold. We show that this suppression of damping in the PDW state is due to kinematics. As a result, only one of the two Higgs modes is significantly damped. In addition, motivated by the experimental phase diagram, we discuss the mixing of Higgs modes in the coexistence regime of the PDW and uniform SC states. These results should be observable directly in a Raman spectroscopy, in momentum resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, thus providing evidence of the PDW states.

  2. Spin density wave fluctuations and p-wave pairing in Sr2RuO4.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jia-Wei; Rice, T M; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2013-04-19

    Recently, a debate has arisen over which of the two distinct parts of the Fermi surface of Sr(2)RuO(4) is the active part for the chiral p-wave superconductivity exhibited. Early theories proposed p-wave pairing on the two-dimensional γ band, whereas a recent proposal focuses on the one-dimensional (α, β) bands whose nesting pockets are the source of the strong incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) fluctuations. We apply a renormalization group theory to study quasi-one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard chains and explain the form of SDW fluctuations, reconciling the absence of long-range order with their nesting Fermi surface. The mutual exclusion of p-wave pairing and SDW fluctuations in repulsive Hubbard chains favors the assignment of the two-dimensional γ band as the source of p-wave pairing.

  3. Penetration and scattering of lower hybrid waves by density fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Goniche, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X.

    2014-02-12

    Lower Hybrid [LH] ray propagation in toroidal plasma is controlled by a combination of the azimuthal spectrum launched from the antenna, the poloidal variation of the magnetic field, and the scattering of the waves by the density fluctuations. The width of the poloidal and radial RF wave spectrum increases rapidly as the rays penetrate into higher density and scatter from the turbulence. The electron temperature gradient [ETG] spectrum is particularly effective in scattering the LH waves due to its comparable wavelengths and parallel phase velocities. ETG turbulence is also driven by the radial gradient of the electron current density giving rise to an anomalous viscosity spreading the LH-driven plasma currents. The scattered LH spectrum is derived from a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of the ray trajectories with a diffusivity proportional to the fluctuations. The LH ray diffusivity is large giving transport in the poloidal and radial wavenumber spectrum in one - or a few passes - of the rays through the core plasma.

  4. Dark Matter Properties and Halo Central Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, S. M. Khairul; Bullock, James S.; Weinberg, David H.

    2002-06-01

    Using an analytic model calibrated against numerical simulations, we calculate the central densities of dark matter halos in a ``conventional'' cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (LCDM) and in a ``tilted'' model (TLCDM) with slightly modified parameters motivated by recent analyses of Lyα forest data. We also calculate how warm dark matter (WDM) would modify these predicted densities by delaying halo formation and imposing phase-space constraints. As a measure of central density, we adopt the quantity ΔV/2, the density within the radius RV/2 at which the halo rotation curve falls to half of its maximum value, in units of the critical density. We compare the theoretical predictions to values of ΔV/2 estimated from the rotation curves of dark matter-dominated disk galaxies. Assuming that dark halos are described by Navarro-Frenk-White profiles, our results suggest that the conventional LCDM model predicts excessively high dark matter densities, unless there is some selection bias in the data toward the low-concentration tail of the halo distribution. A WDM model with particle mass 0.5-1 keV provides a better match to the observational data. However, the modified cold dark matter model, TLCDM, fits the data equally well, suggesting that the solution to the ``halo cores'' problem might lie in moderate changes to cosmological parameters rather than radical changes to the properties of dark matter. If cold dark matter halos have the steeper density profiles found by Moore et al., then neither conventional LCDM nor TLCDM can reproduce the observed central densities.

  5. Statistical properties of two sine waves in Gaussian noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, R.; Wilson, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of some statistical properties of a stochastic process that consists of the sum of two sine waves of unknown relative phase and a normal process. Since none of the statistics investigated seem to yield a closed-form expression, all the derivations are cast in a form that is particularly suitable for machine computation. Specifically, results are presented for the probability density function (pdf) of the envelope and the instantaneous value, the moments of these distributions, and the relative cumulative density function (cdf).

  6. The nearby spiral density-wave structure of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hou, Li-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Accurate measurements of distances and line-of-sight velocities of 19291 intermediate-old giant stars in the near-infrared with typical uncertainties in the distances and velocities of 5 per cent and 0.1 km s-1 have recently been carried out to examine the Galactic disc with the APOGEE survey. In the framework of the Lin-Shu density-wave proposal for the galactic spiral structure, we use the APOGEE-RC DR13 data to investigate coherent non-axisymmetric flows within a few kiloparsecs from the Sun which are superimposed on a circular motion in the disc. Systematic wave-like departures of velocities from circular motion for stars are really detected. These systematic non-circular velocities are used to recover the parameters of the spiral arm segments of density waves of the Galaxy in the solar vicinity. The results of the work can be tested with the large amount of data from the Gaia satellite mission in the near future.

  7. Photonic sensing in highly concentrated biotechnical processes by photon density wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, Roland; Sandmann, Michael; Reich, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is introduced as a new approach for photonic sensing in highly concentrated biotechnical processes. It independently quantifies the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient calibration-free and as a function of time, thus describing the optical properties in the vis/NIR range of the biomaterial during their processing. As examples of industrial relevance, enzymatic milk coagulation, beer mashing, and algae cultivation in photo bioreactors are discussed.

  8. Some Properties of the Transverse Elastic Waves in Quasiperiodic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutor, J.; Velasco, V. R.

    We have studied the integrated density of states and fractal dimension of the transverse elastic waves spectrum in quasiperiodic systems following the Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences. Due to the finiteness of the quasiperiodic generations, in spite of the high number of materials included, we have studied the possible influence of the boundary conditions, infinite periodic or finite systems, together with that of the different ways to generate the constituent blocks of the quasiperiodic systems, on the transverse elastic waves spectra. No relevant differences have been found for the different boundary conditions, but the different ways of generating the building blocks produce appreciable consequences in the properties of the transverse elastic waves spectra of the quasiperiodic systems studied here.

  9. Finite doping of a one-dimensional charge density wave: Solitons vs Luttinger liquid charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Yuval; Goldstein, Moshe; Berkovits, Richard

    2008-05-01

    The effects of doping on a one-dimensional wire in a charge density wave state are studied using the density-matrix renormalization group method. We show that for a finite number of extra electrons, the ground state becomes conducting but the particle density along the wire corresponds to a charge density wave with an incommensurate+ wave number determined by the filling. We find that the absence of the translational invariance can be discerned even in the thermodynamic limit as long as the number of doping electrons is finite. The Luttinger liquid behavior is reached only for a finite change in the electron filling factor, which for an infinite wire corresponds to the addition of an infinite number of electrons. In addition to the half filled insulating Mott state and the conducting states, we find evidence for subgap states at fillings different from half filling by a single electron or hole. Finally, we show that by coupling our system to a quantum dot, one can have a discontinuous dependence of its population on the applied gate voltage in the thermodynamic limit, similar to the one predicted for a Luttinger liquid without umklapp processes.

  10. Improving accuracy through density correction in guided wave tomography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The accurate quantification of wall loss caused by corrosion is critical to the reliable life estimation of pipes and pressure vessels. Traditional thickness gauging by scanning a probe is slow and requires access to all points on the surface; this is impractical in many cases as corrosion often occurs where access is restricted, such as beneath supports where water collects. Guided wave tomography presents a solution to this; by transmitting guided waves through the region of interest and exploiting their dispersive nature, it is possible to build up a map of thickness. While the best results have been seen when using the fundamental modes A0 and S0 at low frequency, the complex scattering of the waves causes errors within the reconstruction. It is demonstrated that these lead to an underestimate in wall loss for A0 but an overestimate for S0. Further analysis showed that this error was related to density variation, which was proportional to thickness. It was demonstrated how this could be corrected for in the reconstructions, in many cases resulting in the near-elimination of the error across a range of defects, and greatly improving the accuracy of life estimates from guided wave tomography. PMID:27118904

  11. Fluctuation-induced pair density wave in itinerant ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conduit, G. J.; Pedder, C. J.; Green, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic fluctuations near to quantum criticality can have profound effects. They lead to characteristic scaling at high temperature which may ultimately give way to a reconstruction of the phase diagram and the formation of new phases at low temperatures. The ferromagnet UGe2 is unstable to p-wave superconducting order—an effect presaged by the superfluidity in 3He—whereas in CeFePO fluctuations drive the formation of spiral magnetic order. Here we develop a general quantum order-by-disorder description of these systems that encompasses both of these instabilities within a unified framework. This allows us to demonstrate that in fact these instabilities intertwine to form a pair density wave.

  12. Effects of nonthermal ions and polarization force on dust-acoustic waves in a density-varying dusty plasma.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, M; Mamun, A A

    2012-07-01

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of the effects of nonthermal ions and polarization force (which arises due to the dust density inhomogeneity) on the propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a density-varying unmagnetized dusty plasma (consisting of nonthermal ions, Maxwellian electrons, and negatively charged mobile dust) by the normal mode analysis. It has been shown that the dispersion properties of the DA waves are significantly modified by the presence of nonthermal ions and polarization force. It has been also found that the phase speed of the DA waves, as well as the dust density perturbation, increases (decreases) with the increase of nonthermal ions (polarization force), and that the potential associated with the DA waves decreases with the increase of the equilibrium dust number density. The implications of our results in the specific situation of space environments (dust-ion plasma situation) are also briefly discussed.

  13. Critical exponents and universality in pinned charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celino, M.; Corberi, F.

    1992-07-01

    We study analytically and numerically the behaviour of charge density waves above the depinning transition. The system behaves as a complex self-organized object which reacts to the external stimulations by adapting itself in a marginally stable state, which gives rise to a power law distribution of avalanches. Critical exponents and current power spectrum are evaluated analytically in any dimension by means of a simple coarse grained model. Extensive simulations are performed in one-dimensional systems below and above threshold, to critically verify the question of universality of coarse grained models with respect to the original Hamiltonian.

  14. Multiple charge density wave transitions in Gd2Te5

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, K.Y.; Ru, N.; Condron, C.L.; Wu, Y.Q.; Kramer, M.J.; Toney, M.F.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Diffraction measurements performed via transmission electron microscopy and high resolution X-ray scattering reveal two distinct charge density wave transitions in Gd{sub 2}Te{sub 5} at T{sub c1} = 410(3) and T{sub c2} = 532(3) K, associated with the on-axis incommensurate lattice modulation and off-axis commensurate lattice modulation respectively. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the order parameters indicates a non-vanishing coupling between these two distinct CDW states.

  15. Probability Density Function for Waves Propagating in a Straight PEC Rough Wall Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, H

    2004-11-08

    The probability density function for wave propagating in a straight perfect electrical conductor (PEC) rough wall tunnel is deduced from the mathematical models of the random electromagnetic fields. The field propagating in caves or tunnels is a complex-valued Gaussian random processing by the Central Limit Theorem. The probability density function for single modal field amplitude in such structure is Ricean. Since both expected value and standard deviation of this field depend only on radial position, the probability density function, which gives what is the power distribution, is a radially dependent function. The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. In this contribution, we present the most important statistic property, the field probability density function, of wave propagating in a straight PEC rough wall tunnel. This work only studies the simplest case--PEC boundary which is not the real world but the methods and conclusions developed herein are applicable to real world problems which the boundary is dielectric. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic wave propagation in caves or tunnels are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic waves travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these waves cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the waves decrease as the distance

  16. Ice-coupled wave propagation across an abrupt change in ice rigidity, density, or thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Murray D.; Squire, Vernon A.

    1996-09-01

    The model of Fox and Squire [1990, 1991, 1994], which discusses the oblique propagation of surface gravity waves from the open sea into an ice sheet of constant thickness and properties, is augmented to include propagation across an abrupt transition of properties within a continuous ice sheet or across two dissimilar ice sheets that abut one another but are free to move independently. Rigidity, thickness, and/or density may change across the transition, allowing, for example, the modeling of ice-coupled waves into, across, and out of refrozen leads and polynyas, across cracks, and through coherent pressure ridges. Reflection and transmission behavior is reported for various changes in properties under both types of transition conditions.

  17. Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.

    2016-05-01

    The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T-TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states.

  18. Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states.

    PubMed

    Vaskivskyi, I; Mihailovic, I A; Brazovskii, S; Gospodaric, J; Mertelj, T; Svetin, D; Sutar, P; Mihailovic, D

    2016-05-16

    The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T-TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states.

  19. Atomistic picture of charge density wave formation at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wall, Simone; Krenzer, Boris; Wippermann, Stefan; Sanna, Simone; Klasing, Friedrich; Hanisch-Blicharski, Anja; Kammler, Martin; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2012-11-02

    We used ultrafast electron diffraction and density-functional theory calculations to gain insight into the charge density wave (CDW) formation on In/Si(111). Weak excitation by a femtosecond-laser pulse results in the melting of the CDW. The immediate freezing is hindered by a barrier for the motion of atoms during the phase transition: The melted CDW constitutes a long-lived, supercooled phase and is strong evidence for a first-order transition. The freezing into the CDW is triggered by preexisting adsorbates. Starting at these condensation nuclei, the CDW expands one dimensionally on the In/Si(111) surface, with a constant velocity of more than 80 m/s.

  20. Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states

    PubMed Central

    Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T–TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states. PMID:27181483

  1. Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchetti, A.; Arcangeletti, E.; Perucchi, A.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH

    2009-12-14

    We investigate the pressure dependence of the optical properties of CeTe{sub 3}, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 9 GPa. The energy for the single particle excitation across the CDW gap decreases upon increasing the applied pressure, similarly to the chemical pressure by rare-earth substitution. The broadening of the bands upon lattice compression removes the perfect nesting condition of the Fermi surface and therefore diminishes the impact of the CDW transition on the electronic properties of RTe{sub 3}.

  2. Protoplanetary Disk Heating and Evolution Driven by Spiral Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-11-01

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  3. Classification of charge density waves based on their nature

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a charge density wave (CDW) permeates much of condensed matter physics and chemistry. CDWs have their origin rooted in the instability of a one-dimensional system described by Peierls. The extension of this concept to reduced dimensional systems has led to the concept of Fermi surface nesting (FSN), which dictates the wave vector (q→CDW) of the CDW and the corresponding lattice distortion. The idea is that segments of the Fermi contours are connected by q→CDW, resulting in the effective screening of phonons inducing Kohn anomalies in their dispersion at q→CDW, driving a lattice restructuring at low temperatures. There is growing theoretical and experimental evidence that this picture fails in many real systems and in fact it is the momentum dependence of the electron–phonon coupling (EPC) matrix element that determines the characteristic of the CDW phase. Based on the published results for the prototypical CDW system 2H-NbSe2, we show how well the q→-dependent EPC matrix element, but not the FSN, can describe the origin of the CDW. We further demonstrate a procedure of combing electronic band and phonon measurements to extract the EPC matrix element, allowing the electronic states involved in the EPC to be identified. Thus, we show that a large EPC does not necessarily induce the CDW phase, with Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ as the example, and the charge-ordered phenomena observed in various cuprates are not driven by FSN or EPC. To experimentally resolve the microscopic picture of EPC will lead to a fundamental change in the way we think about, write about, and classify charge density waves. PMID:25646420

  4. Spin-wave excitations in the spin-density wave state of doped iron pnictides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar

    2017-10-18

    We investigate spin-wave excitations in the spin-density wave state of doped iron pnictides within a five-orbital model. We find that the excitations along ([Formula: see text])  →  ([Formula: see text]) are very sensitive to dopings whereas they do not exhibit a similar sensitivity along ([Formula: see text])  →  ([Formula: see text]). Secondly, the ellipticity of the elliptical ring-like excitations around ([Formula: see text]) is also very much dependent on doping. Thirdly, the spin-wave spectral weight shifts towards the low-energy region as it moves away from zero doping. We find several features to be in qualitative agreement with the inelastic neutron-scattering measurements for the doped pnictides.

  5. Generation of localized magnetic moments in the charge-density-wave state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akzyanov, Ramil S.; Rozhkov, Alexander V.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a mechanism explaining the generation of localized magnetic moments in charge-density-wave compounds. Our model Hamiltonian describes an Anderson impurity placed in a host material exhibiting the charge-density wave. There is a region of the model's parameter space, where even weak Coulomb repulsion on the impurity site is able to localize the magnetic moment on the impurity. The phase diagram of a single impurity at T = 0 is mapped. To establish the connection with experiment, the thermodynamic properties of a random impurity ensemble is studied. Magnetic susceptibility of the ensemble diverges at low temperature; heat capacity as a function of the magnetic field demonstrates pronounced low field peak. Both features are consistent with experiments on orthorhombic TaS3 and blue bronze.

  6. Linear-scaling density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, Nicholas D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanical simulation of realistic models of nanostructured systems, such as nanocrystals and crystalline interfaces, demands computational methods combining high-accuracy with low-order scaling with system size. Blöchl’s projector augmented wave (PAW) approach enables all-electron (AE) calculations with the efficiency and systematic accuracy of plane-wave pseudopotential calculations. Meanwhile, linear-scaling (LS) approaches to density functional theory (DFT) allow for simulation of thousands of atoms in feasible computational effort. This article describes an adaptation of PAW for use in the LS-DFT framework provided by the ONETEP LS-DFT package. ONETEP uses optimisation of the density matrix through in situ-optimised local orbitals rather than the direct calculation of eigenstates as in traditional PAW approaches. The method is shown to be comparably accurate to both PAW and AE approaches and to exhibit improved convergence properties compared to norm-conserving pseudopotential methods.

  7. Unconventional spin-density wave in Bechgaard salt (TMTSF)2NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basletić, Mario; Korin-Hamzić, Bojana; Maki, Kazumi; Tomić, Silvia

    2007-02-01

    Among many Bechgaard salts, (TMTSF)2NO3 , where TMTSF denotes tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene, exhibits very anomalous low-temperature properties. Unlike the case of the conventional spin-density wave (SDW), (TMTSF)2NO3 undergoes the SDW transition at TC≈9.5K and the low-temperature quasiparticle excitations are gapless. Also, it is known that (TMTSF)2NO3 does not exhibit superconductivity even under pressure, while a field-induced SDW is found in (TMTSF)2NO3 only for P=8.5kbar and B>20T . Here we show that both the angle-dependent magnetoresistance data and the nonlinear Hall resistance of (TMTSF)2NO3 at ambient pressure are interpreted satisfactorily in terms of an unconventional spin-density wave. Based on these facts, we propose a new phase diagram for Bechgaard salts.

  8. Magnetism and charge density waves in R NiC2 (R =Ce,Pr,Nd )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolincio, Kamil K.; Roman, Marta; Winiarski, Michał J.; Strychalska-Nowak, Judyta; Klimczuk, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    We have compared the magnetic, transport, galvanomagnetic, and specific-heat properties of CeNiC2, PrNiC2, and NdNiC2 to study the interplay between charge density waves (CDW) and magnetism in these compounds. The negative magnetoresistance in NdNiC2 is discussed in terms of the partial destruction of charge density waves and an irreversible phase transition stabilized by the field-induced ferromagnetic transformation is reported. For PrNiC2 we demonstrate that the magnetic field initially weakens the CDW state, due to the Zeeman splitting of conduction bands. However, the Fermi surface nesting is enhanced at a temperature related to the magnetic anomaly.

  9. Predicting EMIC wave properties from ring current plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowee, M.; Fu, X.; Jordanova, V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, sophisticated computer models have shown that accurate, dynamic modelling of the energetic electrons in the radiation belt requires global and real-time plasma and wave conditions. Data provided by in-situ spacecraft measurement are too sparse to supply enough inputs for continuous global modeling of the radiation belt. Here we present a model to predict amplitude, peak frequency and spectral width of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave from the anisotropic ring current ion distributions, which are the source of the wave. The model is derived from hybrid simulations in a large initial parameter space for plasmas consisting of electrons, protons, and helium ions. Key parameters include the ratio of plasma frequency to ion gyrofrequency, the density, temperature and anisotropy of hot ions, and the cold-ion composition. The results show that amplitude, peak frequency and spectral width of EMIC waves can be related to linear properties of the anisotropy-driven instability, e.g. growth rate and plasma beta, through simple analytic formulas. Combined with a dynamic ring current model, this model can provide global EMIC wave information needed for radiation-belt modeling.

  10. Whistler wave radiation from a loop antenna located in a cylindrical density depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrin, Alexander V.; Bakharev, Pavel V.; Krafft, Catherine; Zaboronkova, Tatyana M.

    2009-06-15

    Electromagnetic radiation from sources in a magnetoplasma containing a radially nonuniform cylindrical density depletion is considered. Using a rigorous solution for the total field comprising both the discrete and continuous parts of the spatial spectrum of excited waves, the radiation resistance of a loop antenna and the efficiency of excitation of different modes by such a source are determined in the whistler range. Based on the numerical results, conditions are revealed under which the power radiated from a loop antenna located in a density depletion is dominated by the contribution of either discrete- or continuous-spectrum modes. It is found that the radiation resistance of the loop antenna in a weakly nonuniform density depletion can be notably greater than that in a homogeneous magnetoplasma whose parameters coincide with those near the depletion axis. The results are relevant to the basic properties of whistler wave excitation in the presence of field-aligned plasma density irregularities and can be useful for wave diagnostics in laboratory and space plasmas.

  11. Density wave triggered star formation in grand design spirals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepa, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    In normal spiral galaxies the arms are the main sites for star formation. This is the cause of their optical contrast compared with the rest of the disc. The spiral structure can be observed as a higher concentration of H2 regions, neutral gas (both atomic and molecular via CO), dust and stars than in the interarm disc. It seens generally accepted that, at least in grand design spirals, there are density waves in the discs. However, several questions are not clear yet and still under discussion. An important question could be termed the triggering dilemma (by analogy with the 'winding dilemma' raised in the forties): Is the enhanced star formation in the spiral arms triggered by the passage of a system of density waves or is it simply due to the presence of a higher column density of gas there? In the present work, we use triggering in the same sense as the moderate to strong triggering defined by Elmegreen (1992), that is to say that star formation in the arms occurs at a rate faster than that in the interarm zone, relative to the available placental gas. Our group has designed several tests to elucidate whether or not star formation is triggered in the arms with respect to the interarm region and we summarize one of them, that of the ratio of the star formation efficiency in the arms divided by that of the interarm zone at the same galactocentric distance which we may call the relative massive star formation efficiency, where the efficiency is defined using the ratio of the mass of stars (evaluated via the H alpha flux) to the mass of neutral gas, atomic plus molecular (which must be measured with the adequate angular resolution). If the relative efficiency is of order unity, the star formation is proportional to the mass of gas, if some kind of induced star formation is present, the relative efficiency should be considerably larger than unity.

  12. Straw Formation and Enhanced Damping of Strong Density Waves in Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2017-06-01

    High resolution Cassini images of strong density waves in Saturn’s rings often show kilometer-scale structures in the wave troughs that are sometimes described as straw-like structures. These structures are likely formed by transient gravitational instabilities within the density wave and have the potential to greatly enhance the local viscous angular momentum transport and thereby limit the maximum amplitude of the density wave. A Hamiltonian theory for density waves has been developed that can describe the rate of local gravitational instabilities in the wave train. The Hamiltonian for single particle motion in the vicinity of an inner Lindblad resonance with a Saturnian satellite can be formulated such that the angle variable conjugate to the radial action is the resonant argument for the resonance. The density wave can then be derived using Hamiltonian perturbation methods to remove the satellite perturbation such that the transformed radial action and conjugate angles include the usual solution for self-gravitating density waves. Local gravitational instabilities in the density wave can now be formulated using a linearized collisionless Boltzmann equation that is expressed in terms of the transformed action-angle variables that contain the density wave solution. The gravitational potential of the linearized perturbation is found to be enhanced by a factor of ten or more in strong density waves, which likely explains the observation of kilometer-scale structures in these waves. The Hamiltonian formalism can also be used to derive an enhanced effective viscosity that results from these straw-like structures.

  13. Wave dispersion properties of compound finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Thomas; Thuburn, John

    2017-06-01

    Mixed finite elements use different approximation spaces for different dependent variables. Certain classes of mixed finite elements, called compatible finite elements, have been shown to exhibit a number of desirable properties for a numerical weather prediction model. In two-dimensions the lowest order element of the Raviart-Thomas based mixed element is the finite element equivalent of the widely used C-grid staggering, which is known to possess good wave dispersion properties, at least for quadrilateral grids. It has recently been proposed that building compound elements from a number of triangular Raviart-Thomas sub-elements, such that both the primal and (implied) dual grid are constructed from the same sub-elements, would allow greater flexibility in the use of different advection schemes along with the ability to build arbitrary polygonal elements. Although the wave dispersion properties of the triangular sub-elements are well understood, those of the compound elements are unknown. It would be useful to know how they compare with the non-compound elements and what properties of the triangular sub-grid elements are inherited? Here a numerical dispersion analysis is presented for the linear shallow water equations in two dimensions discretised using the lowest order compound Raviart-Thomas finite elements on regular quadrilateral and hexagonal grids. It is found that, in comparison with the well known C-grid scheme, the compound elements exhibit a more isotropic dispersion relation, with a small over estimation of the frequency for short waves compared with the relatively large underestimation for the C-grid. On a quadrilateral grid the compound elements are found to differ from the non-compound Raviart-Thomas quadrilateral elements even for uniform elements, exhibiting the influence of the underlying sub-elements. This is shown to lead to small improvements in the accuracy of the dispersion relation: the compound quadrilateral element is slightly better for

  14. High density operation with Lower Hybrid waves in FTU tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Mirizzi, F.; Panaccione, L.; Podda, S.

    2001-10-01

    Since April 2001 the lower hybrid (LH) radiofrequency system in FTU (6 gyrotrons @ f=8 GHz) can deliver to the plasma about 2 MW through two equal launchers with a reflection coefficient = 10%. This value is close to the target value of 2.2 MW (net power density of 6.2 kW/cm2 on the waveguides mouth) which could be reached after further conditioning of the grill and of the transmission lines. In high density plasmas (line density *1*1020 m-3), high magnetic field (BT=7.2 T), with PLH=2 MW we drive about 75% of the total current (Ip=500 kA) and stabilise fully the sawteeth activity. The central electron temperature Te0 increases from 1.6 to 3.3 keV (steady), and the neutron rate by about 10 times. Analysis of these pulses with effective electronic heating will be presented. In post-pellet plasmas ( *6*1020 m-3), good coupling of the LH is achieved with the launcher almost flush to the walls, due to the very dense scrape off-layer. The perturbation here induced by the pellet imposes a delay to the LH of only 20 ms. The exact location of the launcher is critical in these regimes, because the high N|| (parallel index of refraction) requested (N||>2.3) for a good penetration of the waves makes more problematic a good coupling all along the poloidal extension of the grill.

  15. Characteristics of VLF wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the presence of an artificial density duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Dmitry; Demekhov, Andrei

    We study the propagation of VLF waves in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere in the presence of large-scale artificial plasma inhomogeneities which can be created by HF heating facilities like HAARP and ``Sura''. A region with enhanced cold plasma density can be formed due to the action of HF heating. This region is extended along geomagnetic field (up to altitudes of several thousand km) and has rather small size across magnetic field (about 1 degree). The geometric-optical approximation is used to study wave propagation. The plasma density and ion composition are calculated with the use of SAMI2 model, which was modified to take the effect of HF heating into account. We calculate ray trajectories of waves with different initial frequency and wave-normal angles and originating at altitudes of about 100 km in the region near the heating area. The source of such waves could be the lightning discharges, modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, or VLF transmitters. Variation of the wave amplitude along the ray trajectories due to refraction is considered and spatial distribution of wave intensity in the magnetosphere is analyzed. We show that the presence of such a density disturbances can lead to significant changes of wave propagation trajectories, in particular, to efficient guiding of VLF waves in this region. This can result in a drastic increase of the VLF-wave intensity in the density duct. The dependence of wave propagation properties on parameters of heating facility operation regime is considered. We study the variation of the spatial distribution of VLF wave intensity related to the slow evolution of the artificial inhomogeneity during the heating.

  16. Density and optical properties of SPARCS plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Kumer, J. B.; Cooper, C. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Propellant gases emitted by attitude control systems such as SPARCS (Solar Pointing Aerobee Rocket Control System) and possible interference with experiments aboard the payloads are discussed. The optical properties of seven actual and potential gases emitted by propellant systems (CF4, N2H4, NH3, N2, CO2, Ar, and He) are presented. A compilation of absorption coefficients from 1 Angstrom to 50 microns and a summary of fluorescent spectra and efficiencies are provided. Since Freon-14 (CF4) is of primary importance to SPARCS, an experimental search for the fluorescent spectrum of CF4 was performed by exciting the gas with 920 Angstrom UV photons. The result was compared with an electron impact induced spectrum of CF4, and conclusions drawn about the nature of the radiating species. A detailed study of the CF4 flow fields and plume densities for typical SPARCS controlled payloads was made using gas dynamic codes which included the effects of vehicle shading and condensation. The importance of the optical properties of CF4 plumes was investigated and it is concluded that absorption is negligible but fluoresence may be significant in some cases.

  17. Shock-wave properties of soda-lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-11-01

    Planar impact experiments and wave profile measurements provided single and double shock equation of state data to 30 GPa. Both compression wave wave profile structure and release wave data were used to infer time-dependent strength and equation of state properties for soda-lime glass.

  18. Evidence against a charge density wave on Bi(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. K.; Wells, J.; Kirkegaard, C.; Li, Z.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Gayone, J. E.; Fernandez-Torrente, I.; Häberle, P.; Pascual, J. I.; Moore, K. T.; Schwartz, A. J.; He, H.; Spence, J. C. H.; Downing, K. H.; Lazar, S.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Borisenko, S. V.; Knupfer, M.; Hofmann, Ph.

    2005-08-18

    The Bi(111) surface was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) in order to verify the existence of a recently proposed surface charge density wave (CDW). The STM and TEM results to not support a CDW scenario at low temperatures. Thus the quasiparticle interference pattern observed in STM confirms the spin-orbit split character of the surface states which prevents the formation of a CDW, even in the case of good nesting. The dispersion of the electronic states observed with ARPES agrees well with earlier findings. In particular, the Fermi contour of the electron pocket at the centre of the surface Brillouin zone is found to have a hexagonal shape. However, no gap opening or other signatures of a CDW phase transition can be found in the temperature-dependent data.

  19. Charge density waves in strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Choe, Jesse; Morosan, E.

    2016-08-01

    Strong electron correlations are at the heart of many physical phenomena of current interest to the condensed matter community. Here we present a survey of the mechanisms underlying such correlations in charge density wave (CDW) systems, including the current theoretical understanding and experimental evidence for CDW transitions. The focus is on emergent phenomena that result as CDWs interact with other charge or spin states, such as magnetism and superconductivity. In addition to reviewing the CDW mechanisms in 1D, 2D, and 3D systems, we pay particular attention to the prevalence of this state in two particular classes of compounds, the high temperature superconductors (cuprates) and the layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The possibilities for quantum criticality resulting from the competition between magnetic fluctuations and electronic instabilities (CDW, unconventional superconductivity) are also discussed.

  20. Time-Correlated Soliton Tunneling in Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John H.; Wijesinghe, Asanga Iroshan; Tang, Zhongjia; Guloy, Arnold M.

    2011-03-01

    In the quantum sine-Gordon model of a pinned charge or spin density wave, the electrostatic energy generated by charged soliton domain walls leads to a Coulomb blockade threshold electric field for quantum soliton-antisoliton pair creation. This field can be much smaller than the classical depinning field, since the quantum instability occurs as soon as the formerly lowest energy potential well rises to become a metastable well, or ``false vacuum.'' The analogy to time-correlated single electron tunneling and comparison to recent experimental results, as well as broader implications of the proposed tunneling process, are briefly discussed. This work was supported by the State of Texas though the Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston and the Norman Hackerman Advanced Research Program, and by NIH R21CA133153 and ARRA supplement 3R21CA133153-03S, and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and DoE Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Evidence against a charge density wave on Bi(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, T. K.; Wells, J.; Kirkegaard, C.; ...

    2005-08-18

    The Bi(111) surface was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) in order to verify the existence of a recently proposed surface charge density wave (CDW). The STM and TEM results to not support a CDW scenario at low temperatures. Thus the quasiparticle interference pattern observed in STM confirms the spin-orbit split character of the surface states which prevents the formation of a CDW, even in the case of good nesting. The dispersion of the electronic states observed with ARPES agrees well with earlier findings. In particular, the Fermi contour of the electronmore » pocket at the centre of the surface Brillouin zone is found to have a hexagonal shape. However, no gap opening or other signatures of a CDW phase transition can be found in the temperature-dependent data.« less

  2. Theory of charge density wave depinning by electromechanical effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quémerais, P.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the first theory for the depinning of low-dimensional, incommensurate, charge density waves (CDWs) in the strong electron-phonon (e-p) regime. Arguing that most real CDWs systems invariably develop a gigantic dielectric constant (GDC) at very low frequencies, we propose an electromechanical mechanism which is based on a local field effect. At zero electric field and large enough e-p coupling the structures are naturally pinned by the lattice due to its discreteness, and develop modulation functions which are characterized by discontinuities. When the electric field is turned on, we show that it exists a finite threshold value for the electric field above which the discontinuities of the modulation functions vanish due to CDW deformation. The CDW is then free to move. The signature of this pinning/depinning transition as a function of the increasing electric field can be directly observed in the phonon spectrum by using inelastic neutrons or X-rays experiments.

  3. Density waves in the solar nebula - Differential Lindblad torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The differential torque exerted by Lindblad resonances on a perturbing object embedded in a two-dimensional nonself-gravitating disk with density, pressure and sound speed gradients is quantified. First-order corrections are made to account for Keplerian rotation and the presence of the gradients. The total torque is calculated by summing over all resonances in the absence of local wave damping. When applied to the primordial solar nebula disk, the calculations show that disks that cool with increasing heliocentric distance will cause decay of the orbit of the perturbing object. Conditions in which the perturber will escape orbit delay are also described. The characteristic drift time will be no greater than the stochastic accretion time scales. Implications of the calculations for planetary formation are discussed.

  4. Tunneling spectroscopy of normal metals with charge-density or spin-density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.

    1995-09-01

    Tunneling current-voltage characteristics (CVC) are calculated for symmetrical and nonsymmetrical junctions made up of metals with charge-density or spin-density waves and a distortion of the Fermi-surface nesting sections described by the order parameter {Sigma}. For the symmetrical junction the CVC are odd functions of the bias voltage {ital V} and do not depend on the sign of {Sigma}. The differential conductivities have root singularities at {ital eV}={Sigma} and jumps at {ital eV}=2{Sigma}. For the nonsymmetrical junction the CVC depend on the sign of {Sigma}. Relevant differential conductivities are nonsymmetrical, with one branch being smooth and another having a root singularity at {ital eV}={Sigma}. A qualitative agreement exists with the tunneling and point-contact spectroscopy measurements for layered dichalcogenides, NbSe{sub 3}, and URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  5. Supermode-density-wave-polariton condensation with a Bose–Einstein condensate in a multimode cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kollár, Alicia J.; Papageorge, Alexander T.; Vaidya, Varun D.; Guo, Yudan; Keeling, Jonathan; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-01-01

    Phase transitions, where observable properties of a many-body system change discontinuously, can occur in both open and closed systems. By placing cold atoms in optical cavities and inducing strong coupling between light and excitations of the atoms, one can experimentally study phase transitions of open quantum systems. Here we observe and study a non-equilibrium phase transition, the condensation of supermode-density-wave polaritons. These polaritons are formed from a superposition of cavity photon eigenmodes (a supermode), coupled to atomic density waves of a quantum gas. As the cavity supports multiple photon spatial modes and because the light–matter coupling can be comparable to the energy splitting of these modes, the composition of the supermode polariton is changed by the light–matter coupling on condensation. By demonstrating the ability to observe and understand density-wave-polariton condensation in the few-mode-degenerate cavity regime, our results show the potential to study similar questions in fully multimode cavities. PMID:28211455

  6. Supermode-density-wave-polariton condensation with a Bose-Einstein condensate in a multimode cavity.

    PubMed

    Kollár, Alicia J; Papageorge, Alexander T; Vaidya, Varun D; Guo, Yudan; Keeling, Jonathan; Lev, Benjamin L

    2017-02-17

    Phase transitions, where observable properties of a many-body system change discontinuously, can occur in both open and closed systems. By placing cold atoms in optical cavities and inducing strong coupling between light and excitations of the atoms, one can experimentally study phase transitions of open quantum systems. Here we observe and study a non-equilibrium phase transition, the condensation of supermode-density-wave polaritons. These polaritons are formed from a superposition of cavity photon eigenmodes (a supermode), coupled to atomic density waves of a quantum gas. As the cavity supports multiple photon spatial modes and because the light-matter coupling can be comparable to the energy splitting of these modes, the composition of the supermode polariton is changed by the light-matter coupling on condensation. By demonstrating the ability to observe and understand density-wave-polariton condensation in the few-mode-degenerate cavity regime, our results show the potential to study similar questions in fully multimode cavities.

