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Sample records for density wave properties

  1. Dynamical properties of bidirectional charge-density waves in ErTe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinchenko, A. A.; Lejay, P.; Leynaud, O.; Monceau, P.

    2016-06-01

    We report a strong difference in the sliding properties of the bidirectional charge-density wave (CDW) in the two-dimensional rare-earth tritelluride ErTe3 which occurs below TCDW1=265 K with a wave vector along the c axis and below TCDW2=165 K with a wave vector along the a axis; the excess current carried by the motion of the CDW is 10 times less for the lower CDW compared with the value of the upper one. We tentatively explain this result by a stronger pinning of the lower temperature CDW intricated with the upper one, which inhibits its motion and may generate a phase slippage lattice.

  2. Low temperature thermoelectric properties of Cu intercalated TiSe2: a charge density wave material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Ranu; Basu, Ranita; Bhattacharya, S.; Singh, A.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Okram, G. S.; Ganesan, V.; Venkateshwarlu, D.; Surgers, C.; Navaneethan, M.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2013-05-01

    In this communication, we investigate the thermoelectric properties of a charge density wave material TiSe2 upon Cu intercalation. Polycrystalline Cu x TiSe2 ( x=0-0.11) alloys were synthesized using solid state sintering process and their morphological and structural properties were investigated. The material grows in layered morphology and the c-lattice parameter increases linearly with x. The temperature dependent resistivity measured in the 300-5 K range, shows that increasing x leads to a systematic transition from charge density wave state to the metallic state. For x=0.11, the room temperature thermoelectric figure-of-merit is found to be 0.104, which is higher by seven orders in magnitude (i.e. 1.93×10-8) measured for pristine TiSe2 and comparable to the other reported thermoelectric materials. These results show that Cu x TiSe2 are a potential material for the low temperature thermoelectric applications.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of spiral spin-density-wave states in transition-metal chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanveer, M.; Ruiz-Díaz, P.; Pastor, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of one-dimensional (1D) 3 d transition-metal nanowires are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The relative stability of collinear and noncollinear (NC) ground-state magnetic orders in V, Mn, and Fe monoatomic chains is quantified by computing the frozen-magnon dispersion relation Δ E (q ⃗) as a function of the spin-density-wave vector q ⃗. The dependence on the local environment of the atoms is analyzed by varying systematically the lattice parameter a of the chains. Electron correlation effects are explored by comparing local spin-density and generalized-gradient approximations to the exchange and correlation functional. Results are given for Δ E (q ⃗) , the local magnetic moments μ⃗i at atom i , the magnetization-vector density m ⃗(r ⃗) , and the local electronic density of states ρi σ(ɛ ) . The frozen-magnon dispersion relations are analyzed from a local perspective. Effective exchange interactions Ji j between the local magnetic moments μ⃗i and μ⃗j are derived by fitting the ab initio Δ E (q ⃗) to a classical 1D Heisenberg model. The dominant competing interactions Ji j at the origin of the NC magnetic order are identified. The interplay between the various Ji j is revealed as a function of a in the framework of the corresponding magnetic phase diagrams.

  4. On Dispersive Properties of the Photon-Density Waves in an Anisotropic Scattering Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinin, A. G.; Dolin, L. S.

    2016-07-01

    We study frequency dependences of the phase and group velocities of the photon-density waves in an anisotropic scattering turbid medium of the sea water type. It is shown that such a medium has an anomalous dispersion in relation to these waves, and their phase and group velocities are functions of the distance to a radiation source. The possibility of time focusing of the photondensity waves is considered for a linear frequency modulation of the radiated pulse. It is shown that full compression of the modulated signal is not achievable due to the frequency dependence of the refractive index of the photon-density wave. The degree of compression of the chirp signals with different parameters has been estimated.

  5. Global coherence of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André

    2014-06-15

    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  6. Metastability, Adaptability and Memory in Charge Density Waves. I. Resetting Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroyuki

    1989-06-01

    We give a possible interpretation of the adaptation of the charge density waves (CDW) to the pulse fields, which is observed to be accompanied with the memory of the width of the applied pulses (Ido step memory effect). When the identical pulse fields are repeatedly applied, successive state transitions are induced among metastable states. By the numerical simulations with the use of the Fukuyama-Lee-Rice model, we have found that only the state can be a fixed point in the transitions where the sliding motion under the pulse field satisfies a certain condition. Selecting the adequate state for a fixed point, the system adapts itself to the applied pulse width so that the current response has a common regularity regardless of the pulse width.

  7. Density waves in granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Flekkøy, E.; Nagel, K.; Peng, G.; Ristow, G.

    Ample experimental evidence has shown the existence of spontaneous density waves in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that these density fluctuations follow a 1/f spectrum. We compare this behaviour to deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. We also present Lattice Gas and Boltzmann Lattice Models which reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.

  8. Density waves in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Lissauer, J. J.; Shu, F. H.

    1981-08-01

    Certain radial brightness variations in the outer Cassini division of Saturn's rings may be spiral density waves driven by Saturn's large moon Iapetus, in which case a value of approximately 16 g/sq cm for the surface density is calculated in the region where the waves are seen. The kinematic viscosity in the same region is approximately 170 sq cm/s and the vertical scale height of the ring is estimated to be a maximum of approximately 40 m.

  9. Local Structure and Vibrational Properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-U, and the alpha-U Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Booth, C H

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure {alpha}-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}'-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}'-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  10. Plane wave density functional theory studies of the structural and the electronic properties of amino acids attached to graphene oxide via peptide bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byeong June; Jeong, Hae Kyung; Lee, ChangWoo

    2015-08-01

    We studied via plane wave pseudopotential total-energy calculations within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) the electronic and the structural properties of amino acids (alanine, glycine, and histidine) attached to graphene oxide (GO) by peptide bonding. The HOMO-LUMO gap, the Hirshfeld charges, and the equilibrium geometrical structures exhibit distinctive variations that depend on the species of the attached amino acid. The GO-amino acid system appears to be a good candidate for a biosensor.

  11. Optical Properties of the Charge-Density-Wave Polychalcogenide Compounds R2Te5 (R=Nd, Sm and Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuner, F.; Degiorgi, L.; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the rare-earth polychalcogenide R{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (R = Nd, Sm and Gd) charge-density-wave (CDW) compounds by optical methods. From the absorption spectrum we extract the excitation energy of the CDW gap and estimate the fraction of the Fermi surface which is gapped by the formation of the CDW condensate. In analogy to previous findings on the related RTe{sub n} (n = 2 and 3) families, we establish the progressive closing of the CDW gap and the moderate enhancement of the metallic component upon chemically compressing the lattice.

  12. Nonlinear density waves in planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borderies, Nicole; Goldreich, Peter; Tremaine, Scott

    1986-01-01

    The steady-state structure of planetary rings in the presence of density waves at the Lindblad resonances of a satellite is indicated. The study is based on the dispersion relation and damping rate for nonlinear density waves, derived by Shu et al. (1985) and by Borderies, Goldreich, and Tremaine (1985). It is shown that strong density waves lead to an enhancement of the background surface density in the wave zone.

  13. Investigation of microalgae with photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankovitch, Christine; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2007-09-01

    Phototropic microalgae have a large potential for producing valuable substances for the feed, food, cosmetics, pigment, bioremediation, and pharmacy industries as well as for biotechnological processes. Today it is estimated that the microalgal aquaculture worldwide production is 5000 tons of dry matter per year (not taking into account processed products) making it an approximately $1.25 billion U.S. per year industry. For effective observation of the photosynthetic growth processes, fast on-line sensor systems that analyze the relevant biological and technical process parameters are preferred. The optical properties of the microalgae culture influence the transport of light in the photobioreactor and can be used to extract relevant information for efficient cultivation practices. Microalgae cultivation media show a combination of light absorption and scattering, which are influenced by the concentrations and the physical and chemical properties of the different absorbing and scattering species (e.g. pigments, cell components, etc.). Investigations with frequency domain photon density waves (PDW) allow for the examination of absorption and scattering properties of turbid media, namely the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The reduced scattering coefficient can be used to characterize physical and morphological properties of the medium, including the cell concentration, whereas the absorption coefficient correlates with the pigment content. Nannochloropsis oculata, a single-cell species of microalgae, were examined in a nutrient solution with photon density waves. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were experimentally determined throughout the cultivation process, and applied to gain information about the cell concentration and average cell radius.

  14. On the Extraordinary Propagation of the Janus 2:1 Density Wave: Synergy between Density Waves and Viscous Overstability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.; Albers, Nicole; Esposito, Larry W.

    2016-10-01

    The effective damping produced by particle collisions prevents most spiral density waves in Saturn's rings from propagating more than about 100 km from their resonance location. The Janus 2:1 density wave defies the usual behavior and appears to alternatively grow and decay in amplitude repeatedly as it propagates into regions of larger mean optical depth before finally disappearing over 500 km from the resonance location. Borderies et al. (1985) suggested that the effective viscous coefficients in dense rings might lead to wave growth rather than damping. Salo et al. (2001) used N-body simulations to constrain the surface density dependence of the shear and bulk viscosity in the rings and applied them to the study of axisymmetric viscous overstable waves. We modify the formalism used by Latter and Ogilvie (2009) to model the nonlinear propagation of viscous overstable waves and apply it to model the propagation of the Janus 2:1 density wave. Normal optical depth profiles obtained from Cassini UVIS observations of stellar occultations are used to constrain the mean optical depth variation with ring radius as well as the variation of the wave amplitude. We find that the viscous overstability can indeed explain how the wave amplitude can alternately grow and decay repeatedly as the wave propagates into higher optical depth regions. Detailed modeling of the Janus 2:1 density wave profile should allow us to place new constraints on the viscous properties of Saturn's inner B ring.

  15. ARPES study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 ( R=Y , La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Brouet, Veronique; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Hussain, Zahid; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, R.

    2008-01-16

    We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal"textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDWinstabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that theband structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tinorbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDWinteraction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n (EF), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  16. Angle-resolved photoemission study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 (R= Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Brouet, V.; Yang, W.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z.; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.

    2010-02-15

    We present a detailed ARPES investigation of the RTe{sub 3} family, which sets this system as an ideal 'textbook' example for the formation of a nesting driven Charge Density Wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi Surface (FS) (up to 0.4eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k-space. An additional advantage of RTe{sub 3} is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple 2D tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure, by comparing our ARPES measurements with Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and, for the first time, of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k-space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(Ef), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  17. Density wave theory. [interstellar gas dynamics and galactic shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The prospect that density waves and galactic shock waves are present on the large scale in disk shaped galaxies has received support in recent years from both theoretical and observational studies. Large-scale galactic shock waves in the interstellar gas are suggested to play an important governing role in star formation, molecule formation, and the degree of development of spiral structure. Through the dynamics of the interstellar gas and the galactic shock-wave phenomenon, a new insight into the physical basis underlying the morphological classification system of galaxies is suggested.

  18. Density Shock Waves in Confined Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Motile and driven particles confined in microfluidic channels exhibit interesting emergent behavior, from propagating density bands to density shock waves. A deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for these emergent structures is relevant to a number of physical and biomedical applications. Here, we study the formation of density shock waves in the context of an idealized model of microswimmers confined in a narrow channel and subject to a uniform external flow. Interestingly, these density shock waves exhibit a transition from "subsonic" with compression at the back to "supersonic" with compression at the front of the population as the intensity of the external flow increases. This behavior is the result of a nontrivial interplay between hydrodynamic interactions and geometric confinement, and it is confirmed by a novel quasilinear wave model that properly captures the dependence of the shock formation on the external flow. These findings can be used to guide the development of novel mechanisms for controlling the emergent density distribution and the average population speed, with potentially profound implications on various processes in industry and biotechnology, such as the transport and sorting of cells in flow channels.

  19. Density Wave Signatures In VIMS Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, M. M.; Cassini VIMS Team

    2012-10-01

    Spectral scans of Saturn's rings by the Cassini VIMS instrument have revealed both regional and local variations in the depths of the water ice bands at 1.5 and 2.0 microns, which have been interpreted in terms of variations in regolith grain size and the amount of non-icy "contaminants" (Filacchione et al. 2012; Hedman et al. 2012). Noteworthy among the local variations are distinctive patterns associated with the four strong density waves in the A ring. Within each wavetrain there is a peak in band strength relative to the surrounding material, while extending on both sides of the wave is a "halo" of reduced band strength. The typical width of these haloes is 400-500 km, about 2-3 times the visible extent of the density waves. The origin of these features is unknown, but may involve enhanced collisional erosion in the wave zones and transport of the smaller debris into nearby regions. A similar pattern of band depth variations is also seen at several locations in the more opaque B ring in association with the strong 3:2 ILRs of Janus, Pandora and Prometheus. The former shows a pattern just like its siblings in the A ring, while the latter two resonances show haloes, but without central peaks. In each case, the radial widths of the halo approaches 1000 km, but stellar occultation profiles show no detectable density wavetrain. We suggest that this spectral signature may be a useful diagnostic for the presence of strong density waves in regions where the rings are too opaque for occultations to reveal a typical wave profile. More speculatively, the displacement of the haloes' central radii from the calculated ILR locations of 600-700 km could imply a surface density in the central B ring in excess of 500 g/cm^2. This research was supported by the Cassini/Huygens project.

  20. Doping-induced Charge-Density-Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Atsushi; Yamaya, Kazuhiko; Takayanagi, Shigeru; Ichimura, Koichi; Matsuura, Toru; Tanda, Satoshi; Hokkaido University Team

    Doping is a useful method for searching new characters in solids, as we can see in the discoveries of impurity semiconductors and high-temperature superconductors. If a Charge-Density-Wave (CDW) is induced in materials which do not exhibit a CDW, new CDW properties might be brought there. TaSe3 exhibits no CDW transition but a superconductivity transition at about 2 K while it has a quasi-one-dimensional chain structure as well as typical CDW conductors, NbSe3, TaS3, and NbS3. Therefore, TaSe3 is one of the suitable materials for the induction of a CDW by doping, and we tried to induce a CDW in TaSe3 by doping Cu. Cu concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The high Cu concentration was consistent with the high value of residual resistance (R (4 . 5 K) / (R (280 K) - R (4 . 5 K))). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) showed an expansion of the c-axis in Cu-doped TaSe3. The temperature dependence of the resistivity showed the anomaly at 80-100 K in Cu-doped TaSe3, which was never observed in pure TaSe3. These results suggest that the Cu-doping induces a CDW. We will discuss the relation between the resistivity anomaly and superconductivity.

  1. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wang Zhehui; Hou Lujing; Jiang Ke; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.; Wu Dejin

    2010-06-16

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  2. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhelchui; Li, Yang - Fang; Hou, Lujing; Jiang, Ke; Wu, De - Jin; Thomas, Hubertus M; Morfill, Gregor E

    2010-01-01

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  3. Obliquely propagating dust-density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.

    2008-02-15

    Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models.

  4. Density waves in the Calogero model - revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bardek, V. Feinberg, J. Meljanac, S.

    2010-03-15

    The Calogero model bears, in the continuum limit, collective excitations in the form of density waves and solitary modulations of the density of particles. This sector of the spectrum of the model was investigated, mostly within the framework of collective-field theory, by several authors, over the past 15 years or so. In this work we shall concentrate on periodic solutions of the collective BPS-equation (also known as 'finite amplitude density waves'), as well as on periodic solutions of the full static variational equations which vanish periodically (also known as 'large amplitude density waves'). While these solutions are not new, we feel that our analysis and presentation add to the existing literature, as we explain in the text. In addition, we show that these solutions also occur in a certain two-family generalization of the Calogero model, at special points in parameter space. A compendium of useful identities associated with Hilbert transforms, including our own proofs of these identities, appears in Appendix A. In Appendix B we also elucidate in the present paper some fine points having to do with manipulating Hilbert-transforms, which appear ubiquitously in the collective field formalism. Finally, in order to make this paper self-contained, we briefly summarize in Appendix C basic facts about the collective field formulation of the Calogero model.

  5. Magnetic properties of the charge density wave compounds RTe3, R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er & Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, N.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    The antiferromagnetic transition is investigated in the rare-earth (R) tritelluride RTe{sub 3} family of charge density wave (CDW) compounds via specific heat, magnetization and resistivity measurements. Observation of the opening of a superzone gap in the resistivity of DyTe{sub 3} indicates that additional nesting of the reconstructed Fermi surface in the CDW state plays an important role in determining the magnetic structure.

  6. Interplay of pair density wave and charge density wave order in the cuprate pseudogap phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agterberg, Daniel; Amin, Adil

    Recent x-ray measurements in the cuprate YBCO suggest that the charge density wave (CDW) order seen at high-field has a different c-axis structure than that seen at zero-field and further suggests that CDW order breaks the c-axis mirror plane symmetry of the CuO2 layers. We examine pair density wave order that induces CDW order consistent with these observations.

  7. Excitation of turbulence by density waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tichen, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear system describes the microdynamical state of turbulence that is excited by density waves. It consists of an equation of propagation and a master equation. A group-scaling generates the scaled equations of many interacting groups of distribution functions. The two leading groups govern the transport processes of evolution and eddy diffusivity. The remaining sub-groups represent the relaxation for the approach of diffusivity to equilibrium. In strong turbulence, the sub-groups disperse themselves and the ensemble acts like a medium that offers an effective damping to close the hierarchy. The kinetic equation of turbulence is derived. It calculates the eddy viscosity and identifies the effective damping of the assumed medium self-consistently. It formulates the coupling mechanism for the intensification of the turbulent energy at the expense of the wave energy, and the transfer mechanism for the cascade. The spectra of velocity and density fluctuations find the power law k sup-2 and k sup-4, respectively.

  8. Transport and Structure of Charge Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicarlo, David Anthony

    Experimental studies are presented concerning the transport properties and structure of charge-density waves (CDWs) in rm NbSe_3 and rm K_{0.3}MoO_3. Transport measurements were performed to determine how charged impurities affect the CDW and how the narrow -band noise is created in sliding CDWs. Ti-doped rm NbSe_3 is shown to have a weakly pinned CDW even though Ti is incorporated as a charged impurity. The narrow-band-noise amplitude versus sample volume and impurity concentration is consistent with the narrow-band-noise being generated in the bulk by impurities and a weakly pinned CDW. X-ray scattering measurements were performed to determine how impurities, temperature, normal carriers, and electric fields affect the CDW structure. The periodic CDW scatters x-rays and the sharpness of the scattering is a reflection of the CDW structure. The CDW correlation function and its characteristic length are determined through the competition between the disordering impurity forces and the ordering elastic forces. Added impurities and high temperatures decrease the correlations by increasing the disorder forces and decreasing the CDW order parameter Delta , respectively. For rm NbSe_3, the correlation length l was much greater than the average impurity spacing and depends on impurity density n _{i} and temperature as l ~ Delta^2/n_{i}. In addition, the CDW correlation function decays exponentially in real space; ~ e^{-| {bf r}| /l}. These results are consistent with weak pinning. In rm K_{0.3}MoO _3, the CDW exhibits a different structure than that in rm NbSe_3. Changes occur in the correlation function and peak width at low temperatures. These are possibly due to the freeze out of normal carriers in semiconducting rm K _{0.3}MoO_3.. Longitudinal CDW deformations are observed when the CDW was driven by an external electric field. The electric field, temperature, and position dependence of these deformations are consistent with those required for CDW

  9. Star-gas density waves in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Balbus, Steven A.

    1986-01-01

    The steady state dynamics of spiral galaxies is analyzed as a two-component system consisting of stars and gas within the framework of the WKB density wave theory. The gravitational influence of the gas is included for the first time in a steady state calculation. The full set of equations for a star-gas galaxy is presented, and the equations are analyzed for small-amplitude forcing. Wave properties near the solar circle are examined, and it is found that the large-scale gas shock disappears for gas content above 8 percent. Instead, gas density profiles change to highly symmetric shapes as a result of the action of the gas self-gravity. The stellar wave is damped by the torque exerted by the gas.

  10. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  11. Solar-Driven Neutral Density Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, P.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms flowing into the solar system are attracted by the solar gravitational force, repelled by solar hydrogen Ly-alpha radiation pressure, and are ionized, primarily, through charge exchange with the solar wind protons. The solar cycle variation of the radiation pressure causes the net central solar force to fluctuate between attraction and repulsion resulting in the modulation of the neutral hydrogen density about the usual time independent model. The calculation presented here shows that the time dependent downstream density is strongly modulated by a large number of travelling neutral density waves. The waves possess a continuous range of wavelengths as is to be expected for a Maxwellian gas subjected to several eleven year cycle variations during its journey through the solar system. The amplitudes of the density modulation were found to be quite large. The backscattered glow was found to depend on the position of the detector and the phase of the solar cycle. At the most favorable condition a deviation of the order of 25% from the time dependent glow might be observed.

  12. Wave-function functionals for the density

    SciTech Connect

    Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-11-15

    We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

  13. Complex density of a suspension in an oscillatiory wave process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotovskii, V. S.; Orlov, A. I.; Lunina, S. V.; Pil'shchikova, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The effective viscous inertia properties exhibited by suspensions in the presence of oscillatory wave processes are considered. A cell model of a concentrated suspension is used to derive the dependence for the complex density, whose real and imaginary parts characterize the effective inertia and the bulk viscous resistance to oscillatory motion, respectively. From hydrodynamic models of low-frequency and high-frequency translatory oscillations of spherical inclusions in the host liquid, estimates are obtained for the internal dynamic parameters of the suspension, namely, the apparent mass factor and the inclusion relaxation time, which specify the general formulas for the complex density.

  14. Quantum mechanisms of density wave transport.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Wijesinghe, Asanga I

    2012-06-01

    We report on new developments in the quantum picture of correlated electron transport in charge and spin density waves. The model treats the condensate as a quantum fluid in which charge soliton domain wall pairs nucleate above a Coulomb blockade threshold field. We employ a time-correlated soliton tunneling model, analogous to the theory of time-correlated single electron tunneling, to interpret the voltage oscillations and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics above threshold. An inverse scaling relationship between threshold field and dielectric response, originally proposed by Grüner, emerges naturally from the model. Flat dielectric and other ac responses below threshold in NbSe(3) and TaS(3), as well as small density wave phase displacements, indicate that the measured threshold is often much smaller than the classical depinning field. In some materials, the existence of two distinct threshold fields suggests that both soliton nucleation and classical depinning may occur. In our model, the ratio of electrostatic charging to pinning energy helps determine whether soliton nucleation or classical depinning dominates. PMID:22711979

  15. Quantum mechanisms of density wave transport

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Wijesinghe, Asanga I.

    2012-01-01

    We report on new developments in the quantum picture of correlated electron transport in charge and spin density waves. The model treats the condensate as a quantum fluid in which charge soliton domain wall pairs nucleate above a Coulomb blockade threshold field. We employ a time-correlated soliton tunneling model, analogous to the theory of time-correlated single electron tunneling, to interpret the voltage oscillations and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics above threshold. An inverse scaling relationship between threshold field and dielectric response, originally proposed by Grüner, emerges naturally from the model. Flat dielectric and other ac responses below threshold in NbSe3 and TaS3, as well as small density wave phase displacements, indicate that the measured threshold is often much smaller than the classical depinning field. In some materials, the existence of two distinct threshold fields suggests that both soliton nucleation and classical depinning may occur. In our model, the ratio of electrostatic charging to pinning energy helps determine whether soliton nucleation or classical depinning dominates. PMID:22711979

  16. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-12-15

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  17. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  18. Photoemission spectra of charge density wave states in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Chen, Peng-Jen; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy(ARPES) experiments have reported many exotic properties of cuprates, such as Fermi arc at normal state, two gaps at superconducting state and particle-hole asymmetry at the antinodal direction. On the other hand, a number of inhomogeneous states or so-called charge density waves(CDW) states have also been discovered in cuprates by many experimental groups. The relation between these CDW states and ARPES spectra is unclear. With the help of Gutzwiller projected mean-field theory, we can reproduce the quasiparticle spectra in momentum space. The spectra show strong correspondence to the experimental data with afore-mentioned exotic features in it.

  19. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; André, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of datamore » from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.« less

  20. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; André, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of data from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.

  1. Ducted kinetic Alfven waves in plasma with steep density gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Houshmandyar, Saeid; Scime, Earl E.

    2011-11-15

    Given their high plasma density (n {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), it is theoretically possible to excite Alfven waves in a conventional, moderate length (L {approx} 2 m) helicon plasma source. However, helicon plasmas are decidedly inhomogeneous, having a steep radial density gradient, and typically have a significant background neutral pressure. The inhomogeneity introduces regions of kinetic and inertial Alfven wave propagation. Ion-neutral and electron-neutral collisions alter the Alfven wave dispersion characteristics. Here, we present the measurements of propagating kinetic Alfven waves in helium helicon plasma. The measured wave dispersion is well fit with a kinetic model that includes the effects of ion-neutral damping and that assumes the high density plasma core defines the radial extent of the wave propagation region. The measured wave amplitude versus plasma radius is consistent with the pile up of wave magnetic energy at the boundary between the kinetic and inertial regime regions.

  2. Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    We address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings.Already by Goldreich and Tremaine (1978) it has been argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring's viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper (Schmidt et al. 2016) we have pointed out that when - within a fluid description of the ring dynamics - the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping.We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model.This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts linear instability of density waves in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. In this case, sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. In general the model wave damping lengths depend on a set of input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability and the ground state surface mass density.Our new model compares reasonably well with the streamline model for nonlinear density waves of Borderies et al. 1986.Deviations become substantial in the highly nonlinear regime, corresponding to strong satellite forcing.Nevertheless, we generally observe good or at least qualitative agreement between the wave amplitude profiles of both models. The streamline approach is superior at matching the total wave profile of waves observed in Saturn's rings, while our new damping relation is a comparably handy tool to gain insight in the evolution of the wave amplitude with distance from resonance, and the different regimes of

  3. STANDING WAVE PROBES FOR DIMENSIONAL METROLOGY OF LOW DENSITY FOAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Woody, S C; Bauza, M B

    2010-03-23

    Typically, parts and geometries of interest to LLNL are made from a combination of complex geometries and a wide array of different materials ranging from metals and ceramics to low density foams and plastic foils. These parts are combined to develop physics experiments for studying material properties, equation of state (EOS) and radiation transport. Understanding the dimensional uncertainty of the parts contained within an experiment is critical to the physical understanding of the phenomena being observed and represents the motivation for developing probe metrology capability that can address LLNL's unique problems. Standing wave probes were developed for measuring high aspect ratio, micrometer scaled features with nanometer resolution. Originally conceived of for the use in the automotive industry for characterizing fuel injector bores and similar geometries, this concept was investigated and improved for use on geometries and materials important to LLNL needs within target fabrication. As part of the original project, detailed understanding of the probe dynamics and interactions with the surface of the sample was investigated. In addition, the upgraded system was utilized for measuring fuel injector bores and micro-lenses as a means of demonstrating capability. This report discusses the use of the standing wave probe for measuring features in low density foams, 55 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} and 982 mg/cc (%6 relative density) copper foam respectively. These two foam materials represent a difficult metrology challenge because of their material properties and surface topography. Traditional non-contact metrology systems such as normal incident interferometry and/or confocal microscopy have difficulty obtaining a signal from the relatively absorptive characteristics of these materials. In addition to the foam samples, a solid copper and plastic (Rexolite{trademark}) sample of similar geometry was measured with the standing wave probe as a reference for both conductive and

  4. Density gradient effects on transverse shear driven lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, Ami M.; Thomas, Edward; Amatucci, William E.; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2014-06-15

    Shear driven instabilities are commonly observed in the near-Earth space, particularly in boundary layer plasmas. When the shear scale length (L{sub E}) is much less than the ion gyro-radius (ρ{sub i}) but greater than the electron gyro-radius (ρ{sub e}), the electrons are magnetized in the shear layer, but the ions are effectively un-magnetized. The resulting shear driven instability, the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, is investigated in a new interpenetrating plasma configuration in the Auburn Linear EXperiment for Instability Studies. In order to understand the dynamics of magnetospheric boundary layers, the EIH instability is studied in the presence of a density gradient located at the boundary layer between two plasmas. This paper reports on a recent experiment in which electrostatic lower hybrid waves are identified as the EIH instability, and the effect of a density gradient on the instability properties are investigated.

  5. The diamagnetic charge-density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil; Mielke, Charles H.; Balicas, Luis; Brooks, James S.; Tokumoto, M.

    2001-03-01

    Organic charge-transfer salts of the form α-(BEDT-TTF)_2MHg(SCN)4 (with M= K or Tl) possess exotic charge-density wave (CDW) ground states. The low transition temperature T_p ~ 8 K implies that the low temperature ground state is characterized by an order parameter (Δ ~ 2 meV) that is exceptionally small for a CDW, making it especially vulnerable both to magnetic fields and to oscillatory chemical potentials. Notably, this is probably the only CDW system for which the Pauli paramagnetic limit (B_P ~ 23 T) is accessed in DC magnetic fields. Above this field, theory predicts a new CDWx phase that is expected to be a modulated CDW phase for which the Q vector continually shifts with B or a CDW-SDW hybrid phase. A high magnetic field phase that is thermodynamically consistent with the theory is observed experimentally, but does not resemble a CDW (or a spin-density wave (SDW) for that matter) in any way. One of the first unusual effects that was observed is the apparent induction of currents in pulsed magnetic fields. These have since been confirmed to be real currents by measurement of their AC susceptibility in DC magnetic fields. They have also been observed in strictly DC magnetic fields by means of magnetic torque. This means that the currents are persistent. These currents exhibit hysteretic magnetic phenomena (i.e. a Bean model-like critical state) closely resembling that of extreme type II superconductors. While the time-, temperature- and field-dependence of the currents is sensitive to the location of the chemical potential with respect to the Landau levels of the 2D Fermi surface pocket (that happens to survive the CDW order), they do occur at all fields above 23 T, irrespective of the Landau level filling factor. This rules out the involvement of the QHE. Furthermore, the resistivity is observed to drop abruptly below 2-3 K for constant magnetic fields above 23 T, particularly at integral Landau level filling factors, where the resistivity drops by as

  6. Density waves in a system of non-interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmes, E. J.; Geyko, V. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    An ensemble of non-interacting bouncing balls being acted on by a constant gravitational force, starting at rest from a uniform density distribution, will develop a structure of sharply peaked density waves. We describe these waves by computing the density profile of such a system analytically, and we find that the analytical results are in good agreement with numerical findings. We suggest that in a real system, these density waves could be used to produce measurements of the strength of a gravitational field.

  7. Decay of Bloch oscillations in the charge-density-wave ordered phase of an all electronic charge density wave state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Oleg; Shvaika, Andrij; Devereaux, Thomas; Freericks, James

    The charge-density-wave phase of the Falicov-Kimball model displays a number of anomalous behavior including the appearance of subgap density of states as the temperature increases. These subgap states should have a significant impact on transport properties, particularly the nonlinear response of the system to a large dc electric field. Using the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism, we employ nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to exactly solve for this nonlinear response. We examine both the current and the order parameter of the conduction electrons as the ordered system is driven by a dc electric field. Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine.

  8. Laboratory Study of Nonlinear Trapping of Magnetized Langmuir Waves Inside a Density Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Starodubtsev, Mikhail V.; Nazarov, Vladimir V.; Kostrov, Alexander V.

    2007-05-11

    The formation of a small-scale plasma density depletion region extended along the ambient magnetic field and caused by the nonlinear interaction of the upper-hybrid plasma waves with a magnetoplasma has been observed under laboratory conditions modeling the ionospheric heating experiments. Plasma waves are trapped inside the depletion due to their specific dispersion properties. The threshold of the nonlinear wave trapping significantly increases in the vicinity of the harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency.

  9. Drift wave turbulence in the presence of a dust density gradient.

    PubMed

    Kendl, A; Shukla, P K

    2011-10-01

    We present turbulent properties of electrostatic drift waves in a nonuniform collisional plasma composed of magnetized electrons and ions in the presence of immobile dust particles. For this purpose, we derive a pair of nonlinear quasi-two-dimensional equations exhibiting the coupling between the generalized ion vorticity and the density fluctuations associated with collisional drift waves. The effect of a dust density gradient on the initial drift instability and fully developed turbulence is examined numerically. PMID:22181281

  10. Probing density waves in fluidized granular media with diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Philip; Reinhold, Steffen; Sperl, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Density waves are characteristic for fluidized beds and affect measurements on liquidlike dynamics in fluidized granular media. Here the intensity autocorrelation function as obtainable with diffusing-wave spectroscopy is derived in the presence of density waves. The predictions by the derived form of the intensity autocorrelation function match experimental observations from a gas-fluidized bed. The model suggests separability of the contribution from density waves from the contribution by microscopic scatterer displacement to the decay of correlation and thus paves the way for characterizing microscopic particle motions using diffusing-wave spectroscopy as well as heterogeneities in fluidized granular media.

  11. Continuous Dependence on the Density for Stratified Steady Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Robin Ming; Walsh, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    There are two distinct regimes commonly used to model traveling waves in stratified water: continuous stratification, where the density is smooth throughout the fluid, and layer-wise continuous stratification, where the fluid consists of multiple immiscible strata. The former is the more physically accurate description, but the latter is frequently more amenable to analysis and computation. By the conservation of mass, the density is constant along the streamlines of the flow; the stratification can therefore be specified by prescribing the value of the density on each streamline. We call this the streamline density function. Our main result states that, for every smoothly stratified periodic traveling wave in a certain small-amplitude regime, there is an L ∞ neighborhood of its streamline density function such that, for any piecewise smooth streamline density function in that neighborhood, there is a corresponding traveling wave solution. Moreover, the mapping from streamline density function to wave is Lipschitz continuous in a certain function space framework. As this neighborhood includes piecewise smooth densities with arbitrarily many jump discontinues, this theorem provides a rigorous justification for the ubiquitous practice of approximating a smoothly stratified wave by a layered one. We also discuss some applications of this result to the study of the qualitative features of such waves.

  12. {alpha}-cluster structure and density waves in oblate nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2011-07-15

    Pentagon and triangle shapes in {sup 28}Si and {sup 12}C are discussed in relation to nuclear density waves. In the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics calculations, the K{sup {pi}=}5{sup -} band in {sup 28}Si and the K{sup {pi}=}3{sup -} band in {sup 12}C are described by the pentagon and triangle shapes, respectively. These negative-parity bands can be interpreted as the parity partners of the K{sup {pi}=}0{sup +} ground bands and they are constructed from the parity-asymmetric-intrinsic states. The pentagon and the triangle shapes originate in 7{alpha}- and 3{alpha}-cluster structures, respectively. In a mean-field picture, they are described also by the static one-dimensional density waves at the edge of the oblate states. In analyses with ideal {alpha}-cluster models using Brink-Bloch cluster wave functions and that with a simplified model, we show that the static edge density waves for the pentagon and triangle shapes can be understood by spontaneous breaking of axial symmetry, i.e., the instability of the oblate states with respect to the edge density waves. The density wave is enhanced in the Z=N nuclei due to the proton-neutron coherent density waves, while it is suppressed in Z{ne}N nuclei.

  13. Nonlinear upper hybrid waves and the induced density irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-08-15

    Upper hybrid waves are excited parametrically by the O-mode high-frequency heater waves in the ionospheric heating experiments. These waves grow to large amplitudes and self-induced density perturbations provide nonlinear feedback. The lower hybrid resonance modifies the nonlinear feedback driven by the ponderomotive force; the nonlinear equation governing the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is derived. Solutions in symmetric alternating functions, in non-alternating periodic functions, as well as in solitary functions are shown. The impact of lower hybrid resonance on the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is explored; the results show that both the spatial period and amplitude are enlarged. The average fluctuation level of induced density irregularities is also enhanced. In the soliton form, the induced density cavity is widened considerably.

  14. Magnetic Fluctuations in Pair-Density-Wave Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Morten H; Jacobsen, Henrik; Maier, Thomas A; Andersen, Brian M

    2016-04-22

    Pair-density-wave superconductivity constitutes a novel electronic condensate proposed to be realized in certain unconventional superconductors. Establishing its potential existence is important for our fundamental understanding of superconductivity in correlated materials. Here we compute the dynamical magnetic susceptibility in the presence of a pair-density-wave ordered state and study its fingerprints on the spin-wave spectrum including the neutron resonance. In contrast to the standard case of d-wave superconductivity, we show that the pair-density-wave phase exhibits neither a spin gap nor a magnetic resonance peak, in agreement with a recent neutron scattering experiment on underdoped La_{1.905}Ba_{0.095}CuO_{4} [Z. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177002 (2014)]. PMID:27152819

  15. Hydromagnetic wave heating of the low-density interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferriere, Katia M.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Shull, J. Michael

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for supernova remnant sources of MHD waves is used to calculate the energy spectrum of waves in the intercloud medium and the heating rate resulting from their dissipation. Models of thermal phases of interstellar gas in ionization and thermal equilibrium are then constructed, and it is demonstrated that wave dissipation can be an important heating mechanism which can account for the observed high H I temperatures in low-density (intercloud) neutral gas.

  16. Spatial Frequency Clustering in Nonlinear Dust-Density Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, K. O.; Arp, O.; Piel, A.

    2010-06-11

    Self-excited density waves were studied in a strongly coupled dusty plasma of a radio-frequency discharge under microgravity conditions. The spatiotemporal evolution of the complicated three-dimensional wave field was investigated and analyzed for two different situations. The reconstructed instantaneous phase information of the wave field revealed a partial synchronization within multiple distinct domains. The boundaries of these regions coincide with the locations of topological defects.

  17. Propagation of terahertz waves in an atmospheric pressure microplasma with Epstein electron density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Zhang, Jingwen W.; Sun Hongguo; Wang He; Du Yanwei; Xiang Xiaoli

    2011-03-15

    Propagation properties of terahertz (THz) waves in a bounded atmospheric-pressure microplasma (AMP) are analyzed in this study. A modified Epstein profile model is used to simulate the electron density distribution caused by the plasma sheaths. By introducing the dielectric constant of a Drude-Lorentz model and using the method of dividing the plasma into a series of subslabs with uniform electron density, the coefficients of power reflection, transmission, and absorption are derived for a bounded microplasma structure. The effects of size of microplasma, electron density profile, and collision frequency on the propagation of THz waves are analyzed numerically. The results indicate that the propagation of THz waves in AMPs depend greatly on the above three parameters. It is demonstrated that the THz wave can play an important role in AMPs diagnostics; meanwhile, the AMP can be used as a novel potential tool to control THz wave propagation.

  18. Core thresholds and charge-density waves in alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, P. A.; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1988-07-01

    We have determined experimental upper limits on any broadening which could be due to a charge-density wave in Na and K metal soft x-ray-absorption and emisssion spectra. The upper limit for absorption in Na is a factor of 4 below the expected theoretical value. These results contradict expectations based on the present theory of charge-density waves in alkali metals.

  19. A traveling feature in Janus spiral density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehnberg, Morgan; Esposito, Larry W.; Brown, Zarah L.; Sremčević, Miodrag; Albers, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    Every 4.0 years on 21 January, the Saturnian co-orbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus move radially and switch relative positions. This swap also alters the locations of the resonances within the rings corresponding to these moons. In stellar occultations by the A and B rings observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph’s High Speed Photometer between 2005 and 2015, we report the detection of many density-wave interference structures as a result of these orbital swaps.Most prominent in the Janus 2:1, 4:3, 5:4, and 6:5 resonance regions is a soliton-like traveling wave which propagates through the rings. This wave moves at approximately twice the group velocity of the A-ring spiral density waves and at a similar velocity to that of the Janus 2:1 density wave in the B ring. The optical depth of the B ring near the Janus 3:2 spiral density wave is too great for it to be visible and no similar traveling features were detected within three Mimas and Prometheus density waves.

  20. Optimization design of a Lamb wave device for density sensing of nonviscous liquid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijun; Li, Lianger; Shi, Wenkang; Guo, Huawei

    2007-10-01

    A Lamb wave device composed of a piezoelectric plate loaded with a nonviscous liquid layer is presented. The relation between the Lamb wave phase velocity and the liquid density can be used for liquid density sensing. In this paper, utilizing the partial wave theory, the concept of effective permittivity is introduced to analyze the Lamb wave's excitation and the phase velocity calculation under a certain liquid density. The interface between the Lamb wave device and the liquid layer is metallized to eliminate the influence of liquid electrical properties when sensing liquid density. Based on the theory model, the phase difference measurement method is adopted to study the device's sensitivity to liquid density. In order to achieve high sensitivity to liquid density with sufficient excitation efficiency of Lamb wave, the optimal parameters of the Lamb wave device including plate thickness and cut orientation are obtained by numerical calculation. The experimental results are found to be in agreement with the theoretical simulations, verifying the validity of the theory model and the practicability of the optimization design.