  7. Supermode-density-wave-polariton condensation with a Bose-Einstein condensate in a multimode cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Alicia J.; Papageorge, Alexander T.; Vaidya, Varun D.; Guo, Yudan; Keeling, Jonathan; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-02-01

    Phase transitions, where observable properties of a many-body system change discontinuously, can occur in both open and closed systems. By placing cold atoms in optical cavities and inducing strong coupling between light and excitations of the atoms, one can experimentally study phase transitions of open quantum systems. Here we observe and study a non-equilibrium phase transition, the condensation of supermode-density-wave polaritons. These polaritons are formed from a superposition of cavity photon eigenmodes (a supermode), coupled to atomic density waves of a quantum gas. As the cavity supports multiple photon spatial modes and because the light-matter coupling can be comparable to the energy splitting of these modes, the composition of the supermode polariton is changed by the light-matter coupling on condensation. By demonstrating the ability to observe and understand density-wave-polariton condensation in the few-mode-degenerate cavity regime, our results show the potential to study similar questions in fully multimode cavities.

  8. Frozen-Density Embedding Potentials and Chiroptical Properties.

    PubMed

    Crawford, T Daniel; Kumar, Ashutosh; Hannon, Kevin P; Höfener, Sebastian; Visscher, Lucas

    2015-11-10

    The efficacy of the frozen density embedding (FDE) approach to the simulation of solvent effects is examined for two key chiroptical properties-specific rotation and circular dichroism spectra. In particular, we have investigated the performance of a wave function-theory-in-density-functional-theory (WFT-in-DFT) FDE approach for computing such properties for the small, rigid chiral compound (P)-dimethylallene interacting with up to three water molecules. Although the solvent potential is obtained through DFT, the optical response is computed using coupled cluster linear response theory for mixed electric and magnetic field perturbations. We find that the FDE potential generally yields too small a shift from the isolated molecule as compared to that introduced by the explicit solvent. In one case, the FDE potential fails to reproduce a change in sign of the ORD in which the solute interacts with two solvent molecules. The source of these errors is due primarily to the lack of solvent response to the external field and is analyzed in terms of solvent-solute charge transfer excitations.

  9. Competing spin density wave, collinear, and helical magnetism in Fe1 +xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Bourges, P.; Ewings, R. A.; Cao, H.; Chi, S.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Green, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The Fe1 +xTe phase diagram consists of two distinct magnetic structures with collinear order present at low interstitial iron concentrations and a helical phase at large values of x with these phases separated by a Lifshitz point. We use unpolarized single-crystal diffraction to confirm the helical phase for large interstitial iron concentrations and polarized single-crystal diffraction to demonstrate the collinear order for the iron-deficient side of the Fe1 +xTe phase diagram. Polarized neutron inelastic scattering shows that the fluctuations associated with this collinear order are predominately transverse at low-energy transfers, consistent with a localized magnetic moment picture. We then apply neutron inelastic scattering and polarization analysis to investigate the dynamics and structure near the boundary between collinear and helical orders in the Fe1 +xTe phase diagram. We first show that the phase separating collinear and helical orders is characterized by a spin density wave with a single propagation wave vector of (˜0.45 , 0, 0.5). We do not observe harmonics or the presence of a charge density wave. The magnetic fluctuations associated with this wave vector are different from the collinear phase, being strongly longitudinal in nature and correlated anisotropically in the (H ,K ) plane. The excitations preserve the C4 symmetry of the lattice but display different widths in momentum along the two tetragonal directions at low-energy transfers. While the low-energy excitations and minimal magnetic phase diagram can be understood in terms of localized interactions, we suggest that the presence of the density wave phase implies the importance of electronic and orbital properties.

  10. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT.

  11. Dosimetric properties of plasma density effects on laser-accelerated VHEE beams using a sharp density-transition scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung Hoon; Min, Byung Jun; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Won-Gyun; Kim, Geun Beom; Kim, Kum Bae; Kim, Jaehoon; Jeong, Hojin; Lee, Kitae; Park, Sung Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the plasma density on laser-accelerated electron beams for radiation therapy with a sharp density transition are investigated. In the sharp density-transition scheme for electron injection, the crucial issue is finding the optimum density conditions under which electrons injected only during the first period of the laser wake wave are accelerated further. In this paper, we report particle-in-cell simulation results for the effects of both the scale length and the densitytransition ratio on the generation of a quasi-mono-energetic electron bunch. The effects of both the transverse parabolic channel and the plasma length on the electron-beam's quality are investigated. Also, we show the experimental results for the feasibility of a sharp density-transition structure. The dosimetric properties of these very high-energy electron beams are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. LSP Simulation and Analytical Results on Electromagnetic Wave Scattering on Coherent Density Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics (HEDP) and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present PIC simulation results on EM scattering on vortex type density structures using the LSP code and compare them with analytical results. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Air Force Research laboratory, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Naval Research Laboratory and NNSA/DOE grant no. DE-FC52-06NA27616 at the University of Nevada at Reno.

  13. Effects of plantation density on wood density and anatomical properties of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott; Karen L. Scallon; Gary C. Myers

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrated that average ring width (or average annual radial growth rate) is a reliable parameter to quantify the effects of tree plantation density (growth suppression) on wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. The average ring width successfully correlated wood density and tracheid anatomical properties of red pines (Pinus resinosa Ait.) from a...

  14. Analysis of EMIC waves in relation to magnetospheric heavy ion density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, E. H.; Johnson, J.; Lee, D. H.; Clauer, C. R.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Xu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents observations of EMIC wave events and their relation to heavy ion density in the magnetosphere. It is well known that EMIC waves play an important role in particle acceleration and loss via wave-particle interaction. It is critical to know the ion composition in the plasma with which EMIC waves interact in order to understand wave generation and propagation because it controls ion cyclotron resonance frequencies of EMIC waves. The presence of heavy ions (He+ and O+) causes the wave modes to be more complex with two additional resonance (ion-ion hybrid and Buchsbaum resonances) and polarization changes, making it challenging to analyze wave generation and propagation. In this study, we show wave polarization and Poynting flux using data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and Van Allen Probes (VAP) satellites and their ground conjunctions and compare them with the heavy ion density estimated by a wave model.

  15. Fermi surface, charge-density-wave gap, and kinks in 2H- TaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossnagel, K.; Rotenberg, Eli; Koh, H.; Smith, N. V.; Kipp, L.

    2005-09-01

    The Fermi surface of the layered charge-density-wave compound 2H-TaSe2 is measured by angle-resolved photoemission as a function of temperature. A surprising Fermi-surface topology and a Fermi-surface branch-dependent charge-density-wave gap are found. In the charge-density-wave state band hybridization effects are strong and responsible for kinks in the band dispersions at relatively high binding energy. The implications of the results on the charge-density-wave mechanism are discussed.

  16. Narrowband noise study of sliding charge density waves in NbSe3 nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Seita; Jamei, Mehdi; Zettl, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Transport properties (dc electrical resistivity, threshold electric field, and narrow-band noise) are reported for nanoribbon specimens of NbSe3 with thicknesses as low as 18 nm. As the sample thickness decreases, the resistive anomalies characteristic of the charge density wave (CDW) state are suppressed and the threshold fields for nonlinear CDW conduction apparently diverge. Narrow-band noise measurements allow determination of the concentration of carriers condensed in the CDW state n c , reflective of the CDW order parameter Δ. Although the CDW transition temperatures are relatively independent of sample thickness, in the lower CDW state Δ decreases dramatically with decreasing sample thickness.

  17. Fluctuation of the charge density wave in TTF-TCNQ under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Keizo; Weng, Yufeng; Seno, Yuki; Rani Tamilselvan, Natarajan; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Arumugam, Sonachalam; Takashima, Yusaku; Yoshino, Harukazu; Kato, Reizo

    2009-03-01

    Temperature dependence of the resistivity of TTF-TCNQ along the b-(1D)- and a-axes was studied under hydrostatic pressure up to 8 GPa. A striking contrast was seen between the b-(1D)- and a-axes in the power-law dependence of resistivity ρ=ρ0Tα in the metallic region as well as the activation energy in the charge density wave (CDW) insulating state. We note that the careful terminal configuration is essentially important to obtain these properties.

  18. Coexistence of charge density wave and antiferromagnetism in Er2Ir3Si3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padam, R.; Thamizhavel, A.; Ravi, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Pal, D.

    2012-06-01

    We report here the structural and electrical transport properties of the polycrystalline Er2Ir3Si5 sample, which crystallizes in the orthorhombic U2Co3Si5 type structure. We demonstrate the sample undergoes a Charge Density Wave (CDW) transition at 150 K, as seen earlier in the case for isostructural Lu2Ir3Si5 sample where CDW transition coexisted with superconductivity at low temperatures. We also find that Er2Ir3Si5 undergoes magnetic transition at 2.1 K.

  19. In situ observations of magnetosonic waves modulated by background plasma density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2017-08-01

    We report in situ observations by the Van Allen Probe mission that magnetosonic (MS) waves are clearly relevant to the background plasma number density. As the satellite moved across dense and tenuous plasma alternatively, MS waves occurred only in lower density region. As the observed protons with "ring" distributions provide free energy, local linear growth rates are calculated and show that magnetosonic waves can be locally excited in tenuous plasma. With variations of the background plasma density, the temporal variations of local wave growth rates calculated with the observed proton ring distributions show a remarkable agreement with those of the observed wave amplitude. Therefore, the paper provides a direct proof that background plasma densities can modulate the amplitudes of magnetosonic waves through controlling the wave growth rates.

  20. Stereoscopy of dust density waves under microgravity: Velocity distributions and phase-resolved single-particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Himpel, Michael Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André; Bockwoldt, Tim; Piel, Alexander; Ole Menzel, Kristoffer

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on dust-density waves have been performed in dusty plasmas under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. Three-dimensional measurements of a dust density wave on a single particle level are presented. The dust particles have been tracked for many oscillation periods. A Hilbert analysis is applied to obtain trajectory parameters such as oscillation amplitude and three-dimensional velocity amplitude. While the transverse motion is found to be thermal, the velocity distribution in wave propagation direction can be explained by harmonic oscillations with added Gaussian (thermal) noise. Additionally, it is shown that the wave properties can be reconstructed by means of a pseudo-stroboscopic approach. Finally, the energy dissipation mechanism from the kinetic oscillation energy to thermal motion is discussed and presented using phase-resolved analysis.

  1. Driving a first order quantum phase transition by coupling a quantum dot to a 1D charge density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Y.; Goldstein, M.; Berkovits, R.

    2007-02-01

    The ground state properties of a one-dimensional system with particle-hole symmetry, consisting of a gate controlled dot coupled to an interacting reservoir, are explored using the numerical DMRG method. It has previously been shown that the system's thermodynamic properties as a function of the gate voltage in the Luttinger liquid phase are qualitatively similar to the behaviour of a non-interacting wire with an effective (renormalized) dot-lead coupling. Here we examine the thermodynamic properties of the wire in the charge density wave phase, and show that these properties behave quite differently. The number of electrons in the system remains constant as a function of the gate voltage, while the total energy becomes linear. Moreover, by tuning the gate voltage on the dot in the charge density wave phase it is possible to drive the wire through a first order quantum phase transition in which the population of each site in the wire is inverted.

  2. Spin density waves in dilute CuMn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W. ); Tsunoda, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    Neutron scattering studies on concentrated CuMn alloys show static spin density waves (SDW) that are incommensurate with the lattice and which become dynamic above the freezing temperature T[sub f] with a dispersion relation that is essentially vertical. We have examined the existence of both the static and the dynamic SDW in dilute CuMn alloys where the Mn atoms may be separated beyond the range of SDW stability. There is no such cutoff range in the Overhauser SDW model where the transition temperature is simply linear with concentration, but a recent calculation by loffe and Feigel'man gives magnetic order that does depend on an interaction range and the density of spins on the lattice. For CuMn alloys, they obtain spin-glass ordering at low Mn concentration with a crossover to short-range helical order near 10% Mn. Our neutron scattering measurements were made on single crystals of CuMn alloys containing 1.4 and 3.0% Mn. Elastic scans along <1[zeta]0> at temperatures well below T[sub f] yield the same type of intensity distribution as that previously observed for the more concentrated alloys and show the existence of static SDW at dilutions down to 1.4% Mn. Inelastic scans in the same Q region for the Cu-3% Mn alloy clearly show the presence of dynamic SDW at temperatures up to T/T[sub f] = 7.5. These results favor the SDW model of Overhauser as the best description of the magnetic order in dilute CuMn alloys.

  3. Spin density waves in dilute CuMn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.; Tsunoda, Y.

    1992-12-01

    Neutron scattering studies on concentrated CuMn alloys show static spin density waves (SDW) that are incommensurate with the lattice and which become dynamic above the freezing temperature T{sub f} with a dispersion relation that is essentially vertical. We have examined the existence of both the static and the dynamic SDW in dilute CuMn alloys where the Mn atoms may be separated beyond the range of SDW stability. There is no such cutoff range in the Overhauser SDW model where the transition temperature is simply linear with concentration, but a recent calculation by loffe and Feigel`man gives magnetic order that does depend on an interaction range and the density of spins on the lattice. For CuMn alloys, they obtain spin-glass ordering at low Mn concentration with a crossover to short-range helical order near 10% Mn. Our neutron scattering measurements were made on single crystals of CuMn alloys containing 1.4 and 3.0% Mn. Elastic scans along <1{zeta}0> at temperatures well below T{sub f} yield the same type of intensity distribution as that previously observed for the more concentrated alloys and show the existence of static SDW at dilutions down to 1.4% Mn. Inelastic scans in the same Q region for the Cu-3% Mn alloy clearly show the presence of dynamic SDW at temperatures up to T/T{sub f} = 7.5. These results favor the SDW model of Overhauser as the best description of the magnetic order in dilute CuMn alloys.

  4. Charge Order Induced in an Orbital Density-Wave State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by recent angle resolved photoemission measurements [D. V. Evtushinsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 147201 (2010)] and evidence of the density-wave state for the charge and orbital ordering [J. García et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107202 (2012)] in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4, the issue of charge and orbital ordering in a two-orbital tight-binding model for layered manganite near half doping is revisited. We find that the charge order with the ordering wavevector 2{Q} = (π ,π ) is induced by the orbital order of d-/d+-type having B1g representation with a different ordering wavevector Q, where the orbital order as the primary order results from the strong Fermi-surface nesting. It is shown that the induced charge order parameter develops according to TCO - T by decreasing the temperature below the orbital ordering temperature TCO, in addition to the usual mean-field behavior of the orbital order parameter. Moreover, the same orbital order is found to stabilize the CE-type spin arrangement observed experimentally below TCE < TCO.

  5. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chou, M. Y.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A. -V.; Chiang, T. -C.

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering. The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.

  6. Dynamical charge density waves rule the phase diagram of cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprara, S.; Di Castro, C.; Seibold, G.; Grilli, M.

    2017-06-01

    In the last few years, charge density waves (CDWs) have been ubiquitously observed in high-temperature superconducting cuprates and are now the most investigated among the competing orders in the still hot debate on these systems. A wealth of new experimental data raises several fundamental issues that challenge the various theoretical proposals. We here relate our mean-field instability line TCDW0 of a strongly correlated Fermi liquid to the pseudogap T*(p ) line, marking in this way the onset of CDW-fluctuations. These fluctuations reduce strongly the mean-field critical line. Controlling this reduction via an infrared frequency cutoff related to the characteristic time of the probes, we account for the complex experimental temperature versus doping phase diagram. We provide a coherent scenario explaining why different CDW onset curves are observed by different experimental probes and seem to extrapolate at zero temperature into seemingly different quantum critical points (QCPs) in the intermediate and overdoped region. The nearly singular anisotropic scattering mediated by these fluctuations also accounts for the rapid changes of the Hall number seen in experiments and provides the first necessary step for a possible Fermi surface reconstruction fully establishing at lower doping. Finally, we show that phase fluctuations of the CDWs, which are enhanced in the presence of strong correlations near the Mott insulating phase, naturally account for the disappearance of the CDWs at low doping with yet another QCP as seen by the experiments.

  7. Incommensurate Chirality Density Wave Transition in a Hybrid Molecular Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Joshua A.; Christensen, Kirsten E.; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2017-09-01

    Using single-crystal x-ray diffraction we characterize the 235 K incommensurate phase transition in the hybrid molecular framework tetraethylammonium silver(I) dicyanoargentate, [NEt4]Ag3(CN )4 . We demonstrate the transition to involve spontaneous resolution of chiral [NEt4]+ conformations, giving rise to a state in which molecular chirality is incommensurately modulated throughout the crystal lattice. We refer to this state as an incommensurate chirality density wave (XDW) phase, which represents a fundamentally new type of chiral symmetry breaking in the solid state. Drawing on parallels to the incommensurate ferroelectric transition of NaNO2 , we suggest the XDW state arises through coupling between acoustic (shear) and molecular rotoinversion modes. Such coupling is symmetry forbidden at the Brillouin zone center but symmetry allowed for small but finite modulation vectors q =[0 ,0 ,qz]* . The importance of long-wavelength chirality modulations in the physics of this hybrid framework may have implications for the generation of mesoscale chiral textures, as required for advanced photonic materials.

  8. Diffuse photon density wave measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Vladimir L.; Neidrauer, Michael T.; Diaz, David; Zubkov, Leonid A.

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) methodology is widely used in a number of biomedical applications. Here, we present results of Monte Carlo simulations that employ an effective numerical procedure based upon a description of radiative transfer in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A multifrequency noncontact DPDW system was used to measure aqueous solutions of intralipid at a wide range of source-detector separation distances, at which the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation is generally considered to be invalid. We find that the signal-noise ratio is larger for the considered algorithm in comparison with the conventional Monte Carlo approach. Experimental data are compared to the Monte Carlo simulations using several values of scattering anisotropy and to the diffusion approximation. Both the Monte Carlo simulations and diffusion approximation were in very good agreement with the experimental data for a wide range of source-detector separations. In addition, measurements with different wavelengths were performed to estimate the size and scattering anisotropy of scatterers.

  9. Diffuse photon density wave measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Vladimir L; Neidrauer, Michael T; Diaz, David; Zubkov, Leonid A

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) methodology is widely used in a number of biomedical applications. Here, we present results of Monte Carlo simulations that employ an effective numerical procedure based upon a description of radiative transfer in terms of the Bethe–Salpeter equation. A multifrequency noncontact DPDW system was used to measure aqueous solutions of intralipid at a wide range of source–detector separation distances, at which the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation is generally considered to be invalid. We find that the signal–noise ratio is larger for the considered algorithm in comparison with the conventional Monte Carlo approach. Experimental data are compared to the Monte Carlo simulations using several values of scattering anisotropy and to the diffusion approximation. Both the Monte Carlo simulations and diffusion approximation were in very good agreement with the experimental data for a wide range of source–detector separations. In addition, measurements with different wavelengths were performed to estimate the size and scattering anisotropy of scatterers.

  10. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; ...

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering.more » The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.« less

  11. Critical density solitary waves structures in a hot magnetized dusty plasma with vortexlike ion distribution in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    El-Labany, S.K.; El-Shamy, E.F.

    2005-04-15

    The nonlinear properties of solitary waves structures in a hot magnetized dusty plasma consisting of isothermal hot electrons, nonisothermal ions, and high negatively charged massive dust grains are reported. A modified Korteweg-de Vries (modified KdV) equation, which admits a solitary waves solution, for small but finite amplitude, is derived using a reductive perturbation theory. A nonisothermal ion distribution provides the possibility of existence of rarefactive solitary waves. On the other hand, the dynamics of solitary waves at a critical ion density is governed by KdV equation. The modification in the amplitude and width of the solitary waves structures due to the inclusion of obliqueness and external magnetic field are also investigated.

  12. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with interchange instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.

  13. Probability density functions of the stream flow discharge in linearized diffusion wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2016-12-01

    This article considers stream flow discharge moving through channels subject to the lateral inflow and described by a linearized diffusion wave equation. The variability of lateral inflow is manifested by random fluctuations in time, which is the only source of uncertainty as to flow discharge quantification. The stochastic nature of stream flow discharge is described by the probability density function (PDF) obtained using the theory of distributions. The PDF of the stream flow discharge depends on the hydraulic properties of the stream flow, such as the wave celerity and hydraulic diffusivity as well as the temporal correlation scale of the lateral inflow rate fluctuations. The focus in this analysis is placed on the influence of the temporal correlation scale and the wave celerity coefficient on the PDF of the flow discharge. The analysis demonstrates that a larger temporal correlation scale causes an increase of PDF of the lateral inflow rate and, in turn, the PDF of the flow discharge which is also affected positively by the wave celerity coefficient.

  14. A restoration model of distorted electron density in wave-cutoff probe measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Hyun-Su Lee, Yun-Seong

    2014-02-15

    This study investigates the problem of electron density distortion and how the density can be restored in a wave-cutoff probe. Despite recent plasma diagnostics research using a wave-cutoff probe, the problem of electron density distortion caused by plasma conditions has not been resolved. Experimental results indicate that electron density measured using the wave-cutoff method is highly susceptible to variations in the probe tip gap. This electron density distortion is caused by the bulk plasma disturbance between probe tips, and it must be removed for calculating the absolute electron density. To do this, a detailed analytic model was developed using the power balance equation near probe tips. This model demonstrates the characteristics of plasma distortion in wave-cutoff probe measurement and successfully restored the absolute value of electron density with varying probe tip gaps.

  15. Propagation of terahertz electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma with inhomogeneous electron density and collision frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, LinJing; Guo, LiXin; Li, JiangTing

    2017-02-01

    This study theoretically analyzes the propagation properties of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma that is inhomogeneous in both collision frequency and electron density. Three parabolic profiles are adopted to describe the inhomogeneity of these two parameters in the plasma slab. Numerical calculation results show that when a magnetic field is applied, an absorption valley appears near the middle of the absorption peak. The characteristics of the absorption spectra are affected by two factors: (1) the parameters in the plasma's first layer, which is the border between the air and the plasma and (2) the gradient of the parameters across the entire plasma. Specifically, a more substantial difference between the inhomogeneous plasma and the uniform plasma corresponds to a greater difference between the two absorption spectra. In addition, electron density, plasma thickness, and collision frequency also play important roles in the propagation.

  16. Electronic Structure and Charge-Density Wave Instabilities in Monolayers of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darancet, Pierre; Millis, Andrew J.; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2013-03-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) are layered materials displaying a variety of charge-density wave (CDW) instabilities and complex phase diagrams for group IV & V transition metals. Recent progress in mechanical exfoliation and device fabrication now allow for electrical characterization and gating of individual, 3-atom thick layers of TMDCs, providing new probes of the complex many-body interactions arising in these compounds. In this talk, I will present our investigations using density functional and dynamical mean-field theory regarding the electronic structure and electronic correlations arising in distorted monolayers, bilayers, and trilayers of octahedral group V TMDCs. We will examine the importance of doping, crystal fields, and many-body interactions, and their influence on the transport and optical properties of these materials upon distortion. Computational resources provided by New York Center for Computational Sciences at SBU/BNL supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886

  17. DETERMINATION OF TRANSVERSE DENSITY STRUCTURING FROM PROPAGATING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2013-06-01

    We present a Bayesian seismology inversion technique for propagating magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves observed in coronal waveguides. The technique uses theoretical predictions for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves in transversely inhomogeneous coronal waveguides. It combines wave amplitude damping length scales along the waveguide with theoretical results for resonantly damped propagating kink waves to infer the plasma density variation across the oscillating structures. Provided that the spatial dependence of the velocity amplitude along the propagation direction is measured and the existence of two different damping regimes is identified, the technique would enable us to fully constrain the transverse density structuring, providing estimates for the density contrast and its transverse inhomogeneity length scale.

  18. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method: Applications to solids, surfaces, and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens. J.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2011-06-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single-particle eigenstates can be expanded on a real space grid or in atomic-orbital basis for increased efficiency. The exchange-correlation kernel is treated at the level of the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) and crystal local field effects are included. The calculated static and dynamical dielectric functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001) surface with plasmon energies deviating by less than 0.2 eV. Finally, the method is applied to study the influence of substrates on the plasmon excitations in graphene.

  19. Resolution properties of the Fourier method for discontinuous waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, David; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the wave-resolution properties of the Fourier approximations of a wave function with discontinuities. It is well known that a minimum of two points per wave is needed to resolve a periodic wave function using Fourier expansions. For Chebyshev approximations of a wave function, a minimum of pi points per wave is needed. Here we obtain an estimate for the minimum number of points per wave to resolve a discontinuous wave based on its Fourier coefficients. In our recent work on overcoming the Gibbs phenomenon, we have shown that the Fourier coefficients of a discontinuous function contain enough information to reconstruct with exponential accuracy the coefficient of a rapidly converging Gegenbauer expansion. We therefore study the resolution properties of a Gegenbauer expansion where both the number of terms and the order increase.

  20. Isotropic-nematic interface in suspensions of hard rods: mean-field properties and capillary waves.

    PubMed

    Wolfsheimer, S; Tanase, C; Shundyak, K; van Roij, R; Schilling, T

    2006-06-01

    We present a study of the isotropic-nematic interface in a system of hard spherocylinders. First we compare results from Monte Carlo simulations and Onsager density functional theory for the interfacial profiles of the orientational order parameter and the density. Those interfacial properties that are not affected by capillary waves are in good agreement, despite the fact that Onsager theory overestimates the coexistence densities. Then we show results of a Monte Carlo study of the capillary waves of the interface. In agreement with recent theoretical investigations [Elgeti and Schmid, Eur. Phys. J. E 18, 407 (2005)] we find a strongly anisotropic capillary wave spectrum. For the wave numbers accessed in our simulations, the spectrum is quadratic, i.e., elasticity does not play a role. We conjecture that this effect is due to the strong bending rigidity of the director field in suspensions of spherocylinders.

  1. Study of transverse density waves in an electron beam experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Santiago

    1999-10-01

    The physics of the transport of intense charged-particle beams is characterized by the evolution of the beam particle distribution in phase space. The internal structure of an intense beam, which comprises both density and temperature profiles, changes in response to the combined action of external focusing and the self- electric field. The present work explores beam evolution in experiments conducted in a number of focusing channels over a distance of about one meter. The initial experiments with one short solenoid and five printed- circuit (PC) magnetostatic quadrupole lenses constitute prototype matching experiments for the University of Maryland Electron Ring, or UMER. The latter will be a machine designed to explore beam physics issues associated with circular machines, over an entirely new regime of beam intensities with potential applications for future accelerators. In all experiments, the beam profiles along the channel are obtained from phosphor screen pictures. A linear beam envelope code is used for section design, while particle- in-cell simulations provide important clues for beam evolution. During the course of the initial matching experiments, a wavelike phenomenon was discovered that led to additional experiments in three-solenoid and six- PC quadrupole channels. It was found that the waves are induced by an aperture located a few centimeters from the electron gun cathode. Simulations suggest that the beam phase-space particle distribution relaxes to an equilibrium distribution after a few plasma periods. Furthermore, a simple particle-tracking model reproduces well the onset of the perturbation in all experiments. Simulations also show a small decrease of beam root-mean- square emittance, a beam quality factor, over a few plasma periods. Furthermore, the irreversible character and associated entropy increase of the beam relaxation are reconciled with the reduction in emittance. Several questions remain concerning the stability and scaling of the

  2. Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave ...Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior L. Dale Bibee Seafloor Geosciences – Code 7432 Naval Research Laboratory Stennis...mines is critically dependent upon the propagation effectiveness of shock waves from the charge to the mine. Data and modeling show that this

  3. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  4. Modulation of whistler mode chorus waves: 2. Role of density variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Nishimura, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Chen, L.

    2011-06-01

    Modulation of whistler mode chorus waves, which plays an important role in driving the pulsating aurora and other processes related to energetic electron dynamics, is an interesting but a long-standing unresolved problem. Here we utilize in situ observations from the THEMIS spacecraft to investigate the role of density variations in the modulation of the chorus wave amplitude, which forms a complementary study to the modulation of chorus by compressional Pc4-5 pulsations presented in a companion paper. We show that these density variations are correlated remarkably well with modulated chorus intensity and typically occur on a timescale of a few seconds to tens of seconds. Both density depletions (DD) and density enhancements (DE) are frequently correlated with increases in chorus wave amplitudes. Furthermore, density enhancements cause a lowering of the central frequencies of the generated chorus waves and vice versa. DD events are more likely to be related to quasi-periodic chorus emissions and thus may be related to the generation of the pulsating aurora. A systematic survey of both DD and DE events shows that DD events preferentially occur between premidnight and dawn, whereas DE events dominantly occur from dawn to noon. We also evaluate the growth rates of chorus waves using linear theory for both DD and DE events and show that both density depletions and enhancements can lead to an intensification of chorus wave growth. However, other potential mechanisms for chorus intensification caused by density variations such as wave trapping by density crests and troughs cannot be excluded.

  5. Inferring magnetospheric heavy ion density using EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2015-08-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave observations that result from ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the IIH resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. These mode-converted waves at the IIH resonance are localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this paper, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and wave frequencies using a dipole magnetic field model. We find that the resonance only occurs over a limited range of wave frequency such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and EMIC waves observed from the GOES 12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate the He+ concentration of around 4% near L = 6.6 assuming electron-H+-He+ plasma.

  6. Mechanical Properties Based Particle Separation via Traveling Surface Acoustic Wave.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhichao; Collins, David J; Guo, Jinhong; Ai, Ye

    2016-12-06

    Most microfluidics-based sorting methodologies utilize size differences between suspended micro-objects as the defining characteristic by which they are sorted. Sorting based on mechanical properties, however, would provide a new avenue for sample preparation, detection and diagnosis for a number of emerging biological and medical analyses. In this study, we demonstrate separation of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres based entirely on their difference in mechanical properties using traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs). We theoretically examine the correlation of the applied TSAW frequency, particle density and sound speed with respect to the resultant acoustic radiation force (ARF) that acts to translate particles, and experimentally corroborate these predictions by translating PS and PMMA particles simultaneously in a stationary flow. Even when PS and PMMA particles have the same diameters, they exhibit strongly nonlinear and distinct acoustophoretic responses as a function of their mechanical properties and the applied TSAW frequency. By specifically matching the appropriate acoustic frequency to the desired particle size, each particle population can be selectively translated and sorted. We demonstrate that this mechanical property based sorting can continuously separate these particle populations with at least 95% efficiency in the mixed 10/15 μm diameter PS and PMMA particle solutions tested.

  7. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for the Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings. Goldreich & Tremaine have already argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring’s viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper Schmidt et al., we have pointed out that when—within a fluid description of the ring dynamics—the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping, but nonlinearity of the underlying equations guarantees a finite amplitude and eventually a damping of the wave. We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model. This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts density waves to be (linearly) unstable in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. Sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. The wave’s damping lengths of the model depend on certain input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability in parameter space and the ground state surface mass density.

  8. On the amplitude of dust-density waves in inhomogeneous dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadsen, Benjamin; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Density waves in a cloud of submicron dust particles confined in an rf plasma are examined with respect to their amplitude. The plasma shows a strong inhomogeneity in its densities and the dust particle charge. An ion density gradient appears due to ambipolar diffusion and leads to a dust charge gradient provided by charge depletion. Using dust-density wave frequency and wave number as a diagnostic for the plasma parameters, it is found that the wave amplitude increases or decreases as the wave travels into regions with decreasing or increasing particle charge. The experimental amplitude profile is similar to the theoretical curve predicted by a formula from Singh and Rao [Phys. Plasmas 6, 3157-3162 (1999)].

  9. Prediction of dominant wave properties ahead of hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O. H.

    1980-01-01

    A method is proposed for predicting properties of dominant waves in the forward region of hurricanes where the waves are found to propagate predominantly in the direction of hurricane forward travel. An extended fetch concept is used in which each wave component is exposed to the action of wind over a fetch length that is determined by wave group speed, hurricane forward speed, and location with respect to eye. Maximum extended fetches are found to the right of the eye (with respect to direction of hurricane travel) in the northern hemisphere. The method correctly predicts dominant wave frequencies and significant wave heights. The prediction method utilizes recently developed concepts in wave generation and energy transfer among wave spectral components; the predicted values are compared favorably with observations.

  10. Laser-driven plasma beat-wave propagation in a density-modulated plasma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devki Nandan; Nam, In Hyuk; Suk, Hyyong

    2011-11-01

    A laser-driven plasma beat wave, propagating through a plasma with a periodic density modulation, can generate two sideband plasma waves. One sideband moves with a smaller phase velocity than the pump plasma wave and the other propagates with a larger phase velocity. The plasma beat wave with a smaller phase velocity can accelerate modest-energy electrons to gain substantial energy and the electrons are further accelerated by the main plasma wave. The large phase velocity plasma wave can accelerate these electrons to higher energies. As a result, the electrons can attain high energies during the acceleration by the plasma waves in the presence of a periodic density modulation. The analytical results are compared with particle-in-cell simulations and are found to be in reasonable agreement.

  11. Monitoring polymer properties using shear horizontal surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, Dana Y; Millard, Paul J; Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio

    2009-10-01

    Real-time, nondestructive methods for monitoring polymer film properties are increasingly important in the development and fabrication of modern polymer-containing products. Online testing of industrial polymer films during preparation and conditioning is required to minimize material and energy consumption, improve the product quality, increase the production rate, and reduce the number of product rejects. It is well-known that shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) propagation is sensitive to mass changes as well as to the mechanical properties of attached materials. In this work, the SH-SAW was used to monitor polymer property changes primarily dictated by variations in the viscoelasticity. The viscoelastic properties of a negative photoresist film were monitored throughout the ultraviolet (UV) light-induced polymer cross-linking process using SH-SAW delay line devices. Changes in the polymer film mass and viscoelasticity caused by UV exposure produced variations in the phase velocity and attenuation of the SH-SAW propagating in the structure. Based on measured polymer-coated delay line scattering transmission responses (S(21)) and the measured polymer layer thickness and density, the viscoelastic constants c(44) and eta(44) were extracted. The polymer thickness was found to decrease 0.6% during UV curing, while variations in the polymer density were determined to be insignificant. Changes of 6% in c(44) and 22% in eta(44) during the cross-linking process were observed, showing the sensitivity of the SH-SAW phase velocity and attenuation to changes in the polymer film viscoelasticity. These results indicate the potential for SH-SAW devices as online monitoring sensors for polymer film processing.

  12. Effects of Surface Wave Turbulence on the Steep Density Gradients in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1984-01-01

    We point out that the surface wave turbulence in the plasma region where the temperature and density have large gradients can reduce the thermal flux and consequently steepen the temperature and density profiles significantly. An expression for the resultant density gradient as a function of the stationary intensity of the excited surface modes is also calculated.

  13. Roles of Hund's rule coupling in excitonic density-wave states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tatsuya; Ohta, Yukinori

    2014-12-01

    Excitonic density-wave states realized by the quantum condensation of electron-hole pairs (or excitons) are studied in the two-band Hubbard model with Hund's rule coupling and the pair hopping term. Using the variational cluster approximation, we calculate the grand potential of the system and demonstrate that Hund's rule coupling always stabilizes the excitonic spin-density-wave state and destabilizes the excitonic charge-density-wave state and that the pair hopping term enhances these effects. The characteristics of these excitonic density-wave states are discussed using the calculated single-particle spectral function, density of states, condensation amplitude, and pair coherence length. Implications of our results in the materials' aspects are also discussed.

  14. Nonlinear saturation spectra of electric fields and density fluctuations in drift wave turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The detection of drift waves in the nonlinear evolution of a space plasma process driven at long wavelengths is considered, adducing measurements of the electric field and density fluctuation power spectra as evidence. Since the driving mechanism is clearly at long wavelengths, the detection of drift waves suggests that they may play an important role in the transfer of wave energy from long to short wavelengths in a low beta plasma. The saturated spectral density is compared with theoretical results in order to estimate the anomalous diffusion rate. The observed spectral form and amplitude is in excellent agreement with drift wave predictions.

  15. Electronic structure and charge-density-wave mechanism in 2H-TaSe_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossnagel, Kai; Rotenberg, Eli; Smith, Neville V.; Seifarth, Olaf; Kipp, Lutz

    2004-03-01

    The simple layered charge-density-wave system 2H-TaSe2 has received renewed interest recently because it may share important physical properties with the high-temperature superconducting cuprates, such as quasi-two-dimensionality, qualitatively similar resisitivity curves and optical responses, saddle bands close to the chemical potential, and a possible correlation between the opening of a gap on parts of the Fermi surface and the occurence of a strong energy renormalization on ungapped parts. We present here a detailed angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy study of the near-EF electronic structure of 2H-TaSe_2, focusing on Fermi surface topology, energy gaps, and band renormalization effects. Our results provide important clues as to the origin of the still-debated charge-density-wave mechanism in 2H-TaSe2 and possible similarities to the electronic structure of cuprates. The experiments were carried out at the Electronic Structure Factory at beamline 7 of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. K.R. gratefully acknowledges support by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Work at the University of Kiel is supported by DFG Forschergruppe FOR 353.