  1. GyPSuM: A Detailed Tomographic Model of Mantle Density and Seismic Wave Speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, N A; Forte, A M; Boschi, L; Grand, S P

    2010-03-30

    GyPSuM is a tomographic model fo mantle seismic shear wave (S) speeds, compressional wave (P) speeds and detailed density anomalies that drive mantle flow. the model is developed through simultaneous inversion of seismic body wave travel times (P and S) and geodynamic observations while considering realistic mineral physics parameters linking the relative behavior of mantle properties (wave speeds and density). Geodynamic observations include the (up to degree 16) global free-air gravity field, divergence of the tectonic plates, dynamic topography of the free surface, and the flow-induced excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. GyPSuM is built with the philosophy that heterogeneity that most closely resembles thermal variations is the simplest possible solution. Models of the density field from Earth's free oscillations have provided great insight into the density configuration of the mantle; but are limited to very long-wavelength solutions. Alternatively, simply scaling higher resolution seismic images to density anomalies generates density fields that do not satisfy geodynamic observations. The current study provides detailed density structures in the mantle while directly satisfying geodynamic observations through a joint seismic-geodynamic inversion process. Notable density field observations include high-density piles at the base of the superplume structures, supporting the fundamental results of past normal mode studies. However, these features are more localized and lower amplitude than past studies would suggest. When we consider all seismic anomalies in GyPSuM, we find that P and S-wave speeds are strongly correlated throughout the mantle. However, correlations between the high-velocity S zones in the deep mantle ({approx} 2000 km depth) and corresponding P-wave anomalies are very low suggesting a systematic divergence from simplified thermal effects in ancient subducted slab anomalies. Nevertheless, they argue that temperature variations are the

  2. Formation of density waves in traffic flow through intersecting roads.

    PubMed

    Ray, B; Bhattacharyya, S N

    2006-03-01

    The formation of density waves in two intersecting roads, with a traffic circle at the intersection, is studied. It is found that, depending on the traffic densities in the two roads, density waves can form in the traffic circle and in one or both of the roads. Depending on the expression chosen for the optimal velocity, either the congestion moves entirely to the traffic circle or the congestion becomes confined to the traffic circle and a part of the road approaching the traffic circle.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Low-Density Shock-Wave Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    1999-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations of low-density shock-wave interactions for an incident shock impinging on a cylinder have been performed. Flow-field density gradient and surface pressure and heating define the type of interference pattern and corresponding perturbations. The maximum pressure and heat transfer level and location for various interaction types (i.e., shock-wave incidence with respect to the cylinder) are presented. A time-accurate solution of the Type IV interference is employed to demonstrate the establishment and the steadiness of the low-density flow interaction.

  4. Alternative route to charge density wave formation in multiband systems.

    PubMed

    Eiter, Hans-Martin; Lavagnini, Michela; Hackl, Rudi; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A; Kemper, Alexander F; Devereaux, Thomas P; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Analytis, James G; Fisher, Ian R; Degiorgi, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Charge and spin density waves, periodic modulations of the electron, and magnetization densities, respectively, are among the most abundant and nontrivial low-temperature ordered phases in condensed matter. The ordering direction is widely believed to result from the Fermi surface topology. However, several recent studies indicate that this common view needs to be supplemented. Here, we show how an enhanced electron-lattice interaction can contribute to or even determine the selection of the ordering vector in the model charge density wave system ErTe(3). Our joint experimental and theoretical study allows us to establish a relation between the selection rules of the electronic light scattering spectra and the enhanced electron-phonon coupling in the vicinity of band degeneracy points. This alternative proposal for charge density wave formation may be of general relevance for driving phase transitions into other broken-symmetry ground states, particularly in multiband systems, such as the iron-based superconductors.

  5. Constraints on primordial density perturbations from induced gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David

    2010-01-15

    We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced during the radiation-dominated hot big bang as a constraint on the primordial density perturbation on comoving length scales much smaller than those directly probed by the cosmic microwave background or large-scale structure. We place weak upper bounds on the primordial density perturbation from current data. Future detectors such as BBO and DECIGO will place much stronger constraints on the primordial density perturbation on small scales.

  6. Generation of ramp waves using variable areal density flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ramp loading using graded density impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacturing technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed-of-nails" (BON). A 2.5-mm-thick × 99.4-mm-diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 5.5 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 and 1100 m/s using the 100-mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College London. In each experiment, a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry (Het-V) was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ˜ 2.5 μs, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  7. Spiral density waves in M81. I. Stellar spiral density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chien-Chang; Lin, Lien-Hsuan; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Taam, Ronald E.

    2014-04-20

    Aside from the grand-design stellar spirals appearing in the disk of M81, a pair of stellar spiral arms situated well inside the bright bulge of M81 has been recently discovered by Kendall et al. The seemingly unrelated pairs of spirals pose a challenge to the theory of spiral density waves. To address this problem, we have constructed a three-component model for M81, including the contributions from a stellar disk, a bulge, and a dark matter halo subject to observational constraints. Given this basic state for M81, a modal approach is applied to search for the discrete unstable spiral modes that may provide an understanding for the existence of both spiral arms. It is found that the apparently separated inner and outer spirals can be interpreted as a single trailing spiral mode. In particular, these spirals share the same pattern speed 25.5 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1} with a corotation radius of 9.03 kpc. In addition to the good agreement between the calculated and the observed spiral pattern, the variation of the spiral amplitude can also be naturally reproduced.

  8. Symmetry analysis of translational symmetry broken density waves: Application to hexagonal lattices in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venderbos, J. W. F.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we introduce a symmetry classification for electronic density waves which break translational symmetry due to commensurate wave-vector modulations. The symmetry classification builds on the concept of extended point groups: symmetry groups which contain, in addition to the lattice point group, translations that do not map the enlarged unit cell of the density wave to itself, and become "nonsymmorphic"-like elements. Multidimensional representations of the extended point group are associated with degenerate wave vectors. Electronic properties such as (nodal) band degeneracies and topological character can be straightforwardly addressed, and often follow directly. To further flesh out the idea of symmetry, the classification is constructed so as to manifestly distinguish time-reversal invariant charge (i.e., site and bond) order, and time-reversal breaking flux order. For the purpose of this work, we particularize to spin-rotation invariant density waves. As a first example of the application of the classification we consider the density waves of a simple single- and two-orbital square lattice model. The main objective, however, is to apply the classification to two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattices, specifically the triangular and the honeycomb lattices. The multicomponent density waves corresponding to the commensurate M -point ordering vectors are worked out in detail. To show that our results generally apply to 2 D hexagonal lattices, we develop a general low-energy SU(3 ) theory of (spinless) saddle-point electrons.

  9. Momentum-space properties from coordinate-space electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Harbola, Manoj K.; Zope, Rajendra R.; Kshirsagar, Anjali; Pathak, Rajeev K.

    2005-05-22

    Electron density and electron momentum density, while independently tractable experimentally, bear no direct connection without going through the many-electron wave function. However, invoking a variant of the constrained-search formulation of density-functional theory, we develop a general scheme (valid for arbitrary external potentials) yielding decent momentum-space properties, starting exclusively from the coordinate-space electron density. A numerical illustration of the scheme is provided for the closed-shell atomic systems He, Be, and Ne in their ground state and for 1s{sup 1} 2s{sup 1} singlet electronic excited state for helium by calculating the Compton profiles and the expectation values derived from given coordinate-space electron densities.

  10. Plasma wave propagation with a plasma density gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Guangsup; Choi, Eun-Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2011-03-15

    Plasma waves with the plasma diffusion velocity u{sub n} due to a plasma density gradient are described in a positive column plasma. The ion wave is generated by the perturbation of the operating frequency 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} and it propagates with the group velocity u{sub g{approx}}c{sub s}{sup 2}/u{sub n{approx}}(10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}) m/s, where c{sub s} is the acoustic velocity in a fine tube fluorescent lamp, while the electron wave cannot be generated with a turbulence of low frequency less than the electron oscillation frequency {omega}{sub pe}. The propagation of the lighting signal observed in long tube fluorescent lamps is well understood with the propagation of ion waves occurring along the plasma density gradient.

  11. Scattering of radio frequency waves by cylindrical density filaments in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. Radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves, excited by antenna structures placed near the wall of a tokamak, have to propagate through the scrape-off layer before reaching the core of the plasma. While the effect of fluctuations on the properties of RF waves has not been quantified experimentally, it is of interest to carry out a theoretical study to determine if fluctuations can affect the propagation characteristics of RF waves. Usually, the difference between the plasma density inside the filament and the background plasma density is sizable, the ratio of the density difference to the background density being of order one. Generally, this precludes the use of geometrical optics in determining the effect of fluctuations, since the relevant ratio has to be much less than one, typically, of the order of 10% or less. In this paper, a full-wave, analytical model is developed for the scattering of a RF plane wave by a cylindrical plasma filament. It is assumed that the plasma inside and outside the filament is cold and uniform and that the major axis of the filament is aligned along the toroidal magnetic field. The ratio of the density inside the filament to the density of the background plasma is not restricted. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any cold plasma wave. In order to satisfy the boundary conditions at the interface between the filament and the background plasma, the electromagnetic fields inside and outside the filament need to have the same k∥ , the wave vector parallel to the ambient magnetic field, as the incident plane wave. Consequently, in contrast to the scattering of a RF wave by a spherical blob [Ram et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056110-1-056110-10 (2013)], the scattering by a field-aligned filament does not broaden the k∥ spectrum. However, the filament induces side-scattering leading to surface

  12. Effect of dilute strongly pinning impurities on charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Jun-ichi; Millis, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    We study theoretically the effects of strong pinning centers on a charge density wave in the limit that the charge density wave coherence length is shorter than the average interimpurity distance. An analysis based on a Ginzburg-Landau model shows that long-range forces arising from the elastic response of the charge density wave induce a kind of collective pinning which suppresses impurity-induced phase fluctuations, leading to a long-range ordered ground state. The correlations induced by impurities are characterized by a length scale parametrically longer than the average interimpurity distance. Long-wavelength fluctuations are found to be gapped, implying the stability of the ground state. We also present Monte Carlo simulations that confirm the basic features of the analytical results.

  13. Propagation of radio frequency waves through density filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2015-12-01

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. In this paper we develop an analytical formalism for the scattering of radio frequency waves by filaments which are cylindrical with their major axis aligned along the toroidal magnetic field lines. Since the magnitude of the ratio of the density inside the filaments to the background density is generally of order 1, the geometric optics approximation cannot be used to describe the scattering. A full-wave model is formulated which assumes that the plasma is cold and that the plasma in the cylindrical filament has uniform density. The background plasma, in which the filament is present, is also assumed to be cold and uniform. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any plasma wave.

  14. Propagation of radio frequency waves through density filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2015-12-10

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. In this paper we develop an analytical formalism for the scattering of radio frequency waves by filaments which are cylindrical with their major axis aligned along the toroidal magnetic field lines. Since the magnitude of the ratio of the density inside the filaments to the background density is generally of order 1, the geometric optics approximation cannot be used to describe the scattering. A full-wave model is formulated which assumes that the plasma is cold and that the plasma in the cylindrical filament has uniform density. The background plasma, in which the filament is present, is also assumed to be cold and uniform. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any plasma wave.

  15. Fast wave density and species mix diagnostic (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, G. W.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Ikezi, H.; Pinsker, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Since fast Alfven waves propagate across a plasma at the Alfven speed, the plasma mass density can be determined through interferometry. In previous measurements on the DIII-D tokamak,1 fast waves ({approx}100 MHz, {approx}5 W) were launched from an antenna at the outer midplane, but detection of the signal was hampered by poor sensitivity of the receiving antenna, which was mounted behind protective graphite tiles on the inner wall. We modified several graphite tiles to act as more sensitive receiving antennas. At lower frequencies ({approx}25 MHz), fast waves can reflect from the ion--ion hybrid cutoff layer. The position of this layer is sensitive to the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium in the plasma. Receiving antennas on the outer wall will measure the hydrogen concentration through reflectometry. Launching other frequencies may yield impurity density ratios as well. These techniques may be useful for measuring relative densities if D, T, and {alpha} particles in burning plasmas.

  16. Maxwellian theory of gravitational waves and their mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Stephen M.

    2014-02-01

    We present a theory in Maxwellian form for gravitational waves in a flat background. This requires us to identify the gravitational analogues of the electric and magnetic fields for light. An important novelty, however, is that our analogues are not vector fields but rather rank-two tensor fields; in place of a three-component vector at each point in space, as in electromagnetism, our fields are three by three symmetric matrices at each point. The resulting Maxwell-like equations lead directly to a Poynting theorem for the local energy density associated with a gravitational wave and to associated local properties including densities of momentum and angular momentum.

  17. Simultaneous experimental measurements of velocity and density in solitary internal waves with trapped cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, P.; Helfrich, K.

    2013-11-01

    Long internal waves with trapped cores are relatively common in the ocean and atmosphere (e.g. Lien et al. 2012). It has been proposed that such waves may be important for transporting mass, energy, and biological matter across the continental shelf (Shroyer et al. 2010, Scotti & Pineda 2004). However, several fundamental wave properties, including mass and energy transport, as well as core circulation and density structure, remain to be quantified experimentally. A key prerequisite, for such measurements, involves simultaneously accessing the velocity and density fields with sufficient resolution. We employ a setup comprising a thin linearly stratified region overlaying a deep, uniform-density layer, and perform experiments with and without a no-slip lid at the surface. The waves are produced by a lock-release mechanism. We develop a technique for high-resolution, simultaneous measurements of velocity and density in stratified flows, using pulsed-laser, co-planar PIV and LIF. We are thereby able to extract properties including phase velocity, kinetic and potential energies, minimum Richardson number, as well as core size, circulation and density. To examine larger waves, we complement these results with numerical simulations, which are in good agreement with our experiments.

  18. Adaptive density partitioning technique in the auxiliary plane wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2006-01-01

    We have developed the adaptive density partitioning technique (ADPT) in the auxiliary plane wave method, in which a part of the density is expanded to plane waves, for the fast evaluation of Coulomb matrix. Our partitioning is based on the error estimations and allows us to control the accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, we can drastically reduce the core Gaussian products that are left in Gaussian representation (its analytical integrals is the bottleneck in this method). For the taxol molecule with 6-31G** basis, the core Gaussian products accounted only for 5% in submicrohartree error.

  19. Resonantly driven nonlinear density waves in protostellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Chi; Cassen, Pat

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations of binary, pre-main-sequence, solar-type stars provide evidence that such systems may coexist with circumstellar disks. The binary disk systems, besides being of general interest for the study of star formation, potentially provide useful tests of companion-disk interaction theories prominent in current hypotheses of planet formation. In this paper, we apply an asymptotic analysis of the nonlinear, resonant interaction of a stellar companion with a disk to understand the dependence of such interactions on the properties of the system: the binary mass ratio, the physical properties of the disk, and the effective dissipation (treated herein as viscosity). The method is based on a WKBJ approximation and exploits the conditions that the disk is thin and much less massive than the primary, but does not require that the companion-induced disturbance be small. Both isothermal and adiabatic responses are treated. Only circular orbit resonances are considered in this paper. It is demonstrated that the temperature of the disk as well as the relative mass of the companion affects the degree of nonlinearity, and that nonlinearity promotes high wave compression ratios, long wavelengths, and increased propagation distances. Nevertheless, the total torque exerted between the companion and the disk is well represented by linear theory. The amplitudes of density disturbances are reduced by viscosity and nonisothermality. Because resonant interactions are generally strong and capable of driving rapid evolution, one might expect observations of systems undergoing strong, resonant-driven evolution to be rare. In this connection, it is pointed out that the m = 1 resonance is distinguished by being anomalously weaker than the others and is therefore of observational interest. It is speculated that, in conditions of intrinsically small dissipation, the propagation of resonant-driven density waves is limited by the tendency of their wavelength to diminish with distance

  20. Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Poynter, R. L.

    1981-09-01

    The electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are summarized. Three basic techniques for determining the electron density are discussed. They are (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are reviewed.

  1. Multipoint Plasma Density Measurements from Cluster Wave and Particle Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persoon, A.; Gurnett, D.; Pickett, J.; Canu, P.; Décréau, P.; Laakso, H.; Pedersen, A.; Andre, M.; Parks, G.; Wilber, M.; Reme, H.; Goldstein, M.; Fazakerly, A.

    2001-12-01

    Measurements from instruments onboard the Cluster spacecraft are used to study regions of diminished plasma density inside and poleward of the nightside auroral zone. The plasma density is derived from the digitization of the electron plasma frequency cutoff of the whistler mode auroral hiss, using the electric field spectrum measurements from the Wideband Plasma Wave Instrument (WBD). Two nightside auroral zone crossings, on May 8 and July 21, 2001, each with simultaneous measurements from two Cluster spacecraft, have been selected for this study. Both of these intervals contain multiple low density structures and provide an opportunity to make multi-instrument comparisons of the WBD electric spectrum measurements with the electron plasma frequency measurements of the WHISPER experiment and the spacecraft potential measurements of the Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) experiment. Since the satellite potential measurements are very sensitive to variations in the electron density, EFW spacecraft potential and density measurements will complement the WBD density measurements in the low density regions. Density variations will also be compared to the observed ion fluxes, using the ion distribution functions of the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) instruments and the low energy electron fluxes, using the electron velocity and energy distributions of the Electron and Current Experiment (PEACE).

  2. Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue waves, probability density functions, and spectral features.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, N; Soto-Crespo, J M; Devine, N

    2016-08-01

    Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue waves, the probability density functions of the chaotic wave fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the wave field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics. PMID:27627303

  3. Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue waves, probability density functions, and spectral features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmediev, N.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Devine, N.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue waves, the probability density functions of the chaotic wave fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the wave field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics.

  4. Dimensionality-driven phonon softening and incipient charge density wave instability in TiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Sanvito, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory are used to investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of TiS2. Within the local density approximation the material is a semimetal both in the bulk and in the monolayer form. Most interestingly we observe a Kohn anomaly in the bulk phonon dispersion, which turns into a charge density wave instability when TiS2 is thinned to less than four monolayers. Such instability, however, disappears when one calculates the electronic structure with a functional, such as the LDA+U, which returns an insulating ground state. In this situation charge-doping or strain does not bring back the charge density wave instability, whereas the formation of the TiSSe alloy does.

  5. Density inhomogeneity driven electrostatic shock waves in planetary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Rizvi, H.; Haque, Q.; Hasnain, H.

    2011-05-15

    Dust inertia and background density driven dust drift shock waves are theoretically studied in a rotating planetary environment and are subsequently applied to the planetary rings where the collisional effects are pronounced. It has been found that the system under consideration admits significant shock formation if the collision frequency is of the order of or less than the rotational frequency of the Saturn's rings.

  6. Magnetic catalysis and axionic charge density wave in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Bitan; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional Weyl and Dirac semimetals can support a chiral-symmetry-breaking, fully gapped, charge-density-wave order even for sufficiently weak repulsive electron-electron interactions, when placed in strong magnetic fields. In the former systems, due to the natural momentum space separation of Weyl nodes the ordered phase lacks the translational symmetry and represents an axionic phase of matter, while that in a Dirac semimetal (neglecting the Zeeman coupling) is only a trivial insulator. We present the scaling of this spectral gap for a wide range of subcritical (weak) interactions as well as that of the diamagnetic susceptibility with the magnetic field. A similar mechanism for charge-density-wave ordering at weak coupling is shown to be operative in double- and triple-Weyl semimetals, where the dispersion is linear (quadratic and cubic, respectively) for the z (planar) component(s) of the momentum. We here also address the competition between the charge-density-wave and a spin-density-wave orders, both of which breaks the chiral symmetry and leads to gapped spectrum, and show that at least in the weak coupling regime the former is energetically favored. The anomalous surface Hall conductivity, role of topological defects such as axion strings, existence of one-dimensional gapless dispersive modes along the core of such defects, and anomaly cancellation through the Callan-Harvey mechanism are discussed.

  7. Pressure induced Superconductivity in the Charge Density Wave Compound Tritelluride

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, J.J.; Zocco, D.A.; Sayles, T.A.; Maple, M.B.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    A series of high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals of TbTe{sub 3} reveal a complex phase diagram involving the interplay of superconducting, antiferromagnetic and charge density wave order. The onset of superconductivity reaches a maximum of almost 4 K (onset) near {approx} 12.4 GPa.

  8. The B-ring's surface mass density from hidden density waves: Less than meets the eye?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's B ring is the most opaque ring in our Solar System, but many of its fundamental parameters, including its total mass, are not well constrained. Spiral density waves generated by mean-motion resonances with Saturn's moons provide some of the best constraints on the rings' mass density, but detecting and quantifying such waves in the B ring has been challenging because of this ring's high opacity and abundant fine-scale structure. Using a wavelet-based analyses of 17 occultations of the star γ Crucis observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft, we are able to examine five density waves in the B ring. Two of these waves are generated by the Janus 2:1 and Mimas 5:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances at 96,427 km and 101,311 km from Saturn's center, respectively. Both of these waves can be detected in individual occultation profiles, but the multi-profile wavelet analysis reveals unexpected variations in the pattern speed of the Janus 2:1 wave that might arise from the periodic changes in Janus' orbit. The other three wave signatures are associated with the Janus 3:2, Enceladus 3:1 and Pandora 3:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances at 115,959 km, 115,207 km and 108,546 km. These waves are not visible in individual profiles, but structures with the correct pattern speeds can be detected in appropriately phase-corrected average wavelets. Estimates of the ring's surface mass density derived from these five waves fall between 40 and 140 g/cm2, even though the ring's optical depth in these regions ranges from ∼1.5 to almost 5. This suggests that the total mass of the B ring is most likely between one-third and two-thirds the mass of Saturn's moon Mimas.

  9. Ferrimagnetic Ordering and Spin Density Wave of the Polymeric Organic and Inorganic Bipartite Lozenge Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y. F.; Duan, Y. F.; Yao, K. L.; Yao, K. L.; Yao, K. L.; Chen, J. S.

    The ground state properties and spin-density wave of a class of quasi-one dimensional polymeric organic and inorganic chains are studied by the mean-field theory and the Hartree-Fock approximation. The topological structure of the bipartite lozenge chain possesses a flat-band structure of the energy band. In the ground state, the electrons along the chain will form an antiferromagnetic spin-density wave. Away from half filling, a very rich magnetic phase diagram has been found. The ferrimagnetic ground state of the system will be more stable with increasing of the on-site Hubbard term.

  10. Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Carpenter, John M.; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea; Linz, Hendrik; Sargent, Anneila I.; Wilner, David J.; Henning, Thomas; Deller, Adam T.; Chandler, Claire J.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Lazio, Joseph; Menten, Karl M.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo; Tazzari, Marco; Kwon, Woojin; Calvet, Nuria; Greaves, Jane S.; Harris, Robert J.; Mundy, Lee G.

    2016-09-01

    Gravitational forces are expected to excite spiral density waves in protoplanetary disks, disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars. However, previous observations that showed spiral structure were not able to probe disk midplanes, where most of the mass is concentrated and where planet formation takes place. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we detected a pair of trailing symmetric spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. The arms extend to the disk outer regions and can be traced down to the midplane. These millimeter-wave observations also reveal an emission gap closer to the star than the spiral arms. We argue that the observed spirals trace shocks of spiral density waves in the midplane of this young disk.

  11. The imprint of crustal density heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a set of numerical experiments designed to observe the imprint of three-dimensional density heterogeneities on a seismogram. To compute the full seismic wavefield in a three-dimensional heterogeneous medium, we use numerical wave propagation based on a spectral-element discretization of the seismic wave equation. We consider a 2000 by 1000 km wide and 500 km deep spherical section, with the one-dimensional Earth model PREM, altered so that the crust is 40 km thick and all the parameters in the crust are constant, as a background. Onto the uppermost 40 km of the underlying one-dimensional model we superimpose three-dimensional randomly generated velocity and density heterogeneities of various correlation lengths. We use different random realizations of heterogeneity distribution. We compare the synthetic seismograms for three-dimensional velocity and density structure with three-dimensional velocity structure and one-dimensional density kept as PREM, calculating relative amplitude differences and time shifts as functions of time and frequency. The misfits in time shift and amplitude for different frequency bands, epicentral distances and medium complexities are then stacked into histograms and statistically analysed. We observe strong dependency on frequency of density-related amplitude difference. We also conclude potential sensitivity to distant density structures, and that scattering is essential to observe significant density imprint on a seismogram. The possible density-related bias in velocity and attenuation for regional tomographic models is calculated using mean misfit values for given epicentral distances. Whereas the bias in velocity does not exceed 0.5% of the model value, the density-related change in attenuation may be as big as 71% of the model value for the mean amplitude difference in the highest frequency band. The results suggest that density imprint on a seismogram is not negligible and with further theoretical

  12. Shock-wave-based density down ramp for electron injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunmei; Li, Ji; Sun, Jun; Luo, Xisheng

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate a sharp density transition for electron injection in laser wakefield acceleration through numerical study. This density transition is generated by a detached shock wave induced by a cylinder inserted into a supersonic helium gas flow. In a Mach 1.5 flow, the scale length of the density transition Lgrad can approximately equal to plasma wavelength λp at the shock front, and can be further reduced with an increase of the flow Mach number. A density down ramp with Lgrad≥λp can reduce the phase velocity of the wakefield and lower the energy threshold for the electrons to be trapped. Moreover, the quality of the accelerated beam may be greatly improved by precisely controlling of Lgrad to be one λp. For an even sharper density down ramp with Lgrad≪λp, the oscillating electrons in the plasma wave will up shift their phase when crossing the ramp, therefore a fraction of the electrons are injected into the accelerating field. For this injection mechanism, there is no threshold requirement for the pump laser intensity to reach wave breaking, which is a big advantage as compared with other injection mechanisms.

  13. Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.

  14. Transverse modulation of the positron beam density by using the laser standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaev, A. A.; Dabagov, S. B.

    2016-07-01

    Recently it was shown that charged particles motion in the field of standing electromagnetic wave can undergo the features similar to the particles channeling in crystals. When a charged particle enters the channels formed by electromagnetic standing waves at a small angle to the node (anti-node) planes its motion represents namely the oscillations between two neighboring planes. The phenomenon is mostly known as channeling in a lattice of the standing waves. Obviously, this effect can be used to handle beams in accelerator physics, more general, for the beam shaping with the specific properties. The advantage of the plane wave channeling is the absence of inelastic scattering that takes place in a crystal. The possibility to re-distribute the current density of particles in the beam by means of the laser standing wave is demonstrated.

  15. Observations of ULF wave related equatorial electrojet and density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Biouele, C. M.; Moldwin, M. B.; Boudouridis, A.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Anad, F.; Pfaff, R. F.; Hartinger, M.

    2013-10-01

    We report on Pc5 wave related electric field and vertical drift velocity oscillations at the equator as observed by ground magnetometers for an extended period on 9 August 2008. We show that the magnetometer-estimated equatorial E×B drift oscillates with the same frequency as ULF Pc5 waves, creating significant ionospheric density fluctuations. We also show ionospheric density fluctuations during the period when we observed ULF wave activity. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using ground-based magnetometer data from the African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and the South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA). From space, we use magnetic field observations from the GOES 12 and the Communication/Navigation Outage and Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellites. Upstream solar wind conditions are provided by the ACE spacecraft. We find that the wave power observed on the ground also occurs in the upstream solar wind and in the magnetosphere. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere and modulate the equatorial electrodynamics. While no direct drift measurements from equatorial radars exist for the 9 August 2008 event, we used JULIA 150 km radar drift velocities observed on 2 May 2010 and found similar fluctuations with the period of 5-8 min, as a means of an independent confirmation of our magnetometer derived drift dynamics.

  16. Spontaneous K-Complex Density in Slow-Wave Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Zannat, Wassilatul; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Hussain, M. Ejaz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study spontaneous K-complex (KC) densities during slow-wave sleep. The secondary objective was to estimate intra-non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep differences in KC density. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective study using EEG data included in polysomnographic records from the archive at the sleep research laboratory of the Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, India. The EEG records of 4459 minutes were used. The study presents a manual identification investigation of KCs in 17 healthy young adult male volunteers (age = 23.82±3.40 years and BMI = 23.42±4.18 kg/m2). Results N3 had a higher KC density than N2 (Z = -2.485, p = 0.013) for all of the probes taken together. Four EEG probes had a higher probe-specific KC density during N3. The inter-probe KC density differed significantly during N2 (χ2 = 67.91, p < .001), N3 (χ2 = 70.62, p < .001) and NREM (χ2 = 68.50, p < .001). The percent distribution of KC decreased uniformly with sleep cycles. Conclusion The inter-probe differences during N3 establish the fronto-central dominance of the KC density regardless of sleep stage. This finding supports one local theory of KC generation. The significantly higher KC density during N3 may imply that the neuro-anatomical origin of slow-wave activity and KC is the same. This temporal alignment with slow-wave activity supports the sleep-promoting function of the KC. PMID:26963714

  17. A gravitational test of wave reinforcement versus fluid density models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jacqueline Umstead

    1990-01-01

    Spermatozoa, protozoa, and algae form macroscopic patterns somewhat analogous to thermally driven convection cells. These bioconvective patterns have attracted interest in the fluid dynamics community, but whether in all cases these waves were gravity driven was unknown. There are two conflicting theories, one gravity dependent (fluid density model), the other gravity independent (wave reinforcement theory). The primary objectives of the summer faculty fellows were to: (1) assist in sample collection (spermatozoa) and preparation for the KC-135 research airplane experiment; and (2) to collaborate on ground testing of bioconvective variables such as motility, concentration, morphology, etc., in relation to their macroscopic patterns. Results are very briefly given.

  18. Statistical analysis of the properties of foreshock density cavitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajdič, P.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Omidi, N.; Russell, C. T.

    2008-12-01

    Global hybrid simulations (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) have shown the existence of foreshock density cavitons immersed in regions permeated by ULF waves (Omidi, 2007, Blanco-Cano et al., 2008). These cavitons are characterized by large depressions in magnetic field magnitude and density, and are bounded by regions with enhanced field and density. In this work we study statistical properties of foreshock cavitons observed by Cluster spacecraft between the years 2001 and 2005. We have identified approximately 90 foreshock cavitons and use magnetic field and plasma data to analyze their durations, sizes, amplitude, and orientation. We compare caviton B and n values with ambient values. We also study the foreshock conditions in which the cavitons are detected, i.e. θBV, the angle between the incoming solar wind flow and the IMF, and Mach number, among others. We also determine the characteristics of the waves that surround the cavitons or even appear within them. We find that the foreshock cavitons can be observed in various ways - some are found as single cavitons immersed in ULF waves, others appear in groups, separated temporally only by a few minutes. In some cases we find two or three cavitons that are in the process of merging into a larger structure, and still developing.

  19. Surface transverse waves: properties, devices, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Strashilov, Vesseline L; Yantchev, Ventsislav M

    2005-05-01

    Surface transverse waves represent a new generation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) family that offers advantageous properties without further demand for new materials or improved design and technology. The most effective activity in the surface transverse wave (STW) area has been realized during the last decade with high-performance devices achieved and analytical methods developed. The present paper reviews the basic achievements in historical and factual order. A state-of-the-art introduction is combined with discussion on the development tendencies with specific emphasis on sensor technology.

  20. Electrical effects of spin density wave quantization and magnetic domain walls in chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Kummamuru, Ravi K.; Soh, Yeong-Ah

    2008-05-05

    The role of magnetic domains (and the walls between domains) in determining the electrical properties of ferromagnetic materials has been investigated in great detail for many years, not least because control over domains offers a means of manipulating electron spin to control charge transport in 'spintronic' devices. In contrast, much less attention has been paid to the effects of domains and domain walls on the electrical properties of antiferromagnets: antiferromagnetic domains show no net external magnetic moment, and so are difficult to manipulate or probe. Here we describe electrical measurements on chromium -- a simple metal and quintessential spin density wave antiferromagnet -- that show behaviour directly related to spin density wave formation and the presence of antiferromagnetic domains. Two types of thermal hysteresis are seen in both longitudinal and Hall resistivity: the first can be explained by the quantization of spin density waves due to the finite film thickness (confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements) and the second by domain-wall scattering of electrons. We also observe the striking influence of the electrical lead configuration (a mesoscopic effect) on the resistivity of macroscopic samples in the spin density wave state. Our results are potentially of practical importance, in that they reveal tunable electrical effects of film thickness and domain walls that are as large as the highest seen for ferromagnets.

  1. Electrical effects of spin density wave quantization and magnetic domain walls in chromium.

    PubMed

    Kummamuru, Ravi K; Soh, Yeong-Ah

    2008-04-17

    The role of magnetic domains (and the walls between domains) in determining the electrical properties of ferromagnetic materials has been investigated in great detail for many years, not least because control over domains offers a means of manipulating electron spin to control charge transport in 'spintronic' devices. In contrast, much less attention has been paid to the effects of domains and domain walls on the electrical properties of antiferromagnets: antiferromagnetic domains show no net external magnetic moment, and so are difficult to manipulate or probe. Here we describe electrical measurements on chromium--a simple metal and quintessential spin density wave antiferromagnet--that show behaviour directly related to spin density wave formation and the presence of antiferromagnetic domains. Two types of thermal hysteresis are seen in both longitudinal and Hall resistivity: the first can be explained by the quantization of spin density waves due to the finite film thickness (confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements) and the second by domain-wall scattering of electrons. We also observe the striking influence of the electrical lead configuration (a mesoscopic effect) on the resistivity of macroscopic samples in the spin density wave state. Our results are potentially of practical importance, in that they reveal tunable electrical effects of film thickness and domain walls that are as large as the highest seen for ferromagnets.

  2. Photoinduced Enhancement of the Charge Density Wave Amplitude.

    PubMed

    Singer, A; Patel, S K K; Kukreja, R; Uhlíř, V; Wingert, J; Festersen, S; Zhu, D; Glownia, J M; Lemke, H T; Nelson, S; Kozina, M; Rossnagel, K; Bauer, M; Murphy, B M; Magnussen, O M; Fullerton, E E; Shpyrko, O G

    2016-07-29

    Symmetry breaking and the emergence of order is one of the most fascinating phenomena in condensed matter physics. It leads to a plethora of intriguing ground states found in antiferromagnets, Mott insulators, superconductors, and density-wave systems. Exploiting states of matter far from equilibrium can provide even more striking routes to symmetry-lowered, ordered states. Here, we demonstrate for the case of elemental chromium that moderate ultrafast photoexcitation can transiently enhance the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude by up to 30% above its equilibrium value, while strong excitations lead to an oscillating, large-amplitude CDW state that persists above the equilibrium transition temperature. Both effects result from dynamic electron-phonon interactions, providing an efficient mechanism to selectively transform a broad excitation of the electronic order into a well-defined, long-lived coherent lattice vibration. This mechanism may be exploited to transiently enhance order parameters in other systems with coupled degrees of freedom. PMID:27517781

  3. Spin density wave order, topological order, and Fermi surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir; Berg, Erez; Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Schattner, Yoni

    2016-09-01

    In the conventional theory of density wave ordering in metals, the onset of spin density wave (SDW) order coincides with the reconstruction of the Fermi surfaces into small "pockets." We present models which display this transition, while also displaying an alternative route between these phases via an intermediate phase with topological order, no broken symmetry, and pocket Fermi surfaces. The models involve coupling emergent gauge fields to a fractionalized SDW order, but retain the canonical electron operator in the underlying Hamiltonian. We establish an intimate connection between the suppression of certain defects in the SDW order and the presence of Fermi surface sizes distinct from the Luttinger value in Fermi liquids. We discuss the relevance of such models to the physics of the hole-doped cuprates near optimal doping.

  4. Photoinduced Enhancement of the Charge Density Wave Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, A.; Patel, S. K. K.; Kukreja, R.; Uhlíř, V.; Wingert, J.; Festersen, S.; Zhu, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Kozina, M.; Rossnagel, K.; Bauer, M.; Murphy, B. M.; Magnussen, O. M.; Fullerton, E. E.; Shpyrko, O. G.

    2016-07-01

    Symmetry breaking and the emergence of order is one of the most fascinating phenomena in condensed matter physics. It leads to a plethora of intriguing ground states found in antiferromagnets, Mott insulators, superconductors, and density-wave systems. Exploiting states of matter far from equilibrium can provide even more striking routes to symmetry-lowered, ordered states. Here, we demonstrate for the case of elemental chromium that moderate ultrafast photoexcitation can transiently enhance the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude by up to 30% above its equilibrium value, while strong excitations lead to an oscillating, large-amplitude CDW state that persists above the equilibrium transition temperature. Both effects result from dynamic electron-phonon interactions, providing an efficient mechanism to selectively transform a broad excitation of the electronic order into a well-defined, long-lived coherent lattice vibration. This mechanism may be exploited to transiently enhance order parameters in other systems with coupled degrees of freedom.

  5. Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allshouse, Michael R.; Lee, Frank M.; Morrison, Philip J.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2016-05-01

    Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field J =p u , which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields p and u , respectively. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous J (x ,z ,t ) from density perturbations alone: A Green's function-based calculation yields p ; u is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: The Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations and the result for J is found to agree typically to within 1% with J computed directly using p and u from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to density perturbation data from laboratory schlieren measurements of internal waves in a stratified fluid and the result for J agrees to within 6 % with results from Navier-Stokes simulations. Our method for determining the instantaneous velocity, pressure, and energy flux fields applies to any system described by a linear approximation of the density perturbation field, e.g., to small-amplitude lee waves and propagating vertical modes. The method can be applied using our matlab graphical user interface EnergyFlux.

  6. Wave induced density modification in RF sheaths and close to wave launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Crombé, K.; Lu, Ling-Feng

    2015-12-01

    With the return to full metal walls - a necessary step towards viable fusion machines - and due to the high power densities of current-day ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) or RF (radio frequency) antennas, there is ample renewed interest in exploring the reasons for wave-induced sputtering and formation of hot spots. Moreover, there is experimental evidence on various machines that RF waves influence the density profile close to the wave launchers so that waves indirectly influence their own coupling efficiency. The present study presents a return to first principles and describes the wave-particle interaction using a 2-time scale model involving the equation of motion, the continuity equation and the wave equation on each of the time scales. Through the changing density pattern, the fast time scale dynamics is affected by the slow time scale events. In turn, the slow time scale density and flows are modified by the presence of the RF waves through quasilinear terms. Although finite zero order flows are identified, the usual cold plasma dielectric tensor - ignoring such flows - is adopted as a first approximation to describe the wave response to the RF driver. The resulting set of equations is composed of linear and nonlinear equations and is tackled in 1D in the present paper. Whereas the former can be solved using standard numerical techniques, the latter require special handling. At the price of multiple iterations, a simple 'derivative switch-on' procedure allows to reformulate the nonlinear problem as a sequence of linear problems. Analytical expressions allow a first crude assessment - revealing that the ponderomotive potential plays a role similar to that of the electrostatic potential arising from charge separation - but numerical implementation is required to get a feeling of the full dynamics. A few tentative examples are provided to illustrate the phenomena involved.

  7. Wave induced density modification in RF sheaths and close to wave launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Lu, Ling-Feng

    2015-12-10

    With the return to full metal walls - a necessary step towards viable fusion machines - and due to the high power densities of current-day ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) or RF (radio frequency) antennas, there is ample renewed interest in exploring the reasons for wave-induced sputtering and formation of hot spots. Moreover, there is experimental evidence on various machines that RF waves influence the density profile close to the wave launchers so that waves indirectly influence their own coupling efficiency. The present study presents a return to first principles and describes the wave-particle interaction using a 2-time scale model involving the equation of motion, the continuity equation and the wave equation on each of the time scales. Through the changing density pattern, the fast time scale dynamics is affected by the slow time scale events. In turn, the slow time scale density and flows are modified by the presence of the RF waves through quasilinear terms. Although finite zero order flows are identified, the usual cold plasma dielectric tensor - ignoring such flows - is adopted as a first approximation to describe the wave response to the RF driver. The resulting set of equations is composed of linear and nonlinear equations and is tackled in 1D in the present paper. Whereas the former can be solved using standard numerical techniques, the latter require special handling. At the price of multiple iterations, a simple ’derivative switch-on’ procedure allows to reformulate the nonlinear problem as a sequence of linear problems. Analytical expressions allow a first crude assessment - revealing that the ponderomotive potential plays a role similar to that of the electrostatic potential arising from charge separation - but numerical implementation is required to get a feeling of the full dynamics. A few tentative examples are provided to illustrate the phenomena involved.

  8. Theoretical description of nonequilibrium behavior in charge density wave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wen

    The fast development of time resolved photoemission (TRPES) techniques allow us to discover the rich features of nonequilibrium phenomena which may not appear in equilibrium. One of the most explored topics is the nonequilibrium behavior of a charge density wave (CDW) material. Being an ordered phase at low temperature, the CDW state provides a fertile ground to study electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. By driving this material out of equilibrium and taking ultrafast time resolution snapshots of its behavior, TRPES helps us understand these interactions and sheds light on the mechanisms behind these and other complex material properties, such as metal-insulator transitions, high temperature superconductivity, and magnetic phenomena. Recent experiments on TRPES in CDW materials show an ultrafast CDW gap closure in systems such as 1T--TaS2 and TbTe3 and the subsequent separation of time scales for the electron-electron interaction and the electron-lattice interaction. But it is still not clear what happens during the ultrashort period (in first 100 femtosecond). In this dissertation, we solve a two band model describing this ultrafast process in a CDW system. By fixing the lattice distortion effect in the CDW, we studied the nonequilibrium excitations of the electrons under a strong electric field. This research is performed by calculating nonequilibrium Green's functions (NGF) along the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh contour. We solved this nonequilibrium problem exactly. We show non-perturbative results and explore the nonlinear electronic behavior under an ultrashort light pulses. In addition to the TRPES problem, we also examined the behavior of Bloch oscillations under a large DC field, the response to an AC electric field, high harmonic generation from solids, and the crossover between frequency-driven excitation and amplitude-driven excitation.