  16. A Composite Fermion Hofstadter Problem: Partially Polarized Density Wave States in the FQHE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2000-03-01

    It is well known that the 2/5 FQH state can have two translationally invariant ground states, one of which is a singlet and the other fully polarized. A quantum phase transition occurs between these two as a function of the Zeeman field. This can be simply explained in terms of the crossing of Composite Fermion Landau levels. However, recently Kukushkin et al (PRL 82, 3665 (99)) have seen plateaus of half the maximal polarization in the 2/5 fraction at intermediate Zeeman fields. Similar plateaus, which are not allowed for translationally invariant CF states, are seen in other fractions as well. I propose a class of novel partially polarized spin/charge density wave states which display the co-existence of density wave and quantum Hall order (the Hall crystal state). The physical properties of the states, including gaps and collective excitations are computed using the formalism for the FQHE developed recently by Shankar and myself (for details see Murthy and Shankar in "Composite Fermions", Olle Heinonen, Editor).

  17. Comparison of density waves in the rings of Saturn and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.

    1992-01-01

    The similarity of density waves in the rings of Saturn and Uranus are addressed. It is found that all ring systems are grossly similar in that they all encircle the primary in its equatorial plane and exhibit responses to resonant satellite perturbations. The dominant response of Saturn's rings is the clearing of gaps and generation of density and bending waves. The Uranian rings appear to be confined by the presence of shepherd satellites. Three possible density waves have been identified, two in the epsilon ring and one in the delta ring.

  18. Comparison of density waves in the rings of Saturn and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.

    1992-01-01

    The similarity of density waves in the rings of Saturn and Uranus are addressed. It is found that all ring systems are grossly similar in that they all encircle the primary in its equatorial plane and exhibit responses to resonant satellite perturbations. The dominant response of Saturn's rings is the clearing of gaps and generation of density and bending waves. The Uranian rings appear to be confined by the presence of shepherd satellites. Three possible density waves have been identified, two in the epsilon ring and one in the delta ring.

  19. Liquid Water through Density-Functional Molecular Dynamics: Plane-Wave vs Atomic-Orbital Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Giacomo; Hutter, Jürg; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    We determine and compare structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions through density-functional molecular dynamics simulations, when using either plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets. In both frameworks, the electronic structure and the atomic forces are self-consistently determined within the same theoretical scheme based on a nonlocal density functional accounting for van der Waals interactions. The overall properties of liquid water achieved within the two frameworks are in excellent agreement with each other. Thus, our study supports that implementations with plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets yield equivalent results and can be used indiscriminately in study of liquid water or aqueous solutions.

  20. Nonequilibrium response of an electron-mediated charge density wave ordered material to a large dc electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism, we employ nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to exactly solve for the nonlinear response of an electron-mediated charge-density-wave-ordered material. We examine both the dc current and the order parameter of the conduction electrons as the ordered system is driven by the electric field. Although the formalism we develop applies to all models, for concreteness, we examine the charge-density-wave phase of the Falicov-Kimball model, which displays a number of anomalous behaviors including the appearance of subgap density of states as the temperature increases. These subgap states should have a significant impact on transport properties, particularly the nonlinear response of the system to a large dc electric field.

  1. Superconducting pairing and density-wave instabilities in quasi-one-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Duprat, R.; Bourbonnais, C.; Dupuis, N.

    2006-04-01

    Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the phase diagram of an extended quasi-one-dimensional electron gas model that includes interchain hopping, nesting deviations, and both intrachain and interchain repulsive interactions. d -wave superconductivity, which dominates over the spin-density-wave (SDW) phase at large nesting deviations, becomes unstable to the benefit of a triplet f -wave phase for a weak repulsive interchain backscattering term g1⊥>0 , despite the persistence of dominant SDW correlations in the normal state. Antiferromagnetism becomes unstable against the formation of a charge-density-wave state when g1⊥ exceeds some critical value. While these features persist when both Umklapp processes and interchain forward scattering (g2⊥) are taken into account, the effect of g2⊥ alone is found to frustrate nearest-neighbor interchain d - and f -wave pairing and instead favor next-nearest-neighbor interchain singlet or triplet pairing. We argue that the close proximity of SDW and charge-density-wave phases, singlet d -wave, and triplet f -wave superconducting phases in the theoretical phase diagram provides a possible explanation for recent puzzling experimental findings in the Bechgaard salts, including the coexistence of SDW and charge-density-wave phases and the possibility of a triplet pairing in the superconducting phase.

  2. Basic properties of solitary waves in granular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Arif; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    We consider a chain of lightly contacting identical spherical elastic granules and provide explicit analytical expressions to fully characterize solitary waves (SWs) that may be generated in the chain by an impact or an applied shock force. These SWs consist of individual packages of linear momentum/energy transmitted across the granules through Hertzian contacts. They are nonlinear translational waves (involving no vibrations) that propagate through the granular chain without distortion, i.e., without any temporal evolution in shape or size. In particular, we focus on a fully-formed SW and provide analytical expressions for the associated peak value as well as the time variation of the granules' displacement, velocity, acceleration, and compressive contact force acting across any two contacting granules. In addition, by considering a SW as an "effective particle", we provide explicit analytical expressions for its linear momentum, total energy, equivalent (or effective) mass and effective velocity. All of the above mentioned results are shown to depend only on the peak value of the SW's contact force and the properties of the granules, i.e., their diameter, density, and elastic moduli. Then we provide a simple recipe to calculate the peak value of the SW's contact force in terms of a given shock force. Finally, we check by numerical simulations the accuracy of the analytical predictions.

  3. Dynamic properties of municipal solid waste landfills from surface wave tests

    SciTech Connect

    Haker, C.D.; Rix, G.J.; Lai, C.G.

    1997-10-01

    The seismic stability of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills is often a significant consideration in landfill design. However, until recently, the dynamic properties of the waste material itself, which govern the seismic response of MSW landfills, have often been approximated or assumed. Tests to determine the dynamic properties of the material directly have been limited. Measurements of seismic surface waves were used to determine the dynamic properties of MSW, which are the initial tangent shear modulus and low-strain hysteretic damping ratio. Surface wave tests were performed at three MSW landfills to determine their shear modulus and damping ratio profiles. Surface wave tests are ideal for measuring the near-surface shear modulus and damping profiles of MSW landfills because the tests are non-invasive, an advantage for testing environmentally sensitive waste material. Factors which influence the dynamic properties of waste including density, confinement, age, and placement techniques are used to interpret the measured shear modulus and damping ratio profiles.

  4. Wave Properties of Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves as Observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Shprits, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the Cluster STAFF data set shows a number of periods in which Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves display a discrete spectrum. In some of these instances, the frequency of emissions varies in the same fashion as the background magnetic field, indicating that the wars are observed within their source region. This paper analyses the propagation characteristics of these emissions and investigates the appropriateness of the quasi-linear assumption of a gaussian spectrum used in the numerical modelling of their role in the electron dynamics within the radiation belts based in the Chirikov resonance overlap criterion.

  5. Chirality density wave of the ``hidden order'' phase in URu2 Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberg, Girsh

    Many novel electronic ground states have been found to emerge from the hybridization between localized d - or f - electron states and conduction electron states in correlated electron materials. The heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 exhibits the coexistence of two such ground states: so-called ``hidden order'' (HO) below THO = 17.5 K and superconductivity below Tc =1.5 K. Despite 30 years of research the symmetry of the order parameter associated with HO phase below 17.5 K has remained ambiguous. Here we report results of polarization resolved Raman spectroscopy study aimed to specify the symmetry of the low energy excitations above and below the HO transition. These excitations involve transitions between interacting heavy uranium 5f orbitals, responsible for the broken symmetry in the HO phase. From the symmetry analysis of the collective mode, we determine that the HO parameter breaks local vertical and diagonal reflection symmetries at the uranium sites, resulting in crystal field states with distinct chiral properties, which order to a commensurate chirality density wave ground state. We further explore the competition between the HO phase and large moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phase, and the connection between the HO chirality density wave and the unconventional superconductivity which has recently been proposed to be of a chiral d-wave type. Work was performed in collaboration with H.-H. Kung, R. Baumbach, E. Bauer, K. Haule, M. B. Maple, and J. Mydosh. Research at Rutgers was supported by DOE BES Award DE-SC0005463 and by NSF under Awards NSF DMR-1104884.

  6. Model for density waves in gravity-driven granular flow in narrow pipes.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Simen A; Gjerden, Knut S; Grøva, Morten; Hansen, Alex

    2010-06-01

    A gravity-driven flow of grains through a narrow pipe in vacuum is studied by means of a one-dimensional model with two coefficients of restitution. Numerical simulations show clearly how density waves form when a strikingly simple criterion is fulfilled: that dissipation due to collisions between the grains and the walls of the pipe is greater per collision than that which stems from collisions between particles. Counterintuitively, the highest flow rate is observed when the number of grains per density wave grows large. We find strong indication that the number of grains per density wave always approaches a constant as the particle number tends to infinity, and that collapse to a single wave, which was often observed also in previous simulations, occurs because the number of grains is insufficient for multiple wave formation.

  7. Some properties of adiabatic blast waves in preexisting cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D. P.; Franco, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cox and Anderson (1982) have conducted an investigation regarding an adiabatic blast wave in a region of uniform density and finite external pressure. In connection with an application of the results of the investigation to a study of interstellar blast waves in the very hot, low-density matrix, it was found that it would be desirable to examine situations with a positive radial density gradient in the ambient medium. Information concerning such situations is needed to learn about the behavior of blast waves occurring within preexisting, presumably supernova-induced cavities in the interstellar mass distribution. The present investigation is concerned with the first steps of a study conducted to obtain the required information. A review is conducted of Sedov's (1959) similarity solutions for the dynamical structure of any explosion in a medium with negligible pressure and power law density dependence on radius.

  8. Density functional study of AgScO_2: Electronic and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamu, K. C.; Sahariya, Jagrati; Vyas, Rishi; Priolkar, K. R.

    2017-07-01

    This paper focusses on the electronic and optical properties of scandium-based silver delafossite (AgScO_2) semiconductor. The density functional theory (DFT) in the framework of full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) scheme has been used for the present calculations with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Electronic properties deal with energy bands and density of states (DOSs), while optical properties describe refractive index and absorption coefficient. The energy bands are interpreted in terms of DOSs. The computed value of band gap is in agreement with that reported in the literature. Our results predict AgScO_2 as indirect band-gap semiconductor. Our calculated value of the refractive index in zero frequency limits is 2.42. The absorption coefficient predicts the applicability of AgScO_2 in solar cells and flat panel liquid crystal display as a transparent top window layer.

  9. Influence of the electronic plasma density on the wave particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Boscher, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The wave particle interaction, which is well known to be a major phenomenon in the electron radiation belts dynamics, is based on two main parameters: the characteristics of the wave (type of wave, intensity,…) and the characteristics of the ambient plasma. In this work we studied the second parameter. On one side, the electronic plasma density can be derived from in-situ measurements. On the other side, several empirical models exist: GCPM, IZMIRAN or Carpenter models. Here, we compared electronic plasma densities derived from in-situ measurements each other and with existing models. Then, we investigated on the electronic plasma density distribution to distinguish the inside to the outside plasmasphere. Finally, the effect of the electronic plasma density on the diffusion coefficients due to wave particle interaction has been studied via a numerical code, called WAPI, based on quasi linear theory.

  10. Local chiral symmetry and charge-density waves in one-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakita, B.; Shizuya, K.

    1990-09-01

    Symmetry-related features of charge-density-wave transport phenomena are studied using a non-mean-field effective Lagrangian approach. It is pointed out that a local chiral symmetry (based on the Kač-Moody algebra) emerges in the low-energy structure of one-dimensional electron-phonon systems. From this symmetry follow directly power-law correlations of both electrons and phonons. The Peierls instability is suppressed owing to one-dimensional fluctuations. Still the charge-density wave arises and the chiral anomaly can account for acceleration of a sliding charge-density wave along with a phonon-drag effect. The problem of pinning of charge-density waves is discussed in relation to explicit breakings of the chiral symmetry.

  11. Evidence of density waves in single-crystalline nanowires of pyrochlore iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juyal, Abhishek; Agarwal, Amit; Mukhopadhyay, Soumik

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental evidence of emergent density-wave instability in single-crystalline low-dimensional wires of yttrium-based pyrochlore iridates. We demonstrate electric-field-induced nonlinear hysteretic switching of the density wave at low temperature, followed by smooth nonlinear conduction at higher temperature (T >40 K) in Y2 -xBixIr2O7 , with x =0 and 0.3. The ac transport measurements reveal the presence of four different collective relaxation processes which dominate at different temperature scales. There is a strong coupling of the normal charge carriers with the density-wave condensate, which is reflected in the linear scaling of the dc conductivity with the collective relaxation rate across a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. The evidence of the density wave in low-dimensional single crystals of pyrochlore iridate could be a precursor to the possible experimental confirmation of the Weyl semimetallic ground state with broken chiral symmetry.

  12. Frequency dependent power and energy flux density equations of the electromagnetic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhibbullah, M.; Haleem, Ashraf M. Abdel; Ikuma, Yasuro

    The calculation of the power and energy of the electromagnetic wave is important for numerous applications. There are some equations to compute the power and energy density of the electromagnetic wave radiation. For instance, the Poynting vector is frequently used to calculate the power density. However those including the Poynting vector are not perfect to represent the actual values because the equations are frequency independent. In the present study we have derived the frequency-dependent equations to calculate the power and energy flux density of the electromagnetic wave by help of the classical electromagnetic theories. It is seems that the Poynting vector with a certain electric and magnetic fields is correct only for a specific frequency. However our equations are perfect to calculate the values of the power and energy flux density for all frequencies of the electromagnetic radiation. The equations may help to develop the applications of the electromagnetic wave radiation.

  13. Evidence of the charge-density wave state in polypyrrole nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Abhisakh; Sanyal, Milan K.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2015-04-13

    Here, we present a detailed investigation of the low-frequency dielectric and conductivity properties of conducting polymer nanowires. Our results, obtained by connecting ~107 nanowires in parallel, show that these polypyrrole nanowires behave like conventional charge-density wave (CDW) materials, in their nonlinear and dynamic response, together with scaling of relaxation time and conductivity. The observed Arrhenius law for both these quantities gives a CDW gap of 3.5 meV in the regime of temperature (~40 K) in which the CDW state survives. We find good agreement with a theory of weakly pinned CDW, screened by thermally excited carriers across the CDW gap. The identification of polymer nanowires as CDW provides us a model system to investigate charge ordering owing to electrostatic interaction, relevant to a variety of systems from dusty plasma to molecular biology.

  14. Heavy fermions. Chirality density wave of the "hidden order" phase in URu₂Si₂.

    PubMed

    Kung, H-H; Baumbach, R E; Bauer, E D; Thorsmølle, V K; Zhang, W-L; Haule, K; Mydosh, J A; Blumberg, G

    2015-03-20

    A second-order phase transition in a physical system is associated with the emergence of an "order parameter" and a spontaneous symmetry breaking. The heavy fermion superconductor URu2Si2 has a "hidden order" (HO) phase below the temperature of 17.5 kelvin; the symmetry of the associated order parameter has remained ambiguous. Here we use polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy to specify the symmetry of the low-energy excitations above and below the HO transition. We determine that the HO parameter breaks local vertical and diagonal reflection symmetries at the uranium sites, resulting in crystal field states with distinct chiral properties, which order to a commensurate chirality density wave ground state. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Persistent order due to transiently enhanced nesting in an electronically excited charge density wave

    SciTech Connect

    Rettig, L.; Cortés, R.; Chu, J. -H.; Fisher, I. R.; Schmitt, F.; Moore, R. G.; Shen, Z. -X.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Wolf, M.; Bovensiepen, U.

    2016-01-25

    Non-equilibrium conditions may lead to novel properties of materials with broken symmetry ground states not accessible in equilibrium as vividly demonstrated by non-linearly driven mid-infrared active phonon excitation. Potential energy surfaces of electronically excited states also allow to direct nuclear motion, but relaxation of the excess energy typically excites fluctuations leading to a reduced or even vanishing order parameter as characterized by an electronic energy gap. Here, using femtosecond time-and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tendency towards transient stabilization of a charge density wave after near-infrared excitation, counteracting the suppression of order in the non-equilibrium state. Analysis of the dynamic electronic structure reveals a remaining energy gap in a highly excited transient state. In conclusion, our observation can be explained by a competition between fluctuations in the electronically excited state, which tend to reduce order, and transiently enhanced Fermi surface nesting stabilizing the order.

  16. Fast plane wave density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations on multi-GPU machines

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Weile; Fu, Jiyun; Cao, Zongyan; Wang, Long; Chi, Xuebin; Gao, Weiguo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2013-10-15

    Plane wave pseudopotential (PWP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation is the most widely used method for material simulations, but its absolute speed stagnated due to the inability to use large scale CPU based computers. By a drastic redesign of the algorithm, and moving all the major computation parts into GPU, we have reached a speed of 12 s per molecular dynamics (MD) step for a 512 atom system using 256 GPU cards. This is about 20 times faster than the CPU version of the code regardless of the number of CPU cores used. Our tests and analysis on different GPU platforms and configurations shed lights on the optimal GPU deployments for PWP-DFT calculations. An 1800 step MD simulation is used to study the liquid phase properties of GaInP.

  17. Persistent order due to transiently enhanced nesting in an electronically excited charge density wave

    PubMed Central

    Rettig, L.; Cortés, R.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Schmitt, F.; Moore, R. G.; Shen, Z.-X.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Wolf, M.; Bovensiepen, U.

    2016-01-01

    Non-equilibrium conditions may lead to novel properties of materials with broken symmetry ground states not accessible in equilibrium as vividly demonstrated by non-linearly driven mid-infrared active phonon excitation. Potential energy surfaces of electronically excited states also allow to direct nuclear motion, but relaxation of the excess energy typically excites fluctuations leading to a reduced or even vanishing order parameter as characterized by an electronic energy gap. Here, using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tendency towards transient stabilization of a charge density wave after near-infrared excitation, counteracting the suppression of order in the non-equilibrium state. Analysis of the dynamic electronic structure reveals a remaining energy gap in a highly excited transient state. Our observation can be explained by a competition between fluctuations in the electronically excited state, which tend to reduce order, and transiently enhanced Fermi surface nesting stabilizing the order. PMID:26804717

  18. Evidence of the charge-density wave state in polypyrrole nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Sarma, Abhisakh; Sanyal, Milan K.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2015-04-13

    Here, we present a detailed investigation of the low-frequency dielectric and conductivity properties of conducting polymer nanowires. Our results, obtained by connecting ~107 nanowires in parallel, show that these polypyrrole nanowires behave like conventional charge-density wave (CDW) materials, in their nonlinear and dynamic response, together with scaling of relaxation time and conductivity. The observed Arrhenius law for both these quantities gives a CDW gap of 3.5 meV in the regime of temperature (~40 K) in which the CDW state survives. We find good agreement with a theory of weakly pinned CDW, screened by thermally excited carriers across the CDW gap.more » The identification of polymer nanowires as CDW provides us a model system to investigate charge ordering owing to electrostatic interaction, relevant to a variety of systems from dusty plasma to molecular biology.« less

  19. Dynamical spin-density waves in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling, an important ingredient for quantum simulation of many exotic condensed matter physics, has recently attracted considerable attention. The static and dynamic properties of a SO-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) have been extensively studied in both theory and experiment. Here we numerically investigate the generation and propagation of a dynamical spin-density wave (SDW) in a SO-coupled BEC using a fast moving Gaussian-shaped barrier. We find that the SDW wavelength is sensitive to the barrier's velocity while varies slightly with the barrier's peak potential or width. We qualitatively explain the generation of SDW by considering a rectangular barrier in a one-dimensional system. Our results may motivate future experimental and theoretical investigations of rich dynamics in the SO-coupled BEC induced by a moving barrier.

  20. Unconventional Charge-Density-Wave Transition in Monolayer 1T-TiSe2.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Katsuaki; Nakata, Yuki; Shimizu, Ryota; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro; Sato, Takafumi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2016-01-26

    Reducing the dimension in materials sometimes leads to unexpected discovery of exotic and/or pronounced physical properties such as quantum Hall effect in graphene and high-temperature superconductivity in iron-chalcogenide atomically thin films. Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a fertile ground for studying the interplay between dimensionality and electronic properties, since they exhibit a variety of electronic phases like semiconducting, superconducting, and charge-density-wave (CDW) states. Among TMDs, bulk 1T-TiSe2 has been a target of intensive studies due to its unusual CDW properties with the periodic lattice distortions characterized by the three-dimensional (3D) commensurate wave vector. Clarifying the ground states of its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is of great importance not only to pin down the origin of CDW, but also to find unconventional physical properties characteristic of atomic-layer materials. Here, we show the first experimental evidence for the realization of 2D CDW phase without Fermi-surface nesting in monolayer 1T-TiSe2. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) signifies an electron pocket at the Brillouin-zone corner above the CDW-transition temperature (TCDW ∼ 200 K), while, below TCDW, an additional electron pocket and replica bands appear at the Brillouin-zone center and corner, respectively, due to the back-folding of bands by the 2 × 2 superstructure potential. Similarity in the spectral signatures to bulk 1T-TiSe2 implies a common driving force of CDW, i.e., exciton condensation, whereas the larger energy gap below TCDW in monolayer 1T-TiSe2 suggests enhancement of electron-hole coupling upon reducing dimensionality. The present result lays the foundation for the electronic-structure engineering based with atomic-layer TMDs.

  1. Composite Material Property Nondestructive Characterization Using Obliquely Insonified Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A. K.; Lih, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of reflected ultrasonic waves induced by oblique insonification of composite materials is a powerful tool for providing informations about defects and material properties. A device was developed to manipulate a pair of transmitting and receiving transducers at vrious angles of wave incidence and propagation with the fiber orientation.

  2. Shock-associated MHD waves - A model for interstellar density fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that the density fluctuations responsible for radio scintillations could be due to ion-beam-generated MHD waves near interstellar shock waves is discussed. This suggestion is inspired by spacecraft observations which reveal these phenomena near shocks in the solar system. The model quite naturally accounts for the scale on which these fluctuations occur; it is dictated by the wavelength of the unstable waves.

  3. Chemotaxis of artificial microswimmers in active density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiseler, Alexander; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Mulhern, Colm; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Living microorganisms are capable of a tactic response to external stimuli by swimming toward or away from the stimulus source; they do so by adapting their tactic signal transduction pathways to the environment. Their self-motility thus allows them to swim against a traveling tactic wave, whereas a simple fore-rear asymmetry argument would suggest the opposite. Their biomimetic counterpart, the artificial microswimmers, also propel themselves by harvesting kinetic energy from an active medium, but, in contrast, lack the adaptive capacity. Here we investigate the transport of artificial swimmers subject to traveling active waves and show, by means of analytical and numerical methods, that self-propelled particles can actually diffuse in either direction with respect to the wave, depending on its speed and waveform. Moreover, chiral swimmers, which move along spiraling trajectories, may diffuse preferably in a direction perpendicular to the active wave. Such a variety of tactic responses is explained by the modulation of the swimmer's diffusion inside traveling active pulses.

  4. Inversion of Scattered Waves for Material Properties in Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Gritto, Roland; Korneev, Valeri A.; Johnson, Lane R.

    1999-07-01

    The authors apply a recently developed low-frequency, non-linear inversion method which includes near and far field terms to a crosshole data set to determine the bulk and shear modulus, as well as the density for a fractured zone in a granitic rock mass. The method uses the scattered elastic wavefield which is extracted from the recorded data before the inversion is performed. The inversion result is appraised by investigating the resolution and standard deviation of the model estimates. The sensitivity of the three parameters to different features of the medium is revealed. While the bulk modulus appears to be sensitive to voids and welded contacts, the density is mostly affected by fractured zones. The shear modulus is least constrained due to the absence of S wave anisotropy information. It is shown that the three medium parameters are generally sensitive to other medium features than those determined by velocity inversions. Thus this method is viewed as a complimentary approach to travel time tomography which provides more insight into the material properties of inhomogeneous media.

  5. Beam-plasma instability and density holes: Langmuir wave-packet formation and particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgattoni, A.; Amiranoff, F.; Briand, C.; Henri, P.; Grech, M.; Riconda, C.

    2017-07-01

    The role of density perturbations of the background plasma in the development of Langmuir waves generated by beam-plasma instabilities is a very debated issue in space physics. The presence of clumpy electrostatic wave-packets (in particular Langmuir waves), from in situ observations, is indeed puzzling. Several processes have been proposed to explain the formation of waveforms, such as Stochastic Growth Theory and trapping in eigenmodes. Here we explore another mechanism considering the seeding of the beam-plasma instability by density holes. We have performed several 1D-1V Vlasov simulations in the electrostatic limit. We show that in the presence of a density hole, a large amplitude solitary wave-packet of Langmuir waves is formed and that it evolves towards clumpier waveforms. Moreover, the large-amplitude wave-packets generated near the hole can reach saturation and accelerate the electrons of the beam: their velocity distribution is strongly distorted, leading to a multi-peaked structure that generates new unstable modes having phase velocities both larger and smaller than the average speed of the beam. The relationship between the wave amplitude and the characteristics of the density hole is also described, showing how the electron beam may select specific holes to generate enhanced localised Langmuir wave-packets.

  6. Spin-wave spectral properties of the Mott-Hubbard antiferromagnet: The intermediate-coupling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Avinash

    1993-09-01

    Spectral properties of spin-wave excitations in the Mott-Hubbard antiferromagnet are studied in the intermediate-coupling regime, wherein extended-range spin couplings are present in the equivalent spin-1/2 Heisenberg model. A systematic expansion in powers of t2/U2 is developed for the spin-wave propagator in the random-phase approximation, and its quantitative usefulness is investigated. In two dimensions the spin-wave density of states exhibits a peak structure, resembling the broadening effect of spin-wave damping. Implications for recent light-pair scattering experiments in La2CuO4 wherein the complete spin-wave spectrum is accessible in principle, are discussed.

  7. Measured acoustic properties of variable and low density bulk absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, M. D.; Rice, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data were taken to determine the acoustic absorbing properties of uniform low density and layered variable density samples using a bulk absober with a perforated plate facing to hold the material in place. In the layered variable density case, the bulk absorber was packed such that the lowest density layer began at the surface of the sample and progressed to higher density layers deeper inside. The samples were placed in a rectangular duct and measurements were taken using the two microphone method. The data were used to calculate specific acoustic impedances and normal incidence absorption coefficients. Results showed that for uniform density samples the absorption coefficient at low frequencies decreased with increasing density and resonances occurred in the absorption coefficient curve at lower densities. These results were confirmed by a model for uniform density bulk absorbers. Results from layered variable density samples showed that low frequency absorption was the highest when the lowest density possible was packed in the first layer near the exposed surface. The layers of increasing density within the sample had the effect of damping the resonances.

  8. Modeling bulk and surface Pt using the "Gaussian and plane wave" density functional theory formalism: validation and comparison to k-point plane wave calculations.

    PubMed

    Santarossa, Gianluca; Vargas, Angelo; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Passerone, Daniele; Baiker, Alfons

    2008-12-21

    We present a study on structural and electronic properties of bulk platinum and the two surfaces (111) and (100) comparing the Gaussian and plane wave method to standard plane wave schemes, normally employed for density functional theory calculations on metallic systems. The aim of this investigation is the assessment of methods based on the expansion of the Kohn-Sham orbitals into localized basis sets and on the supercell approach, in the description of the metallicity of Pt. Electronic structure calculations performed at Gamma-point only on supercells of different sizes, from 108 up to 864 atoms, are compared to the results obtained for the unit cell of four Pt atoms where the k-point expansion of the wave function over Monkhorst-Pack grids up to (10x10x10) has been employed. The evaluation of the two approaches with respect to bulk properties is done through the calculation of the equilibrium lattice constant, the bulk modulus, and the total and the d-projected density of states. For the Pt(111) and Pt(100) surfaces, we consider the relaxation of the first layers, the surface energies, the work function, the total density of states, as well as the center and filling of the d bands. Our results confirm that the accuracy of two approaches in the description of electronic and structural properties of Pt is equivalent, providing that consistent supercells and k-point meshes are used. Moreover, we estimate the supercell size that can be safely adopted in the Gaussian and plane wave method in order to obtain the same reliability of previous theoretical studies based on well converged plane wave calculations available in literature. The latter studies, in turn, set the level of agreement with experimental data. In particular, we obtain excellent agreement in the evaluation of the density of states for either bulk and surface systems, and our data are also in good agreement with previous works on Pt reported in literature. We conclude that Gaussian and plane wave

  9. Millimeter Wave Dielectric Properties of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Kenneth J.; Afsar, M. N.

    1983-10-01

    Highly accurate continuous spectra of the absorption coefficient and refractive index of some potentially useful materials have been made over the 60-420 GHz range. Measurements have been made on some common ceramic, semiconductor, crystalline and glass materials. The absorption coefficient of low loss materials increases with frequency which implies that microwave data cannot be used for the design of millimeter wave dielectric waveguides, devices, windows and quasi-optical elements. The data in this paper show the millimeter wave frequency dependence of tan δ, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity and the optical constants, namely, the refractive index and absorption coefficient. The measurements have been made in a plane-wave Michelson interferometer operating as a polarizing, dispersive Fourier transform spectrometer. The accuracy and reproducability of the refractive index is six significant figures.

  10. Energy Flux and Density of Nonuniform Electromagnetic Waves with Total Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Analytic expressions are obtained for the energy flux and density of refracted nonuniform waves produced during total reflection at the boundary between two isotropic media for the general case of elliptically polarized incident light. The average values are determined as functions of the parameters of the adjoining media and the angle of incidence. The cases of linearly and circularly polarized incident waves are examined in detail. An explicit general expression relating the energy fl ux and density of these waves for arbitrarily polarized incident light is obtained.

  11. A procedure to analyze nonlinear density waves in Saturn's rings using several occultation profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, Nicole J.; Longaretti, Pierre-Yves; French, Richard G.; Marouf, Essam A.; McGhee, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Cassini radio science experiments have provided multiple occultation optical depth profiles of Saturn's rings that can be used in combination to analyze density waves. This paper establishes an accurate procedure of inversion of the wave profiles to reconstruct the wave kinematic parameters as a function of semi-major axis, in the nonlinear regime. This procedure is established using simulated data in the presence of realistic noise perturbations, to control the reconstruction error. It is then applied to the Mimas 5:3 density wave. There are two important concepts at the basis of this procedure. The first one is that it uses the nonlinear representation of density waves, and the second one is that it relies on a combination of optical depth profiles instead of just one profile. A related method to analyze density waves was devised by Longaretti and Borderies [Longaretti, P.-Y., Borderies, N., 1986. Icarus 67, 211-223] to study the nonlinear density wave associated with the Mimas 5:3 resonance, but the single photopolarimetric profile provided limited constraints. Other studies of density waves analyzing Cassini data [ Colwell, J.E., Esposito, L.W., 2007. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 39, 461; Tiscareno, M.S., Burns, J.A., Nicholson, P.D., Hedman, M.M., Porco, C.C., 2007. Icarus 189, 14-34] are based on the linear theory and find inconsistent results from profile to profile. Multiple cuts of the rings are helpful in a fundamental way to ensure the accuracy of the procedure by forcing consistency among the various optical depth profiles. By way of illustration we have applied our procedure to the Mimas 5:3 density wave. We were able to recover precisely the kinematic parameters from the radio experiment occultation data in most of the propagation region; a preliminary analysis of the pressure-corrected dispersion allowed us to determine new but still uncertain values for the opacity ( K≃0.02 cm/g) and velocity dispersion of ( c≃0.6 cm/s) in the wave region. Our

  12. Interplay between d -wave superconductivity and a bond-density wave in the one-band Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, J. P. L.; Sénéchal, D.

    2017-03-01

    It is now well established that superconducting cuprates support a charge-density-wave state in the so-called underdoped region of their phase diagram. We investigate the possibility of charge order in the square-lattice Hubbard model, both alone and in coexistence with d -wave superconductivity. The charge order has a period of 4 in one direction, is centered on bonds, and has a d form factor. We use the variational cluster approximation, an approach based on a rigorous variational principle that treats short-range correlations exactly, with two clusters of size 2 ×6 that together tile the infinite lattice and provide a nonbiased unit for a period-4 bond-density wave (BDW). We find that the BDW exists in a finite range of hole doping and increases in strength from U =5 to U =8 . Its location and intensity depend strongly on the band dispersion. When probed simultaneously with d -wave superconductivity, the energy is sometimes lowered by the presence of both phases, depending on the interaction strength. Whenever they coexist, a pair-density wave (a modulation of superconducting pairing with the same period and form factor as the BDW) also exists.

  13. Human Cortical Traveling Waves: Dynamical Properties and Correlations with Responses

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Timothy M.; Rennie, Christopher J.; Robinson, Peter A.; Gong, Pulin

    2012-01-01

    The spatiotemporal behavior of human EEG oscillations is investigated. Traveling waves in the alpha and theta ranges are found to be common in both prestimulus and poststimulus EEG activity. The dynamical properties of these waves, including their speeds, directions, and durations, are systematically characterized for the first time, and the results show that there are significant changes of prestimulus spontaneous waves in the presence of an external stimulus. Furthermore, the functional relevance of these waves is examined by studying how they are correlated with reaction times on a single trial basis; prestimulus alpha waves traveling in the frontal-to-occipital direction are found to be most correlated to reaction speeds. These findings suggest that propagating waves of brain oscillations might be involved in mediating long-range interactions between widely distributed parts of human cortex. PMID:22675555

  14. Human cortical traveling waves: dynamical properties and correlations with responses.

    PubMed

    Patten, Timothy M; Rennie, Christopher J; Robinson, Peter A; Gong, Pulin

    2012-01-01

    The spatiotemporal behavior of human EEG oscillations is investigated. Traveling waves in the alpha and theta ranges are found to be common in both prestimulus and poststimulus EEG activity. The dynamical properties of these waves, including their speeds, directions, and durations, are systematically characterized for the first time, and the results show that there are significant changes of prestimulus spontaneous waves in the presence of an external stimulus. Furthermore, the functional relevance of these waves is examined by studying how they are correlated with reaction times on a single trial basis; prestimulus alpha waves traveling in the frontal-to-occipital direction are found to be most correlated to reaction speeds. These findings suggest that propagating waves of brain oscillations might be involved in mediating long-range interactions between widely distributed parts of human cortex.

  15. Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

  16. Upper hybrid wave excitation due to O-mode interaction with density gradient in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Antani, S.N.; Kaup, D.J.; Rao, N.N.

    1995-12-31

    It has been well recognized that upper hybrid (UH) waves play a key role in various wave processes occurring in the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) region of the ionosphere leading to the observed stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) during artificial heating by ordinary mode (O-mode) electromagnetic waves. Hence it is important to investigate how the UH waves get excited from the incident O-mode. It has been generally suggested that the UH waves are excited by O-mode interaction with nonuniform ionospheric plasma. For instance, direct conversion of the O-mode into UH waves due to pre-existing short scale irregularities was reported earlier. Here the authors consider the role of large-scale, smooth density gradient in exciting the UH waves from the O-mode. The model used is that of a driven harmonic oscillator in which the source term arises from the O-mode interaction with local density gradient. For a slab model with density gradient in the x-direction, and the geomagnetic field in the z-direction, they obtain an inhomogeneous fourth order ordinary differential equation governing the UH wave excitation. This equation has been analyzed in the vicinity of the UHR. The pertinent solutions will be presented and discussed for the typical parameters of heating experiments.

  17. Ducted kinetic Alfvén waves in plasma with steep density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshmandyar, Saeid; Scime, Earl E.

    2011-11-01

    Given their high plasma density (n ˜ 1013 cm-3), it is theoretically possible to excite Alfvén waves in a conventional, moderate length (L ˜ 2 m) helicon plasma source. However, helicon plasmas are decidedly inhomogeneous, having a steep radial density gradient, and typically have a significant background neutral pressure. The inhomogeneity introduces regions of kinetic and inertial Alfvén wave propagation. Ion-neutral and electron-neutral collisions alter the Alfvén wave dispersion characteristics. Here, we present the measurements of propagating kinetic Alfvén waves in helium helicon plasma. The measured wave dispersion is well fit with a kinetic model that includes the effects of ion-neutral damping and that assumes the high density plasma core defines the radial extent of the wave propagation region. The measured wave amplitude versus plasma radius is consistent with the pile up of wave magnetic energy at the boundary between the kinetic and inertial regime regions.

  18. Kilometer-sized waves in electron density in the Venusian nightside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brace, Larry H.