  9. Electron densities inferred from plasma wave spectra obtained by the Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, W S; De Pascuale, S; Faden, J B; Kletzing, C A; Hospodarsky, G B; Thaller, S; Wygant, J R

    2015-01-01

    The twin Van Allen Probe spacecraft, launched in August 2012, carry identical scientific payloads. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science suite includes a plasma wave instrument (Waves) that measures three magnetic and three electric components of plasma waves in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 12 kHz using triaxial search coils and the Electric Fields and Waves triaxial electric field sensors. The Waves instrument also measures a single electric field component of waves in the frequency range of 10 to 500 kHz. A primary objective of the higher-frequency measurements is the determination of the electron density ne at the spacecraft, primarily inferred from the upper hybrid resonance frequency fuh. Considerable work has gone into developing a process and tools for identifying and digitizing the upper hybrid resonance frequency in order to infer the electron density as an essential parameter for interpreting not only the plasma wave data from the mission but also as input to various magnetospheric models. Good progress has been made in developing algorithms to identify fuh and create a data set of electron densities. However, it is often difficult to interpret the plasma wave spectra during active times to identify fuh and accurately determine ne. In some cases, there is no clear signature of the upper hybrid band, and the low-frequency cutoff of the continuum radiation is used. We describe the expected accuracy of ne and issues in the interpretation of the electrostatic wave spectrum. PMID:26167442

  10. Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here I will discuss Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice where we predict the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless sermonic states with long-range interactions could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. JQI-NSF-PFC, AROAtomtronics- MURI, and LPS-MPO-CMTC, UMD supercomputing resources.

  11. Electron Densities Near Io from Galileo Plasma Wave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of electron densities obtained near Io from the Galileo plasma wave instrument during the first four flybys of Io. These flybys were Io, which was a downstream wake pass that occurred on December 7, 1995; I24, which was an upstream pass that occurred on October 11, 1999; I25, which was a south polar pass that occurred on November 26, 1999; and I27, which was an upstream pass that occurred on February 22, 2000. Two methods were used to measure the electron density. The first was based on the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and the second was based on the low-frequency cutoff of electromagnetic radiation at the electron plasma frequency. For three of the flybys, Io, I25, and I27, large density enhancements were observed near the closest approach to Io. The peak electron densities ranged from 2.1 to 6.8 x 10(exp 4) per cubic centimeters. These densities are consistent with previous radio occultation measurements of Io's ionosphere. No density enhancement was observed during the I24 flyby, most likely because the spacecraft trajectory passed too far upstream to penetrate Io's ionosphere. During two of the flybys, I25 and I27, abrupt step-like changes were observed at the outer boundaries of the region of enhanced electron density. Comparisons with magnetic field models and energetic particle measurements show that the abrupt density steps occur as the spacecraft penetrated the boundary of the Io flux tube, with the region of high plasma density on the inside of the flux tube. Most likely the enhanced electron density within the Io flux tube is associated with magnetic field lines that are frozen to Io by the high conductivity of Io's atmosphere, thereby enhancing the escape of plasma along the magnetic field lines that pass through Io's ionosphere.

  12. Seasonal variation of solitary wave properties in Lake Constance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusse, M.; Freistühler, H.; Peeters, F.

    2012-04-01

    The properties of internal solitary waves (ISWs) depend on the stratification of the water body. In most climatic regions the stratification in lakes and oceans varies during the year, and hence the properties of the ISWs can also be expected to change over the seasons. On the basis of a long-term temperature time series recorded over 6 years, this paper investigates seasonal changes in the characteristic properties of ISWs in Lake Überlingen, a subbasin of Lake Constance. A large number of ISWs with amplitudes ranging from 3 m to 30 m were identified. More than 15% of the leading ISWs of a wave train were associated with density inversions, often indicating shear instabilities or trapped cores. For all waves the propagation depth and the value of a nonlinearity index nlp providing the degree of nonlinearity were determined, propagation depth being the rest height of the isotherm undergoing maximum displacement and nlp the ratio between wave amplitude and propagation depth. The index nlp was found to be a good parameter for predicting the occurrence of inversions. The statistical analysis of the wave properties derived from the observations revealed that the degree of nonlinearity of the ISWs changes with season. Complementary to the statistical analysis, the seasonally averaged ISW properties were compared with wave prototypes obtained numerically from the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long (DJL) and the stratified Korteweg-deVries (KdV) models. The simulations indicate that the typical stratification and its seasonal variation are responsible for the degree and the seasonality of nonlinearity of the ISWs.

  13. Traveling ion channel density waves affected by a conservation law.

    PubMed

    Peter, Ronny; Zimmermann, Walter

    2006-07-01

    A model of mobile, charged ion channels embedded in a biomembrane is investigated. The ion channels fluctuate between an opened and a closed state according to a simple two-state reaction scheme whereas the total number of ion channels is a conserved quantity. Local transport mechanisms suggest that the ion channel densities are governed by electrodiffusionlike equations that have to be supplemented by a cable-type equation describing the dynamics of the transmembrane voltage. It is shown that the homogeneous distribution of ion channels may become unstable to either a stationary or an oscillatory instability. The nonlinear behavior immediately above threshold of an oscillatory bifurcation occurring at finite wave number is analyzed in terms of amplitude equations. Due to the conservation law imposed on ion channels, large-scale modes couple to the finite-wave-number instability and have thus to be included in the asymptotic analysis near the onset of pattern formation. A modified Ginzburg-Landau equation extended by long-wavelength stationary excitations is established, and it is highlighted how the global conservation law affects the stability of traveling ion channel density waves.

  14. Charge properties of low density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    La Belle, M; Blanche, P J; Krauss, R M

    1997-04-01

    Measurements of electrophoretic mobility and particle size of low density lipoproteins (LDL) allowed use of standard electrokinetic theory to quantitate LDL charge characteristics from subjects with predominance of large LDL (pattern A, n = 9) or small LDL (pattern B, n = 8). Pattern A LDL was found to have significantly lower (P < or = 0.001) mobility (-0.22 +/- 0.01 micron s-1 cm V-1), surface potential (-4.2 +/- 0.3 mV) and charge density (-500 +/- 34 esu/cm2) than pattern B LDL (-0.25 +/- 0.01 micron s-1 cm V-1, -4.9 +/- 0.3 mV, and -580 +/- 30 esu/cm2), but no significant difference in particle valence (-22.0 +/- 1.4 for pattern A vs. -21.8 +/- 1.9 for pattern B). Thus, the greater mobility of pattern B LDL is due to similar net charge residing on a smaller particle. Comparison of subfractions in pattern B relative to pattern A LDL revealed greater surface potential in all pattern B subfractions and greater charge density in fractions of d > or = 1.032 g/ml. In a subset of subjects incubation with neuraminidase produced significant reductions in all LDL charge parameters for all subfractions, but did not abolish the differences between pattern A and B. Thus increased surface potential and charge density of unfractionated pattern B LDL is due both to charge properties of particles across the size and density spectrum as well as enrichment of pattern B LDL with smaller, denser particles that have higher surface charge density.

  15. Spatial decay of energy density of tidal internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovatsky, Iossif D.; Morozov, Eugene G.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2003-06-01

    The spatial decay of energy density of tidal internal waves (TIW) was studied using field data taken in the Indian Ocean near the Mascarene Ridge and in the Canary Basin of the eastern Atlantic near the Heyres-Irving-Cruiser chain of seamounts. Several moorings were deployed at distances between 90 and 1745 km east of these topographic features, with instruments located in the depth range 500-2500 m. The energy densities of TIW averaged over the spring-neap cycle were calculated using semidiurnal tidal components of current and temperature time series as well as local vertical gradients of temperature and density. It was found that the horizontal component of TIW, EH, is less depth-dependent compared to the vertical component, Eζ, although both components showed a general decrease of magnitude with the distance from topography. The decrease of total energy density ETW = EH + Eζ with distance from the topography is more rapid than that assumed in the work of [1995], and followed an inverse power law. At a distance of about x ≈ 10λ from the topography (where λ is the wavelength of the first mode), ETW in the main thermocline becomes equal to the energy density of the forcing barotropic tide, whereas for x/λ < 2, ETW exceeds the energy of the entire range of internal waves of the Garrett-Munk spectrum. A nonhydrostatic, nonlinear, two-dimensional numerical model shows a reasonable agreement with the observations for x/λ < 2-3, but in the far field it predicts a faster spatial decay of ETW than observed, possibly because of topographic generation of TIW along the measurement swath. The turbulent diffusivity estimates based on the [1981] model exceeded 10-4 m2/s within the main pycnocline at x = 100 km and suggest mixing enhancements due to TIW up to distances of 1000 km from the topography.

  16. An observational study of MHD wave-induced density fluctuations upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven; Fey, Alan; Anderson, Gregory; Fuselier, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of plasma density fluctations upstream of the earth's bow shock and their association with MHD waves is reported. The normalized density fluctuation was 14 percent on a day when the plasma beta was less than unity and the waves were circularly polarized and of relatively low amplitude, and 17 percent on a day when the plasma beta was in excess of unity and the waves were elliptically polarized and of large fractional amplitude. On both days there was a feature of the density power spectrum at the MHD carrier wave frequency attributable to oblique propagation of the waves with propagation angles of a few degrees with respect to the mean field. Ponderomotive effects due to spatial gradient in the MHD wave energy density are proposed as responsible for a correlation betweeen density and transverse wave intensity on both days. Generation of density fluctuations by linear polarized MHD waves is not an important contributor to the observed density fluctuations.

  17. Metal-insulator transition by holographic charge density waves.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yi; Niu, Chao; Wu, Jian-Pin; Xian, Zhuo-Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-08-29

    We construct a gravity dual for charge density waves (CDWs) in which the translational symmetry along one spatial direction is spontaneously broken. Our linear perturbation calculation on the gravity side produces the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity, which exhibits the two familiar features of CDWs, namely, the pinned collective mode and gapped single-particle excitation. These two features indicate that our gravity dual also provides a new mechanism to implement the metal to insulator phase transition by CDWs, which is further confirmed by the fact that dc conductivity decreases with the decreased temperature below the critical temperature. PMID:25215974

  18. Metal-insulator transition by holographic charge density waves.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yi; Niu, Chao; Wu, Jian-Pin; Xian, Zhuo-Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-08-29

    We construct a gravity dual for charge density waves (CDWs) in which the translational symmetry along one spatial direction is spontaneously broken. Our linear perturbation calculation on the gravity side produces the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity, which exhibits the two familiar features of CDWs, namely, the pinned collective mode and gapped single-particle excitation. These two features indicate that our gravity dual also provides a new mechanism to implement the metal to insulator phase transition by CDWs, which is further confirmed by the fact that dc conductivity decreases with the decreased temperature below the critical temperature.

  19. Effects of nonthermal ions and polarization force on dust-acoustic waves in a density-varying dusty plasma.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, M; Mamun, A A

    2012-07-01

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of the effects of nonthermal ions and polarization force (which arises due to the dust density inhomogeneity) on the propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a density-varying unmagnetized dusty plasma (consisting of nonthermal ions, Maxwellian electrons, and negatively charged mobile dust) by the normal mode analysis. It has been shown that the dispersion properties of the DA waves are significantly modified by the presence of nonthermal ions and polarization force. It has been also found that the phase speed of the DA waves, as well as the dust density perturbation, increases (decreases) with the increase of nonthermal ions (polarization force), and that the potential associated with the DA waves decreases with the increase of the equilibrium dust number density. The implications of our results in the specific situation of space environments (dust-ion plasma situation) are also briefly discussed. PMID:23005552

  20. Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Surface Wave Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we present results of the spectroscopic measurements of the electron density in a microwave surface wave sustained discharges in Ar and Ne at atmospheric pressure. The discharge in the form of a plasma column was generated inside a quartz tube cooled with a dielectric liquid. The microwave power delivered to the discharge via rectangular waveguide was applied in the range of 200-1500 W. In all investigations presented in this paper, the gas flow rate was relatively low (0.5 l/min), so the plasma column was generated in the form of a single filament, and the lengths of the upstream and downstream plasma columns were almost the same. The electron density in the plasma columns was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of Hβ spectral line, including plasma region inside the waveguide which was not investigated earlier.

  1. Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Surface Wave Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2008-03-19

    In this paper, we present results of the spectroscopic measurements of the electron density in a microwave surface wave sustained discharges in Ar and Ne at atmospheric pressure. The discharge in the form of a plasma column was generated inside a quartz tube cooled with a dielectric liquid. The microwave power delivered to the discharge via rectangular waveguide was applied in the range of 200-1500 W. In all investigations presented in this paper, the gas flow rate was relatively low (0.5 l/min), so the plasma column was generated in the form of a single filament, and the lengths of the upstream and downstream plasma columns were almost the same. The electron density in the plasma columns was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of H{sub {beta}} spectral line, including plasma region inside the waveguide which was not investigated earlier.

  2. Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.

    2016-05-01

    The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T-TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states.

  3. Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states

    PubMed Central

    Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T–TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states. PMID:27181483

  4. Probability Density Function for Waves Propagating in a Straight PEC Rough Wall Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, H

    2004-11-08

    The probability density function for wave propagating in a straight perfect electrical conductor (PEC) rough wall tunnel is deduced from the mathematical models of the random electromagnetic fields. The field propagating in caves or tunnels is a complex-valued Gaussian random processing by the Central Limit Theorem. The probability density function for single modal field amplitude in such structure is Ricean. Since both expected value and standard deviation of this field depend only on radial position, the probability density function, which gives what is the power distribution, is a radially dependent function. The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. In this contribution, we present the most important statistic property, the field probability density function, of wave propagating in a straight PEC rough wall tunnel. This work only studies the simplest case--PEC boundary which is not the real world but the methods and conclusions developed herein are applicable to real world problems which the boundary is dielectric. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic wave propagation in caves or tunnels are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic waves travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these waves cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the waves decrease as the distance

  5. Spin density waves in periodically strained graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil M; Sabirianov, Renat F

    2014-04-21

    Zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are antiferromagnetic in the ground state with zero net magnetization due to the compensation of contributions from opposite edges. Uniform deformations (both shear and axial) do not produce magnetization due to symmetry restrictions. However, we report the results of first-principles calculations that predict the induction of spin density waves (SDWs) in ZGNRs under non-uniform periodic strain. Using the density functional theory (DFT) method, we show that a sinusoidal magnetization variation along the axis of the ribbon occurs under a sinusoidal transversal shear strain. SDWs appear due to the presence of a strain gradient that induced asymmetry of magnetization on opposite edges of ZGNRs which do not compensate each other. The amplitude of SDWs is estimated at ∼0.066 μB when deformations transverse to the ZGNR axis have a sinusoidal profile with a period of 88.6 Å and an amplitude of 1 Å. Our study suggests that the periodic lattice deformations strongly affect the magnetic structure of ZGNRs in the case of acoustic phonons or mechanical waves.

  6. Protoplanetary Disk Heating and Evolution Driven by Spiral Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-11-01

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  7. Wave breaking signatures in sodium densities and OH nightglow 2. Simulation of wave and instability structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, David C.; Isler, Joseph R.; Hecht, James H.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Andreassen, Øyvind

    Measurements of atmospheric structure and dynamics near the mesopause were performed using a sodium lidar, an MF radar, and a nightglow CCD camera during the CORN campaign performed in central Illinois during September 1992. The major features of the observed structure on September 27/28 include a low-frequency, large-scale wave accounting for persistent overturning of the temperature and sodium density fields, superposed higher-frequency motions, small-scale transient ripples in the nightglow images suggestive of instability structures, and large-scale wind shear near the height of apparent instability. We describe four simulations of wave breaking with a three-dimensional model designed to assist in the interpretation of these observations. Two simulations address the instability of a low-frequency wave in a background shear flow with and without higher-frequency modulation. These show higher-frequency motions to be important in assigning the spatial and temporal scales of instability structures. Two other simulations examine the instabilities accompanying a convectively unstable inertia-gravity wave with and without higher-frequency modulation without mean shear. These show the instability structure to remain aligned in the direction of wave propagation, with only weak influences by the high-frequency motion. Our results suggest that instability due to a superposition of waves accounts best for the nightglow features observed during the CORN campaign and that streamwise convective instabilities observed due to wave breaking at higher intrinsic frequencies continue to dominate instability structure for internal waves for which inertial effects are important.

  8. Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchetti, A.; Arcangeletti, E.; Perucchi, A.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH

    2009-12-14

    We investigate the pressure dependence of the optical properties of CeTe{sub 3}, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 9 GPa. The energy for the single particle excitation across the CDW gap decreases upon increasing the applied pressure, similarly to the chemical pressure by rare-earth substitution. The broadening of the bands upon lattice compression removes the perfect nesting condition of the Fermi surface and therefore diminishes the impact of the CDW transition on the electronic properties of RTe{sub 3}.

  9. Density wave triggered star formation in grand design spirals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepa, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    In normal spiral galaxies the arms are the main sites for star formation. This is the cause of their optical contrast compared with the rest of the disc. The spiral structure can be observed as a higher concentration of H2 regions, neutral gas (both atomic and molecular via CO), dust and stars than in the interarm disc. It seens generally accepted that, at least in grand design spirals, there are density waves in the discs. However, several questions are not clear yet and still under discussion. An important question could be termed the triggering dilemma (by analogy with the 'winding dilemma' raised in the forties): Is the enhanced star formation in the spiral arms triggered by the passage of a system of density waves or is it simply due to the presence of a higher column density of gas there? In the present work, we use triggering in the same sense as the moderate to strong triggering defined by Elmegreen (1992), that is to say that star formation in the arms occurs at a rate faster than that in the interarm zone, relative to the available placental gas. Our group has designed several tests to elucidate whether or not star formation is triggered in the arms with respect to the interarm region and we summarize one of them, that of the ratio of the star formation efficiency in the arms divided by that of the interarm zone at the same galactocentric distance which we may call the relative massive star formation efficiency, where the efficiency is defined using the ratio of the mass of stars (evaluated via the H alpha flux) to the mass of neutral gas, atomic plus molecular (which must be measured with the adequate angular resolution). If the relative efficiency is of order unity, the star formation is proportional to the mass of gas, if some kind of induced star formation is present, the relative efficiency should be considerably larger than unity.

  10. Inverse procedure for simultaneous evaluation of viscosity and density of Newtonian liquids from dispersion curves of Love waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.

    2014-07-01

    Simultaneous determination of the viscosity and density of liquids is of great importance in the monitoring of technological processes in the chemical, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industry, as well as in geophysics. In this paper, the authors present the application of Love waves for simultaneous inverse determination of the viscosity and density of liquids. The inversion procedure is based on measurements of the dispersion curves of phase velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic Love waves. The direct problem of the Love wave propagation in a layered waveguide covered by a viscous liquid was formulated and solved. Love waves propagate in an elastic layered waveguide covered on its surface with a viscous (Newtonian) liquid. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with appropriately constructed objective function that depends on the material properties of an elastic waveguide of the Love wave, material parameters of a liquid (i.e., viscosity and density), and the experimental data. The results of numerical calculations show that Love waves can be efficiently applied to determine simultaneously the physical properties of liquids (i.e., viscosity and density). Sensors based on this method can be very attractive for industrial applications to monitor on-line the parameters (density and viscosity) of process liquid during the course of technological processes, e.g., in polymer industry.

  11. Whistler wave radiation from a loop antenna located in a cylindrical density depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrin, Alexander V.; Bakharev, Pavel V.; Krafft, Catherine; Zaboronkova, Tatyana M.

    2009-06-15

    Electromagnetic radiation from sources in a magnetoplasma containing a radially nonuniform cylindrical density depletion is considered. Using a rigorous solution for the total field comprising both the discrete and continuous parts of the spatial spectrum of excited waves, the radiation resistance of a loop antenna and the efficiency of excitation of different modes by such a source are determined in the whistler range. Based on the numerical results, conditions are revealed under which the power radiated from a loop antenna located in a density depletion is dominated by the contribution of either discrete- or continuous-spectrum modes. It is found that the radiation resistance of the loop antenna in a weakly nonuniform density depletion can be notably greater than that in a homogeneous magnetoplasma whose parameters coincide with those near the depletion axis. The results are relevant to the basic properties of whistler wave excitation in the presence of field-aligned plasma density irregularities and can be useful for wave diagnostics in laboratory and space plasmas.

  12. Density and optical properties of SPARCS plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Kumer, J. B.; Cooper, C. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Propellant gases emitted by attitude control systems such as SPARCS (Solar Pointing Aerobee Rocket Control System) and possible interference with experiments aboard the payloads are discussed. The optical properties of seven actual and potential gases emitted by propellant systems (CF4, N2H4, NH3, N2, CO2, Ar, and He) are presented. A compilation of absorption coefficients from 1 Angstrom to 50 microns and a summary of fluorescent spectra and efficiencies are provided. Since Freon-14 (CF4) is of primary importance to SPARCS, an experimental search for the fluorescent spectrum of CF4 was performed by exciting the gas with 920 Angstrom UV photons. The result was compared with an electron impact induced spectrum of CF4, and conclusions drawn about the nature of the radiating species. A detailed study of the CF4 flow fields and plume densities for typical SPARCS controlled payloads was made using gas dynamic codes which included the effects of vehicle shading and condensation. The importance of the optical properties of CF4 plumes was investigated and it is concluded that absorption is negligible but fluoresence may be significant in some cases.