    1993-01-01

    As periapsis of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) descended into the lower nightside ionosphere of Venus in the Fall of 1992, wave-like ionospheric density strucutures began to appear on some of the volt-ampere characteristics of the Orbiter Electron Temperature Probe. The number of such events is insufficient to fully define their morphology but enough to provide an indication of the wave amplitudes, scale sizes, occurrence altitudes, and local time variation. The density variations were quasi-sinudoidal, with wavelengths of the order of 1 km along the nearly horizontal trajectory near periapsis. Nearly all of the wave events were encountered within an altitude band lying between 140 and 160 km, a region containing the steep negative N(sub e) gradient just above the ionospheric peak. The waves generally did not fill the occurrence band but were seen primarily as isolated events on curves taken intermittently as PVO crossed through the band. Peak-to-trough amplitudes (delta N/N) were in the range of 5% to 50%. The latitudinal extent of the waves could not be resolved because volt-ampere curves were obtained only intermittent, however, their occurrence on both inbound and outbound passages through the wave band suggests that the waves sometimes exist in layers that extend over at least 15 deg of latitude. The generation mechanism for these waves is unknown, but we suspect that it involves the steep density gradient that separates the main nightside ionosphere from the tenuous, and probably rapidly flowing plasma above.

  19. Non-Parametric Approarch for Global Plasmaspheric Electron Density Tomography using the Characteristics of Whistler Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Sato, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is investigated not only for scientific interests but also for engineering applications since the plasmaspheric plasma cannot be ignored for high-precision navigation and positioning from artificial satellites. The electron density in the plasmasphere is generally observed from spacecraft because the ionosphere disturbs us from direct observations from the ground. In the present study, we introduce an estimation method of the plasmaspheric electron density profile using whistler waves which are one of the most familiar VLF waves observed from satellites in the plasmasphere. While the propagation characteristics of ducted whistlers were used to acquire the signature of the plasmasphere, those of non-ducted ones were rarely used because of their complexity. The propagation characteristics of non-ducted whistlers cannot be calculated analytically but numerically. Recent advancement of computer technology made it possible to trace a few million of ray paths in a short time, and the initial ray parameters at wave sources are easily translated into those at observation points, which are a simple mapping. The estimation method is based on a model fitting in which an non-parametric model is used to represent the electron density profile like computer tomography in order not to deform the information of observed wave data. The wave normal directions and the spectrums of whistlers can be theoretically calculated for a given electron density profile by ray tracing. Comparing these theoretical values with observed ones, an electron density profile which is consistent to a given wave parameter set is obtained.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of self-excited dust density waves under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Piel, Alexander

    2008-09-07

    Self-excited dust density waves in a dusty plasma, containing micrometer-sized particles, have been observed under microgravity conditions at low gas pressures and high dust densities. The waves emerge spontaneously and propagate from the void edge radially outwards to the plasma boundary. We found that the wave propagates obliquely to the local ion flow in regions with high electric fields close to the sheath, whereas it propagates parallel in the plasma bulk. So far the observation was limited to a fixed two-dimensional section through the discharge volume. Recent experiments were performed on parabolic flights in a parallel plate rf discharge, which used the technique of scanning video microscopy. This technique utilizes the high temporal coherence of the waves to reconstruct their full three-dimensional structure. The analysis yields a surprising global spatial coherence of the wave phenomenon.

  1. Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas; Strintzi, Dafni

    2009-11-15

    The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.

  2. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.

    2012-12-01

    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  3. Unusual Spectral Behavior of Charge-Density Waves with Imperfect Nesting in a Quasi-One-Dimensional Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.; Rotenberg, Eli; Zhou, X. J.; Thorne, R. E.; Kevan, S. D.

    2003-08-01

    Low-temperature electronic properties of the charge-density-wave system NbSe3 are reported from angle-resolved photoemission at 15K. The effect of two instabilities q1 and q2 on the k-resolved spectral function is observed for the first time. With a pseudogap background, the gap spectra exhibit maxima at Δ*1˜110 meV and Δ*2˜45 meV. Imperfectly nested sections of the Fermi surface lack a Fermi-Dirac edge, and show the signature of a dispersion that is modified by self-energy effects. The energy scale is of the order of the effective gap 2Δ*2. The effect disappears above T2, suggesting a correlation with the charge-density-wave state.

  4. Juxtaposing density matrix and classical path-based wave packet dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Aghtar, Mortaza; Liebers, Jörg; Strümpfer, Johan; Schulten, Klaus; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In many physical, chemical, and biological systems energy and charge transfer processes are of utmost importance. To determine the influence of the environment on these transport processes, equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations become more and more popular. From these simulations, one usually determines the thermal fluctuations of certain energy gaps, which are then either used to perform ensemble-averaged wave packet simulations, also called Ehrenfest dynamics, or to employ a density matrix approach via spectral densities. These two approaches are analyzed through energy gap fluctuations that are generated to correspond to a predetermined spectral density. Subsequently, density matrix and wave packet simulations are compared through population dynamics and absorption spectra for different parameter regimes. Furthermore, a previously proposed approach to enforce the correct long-time behavior in the wave packet simulations is probed and an improvement is proposed. PMID:22697524

  5. Local spin-density-wave order inside vortex cores in multiband superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Vivek; Koshelev, Alexei E.

    2015-08-13

    Coexistence of antiferromagnetic order with superconductivity in many families of newly discovered iron-based superconductors has renewed interest to this old problem. Due to competition between the two types of order, one can expect appearance of the antiferromagnetism inside the cores of the vortices generated by the external magnetic field. The structure of a vortex in type II superconductors holds significant importance from the theoretical and the application points of view. In this paper, we consider the internal vortex structure in a two-band s± superconductor near a spin-density-wave instability. We treat the problem in a completely self-consistent manner within the quasiclassical Eilenberger formalism. We study the structure of the s± superconducting order and magnetic field-induced spin-density-wave order near an isolated vortex. Finally, we examine the effect of this spin-density-wave state inside the vortex cores on the local density of states.

  6. Shear wave reflectivity and physical properties of the southern Appalachian Thorn Hill Paleozoic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.E.; Christensen, N.I. . Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The physical properties of a sequence of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been examined in detail, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements of density, shear wave velocity, shear wave splitting, and Vp/Vs ratios. Seismic properties of 147 cores from 49 rock samples collected from the thorn hill sedimentary sequence of eastern Tennessee are examined in terms of implications for future seismic studies in the southern Appalachians. The shear wave velocities of these rocks are strongly influenced by the relatively high shear wave velocity of quartz. Shear wave velocity anisotropy is present in most of the lithologic groups: it is highest in the shales while being almost insignificant in the dolostones. The related phenomenon of shear wave splitting occurs to some degree in all of the lithologies studied and at high pressures originates from mineral orientation. Compressional to shear velocity (Vp/Vs) ratios of approximately 1.82 (dolostones) and 1.95 (limestones) effectively characterize the carbonates while other lithologies display wider ranges of Vp/Vs, primarily due to the influence of accessory minerals such as quartz. Densities of the sample suite range from 2.34 g/cm[sup 3] (shale) to 2.86 g/cm[sup 3] (dolostone). Normal incidence shear and compressional wave synthetic seismograms of the entire Thorn Hill section indicate that three zones of high amplitude reflections would be seen on reflection records obtained over this 3,327 meter thick sequence. differences are seen at some interfaces in the Mississippian-Devonian interval, which are more reflective to shear waves, and in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, which appears more reflective to compressional waves.

  7. Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, S. C. Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.

    2016-08-15

    Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.

  8. Computation of Thermally Perfect Properties of Oblique Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon a value of cp expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135, and with a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics code. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use, and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).

  9. Computation of Thermally Perfect Oblique Shock Wave Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1997-01-01

    A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon the specific heat expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).

  10. Scattering, Thermal Emission and Extinction: Column Density and Dust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We compare three different ways to measure the column density of molecular clouds using (1) scat- tered light (cloudshine), (2) thermal emission in the sub-millimeter and (3) extinction of background stars. Our methods for estimating the column density from thermal emission and from extinction of background stars use hierarchical Bayesian models to coherently infer correlations in the dust properties and the column density estimates. In particular, we measure the slope of the extinction law (Rv) from extinction estimates and the deviation from blackbody emission (beta) from the thermal emission estimates. These dust properties are related to the size distribution and compo- sition of dust. The comparison among these three methods therefore tells us about which regimes particular methods work or fail and about the properties of the dust at different depths inside the cloud.

  11. The mechanical properties of density graded hemp/polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvegis, Raphaël; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the production and mechanical characterization of density graded biocomposites based on high density polyethylene and hemp fibres was performed. The effect of coupling agent addition (maleated polyethylene) and hemp content (0-30%) was studied to determine the effect of hemp distribution (graded content) inside the composite (uniform, linear, V and Λ). Tensile and flexural properties are reported to compare the structures, especially in terms of their stress-strain behaviors under tensile loading.

  12. Charge density wave in layered La1 -xCexSb2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luccas, R. F.; Fente, A.; Hanko, J.; Correa-Orellana, A.; Herrera, E.; Climent-Pascual, E.; Azpeitia, J.; Pérez-Castañeda, T.; Osorio, M. R.; Salas-Colera, E.; Nemes, N. M.; Mompean, F. J.; García-Hernández, M.; Rodrigo, J. G.; Ramos, M. A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2015-12-01

    The layered rare-earth diantimonides R Sb2 are anisotropic metals with generally low electronic densities whose properties can be modified by substituting the rare earth. LaSb2 is a nonmagnetic metal with a low residual resistivity presenting a low-temperature magnetoresistance that does not saturate with the magnetic field. It has been proposed that the latter can be associated to a charge density wave (CDW), but no CDW has yet been found. Here we find a kink in the resistivity above room temperature in LaSb2 (at 355 K) and show that the kink becomes much more pronounced with substitution of La by Ce along the La1 -xCexSb2 series. We find signatures of a CDW in x-ray scattering, specific heat, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments in particular for x ≈0.5 . We observe a distortion of rare-earth-Sb bonds lying in-plane of the tetragonal crystal using x-ray scattering, an anomaly in the specific heat at the same temperature as the kink in resistivity and charge modulations in STM. We conclude that LaSb2 has a CDW which is stabilized in the La1 -xCexSb2 series due to substitutional disorder.

  13. An unusual density wave in Saturn's C ring, evidence for a supersonic resonance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2014-05-01

    Resonances with periodic perturbing forces in dense ring systems generate distinctive spiral patterns known as density waves. In Saturn's rings, density waves are most often found at Lindblad resonances with Saturn's various moons, but several waves in the C ring are not found near any known resonance with any known moon. By comparing multiple occultation profiles of these waves, we were able to determine the pattern speeds and number of arms in these spiral patterns, and thereby demonstrate several of these waves are likely due to normal mode oscillations inside the planet (Hedman and Nicholson, AJ 2013). Applying these same methods to yet another wave situated between 85,670 and 86,700 km from Saturn's center, we obtained some very surprising results. This feature appears to be most consistent with a one-armed spiral pattern rotating around the planet at nearly twice the local mean motion, which would suggest that this structure is generated by an 1:2 Outer Lindblad Resonance. However, the radial wavelength of the spiral pattern decreases with increasing radius, which is a characteristic of waves generated by Inner Lindblad Resonances (whose pattern speeds are slower than the local mean motion). This inconsistency could be the result of another highly unusual feature of this wave. Based on comparisons of Voyager and Cassini occultations, the wave appears to have been moving slowly inwards over the last 30 years, indicating that the frequency of the perturbing force responsible for generating this wave has been slowly changing. In fact, the drift rate of the resonant location appears to be larger than the group velocity of the wave, so that the resonance outruns the inward-propagating wave, effectively turning the entire pattern inside out.

  14. Fitting the Lin-Shu-type density-wave theory for our own Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2013-08-01

    The presence of spiral structure in rapidly and differentially rotating disc galaxies is currently attributed to the phenomenon of unstable (that is to say, growing) Lin-Shu compression-type waves, or density waves, rotating at a constant angular velocity around the system's centre. It is important that when a density-wave structure is present in a galaxy, the gravitational field of the spiral arms will systematically deflect the motion of gas and young stars away from their mean circular rotation, and point masses in such a model react by streaming motions that are of spiral shape too. We examine the kinematics of Milky Way's 233 Cepheid stars on the assumption that the system is subject to moderately growing spiral density waves by taking into account small-amplitude perturbations of the Galactic gravitational potential. Using Cepheid line-of-sight velocities, we propose new estimates of the parameters of solar motion and Galactic rotation corrected for the effects of density waves, the radial and azimuthal components of systematic stellar motion due to the spiral arms as well as the dynamical parameters of the waves. A basis is given for preferring the dominant one-armed spiral structure in the solar neighbourhood of the Galaxy.

  15. Structured mass density slab as a waveguide of fast magnetoacoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.

    Coronal loops are waveguides for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. These loops are expected to be structured. Therefore, in the present paper, we numerically studied the propagation of the fast MHD waves in the structured density slab (composed from a broad density slab with one axisymmetric narrow sub-slab superposed), and analysed the wave signals. Then, this structured slab was divided into its components, i.e., to simple broad and narrow slabs and the same analysis was made. We compared results of both these cases. For the calculations we adopted a two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, in which we solved a full set of ideal time-dependent MHD equations using the FLASH code, applying the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method. To initiate the fast sausage magnetoacoustic waves, we used axisymmetric Gaussian velocity perturbation. Wave signals were detected in different locations along the slab and as a diagnostic tool of these waves, the wavelet analysis method has been used. We found that for the structured density slab with sufficiently sharp boundaries, i.e., for good quality waveguides (without an energy leakage), the guided waves in the structured slab behave similarly as in its separated (simple slab) components.

  16. Kilometer-Sized Waves in Electron Density in the Venusian Nightside Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brace, Larry H.

    1993-01-01

    As periapsis of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) descended into the lower nightside ionosphere of Venus in the Fall of 1992, wave-like ionospheric density structures began to appear on some of the volt-ampere characteristics of the Orbiter Electron Temperature Probe. The number of such events is insufficient to fully define their morphology but enough to provide an indication of the wave amplitudes, scale sizes, occurrence altitudes, and local time variation. The density variations were quasi-sinusoidal, with wavelengths of the order of 1 km along the nearly horizontal trajectory near periapsis. Nearly all of the wave events were encountered within an altitude band lying between 140 and 160 km, a region containing the steep negative N(sub e) gradient just above the ionospheric peak. The waves generally did not fill the occurrence band but were seen primarily as isolated events on curves taken intermittently as PVO crossed through the band. Peak-to-trough amplitudes ((Delta)N/N) were in the range of 5% to 50%. The waves exhibited little local time variation within the available viewing period (01-04 hrs), with perhaps a tendency for the waves to rise to slightly higher altitudes toward dawn. The latitudinal extent of the waves could not be resolved because volt-ampere curves were obtained only intermittently, however, their occurrence on both inbound and outbound passages through the wave band suggests that the waves sometimes exist in layers that extend over at least 15 deg of latitude. The generation mechanism for these waves is unknown, but we suspect that it involves the steep density gradient that separates the main nightside ionosphere from the tenuous, and probably rapidly flowing plasma above.

  17. Density differences for near-Hartree-Fock atomic wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmider, Hartmut; Sagar, Robin P.; Smith, Vedene H., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The widely used near-Hartree-Fock functions of Clementi and Roetti [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 177 (1974)] are compared with the newer functions of Bunge et al. [At. Data Nucl. Tables 53, 113 (1993)] by means of different measures of functional distance on the charge density ρ for the atoms He to Xe. The results are correlated with the energy improvement, and an empriical relation between the linear deviation in the first derivative of ρ and the total energy is reported.

  18. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Kepley, Amanda; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Cormier, Diane; Gallagher, Molly; Hughes, Annie; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz & Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  19. Numerical Tests and Properties of Waves in Radiating Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M; Klein, R I

    2009-09-03

    We discuss the properties of an analytical solution for waves in radiating fluids, with a view towards its implementation as a quantitative test of radiation hydrodynamics codes. A homogeneous radiating fluid in local thermodynamic equilibrium is periodically driven at the boundary of a one-dimensional domain, and the solution describes the propagation of the waves thus excited. Two modes are excited for a given driving frequency, generally referred to as a radiative acoustic wave and a radiative diffusion wave. While the analytical solution is well known, several features are highlighted here that require care during its numerical implementation. We compare the solution in a wide range of parameter space to a numerical integration with a Lagrangian radiation hydrodynamics code. Our most significant observation is that flux-limited diffusion does not preserve causality for waves on a homogeneous background.

  20. Quasilinear analysis of saturation properties of broadband whistler mode waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X.; Chen, L.; Liu, X.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.

    2017-08-01

    Saturation properties of parallel propagating broadband whistler mode waves are investigated using quasilinear theory. By assuming that the electron distribution stays bi-Maxwellian, we combine the previously obtained energy equation of quasilinear theory with wave equation to self-consistently model the excitation of broadband whistler waves. The resulting evolution profile of wave intensity, spectrum, and electron temperature are consistent with those from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We obtain the inverse relation between the saturation temperature anisotropy (A) and parallel plasma beta (β∥) directly from quasilinear theory. Our A-β∥ relation agrees very well with previous results from observation and PIC simulation. We also demonstrate that it might be possible to predict the wave amplitude from the initial maximum linear growth rate alone and show that the peak frequency and spectrum width are well-defined functions of the final β∥ at saturation, but not of the initial β∥.

  1. Analyzing and improving viscoelastic properties of high density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Reaj Uddin

    2011-12-01

    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is closely packed, less branched polyethylene having higher mechanical properties, chemical resistance, and heat resistance than Low Density Polyentylene (LDPE). Better properties and cost effectiveness make it an important raw material over LDPE in packaging industries. Stacked containers made of HDPE experience static loading and deformation strain during their storage period in a warehouse. As HDPE is a viscoelastic material, dimensional stability of stacked HDPE containers depends on time dependent properties such as creep and stress relaxation. Now, light weighting is a driving force in packaging industries, which results in lower production costs but performance of the product becomes a challenge. Proper understanding of the viscoelastic properties of HDPE, with relevant FE simulation can facilitate improved designs. This research involves understanding and improving viscoelastic properties, creep behavior, and stress relaxation of HDPE. Different approaches were carried out to meet the objectives. Organic filler CaCO3 was added to HDPE at increasing weight fractions and corresponding property changes were investigated. Annealing heat treatments were also carried out for potential property improvements. The effect of ageing was also investigated on both annealed and non annealed HDPE. The related performance of different water bottles against squeeze pressure was also characterized. Both approaches, incorporation of CaCO3 and annealing, showed improvements in the properties of HDPE over neat HDPE. This research aids finding the optimum solution for improving viscoelastic properties, stress relaxation, and creep behavior of HDPE in manufacturing.

  2. Low frequency dynamics of disordered XY spin chains and pinned density waves: from localized spin waves to soliton tunneling.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Michael M

    2002-05-06

    A long-standing problem of the low-energy dynamics of a disordered XY spin chain is reexamined. The case of a rigid chain is studied, where the quantum effects can be treated quasiclassically. It is shown that, as the frequency decreases, the relevant excitations change from localized spin waves to two-level systems to soliton-antisoliton pairs. The linear-response correlation functions are calculated. The results apply to other periodic glassy systems such as pinned density waves, planar vortex lattices, stripes, and disordered Luttinger liquids.

  3. Magnetic and charge structures in itinerant-electron magnets: Coexistence of multiple spin-density and charge-density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Fusayoshi J.

    2002-06-01

    A theory of Kondo lattices is applied to studying possible magnetic and charge structures of itinerant-electron antiferromagnets. Even helical spin structures can be stabilized when the nesting of the Fermi surface is not sharp and the superexchange interaction, which arises from the virtual exchange of pair excitations across the Mott-Hubbard gap, is mainly responsible for magnetic instability. Sinusoidal spin structures or spin-density waves (SDW's) are only stabilized when the nesting of the Fermi surface is sharp enough or when an exchange interaction arising from that of pair excitations of quasiparticles is mainly responsible for magnetic instability. In particular, multiple SDW's are stabilized when their incommensurate ordering wave numbers +/-Q are multiple; magnetizations of different +/-Q components are orthogonal to each other in double and triple SDW's when magnetic anisotropy is weak enough. Unless +/-2Q are commensurate, charge-density waves (CDW's) with +/-2Q coexist with SDW's with +/-Q. Because the quenching of magnetic moments by the Kondo effect or local quantum spin fluctuations depends on local numbers of electrons, the phase of CDW's or electron densities is such that magnetic moments are large where the quenching is weak. It is proposed that the so-called stripe order must be the coexisting state of double incommensurate SDW's and CDW's in tetragonal cuprate-oxide high temperature superconductors, in particular, those with the square CuO2 lattices.

  4. Determination of basic physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks from P-wave velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakuş, Askeri; Akatay, Mahmut

    2013-12-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks used as main building material in historical buildings in Diyarbakir show great diversity depending on the place of origin. Especially, earthquake studies as well as restoration jobs and civil engineers and architects who work on building dynamics need to know basic material properties of basaltic rocks that are the main building material. In this study, the basalt samples obtained from 18 different locations of the Diyarbakir area were tested in order to estimate the main material properties of basalts used in historical buildings without collecting samples from them. Subsequently, statistical relationships between the nondestructive P-wave velocity and other properties of basalts were investigated. Consequently, highly correlated models (R2 = 0.717-0.890) were obtained between P-wave velocity and density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio.

  5. Noninvasive quantitative assessment of diabetic wounds with diffuse photon density wave technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidrauer, Michael T.; Zubkov, Leonid; Weingarten, Michael S.; Zhu, Linda S.; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Pourrezaei, Kambiz

    2008-02-01

    Quantitative non-invasive assessment of the wound healing process in chronic wounds may assist in selection and monitoring of expensive treatments. The Diffuse Photon Density Wave (DPDW) methodology at near infrared wavelengths can be used to non-invasively measure the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissue at depths of several millimeters. Changes in the optical properties of tissue at near-infrared wavelengths (685nm-950nm) are caused by changes in blood volume, oxygenation, and tissue hydration. A four-wavelength DPDW system with a single source position and four detectors was used to monitor the optical properties of wounds in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Optical data obtained after inflicting full-thickness wounds on the dorsal region of diabetic and control rats indicate that DPDW technology can be used to monitor wound healing and differentiate the rate of impaired vs. normal wound healing. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water were calculated from the optical absorption coefficients. Changes in hemoglobin concentration may indicate increased vascularization throughout the wound healing process, while changes in water content may reflect inflammation following tissue injury. These physiological changes are supported by qualitative immunohistochemical analysis of wound biopsies.

  6. Optical monitoring of chemical processes in turbid biogenic liquid dispersions by Photon Density Wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hass, Roland; Munzke, Dorit; Ruiz, Salomé Vargas; Tippmann, Johannes; Reich, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In turbid biogenic liquid material, like blood or milk, quantitative optical analysis is often strongly hindered by multiple light scattering resulting from cells, particles, or droplets. Here, optical attenuation is caused by losses due to absorption as well as scattering of light. Fiber-based Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is a very promising method for the precise measurement of the optical properties of such materials. They are expressed as absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μ a and μ s', respectively) and are linked to the chemical composition and physical properties of the sample. As a process analytical technology, PDW spectroscopy can sense chemical and/or physical processes within such turbid biogenic liquids, providing new scientific insight and process understanding. Here, for the first time, several bioprocesses are analyzed by PDW spectroscopy and the resulting optical coefficients are discussed with respect to established mechanistic models of the chosen processes. As model systems, enzymatic casein coagulation in milk, temperature-induced starch hydrolysis in beer mash, and oxy- as well as deoxygenation of human donor blood were investigated by PDW spectroscopy. The findings indicate that also for very complex biomaterials (i.e., not well-defined model materials like monodisperse polymer dispersions), obtained optical coefficients allow for the assessment of a structure/process relationship and thus for a new analytical access to biogenic liquid material. This is of special relevance as PDW spectroscopy data are obtained without any dilution or calibration, as often found in conventional spectroscopic approaches.

  7. Electron states and the spin density wave phase diagram in Cr(1 1 0) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, Eli; Freelon, B. K.; Koh, H.; Bostwick, A.; Rossnagel, K.; Schmid, Andreas; Kevan, S. D.

    2005-04-01

    Chromium films offer an excellent system to study the impact of dimensional confinement on physical properties associated with the spin-density-wave (SDW) ground state observed in bulk materials. These properties are also of some technological importance since chromium is a common component of thin film magnetic structures. We prepared chromium (1 1 0) films of high crystalline quality on a W(1 1 0) substrate with a wedge-shaped thickness profile so that the impact of confinement can be systematically studied. We have characterized these films using a combination of low-energy electron diffraction and microscopy as well as high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We have probed the Fermi surface and the nesting vectors therein that are relevant to the SDW ground state. We find these to predict accurately the observed bulk SDW periodicity. We have also characterized the SDW periodicity in the film directly by measuring the splitting between backfolded bands, and we find that this periodicity deviates markedly from the bulk periodicity for thinner films at higher temperatures. We have systematically mapped the SDW incommensurability and phase diagram as a function of both film thickness and temperature. We find commensurate and incommensurate phases that are separated by nearly continuous transitions. Our results suggest a simple model to explain the delicate interplay between commensurate and incommensurate phases that involves a balance between SDW stabilization energy and surface and interface energetics.

  8. A surface wave elastography technique for measuring tissue viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    A surface wave elastography method is proposed to study the viscoelastic properties of skin by measuring the surface wave speed and attenuation on the skin. Experiments were carried out on porcine skin tissues. The surface wave speed is measured by the change of phase with distance. The wave attenuation is measured by the decay of wave amplitude with distance. The change of viscoelastic properties with temperature was studied at room and body temperatures. The wave speed was 1.83m/s at 22°C but reduced to 1.52m/s at 33°C. The viscoelastic ratio was almost constant from 22°C to 33°C. Fresh and decayed tissues were studied. The wave speed of the decayed tissue increased from 1.83m/s of fresh state to 2.73m/s. The viscoelastic ratio was 0.412/mm at the decayed state compared to 0.215/mm at the fresh state. More tissue samples are needed to study these viscoelastic parameters according to specific applications. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wave-like properties of solar supergranulation.

    PubMed

    Gizon, L; Duvall, T L; Schou, J

    2003-01-02

    Supergranulation on the surface of the Sun is a pattern of horizontal outflows, outlined by a network of small magnetic features, with a distinct scale of 30 million metres and an apparent lifetime of one day. It is generally believed that supergranulation corresponds to a preferred 'cellular' scale of thermal convection; rising magnetic fields are dragged by the outflows and concentrated into 'ropes' at the 'cell' boundaries. But as the convection zone is highly turbulent and stratified, numerical modelling has proved to be difficult and the dynamics remain poorly understood. Moreover, there is as yet no explanation for the observation that the pattern appears to rotate faster around the Sun than the magnetic features. Here we report observations showing that supergranulation undergoes oscillations and supports waves with periods of 6-9 days. The waves are predominantly prograde, which explains the apparent super-rotation of the pattern. The rotation of the plasma through which the pattern propagates is consistent with the motion of the magnetic network.

  10. Surface Current Density Mapping for Identification of Gastric Slow Wave Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, L. A.; Cheng, L. K.; Richards, W. O.; Pullan, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetogastrogram records clinically relevant parameters of the electrical slow wave of the stomach noninvasively. Besides slow wave frequency, gastric slow wave propagation velocity is a potentially useful clinical indicator of the state of health of gastric tissue, but it is a difficult parameter to determine from noninvasive bioelectric or biomagnetic measurements. We present a method for computing the surface current density (SCD) from multichannel magnetogastrogram recordings that allows computation of the propagation velocity of the gastric slow wave. A moving dipole source model with hypothetical as well as realistic biomagnetometer parameters demonstrates that while a relatively sparse array of magnetometer sensors is sufficient to compute a single average propagation velocity, more detailed information about spatial variations in propagation velocity requires higher density magnetometer arrays. Finally, the method is validated with simultaneous MGG and serosal EMG measurements in a porcine subject. PMID:19403355

  11. Density response of the mesospheric sodium layer to gravity wave perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Lidar observations of the mesospheric sodium layer often reveal wavelike features moving through the layer. It is often assumed that these features are a layer density response to gravity waves. Chiu and Ching (1978) described the approximate form of the linear response of atmospheric layers to gravity waves. In this paper, their results are used to predict the response of the sodium layer to gravity waves. These simulations are compared with experimental observations and a good correlation is found between the two. Because of the thickness of the sodium layer and the density gradients found in it, a linear model of the layer response is not always adequate to describe gravity wave-sodium layer interactions. Inclusion of nonlinearities in the layer response is briefly discussed. Experimental data is seen to contain features consistent with the predicted nonlinearities.

  12. Simulation and analysis of TE wave propagation for measurement of electron cloud densities in particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Hammond, Kenneth C.; Schwartz, Robert M.; Veitzer, Seth A.

    2014-08-01

    The use of transverse electric (TE) waves has proved to be a powerful, noninvasive method for estimating the densities of electron clouds formed in particle accelerators. Results from the plasma simulation program VSim have served as a useful guide for experimental studies related to this method, which have been performed at various accelerator facilities. This paper provides results of the simulation and modeling work done in conjunction with experimental efforts carried out at the Cornell electron storage ring “Test Accelerator” (CESRTA). This paper begins with a discussion of the phase shift induced by electron clouds in the transmission of RF waves, followed by the effect of reflections along the beam pipe, simulation of the resonant standing wave frequency shifts and finally the effects of external magnetic fields, namely dipoles and wigglers. A derivation of the dispersion relationship of wave propagation for arbitrary geometries in field free regions with a cold, uniform cloud density is also provided.

  13. A mysterious plasma wave emission and the determination of plasma densities in Neptune's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, S. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1991-01-01

    One of the strongest plasma wave signals observed during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is a narrowband emission between 3.0 and 4.3 kHz that was detected over a period of roughly 2 hours around closest approach. The emission occurs below the electron cyclotron frequency and the low-frequency cutoff of the radio continuum radiation. Of the naturally occurring signals in the earth's auroral zone and in Jupiter's magnetosphere this emission most resembles trapped Z mode waves found near the left-hand cutoff frequency. Using this identification, a plasma density profile is obtained that is independent of the plasma temperature. These densities greatly exceed those measured by the plasma science instrument on Voyager but are lower than estimates based on other models of Neptunian plasma wave phenomenology. If this wave mode is not a natural emission, it might arise from an unusual interaction of the spacecraft with the cold, dense ambient plasma.

  14. Plasma Wave and Electron Density Structure Observed in the Cusp with a Dual-Rocket Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpitts, C. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; Bounds, S.; Cairns, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Twin Rockets to Investigate Cusp Electrodynamics (TRICE) were launched on December 10, 2007, from Andoya Research Range in Andenes, Norway, into the active cusp. Both payloads traveled north over Svalbard, with one payload reaching an apogee of ~1100 km, and the other reaching ~600 km. The payloads were separated by 100-400 km during the main portion of the flight. Both payloads included waveform receivers with 5 MHz bandwidth. These recorded several distinct types of auroral waves including whistler mode waves below ~1000 kHz and Langmuir-upper hybrid waves at 300-3000 kHz for several hundred km. Both payloads concurrently encountered a distinct period of Langmuir turbulence. Clearly defined wave cutoffs provide measurements of electron density and reveal significant density structure with density enhancements having amplitudes up to 100 percent and scale sizes from meters to tens of kilometers. Analysis of the inferred density profiles using windowed Fourier Transforms or Lomb-Scargle periodograms generates dynamic spectra of the density, which provide estimates of the spectral composition of the density irregularities for time intervals sufficiently short that the stationarity of the spectra can be investigated. The large-scale structures through which the two payloads propagated were measured by both the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars as well as by all-sky cameras operated at Longyearbyen and Ny-Alesund on Svalbard. Using this data when available, comparison of the density irregularity waveforms and spectra from the two flights is studied in relation to spatial and altitude variations of the turbulence. This examination of wave and density structures and the large scale formations with which they are associated will add to the understanding of the large scale electrodynamics of the cusp region.

  15. Statistical properties of three-dimensional speckle distributions produced by crossed scattered waves.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takashi; Fujita, Shuhei

    2008-12-01

    The statistical properties of three-dimensional normal and fractal speckle fields produced by two or three scattered waves crossed orthogonally are studied theoretically. The probability density function and the autocorrelation function of intensity are derived for speckle fields superposed with and without interference. It is shown that the spatial anisotropy of intensity distributions exists even when three scattered waves interfere with one another. This spatial anisotropy affects the power-law distribution of intensity correlation for fractal speckles and leads to intensity patterns that are not self-similar in two or three dimensions. A potential application of the superposed speckle field is proposed.

  16. Density functional investigation on electronic structure and elastic properties of BeX at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagare, G.; Jain, E.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    We present an ab initio calculations to investigate the structural, electronic and elastic properties of BeX (X = Co, Ni, Cu and Pd) intermetallic compounds using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The exchange correlation energy is described in generalized gradient approximations. The ground-state properties such as lattice parameter ( a 0), bulk modulus ( B) and pressure derivative of bulk modulus ( B') have been determined. The band structure and density of states histograms are plotted which reveal the metallic nature for all the four compounds. A special attention has been paid to the determination of the second order elastic constants. By calculating bulk-to-shear modulus ratio ( B/ G H) and Cauchy pressure ( C 12- C 44), ductility or brittleness of these intermetallics is determined. Pressure dependences of elastic constants and sound wave velocities including Debye temperature are also investigated.

  17. Utilization of polymer viscoelastic properties in acoustic wave sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Frye, G. C.

    The changes which occur in polymer viscoelastic properties in response to cross-linking reactions and due to absorption of gas phase species were used advantageously in several acoustic wave-based sensor applications. When a polymer film is present on the surface of an acoustic wave device, changes in the visoelastic properties of the film induce changes in wave porpagation velocity and attenuation, providing two sensor responses. Film changes which occur polymer cross-linking allow photopolymerization to be monitored in real time using acoustic devices. A photoaction spectrum of photoresist reveals the cross-linking wavelength with maximum quantum yield. Changes in the viscoelastic properties of a polysiloxane film induces by vapor absorption are found to be unique for each of several species, enabling differentiation of species with a single film. A Maxwell model for polymer viscoelasticity, in combination with mass loading effects, provides a sound theoretical basis for explaining observed results for both polysiloxane and polybytadiene/polystyrene copolymer films.

  18. On d+id Density Wave and Superconducting Orderings in Hole-Doped Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Partha; Gahlot, Ajay Pratap Singh; Singh, Pankaj

    2013-05-01

    The d+id-density wave (chiral DDW) order, at the anti-ferromagnetic wave vector Q = (π, π), is assumed to represent the pseudo-gap (PG) state of a hole-doped cuprate superconductor. The pairing interaction U(k, k‧) required for d+id ordering comprises of (Ux2-y2(k, k‧), Uxy(k, k‧)), where Ux2-y2(k, k') = U1(cos kxa-cos kya)(cos k'xa- cos k'ya) and Uxy(k, k') = U2sin(kxa)sin(kya) sin(k'xa) sin(k'ya) with U1 > U2. The d-wave superconductivity (DSC), driven by an assumed attractive interaction of the form V(k, k') = -ěrt V1ěrt(cos kxa-cos kya)(cos k'xa- cos k'ya) where V1 is a model parameter, is discussed within the mean-field framework together with the d+id ordering. The single-particle excitation spectrum in the CDDW + DSC state is characterized by the Bogoluibov quasi-particle bands — a characteristic feature of SC state. The coupled gap equations are solved self-consistently together with the equation to determine the chemical potential (μ). With the pinning of the van Hove-singularities close to μ, one is able to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of the under-doped cuprates in a consistent manner. The electron specific heat displays non-Fermi liquid feature in the CDDW state. The CDDW and DSC are found to represent two competing orders as the former brings about a depletion of the spectral weight (and Raman response function density) available for pairing in the anti-nodal region of momentum space. It is also shown that the depletion of the spectral weight below Tc at energies larger than the gap amplitude occurs. This is an indication of the strong-coupling superconductivity in cuprates. The calculation of the ratio of the quasi-particle thermal conductivity αxx and temperature in the superconducting phase is found to be constant in the limit of near-zero quasi-particle scattering rate.

  19. Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg-dressed fermions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Sarma, S Das

    2015-05-14

    Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected.

  20. Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg-dressed fermions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Sarma, S Das

    2015-01-01

    Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. PMID:25972134

  1. Suppression of Three-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Ordering via Thickness Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gideok; Neumann, Michael; Kim, Minu; Le, Manh Duc; Kang, Tae Dong; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-11-01

    Barium bismuth oxide (BaBiO3 ) is the end member of two families of high-Tc superconductors, i.e., BaPb1 -xBix O3 and Ba1 -xKx BiO3 . The undoped parent compound is an insulator, exhibiting a charge density wave that is strongly linked to a static breathing distortion in the oxygen sublattice of the perovskite structure. We report a comprehensive spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction study of BaBiO3 thin films, showing that the minimum film thickness required to stabilize the breathing distortion and charge density wave is ≈11 unit cells, and that both phenomena are suppressed in thinner films. Our results constitute the first experimental observation of charge density wave suppression in bismuthate compounds without intentionally introducing dopants.