  13. Characteristics of VLF wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the presence of an artificial density duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Dmitry; Demekhov, Andrei

    We study the propagation of VLF waves in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere in the presence of large-scale artificial plasma inhomogeneities which can be created by HF heating facilities like HAARP and ``Sura''. A region with enhanced cold plasma density can be formed due to the action of HF heating. This region is extended along geomagnetic field (up to altitudes of several thousand km) and has rather small size across magnetic field (about 1 degree). The geometric-optical approximation is used to study wave propagation. The plasma density and ion composition are calculated with the use of SAMI2 model, which was modified to take the effect of HF heating into account. We calculate ray trajectories of waves with different initial frequency and wave-normal angles and originating at altitudes of about 100 km in the region near the heating area. The source of such waves could be the lightning discharges, modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, or VLF transmitters. Variation of the wave amplitude along the ray trajectories due to refraction is considered and spatial distribution of wave intensity in the magnetosphere is analyzed. We show that the presence of such a density disturbances can lead to significant changes of wave propagation trajectories, in particular, to efficient guiding of VLF waves in this region. This can result in a drastic increase of the VLF-wave intensity in the density duct. The dependence of wave propagation properties on parameters of heating facility operation regime is considered. We study the variation of the spatial distribution of VLF wave intensity related to the slow evolution of the artificial inhomogeneity during the heating.

  14. Charge density waves in strongly correlated electron systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Choe, Jesse; Morosan, E

    2016-08-01

    Strong electron correlations are at the heart of many physical phenomena of current interest to the condensed matter community. Here we present a survey of the mechanisms underlying such correlations in charge density wave (CDW) systems, including the current theoretical understanding and experimental evidence for CDW transitions. The focus is on emergent phenomena that result as CDWs interact with other charge or spin states, such as magnetism and superconductivity. In addition to reviewing the CDW mechanisms in 1D, 2D, and 3D systems, we pay particular attention to the prevalence of this state in two particular classes of compounds, the high temperature superconductors (cuprates) and the layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The possibilities for quantum criticality resulting from the competition between magnetic fluctuations and electronic instabilities (CDW, unconventional superconductivity) are also discussed. PMID:27376547

  15. Evidence against a charge density wave on Bi(111)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, T. K.; Wells, J.; Kirkegaard, C.; Li, Z.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Gayone, J. E.; Fernandez-Torrente, I.; Häberle, P.; Pascual, J. I.; Moore, K. T.; et al

    2005-08-18

    The Bi(111) surface was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) in order to verify the existence of a recently proposed surface charge density wave (CDW). The STM and TEM results to not support a CDW scenario at low temperatures. Thus the quasiparticle interference pattern observed in STM confirms the spin-orbit split character of the surface states which prevents the formation of a CDW, even in the case of good nesting. The dispersion of the electronic states observed with ARPES agrees well with earlier findings. In particular, the Fermi contour of the electronmore » pocket at the centre of the surface Brillouin zone is found to have a hexagonal shape. However, no gap opening or other signatures of a CDW phase transition can be found in the temperature-dependent data.« less

  16. Density waves in the solar nebula - Differential Lindblad torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The differential torque exerted by Lindblad resonances on a perturbing object embedded in a two-dimensional nonself-gravitating disk with density, pressure and sound speed gradients is quantified. First-order corrections are made to account for Keplerian rotation and the presence of the gradients. The total torque is calculated by summing over all resonances in the absence of local wave damping. When applied to the primordial solar nebula disk, the calculations show that disks that cool with increasing heliocentric distance will cause decay of the orbit of the perturbing object. Conditions in which the perturber will escape orbit delay are also described. The characteristic drift time will be no greater than the stochastic accretion time scales. Implications of the calculations for planetary formation are discussed.

  17. Charge density waves in strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Choe, Jesse; Morosan, E.

    2016-08-01

    Strong electron correlations are at the heart of many physical phenomena of current interest to the condensed matter community. Here we present a survey of the mechanisms underlying such correlations in charge density wave (CDW) systems, including the current theoretical understanding and experimental evidence for CDW transitions. The focus is on emergent phenomena that result as CDWs interact with other charge or spin states, such as magnetism and superconductivity. In addition to reviewing the CDW mechanisms in 1D, 2D, and 3D systems, we pay particular attention to the prevalence of this state in two particular classes of compounds, the high temperature superconductors (cuprates) and the layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The possibilities for quantum criticality resulting from the competition between magnetic fluctuations and electronic instabilities (CDW, unconventional superconductivity) are also discussed.

  18. Theory of charge-density-wave non-contact nanofriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosatti, Erio; Pellegrini, Franco; Santoro, Giuseppe E.

    2014-03-01

    Bulk dissipation caused by charge-density-wave (CDW) voltage-induced depinning and sliding is a classic subject. We present a local, nanoscale mechanism describing the occurrence of distance-dependent dissipation in the dynamics of an atomic force microscope tip oscillating over the surface of a CDW material. A mechanical tip hysteresis is predicted in correspondence to localized 2 slips of the CDW phase, giving rise to large tip dissipation peaks at selected distances. Results of static and dynamic numerical simulations of the tip-surface interaction are believed to be relevant to recent experiments on the layer compound NbSe . Supported by SNF Contract CRSII2136287/1 and by ERC Advanced Grant 320796 - MODPHYSFRICT.

  19. Evidence against a charge density wave on Bi(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. K.; Wells, J.; Kirkegaard, C.; Li, Z.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Gayone, J. E.; Fernandez-Torrente, I.; Häberle, P.; Pascual, J. I.; Moore, K. T.; Schwartz, A. J.; He, H.; Spence, J. C. H.; Downing, K. H.; Lazar, S.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Borisenko, S. V.; Knupfer, M.; Hofmann, Ph.

    2005-08-18

    The Bi(111) surface was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) in order to verify the existence of a recently proposed surface charge density wave (CDW). The STM and TEM results to not support a CDW scenario at low temperatures. Thus the quasiparticle interference pattern observed in STM confirms the spin-orbit split character of the surface states which prevents the formation of a CDW, even in the case of good nesting. The dispersion of the electronic states observed with ARPES agrees well with earlier findings. In particular, the Fermi contour of the electron pocket at the centre of the surface Brillouin zone is found to have a hexagonal shape. However, no gap opening or other signatures of a CDW phase transition can be found in the temperature-dependent data.

  20. Evidence against a charge density wave on Bi(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.K.; Wells, J.; Kirkegaard, C.; Li, Z.; Hoffmann, S.V.; Gayone, J.E.; Fernancez-Torrente, I.; Haberle, P.; Pascual, J.I.; Moore,K.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; He, H.; Spence, J.C.H.; Downing, K.H.; Lazar, S.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Borisenko, S.V.; Knupfer, M.; Hofmann, Ph.

    2005-05-01

    The Bi(111) surface was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) in order to verify the existence of a recently proposed surface charge density wave (CDW) [Ch. R. Ast and H. Hoechst Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 016403 (2003)]. The STM and TEM results to not support a CDW scenario at low temperatures. Furthermore, the quasiparticle interference pattern observed in STM confirms the spin-orbit split character of the surface states which prevents the formation of a CDW, even in the case of good nesting. The dispersion of the electronic states observed with ARPES agrees well with earlier findings. In particular, the Fermi contour of the electron pocket at the centre of the surface Brillouin zone is found to have a hexagonal shape. However, no gap opening or other signatures of a CDW phase transition can be found in the temperature-dependent data.

  1. Imaging Charge Density Wave Nucleation in NbSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Ethan; Arguello, Carlos; Chockalingam, Subbaiah; Chung, Woo Chang; Zhao, Liuyan; Gutierrez, Christopher; Kang, Joon Ho; Pasupathy, Abhay; Jia, Shuang; Cava, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the effects of spatial inhomogeneity in complex materials is necessary to achieve a fundamental understanding of their quantum states. NbSe2 serves as a clean and relatively simple system for understanding the emergence of one such state -- the charge density wave (CDW) phase. Using variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we visualize the nucleation of CDWs about crystal defects at temperatures well above TCDW. The CDW correlation length increases with decreasing temperature, until global order is reached below TCDW. We also employ scanning tunneling spectroscopy in order to visualize the energy-dependent, spatial phase of the CDW state. With both topographic and spectroscopic data, we will provide a clear picture of the CDW transition and insight into the microscopic mechanisms at work.

  2. Breathing charge density waves in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Abdelhafiz, H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the creation of a charge density wave (CDW) along a stack of coupled Josephson junctions (JJs) in layered superconductors. Electric charge in each superconducting layer oscillates around some average value, forming a breathing CDW. We show the transformation of a longitudinal plasma wave to CDW in the state corresponding to the outermost branch. Transition between different types of CDW's related to the inner branches of IV characteristic is demonstrated. The effect of the external electromagnetic radiation on the states corresponding to the inner branches differs crucially from the case of the single JJ. The Shapiro steps in the IV characteristics of the junctions in the stack do not correspond directly to the frequency of radiation ω. The system of JJs behaves like a single whole system: the Shapiro steps or their harmonics in the total IV characteristics appear at voltage , where V l is the voltage in the lth junction, N R is the number of JJs in the rotating state, and m and n are integers.

  3. Superconductivity close to a charge-density-wave instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbonnais, Claude; Bakrim, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity (SC) in proximity of a Peierls distorted phase in the perylene based organic conductor Per2Au(mnt)2 [1] has raised once again the issue about the role of charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in the mechanism of Cooper pairing. We have applied the renormalization group approach to a quasi-1D model of electrons interacting with acoustic phonons modes and studied the interplay between the two instabilities. From the one-loop flow equations for the momentum and frequency dependent interactions induced by phonons we analyze the stability of CDW and SC states vs the phonon frequency φD and the hopping parameter t' for nesting alterations. S-wave SC is demonstrated to be stabilyzed above some critical t'^*. In these conditions, the superconducting Tc˜φD^η exibits a non-BCS power law increase with φD(η˜0.7), as a result of quantum interfering CDW and SC pairings. The complete phase diagram is obtained as a function of both t' and φD and shown to agree with the one found for Per2Au(mnt)2 under pressure [1]. [1] D. Graf et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 85, 27009 (2009).

  4. Effects of shallow density structure on the inversion for crustal shear wave speeds in surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Guangchi; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Min; Yang, Yingjie

    2016-05-01

    Surface wave tomography routinely uses empirically scaled density model in the inversion of dispersion curves for shear wave speeds of the crust and uppermost mantle. An improperly selected empirical scaling relationship between density and shear wave speed can lead to unrealistic density models beneath certain tectonic formations such as sedimentary basins. Taking the Sichuan basin east to the Tibetan plateau as an example, we investigate the differences between density profiles calculated from four scaling methods and their effects on Rayleigh wave phase velocities. Analytical equations for 1-D layered models and adjoint tomography for 3-D models are used to examine the trade-off between density and S-wave velocity structures at different depth ranges. We demonstrate that shallow density structure can significantly influence phase velocities at short periods, and thereby affect the shear wave speed inversion from phase velocity data. In particular, a deviation of 25 per cent in the initial density model can introduce an error up to 5 per cent in the inverted shear velocity at middle and lower crustal depths. Therefore one must pay enough attention in choosing a proper velocity-density scaling relationship in constructing initial density model in Rayleigh wave inversion for crustal shear velocity structure.

  5. Shock-wave properties of soda-lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-11-01

    Planar impact experiments and wave profile measurements provided single and double shock equation of state data to 30 GPa. Both compression wave wave profile structure and release wave data were used to infer time-dependent strength and equation of state properties for soda-lime glass.

  6. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  7. Frozen-Density Embedding Potentials and Chiroptical Properties.

    PubMed

    Crawford, T Daniel; Kumar, Ashutosh; Hannon, Kevin P; Höfener, Sebastian; Visscher, Lucas

    2015-11-10

    The efficacy of the frozen density embedding (FDE) approach to the simulation of solvent effects is examined for two key chiroptical properties-specific rotation and circular dichroism spectra. In particular, we have investigated the performance of a wave function-theory-in-density-functional-theory (WFT-in-DFT) FDE approach for computing such properties for the small, rigid chiral compound (P)-dimethylallene interacting with up to three water molecules. Although the solvent potential is obtained through DFT, the optical response is computed using coupled cluster linear response theory for mixed electric and magnetic field perturbations. We find that the FDE potential generally yields too small a shift from the isolated molecule as compared to that introduced by the explicit solvent. In one case, the FDE potential fails to reproduce a change in sign of the ORD in which the solute interacts with two solvent molecules. The source of these errors is due primarily to the lack of solvent response to the external field and is analyzed in terms of solvent-solute charge transfer excitations. PMID:26574324

  8. Convergence Properties of the Harris Density Functional and the Self-Consistent Atom Fragment Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Averill, Frank; Painter, Gayle S

    2006-01-01

    Describing materials properties and behavior over increasing scales of dimension and complexity requires an optimal balance of completeness and accuracy in solving the local density equations. In this study, the convergence properties of a set of schemes that aim to achieve increasing accuracy are systematically examined according to the hierarchical approximations upon which they are based. Specifically, the Harris density functional (HDF) and related schemes that express the total energy in terms of atomic densities and limited self-consistency are compared within a single consistent framework. Convergence of the HDF energy relative to input density is first tested by carrying out calculations within the non-self-consistent atom fragment and self-consistent atom fragment (SCAF) approximations and then by supplementing the SCAF density by increasing numbers of partial waves about each atomic site using the self-consistent partial wave (SCPW) method. The construct of the SCPW method, that solves the local density equations with controlled precision according to the number of partial waves in the site density expansions, enables this study. The rapid convergence of structural properties with an increasing number of partial waves on each site, sometimes even with only L=0 partial waves, provides additional justification for HDF-based tight-binding and molecular dynamics methods where the interatomic potentials are obtained from the superposition of atomic-like densities. The convergence of ground state structural properties is demonstrated by application to the set of molecules: carbon monoxide, water, orthosilicic acid (H{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) , formamide (HCONH{sub 2}) , iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO){sub 5}] , and dimanganese decacarbonyl [Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}] .

  9. Travelling Waves for a Density Dependent Diffusion Nagumo Equation over the Real Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, A. Van Gorder

    2012-07-01

    We consider the density dependent diffusion Nagumo equation, where the diffusion coefficient is a simple power function. This equation is used in modelling electrical pulse propagation in nerve axons and in population genetics (amongst other areas). In the present paper, the δ-expansion method is applied to a travelling wave reduction of the problem, so that we may obtain globally valid perturbation solutions (in the sense that the perturbation solutions are valid over the entire infinite domain, not just locally; hence the results are a generalization of the local solutions considered recently in the literature). The resulting boundary value problem is solved on the real line subject to conditions at z → ±∞. Whenever a perturbative method is applied, it is important to discuss the accuracy and convergence properties of the resulting perturbation expansions. We compare our results with those of two different numerical methods (designed for initial and boundary value problems, respectively) and deduce that the perturbation expansions agree with the numerical results after a reasonable number of iterations. Finally, we are able to discuss the influence of the wave speed c and the asymptotic concentration value α on the obtained solutions. Upon recasting the density dependent diffusion Nagumo equation as a two-dimensional dynamical system, we are also able to discuss the influence of the nonlinear density dependence (which is governed by a power-law parameter m) on oscillations of the travelling wave solutions.

  10. LSP Simulation and Analytical Results on Electromagnetic Wave Scattering on Coherent Density Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics (HEDP) and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present PIC simulation results on EM scattering on vortex type density structures using the LSP code and compare them with analytical results. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Air Force Research laboratory, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Naval Research Laboratory and NNSA/DOE grant no. DE-FC52-06NA27616 at the University of Nevada at Reno.

  11. Spin density wave instabilities in the NbS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güller, F.; Vildosola, V. L.; Llois, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties of the NbS2 monolayer by first-principles calculations. The transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are a family of laminar materials presenting exciting properties such as charge density waves (CDWs), superconductivity, and metal-insulating transitions. 2 H -NbS2 is a particular case within the family, because it is the only one that is a superconductor without exhibiting a CDW order. Although no long-range magnetic order was experimentally observed in the TMDCs, we show here that the single monolayer of NbS2 is on the verge of a spin density wave (SDW) phase. Our calculations indicate that a wavelike magnetic order is stabilized in the NbS2 monolayer in the presence of magnetic defects or within zigzag nanoribbons, due to the presence of unpaired electrons. We calculate the real part of the bare electronic susceptibility and the corresponding nesting function of the clean NbS2 monolayer, showing that there are strong electronic instabilities at the same wave vector associated with the calculated SDWs, also corresponding with one of the main nesting vectors of the Fermi surface. We conclude that the physical mechanism behind the spin-wave instabilities are the nesting properties, accentuated by the quasi-2D character of this system, and the rather strong Coulomb interactions of the 4 d band of the Nb atom. We also estimate the amplitude of the spin fluctuations and find that they are rather large, as expected for a system on the verge of a quantum critical transition.

  12. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. F.; Ngo, H. D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and the topside ionosphere, where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. In this model, the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. Results indicate that high-amplitude short-wavelength (5 to 100 m) quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves can be excited when electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from small-scale planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  13. Analysis of EMIC waves in relation to magnetospheric heavy ion density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, E. H.; Johnson, J.; Lee, D. H.; Clauer, C. R.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Xu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents observations of EMIC wave events and their relation to heavy ion density in the magnetosphere. It is well known that EMIC waves play an important role in particle acceleration and loss via wave-particle interaction. It is critical to know the ion composition in the plasma with which EMIC waves interact in order to understand wave generation and propagation because it controls ion cyclotron resonance frequencies of EMIC waves. The presence of heavy ions (He+ and O+) causes the wave modes to be more complex with two additional resonance (ion-ion hybrid and Buchsbaum resonances) and polarization changes, making it challenging to analyze wave generation and propagation. In this study, we show wave polarization and Poynting flux using data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and Van Allen Probes (VAP) satellites and their ground conjunctions and compare them with the heavy ion density estimated by a wave model.

  14. Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: analytic solution and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Boas, D A; O'Leary, M A; Chance, B; Yodh, A G

    1994-01-01

    We present an analytic solution for the scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media. The analytic result is compared to experimental measurements. Close agreement between theory and experiment permits the use of the theory to determine the properties of unknown sphere-like objects embedded in turbid media. The analytic solution is extended to encompass several problems of practical interest in imaging, including the influence of multiple sources, multiple objects, and boundaries on the characterization of spherical inhomogeneities. We also extend the solution to encompass time-domain measurements. Images PMID:8197151

  15. Stereoscopy of dust density waves under microgravity: Velocity distributions and phase-resolved single-particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Himpel, Michael Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André; Bockwoldt, Tim; Piel, Alexander; Ole Menzel, Kristoffer

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on dust-density waves have been performed in dusty plasmas under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. Three-dimensional measurements of a dust density wave on a single particle level are presented. The dust particles have been tracked for many oscillation periods. A Hilbert analysis is applied to obtain trajectory parameters such as oscillation amplitude and three-dimensional velocity amplitude. While the transverse motion is found to be thermal, the velocity distribution in wave propagation direction can be explained by harmonic oscillations with added Gaussian (thermal) noise. Additionally, it is shown that the wave properties can be reconstructed by means of a pseudo-stroboscopic approach. Finally, the energy dissipation mechanism from the kinetic oscillation energy to thermal motion is discussed and presented using phase-resolved analysis.

  16. Diffuse photon density wave measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Vladimir L; Neidrauer, Michael T; Diaz, David; Zubkov, Leonid A

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) methodology is widely used in a number of biomedical applications. Here, we present results of Monte Carlo simulations that employ an effective numerical procedure based upon a description of radiative transfer in terms of the Bethe–Salpeter equation. A multifrequency noncontact DPDW system was used to measure aqueous solutions of intralipid at a wide range of source–detector separation distances, at which the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation is generally considered to be invalid. We find that the signal–noise ratio is larger for the considered algorithm in comparison with the conventional Monte Carlo approach. Experimental data are compared to the Monte Carlo simulations using several values of scattering anisotropy and to the diffusion approximation. Both the Monte Carlo simulations and diffusion approximation were in very good agreement with the experimental data for a wide range of source–detector separations. In addition, measurements with different wavelengths were performed to estimate the size and scattering anisotropy of scatterers.

  17. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chou, M. Y.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A. -V.; Chiang, T. -C.