  2. Prediction of crack density in porous-cracked rocks from elastic wave velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ji-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Sub; Park, Keunbo; Yoon, Hyung-Koo

    2015-04-01

    The stability of structures that are built over rock is affected by cracks in the rock that result from weathering, thawing and freezing processes. This study investigates a new method for determining rock crack densities using elastic wave velocities. The Biot-Gassmann model, which consists of several elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio, was used to determine a theoretical equation to predict the crack density of rocks. Ten representative specimens were extracted from ten boreholes to highlight the spatial variability. Each specimen was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The specimens were carved into cylinders measuring 50 mm in diameter and 30 mm in height using an abrasion process. A laboratory test was performed to obtain the elastic wave velocity using transducers that can transmit and receive compressional and shear waves. The measured compressional wave and shear wave velocities were approximately 2955 m/s-5209 m/s and 1652 m/s-2845 m/s, respectively. From the measured elastic wave velocities, the analyzed crack density and crack porosity were approximately 0.051-0.185 and 0.03%-0.14%, respectively. The calculated values were compared with the results of previous studies, and they exhibit similar values and trends. The sensitivity of the suggested theoretical equation was analyzed using the error norm technique. The results show that the compressional wave velocity and the shear modulus of a particle are the most influential factors in this equation. The study demonstrates that rock crack density can be estimated using the elastic wave velocities, which may be useful for investigating the stability of structures that are built over rock.

  3. Reverberant shear wave fields and estimation of tissue properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Kevin J.; Ormachea, Juvenal; Zvietcovich, Fernando; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    The determination of shear wave speed is an important subject in the field of elastography, since elevated shear wave speeds can be directly linked to increased stiffness of tissues. MRI and ultrasound scanners are frequently used to detect shear waves and a variety of estimators are applied to calculate the underlying shear wave speed. The estimators can be relatively simple if plane wave behavior is assumed with a known direction of propagation. However, multiple reflections from organ boundaries and internal inhomogeneities and mode conversions can create a complicated field in time and space. Thus, we explore the mathematics of multiple component shear wave fields and derive the basic properties, from which efficient estimators can be obtained. We approach this problem from the historic perspective of reverberant fields, a conceptual framework used in architectural acoustics and related fields. The framework can be recast for the alternative case of shear waves in a bounded elastic media, and the expected value of displacement patterns in shear reverberant fields are derived, along with some practical estimators of shear wave speed. These are applied to finite element models and phantoms to illustrate the characteristics of reverberant fields and provide preliminary confirmation of the overall framework.

  4. KRONOSEISMOLOGY: USING DENSITY WAVES IN SATURN'S C RING TO PROBE THE PLANET'S INTERIOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2013-07-01

    Saturn's C ring contains multiple spiral patterns that appear to be density waves driven by periodic gravitational perturbations. In other parts of Saturn's rings, such waves are generated by Lindblad resonances with Saturn's various moons, but most of the wave-like C-ring features are not situated near any strong resonance with any known moon. Using stellar occultation data obtained by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft, we investigate the origin of six unidentified C-ring waves located between 80,900 and 87,200 km from Saturn's center. By measuring differences in the waves' phases among the different occultations, we are able to determine both the number of arms in each spiral pattern and the speeds at which these patterns rotate around the planet. We find that all six of these waves have between two and four arms and pattern speeds between 1660 Degree-Sign day{sup -1} and 1861 Degree-Sign day{sup -1}. These speeds are too large to be attributed to any satellite resonance. Instead, they are comparable to the predicted pattern speeds of waves generated by low-order normal-mode oscillations within the planet. The precise pattern speeds associated with these waves should therefore provide strong constraints on Saturn's internal structure. Furthermore, we identify multiple waves with the same number of arms and very similar pattern speeds, indicating that multiple m = 3 and m = 2 sectoral (l = m) modes may exist within the planet.

  5. Measuring mass density and ultrasonic wave velocity: A wavelet-based method applied in ultrasonic reflection mode.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Khaled; Lefevre, Emmanuelle; Baron, Cécile; Zheng, Rui; Pithioux, Martine; Lasaygues, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    When assessing ultrasonic measurements of material parameters, the signal processing is an important part of the inverse problem. Measurements of thickness, ultrasonic wave velocity and mass density are required for such assessments. This study investigates the feasibility and the robustness of a wavelet-based processing (WBP) method based on a Jaffard-Meyer algorithm for calculating these parameters simultaneously and independently, using one single ultrasonic signal in the reflection mode. The appropriate transmitted incident wave, correlated with the mathematical properties of the wavelet decomposition, was determined using a adapted identification procedure to build a mathematically equivalent model for the electro-acoustic system. The method was tested on three groups of samples (polyurethane resin, bone and wood) using one 1-MHz transducer. For thickness and velocity measurements, the WBP method gave a relative error lower than 1.5%. The relative errors in the mass density measurements ranged between 0.70% and 2.59%. Despite discrepancies between manufactured and biological samples, the results obtained on the three groups of samples using the WBP method in the reflection mode were remarkably consistent, indicating that it is a reliable and efficient means of simultaneously assessing the thickness and the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagating in the medium, and the apparent mass density of material.

  6. Evidence for a Peierls phase-transition in a three-dimensional multiple charge-density waves solid.

    PubMed

    Mansart, Barbara; Cottet, Mathieu J G; Penfold, Thomas J; Dugdale, Stephen B; Tediosi, Riccardo; Chergui, Majed; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2012-04-10

    The effect of dimensionality on materials properties has become strikingly evident with the recent discovery of graphene. Charge ordering phenomena can be induced in one dimension by periodic distortions of a material's crystal structure, termed Peierls ordering transition. Charge-density waves can also be induced in solids by strong coulomb repulsion between carriers, and at the extreme limit, Wigner predicted that crystallization itself can be induced in an electrons gas in free space close to the absolute zero of temperature. Similar phenomena are observed also in higher dimensions, but the microscopic description of the corresponding phase transition is often controversial, and remains an open field of research for fundamental physics. Here, we photoinduce the melting of the charge ordering in a complex three-dimensional solid and monitor the consequent charge redistribution by probing the optical response over a broad spectral range with ultrashort laser pulses. Although the photoinduced electronic temperature far exceeds the critical value, the charge-density wave is preserved until the lattice is sufficiently distorted to induce the phase transition. Combining this result with ab initio electronic structure calculations, we identified the Peierls origin of multiple charge-density waves in a three-dimensional system for the first time.

  7. Three-dimensional slow Rossby waves in rotating spherical density-stratified convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2017-09-01

    We develop a theory of three-dimensional slow Rossby waves in rotating spherical density stratified convection. The Rossby waves, with frequencies which are much smaller than the rotating frequency, are excited by a nonaxisymmetric instability from the equilibrium based on the developed convection. These waves interact with the inertial waves and the density stratified convection. The density stratification is taken into account using the anelastic approximation for very low-Mach-number flows. We study long-term planetary Rossby waves with periods which are larger than two years. We suggest that these waves are related to the southern oscillation and El Niño. The El Niño is an irregularly periodical variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical Pacific ocean, while the southern oscillation is an oscillation in surface air pressure between the tropical eastern and the western Pacific ocean. The strength of the southern oscillation is characterized by the southern oscillation index (SOI). The developed theory is applied for the interpretation of the observed periods of the SOI. This study demonstrates a good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations.

  8. On the Role of Drift Waves in Short-Scale Density Structures Observed During Ionospheric Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antani, S. N.; Guzdar, P. N.

    1998-11-01

    Short-scale electron density structures excited during ionospheric heating by high power radio waves have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. For example, rocket observations and radar backscattering data [Kelley et al., J. Geophysical Res., 100, 17,367, 1995; Arce et al., To appear in Radio Science, 1998.] of the heated volume at Arecibo suggest that drift waves may be potentially important in explaining a break in the power-law slope of the measured density spectrum. Drift waves are also thought to be responsible for producing smaller scales and in determining the overall fate of the "needle-like" filaments seen in the heated region. In this paper we consider local excitation of drift waves in such a filament due to density and temperature gradients. The model is that of a cylindrical plasma column with a radial size of about 10 meters and axial extent of tens of kilometers. The earth's magnetic field is taken along the axis of the cylinder, while the equilibrium density and temperature are assumed to have radial profiles. Two-fluid equations for a warm, collisional plasma are used for simplicity. The drift wave dispersion relation is obtained and the corresponding growth rate is calculated. This will be further analyzed and evaluated for parameters typical to the F region of the ionosphere.

  9. A Study of Saturn's Normal Mode Oscillations and Their Forcing of Density Waves in the Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedson, Andrew James; Cao, Lyra

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) ring occultation profiles has revealed the presence of spiral density waves in Saturn's C ring that are consistent with being driven by gravitational perturbations associated with normal-mode oscillations of the planet [1]. These waves allow the C ring to serve as a sort of seismometer, since their pattern speeds (i.e., azimuthal phase speeds) can in principle be mapped onto the frequencies of the predominant normal oscillations of the planet. The resonant mode frequencies in turn are sensitive to Saturn's internal structure and rotational state. Characterization of the normal modes responsible for the forcing holds the potential to supply important new constraints on Saturn's internal structure and rotation. We perform numerical calculations to determine the resonant frequencies of the normal modes of a uniformly rotating planet for various assumptions regarding its internal stratification and compare the implied pattern speeds to those of density waves observed in the C ring. A question of particular interest that we address is whether quasi-toroidal modes are responsible for exciting a mysterious class of slowly propagating density waves in the ring. We also explore the implications of avoided crossings between modes for explaining observed fine splitting in the pattern speeds of spiral density waves having the same number of spiral arms, and weigh the role that convective overstability may play in exciting large-scale quasi-toroidal modes in Saturn. [1] Hedman, M.M. and Nicholson, P.D. 2014. MNRAS 444, 1369.

  10. Driving ionospheric outflows and magnetospheric O+ energy density with Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, C. C.; Bonnell, J. W.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.

    2016-05-01

    We show how dispersive Alfvén waves observed in the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms can extract O+ ions from the topside ionosphere and accelerate these ions to energies exceeding 50 keV in the equatorial plane. This occurs through wave trapping, a variant of "shock" surfing, and stochastic ion acceleration. These processes in combination with the mirror force drive field-aligned beams of outflowing ionospheric ions into the equatorial plane that evolve to provide energetic O+ distributions trapped near the equator. These waves also accelerate preexisting/injected ion populations on the same field lines. We show that the action of dispersive Alfvén waves over several minutes may drive order of magnitude increases in O+ ion pressure to make substantial contributions to magnetospheric ion energy density. These wave accelerated ions will enhance the ring current and play a role in the storm time evolution of the magnetosphere.

  11. Highly resolved self-excited density waves in a complex plasma.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, M; Rubin-Zuzic, M; Zhdanov, S; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2007-08-31

    Experimental results on self-excited density waves in a complex plasma are presented. An argon plasma is produced in a capacitively coupled rf discharge at a low power and gas pressure. A cloud of microparticles is subjected to effective gravity in the range of 1-4 g by thermophoresis. The cloud is stretched horizontally (width/height approximately 45 mm/8 mm). The critical pressure for the onset of the waves increases with the temperature gradient. The waves are propagating in the direction of the ion drift. The wave frequency, phase velocity, and wavelength are measured, and particle migrations affected by the waves are analyzed at a time scale of 1 ms/frame and a subpixel space resolution.

  12. Laser ultrasonic surface wave inspection of alumina ceramics of varying density

    PubMed

    Kehoe; Coyle; Murray; Flannery; Crean

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, the surface acoustic wave velocity results acquired from the inspection of specially manufactured and characterised alumina ceramic materials are presented. Ultrasonic velocity data of alumina-based ceramics in the range 60-100% theoretical density was generated utilising non-contacting laser-ultrasonic measurements based on laser generation and detection of surface acoustic waves with the objective of creating a routine technique for industrial advanced alumina inspection. With linear fitting the surface acoustic wave velocity data serves as a calibration graph for using laser ultrasonics for routine monitoring of alumina. A second laser ultrasonic technique based on the laser generation and foil transducer detection of surface acoustic waves was used to validate the surface acoustic wave velocities measured by the laser generation/detection technique.

  13. Density waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio and optical occultation - Observational tests of theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Thomas G.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    A parallel examination is conducted of Voyager radio and photopolarimeter occultation observations of the Saturn A ring's density waves. The radio instrument waves exhibit an average -90 deg offset from the dynamical phase. A warping height of about 100-m amplitude can qualtitatively reproduce this phase shift, while preserving the overall model wave shape. These results may be profoundly relevant for satellite-ring torque calculations in Saturn's rings, given the deposition of all of the net torque of the standard model in the first wavelength.

  14. Spin-polarized local density of states around vortex in helical p-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro

    2017-07-01

    Based on the quasi-classical Eilenberger theory, we investigate the magnetic field dependence of order-parameters and spin-polarized local density of states (LDOS) in the vortex lattice state of helical p-wave superconductors. The spin-polarized LDOS is induced by the vorticity coupling to the chirality of up-spin pair or down-spin pair, even when Knight shift does not change. We clarify the instability of the helical p-wave state at high field, and that the spin-polarized LDOS shows the unique behaviors of the helical p-wave state.

  15. Interplay between charge density wave and antiferromagnetic order in GdNiC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Shimomura, S.; Mikami, K.; Nogami, Y.; Nakao, H.; Onodera, H.

    2017-02-01

    The correlation between the charge density wave (CDW) and f local moments is observed in GdNiC2 by means of x-ray diffraction in a magnetic field. Various kinds of electronic states exist in the magnetic field. The intensity of the CDW peak changes in the successive transitions and the commensurate-incommensurate transition of the CDW takes place as well. The successive transitions are explained in terms of a cooperative effect of the Peierls instability and the spin Friedel oscillation, in which the antiferromagnetic order of the f local moments is coupled to the spin density wave coexisting with the CDW of the conduction electron.

  16. Field-induced spin-density wave in (TMTSF)2NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolles, David; Audouard, Alain; Nardone, Marc; Brossard, Luc; Bouguessa, Sabrina; Fabre, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Interlayer magnetoresistance of the Bechgaard salt (TMTSF)2NO3 is investigated up to 50 T under pressures of a few kilobars. This compound, the Fermi surface of which is quasi-two-dimensional at low temperature, is a semimetal under pressure. Nevertheless, a field-induced spin-density wave is evidenced at 8.5 kbars above ˜20T . This state is characterized by a drastically different spectrum of the quantum oscillations compared to the low-pressure spin-density wave state.

  17. Superconducting and charge density wave transition in single crystalline LaPt2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ritu; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Rajeev, K. P.; Hossain, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We present results of our comprehensive studies on single crystalline LaPt2Si2. Pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity and heat capacity confirms the bulk nature of superconductivity (SC) and charge density wave (CDW) transition in the single crystals. While the charge density wave transition temperature is lower, the superconducting transition temperature is higher in single crystal compared to the polycrystalline sample. This result confirms the competing nature of CDW and SC. Another important finding is the anomalous temperature dependence of upper critical field H C2(T). We also report the anisotropy in the transport and magnetic measurements of the single crystal.

  18. Theoretical description of pump/probe experiments in electron-mediated charge-density-wave insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freericks, J. K.; Matveev, O. P.; Shen, Wen; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we develop the formalism employed to describe charge-density-wave insulators in pump/probe experiments that use ultrashort driving pulses of light. The theory emphasizes exact results in the simplest model for a charge-density-wave insulator (given by a noninteracting system with two bands and a gap) and employs nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to solve the Falicov-Kimball model in its ordered phase. We show how to develop the formalism and how the solutions behave. Care is taken to describe the details behind these calculations and to show how to verify their accuracy via sum-rule constraints.

  19. Inverse problems in cancellous bone: estimation of the ultrasonic properties of fast and slow waves using Bayesian probability theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian C; Bauer, Adam Q; Holland, Mark R; Pakula, Michal; Laugier, Pascal; Bretthorst, G Larry; Miller, James G

    2010-11-01

    Quantitative ultrasonic characterization of cancellous bone can be complicated by artifacts introduced by analyzing acquired data consisting of two propagating waves (a fast wave and a slow wave) as if only one wave were present. Recovering the ultrasonic properties of overlapping fast and slow waves could therefore lead to enhancement of bone quality assessment. The current study uses Bayesian probability theory to estimate phase velocity and normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation (nBUA) parameters in a model of fast and slow wave propagation. Calculations are carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo with simulated annealing to approximate the marginal posterior probability densities for parameters in the model. The technique is applied to simulated data, to data acquired on two phantoms capable of generating two waves in acquired signals, and to data acquired on a human femur condyle specimen. The models are in good agreement with both the simulated and experimental data, and the values of the estimated ultrasonic parameters fall within expected ranges.

  20. Traveling density wave models for earthquakes and driven threshold systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, John B.; Klein, W.; Gross, Susanna; Ferguson, C. D.

    1997-07-01

    Driven threshold systems are now used to model sandpiles, earthquakes, magnetic depinning transitions, integrate-and-fire neural networks, and driven foams. We analyze a physically motivated model which has many of the same properties as the hard threshold models, but in which all of the nonequilibrium physics is obtained from a Lyapunov functional. The ideas apply to mean-field systems, and lead to a number of predictions, including scaling exponents and metastable lifetimes for nucleating droplets. The former predictions are supported, for example, by data observed for earthquake fault systems. An interesting consequence of the model is that time appears as a scaling field, leading to temporal scaling laws similar to those observed in nature.

  1. Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Hugoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from particl velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.

  2. Evolution of the temporal slope density function for waves propagating according to the inviscid Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Muhlestein, Michael B; Gee, Kent L

    2016-02-01

    An exact formulation for the evolution of the probability density function of the time derivative of a waveform (slope density) propagating according to the one-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation is given. The formulation relies on the implicit Earnshaw solution and therefore is only valid prior to shock formation. As explicit examples, the slope density evolution of an initially sinusoidal plane wave, initially Gaussian-distributed planar noise, and an initially triangular wave are presented. The triangular wave is used to examine weak-shock limits without violating the theoretical assumptions. It is also shown that the moments of the slope density function as a function of distance may be written as an expansion in terms of the moments of the source slope density function. From this expansion, approximate expressions are presented for the above cases as well as a specific non-Gaussian noise case intended to mimic features of jet noise. Finally, analytical predictions of the propagation of initially Gaussian-distributed noise are compared favorably with plane-wave tube measurements.

  3. Correlation of seismic wave velocities with fracture densities: Implications for the critical zone in mountain watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, M. P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Flinchum, B. A.; Pasquet, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite increasing scientific interest in the critical zone, the accurate determination of fracture density in the subsurface remains difficult as access and costs can prohibit ground-truthing through drilling. A more precise characterization of the fracturing process provides critical insight in to subsurface structures. This is particularly important in determining the point at which protolithic rock becomes fractured bedrock and then degrades to soil through the process of weathering. We studied outcrops in the Laramie Range of southeastern Wyoming were studied and fracture densities were correlated with seismic pressure (P) wave velocities. We used the Differential Effective Medium (DEM) rock physics model to validate our findings and provide a more robust characterization of the role of P-wave velocities acquired on outcrops play in critical zone science. This approach marks a significant departure from previous research, which has not applied P-wave fracture relationships in outcrops onto the critical zone for subsurface characterization. We compared our results with borehole data to establish a relationship between surface outcrops and subsurface rock structures. We found a clear, inverse relationship between a decrease in P-wave velocity and an increase in fracture density consistent with borehole data in the studied area. Our findings suggest that outcrops can be used to determine fracture density in the critical zone. We show that the use of seismic refraction surveys on outcrops provides a non-invasive, highly transferrable method through which we can predict fracturing densities in the subsurface.

  4. Direct Observation of Spin- and Charge-Density Waves in a Luttinger Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chenglin; Marcum, Andrew; Mawardi Ismail, Arif; Fonta, Francisco; O'Hara, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    At low energy, interacting fermions in one dimension (e.g. electrons in quantum wires or fermionic atoms in 1D waveguides) should behave as Luttinger liquids. In stark contrast to Fermi liquids, the low-energy elementary excitations in Luttinger liquids are collective sound-like modes that propagate independently as spin-density and/or charge-density (i.e. particle-density) waves with generally unequal, and interaction-dependent, velocities. Here we aim to unambiguously confirm this hallmark feature of the Luttinger liquid - the phenomenon of spin-charge separation - by directly observing in real space the dynamics of spin-density and ``charge''-density waves excited in an ultracold gas of spin-1/2 fermions confined in an array of 1D optical waveguides. Starting from a two-component mixture of 6 Li atoms harmonically confined along each of the 1D waveguides, we excite low lying normal modes of the trapped system - namely the spin dipole and density dipole and quadrupole modes - and measure their frequency as a function of interaction strength. Luttinger liquid theory predicts that the spin dipole frequency is strongly dependent on interaction strength whereas the density dipole and quadrupole mode frequencies are relatively insensitive. We will also discuss extending our approach to exciting localized spin density and particle density wavepackets which should propagate at different velocities. Supported by AFOSR and NSF.

  5. Unusual energy properties of leaky backward Lamb waves in a submerged plate.

    PubMed

    Nedospasov, I A; Mozhaev, V G; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-05-01

    It is found that leaky backward Lamb waves, i.e. waves with negative energy-flux velocity, propagating in a plate submerged in a liquid possess extraordinary energy properties distinguishing them from any other type of waves in isotropic media. Namely, the total time-averaged energy flux along the waveguide axis is equal to zero for these waves due to opposite directions of the longitudinal energy fluxes in the adjacent media. This property gives rise to the fundamental question of how to define and calculate correctly the energy velocity in such an unusual case. The procedure of calculation based on incomplete integration of the energy flux density over the plate thickness alone is applied. The derivative of the angular frequency with respect to the wave vector, usually referred to as the group velocity, happens to be close to the energy velocity defined by this mean in that part of the frequency range where the backward mode exists in the free plate. The existence region of the backward mode is formally increased for the submerged plate in comparison to the free plate as a result of the liquid-induced hybridization of propagating and nonpropagating (evanescent) Lamb modes. It is shown that the Rayleigh's principle (i.e. equipartition of total time-averaged kinetic and potential energies for time-harmonic acoustic fields) is violated due to the leakage of Lamb waves, in spite of considering nondissipative media.

  6. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  7. Properties of medium density fiberboards made from renewable biomass.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Philip; Julson, James; Kuo, Monlin; Womac, Al; Myers, Deland

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the comparative properties of dry-formed medium density fiberboards (MDF) made from renewable biomass (wheat and soybean straw) and those from conventional soft wood fiber. The MDF properties evaluated were modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond strength, thickness swell, and screw holding capacity. The results show that MDF made from wheat straw fiber and soy straw fiber have weaker mechanical and water resistance properties than those made from softwood fiber. Soybean straw is comparable to wheat straw in terms of both mechanical and water resistance properties to make MDF. Water resistance of MDF decreased drastically with increasing straw fiber composition. Wheat straw fiber and soybean straw fiber should be physically or chemically treated to increase their water resistance property for MDF production.

  8. Frequency-domain theory of laser infrared photothermal radiometric detection of thermal waves generated by diffuse-photon-density wave fields in turbid media.

    PubMed

    Mandelis, Andreas; Feng, Chris

    2002-02-01

    A three-dimensional theory of the frequency-domain thermal-wave field generated inside a turbid medium with optical and thermal properties of human tissue is presented. The optical source is treated as a three-dimensional harmonically modulated diffuse-photon-density wave (DPDW) field in the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer theory. Unlike earlier Green-function-based theoretical models, exact boundary conditions are used based on the requirement that there should be no diffuse photon intensity entering the turbid medium from the outside. Explicit analytical expressions for the DPDW field and for the dependent thermal-wave field are obtained in the spatial Hankel-transform domain. The formalism is further extended to the calculation of the infrared photothermal radiometric signal arising from the nonradiatively generated thermal-wave distribution in turbid media with instantaneous nonradiative deexcitation as well as in media with nonzero fluorescence relaxation lifetimes. Numerical inversions have been performed and presented as examples of selected special cases of the theory. It is found that the present theory with exact DPDW-field boundary conditions is valid throughout the entire domain of the turbid medium, with the exception of the very near-surface ballistic photon "skin layer" (7-50 microm). Photothermal radiometric signals were found to be more reliably predicted than DPDW signals within this layer, due to the depth-integration nature of this detection methodology.

  9. Travelling waves of density for a fourth-gradient model of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    In mean-field theory, the non-local state of fluid molecules can be taken into account using a statistical method. The molecular model combined with a density expansion in Taylor series of the fourth order yields an internal energy value relevant to the fourth-gradient model, and the equation of isothermal motions takes then density's spatial derivatives into account for waves travelling in both liquid and vapour phases. At equilibrium, the equation of the density profile across interfaces is more precise than the Cahn and Hilliard equation, and near the fluid's critical point, the density profile verifies an Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, allowing kinks, which converges towards the Cahn-Hillard equation when approaching the critical point. Nonetheless, we also get pulse waves oscillating and generating critical opalescence.

  10. Wave function properties of a single and a system of magnetic flux tube(s) oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Shahriar; Nasiri, Mojtaba; Dadashi, Neda; Safari, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the properties of wave functions of the MHD oscillations for a single and a system of straight flux tubes are investigated. Magnetic flux tubes with a straight magnetic field and longitudinal density stratification were considered in zero-β approximation. A single three-dimensional wave equation (eigenvalue problem) is solved for longitudinal component of the perturbed magnetic field using the finite element method. Wave functions (eigenfunction of wave equation) of the MHD oscillations are categorized into sausage, kink, helical kink, and fluting modes. Exact recognition of the wave functions and the frequencies of oscillations can be used in coronal seismology and also helps to the future high-resolution instruments that would be designed for studying the properties of the solar loop oscillations in details. The properties of collective oscillations of nonidentical and identical system of flux tubes and their interactions are studied. The ratios of frequencies, the oscillation frequencies of a system of flux tubes to their equivalent monolithic tube (ω sys/ω mono), are obtained between 0.748 and 0.841 for a system of nonidentical tubes, whereas the related ratios of frequencies for a system of identical flux tubes are fluctuated around 0.761.

  11. Measurement of mechanical properties of homogeneous tissue with ultrasonically induced shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2007-03-01

    Fundamental mechanical properties of tissue are altered by many diseases. Regional and systemic diseases can cause changes in tissue properties. Liver stiffness is caused by cirrhosis and fibrosis. Vascular wall stiffness and tone are altered by smoking, diabetes and other diseases. Measurement of tissue mechanical properties has historically been done with palpation. However palpation is subjective, relative, and not quantitative or reproducible. Elastography in which strain is measured due to stress application gives a qualitative estimate of Young's modulus at low frequency. We have developed a method that takes advantage of the fact that the wave equation is local and shear wave propagation depends only on storage and loss moduli in addition to density, which does not vary much in soft tissues. Our method is called shearwave dispersion ultrasonic velocity measurement (SDUV). The method uses ultrasonic radiation force to produce repeated motion in tissue that induces shear waves to propagate. The shear wave propagation speed is measured with pulse echo ultrasound as a function of frequency of the shear wave. The resulting velocity dispersion curve is fit with a Voight model to determine the elastic and viscous moduli of the tissue. Results indicate accurate and precise measurements are possible using this "noninvasive biopsy" method. Measurements in beef along and across the fibers are consistent with the literature values.

  12. Upper bounds of spin-density wave energies in the homogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delyon, F.; Bernu, B.; Baguet, L.; Holzmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Studying the jellium model in the Hartree-Fock approximation, Overhauser has shown that spin-density waves (SDWs) can lower the energy of the Fermi gas, but it is still unknown whether these SDWs are actually relevant for the phase diagram. In this paper, we give a more complete description of SDW states. We show that a modification of the Overhauser ansatz explains the behavior of the jellium at high density compatibly with previous Hartree-Fock simulations.

  13. Waves guided by density ducts in magnetoplasma in the nonresonant region of the whistler frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es'kin, V. A.; Zaboronkova, T. M.; Kudrin, A. V.; Ostafiychuk, O. M.

    2015-03-01

    Guidance of azimuthally symmetric waves by cylindrical density ducts in magnetoplasma in the nonresonant region of the whistler frequency range is investigated. It is demonstrated that eigenmodes existing at the studied frequencies in ducts with enhanced plasma density allow simplified description that makes analysis of the features of their guided propagation much easier. The results of calculation of the dispersion characteristics and field structure of the whistler modes supported by such ducts are presented.

  14. Waves guided by density ducts in magnetoplasma in the nonresonant region of the whistler frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Es’kin, V. A.; Zaboronkova, T. M.; Kudrin, A. V. Ostafiychuk, O. M.

    2015-03-15

    Guidance of azimuthally symmetric waves by cylindrical density ducts in magnetoplasma in the nonresonant region of the whistler frequency range is investigated. It is demonstrated that eigenmodes existing at the studied frequencies in ducts with enhanced plasma density allow simplified description that makes analysis of the features of their guided propagation much easier. The results of calculation of the dispersion characteristics and field structure of the whistler modes supported by such ducts are presented.

  15. Plasma density measurements using FM-CW millimeter wave radar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, J.L.; Mazzucato, E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Modified FM-CW radar techniques using swept millimeter-wave oscillators are useful for determining when a particular density has been reached in a plasma. Narrowband measurements on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) demonstrate the suitability of these techniques for controlling high-power auxiliary plasma heating systems. Broadband measurements using these same techniques are proposed, by which the density profile could be determined.

  16. The wave properties of matter and the zeropoint radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Peña, L.; Cetto, A. M.

    1994-05-01

    The origin of the wave properties of matter is discussed from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics. A nonrelativistic model of a charged particle with an effective structure embedded in the random zeropoint radiation field reveals that the field induces a high-frequency vibration on the particle; internal consistency of the theory fixes the frequency of this jittering at mc2/ħ. The particle is therefore assumed to interact intensely with stationary zeropoint waves of this frequency as seen from its proper frame of reference; such waves, identified here as de Broglie's phase waves, give rise to a modulated wave in the laboratory frame, with de Broglie's wavelength and phase velocity equal to the particle velocity. The time-independent equation that describes this modulated wave is shown to be the stationary Schrödinger equation (or the Klein-Gordon equation in the relativistic version). In a heuristic analysis appled to simple periodic cases, the quantization rules are recovered from the assumption that for a particle in a stationary state there must correspond a stationary modulation. Along an independent and complementary line of reasoning, an equation for the probability amplitude in configuration space for a particle under a general potential V(x) is constructed, and it is shown that under conditions derived from stochastic electrodynamics it reduces to Schrödinger's equation. This equation reflects therefore the dual nature of the quantum particles, by describing simultaneously the corresponding modulated wave and the ensemble of particles.

  17. Statistical properties of parasite density estimators in malaria.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Imen; Nuel, Grégory; Garcia, André

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a global health problem responsible for nearly one million deaths every year around 85% of which concern children younger than five years old in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, around 300 million clinical cases are declared every year. The level of infection, expressed as parasite density, is classically defined as the number of asexual parasites relative to a microliter of blood. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films is the gold standard for parasite enumeration. Parasite density estimation methods usually involve threshold values; either the number of white blood cells counted or the number of high power fields read. However, the statistical properties of parasite density estimators generated by these methods have largely been overlooked. Here, we studied the statistical properties (mean error, coefficient of variation, false negative rates) of parasite density estimators of commonly used threshold-based counting techniques depending on variable threshold values. We also assessed the influence of the thresholds on the cost-effectiveness of parasite density estimation methods. In addition, we gave more insights on the behavior of measurement errors according to varying threshold values, and on what should be the optimal threshold values that minimize this variability.

  18. Numerical study of density cavitations by inertial Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Dwivedi, N. K.; Sharma, R. P.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-07-01

    In this manuscript, we study the localization and density cavitations using inertial Alfvén wave (AW) and fast AW in the auroral ionosphere. We first develop a system of equations semi-analytically for both wave modes by using two-fluid model and then solve the model equations numerically using two-dimensional pseudo-spectral approach to analyze the localized structures and cavity formation at different instant of time. The ponderomotive force associated with the pump wave changes the background density and as the inertial AWs propagate through the modified density channel it gets localized. Therefore, the inertial AW splits up into filamentary/localized structures. A low frequency fast AW traveling through these complex structures created by inertial AW, is intensified having its own filamentary structures. The filamentary structures grow with time until the instability acquires steady state. We notice that the density cavities are also accompanied by the high amplitude magnetic fields. The amplitude of the strongest density cavity is estimated as ˜0.26 n 0 ( n 0 is unperturbed plasma number density). We also discuss the implications of the present study in the context of auroral ionosphere.

  19. Density Perturbation by Alfvén Waves in Magneto-plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, R. P.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we attempt to investigate the density perturbations along magnetic field by ponderomotive effects due to inertial Alfvén waves (AWs) in auroral ionosphere. For this study, we take high-frequency inertial AWs (pump) and their nonlinear interactions with low-frequency slow modes of AWs in that region. The dynamical equations representing these wave modes are known as the Zakharov like equation, and are solved numerically. From the results presented here, we notice the density perturbations in the direction of background magnetic fields. We also find that the deepest density cavity is associated with the strongest magnetic fields. The main reason for these nonlinear structures could be the ponderomotive effects due to the pump waves. The amplitude of these density structures varies with time until the modulation instability saturates. From our results, we estimate the amplitude of most intense cavity as ∼15% of the unperturbed plasma number density n 0, which is consistent with the observations. These density structures could be the locations for particle energizations in this region.

  20. Properties, Propagation, and Excitation of EMIC Waves Properties, Propagation, and Excitation of EMIC Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jichun; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Saikin, Anthony A.; Mello, Emily M.; Russell, Christopher T.; Torbert, Roy B.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Giles, Barbara L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (0.1-5 Hz) play an important role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. EMIC waves are preferentially excited in regions where hot anisotropic ions and cold dense plasma populations spatially overlap. While the generation region of EMIC waves is usually on or near the magnetic equatorial plane in the inner magnetosphere, EMIC waves have both equatorial and off-equator source regions on the dayside in the compressed outer magnetosphere. Using field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated local plasma conditions observed on 19 October 2015. From 0315 to 0810 UT, before crossing the magnetopause into the magnetosheath, all four MMS spacecraft detected long-lasting He(exp +)-band EMIC wave emissions around local noon (MLT = 12.7 - 14.0) at high L-shells (L = 8.8 - 15.2) and low magnetic latitudes (MLAT = -21.8deg - -30.3deg). Energetic (greater than 1 keV) and anisotropic ions were present throughout this event that was in the recovery phase of a weak geomagnetic storm (min. Dst = -48 nT at 1000 UT on 18 October 2015). The testing of linear theory suggests that the EMIC waves were excited locally. Although the wave event is dominated by small normal angles, its polarization is mixed with right- and left-handedness and its propagation is bi-directional with regard to the background magnetic field. The short inter-spacecraft distances (as low as 15 km) of the MMS mission make it possible to accurately determine the k vector of the waves using the phase difference technique. Preliminary analysis finds that the k vector magnitude, phase speed, and wavelength of the 0.3-Hz wave packet at 0453:55 UT are 0.005 km(exp -1), 372.9 km/s, and 1242.9 km, respectively.

  1. Surface Waves: Source and Path Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-28

    Department of Earth and Space Sciences State University of New York Stony Brook, N. Y. 11794 28 January 1976 Final Report 1 November 1973 - 31...SOURCE AND PATH PROPERTIES. _ 7^MTMORf»; /’ -■>. PHRrORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Univ. of New York Dept of Earth & Space Sciences...may be useful for resolving .’• hallow depth events, X SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEfW.«! Data Enter.«/; ~f0m^ißi0^ "-""■ -—-—7

  2. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Internal Gravity Waves Excited by Turbulent Penetrative Convection in Water Around Its Density Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrard, Stéphane; Le Bars, Michaël; Le Gal, Patrice

    This study is devoted to the experimental and numerical analysis of the excitation of gravity waves by turbulent convection. This situation is representative of many geophysical or astrophysical systems such as the convective bottom layer of the atmosphere that radiates internal waves in the stratosphere, or the interaction between the convective and the radiative zones in stars. In our experiments, we use water as a working fluid as it possesses the remarkable property of having a maximum density at 4 °C. Therefore, when establishing on a water layer a temperature gradient between 0 °C at the bottom and room temperature at the top, a turbulent convective region appears spontaneously under a stably stratified zone. In these conditions, gravity waves are excited by the convective fluid motions penetrating the stratified layer. Although this type of flow, called penetrative convection, has already been described, we present here the first velocity field measurement of wave emission and propagation. We show in particular that an intermediate layer that we call the buffer layer emerges between the convective and the stratified zones. In this buffer layer, the angle of propagation of the waves varies with the altitude since it is slaved to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency which evolves rapidly between the convective and the stratified layer. A minimum angle is reached at the end of the buffer layer. Then we observe that an angle of propagation is selected when the waves travel through the stratified layer. We expect this process of wave selection to take place in natural situations.

  3. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  4. Orthogonality of embedded wave functions for different states in frozen-density embedding theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zech, Alexander; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.; Aquilante, Francesco

    2015-10-28

    Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded wave functions obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles — embedded wave functions are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities — working with orthogonal functions has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded wave functions which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded wave function, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy functional. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.

  5. Orthogonality of embedded wave functions for different states in frozen-density embedding theory.

    PubMed

    Zech, Alexander; Aquilante, Francesco; Wesolowski, Tomasz A

    2015-10-28

    Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded wave functions obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles--embedded wave functions are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities--working with orthogonal functions has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded wave functions which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded wave function, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy functional. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.