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering.more » The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.« less

  18. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chou, M. Y.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A. -V.; Chiang, T. -C.

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering. The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.

  19. Fluctuating charge-density waves in a cuprate superconductor.

    PubMed

    Torchinsky, Darius H; Mahmood, Fahad; Bollinger, Anthony T; Božović, Ivan; Gedik, Nuh

    2013-05-01

    Cuprate materials hosting high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) also exhibit various forms of charge and spin ordering whose significance is not fully understood. So far, static charge-density waves (CDWs) have been detected by diffraction probes only at particular doping levels or in an applied external field . However, dynamic CDWs may also be present more broadly and their detection, characterization and relationship with HTS remain open problems. Here we present a method based on ultrafast spectroscopy to detect the presence and measure the lifetimes of CDW fluctuations in cuprates. In an underdoped La(1.9)Sr(0.1)CuO4 film (T(c) = 26 K), we observe collective excitations of CDW that persist up to 100 K. This dynamic CDW fluctuates with a characteristic lifetime of 2 ps at T = 5 K that decreases to 0.5 ps at T = 100 K. In contrast, in an optimally doped La(1.84)Sr(0.16)CuO4 film (T(c) = 38.5 K), we detect no signatures of fluctuating CDWs at any temperature, favouring the competition scenario. This work forges a path for studying fluctuating order parameters in various superconductors and other materials. PMID:23435216

  20. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Chan, Y-H; Fang, X-Y; Zhang, Y; Chou, M Y; Mo, S-K; Hussain, Z; Fedorov, A-V; Chiang, T-C

    2015-01-01

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene-a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering. The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The observed Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) behaviour of the gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk. PMID:26568512

  1. Charge Order Induced in an Orbital Density-Wave State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by recent angle resolved photoemission measurements [D. V. Evtushinsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 147201 (2010)] and evidence of the density-wave state for the charge and orbital ordering [J. García et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107202 (2012)] in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4, the issue of charge and orbital ordering in a two-orbital tight-binding model for layered manganite near half doping is revisited. We find that the charge order with the ordering wavevector 2{Q} = (π ,π ) is induced by the orbital order of d-/d+-type having B1g representation with a different ordering wavevector Q, where the orbital order as the primary order results from the strong Fermi-surface nesting. It is shown that the induced charge order parameter develops according to TCO - T by decreasing the temperature below the orbital ordering temperature TCO, in addition to the usual mean-field behavior of the orbital order parameter. Moreover, the same orbital order is found to stabilize the CE-type spin arrangement observed experimentally below TCE < TCO.

  2. Properties of the transformation from the spherical wave expansion to the plane wave expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-02-01

    The transformation between the spherical wave expansion (SWE) and the plane wave expansion (PWE) is investigated with respect to a range of its fundamental properties. First, the transformation of individual spherical waves is studied in order to understand how these contribute to the different regions of the plane wave spectrum. Second, the number of spherical waves necessary to accurately determine the PWE over different regions of the spectral domain is investigated. Third, numerical aspects of the transformation are addressed.

  3. Electron density measurement of cesium seeded negative ion source by surface wave probe

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaki, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Shibuya, M.; Sato, M.; Sekiguchi, H.; Komada, S.; Kondo, T.; Hayashi, H.; Asano, E.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2012-02-15

    Electron density measurements of a large-scaled negative ion source were carried out with a surface wave probe. By comparison of the electron densities determined with the surface wave probe and a Langmuir probe, it was confirmed that the surface wave probe is highly available for diagnostic of the electron density in H{sup -} ion sources. In addition, it was found that the ratio of the electron density to the H{sup -} ion density dramatically decreases with increase of a bias voltage and the H{sup -} ions become dominant negative particles at the bias voltage of more than 6 V.

  4. Electronic properties of solids excited with intermediate laser power densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotti, Fausto; Tempo Beamline Team

    Intermediate laser power density up to about 100 GW/cm2 is below the surface damage threshold is currently used to induce modification in the physical properties on short time scales. The absorption of a short laser pulse induces non-equilibrium electronic distributions followed by lattice-mediated equilibrium taking place only in the picosecond range. The role of the hot electrons is particularly important in several domains as for example fast magnetization and demagnetization processes, laser induced phase transitions, charge density waves. Angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measuring directly energy and momentum of electrons is the most adapted tool to study the electronic excitations at short time scales during and after fast laser excitations. The main technical problem is the space charge created by the pumping laser pulse. I will present angular resolved multiphoton photoemission results obtained with 800 nm laser pulses showing how space charge electrons emitted during fast demagnetization processes can be measured. Unable enter Affiliation: CNRS-SOLEIL Synchrotron L'Orme des Merisiers , Saint Aubin 91192 Gif sur Yvette France.

  5. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with interchange instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.

  6. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with interchange instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.

  7. Critical density solitary waves structures in a hot magnetized dusty plasma with vortexlike ion distribution in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    El-Labany, S.K.; El-Shamy, E.F.

    2005-04-15

    The nonlinear properties of solitary waves structures in a hot magnetized dusty plasma consisting of isothermal hot electrons, nonisothermal ions, and high negatively charged massive dust grains are reported. A modified Korteweg-de Vries (modified KdV) equation, which admits a solitary waves solution, for small but finite amplitude, is derived using a reductive perturbation theory. A nonisothermal ion distribution provides the possibility of existence of rarefactive solitary waves. On the other hand, the dynamics of solitary waves at a critical ion density is governed by KdV equation. The modification in the amplitude and width of the solitary waves structures due to the inclusion of obliqueness and external magnetic field are also investigated.

  8. Electronic Structure and Charge-Density Wave Instabilities in Monolayers of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darancet, Pierre; Millis, Andrew J.; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2013-03-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) are layered materials displaying a variety of charge-density wave (CDW) instabilities and complex phase diagrams for group IV & V transition metals. Recent progress in mechanical exfoliation and device fabrication now allow for electrical characterization and gating of individual, 3-atom thick layers of TMDCs, providing new probes of the complex many-body interactions arising in these compounds. In this talk, I will present our investigations using density functional and dynamical mean-field theory regarding the electronic structure and electronic correlations arising in distorted monolayers, bilayers, and trilayers of octahedral group V TMDCs. We will examine the importance of doping, crystal fields, and many-body interactions, and their influence on the transport and optical properties of these materials upon distortion. Computational resources provided by New York Center for Computational Sciences at SBU/BNL supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886

  9. DETERMINATION OF TRANSVERSE DENSITY STRUCTURING FROM PROPAGATING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2013-06-01

    We present a Bayesian seismology inversion technique for propagating magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves observed in coronal waveguides. The technique uses theoretical predictions for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves in transversely inhomogeneous coronal waveguides. It combines wave amplitude damping length scales along the waveguide with theoretical results for resonantly damped propagating kink waves to infer the plasma density variation across the oscillating structures. Provided that the spatial dependence of the velocity amplitude along the propagation direction is measured and the existence of two different damping regimes is identified, the technique would enable us to fully constrain the transverse density structuring, providing estimates for the density contrast and its transverse inhomogeneity length scale.

  10. Polarization Dependence of the Spin-Density-Wave Excitations in Single-Domain Chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Boeni, P.; Sternlieb, B.J.; Shirane, G.; Roessli, B.; Werner, S.A.; Lorenzo, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    A polarised neutron scattering experiment has been performed on a single-Q, single domain sample of Cr in a magnetic field of 4 T in the transverse spin-density-wave phase. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for energy transfers E {lt} 8 meV similarly as in the longitudinal spin-density-wave phase. The spin wave modes with deltaS parallel and perpendicular to Q are isotropic within the E-range investigated.

  11. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  12. Resolution properties of the Fourier method for discontinuous waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, David; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the wave-resolution properties of the Fourier approximations of a wave function with discontinuities. It is well known that a minimum of two points per wave is needed to resolve a periodic wave function using Fourier expansions. For Chebyshev approximations of a wave function, a minimum of pi points per wave is needed. Here we obtain an estimate for the minimum number of points per wave to resolve a discontinuous wave based on its Fourier coefficients. In our recent work on overcoming the Gibbs phenomenon, we have shown that the Fourier coefficients of a discontinuous function contain enough information to reconstruct with exponential accuracy the coefficient of a rapidly converging Gegenbauer expansion. We therefore study the resolution properties of a Gegenbauer expansion where both the number of terms and the order increase.

  13. Wave-Particle Properties and Pair Formation of the Photon

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, B.

    2008-10-15

    Models of an individual photon having joint wave-particle properties, needle-like geometry, and spin cannot be based on conventional theory, but be deduced in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic approach. In this paper the latter is applied to two-slit configurations and electron-positron pair formation: (a) Two-slit experiments performed earlier by Tsuchiya et al. and recently by Afshar et al. demonstrate the joint wave-particle properties of the individual photon, and agree with Einstein's argument against Complementarity. The present theory is consistent with these results, (b) The elementary electron-positron pair formation process is considered, with special attention to the involved orbits, conservation of energy, spin, and electric charge. The obtained model appears to be consistent with the process in which the created electron and positron move along two rays and have original directions along the path of the incoming photon. The nonzero electric field divergence of the theory is associated with an intrinsic local electric charge density. This may explain that the photon can decay on account of the impact from an external electric field.

  14. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for the Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings. Goldreich & Tremaine have already argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring’s viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper Schmidt et al., we have pointed out that when—within a fluid description of the ring dynamics—the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping, but nonlinearity of the underlying equations guarantees a finite amplitude and eventually a damping of the wave. We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model. This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts density waves to be (linearly) unstable in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. Sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. The wave’s damping lengths of the model depend on certain input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability in parameter space and the ground state surface mass density.

  15. Charge density wave formation in rare-earth tritellurides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Nancy

    Charge density wave formation is explored in the rare-earth tritelluride family of compounds (RTe3, R = Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm). These quasi-two-dimensional compounds host a simple lattice modulation with very little variance across the series. They have an especially simple electronic structure, which can be easily tuned by chemical pressure via rare-earth substitution. The Fermi surface (FS) of RTe3 is derived mainly from the p-orbitals of the Te atoms, which are arranged in double layers of nearly square-planar sheets. Despite the nearly four-fold symmetry of the Fermi surface and electronic structure, it is energetically favorable for RTe3 to form an incommensurate CDW that is unidirectional, rather than bidirectional---that is, of "stripe" rather than "checkerboard" symmetry. This CDW wavevector lies along one of the in-plane directions and partially nests nearly-parallel regions of the FS. In this thesis, I present the results of resistivity and high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements that follow the CDW transition temperatures across the RTe3 series. Critical temperatures Tc1 were found to vary remarkably across the series, attributed to the subtle effects of chemical pressure on the electronic structure. For the compounds with the smallest lattice parameters (R = Dy, Ho, Er, Tm), second CDW transitions were observed at lower temperatures Tc2. X-ray diffraction measurements for ErTe3 revealed this to be the onset of a CDW with wavevector lying in the in-plane direction perpendicular to the first, which is reminiscent of bidirectional order. Yet, as this second CDW forms at a lower temperature than the first, and nests a Fermi surface that has been previous nested, this CDW state with two order parameters for perpendicular wavevectors may be more appropriately termed a "rectangular" state. Quantum oscillation studies are also presented that probe the reconstructed FS of LaTe3. Additionally, antiferromagnetism arising from the local moments on the rare

  16. Constant Density Approximations for the Flow Behind Axisymmetric Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, Albert G.

    1961-01-01

    The incompressible rotational flow equations are used to obtain solutions for the flow behind axisymmetric shock waves with conic longitudinal sections. The nonlinear part of the term due to rotation is retained in the analysis. Numerical results for standoff distance and stagnation point velocity gradient are presented for the case in which the shock wave is a paraboloid, a sphere, or an oblate or prolate ellipsoid. A similarity parameter is proposed which correlates approximately the flow behind geometrically similar shock waves at different free-stream conditions.

  17. Time-Dependent Density Wave Theory for Co-orbital Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2009-05-01

    The standard theory of density waves in planetary rings assumes that the orbit of the perturbing satellite is on a fixed orbit. However, the co-orbital satellites, Janus and Epimetheus, trade orbits every four years. Cassini images of Saturn's rings record the time evolution of the density waves excited by these satellites. Ticareno et al. (Ap. J. 651: L65-L68, 2006) attempted to model the observations by assuming the steady-state density waves shift locations in the rings instantaneously when the co-orbital satellites trade orbits. They found that certain wave-like features are observed in the evanescent region of the wave that were not predicted by the steady state theory. We will present the results of a new time-dependent density wave theory that can model the perturbations by the co-orbital satellites during their orbital exchange. Similar to our previous result for temporally modulated density waves excited by the satellite, Pandora (Stewart and Sremcevic, DDA 2008), we find that the effective sound velocity in the wave plays an important role in propagating the time-dependent signal in the wave train. Comparisons with Cassini observations as well as predictions for the next co-orbital exchange event in January 2010 will be presented. This research was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Research Program.

  18. Time-Dependent Density Wave Theory for Co-orbital Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2008-09-01

    The standard theory of density waves in planetary rings assumes that the orbit of the perturbing satellite is on a fixed orbit. However, the co-orbital satellites, Janus and Epimetheus, trade orbits every four years. Cassini images of Saturn's rings record the time evolution of the density waves excited by these satellites. Ticareno et al. (Ap. J. 651: L65-L68, 2006) attempted to model the observations by assuming the steady-state density waves shift locations in the rings instantaneously when the co-orbital satellites trade orbits. They found that certain wave-like features are observed in the evanescent region of the wave that are not predicted by the steady state theory. We will present the results of a new time-dependent density wave theory that can model the perturbations by the co-orbital satellites during their orbital exchange. Similar to our previous result for temporally modulated density waves excited by the satellite, Pandora (Stewart and Sremcevic, DDA 2008), we find that the effective sound velocity in the wave plays an important role in propagating the time-dependent signal in the wave train. Comparisons with Cassini observations as well as predictions for the next co-orbital exchange event in January 2010 will be presented.

  19. Coronal Density Structure and its Role in Wave Damping in Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, P. J.; De Moortel, I.; Kiddie, G.

    2016-05-01

    It has long been established that gradients in the Alfvén speed, and in particular the plasma density, are an essential part of the damping of waves in the magnetically closed solar corona by mechanisms such as resonant absorption and phase mixing. While models of wave damping often assume a fixed density gradient, in this paper the self-consistency of such calculations is assessed by examining the temporal evolution of the coronal density. It is shown conceptually that for some coronal structures, density gradients can evolve in a way that the wave-damping processes are inhibited. For the case of phase mixing we argue that (a) wave heating cannot sustain the assumed density structure and (b) inclusion of feedback of the heating on the density gradient can lead to a highly structured density, although on long timescales. In addition, transport coefficients well in excess of classical are required to maintain the observed coronal density. Hence, the heating of closed coronal structures by global oscillations may face problems arising from the assumption of a fixed density gradient, and the rapid damping of oscillations may have to be accompanied by a separate (non-wave-based) heating mechanism to sustain the required density structuring.

  20. Nonlinear saturation spectra of electric fields and density fluctuations in drift wave turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The detection of drift waves in the nonlinear evolution of a space plasma process driven at long wavelengths is considered, adducing measurements of the electric field and density fluctuation power spectra as evidence. Since the driving mechanism is clearly at long wavelengths, the detection of drift waves suggests that they may play an important role in the transfer of wave energy from long to short wavelengths in a low beta plasma. The saturated spectral density is compared with theoretical results in order to estimate the anomalous diffusion rate. The observed spectral form and amplitude is in excellent agreement with drift wave predictions.

  1. Equivalence theorem for the spectral density of light waves on weak scattering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-07-01

    The Equivalence theorem for the spectral density of light waves on weak scattering is discussed. It is shown that when a spatially coherent plane light wave is scattered from two entirely different media, the far-zone spectral density may have identical distribution provided the low-frequency antidiagonal spatial Fourier components of the correlation function of the media are the same. An example of light waves on scattering from a Gaussian Schell model medium is discussed, and the condition on which two different media may produce identical spectral densities is presented.

  2. Comparison of density waves in the rings of Saturn and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.

    1992-01-01

    The similarity of density waves in the rings of Saturn and Uranus are addressed. It is found that all ring systems are grossly similar in that they all encircle the primary in its equatorial plane and exhibit responses to resonant satellite perturbations. The dominant response of Saturn's rings is the clearing of gaps and generation of density and bending waves. The Uranian rings appear to be confined by the presence of shepherd satellites. Three possible density waves have been identified, two in the epsilon ring and one in the delta ring.

  3. Kinetic properties of mirror waves in magnetosheath plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckean, M. E.; Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear properties of waves excited by the mirror instability in high beta, low anisotropy plasmas characteristic of the magnetosheath are investigated using linear theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations. The mechanisms for wave growth and saturation at low amplitudes are discussed. A new method is considered for generating the large amplitude mirror waves observed in the magnetosheath based on external compression of magnetic flux tubes. Simulations in which the anisotropy is maintained by recycling the ions shows this process can inhibit the growth of ion cyclotron waves and enhances the growth of mirror waves.

  4. Liquid Water through Density-Functional Molecular Dynamics: Plane-Wave vs Atomic-Orbital Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Giacomo; Hutter, Jürg; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    We determine and compare structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions through density-functional molecular dynamics simulations, when using either plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets. In both frameworks, the electronic structure and the atomic forces are self-consistently determined within the same theoretical scheme based on a nonlocal density functional accounting for van der Waals interactions. The overall properties of liquid water achieved within the two frameworks are in excellent agreement with each other. Thus, our study supports that implementations with plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets yield equivalent results and can be used indiscriminately in study of liquid water or aqueous solutions.

  5. Liquid Water through Density-Functional Molecular Dynamics: Plane-Wave vs Atomic-Orbital Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Giacomo; Hutter, Jürg; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    We determine and compare structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions through density-functional molecular dynamics simulations, when using either plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets. In both frameworks, the electronic structure and the atomic forces are self-consistently determined within the same theoretical scheme based on a nonlocal density functional accounting for van der Waals interactions. The overall properties of liquid water achieved within the two frameworks are in excellent agreement with each other. Thus, our study supports that implementations with plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets yield equivalent results and can be used indiscriminately in study of liquid water or aqueous solutions. PMID:27434607

  6. Solitons in a Plasma Wave with a Finite Density Beam of Trapped Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, A. I.

    2014-07-01

    The nonlinear interaction of a longitudinal wave with a finite density beam of trapped electrons is considered. After a Langmuir wave, excited by external sources, transforms into a hybrid of two waves, further increase in the amplitude of the wave is accompanied by twisting of its fragments with positive and negative polarity. The wave is transformed into a train of solitons with positive and negative polarity, which follow one after the other in alternating fashion. The trapped electrons bunch together within intervals occupied by solitons with negative polarity.

  7. Connection between ambient density fluctuations and clumpy Langmuir waves in type III radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A recent stochastic-growth theory of clumpy Langmuir waves in type III sources is shown to imply that the clumps will have the same size distribution as the ambient low-frequency density fluctuations in the solar wind. Spectral analysis of Langmuir-wave time series from the ISEE 3 plasma wave instrument confirms this prediction to within the uncertainties in the spectra. The smallest Langmuir clump size is inferred to be in the range 0.4-30 km in general, and 2-30 km for beam-resonant waves, and it is concluded that the diffusion of waves in the source is anomalous.

  8. ULF waves upstream of the Venus bow shock - Properties of one-hertz waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlowski, D. S.; Russell, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    Pioneer Venus Orbiter data are used here to study the properties of a class of ULF upstream waves with relatively high observed frequencies. These waves show significant similarity to 'one-Hz' waves identified at earth in the ISEE 1 and 2 observations and the whistler waves identified earlier by IMP 6 observations. The waves appear almost immediately after the spacecraft crosses the magnetic field tangent line to the bow shock surface into the region of connected field lines. The wave amplitude decreases with distance from the shock measured along the magnetic field line. Group velocities calculated using the cold plasma dispersion relation indicate that the waves have sufficient upstream velocities to propagate form the shock into the solar wind. The totality of observations seem best explained by a source of right-handed whistler mode waves at the bow shock.

  9. Chirality density wave of the ``hidden order'' phase in URu2 Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberg, Girsh

    Many novel electronic ground states have been found to emerge from the hybridization between localized d - or f - electron states and conduction electron states in correlated electron materials. The heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 exhibits the coexistence of two such ground states: so-called ``hidden order'' (HO) below THO = 17.5 K and superconductivity below Tc =1.5 K. Despite 30 years of research the symmetry of the order parameter associated with HO phase below 17.5 K has remained ambiguous. Here we report results of polarization resolved Raman spectroscopy study aimed to specify the symmetry of the low energy excitations above and below the HO transition. These excitations involve transitions between interacting heavy uranium 5f orbitals, responsible for the broken symmetry in the HO phase. From the symmetry analysis of the collective mode, we determine that the HO parameter breaks local vertical and diagonal reflection symmetries at the uranium sites, resulting in crystal field states with distinct chiral properties, which order to a commensurate chirality density wave ground state. We further explore the competition between the HO phase and large moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phase, and the connection between the HO chirality density wave and the unconventional superconductivity which has recently been proposed to be of a chiral d-wave type. Work was performed in collaboration with H.-H. Kung, R. Baumbach, E. Bauer, K. Haule, M. B. Maple, and J. Mydosh. Research at Rutgers was supported by DOE BES Award DE-SC0005463 and by NSF under Awards NSF DMR-1104884.