  6. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  7. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  8. Correlating P-wave Velocity with the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Different Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    In mining and civil engineering projects, physico-mechanical properties of the rock affect both the project design and the construction operation. Determination of various physico-mechanical properties of rocks is expensive and time consuming, and sometimes it is very difficult to get cores to perform direct tests to evaluate the rock mass. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationships between the different physico-mechanical properties of the various rock types with the P-wave velocity. Measurement of P-wave velocity is relatively cheap, non-destructive and easy to carry out. In this study, representative rock mass samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were collected from the different locations of India to obtain an empirical relation between P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, punch shear, density, slake durability index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, impact strength index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. A very strong correlation was found between the P-wave velocity and different physico-mechanical properties of various rock types with very high coefficients of determination. To check the sensitivity of the empirical equations, Students t test was also performed, which confirmed the validity of the proposed correlations.

  9. Hollow radial electron density profiles in surface wave discharges. An inside job?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Diaz, Manuel; Rahimi, Sara; Carbone, Emile A. D.; Dijk, Jan Van

    2013-09-01

    In many microwave excited plasmas, there is a part of the discharge (tube) hidden from optical access e.g. because of the metal parts that cover it; it is the region where the transformation occurs between the EM modes found in the (metal) waveguide to modes in the plasma (waveguide). Because in most of cases optical access is not an option here, studies of this region remain scarce. Regardless of this, it is a well-known fact that the discharge tube can easily break due to the high temperatures inside the launcher of surfaguide discharges, which means the temperature is higher there than in other regions of the plasma. In this work, we use a 2D model to show how the inner region changes for increasing power absorbed and electromagnetic wave frequency. The shaping of the EM coupling into the plasma region by the cavity is explored as well. We discuss when the hollow radial profiles for the electron density appear in a surfaguide plasma, and how they are related to the radial inhomogeneity of the EM fields and the plasma properties (e.g. gas temperature). All these results were obtained using the modeling platform Plasimo. Supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW Project Nos. 10497 and 10744) and by the Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN).

  10. Noninvasive assessment of diabetic foot ulcers with diffuse photon density wave methodology: pilot human study.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Elisabeth S; Neidrauer, Michael; Zubkov, Leonid; Weingarten, Michael S; Pourrezaei, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    A pilot human study is conducted to evaluate the potential of using diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) methodology at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (685 to 830 nm) to monitor changes in tissue hemoglobin concentration in diabetic foot ulcers. Hemoglobin concentration is measured by DPDW in 12 human wounds for a period ranging from 10 to 61 weeks. In all wounds that healed completely, gradual decreases in optical absorption coefficient, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and total hemoglobin concentration are observed between the first and last measurements. In nonhealing wounds, the rates of change of these properties are nearly zero or slightly positive, and a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) is observed in the rates of change between healing and nonhealing wounds. Differences in the variability of DPDW measurements over time are observed between healing and nonhealing wounds, and this variance may also be a useful indicator of nonhealing wounds. Our results demonstrate that DPDW methodology with a frequency domain NIR device can differentiate healing from nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers, and indicate that it may have clinical utility in the evaluation of wound healing potential.

  11. Persistent order due to transiently enhanced nesting in an electronically excited charge density wave

    DOE PAGES

    Rettig, L.; Cortés, R.; Chu, J. -H.; ...

    2016-01-25

    Non-equilibrium conditions may lead to novel properties of materials with broken symmetry ground states not accessible in equilibrium as vividly demonstrated by non-linearly driven mid-infrared active phonon excitation. Potential energy surfaces of electronically excited states also allow to direct nuclear motion, but relaxation of the excess energy typically excites fluctuations leading to a reduced or even vanishing order parameter as characterized by an electronic energy gap. Here, using femtosecond time-and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tendency towards transient stabilization of a charge density wave after near-infrared excitation, counteracting the suppression of order in the non-equilibrium state. Analysis of themore » dynamic electronic structure reveals a remaining energy gap in a highly excited transient state. In conclusion, our observation can be explained by a competition between fluctuations in the electronically excited state, which tend to reduce order, and transiently enhanced Fermi surface nesting stabilizing the order.« less

  12. Noninvasive assessment of diabetic foot ulcers with diffuse photon density wave methodology: pilot human study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Neidrauer, Michael; Zubkov, Leonid; Weingarten, Michael S.; Pourrezaei, Kambiz

    2009-11-01

    A pilot human study is conducted to evaluate the potential of using diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) methodology at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (685 to 830 nm) to monitor changes in tissue hemoglobin concentration in diabetic foot ulcers. Hemoglobin concentration is measured by DPDW in 12 human wounds for a period ranging from 10 to 61 weeks. In all wounds that healed completely, gradual decreases in optical absorption coefficient, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and total hemoglobin concentration are observed between the first and last measurements. In nonhealing wounds, the rates of change of these properties are nearly zero or slightly positive, and a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) is observed in the rates of change between healing and nonhealing wounds. Differences in the variability of DPDW measurements over time are observed between healing and nonhealing wounds, and this variance may also be a useful indicator of nonhealing wounds. Our results demonstrate that DPDW methodology with a frequency domain NIR device can differentiate healing from nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers, and indicate that it may have clinical utility in the evaluation of wound healing potential.

  13. The response of plasma density to breaking inertial gravity wave in the lower regions of ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenbo Mahalov, Alex

    2014-04-15

    We present a three-dimensional numerical study for the E and lower F region ionosphere coupled with the neutral atmosphere dynamics. This model is developed based on a previous ionospheric model that examines the transport patterns of plasma density given a prescribed neutral atmospheric flow. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in the model allows us to examine the charge-neutral interactions over the full evolution cycle of an inertial gravity wave when the background flow spins up from rest, saturates and eventually breaks. Using Lagrangian analyses, we show the mixing patterns of the ionospheric responses and the formation of ionospheric layers. The corresponding plasma density in this flow develops complex wave structures and small-scale patches during the gravity wave breaking event.

  14. Modulated spin helicity stabilized by incommensurate orbital density waves in a quadruple perovskite manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Manuel, P.; Bombardi, A.; Martin, C.; Chapon, L. C.; Radaelli, P. G.

    2016-05-01

    Through a combination of neutron diffraction and Landau theory we describe the spin ordering in the ground state of the quadruple perovskite manganite CaMn7O12 —a magnetic multiferroic supporting an incommensurate orbital density wave that onsets above the magnetic ordering temperature, TN 1=90 K. The multi-k magnetic structure in the ground state was found to be a nearly-constant-moment helix with modulated spin helicity, which oscillates in phase with the orbital occupancies on the Mn3 + sites via trilinear magneto-orbital coupling. Our phenomenological model also shows that, above TN 2=48 K, the primary magnetic order parameter is locked into the orbital wave by an admixture of helical and collinear spin density wave structures. Furthermore, our model naturally explains the lack of a sharp dielectric anomaly at TN 1 and the unusual temperature dependence of the electrical polarization.

  15. Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves.

    PubMed

    Eichberger, Maximilian; Schäfer, Hanjo; Krumova, Marina; Beyer, Markus; Demsar, Jure; Berger, Helmuth; Moriena, Gustavo; Sciaini, Germán; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2010-12-09

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena such as high-temperature superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance, ferrimagnetism and ferromagnetism arise from a delicate balance of different interactions among electrons, phonons and spins on the nanoscale. The study of the interplay among these various degrees of freedom in strongly coupled electron-lattice systems is thus crucial to their understanding and for optimizing their properties. Charge-density-wave (CDW) materials, with their inherent modulation of the electron density and associated periodic lattice distortion, represent ideal model systems for the study of such highly cooperative phenomena. With femtosecond time-resolved techniques, it is possible to observe these interactions directly by abruptly perturbing the electronic distribution while keeping track of energy relaxation pathways and coupling strengths among the different subsystems. Numerous time-resolved experiments have been performed on CDWs, probing the dynamics of the electronic subsystem. However, the dynamics of the periodic lattice distortion have been only indirectly inferred. Here we provide direct atomic-level information on the structural dynamics by using femtosecond electron diffraction to study the quasi two-dimensional CDW system 1T-TaS(2). Effectively, we have directly observed the atomic motions that result from the optically induced change in the electronic spatial distribution. The periodic lattice distortion, which has an amplitude of ∼0.1 Å, is suppressed by about 20% on a timescale (∼250 femtoseconds) comparable to half the period of the corresponding collective mode. These highly cooperative, electronically driven atomic motions are accompanied by a rapid electron-phonon energy transfer (∼350 femtoseconds) and are followed by fast recovery of the CDW (∼4 picoseconds). The degree of cooperativity in the observed structural dynamics is remarkable and illustrates the importance of obtaining atomic-level perspectives of the

  16. Scattering forces and electromagnetic momentum density in crossed circularly polarized standing waves.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Manuel I; Saénz, Juan José

    2012-07-01

    We analyze the forces on a small dipolar particle and the electromagnetic momentum density in a configuration consisting in two perpendicular circularly polarized stationary waves. The field distribution shows regions in which the electric and magnetic fields are parallel corresponding to a null Poynting vector. Although the average value of the momentum density, proportional to the Poynting vector, is zero in these regions, there are scattering forces acting on small particles due to light's spin force. The total scattering force suggests a new definition of the average value of the momentum density for free propagating electromagnetic fields.

  17. Scattering forces and electromagnetic momentum density in crossed circularly polarized standing waves.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Manuel I; Saénz, Juan José

    2012-07-15

    We analyze the forces on a small dipolar particle and the electromagnetic momentum density in a configuration consisting in two perpendicular circularly polarized stationary waves. The field distribution shows regions in which the electric and magnetic fields are parallel corresponding to a null Poynting vector. Although the average value of the momentum density, proportional to the Poynting vector, is zero in these regions, there are scattering forces acting on small particles due to light's spin force. The total scattering force suggests a new definition of the average value of the momentum density for free propagating electromagnetic fields.

  18. Optical Talbot carpet with atomic density gratings obtained by standing-wave manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Zhou, Tianwei; Zhai, Yueyang; Yue, Xuguang; Xiang, Jinggang; Yang, Shifeng; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Xuzong

    2017-03-01

    We report a method of generating atomic density gratings by standing-wave manipulation of ultracold Bose gases. By illuminating the gratings with a beam of homogeneous light, we observe one- and two-dimensional Talbot carpets. We further measure the autocorrelation function of the images, which varies with image plane position caused by Talbot effect. Periodically repeated self-images and subimages of the atomic density gratings are observed clearly. Our theoretical calculations and experimental results agree well with each other. The atomic density gratings hold promise for substituting for traditional gratings in many applications.

  19. Nanoscale friction: kinetic friction of magnetic flux quanta and charge density waves.

    PubMed

    Maeda, A; Inoue, Y; Kitano, H; Savel'ev, Sergey; Okayasu, S; Tsukada, I; Nori, Franco

    2005-02-25

    In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, here we present a comparative study of the friction force felt by moving vortices in superconductors and charge density waves. Using experiments and a model for this data, our observations (1) provide a link between friction at the micro- and macroscopic scales, (2) explain the roundness of the static-kinetic friction transition in terms of thermal fluctuations, particle interactions, and system size (critical-phenomena view), and (3) explain the crossing of the kinetic friction F(k) versus velocity V for our pristine (high density of very weak defects) and our irradiated samples (with lower density of deeper pinning defects).

  20. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastic aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Verzasconi, S.L.

    1989-05-01

    Two alloy systems, mainly Al-Li-Cu and Al-Mg-Sc, were studied in this work. Both of these systems have been shown to be superplastically formable in the conditions chosen, and both provide a significant density reduction over a currently used aluminum cryogenic fuel tankage material, 2219. The Al-Mg-Sc alloy provides over 50 percent of the density reduction of 2090 over 2219. In addition to lower density, Al-Li alloys have a higher elastic modulus (stiffness) than conventional aerospace alloys. The main purpose of this work is to characterize the cryogenic strength and toughness of several Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Sc alloys. In addition, the microstructures and fracture surfaces are characterized and related to these properties where possible. 43 refs.

  1. Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Marukovich, Alexander; Mikutski, Vitali; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Hryhoryeu, Siarhei; Sadykov, Vladislav

    2016-06-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams were manufactured by multiple replications of a polyurethane foam template structure using ethanolic solutions of phenolic resin. The aims were to create an algorithm of fine tuning the precursor foam density and ensure an open-cell reticulated porous structure in a wide density range. The precursor foams were pyrolyzed in inert atmospheres at 700°C, 1100°C and 2000°C, and RVC foams with fully open cells and tunable bulk densities within 0.09-0.42 g/cm3 were synthesized. The foams were characterized in terms of porous structure, carbon lattice parameters, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and corrosive resistance. The reported manufacturing approach is suitable for designing the foam microstructure, including the strut design with a graded microstructure.

  2. Vertical temperature and density patterns in the Arctic mesosphere analyzed as gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberstein, I. J.; Theon, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Rocket soundings conducted from high latitude sites in the Arctic mesosphere are described. Temperature and wind profiles and one density profile were observed independently to obtain the thermodynamic structure, the wind structure, and their interdependence in the mesosphere. Temperature profiles from all soundings were averaged, and a smooth curve (or series of smooth curves) drawn through the points. A hydrostatic atmosphere based on the average, measured temperature profile was computed, and deviations from the mean atmosphere were analyzed in terms of gravity wave theory. The vertical wavelengths of the deviations were 10-20 km, and the wave amplitudes slowly increased with height. The experimental data were matched by calculated gravity waves having a period of 15-20 minutes and a horizontal wavelength of 60-80 km. The wind measurements are consistent with the thermodynamic measurements. The results also suggest that gravity waves travel from East to West with a horizontal phase velocity of approximately 60 m sec-1.

  3. Earthquake Source Properties from P-wave Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, P. M.; Denolle, M.; Trugman, D. T.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    Resolving detailed earthquake dynamics and energy budgets requires observations at higher frequencies than typically can be measured from surface waves and S body waves, owing to the effects of attenuation and contamination from earlier-arriving phases. Thus P waves provide a uniquely valuable perspective on earthquake source properties. Here we review recent large-scale analyses of P-wave spectra, obtained from both teleseismic data for large earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.5) and local network data for smaller earthquakes (1 ≤ Mw ≤ 4). These results show that average P spectral shapes change for thrust earthquakes of Mw > 7.5 and are best fit with a double-corner-frequency model, likely related to a change to more elongated aspect ratios for the very largest earthquakes. Despite this departure from self-similarity, average stress drop and P radiated energy estimates are nearly constant with moment for these large thrust events. In southern California and Nevada, we have been working to improve the reliability of P-wave corner frequency and stress drop estimates, including computing reliable uncertainties. Our results show that earthquake source properties vary widely among even closely spaced earthquakes of similar moment. Studying earthquake scaling issues for local earthquakes is complicated by the lack of suitable empirical Green's function (EGF) events for the smallest events, but we are exploring approaches to place more rigorous limits on the range of any possible departures from self-similarity in stress drop and scaled energy.

  4. Step density waves on growing vicinal crystal surfaces - Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, Bogdan; Müller, Pierre; Metois, Jean-Jacques; Stoyanov, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    The Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) theory plays a key conceptual role in understanding and modeling the crystal growth of vicinal surfaces. In BCF theory the adatom concentration on a vicinal surface obeys to a diffusion equation, generally solved within quasi-static approximation where the adatom concentration at a given distance x from a step has a steady state value n (x) . Recently, we show that going beyond this approximation (Ranguelov and Stoyanov, 2007) [6], for fast surface diffusion and slow attachment/detachment kinetics of adatoms at the steps, a train of fast-moving steps is unstable against the formation of steps density waves. More precisely, the step density waves are generated if the step velocity exceeds a critical value related to the strength of the step-step repulsion. This theoretical treatment corresponds to the case when the time to reach a steady state concentration of adatoms on a given terrace is comparable to the time for a non-negligible change of the step configuration leading to a terrace adatom concentration n (x , t) that depends not only on the terrace width, but also on its "past width". This formation of step density waves originates from the high velocity of step motion and has nothing to do with usual kinetic instabilities of step bunching induced by Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, surface electromigration and/or the impact of impurities on the step rate. The so-predicted formation of step density waves is illustrated by numerical integration of the equations for step motion. In order to complete our previous theoretical treatment of the non-stationary BCF problem, we perform an in-situ reflection electron microscopy experiment at specific temperature interval and direction of the heating current, in which, for the first time, the step density waves instability is evidenced on Si(111) surface during highest possible Si adatoms deposition rates.

  5. Ab initio study of the electronic and transport properties of waved graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammouri, Mahmoud; Vasiliev, Igor

    2017-05-01

    We apply the nonequilibrium Green's function method based on density functional theory to investigate the electronic and transport properties of waved zigzag and armchair graphene nanoribbons. Our calculations show that out-of-plane mechanical deformations have a strong influence on the band structures and transport characteristics of graphene nanoribbons. The computed I-V curves demonstrate that the electrical conductance of graphene nanoribbons is significantly affected by deformations. The relationship between the conductance and the compression ratio is found to be sensitive to the type of the nanoribbon. The results of our study indicate the possibility of mechanical control of the electronic and transport properties of graphene nanoribbons.

  6. The imprint of crustal density heterogeneities on regional seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płonka, Agnieszka; Blom, Nienke; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Density heterogeneities are the source of mass transport in the Earth. However, the 3-D density structure remains poorly constrained because travel times of seismic waves are only weakly sensitive to density. Inspired by recent developments in seismic waveform tomography, we investigate whether the visibility of 3-D density heterogeneities may be improved by inverting not only travel times of specific seismic phases but complete seismograms.As a first step in this direction, we perform numerical experiments to estimate the effect of 3-D crustal density heterogeneities on regional seismic wave propagation. While a finite number of numerical experiments may not capture the full range of possible scenarios, our results still indicate that realistic crustal density variations may lead to travel-time shifts of up to ˜ 1 s and amplitude variations of several tens of percent over propagation distances of ˜ 1000 km. Both amplitude and travel-time variations increase with increasing epicentral distance and increasing medium complexity, i.e. decreasing correlation length of the heterogeneities. They are practically negligible when the correlation length of the heterogeneities is much larger than the wavelength. However, when the correlation length approaches the wavelength, density-induced waveform perturbations become prominent. Recent regional-scale full-waveform inversions that resolve structure at the scale of a wavelength already reach this regime.Our numerical experiments suggest that waveform perturbations induced by realistic crustal density variations can be observed in high-quality regional seismic data. While density-induced travel-time differences will often be small, amplitude variations exceeding ±10 % are comparable to those induced by 3-D velocity structure and attenuation. While these results certainly encourage more research on the development of 3-D density tomography, they also suggest that current full-waveform inversions that use amplitude

  7. NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2013-08-10

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

  8. Engineering chiral density waves and topological band structures by multiple-Q superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Ozawa, Ryo; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic orders characterized by multiple ordering vectors harbor noncollinear and noncoplanar spin textures and can be a source of unusual electronic properties through the spin Berry phase mechanism. We theoretically show that such multiple-Q states are stabilized in itinerant magnets in the form of superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down (UUDD) spin states, which accompany the density waves of vector and scalar chirality. The result is drawn by examining the ground state of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized moments, especially when the Fermi surface is tuned to be partially nested by the symmetry-related commensurate vectors. We unveil the instability toward a double-Q UUDD state with vector chirality density waves on the square lattice and a triple-Q UUDD state with scalar chirality density waves on the triangular lattice, using the perturbative theory and variational calculations. The former double-Q state is also confirmed by large-scale Langevin dynamics simulations. We also show that, for a sufficiently large exchange coupling, the chirality density waves can induce rich nontrivial topology of electronic structures, such as the massless Dirac semimetal, Chern insulator with quantized topological Hall response, and peculiar edge states which depend on the phase of chirality density waves at the edges.

  9. From ground-state densities to entangled wave functions: an exploration for the Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The fundamental Hohenberg-Kohn theorem of density-functional theory (DFT) guarantees that, in principle, all information about a many-body system is contained in it ground-state density. Most effort in DFT is thus directed at finding ways to reliably calculate this density and to extract useful information from it. Quantum-information theory (QIT), on the other hand, is little concerned with ground-state densities, focusing instead on wave functions and density matrices, with a view on exploiting entangled states in information processing. In spite of these different philosophies, many connections exist between both approaches. In this talk, I review of how some of these connections have been discovered and quantified in the context of the Hubbard model: (i) DFT calculations for a model Hamiltonian serve to relate the entanglement entropy to phase transitions; (ii) a local-density-type approximation can be used to calculate the entanglement entropy of spatially inhomogeneous systems, such as cold atoms in optical traps and large superlattices, where traditional numerical methods encounter difficulties; (iii) a combination of DFT with Bethe-Ansatz techniques allows one to calculate the values of system-specific parameters in expressions for the block-block entanglement that remain undetermined in scaling approaches; (iv) the construction of suitable metrics shines light on how the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem relates densities and wave functions for different systems.

  10. Excitation, propagation and damping of helicon waves in a high density, low temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caneses, J. F.; Blackwell, B. D.

    2015-11-01

    The MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE) is a helicon linear plasma device built to study fusion relevant plasma-surface interactions. In this work, we investigate helicon wave propagation in high density (1018-1019 m-3) low temperature (2-4 eV) magnetized (50-200 G) hydrogen plasma produced by a half-helical antenna operated at 7 MHz and 20 kW. Using the cold dielectric tensor with collisional terms (electron-neutral and Coulomb), helicon wave damping is calculated along the length of MAGPIE using a WKB approximation. Comparison with experiment indicates that wave damping, under these conditions, is entirely collisional. Numerical results from a fully electromagnetic wave code and 2D wavefield measurements indicate that helicon waves are excited at the plasma edge by the antenna's transverse current straps while the helical straps play a secondary role. These waves propagate towards the center of the discharge along the whistler wave ray direction (19 degrees to the background magnetic field), interfere on-axis and form the axial interference pattern commonly observed in helicon devices.

  11. Non-linear Inversion of Probability Density Functions of Surface Wave Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucler, E.; Drilleau, M.; Gaudot, I.; Mocquet, A.; Bodin, T.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2016-12-01

    A commonly used approach for inferring 3D shear wave velocity structure from surface wave measurements relies on regionalization of group (or phase) velocity curves at different frequencies as an intermediate step before inversion at depth for each grid point. This choice relies on tracking the maximum energy in the dispersion diagram in order to get a unique dispersion curve and the estimate of associated measurement uncertainties usually depends on ad hoc user's criteria. We present an alternative by directly inverting the waveform, once it is converted into probability density functions of dispersion, in order to obtain a posterior probability of 1D shear wave structure integrated along the ray path. For each 1D S-wave velocity trial model, the corresponding group velocity curve is compared to the dispersion diagram. The goodness of fit is then directly measured by the likelihood. Different type of parameterizations for the S-wave velocity structure can be chosen, we use here Bézier curves in order to ensure smooth variations and a fast forward problem. For each depth of the 1D shear wave posterior probabilities, path averaged velocities can be regionalized using classical least-squares criterion. We show inversion results of cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise in a regional context and at global scale of multiple orbit surface wave trains. This latter approach can be used for planetary purposes in the event of deployment of one seismic station on another planet such as the InSight mission.

  12. Reentrant superfluidity and pair density wave in single-component dipolar Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yanming; Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin

    2016-06-01

    We study the superfluidity of single-component dipolar Fermi gases in three dimensions using a pairing fluctuation theory, within the context of BCS-BEC crossover. The transition temperature Tc for the dominant pz wave superfluidity exhibits a remarkable reentrant behavior as a function of the pairing strength induced by the dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), which leads to an anisotropic pair dispersion. The anisotropy and the long-range nature of the DDI cause Tc to vanish for a narrow range of intermediate interaction strengths, where a pair density wave emerges as the ground state. The superfluid density and thermodynamics below Tc, along with the density profiles in a harmonic trap, are investigated as well. Implications for experiments are discussed.

  13. Density-wave-modulated crystallization in nanoscale silicon films and droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yongjun; Bi, Qingling; Yan, Xinqing

    2016-06-01

    Free surfaces have been known to significantly influence the crystallization of tetrahedral liquids. However, a comprehensive understanding of the influence mechanism is still lacking at present. By employing molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the nucleation probability in nanoscale silicon films and droplets exhibits a ripple-like distribution spatially. This phenomenon is closely related to the structural order wave, which is induced by the density fluctuations arisen from the volume expansion in a confinement environment defined by free surfaces. By the aid of the intrinsic relation between the tetrahedral order and the density, the analytic results based on the density wave equation well account for the nucleation probability distributions in both films and droplets. Our findings reveal the underlying mechanism of the surface-assisted nucleation in tetrahedral liquids and provide an overall description of crystallization in liquid films and droplets.

  14. Luther-Emery Phase and Atomic-Density Waves in a Trapped Fermion Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xianlong; Rizzi, M.; Polini, Marco; Tosi, M. P.; Fazio, Rosario; Campo, V. L. Jr.; Capelle, K.

    2007-01-19

    The Luther-Emery liquid is a state of matter that is predicted to occur in one-dimensional systems of interacting fermions and is characterized by a gapless charge spectrum and a gapped spin spectrum. In this Letter we discuss a realization of the Luther-Emery phase in a trapped cold-atom gas. We study by means of the density-matrix renormalization-group technique a two-component atomic Fermi gas with attractive interactions subject to parabolic trapping inside an optical lattice. We demonstrate how this system exhibits compound phases characterized by the coexistence of spin pairing and atomic-density waves. A smooth crossover occurs with increasing magnitude of the atom-atom attraction to a state in which tightly bound spin-singlet dimers occupy the center of the trap. The existence of atomic-density waves could be detected in the elastic contribution to the light-scattering diffraction pattern.

  15. Luther-Emery Phase and Atomic-Density Waves in a Trapped Fermion Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianlong, Gao; Rizzi, M.; Polini, Marco; Fazio, Rosario; Tosi, M. P.; Campo, V. L., Jr.; Capelle, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Luther-Emery liquid is a state of matter that is predicted to occur in one-dimensional systems of interacting fermions and is characterized by a gapless charge spectrum and a gapped spin spectrum. In this Letter we discuss a realization of the Luther-Emery phase in a trapped cold-atom gas. We study by means of the density-matrix renormalization-group technique a two-component atomic Fermi gas with attractive interactions subject to parabolic trapping inside an optical lattice. We demonstrate how this system exhibits compound phases characterized by the coexistence of spin pairing and atomic-density waves. A smooth crossover occurs with increasing magnitude of the atom-atom attraction to a state in which tightly bound spin-singlet dimers occupy the center of the trap. The existence of atomic-density waves could be detected in the elastic contribution to the light-scattering diffraction pattern.

  16. The impact of density waves on the distribution of supernovae in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetyan, A. G.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Barkhudaryan, L. V.; Mamon, G. A.; Kunth, D.; Adibekyan, V.; Aramyan, L. S.; Turatto, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of density waves on the radial distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) in the stellar discs of host galaxies with various morphologies based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the radial distributions of Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNe in grand-design (GD) spiral galaxies strongly deviate from one another. There is no statistically significant differences between the radial distributions of both the types of SNe in all morphological subsamples of non-GD host galaxies. The radial distribution of CC SNe, in contrast to Type Ia SNe, is inconsistent with the exponential surface density profile in different morphological bins of GD hosts. These results can be explained by the additional massive star formation, which occurs directly at the inner and outer sides from the corotation region and appears to be caused by density waves.

  17. On wave and rheidity properties of the Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulin, A. V.; Makhmudov, Kh. F.; Ivanchin, A. G.; Gerus, A. I.; Dolgaya, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The properties of the Earth's solid crust have been studied on the assumption that this crust has a block structure. According to the rotation model, the motion of such a medium (geomedium) follows the angular momentum conservation law and can be described in the scope of the classical elasticity theory with a symmetric stress tensor. A geomedium motion is characterized by two types of rotation waves with shortand long-range actions. The first type includes slow solitons with velocities of 0 ≤ V sol ≤ c0, max = 1-10 cm s-1; the second type, fast excitons with V 0 ≤ V ex ≤ V S- V P. The exciton minimal velocity ( V 0 = 0) depends on the energy of the collective excitation of all seismically active belt blocks proportional to the Earth's pole vibration frequency (the Chandler vibration frequency). The exciton maximal velocity depends on the velocities of S ( V S ≈ 4 km s-1) and/or P ( V P ≈ 8 km s-1) seismic (acoustic) waves. According to the rotation model, a geomedium is characterized by the property physically close to the corpuscular-wave interaction between blocks that compose this medium. The possible collective wave motion of geomedium blocks can be responsible for the geomedium rheidity property, i.e., a superplastic volume flow. A superplastic motion of a quantum fluid can be the physical analog of the geomedium rheid motion.

  18. Field experiments to determine wave propagation principles and mechanical properties of snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simioni, Stephan; Gebhard, Felix; Dual, Jürg; Schweizer, Jürg

    2017-04-01

    To understand the release of snow avalanches by explosions one needs to know how acoustic waves travel above and within the snowpack. Hitherto, wave propagation was investigated in the laboratory with small samples or in the field in the shock wave region. We developed a measurement system and layout to derive wave attenuation in snow, wave speeds and elastic moduli on small-scale (1-2 m) field experiments to close the gap between the lab scale (0.1 m) and the scale of artificial release (10-100 m). We used solid explosives and hammer blows to create the load and accelerometers to measure the resulting wave within the snowpack. The strong attenuation we observed indicates that we measured the second longitudinal wave which propagates through the pore space. The wave speeds, however, corresponded to the speeds of the first longitudinal wave within the ice skeleton. The elastic moduli were high on the order of several tens of MPa for lower densities (150 kg m-3) and agreed well with earlier lab studies, in particular for the higher densities 250-400 kg m-3). However, the scatter was rather large as expected for in-situ experiments in the layered snow cover. In addition, we measured accelerations during propagation saw test experiments. The propagation of cracks during this type of snow instability test has mainly been studied by analysing the bending of the slab (due to the saw cut) using particle tracking velocimetry. We used the accelerometers to measure crack propagation speeds. The wave speeds were slightly higher for most experiments than reported previously. Furthermore, in some experiments, we encountered to different wave types with one propagating at a higher speed. This finding may be interpreted as the actual crack propagation and the settling of the weak layer (collapse wave). Our results show that field measurements of propagation properties are feasible and that crack propagation as observed during propagation saw tests may involve different processes

  19. Determining Electron Density, Pressure, and Temperature in Jupiter's Plasma Sheet Using the Galileo Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansher, J. A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2001-05-01

    The plasma wave instrument on board the Galileo spacecraft can be used to determine electron density in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Ordinary mode radio waves are often detected in the form of non-thermal continuum radiation trapped in the magnetosphere at frequencies above the electron plasma frequency. By identifying the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation as the plasma frequency, an upper limit to the local electron density can be calculated. This technique has been used with the Galileo plasma wave data to provide an electron density data set with approximately 37-second time resolution. Continuum radiation is detected by the plasma wave instrument in much of Galileo's primary mission and electron density can be calculated at all System-III longitudes and radial distances beyond about 20-25 RJ. The density data set created using this technique is used here in conjunction with data from the Galileo magnetometer instrument and with Khurana's 1998 mathematical model of Jupiter's plasma sheet to study pressure balance in the plasma sheet. As Jupiter rotates, the spacecraft encounters the plasma sheet and crosses the entire sheet from north to south, or south to north, in under five hours. Assuming there are no time dependent variations in the plasma sheet on this time scale, and negligible curvature to the magnetic field lines in this region, the sum of magnetic pressure and particle pressure across the plasma sheet should stay constant. Using electron density and magnetic field data, and varying the temperature parameter, best fits for the total constant pressure and the corresponding temperature can be determined. These values can be determined throughout Jupiter's magnetosphere yielding pressure and temperature profiles of Jupiter's plasma sheet between about 20 and 140 RJ. Typical temperatures determined using this technique are about 108 K, corresponding to energies of about 10 keV. The total pressure decreases with radial distance from Jupiter as a power

  20. Shock waves in a Z-pinch and the formation of high energy density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Ney, P.; Presura, R.; Ellahi, Rahmat; Shukla, P. K.

    2012-12-15

    A Z-pinch liner, imploding onto a target plasma, evolves in a step-wise manner, producing a stable, magneto-inertial, high-energy-density plasma compression. The typical configuration is a cylindrical, high-atomic-number liner imploding onto a low-atomic-number target. The parameters for a terawatt-class machine (e.g., Zebra at the University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Terawatt Facility) have been simulated. The 2-1/2 D MHD code, MACH2, was used to study this configuration. The requirements are for an initial radius of a few mm for stable implosion; the material densities properly distributed, so that the target is effectively heated initially by shock heating and finally by adiabatic compression; and the liner's thickness adjusted to promote radial current transport and subsequent current amplification in the target. Since the shock velocity is smaller in the liner, than in the target, a stable-shock forms at the interface, allowing the central load to accelerate magnetically and inertially, producing a magneto-inertial implosion and high-energy density plasma. Comparing the implosion dynamics of a low-Z target with those of a high-Z target demonstrates the role of shock waves in terms of compression and heating. In the case of a high-Z target, the shock wave does not play a significant heating role. The shock waves carry current and transport the magnetic field, producing a high density on-axis, at relatively low temperature. Whereas, in the case of a low-Z target, the fast moving shock wave preheats the target during the initial implosion phase, and the later adiabatic compression further heats the target to very high energy density. As a result, the compression ratio required for heating the low-Z plasma to very high energy densities is greatly reduced.

  1. Quasiparticle current along the c axis in junctions involving d -wave superconductors partially gapped by charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Li, Mai Suan; Szymczak, Henryk; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2015-08-01

    Quasiparticle tunnel current either between identical d -wave superconductors partially gapped by charge density waves (SCDWs) or between an SCDW and a normal metal was calculated. The cases of unidirectional and checkerboard CDWs were considered. The tunnel conductance was found in both cases to possess a number of peculiarities, which cannot be described by introducing a single combined gap. The results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data obtained for a number of cuprates by the scanning tunnel spectroscopy, intrinsic-tunneling, and break-junction measurements. The difference between the experiment and the theory seems to stem from the spread of gap values occurring due to the intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity of nonstoichiometric oxides and reflected in the cuprate tunnel spectra.

  2. d-wave pairing in the doped static charge-density-wave state on a two-dimensional square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozawa, Mikio; Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki; Oguchi, Akihide; Mizuno, Yukio

    2000-10-01

    The extended Hubbard model with nearest-neighbor (NN) Coulomb repulsion is used to study superconductivity in a static charge-density-wave (CDW) state. It is found that the doped carriers form a large Fermi surface and are condensed into the dxy-wave superconducting state from the 2×2 CDW state stabilized by the NN Coulomb repulsion. The superconductivity coexisting with a CDW order observed in YBa2Cu3O7-δ [S. Krämer and M. Mehring, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 396 (1999)] together with the superconductivity of Pr2-xCexCuO4-y [M. Brinkmann, H. Bach, and K. Westerholt, Physica C 292, 104 (1997)] may be important examples of this pairing mechanism.

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  5. Observations and modeling of EMIC wave properties in the presence of multiple ion species as function of magnetic local time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Justin H.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generation and propagation in Earth's magnetosphere depend on readily measurable hot (a few to tens of keV) plasma sheet ions, elusive plasmaspheric or ionospheric cold (sub-eV to a few eV) ions, and partially heated warm ions (tens to hundreds of eV). Previous work has assumed all low-energy ions are cold and not considered possible effects of warm ions. Using measurements by multiple Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft, we analyze four typical EMIC wave events in the four magnetic local time sectors and consider the properties of both cold and warm ions supplied from previous statistical studies to interpret the wave observations using linear theory. As expected, we find that dusk EMIC waves grow due to the presence of drifting hot anisotropic protons and cold plasmaspheric ions with a dominant cold proton component. Near midnight, EMIC waves are less common because warm heavy ions that suppress wave growth are more abundant there. The waves can grow when cold, plume-like density enhancements are present, however. Dawn EMIC waves, known for their peculiar properties, are generated away from the equator and change polarization during propagation through the warm plasma cloak. Noon EMIC waves can also be generated nonlocally and their properties modified during propagation by a plasmaspheric plume combined with low-energy ions from solar and terrestrial sources. Accounting for multiple ion species, measured wave dispersion, and propagation characteristics can explain previously elusive EMIC wave properties and are therefore important for future studies of EMIC wave effects on energetic particle depletion.

  6. Temporal evolution of lower hybrid waves in the presence of ponderomotive density fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Karney, C.F.F.

    1980-06-01

    The propagation of lower hybrid waves in the presence of ponderomotive density density fluctuations is considered. The problem is treated in two dimensions and, in order to be able to correctly impose the boundary conditions, the waves are allowed to evolve in time. The fields are described by i upsilon/sub tau/ - ..integral.. upsilon/sub xi/d/sub zeta/ + upsilon/sub zeta zeta/ + upsilon//sup 2/ upsilon = 0 where upsilon is proportional to the electric field, tau to time, and zeta and xi measure distances across and along the lower hybrid ray. The behavior of the waves is investigated numerically. If the amplitude of the waves is large enough, the spectrum of the waves broadens and their parallel wavelength becomes shorter. The assumptions made in the formulation preclude the application of these results to the lower hybrid heating experiment on Alcator-A. Nevertheless, there are indications that the physics embodied in this problem are responsible for some of the results of that experiment.

  7. Correlation of materials properties with the atomic density concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the number of atoms per unit volume, accurately calculable for any substance of known real density and chemical composition, various characterizing parameters (energy levels of electrons interacting among atoms of the same or different kinds, atomic mass, bond intensity) were chosen for study. A multiple exponential equation was derived to express the relationship. Various properties were examined, and correlated with the various parameters. Some of the properties considered were: (1) heat of atomization, (2) boiling point, (3) melting point, (4) shear elastic modulus of cubic crystals, (5) thermal conductivity, and (6) refractive index for transparent substances. The solid elements and alkali halides were the materials studied. It is concluded that the number of different properties can quantitively be described by a common group of parameters for the solid elements, and a wide variety of compounds.

  8. Reverse propagation and negative angular momentum density flux of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial fractional Bessel vortex beam of progressive waves.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2016-09-01

    Energy and angular momentum flux density characteristics of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial vector Bessel vortex beam of fractional order are examined based on the dual-field method for the generation of symmetric electric and magnetic fields. Should some conditions determined by the polarization state, the half-cone angle as well as the beam-order (or topological charge) be met, the axial energy and angular momentum flux densities vanish (representing Poynting singularities), before they become negative. These negative counterintuitive properties suggest retrograde (negative) propagation as well as a rotation reversal of the angular momentum with respect to the beam handedness. These characteristics of nondiffracting nonparaxial Bessel fractional vortex beams of progressive waves open new capabilities in optical tractor beam tweezers, optical spanners, invisibility cloaks, optically engineered metamaterials, and other applications.

  9. Density wave formation in differentially rotating disk galaxies: Hydrodynamic simulation of the linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu

    2014-07-01

    Most rapidly and differentially rotating disk galaxies, in which the sound speed (thermal velocity dispersion) is smaller than the orbital velocity, display graceful spiral patterns. Yet, over almost 240 yr after their discovery in M51 by Charles Messier, we still do not fully understand how they originate. In this first paper of a series, the dynamical behavior of a rotating galactic disk is examined numerically by a high-order Godunov hydrodynamic code. The code is implemented to simulate a two-dimensional flow driven by an internal Jeans gravitational instability in a nonresonant wave-“fluid” interaction in an infinitesimally thin disk composed of stars or gas clouds. A goal of this work is to explore the local and linear regimes of density wave formation, employed by Lin, Shu, Yuan and many others in connection with the problem of spiral pattern of rotationally supported galaxies, by means of computer-generated models and to compare those numerical results with the generalized fluid-dynamical wave theory. The focus is on a statistical analysis of time-evolution of density wave structures seen in the simulations. The leading role of collective processes in the formation of both the circular and spiral density waves (“heavy sound”) is emphasized. The main new result is that the disk evolution in the initial, quasilinear stage of the instability in our global simulations is fairly well described using the local approximation of the generalized wave theory. Certain applications of the simulation to actual gas-rich spiral galaxies are also explored.

  10. Electronic correlation effects and orbital density wave in the layered compound 1 T -TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiang-Long; Liu, Da-Yong; Quan, Ya-Min; Wu, Jiansheng; Lin, Hai-Qing; Chang, Kai; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the electronic structures and orbital-resolved electronic properties of structurally distorted 1 T -TaS2 bulk and monolayer within density functional theory approaches. The relaxed commensurate-charge-density-wave (CCDW) structure shows that 13 Ta atoms condense into a star-of-David cluster, accompanied by a buckling of neighboring S planes. Through detailed analyses to the orbital characters near the Fermi level, we show that there exists an orbital-density-wave (ODW) order, which is predominantly contributed by Ta-5 d3 z2-r2 orbital in the central Ta of the star-of-David cluster. We further demonstrate that the structural distortion, together with the Coulomb interaction, stabilizes the CCDW insulating ground state with an ODW order. The results obtained from dynamical mean-field theory confirm the role of the electronic correlation. Moreover, such an ODW ground state favors an intralayer ferromagnetic order in bulk and monolayer 1 T -TaS2 , and an interlayer antiferromagnetic order in bulk. We propose that 1 T -TaS2 monolayer may pave new ways to study exciton physics, flat-band physics, and potential applications in luminescence.

  11. Surface acoustic wave properties of freestanding diamond films.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Colm M; Whitfield, Michael D; Jackman, Richard B

    2004-03-01

    "Ideal" diamond has the highest acoustic velocity of any material known, and is of great interest as a substrate material for high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures. However, little is known of the acoustic wave propagation properties of polycrystalline diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques, the commercially accessible form of this material. We report on propagation of laser-generated SAW on three forms of freestanding CVD diamond samples, "white" polycrystalline, "black" polycrystalline, and "highly oriented" diamond. Despite differing sample nature, SAW waves propagating along the smooth (nucleation) side of the diamond showed similar velocities in the range 10600-11900 ms(-1). These results are discussed in terms of the potential of each form of CVD diamond for SAW device fabrication.

  12. Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.

  13. Surface properties of solids and surface acoustic waves: Application to chemical sensors and layer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.

  14. Stationary Josephson current as a tool to detect charge density waves in high-Tc oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Voitenko, Alexander I.; Li, Mai Suan; Szymczak, Henryk

    2015-09-01

    Nonmonotonic and even sign-changing dependences on the temperature and the doping level were predicted for the stationary Josephson tunnel current Ic between superconductors with d-wave order parameter symmetry and partial gapping by charge density waves (CDWs). The junction electrodes were considered in the framework of the two-dimensional electron spectrum appropriate to high-Tc cuprates. The non-trivial behavior can be observed for certain relative electrode orientations. Hence, Ic -measurements in wide ranges of doping and temperature may serve as an indicator of CDW existence.

  15. Electronically swept millimeter-wave interferometer for spatially resolved measurement of plasma electron density.

    PubMed

    Howard, John; Oliver, David

    2006-12-01

    We report the development and initial implementation of what we believe to be a new rapid- spatial-scan millimeter-wave interferometer for plasma density measurements. The fast scan is effected by electronic frequency sweeping of a wideband (180-280 GHz) backward-wave oscillator whose output is focused onto a fixed blazed diffraction grating. The system, which augments the rotating-grating scanned multiview H-1 heliac interferometer, can sweep the plasma cross section in a period of less than 1 ms with a beam diameter in the plasma of 20 mm and phase noise of the order of 0.01 rad.

  16. Cluster agglomeration induced by dust-density waves in complex plasmas.

    PubMed

    Dap, Simon; Lacroix, David; Hugon, Robert; de Poucques, Ludovic; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal

    2012-12-14

    Experimental results showing the agglomeration of large carbonaceous particles in a dusty plasma are reported. Experiments were performed in a capacitively coupled rf argon plasma. Acetylene was injected to produce dust particles. When a sufficient amount of nanoparticles is present in the cathodic sheath, self-excited dust-density waves occur. The latter ones induce the motion of larger clusters, which vertically oscillate with the displacement of wave fronts. In some cases, the relative velocity of large particles was high enough to overcome the Coulomb repulsion forces, and agglomeration can be observed. The mechanisms underlying this process are discussed.

  17. Drift-Alfven wave mediated particle transport in an elongated density depression

    SciTech Connect

    Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2006-06-15

    Cross-field particle transport due to drift-Alfven waves is measured in an elongated density depression within an otherwise uniform, magnetized helium plasma column. The depression is formed by drawing an electron current to a biased copper plate with cross-field dimensions of 28x0.24 ion sound-gyroradii {rho}{sub s}=c{sub s}/{omega}{sub ci}. The process of density depletion and replenishment via particle flux repeats in a quasiperiodic fashion for the duration of the current collection. The mode structure of the wave density fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field is revealed using a two-probe correlation technique. The particle flux as a function of frequency is measured using a linear array of Langmuir probes and the only significant transport occurs for waves with frequencies between 15%-25% of the ion cyclotron frequency (measured in the laboratory frame) and with perpendicular wavelengths k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub s}{approx}0.7. The frequency-integrated particle flux is in rough agreement with observed increases in density in the center of the depletion as a function of time. The experiments are carried out in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the Basic Plasma Science Facility located at the University of California, Los Angeles.

  18. Local spin-density-wave order inside vortex cores in multiband superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Mishra, Vivek; Koshelev, Alexei E.

    2015-08-13

    Coexistence of antiferromagnetic order with superconductivity in many families of newly discovered iron-based superconductors has renewed interest to this old problem. Due to competition between the two types of order, one can expect appearance of the antiferromagnetism inside the cores of the vortices generated by the external magnetic field. The structure of a vortex in type II superconductors holds significant importance from the theoretical and the application points of view. In this paper, we consider the internal vortex structure in a two-band s± superconductor near a spin-density-wave instability. We treat the problem in a completely self-consistent manner within the quasiclassicalmore » Eilenberger formalism. We study the structure of the s± superconducting order and magnetic field-induced spin-density-wave order near an isolated vortex. Finally, we examine the effect of this spin-density-wave state inside the vortex cores on the local density of states.« less

  19. Fine-scale density wave structure of Saturn's A and B rings: Theory and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny

    We examine the linear stability of the Saturnian ring disk of mutually gravitating and physically colliding particles with special emphasis on its fine-scale of the order of 100 m density wave structure, that is, almost regularly spaced, aligned cylindric density enhancements and optically-thin zones with the width and the spacing between them of roughly several tens particle diameters. We analyze the Jeans’ instabilities of gravity perturbations (e.g. those produced by a spontaneous disturbance) analytically by using the Navier-Stokes dynamical equations of a compressible fluid. For the first time in planetary ring dynamics, the theory is not restricted by any assumptions about the thickness of the system. We consider a simple model of the system consisting of a three-dimensional ring disk that is weakly inhomogeneous and whose structure is analyzed by making a horizontally local short-wave approximation. We demonstrate that the disk is Jeans-unstable and that gravity perturbations grow effectively within a few orbital periods. We find that self-gravitation plays a key role in the formation of the fine structure. The predictions of the theory are compared with observations of Saturn’s rings by the Cassini spacecraft and are found to be in good agreement. In particular, it appears very likely that some of the quasi-periodic microstructures observed in Saturn’s A and B rings - both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric ones - are manifestations of these effects. Thus, one can attribute the fine-scale structure observed in Saturn’s A and B rings in Cassini data to the development of free Lin-Shu type compression waves, or density waves -- normal modes -- developing in the plane of the system. From the well-developed theory of galactic spiral density waves, a free density wave is known to rotate in a rigid-body manner and to not be affected by differential rotation of the ring disk. We argue that the quasi-periodic density enhancements revealed in Cassini data are

  20. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties of Amorphous Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7–50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was −25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at −10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. PMID:25007783

  1. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties of Amorphous Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-07-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7-50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was -25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at -10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2-18 GHz.

  2. Millimeter-wave dielectric properties of infrared window materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    The millimeter-wave dielectric properties of a series of IR window materials were determined over the temperature range 23-1000 C. Materials studied included Al2O3, ZnS, ZnSe, aluminum oxynitride (ALON), and magnesium-spinel (MgAl2O4). These materials all exhibited fairly high millimeter-wave dielectric constants, but with essentially negligible room-temperature losses for most applications. However, both the dielectric constant and loss tangent increase significantly with increasing temperatures. The increases in dielectric constant with temperature can be analyzed in terms of a macroscopic dielectric virial expansion model, and are primarily due to the effective increase in volume for each polarizable unit of the material. Consequently, a strategy to overcome this degradation would be to search for new materials or composite structures with low thermal expansion coefficients. The observed millimeter-wave loss properties are characteristic of contributions from intergranular impurities and show an onset of increased absorption at about 500. However, even at 1000 C, typical loss tangents are still below 0.05, and should be acceptable in most millimeter-wave window applications for reasonable thicknesses.

  3. Electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of amorphous carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-07-10

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7-50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was -25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at -10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2-18 GHz.

  4. Information properties of a hologram of mutually conjugate waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rubanov, A.S.; Serebryakova, L.M.

    1995-12-01

    A theoretical study of information properties of a correlation response to a fragment of an image of a thin referenceless hologram of mutually conjugate waves that is recorded with a phase-conjugating (PC) mirror is reported. It is shown that this hologram reconstructs a full image in reflected light and can be used as an associative storage device and as a selective PC mirror. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Properties of Baryons from Bonn-Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantsev, Andrey

    The recent results from the Bonn-Gatchinal partial wave analysis are reported. The analysis includes a large number of new pseudoscalar meson photoproduction data taken with polarized beam and target. The analysis also includes the information about photoproduction of vector mesons, which reveals resonant signals at masses above 2 GeV. The impact of the new data on spectrum of baryons and their properties is discussed.

  6. The hydrodynamic and radiative properties of low-density foams heated by x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmej, O. N.; Suslov, N.; Martsovenko, D.; Vergunova, G.; Borisenko, N.; Orlov, N.; Rienecker, T.; Klir, D.; Rezack, K.; Orekhov, A.; Borisenko, L.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Dudzak, R.; Maeder, R.; Schaechinger, M.; Schoenlein, A.; Zaehter, S.; Jacoby, J.; Limpouch, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Zhidkov, N.

    2015-09-01

    An advanced type of hydrodynamic stable plasma targets with homogeneous distribution of plasma parameters has been proposed for application in experiments on heavy ion stopping in plasmas and relativistic laser based particle acceleration. Plasma was created via x-ray heating of polymer aerogels with a mean density 103 times lower than that of solid matter. Hydrodynamic and radiation properties of low-density polymer aerogels heated by x-rays, which were generated due to laser interaction with a gold hohlraum, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. In experiments carried out at the PALS laser facility in Prague, the parameters of the hohlraum based soft x-ray source and the fraction of x-ray energy absorbed by foam layers have been measured. The results of these experiments and numerical simulations show that the x-ray heat process occurs via propagation of supersonic radiation driven heat waves. The measured heat wave velocity of 107 cm s-1 allows one to estimate the plasma temperature reached as 25 eV. The hydrodynamic stability of x-ray heated plasma layers has been demonstrated by means of an optical streak camera viewing the plasma expansion process. Simulations of the foam heating process denote rather homogeneous distribution of the plasma temperature and density in the x-ray heated plasma layer and sharp plasma boundaries. The investigated features of such plasma targets are a great advantage for experiments with heavy ion and relativistic laser beams.

  7. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  8. Annular wave packets at Dirac points in graphene and their probability-density oscillation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ji; Valencia, Daniel; Lu, Junqiang

    2011-12-14

    Wave packets in graphene whose central wave vector is at Dirac points are investigated by numerical calculations. Starting from an initial Gaussian function, these wave packets form into annular peaks that propagate to all directions like ripple-rings on water surface. At the beginning, electronic probability alternates between the central peak and the ripple-rings and transient oscillation occurs at the center. As time increases, the ripple-rings propagate at the fixed Fermi speed, and their widths remain unchanged. The axial symmetry of the energy dispersion leads to the circular symmetry of the wave packets. The fixed speed and widths, however, are attributed to the linearity of the energy dispersion. Interference between states that, respectively, belong to two branches of the energy dispersion leads to multiple ripple-rings and the probability-density oscillation. In a magnetic field, annular wave packets become confined and no longer propagate to infinity. If the initial Gaussian width differs greatly from the magnetic length, expanding and shrinking ripple-rings form and disappear alternatively in a limited spread, and the wave packet resumes the Gaussian form frequently. The probability thus oscillates persistently between the central peak and the ripple-rings. If the initial Gaussian width is close to the magnetic length, the wave packet retains the Gaussian form and its height and width oscillate with a period determined by the first Landau energy. The wave-packet evolution is determined jointly by the initial state and the magnetic field, through the electronic structure of graphene in a magnetic field. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Anomalous wave propagation in a one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial having simultaneously negative mass density and Young's modulus.

    PubMed

    Huang, H H; Sun, C T

    2012-10-01

    A mechanical model representing an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits simultaneously negative mass density and negative Young's modulus was proposed. Wave propagation was studied in the frequency range of double negativity. In view of positive energy flow, it was found that the phase velocity in this range is negative. This phenomenon was also observed using transient wave propagation finite-element analyses of a transient sinusoidal wave and a transient wave packet. In contrast to wave propagation in the region of positive mass and modulus, the peculiar backward wave motion in the region of double negativity was clearly displayed.

  10. Density dependence of the /s-wave repulsion in pionic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2002-11-01

    Several mechanisms of density dependence of the s-wave repulsion in pionic atoms, beyond the conventional model, are tested by parameter fits to a large (106 points) set of data from 16O to 238U, including 'deeply bound' states in 205Pb. Special attention is paid to the proper choice of nuclear density distributions. A density-dependent isovector scattering amplitude suggested recently by Weise to result from a density dependence of the pion decay constant is introduced and found to account for most of the so-called anomalous repulsion. The presence of such an effect might indicate partial chiral symmetry restoration in dense matter. The anomalous repulsion is fully accounted for when an additional relativistic impulse approximation term is included in the potential.

  11. Density changes accompanying wave propagation in the cerium-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Motohiro; Hatanaka, Koji; Hobley, Jonathan; Fukumura, Hiroshi; Sevcíkova, Hana

    2005-02-24

    Refractive index measurement using an interferometric imaging system and observation of chemical wave shapes were carried out during chemical wave propagation of a cerium-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Densities increased as chemical waves propagated in samples without NaBr, and decreased in samples with NaBr. Concentration changes of malonic acid, bromomalonic acid, and BrO3- were estimated from Raman spectral measurements in a stirred batch BZ reaction, and these also exhibited differences between samples with and without NaBr. It is proposed that a reaction subset yielding low molecular weight carboxylic acids is predominant in samples with NaBr, whereas a pathway leading to dibromoacetic acid or tribromoacetic acid production is the major process in samples without NaBr.

  12. Field-induced spin-density wave beyond hidden order in URu2Si2.

    PubMed

    Knafo, W; Duc, F; Bourdarot, F; Kuwahara, K; Nojiri, H; Aoki, D; Billette, J; Frings, P; Tonon, X; Lelièvre-Berna, E; Flouquet, J; Regnault, L-P

    2016-10-20

    URu2Si2 is one of the most enigmatic strongly correlated electron systems and offers a fertile testing ground for new concepts in condensed matter science. In spite of >30 years of intense research, no consensus on the order parameter of its low-temperature hidden-order phase exists. A strong magnetic field transforms the hidden order into magnetically ordered phases, whose order parameter has also been defying experimental observation. Here, thanks to neutron diffraction under pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T, we identify the field-induced phases of URu2Si2 as a spin-density-wave state. The transition to the spin-density wave represents a unique touchstone for understanding the hidden-order phase. An intimate relationship between this magnetic structure, the magnetic fluctuations and the Fermi surface is emphasized, calling for dedicated band-structure calculations.

  13. Anharmonic suppression of charge density waves in 2H-NbS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, M.; Le Tacon, M.; Calandra, M.; Cario, L.; Méasson, M.-A.; Diener, P.; Borrissenko, E.; Bosak, A.; Rodière, P.

    2012-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the phonon spectrum in the superconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide 2H-NbS2 is measured by diffuse and inelastic x-ray scattering. A deep, wide, and strongly temperature-dependent softening of the two lowest-energy longitudinal phonon bands appears along the ΓM symmetry line in reciprocal space. In sharp contrast to the isoelectronic compound 2H-NbSe2, the soft phonons energies are finite, even at very low temperature, and no charge density wave instability occurs, in disagreement with harmonic ab initio calculations. We show that 2H-NbS2 is at the verge of the charge density wave transition and its occurrence is only suppressed by the large anharmonic effects. Moreover, the anharmonicity and the electron phonon coupling both show a strong in-plane anisotropy.

  14. Spiral Density Wave Triggering of Star Formation in SA and SAB Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Bruzual-A, Gustavo

    2009-03-01

    Azimuthal color (age) gradients across spiral arms are one of the main predictions of density wave theory; gradients are the result of star formation triggered by the spiral waves. In a sample of 13 spiral galaxies of types A and AB, we find that ten of them present regions that match the theoretical predictions. By comparing the observed gradients with stellar population synthesis models, the pattern speed and the location of major resonances have been determined. The resonance positions inferred from this analysis indicate that nine of the objects have spiral arms that extend to the outer Lindblad resonance; for one of the galaxies, the spiral arms reach the corotation radius. The effects of dust, and of stellar densities, velocities, and metallicities on the color gradients are also discussed.

  15. The "JK-only" approximation in density matrix functional and wave function theory.

    PubMed

    Kollmar, Christian

    2004-12-15

    Various energy functionals applying the "JK-only" approximation which leads to two-index two-electron integrals instead of four-index two-electron integrals in the electron-electron interaction term of the electronic energy are presented. Numerical results of multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations for the best possible "JK-only" wave function are compared to those obtained from the pair excitation multiconfiguration self-consistent (PEMCSCF) method and two versions of density matrix functional theory. One of these is derived making explicit use of some necessary conditions for N representability of the second-order density matrix. It is shown that this method models the energy functional based on the best possible "JK-only" wave function with good accuracy. The calculations also indicate that only a minor fraction of the total correlation energy is incorporated by "JK-only" approaches for larger molecules.

  16. Charge density waves in the graphene sheets of the superconductor CaC(6).

    PubMed

    Rahnejat, K C; Howard, C A; Shuttleworth, N E; Schofield, S R; Iwaya, K; Hirjibehedin, C F; Renner, Ch; Aeppli, G; Ellerby, M

    2011-11-29

    Graphitic systems have an electronic structure that can be readily manipulated through electrostatic or chemical doping, resulting in a rich variety of electronic ground states. Here we report the first observation and characterization of electronic stripes in the highly electron-doped graphitic superconductor, CaC(6), by scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The stripes correspond to a charge density wave with a period three times that of the Ca superlattice. Although the positions of the Ca intercalants are modulated, no displacements of the carbon lattice are detected, indicating that the graphene sheets host the ideal charge density wave. This provides an exceptionally simple material-graphene-as a starting point for understanding the relation between stripes and superconductivity. Furthermore, our experiments suggest a strategy to search for superconductivity in graphene, namely in the vicinity of striped 'Wigner crystal' phases, where some of the electrons crystallize to form a superlattice.

  17. Field-induced spin-density wave beyond hidden order in URu2Si2

    PubMed Central

    Knafo, W.; Duc, F.; Bourdarot, F.; Kuwahara, K.; Nojiri, H.; Aoki, D.; Billette, J.; Frings, P.; Tonon, X.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Flouquet, J.; Regnault, L.-P.

    2016-01-01

    URu2Si2 is one of the most enigmatic strongly correlated electron systems and offers a fertile testing ground for new concepts in condensed matter science. In spite of >30 years of intense research, no consensus on the order parameter of its low-temperature hidden-order phase exists. A strong magnetic field transforms the hidden order into magnetically ordered phases, whose order parameter has also been defying experimental observation. Here, thanks to neutron diffraction under pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T, we identify the field-induced phases of URu2Si2 as a spin-density-wave state. The transition to the spin-density wave represents a unique touchstone for understanding the hidden-order phase. An intimate relationship between this magnetic structure, the magnetic fluctuations and the Fermi surface is emphasized, calling for dedicated band-structure calculations. PMID:27762260

  18. Testing Density Wave Theory with Resolved Stellar Populations around Spiral Arms in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yumi; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2015-09-01

    Stationary density waves rotating at a constant pattern speed {{{Ω }}}{{P}} would produce age gradients across spiral arms. We test whether such age gradients are present in M81 by deriving the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of 20 regions around one of M81's grand-design spiral arms. For each region, we use resolved stellar populations to determine the SFH by modeling the observed color-magnitude diagram constructed from archival Hubble Space Telescope F435W and F606W imaging. Although we should be able to detect systematic time delays in our spatially resolved SFHs, we find no evidence of star formation propagation across the spiral arm. Our data therefore provide no convincing evidence for a stationary density wave with a single pattern speed in M81, and instead favor the scenario of kinematic spiral patterns that are likely driven by tidal interactions with the companion galaxies M82 and NGC 3077.

  19. Field-induced spin-density wave beyond hidden order in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knafo, W.; Duc, F.; Bourdarot, F.; Kuwahara, K.; Nojiri, H.; Aoki, D.; Billette, J.; Frings, P.; Tonon, X.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Flouquet, J.; Regnault, L.-P.

    2016-10-01

    URu2Si2 is one of the most enigmatic strongly correlated electron systems and offers a fertile testing ground for new concepts in condensed matter science. In spite of >30 years of intense research, no consensus on the order parameter of its low-temperature hidden-order phase exists. A strong magnetic field transforms the hidden order into magnetically ordered phases, whose order parameter has also been defying experimental observation. Here, thanks to neutron diffraction under pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T, we identify the field-induced phases of URu2Si2 as a spin-density-wave state. The transition to the spin-density wave represents a unique touchstone for understanding the hidden-order phase. An intimate relationship between this magnetic structure, the magnetic fluctuations and the Fermi surface is emphasized, calling for dedicated band-structure calculations.

  20. Theoretical analysis of the density wave in a new continuum model and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ge, Hong-Xia

    2014-05-01

    Considered the effect of traffic anticipation in the real world, a new anticipation driving car following model (AD-CF) was proposed by Zheng et al. Based on AD-CF model, adopted an asymptotic approximation between the headway and density, a new continuum model is presented in this paper. The neutral stability condition is obtained by applying the linear stability theory. Additionally, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived via nonlinear analysis to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the neutral stability line. The numerical simulation and the analytical results show that the new continuum model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena.

  1. Quantum time crystal by decoherence: Proposal with an incommensurate charge density wave ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsugawa, K.; Fujii, T.; Tanda, S.

    2017-09-01

    We show that time translation symmetry of a ring system with a macroscopic quantum ground state is broken by decoherence. In particular, we consider a ring-shaped incommensurate charge density wave (ICDW ring) threaded by a fluctuating magnetic flux: the Caldeira-Leggett model is used to model the fluctuating flux as a bath of harmonic oscillators. We show that the charge density expectation value of a quantized ICDW ring coupled to its environment oscillates periodically. The Hamiltonians considered in this model are time independent unlike "Floquet time crystals" considered recently. Our model forms a metastable quantum time crystal with a finite length in space and in time.

  2. Density of states, optical and thermoelectric properties of perovskite vanadium fluorides Na3VF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Azam, Sikander

    2014-05-01

    The electronic structure, charge density and Fermi surface of Na3VF6 compound have been examined with the support of density functional theory (DFT). Using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, we employed the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and Engel-Vosko GGA (EVGGA) to treat the exchange correlation potential to solve Kohn-Sham equations. The calculation show that Na3VF6 compound has metallic nature and the Fermi energy (EF) is assessed by overlapping of V-d state. The calculated density of states at the EF are about 18.655, 51.932 and 13.235 states/eV, and the bare linear low-temperature electronic specific heat coefficient (γ) is found to be 3.236 mJ/mol-K2, 9.008 mJ/mol-K2 and 2.295 mJ/mol-K2 for LDA, GGA and EVGGA, respectively. The Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. The chemical bonding of Na3VF6 compound is analyzed through the electronic charge density in the (1 1 0) crystallographic plane. The optical constants and thermal properties were also calculated and discussed.

  3. Density Functional Study of the structural properties in Tamoxifen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss-Martinez, Romeo; Tapia, Jorge A.; Quijano-Quiñones, Ramiro F.; Canto, Gabriel I.

    2013-03-01

    Using the density functional theory, we have studied the structural properties of Tamoxifen. The calculations were performed with two methodological approaches, which were implemented in SIESTA and Spartan codes. For SIESTA, we considerate a linear combination of atomic orbitals method, using pseudopotentials and the van der Waals approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Here we analyzed and compared the atomic structure between our results and other theoretical study. We found differences in the bond lengths between the results, that could be attributed to code approaches in each one. This work was supported under Grant FOMIX 2011-09 N: 170297 of Ph.D. A. Tapia.

  4. Magnetic properties of high-density patterned magnetic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurovich, B. A.; Prikhodko, K. E.; Kuleshova, E. A.; Yu Yakubovsky, A.; Meilikhov, E. Z.; Mosthenko, М. G.

    2010-10-01

    Structures of patterned magnetic media (PMM) with a density of 100-155 Gb/in. 2 have been prepared using the original method of selective removal of atoms making use of irradiation by an accelerated ion beam for producing patterns of materials whose chemical and physical properties are different from those of the matrix. Magnetic hysteresis loops for cobalt PMM structures with Co bit sizes of 40×15, 30×15, and 15×15 nm 2 show linear increase of coercivity with bit anisotropy factor. Consecutive reversals of nanobit magnetizations in bit ensembles have been visualized by the MFM technique, which allows one to reconstruct corresponding magnetic hysteresis loops.

  5. Charge Density Waves in the Electron-Hole Liquid in Coupled Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichenko, V. S.; Polishchuk, I. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    A many-component electron-hole plasma is considered in coupled quantum wells. The electrons and the holes are localized in the different wells. It is found in our previous works that the electron-hole liquid is the ground state of the system. In this paper it is shown that, as the separation between the wells increases, static charge density waves arise resulting in charge fluctuations which form a honeycomb lattice.

  6. Charge density wave depinning transition: a real space renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglioti, E.; Celino, M.

    1993-01-01

    We study analytically and numerically the depinning transition of a pinned charge density wave. We introduce a real space renormalization group approach with the method of decimation, which allows to determine the threshold both in the strong and weak pinning limit. We also perform a numerical renormalization of the system that allows to avoid the difficulties due to the large fluctuations in the weak pinning limit. The analytical results turn out to be in good agreement with the simulations.

  7. Spin-density-wave antiferromagnetism of Cr in Fe/Cr(001) superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Fullerton, E.E.; Bader, S.D.; Robertson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave (SDW) order of Cr layers in Fe/Cr(001) superlattices was investigated by neutron scattering. For Cr thickness 51-190 {Angstrom}, a transverse SDW is formed for all temperatures below Neel temperature with a single wavevector Q normal to the layers. A coherent magnetic structure forms with the nodes of the SDW near the Fe-Cr interfaces. For thinner Cr layers, the magnetic scattering can be described by commensurate antiferromagnetic order.

  8. Electronic precursor states of the charge density wave in NbSe 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S. D.; Blaha, P.; Claessen, R.; Thorne, R. E.

    2002-03-01

    The electron bands of the Peierls compound NbSe3 are mapped with angle-resolved photoemission. Data of the Fermi level crossings show the nesting condition responsible for the charge density wave along the one-dimensional axis. The instability with periodicity q=0.44 Å-1 induces a remnant backfolding of the electron bands in the nominally metallic state high above the critical temperature.

  9. Correlation of scanning-tunneling-microscope image profiles and charge-density-wave amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambattista, B.; Johnson, A.; McNairy, W. W.; Slough, C. G.; Coleman, R. V.

    1988-08-01

    Scanning-tunneling-microscope (STM) studies of 4Hb-TaS2 and 4Hb-TaSe2 at 4.2 K show systematic correlation between the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude and the STM deflection. The 4Hb phases have both weak and strong CDW's in the trigonal prismatic and octahedral sandwiches, respectively. Scans on opposite faces of the same cleave allow a comparison of the STM response to the two types of CDW.

  10. Density Waves in Saturn's Rings: Non-linear Dispersion and Moon Libration Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.

    2008-05-01

    We analyze strong spiral density waves in stellar occultations by Saturn's A ring observed with the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and find that waves dispersion relation exhibits a clear deviation from the linear trend. All waves examined here reveal an intrinsic quadratic radial dependence on the wavenumber. We provide evidence that the deviation from the linear trend is caused by the ring's pressure term acting against the self-gravity of the ring particles. From the observed dispersion relation and using the theory of Goldreich and Tremaine (1978, 1979, ApJ) where the pressure is parameterized as p=σ c2, we measure the velocity dispersion c=2-5 mm/s in the A ring. Additionally, in all first order Pandora waves the dispersion relation exhibits a wiggly structure. Comparing 60 stellar UVIS occultations between 2004 and 2008 we infer that this wavenumber oscillation propagates away from the resonance location with a period of about 600 days. This inferred period is consistent with the 3:2 near corotation resonance between Pandora and Mimas (French et al., 2003, Icarus). The observed libration in wavenumber allows us to accurately measure the group velocity in the rings and obtain independent estimates of both surface density and velocity dispersion of the rings.

  11. Field-induced spin density wave and spiral phases in a layered antiferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Garlea, Vasile O.; ...

    2015-07-28

    Here we determine the low-field ordered magnetic phases of the S=1 dimerized antiferromagnet Ba3Mn2O8 using single crystal neutron diffraction. We find that for magnetic fields between μ0H=8.80 T and 10.56 T applied along themore » $$1\\bar{1}0$$ direction the system exhibits spin density wave order with incommensurate wave vectors of type (η,η,ε). For μ0H > 10.56 T, the magnetic order changes to a spiral phase with incommensurate wave vectors only along the [hh0] direction. For both field induced ordered phases, the magnetic moments are lying in the plane perpendicular to the field direction. Finally, the nature of these two transitions is fundamentally different: the low-field transition is a second order transition to a spin-density wave ground state, while the one at higher field, toward the spiral phase, is of first order.« less

  12. Field-induced spin density wave and spiral phases in a layered antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Garlea, Vasile O.; Grenier, B.; Ressouche, E.; Samulon, Eric C.; Fisher, Ian R.

    2015-07-28

    Here we determine the low-field ordered magnetic phases of the S=1 dimerized antiferromagnet Ba3Mn2O8 using single crystal neutron diffraction. We find that for magnetic fields between μ0H=8.80 T and 10.56 T applied along the $1\\bar{1}0$ direction the system exhibits spin density wave order with incommensurate wave vectors of type (η,η,ε). For μ0H > 10.56 T, the magnetic order changes to a spiral phase with incommensurate wave vectors only along the [hh0] direction. For both field induced ordered phases, the magnetic moments are lying in the plane perpendicular to the field direction. Finally, the nature of these two transitions is fundamentally different: the low-field transition is a second order transition to a spin-density wave ground state, while the one at higher field, toward the spiral phase, is of first order.

  13. Competing orders and spin density wave instabilities in FeAs-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan Lin

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of superconductivity with Tc up to 55 K in layered FeAs-based compounds has generated tremendous interest in the scientific community. Except for relatively high Tc, the Fe pnictides display many interesting properties. Among others, the presence of competing orders is one of the most intriguing phenomena. In the early stage of our study on the compounds, we identified a spin-density-wave (SDW) ordered state for the parent compound with a stripe (or collinear) type spin structure based on the transport, specific heat, optical spectroscopy measurements and the first- principle calculations. The proposed spin structure from a nesting of the Fermi surfaces is confirmed by subsequent neutron experiments. However, it could also be explained by a local superexchange picture. In this talk I shall focus on our recent optical data on single crystal samples, trying to address the debating issue about itinerant or localized approaches to the SDW order. We found that the undoped compounds are quite metallic with relatively high plasma frequencies above TSDW. Upon entering the SDW ordered state, a large part of the Drude component is removed by the gapping of Fermi surfaces. Meanwhile, the carrier scattering rate is even more dramatically reduced. Those observations favor an itinerant description for the driving mechanism of SDW instability. Nevertheless, our experiments also indicate that Fe pnictides are not simple metals. A high energy gap-like feature is present even above TSDW, which seems to be linked with the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. For the superconducting samples, a superconducting pairing energy gap is clearly observed in the far-infrared reflectance measurement. The Ferrell-Glover- Tinkham sum rule is satisfied at a low energy scale. Work done in collaboration with: G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, Z. Fang, X. Dai, W. Z. Hu, J. Dong, G. Li, Z. Li, P. Dai, J. Lynn, H. Q. Yuang, J. Singleton.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Low Density Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X. D.; Li, L. F.; Liu, H. J.; Yang, K.

    2006-03-01

    Low-density alloys include aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and magnesium alloys. Aluminum alloys and titanium alloys have been widely investigated and used as structural materials for cryogenic applications because of their light weight and good low-temperature mechanical properties. For aerospace applications, persistent efforts are being devoted to reducing weight and improving performance. Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural alloys among those mentioned above. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to magnesium alloys and to investigate their behaviors at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, we have investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of some magnesium alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Experimental results on both titanium and magnesium alloys are taken into account in considering these materials for space application.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Low Density Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Li, L. F.; Yang, K.

    2006-03-31

    Low-density alloys include aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and magnesium alloys. Aluminum alloys and titanium alloys have been widely investigated and used as structural materials for cryogenic applications because of their light weight and good low-temperature mechanical properties.For aerospace applications, persistent efforts are being devoted to reducing weight and improving performance. Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural alloys among those mentioned above. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to magnesium alloys and to investigate their behaviors at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, we have investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of some magnesium alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Experimental results on both titanium and magnesium alloys are taken into account in considering these materials for space application.

  16. Dimensional Crossover of Charge-Density Wave Correlations in the Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Yosef; Orgad, Dror

    2017-09-01

    Short-range charge-density wave correlations are ubiquitous in underdoped cuprates. They are largely confined to the copper-oxygen planes and typically oscillate out of phase from one unit cell to the next in the c direction. Recently, it was found that a considerably longer-range charge-density wave order develops in YBa2 Cu3 O6 +x above a sharply defined crossover magnetic field. This order is more three-dimensional and is in-phase along the c axis. Here, we show that such behavior is a consequence of the conflicting ordering tendencies induced by the disorder potential and the Coulomb interaction, where the magnetic field acts to tip the scales from the former to the latter. We base our conclusion on analytic large-N analysis and Monte Carlo simulations of a nonlinear sigma model of competing superconducting and charge-density wave orders. Our results are in agreement with the observed phenomenology in the cuprates, and we discuss their implications to other members of this family, which have not been measured yet at high magnetic fields.

  17. Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.

  18. The Impact of Bars and Spiral Density Waves on the Relative Frequencies of Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramyan, L. S.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Petrosian, A. R.; Barkhudaryan, L. V.; Karapetyan, A. G.; Adibekyan, V.; Turatto, M.

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the impact of bars and spiral density waves on the relative frequencies of supernovae (SNe). We find that for early -type Grand-Design (GD) and non-Grand-Design (NGD) galaxies, the NIa/NCC ratios, i.e., one of the tracers of specific star formation rate (sSFR), are not significantly different between barred and unbarred hosts. At the same time, for both barred and unbarred early-type galaxies, the NIa /NCC ratio in NGD hosts is significantly higher than that in GD, and for late-type galaxies no any significant difference exists between the N Ia/NCC ratios. Thus, in contrast to bars, the spiral density waves significantly enhance the relative frequencies of SNe in early-type GD galaxies, while not in late-type hosts. This result is actual also for galaxies when barred and unbarred categories are separated. Hence, the sSFR might be enhanced by density waves in early-type galaxies only.

  19. Ultrafast Dynamics of a Charge Density Wave via Time-Resolved Resonant Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. G.

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the emergence of collective behavior in correlated electron systems remains at the forefront of modern condensed matter physics. The key to such an understanding is unraveling the contributions from the coupling degrees of freedom in exotic many body states. Density waves, both of charge and spin, have been studied for decades and a wealth of information and insight has been gained. However, there are still open questions that need to be solved for a complete description of the phenomena as there are several existing density wave systems that exhibit prototypical behavior while violating traditional theory. Ultrafast dynamics of such a system, TbTe3, has been investigated via time-resolved resonant diffraction at the SXR endstation at LCLS. Oscillations of the amplitude mode and coherent phonons have been observed previously in time resolved photoemission and reflectivity measurement but, here we reveal a direct observation of the lattice response via resonant diffraction. Watching dynamics of the two dimensional Te plane density wave diffraction peak at a resonant energy of a bystander Tb atom reveals new insights into the coupling responsible for the formation of the state. Results and comparison with previous time resolved measurements will be discussed.

  20. Time-domain pumping a quantum-critical charge density wave ordered material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the exact time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for a nesting driven charge density wave (described by the spinless Falicov-Kimball model within dynamical mean-field theory). The pump-probe experiment involves two light pulses: the first is an ultrashort intense pump pulse that excites the system into nonequilibrium, and the second is a lower amplitude, higher frequency probe pulse that photoexcites electrons. We examine three different cases: the strongly correlated metal, the quantum-critical charge density wave, and the critical Mott insulator. Our results show that the quantum critical charge density wave has an ultraefficient relaxation channel that allows electrons to be de-excited during the pump pulse, resulting in little net excitation. In contrast, the metal and the Mott insulator show excitations that are closer to what one expects from these systems. In addition, the pump field produces spectral band narrowing, peak sharpening, and a spectral gap reduction, all of which rapidly return to their field free values after the pump is over.

  1. Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect

    Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Kabalan, K.; Decker, J.

    2015-12-10

    In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.

  2. Vertical temperature and density patterns in the Arctic mesosphere analyzed as gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberstein, I. J.; Theon, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Three series of rocket soundings including pitot soundings, grenade soundings, and paired pitot-grenade soundings, were conducted from high latitude sites during winter. Temperature and wind profiles and one density profile were observed independently to obtain the thermodynamic structure, the wind structure, and thus their interdependence in the mesosphere. Temperature profiles from all soundings in each series were averaged, and a smooth curve (or series of smooth curves) drawn through the points. A hydrostatic atmosphere based on the average, measured temperature profile was computed, and deviations from the mean atmosphere were analyzed in terms of gravity wave theory. The vertical wavelengths of the deviations were 10-20 km, and the wave amplitudes slowly increased with height. The experimental data were matched by calculated gravity waves having a period ranging between 15 and 80 minutes and horizontal wavelengths of 60 to 280 km. The interpretation is generally consistent with the results of others who have studied gravity-acoustic waves in the atmosphere. The wind measurements are consistent with the thermodynamic measurements. The results also suggest that gravity waves traveled from east to west with a horizontal phase velocity of approximately 60 m/sec.

  3. Vertical temperature and density patterns in the Arctic mesosphere analyzed as gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberstein, I. J.; Theon, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Three series of rocket soundings including pitot soundings, grenade soundings, and paired pitot-grenade soundings, were conducted from high latitude sites during winter. Temperature and wind profiles and one density profile were observed independently to obtain the thermodynamic structure, the wind structure, and thus their interdependence in the mesosphere. Temperature profiles from all soundings in each series were averaged, and a smooth curve (or series of smooth curves) drawn through the points. A hydrostatic atmosphere based on the average, measured temperature profile was computed, and deviations from the mean atmosphere were analyzed in terms of gravity wave theory. The vertical wavelengths of the deviations were 10-20 km, and the wave amplitudes slowly increased with height. The experimental data were matched by calculated gravity waves having a period ranging between 15 and 80 minutes and horizontal wavelengths of 60 to 280 km. The interpretation is generally consistent with the results of others who have studied gravity-acoustic waves in the atmosphere. The wind measurements are consistent with the thermodynamic measurements. The results also suggest that gravity waves traveled from east to west with a horizontal phase velocity of approximately 60 m/sec.

  4. Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device

    DOE PAGES

    Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.

    2016-09-28

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (~50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ( ~1-2 1019 m-3, ~1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (~10 G and ~ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40 to 50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based onmore » experimental measurements. By comparing theory and experiment, we show that for the conditions associated with this paper classical collisions are sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in our device (MAGPIE).« less

  5. Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.

    2016-09-28

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (~50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ( ~1-2 1019 m-3, ~1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (~10 G and ~ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40 to 50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based on experimental measurements. By comparing theory and experiment, we show that for the conditions associated with this paper classical collisions are sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in our device (MAGPIE).

  6. Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.

    2016-09-28

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (~50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ( ~1-2 1019 m-3, ~1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (~10 G and ~ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40 to 50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based on experimental measurements. By comparing theory and experiment, we show that for the conditions associated with this paper classical collisions are sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in our device (MAGPIE).

  7. Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ({{n}\\text{e}}˜ 1-2 × 1019 m-3, {{T}\\text{e}}˜ 1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (4-8 G and {λz}˜ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40-50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based on experimental measurements. Theoretical calculations are consistent with experiment and indicate that for conditions where Coulomb collisions are dominant classical collisionality is sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in helicon based linear plasma devices.

  8. An analytic model of toroidal half-wave oscillations: Implication on plasma density estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Jayashree; Sinha, A. K.; Vichare, Geeta

    2015-06-01

    The developed analytic model for toroidal oscillations under infinitely conducting ionosphere ("Rigid-end") has been extended to "Free-end" case when the conjugate ionospheres are infinitely resistive. The present direct analytic model (DAM) is the only analytic model that provides the field line structures of electric and magnetic field oscillations associated with the "Free-end" toroidal wave for generalized plasma distribution characterized by the power law ρ = ρo(ro/r)m, where m is the density index and r is the geocentric distance to the position of interest on the field line. This is important because different regions in the magnetosphere are characterized by different m. Significant improvement over standard WKB solution and an excellent agreement with the numerical exact solution (NES) affirms validity and advancement of DAM. In addition, we estimate the equatorial ion number density (assuming H+ atom as the only species) using DAM, NES, and standard WKB for Rigid-end as well as Free-end case and illustrate their respective implications in computing ion number density. It is seen that WKB method overestimates the equatorial ion density under Rigid-end condition and underestimates the same under Free-end condition. The density estimates through DAM are far more accurate than those computed through WKB. The earlier analytic estimates of ion number density were restricted to m = 6, whereas DAM can account for generalized m while reproducing the density for m = 6 as envisaged by earlier models.

  9. Wave and Material Properties of Marine Sediments: Theoretical Relationships for Geoacoustic Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Michael J.

    2004-11-01

    In recent years, a theory of wave propagation in marine sediments has been developed, based on the grain-to-grain interactions that occur during the passage of compressional and shear waves. The theory yields a dispersion pair, representing phase speed and attenuation, for each wave. These expressions are functions of frequency and the physical properties of the sediment, that is, the porosity, density, grain size and over-burden pressure (or depth in the medium). The predicted functional dependencies are compared with extensive data sets that have appeared in the literature over the past couple of decades. No adjustable parameters are available to help improve the comparisons. In all cases, the theory shows a high level of agreement with the data. This agreement even extends to both attenuations, in that the theory, which predicts intrinsic attenuation, arising from the conversion of wave energy into heat, accurately traces out the lower bound of the widely-distributed measurements. This is physically reasonable, since the data represent effective attenuation, which includes additional sources of loss such as scattering from shell fragments and other inhomogeneities in the medium. It is suggested that the set of simple algebraic expressions comprising the theory have application in evaluating the geoacoustic parameters of the seabed, all of which may be computed from knowledge of just one, say the compressional wave speed or the porosity.

  10. Mach-wave Properties in Scattering Media with Random Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, J. C.; Mai, P. M.; Galis, M.; Dunham, E. M.; Imperatori, W.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the properties of Mach-waves, generated by super-shear ruptures, in scattering media with random heterogeneities. To simulate the Mach-wave, we use kinematic earthquake source descriptions that include fault-regions over which the rupture propagates at super-shear speed. The local slip rate is modeled with the regularized Yoffe function, assuming constant rise time. We generate various realizations of 3D random media by characterizing the heterogeneities of medium parameters using the Von Karman function. We adopt six different characterizations of the medium from combinations of three correlation lengths (0.5 km, 2 km, 5 km) and two standard deviations (5%, 10%). Simulations in a homogeneous medium serve as a reference case. The ground-motion simulations (maximum resolved frequency of 5 Hz) are conducted by solving the elasto-dynamic equations of motions using generalized finite-difference method. The seismic wavefield is sampled at numerous locations within RJB(Joyner-Boore distance) ranging between 10-40 km, with focus on the Mach-cone region, to study the properties and evolution of the Mach-waves in the scattering media. We find that seismic scattering in random media significantly diminishes the coherence of the Mach-wave away from the source. Investigating peak ground velocities (PGV) to quantify the scattering effects, we observe that mean PGV in the medium with the largest correlation length and standard deviation is significantly smaller (by about a factor of 1.5 to 2.5 with increasing RJB distance) compared to the reference case. Correlation length, rather than standard deviation, appears to control the scattering of the Mach wave. Our analysis of Fourier amplitude spectra shows that the seismic energy is redistributed among the three ground-motion components, with an increase of high frequency content in the vertical component. Based on our simulations of Mach-wave properties in scattering media, we hypothesize that local super

  11. Self-Calibrating Wave-Encoded Variable-Density Single-Shot Fast Spin Echo Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiyu; Taviani, Valentina; Tamir, Jonathan I; Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Song, Qiong; Hargreaves, Brian A; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2017-09-14

    It is highly desirable in clinical abdominal MR scans to accelerate single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) imaging and reduce blurring due to T2 decay and partial-Fourier acquisition. To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE imaging for improved image quality and scan time reduction. Prospective controlled clinical trial. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, the proposed method was assessed on 20 consecutive adult patients (10 male, 10 female, range, 24-84 years). A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable high acceleration (3.5×) with full-Fourier acquisitions by: 1) introducing wave encoding with self-refocusing gradient waveforms to improve acquisition efficiency; 2) developing self-calibrated estimation of wave-encoding point-spread function and coil sensitivity to improve motion robustness; and 3) incorporating a parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction to reconstruct highly accelerated datasets. Image quality was compared pairwise with standard Cartesian acquisition independently and blindly by two radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, confidence, sharpness, and artifacts. The average ratio of scan time between these two approaches was also compared. A Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a P value under 0.05 considered statistically significant. Wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE significantly reduced the perceived noise level and improved the sharpness of the abdominal wall and the kidneys compared with standard acquisition (mean scores 0.8, 1.2, and 0.8, respectively, P < 0.003). No significant difference was observed in relation to other features (P = 0.11). An average of 21% decrease in scan time was achieved using the proposed method. Wave-encoded variable-density sampling SSFSE achieves improved image quality with clinically relevant echo time and reduced scan time, thus providing a fast

  12. Implementation of density functional embedding theory within the projector-augmented-wave method and applications to semiconductor defect states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-09-01

    We report a new implementation of the density functional embedding theory (DFET) in the VASP code, using the projector-augmented-wave (PAW) formalism. Newly developed algorithms allow us to efficiently perform optimized effective potential optimizations within PAW. The new algorithm generates robust and physically correct embedding potentials, as we verified using several test systems including a covalently bound molecule, a metal surface, and bulk semiconductors. We show that with the resulting embedding potential, embedded cluster models can reproduce the electronic structure of point defects in bulk semiconductors, thereby demonstrating the validity of DFET in semiconductors for the first time. Compared to our previous version, the new implementation of DFET within VASP affords use of all features of VASP (e.g., a systematic PAW library, a wide selection of functionals, a more flexible choice of U correction formalisms, and faster computational speed) with DFET. Furthermore, our results are fairly robust with respect to both plane-wave and Gaussian type orbital basis sets in the embedded cluster calculations. This suggests that the density functional embedding method is potentially an accurate and efficient way to study properties of isolated defects in semiconductors.

  13. Implementation of density functional embedding theory within the projector-augmented-wave method and applications to semiconductor defect states

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian

    2015-09-14

    We report a new implementation of the density functional embedding theory (DFET) in the VASP code, using the projector-augmented-wave (PAW) formalism. Newly developed algorithms allow us to efficiently perform optimized effective potential optimizations within PAW. The new algorithm generates robust and physically correct embedding potentials, as we verified using several test systems including a covalently bound molecule, a metal surface, and bulk semiconductors. We show that with the resulting embedding potential, embedded cluster models can reproduce the electronic structure of point defects in bulk semiconductors, thereby demonstrating the validity of DFET in semiconductors for the first time. Compared to our previous version, the new implementation of DFET within VASP affords use of all features of VASP (e.g., a systematic PAW library, a wide selection of functionals, a more flexible choice of U correction formalisms, and faster computational speed) with DFET. Furthermore, our results are fairly robust with respect to both plane-wave and Gaussian type orbital basis sets in the embedded cluster calculations. This suggests that the density functional embedding method is potentially an accurate and efficient way to study properties of isolated defects in semiconductors.

  14. Electron Density Measurements on LTX Using Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, S.; Nguyen, X. V.; Peebles, W. A.; Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Schmitt, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamic evolution of the electron density profile is tracked using microwave and millimeter-wave diagnostics on LTX. The 296 GHz (λ =1 mm) interferometer provides a radial line density measurement at the midplane, while an FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous-wave) reflectometer (13.5 -33 GHz, or O-mode 0 . 2 - 1 . 3 ×1013 cm-3) provides density profile measurements for the low-field side. Data taken during FY2015 will be compared with measurements from Thomson scattering and estimates of the plasma position from LRDFIT. Measurements of density fluctuations due to low-frequency (<100 kHz) MHD instabilities will also be shown. Future plans include the installation of a correlation reflectomter (Ka-band, 27-40 GHz) with dual tuneable sources and a frequency bandwidth of up to 5 MHz. This system will utilize the same antennas as the profile reflectometer to provide radial and/or toroidal/poloidal correlations. Further diagnostic details will be presented at the meeting. Supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54527 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Intertwined superfluid and density wave order in two-dimensional 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyéki, Ján; Phillis, Anastasia; Ho, Andrew; Lee, Derek; Coleman, Piers; Parpia, Jeevak; Cowan, Brian; Saunders, John

    2017-02-01

    Superfluidity is a manifestation of the operation of the laws of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. The conditions under which superfluidity becomes manifest have been extensively explored experimentally in both quantum liquids (liquid 4He being the canonical example) and ultracold atomic gases, including as a function of dimensionality. Of particular interest is the hitherto unresolved question of whether a solid can be superfluid. Here we report the identification of a new state of quantum matter with intertwined superfluid and density wave order in a system of two-dimensional bosons subject to a triangular lattice potential. Using a torsional oscillator we have measured the superfluid response of the second atomic layer of 4He adsorbed on the surface of graphite, over a wide temperature range down to 2 mK. Superfluidity is observed over a narrow range of film densities, emerging suddenly and subsequently collapsing towards a quantum critical point. The unusual temperature dependence of the superfluid density in the limit of zero temperature and the absence of a clear superfluid onset temperature are explained, self-consistently, by an ansatz for the excitation spectrum, reflecting density wave order, and a quasi-condensate wavefunction breaking both gauge and translational symmetry.

  16. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density.

  17. Spiral Density Wave Shock-induced Star Formation at High Galactic Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Martos; Allen; Franco; Kurtz

    1999-12-01

    We have modeled the gas response to a spiral density wave (SDW) in a thick, magnetized galactic disk. The inclusion in the model of the vertically extended galactic warm ionized gas layer alters the conventional view of the SDW scenario for star formation: whereas marked density enhancements still occur in the midplane, the shock and a prominent high column density structure extend to high z (the height above the galactic midplane) above the arm. We argue that if the SDW mechanism indeed triggers molecular cloud and star formation, it should do so not only at the midplane but also at distances well above the star-forming thin disk of the conventional picture. The resulting structure resembles a hydraulic jump, or bore, in which gas entering the spiral arm rises suddenly on the upstream side of the arm, then accelerates and angles downward, finally landing on a large downfall region downstream of the arm.

  18. Disordered cellular automaton traffic flow model: phase separated state, density waves and self organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourrate, K.; Loulidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a disordered traffic flow model that captures many features of traffic flow. It is an extension of the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) stochastic cellular automata for single line vehicular traffic model. It incorporates random acceleration and deceleration terms that may be greater than one unit. Our model leads under its intrinsic dynamics, for high values of braking probability pr, to a constant flow at intermediate densities without introducing any spatial inhomogeneities. For a system of fast drivers pr→0, the model exhibits a density wave behavior that was observed in car following models with optimal velocity. The gap of the disordered model we present exhibits, for high values of pr and random deceleration, at a critical density, a power law distribution which is a hall mark of a self organized criticality phenomena.

  19. Kinetics of density striations excited by powerful electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Ya. N.; Leyser, T. B.

    2010-03-01

    One of the most important effects observed when pumping ionospheric plasma by powerful radio waves from the ground is the excitation of filamentary density striations that are stretched along the ambient geomagnetic field. The kinetics of the striations present in the pump electromagnetic field is studied theoretically. The density irregularities cause inhomogeneities in the pump field, which result in a ponderomotive force acting on the striations that makes the density depressions move perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Striations moving with different velocities can collide, thereby merging to produce larger scale striations. The merging of striations constitutes a cascade process that distributes the energy over the spatial spectrum of the striations. The resulting inhomogeneity spectrum as well as the obtained outward radial drift of a few meters per second is consistent with experimental results.

  20. Revisiting the emission from relativistic blast waves in a density-jump medium

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.; Wu, X. F.; Li, Liang E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2014-09-01

    Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps cannot be produced under common conditions, rather only a short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at an early time (<10{sup 4} s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be caused by other scenarios.

  1. Probing Extreme-density Matter with Gravitational-wave Observations of Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radice, David; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Del Pozzo, Walter; Roberts, Luke F.; Ott, Christian D.

    2017-06-01

    We present a proof-of-concept study, based on numerical-relativity simulations, of how gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star merger remnants can probe the nature of matter at extreme densities. Phase transitions and extra degrees of freedom can emerge at densities beyond those reached during the inspiral, and typically result in a softening of the equation of state (EOS). We show that such physical effects change the qualitative dynamics of the remnant evolution, but they are not identifiable as a signature in the GW frequency, with the exception of possible black hole formation effects. The EOS softening is, instead, encoded in the GW luminosity and phase and is in principle detectable up to distances of the order of several megaparsecs with advanced detectors and up to hundreds of megaparsecs with third-generation detectors. Probing extreme-density matter will require going beyond the current paradigm and developing a more holistic strategy for modeling and analyzing postmerger GW signals.

  2. The Millimeter-Wave Properties of Superconducting Microstrip Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayonakis, A.; Luo, C.; Leduc, H. G.; Schoelkopf, R.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a novel technique for making high quality measurements of the millimeter-wave properties of superconducting thin-film microstrip transmission lines. Our experimental technique currently covers the 75-100 GHz band. The method is based on standing wave resonances in an open ended transmission line. We obtain information on the phase velocity and loss of the microstrip. Our data for Nb/SiO/Nb lines, taken at 4.2 K and 1.6 K, can be explained by a single set of physical parameters. Our preliminary conclusion is that the loss is dominated by the SiO dielectric, with a temperature-independent loss tangent of 5.3 +/- 0.5 x 10(exp -3) for our samples.

  3. New chorus wave properties near the equator from Van Allen Probes wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Santolik, O.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-05-01

    The chorus wave properties are evaluated using Van Allen Probes data in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere. Two distinct modes of lower band chorus are identified: a quasi-parallel mode and a quasi-electrostatic mode, whose wave normal direction is close to the resonance cone. Statistical results indicate that the quasi-electrostatic (quasi-parallel) mode preferentially occurs during relatively quiet (disturbed) geomagnetic activity at lower (higher) L shells. Although the magnetic intensity of the quasi-electrostatic mode is considerably weaker than the quasi-parallel mode, their electric intensities are comparable. A newly identified feature of the quasi-electrostatic mode is that its frequency peaks at higher values compared to the quasi-parallel mode that exhibits a broad frequency spectrum. Moreover, upper band chorus wave normal directions vary between 0° and the resonance cone and become more parallel as geomagnetic activity increases. Our new findings suggest that chorus-driven energetic electron dynamics needs a careful examination by considering the properties of these two distinct modes.

  4. Structural, electronic and optical properties of BeH2: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xinyou; Zeng, Tixian; Ren, Weiyi

    2017-03-01

    Based on density functional theory, the structural, electronic and optical properties of α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ɛ-BeH2 have been investigated using the plane-wave pseudo-potential and Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno approaches. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in excellent agreement with the experimental and other theoretical results. The mechanical stabilities of BeH2 were determined by phonon spectrum calculation, indicating that α-, γ-, δ- and ɛ-BeH2 are dynamically stable, but β-BeH2 is dynamically unstable. The band structures and density of states of BeH2 were calculated and analyzed in detail. Four common characteristics of the valence bands and conduction bands for BeH2 were described. The α- and β-BeH2 exhibit direct band gap characteristics, and the γ-, δ- and ɛ-BeH2 are indirect band gaps. Mulliken population analysis of BeH2 indicates that the charge populations of H 1s and Be 2p states are very obvious, but Be 2s states are relatively weak; the charge transfers are from Be-H, and all of the BeH2 are mixture bonding materials (covalent + ionic bond) and the covalent character is obvious. By combining the electronic properties and frequency-dependent dielectric function ɛ(ω), the linear response optical properties of BeH2 were predicted with a photoelectron energy up to 30 eV.

  5. Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations.

  6. Switching dynamics of the spin density wave in superconducting CeCoIn5

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Duk Y.; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Bauer, Eric D.; ...

    2017-06-21

    The ordering wave vector Q of a spin density wave (SDW), stabilized within the superconducting state of CeCoIn5 in a high magnetic field, has been shown to be hypersensitive to the direction of the field. Q can be switched from a nodal direction of the d-wave superconducting order parameter to a perpendicular node by rotating the in-plane magnetic field through the antinodal direction within a fraction of a degree. In this paper, we address the dynamics of the switching of Q. We use a free-energy functional based on the magnetization density, which describes the condensation of magnetic fluctuations of nodalmore » quasiparticles, and show that the switching process includes closing of the SDW gap at one Q and then reopening the SDW gap at another Q perpendicular to the first one. The magnetic field couples to Q through the spin-orbit interaction. Our calculations show that the width of the hysteretic region of switching depends linearly on the deviation of magnetic field from the critical field associated with the SDW transition, consistent with our thermal conductivity measurements. Finally, the agreement between theory and experiment supports our scenario of the hypersensitivity of the Q phase on the direction of magnetic field, as well as the magnon condensation as the origin of the SDW phase in CeCoIn5.« less

  7. Galactic rotation curve and spiral density wave parameters from 73 masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Based on kinematic data on masers with known trigonometric parallaxes and measurements of the velocities of HI clouds at tangential points in the inner Galaxy, we have refined the parameters of the Allen-Santillan model Galactic potential and constructed the Galactic rotation curve in a wide range of Galactocentric distances, from 0 to 20 kpc. The circular rotation velocity of the Sun for the adopted Galactocentric distance R 0 = 8 kpc is V 0 = 239 ± 16 km s-1. We have obtained the series of residual tangential, Δ V θ , and radial, V R , velocities for 73 masers. Based on these series, we have determined the parameters of the Galactic spiral density wave satisfying the linear Lin-Shu model using the method of periodogram analysis that we proposed previously. The tangential and radial perturbation amplitudes are f θ = 7.0±1.2 km s-1 and f R = 7.8±0.7 km s-1, respectively, the perturbation wave length is λ = 2.3±0.4 kpc, and the pitch angle of the spiral pattern in a two-armed model is i = -5.2° ±0.7°. The phase of the Sun ζ ⊙ in the spiral density wave is -50° ± 15° and -160° ± 15° from the residual tangential and radial velocities, respectively.

  8. Near-resonant excitation and propagation of eccentric density waves by external forcing. [in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Shu, Frank H.; Adams, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the astronomical evidence that relatively massive, distended, gaseous disks form as a natural by-product of the process of star formation, and also the numerical evidence that SLING-amplified eccentric modes in the outer parts of such disks can drive one-armed spiral density waves in the inner parts by near-resonant excitation and propagation. An ordinary differential equation (ODE) of the second order that approximately governs the nonlocalized forcing of waves in a disk satisfying Lindblad resonance almost everywhere is derived. When transformed and appended with an extra model term, this ODE implies, for free waves, the usual asymptotic results of the WKBJ dispersion relationship and the propagation Goldreich-Tremaine (1978) formula for the resonant torque exerted on a localized Lindblad resonance. An analytical solution is given for the rate of energy and angular momentum transfer by nonlocalized near-resonant forcing in the case when the disk has power-law dependences on the radius of the surface density and temperature.

  9. Stirring Coronal Spaghetti: Exploring Multiple Interactions Between MHD Waves and Density Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    The solar corona has been revealed in the past few decades to be a highly dynamic nonequilibrium plasma environment. Both the loop-filled coronal base and the extended acceleration region of the solar wind appear to be strongly turbulent, and models that invoke the dissipation of incompressible Alfvenic fluctuations have had some success in explaining the heating. However, many of these models neglect the mounting evidence that density and pressure variations may play an important role in the mass and energy balance of this system. In this presentation I will briefly review observations of both compressible and incompressible MHD fluctuations in the corona and solar wind, and discuss future prospects with DKIST. I will also attempt to outline the many ways that these different fluctuation modes have been proposed to interact with one another -- usually with an eye on finding ways to enhance their dissipation and heating. One under-appreciated type of interaction is the fact that Alfven waves will undergo multiple reflections and refractions in a "background plasma" filled with localized density fluctuations. It is becoming increasingly clear that models must not only include the effects of longitudinal variability (e.g., magnetoacoustic waves and pulse-like jets) but also transverse "striations" that appear naturally in a structured magnetic field with small-scale footpoint variability. Future off-limb observations, such as those with DKIST's Cryo-NIRSP instrument, will be crucial for providing us with a detailed census of MHD waves and their mutual interactions in the corona.

  10. Near-resonant excitation and propagation of eccentric density waves by external forcing. [in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Shu, Frank H.; Adams, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the astronomical evidence that relatively massive, distended, gaseous disks form as a natural by-product of the process of star formation, and also the numerical evidence that SLING-amplified eccentric modes in the outer parts of such disks can drive one-armed spiral density waves in the inner parts by near-resonant excitation and propagation. An ordinary differential equation (ODE) of the second order that approximately governs the nonlocalized forcing of waves in a disk satisfying Lindblad resonance almost everywhere is derived. When transformed and appended with an extra model term, this ODE implies, for free waves, the usual asymptotic results of the WKBJ dispersion relationship and the propagation Goldreich-Tremaine (1978) formula for the resonant torque exerted on a localized Lindblad resonance. An analytical solution is given for the rate of energy and angular momentum transfer by nonlocalized near-resonant forcing in the case when the disk has power-law dependences on the radius of the surface density and temperature.

  11. Measurement of the viscosity-density product using multiple reflections of ultrasonic shear horizontal waves.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Margaret S; Adamson, Justus D; Bond, Leonard J

    2006-12-22

    We have developed an on-line computer-controlled sensor, based on ultrasound reflection measurements, to determine the product of the viscosity and density of a liquid or slurry for Newtonian fluids and the shear impedance of the liquid for non-Newtonian fluids. A 14 MHz shear wave transducer is bonded to one side of a 45-90 degrees fused silica wedge and the base is in contract with the liquid. Twenty-eight echoes were observed due to the multiple reflections of an ultrasonic shear horizontal (SH) wave within the wedge. The fast Fourier transform of each echo was obtained for a liquid and for water, which serves as the calibration fluid, and the reflection coefficient at the solid-liquid interface was obtained. Data were obtained for 11 sugar water solutions ranging in concentration from 10% to 66% by weight. The viscosity values are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained independently using a laboratory viscometer. The data acquisition time is 14s and this can be reduced by judicious selection of the echoes for determining the reflection coefficient. The measurement of the density results in a determination of the viscosity for Newtonian fluids or the shear wave velocity for non-Newtonian fluids. The sensor can be deployed for process control in a pipeline, with the base of the wedge as part of the pipeline wall, or immersed in a tank.

  12. Charge transport calculations by a wave-packet dynamical approach using maximally localized Wannier functions based on density functional theory: Application to high-mobility organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    We present a wave-packet dynamical approach to charge transport using maximally localized Wannier functions based on density functional theory including van der Waals interactions. We apply it to the transport properties of pentacene and rubrene single crystals and show the temperature-dependent natures from bandlike to thermally activated behaviors as a function of the magnitude of external static disorder. We compare the results with those obtained by the conventional band and hopping models and experiments.

  13. Wave chaos in the stadium: Statistical properties of short-wave solutions of the Helmholtz equation

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1988-04-15

    We numerically investigate statistical properties of short-wavelength normal modes and the spectrum for the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional stadium-shaped region. As the geometrical optics rays within this boundary (billiards) are nonintegrable, this wave problem serves as a simple model for the study of quantum chaos. The local spatial correlation function and the probability distribution P/sub n/(psi) of wave amplitude for normal modes psi/sub n/ are computed and compared with predictions based on semiclassical arguments applied to this nonintegrable Hamiltonian. The spectrum is analyzed in terms of the probability P(..delta..E) of neighboring energy-eigenvalue separations, which is shown to be similar to a Wigner distribution for the eigenvalues of a random matrix

  14. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone--relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density.

    PubMed

    Sierpowska, J; Töyräs, J; Hakulinen, M A; Saarakkala, S; Jurvelin, J S; Lappalainen, R

    2003-03-21

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  15. Properties of Dwarf Ellipticals in Low-Density Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Debnil; Guhathakurta, P.; Toloba, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical galaxies have been studied only in dense cluster environments, where they are the most common type of object. While this suggests that their location affects their formation and evolution, the role of distance is not fully understood. Thus, to investigate the physical processes that shape these galaxies, we have conducted a study of dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in low-density environments to compare their properties with those in clusters. Catalogs of such objects have not been created; thus, we have developed a novel objective method to find new dEs through comparing photometric properties with those of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster Catalog. This method utilizes optical colors, surface brightness and ellipticity, and it confirms smoothness through visual classification. In this last step, we found a very low contamination rate, which suggests the procedure’s utility in finding dEs. Through the NSA Sloan Atlas, we have analyzed the spectrophotometric properties of the dE candidates as a function of distance to the nearest massive galaxy, which we refer to as their host. We have found that these dEs are younger and more actively forming stars than dEs in denser regions. This is consistent with a transformation scenario in which low luminosity spiral galaxies are affected by the environment and transformed into quiescent galaxies. This low density regime contains objects in an intermediate state between the spiral galaxy and the classical dE in Virgo, where no star formation is ongoing. The correlation of the studied properties with the distance to the host galaxy provides new evidence that the dEs are created by a process called ram-pressure stripping: the interstellar medium of a host galaxy removes the gas of a smaller star-forming galaxy and provokes its quenching. We are currently analysing Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of some of the dE candidates from our catalog to explore in more detail their connection to cluster dEs. Possible similarities

  16. Electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons: A density functional investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sandeep Sharma, Hitesh

    2015-05-15

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed on graphene nano ribbons (GNRs) to investigate the electronic properties as a function of chirality, size and hydrogenation on the edges. The calculations were performed on GNRs with armchair and zigzag configurations with 28, 34, 36, 40, 50, 56, 62, 66 carbon atoms. The structural stability of AGNR and ZGNR increases with the size of nanoribbon where as hydrogenation of GNR tends to lowers their structural stability. All GNRs considered have shown semiconducting behavior with HOMO-LUMO gap decreasing with the increase in the GNR size. The hydrogenation of GNR decreases its HOMO-LUMO gap significantly. The results are in agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results.

  17. Multipoint observations of Pc1-2 waves associated with a cold plasma density enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ables, S. T.; Morley, S. K.; Sciffer, M. D.; Fraser, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    During mid-September 2003 the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES-9 observed a number of Pc1-2 (0.1-1 Hz) emissions in the dusk sector, in association with the impact of a high-speed solar wind stream. Localized enhancements in the equatorial cold plasma density were measured by the LANL MPA instrument. For one of these observations, a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, F-13, intersected the same magnetic field-line as GOES-9. We present combined observations from GOES-9 at geostationary orbit, DMSP F-13 in the topside ionosphere, and the magnetic observatory at Chokurdakh (CHD). All three observations show evidence of Pc1-2 band wave activity across a limited region. The left-hand polarization of the waves indicates that these are electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves. In the region of field-line conjunction DMSP also observed high-energy ion precipitation. Using a variety of instruments and a 2.5 dimension MHD model we present a scenario for the generation of these waves and their propagation from geosynchronous orbit, through the ionosphere, to the ground.

  18. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbT e3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; Singh, Manoj; Walmsley, Philip; Fisher, Ian R.; Boyer, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbT e3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298-355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW=0.30 ±0.01 c* . However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. We propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbT e3 . Finally, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.

  19. Investigation of the density wave activity in the thermosphere above 220 KM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illés-Almár, E.; Almár, I.; Bencze, P.

    Based on CACTUS (Capteur Accélérométrique Capacitif Triaxial Ultra Sensible) microaccelerometer measurements it has been demonstrated that - after taking into account all effects included in the MSIS'86=CIRA'86 (COSPAR, 1988) model - there are residual fluctuations in the density of the upper atmosphere much larger than that the accuracy of the measurements can account for. These fluctuations are attributed to some kind of wave activity (Illés-Almár, 1993, Illés-Almár et al. 1996a). The average deviations from a model are considered as a measure of the amplitude of the waves in the atmosphere and are analysed as a function of geomagnetic coordinates, altitude and local solar time, in order to identify possible wave sources either in the lower lying atmosphere or in the thermosphere/ionosphere system. As a first step, the present investigation intends to make a map of the wave pattern by this method.

  20. Propagation of photon-density waves in strongly scattering media containing an absorbing semi-infinite plane bounded by a straight edge

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkin, J.B.; Gratton, E. )

    1993-01-01

    Light propagation in strongly scattering media can be described by the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation. The authors have derived analytical expressions based on the diffusion approximation that describe the photon density in a uniform, infinite, strongly scattering medium that contains a sinusoidally intensity-modulated point source of light. These expressions predit that the photon density will propagate outward from the light source as a spherical wave of constant phase velocity with an amplitude that attenuates with distance r from the source as exp([minus]r)/r. The properties of the photon-density wave are given in terms of the spectral properties of the scattering medium. The authors have used the Green's function obtained from the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation with a sinusoidally modulated point source to derive analytic expressions describing the diffraction and the reflection of photon-density waves from an absorbing and/or reflecting semi-infinite plane bounded by a straight edge immersed in a strongly scattering medium. The analytic expressions given are in agreement with the results of frequency-domain experiments performed in skim-milk media and with Monte Carlo simulations. These studies provide a basis for the understanding of photon diffusion in strongly scattering media in the presence of absorbing and reflecting objects and allow for a determination of the conditions for obtaining maximum resolution and penetration for applications to optical tomography. 20 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.