  10. Model for density waves in gravity-driven granular flow in narrow pipes.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Simen A; Gjerden, Knut S; Grøva, Morten; Hansen, Alex

    2010-06-01

    A gravity-driven flow of grains through a narrow pipe in vacuum is studied by means of a one-dimensional model with two coefficients of restitution. Numerical simulations show clearly how density waves form when a strikingly simple criterion is fulfilled: that dissipation due to collisions between the grains and the walls of the pipe is greater per collision than that which stems from collisions between particles. Counterintuitively, the highest flow rate is observed when the number of grains per density wave grows large. We find strong indication that the number of grains per density wave always approaches a constant as the particle number tends to infinity, and that collapse to a single wave, which was often observed also in previous simulations, occurs because the number of grains is insufficient for multiple wave formation.

  11. Chemotaxis of artificial microswimmers in active density waves.

    PubMed

    Geiseler, Alexander; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Mulhern, Colm; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Living microorganisms are capable of a tactic response to external stimuli by swimming toward or away from the stimulus source; they do so by adapting their tactic signal transduction pathways to the environment. Their self-motility thus allows them to swim against a traveling tactic wave, whereas a simple fore-rear asymmetry argument would suggest the opposite. Their biomimetic counterpart, the artificial microswimmers, also propel themselves by harvesting kinetic energy from an active medium, but, in contrast, lack the adaptive capacity. Here we investigate the transport of artificial swimmers subject to traveling active waves and show, by means of analytical and numerical methods, that self-propelled particles can actually diffuse in either direction with respect to the wave, depending on its speed and waveform. Moreover, chiral swimmers, which move along spiraling trajectories, may diffuse preferably in a direction perpendicular to the active wave. Such a variety of tactic responses is explained by the modulation of the swimmer's diffusion inside traveling active pulses. PMID:27575185

  12. Chemotaxis of artificial microswimmers in active density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiseler, Alexander; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Mulhern, Colm; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Living microorganisms are capable of a tactic response to external stimuli by swimming toward or away from the stimulus source; they do so by adapting their tactic signal transduction pathways to the environment. Their self-motility thus allows them to swim against a traveling tactic wave, whereas a simple fore-rear asymmetry argument would suggest the opposite. Their biomimetic counterpart, the artificial microswimmers, also propel themselves by harvesting kinetic energy from an active medium, but, in contrast, lack the adaptive capacity. Here we investigate the transport of artificial swimmers subject to traveling active waves and show, by means of analytical and numerical methods, that self-propelled particles can actually diffuse in either direction with respect to the wave, depending on its speed and waveform. Moreover, chiral swimmers, which move along spiraling trajectories, may diffuse preferably in a direction perpendicular to the active wave. Such a variety of tactic responses is explained by the modulation of the swimmer's diffusion inside traveling active pulses.

  13. Dynamical spin-density waves in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling, an important ingredient for quantum simulation of many exotic condensed matter physics, has recently attracted considerable attention. The static and dynamic properties of a SO-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) have been extensively studied in both theory and experiment. Here we numerically investigate the generation and propagation of a dynamical spin-density wave (SDW) in a SO-coupled BEC using a fast moving Gaussian-shaped barrier. We find that the SDW wavelength is sensitive to the barrier's velocity while varies slightly with the barrier's peak potential or width. We qualitatively explain the generation of SDW by considering a rectangular barrier in a one-dimensional system. Our results may motivate future experimental and theoretical investigations of rich dynamics in the SO-coupled BEC induced by a moving barrier.

  14. Particle sizing in highly turbid dispersions by Photon Density Wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressel, L.; Hass, R.; Reich, O.

    2013-09-01

    Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is presented as a fascinating technology for the independent determination of scattering (μ‧s) and absorption (μa) properties of highly turbid liquid dispersions. The theory is reviewed introducing new expressions for the PDW coefficients kI and kΦ. Furthermore, two models for dependent scattering, namely the hard sphere model in the Percus-Yevick Approximation (HSPYA) and the Yukawa model in the Mean Spherical Approximation (YMSA), are experimentally examined. On the basis of the HSPYA particle sizing is feasible in dispersions of high ionic strength. It is furthermore shown that in dialyzed dispersions or in technical copolymers with high particle charge only the YMSA allows for correct dilution-free particle sizing.

  15. Fast plane wave density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations on multi-GPU machines

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Weile; Fu, Jiyun; Cao, Zongyan; Wang, Long; Chi, Xuebin; Gao, Weiguo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2013-10-15

    Plane wave pseudopotential (PWP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation is the most widely used method for material simulations, but its absolute speed stagnated due to the inability to use large scale CPU based computers. By a drastic redesign of the algorithm, and moving all the major computation parts into GPU, we have reached a speed of 12 s per molecular dynamics (MD) step for a 512 atom system using 256 GPU cards. This is about 20 times faster than the CPU version of the code regardless of the number of CPU cores used. Our tests and analysis on different GPU platforms and configurations shed lights on the optimal GPU deployments for PWP-DFT calculations. An 1800 step MD simulation is used to study the liquid phase properties of GaInP.

  16. Persistent order due to transiently enhanced nesting in an electronically excited charge density wave

    PubMed Central

    Rettig, L.; Cortés, R.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Schmitt, F.; Moore, R. G.; Shen, Z.-X.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Wolf, M.; Bovensiepen, U.

    2016-01-01

    Non-equilibrium conditions may lead to novel properties of materials with broken symmetry ground states not accessible in equilibrium as vividly demonstrated by non-linearly driven mid-infrared active phonon excitation. Potential energy surfaces of electronically excited states also allow to direct nuclear motion, but relaxation of the excess energy typically excites fluctuations leading to a reduced or even vanishing order parameter as characterized by an electronic energy gap. Here, using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tendency towards transient stabilization of a charge density wave after near-infrared excitation, counteracting the suppression of order in the non-equilibrium state. Analysis of the dynamic electronic structure reveals a remaining energy gap in a highly excited transient state. Our observation can be explained by a competition between fluctuations in the electronically excited state, which tend to reduce order, and transiently enhanced Fermi surface nesting stabilizing the order. PMID:26804717

  17. Unconventional Charge-Density-Wave Transition in Monolayer 1T-TiSe2.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Katsuaki; Nakata, Yuki; Shimizu, Ryota; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro; Sato, Takafumi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2016-01-26

    Reducing the dimension in materials sometimes leads to unexpected discovery of exotic and/or pronounced physical properties such as quantum Hall effect in graphene and high-temperature superconductivity in iron-chalcogenide atomically thin films. Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a fertile ground for studying the interplay between dimensionality and electronic properties, since they exhibit a variety of electronic phases like semiconducting, superconducting, and charge-density-wave (CDW) states. Among TMDs, bulk 1T-TiSe2 has been a target of intensive studies due to its unusual CDW properties with the periodic lattice distortions characterized by the three-dimensional (3D) commensurate wave vector. Clarifying the ground states of its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is of great importance not only to pin down the origin of CDW, but also to find unconventional physical properties characteristic of atomic-layer materials. Here, we show the first experimental evidence for the realization of 2D CDW phase without Fermi-surface nesting in monolayer 1T-TiSe2. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) signifies an electron pocket at the Brillouin-zone corner above the CDW-transition temperature (TCDW ∼ 200 K), while, below TCDW, an additional electron pocket and replica bands appear at the Brillouin-zone center and corner, respectively, due to the back-folding of bands by the 2 × 2 superstructure potential. Similarity in the spectral signatures to bulk 1T-TiSe2 implies a common driving force of CDW, i.e., exciton condensation, whereas the larger energy gap below TCDW in monolayer 1T-TiSe2 suggests enhancement of electron-hole coupling upon reducing dimensionality. The present result lays the foundation for the electronic-structure engineering based with atomic-layer TMDs.

  18. Some properties of adiabatic blast waves in preexisting cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D. P.; Franco, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cox and Anderson (1982) have conducted an investigation regarding an adiabatic blast wave in a region of uniform density and finite external pressure. In connection with an application of the results of the investigation to a study of interstellar blast waves in the very hot, low-density matrix, it was found that it would be desirable to examine situations with a positive radial density gradient in the ambient medium. Information concerning such situations is needed to learn about the behavior of blast waves occurring within preexisting, presumably supernova-induced cavities in the interstellar mass distribution. The present investigation is concerned with the first steps of a study conducted to obtain the required information. A review is conducted of Sedov's (1959) similarity solutions for the dynamical structure of any explosion in a medium with negligible pressure and power law density dependence on radius.

  19. In situ unravelling structural modulation across the charge-density-wave transition in vanadium disulfide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xu; Yao, Tao; Hu, Zhenpeng; Guo, Yuqiao; Liu, Qinghua; Wei, Shiqiang; Wu, Changzheng

    2015-05-28

    A deep understanding of the relationship between electronic and structure ordering across the charge-density-wave (CDW) transition is crucial for both fundamental study and technological applications. Herein, using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy coupled with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), we have illustrated the atomic-level information on the local structural evolution across the CDW transition and its influence on the intrinsic electrical properties in VS2 system. The structure transformation, which is highlighted by the formation of vanadium trimers with derivation of V-V bond length (ΔR = 0.10 Å), was clearly observed across the CDW process. Moreover, the corresponding influence of lattice variation on the electronic behavior was clearly characterized by experimental results as well as theoretical analysis, which demonstrated that vanadium trimers drive the deformation of space charge density distribution into √3 ×√3 periodicity, with the conductivity of a1g band reducing by half. These observations directly unveiled the close connection between lattice evolution and electronic property variation, paving a new avenue for understanding the intrinsic nature of electron-lattice interactions in the VS2 system and other isostructural transition metal dichalcogenides across the CDW transition process.

  20. Properties of Langmuir wave bursts associated with magnetic holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Lin, N.; Kellogg, P. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Neugebauer, M.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The radio and plasma wave receivers on the Ulysses spacecraft have detected thousands of short-duration bursts of waves at approximately the electron plasma frequency. These wave events believed to be Langmuir waves are usually less than approximately 5 minutes in duration. They occur in or at the boundaries of depletions in the magnetic field amplitude known as magnetic holes. Using the 16 sec time resolution provided by the plasma frequency receiver, it is possible to examine the density structure inside of magnetic holes. Even higher time resolutions are sometimes available from the radio receiver data. The Ulysses observations show that these wave bursts occur more frequently at high heliographic latitudes; the occurrence rates depend on both latitude and distance from the Sun. We review the statistics for the wave events, compare them to magnetic and plasma parameters, and review the reasons for the more frequent occurrence at high heliographic latitudes.

  1. Drift waves in a high-density cylindrical helicon discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Christiane; Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas; Naulin, Volker

    2005-04-15

    A low-frequency instability is investigated in a helicon plasma, which is characterized by comparably high plasma-{beta} and high collision frequencies. Single movable Langmuir probes and a poloidal probe array are used for studies of spatiotemporal dynamics and for characterization of the background plasma parameters. All experimentally observed features of the instability are found to be consistent with drift waves. A linear nonlocal numerical model for drift modes, based on the two-fluid description of a plasma, is used for comparison between the experimental observations and theory. Comparing numerical and experimental frequencies, it is found that the experimentally observed frequencies are consistent with drift waves. The numerical results show that the high electron collision frequencies provide the strongest destabilization mechanism in the helicon plasma.

  2. Broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers prepared by grading magnetic powder density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Terada, Masao; Shogano, Fumiyoshi; Machida, Ken-ichi

    2010-09-01

    Resin compacts including iron-based magnetic powders were prepared using a centrifugal molding technique. Energy dispersive x-ray analyses demonstrated the formation of a concentration gradient of the magnetic powder in the resin compacts. The resultant concentration-graded resin compacts exhibited better broadband electromagnetic wave absorption than the homogeneous resin compacts prepared as a reference. This absorption ability was further enhanced by attaching a urethane foam plate to the absorber surface.

  3. Observation of depth-induced properties in wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, E.; Laroche, C.

    2011-08-01

    We report the observation of changes in the wave turbulence properties of gravity-capillary surface waves due to a finite-depth effect. When the fluid depth is decreased, a hump is observed on the wave spectrum in the capillary regime at a scale that depends on the depth. The possible origin of this hump is discussed. In the gravity regime, the wave spectrum still shows a power law but with an exponent that strongly depends on the depth. A change in the scaling of the gravity spectrum with the mean injected power is also reported. Finally, the probability density function of the wave amplitude rescaled by its rms value is found to be independent of the fluid depth and to be well described by a Tayfun distribution.

  4. Modeling bulk and surface Pt using the "Gaussian and plane wave" density functional theory formalism: validation and comparison to k-point plane wave calculations.

    PubMed

    Santarossa, Gianluca; Vargas, Angelo; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Passerone, Daniele; Baiker, Alfons

    2008-12-21

    We present a study on structural and electronic properties of bulk platinum and the two surfaces (111) and (100) comparing the Gaussian and plane wave method to standard plane wave schemes, normally employed for density functional theory calculations on metallic systems. The aim of this investigation is the assessment of methods based on the expansion of the Kohn-Sham orbitals into localized basis sets and on the supercell approach, in the description of the metallicity of Pt. Electronic structure calculations performed at Gamma-point only on supercells of different sizes, from 108 up to 864 atoms, are compared to the results obtained for the unit cell of four Pt atoms where the k-point expansion of the wave function over Monkhorst-Pack grids up to (10x10x10) has been employed. The evaluation of the two approaches with respect to bulk properties is done through the calculation of the equilibrium lattice constant, the bulk modulus, and the total and the d-projected density of states. For the Pt(111) and Pt(100) surfaces, we consider the relaxation of the first layers, the surface energies, the work function, the total density of states, as well as the center and filling of the d bands. Our results confirm that the accuracy of two approaches in the description of electronic and structural properties of Pt is equivalent, providing that consistent supercells and k-point meshes are used. Moreover, we estimate the supercell size that can be safely adopted in the Gaussian and plane wave method in order to obtain the same reliability of previous theoretical studies based on well converged plane wave calculations available in literature. The latter studies, in turn, set the level of agreement with experimental data. In particular, we obtain excellent agreement in the evaluation of the density of states for either bulk and surface systems, and our data are also in good agreement with previous works on Pt reported in literature. We conclude that Gaussian and plane wave

  5. Energy Flux and Density of Nonuniform Electromagnetic Waves with Total Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Analytic expressions are obtained for the energy flux and density of refracted nonuniform waves produced during total reflection at the boundary between two isotropic media for the general case of elliptically polarized incident light. The average values are determined as functions of the parameters of the adjoining media and the angle of incidence. The cases of linearly and circularly polarized incident waves are examined in detail. An explicit general expression relating the energy fl ux and density of these waves for arbitrarily polarized incident light is obtained.

  6. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Phase critical point densities in planar isotropic random waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, M. R.

    2001-05-01

    The densities of critical points of phase (extrema and saddles), which play an important role in the theory of phase singularities (wave dislocations) in two dimensions, are calculated in isotropic plane wave superpositions. Critical points and dislocations are put on an equal footing as zeros of the two-dimensional current (Poynting vector), and the results, depending only on the second and fourth moments of the wave spectrum (distribution of wavenumbers), are related to the corresponding dislocation density. Explicit results for several spectra are derived, discussed and related to previous results.

  7. Obliquely Propagating Dust-Density Plasma Waves in the Presence of an Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Piel, A.; Klindworth, M.; Arp, O.; Melzer, A.; Wolter, M.

    2006-11-17

    Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and a new mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space-charge sheath. A model for dust-density waves propagating at an arbitrary angle with respect to the ion-flow direction is presented, which explains the preference for oblique or parallel modes as a function of ion velocity.

  8. Tracking the density evolution in counter-propagating shock waves using imaging X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kraus, D.; Benage, J. F.; Drake, R. P.; Efthimion, P.; Falk, K.; Falcone, R. W.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Gauthier, M.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Heimann, P.; Hill, K.; Keiter, P. A.; Lu, J.; MacDonald, M. J.; Montgomery, D. S.; Nagler, B.; Pablant, N.; Schropp, A.; Tobias, B.; Gericke, D. O.; Glenzer, S. H.; Lee, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from time-resolved X-ray imaging and inelastic scattering on collective excitations. These data are then employed to infer the mass density evolution within laser-driven shock waves. In our experiments, thin carbon foils are first strongly compressed and then driven into a dense state by counter-propagating shock waves. The different measurements agree that the graphite sample is about twofold compressed when the shock waves collide, and a sharp increase in forward scattering indicates disassembly of the sample 1 ns thereafter. We can benchmark hydrodynamics simulations of colliding shock waves by the X-ray scattering methods employed.

  9. Models for electrostatic drift waves with density variations along magnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, O. E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    2013-11-01

    Drift waves with vertical magnetic fields in gravitational ionospheres are considered where the unperturbed plasma density is enhanced in a magnetic flux tube. The gravitational field gives rise to an overall decrease of plasma density for increasing altitude. Simple models predict that drift waves with finite vertical wave vector components can increase in amplitude merely due to a conservation of energy density flux of the waves. Field-aligned currents are some of the mechanisms that can give rise to fluctuations that are truly unstable. We suggest a self-consistent generator or "battery" mechanism that in the polar ionospheres can give rise to magnetic field-aligned currents even in the absence of electron precipitation. The free energy here is supplied by steady state electric fields imposed in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field in the collisional lower parts of the ionosphere or by neutral winds that have similar effects.

  10. Three-dimensional structure of self-excited dust density waves under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Piel, Alexander

    2008-09-07

    Self-excited dust density waves in a dusty plasma, containing micrometer-sized particles, have been observed under microgravity conditions at low gas pressures and high dust densities. The waves emerge spontaneously and propagate from the void edge radially outwards to the plasma boundary. We found that the wave propagates obliquely to the local ion flow in regions with high electric fields close to the sheath, whereas it propagates parallel in the plasma bulk. So far the observation was limited to a fixed two-dimensional section through the discharge volume. Recent experiments were performed on parabolic flights in a parallel plate rf discharge, which used the technique of scanning video microscopy. This technique utilizes the high temporal coherence of the waves to reconstruct their full three-dimensional structure. The analysis yields a surprising global spatial coherence of the wave phenomenon.

  11. Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas; Strintzi, Dafni

    2009-11-15

    The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.

  12. Convergence Property of Time Reversal Waves under Noisy Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Takuya; Ochi, Hiroshi

    2004-05-01

    We have studied on the convergence property of time reversal waves (which are equal to phase conjugate waves) in the ocean, particularly in time domain with various configurations of time reversal array (TRA) through simulations and tank experiments. In this paper, the property of time reversal waves under noisy environment is discussed. Simulations were carried out with various sound velocity profiles using the Pekeris solution of the normal mode method and the parabolic equation (PE) method, and tank experiments were also conducted to compare with the simulation results. Results revealed the following. Time reversal waves even at very low signal noise to ratio (SNR) can converge and send the desired signal to the focus at high SNR. The focusing effect of time reversal waves is higher when the horizontal range is extended. If the sound velocity profile is different, the focusing effects are not considerably affected.

  13. Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, S. C.; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.

  14. Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

  15. Ramp wave stress-density measurements of Ta and W

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, J.; Bastea, M.; Reisman, D. B.; Erskine, D.; Collins, G. W.; Rothman, S.; Davis, J.-P.; Knudson, M. D.; Hayes, D. B.; Gray, G. T. III

    2007-12-12

    Stress-density ({sigma}-{rho}) loading paths of both Ta and W under ramped compression were measured up to 300 GPa. For similar ramp loading conditions, {sigma}({rho}) for Ta lies close to the cold curve and significantly below the Hugoniot, while {sigma}({rho}) for W lies close to the Hugoniot and significantly above the cold curve. The elastic yield limit is reported for W and Ta with thicknesses 400-700 {mu}m.

  16. Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities and Electromagnetic Wave Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Rose, D.; Paraschiv, I.

    2015-11-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At midlatitudes, such space weather events are caused mainly by subauroral electric field structures (SAID/SAPS) SAID/SAPS -related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite low-resolution data during UHF/GPS L-band subauroral scintillation events. These types of density irregularities play important roles in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the Earth's ionosphere, inside the plasma sheath of reentry and hypersonic vehicles, and in many other applications.

  17. Studies of the linear and nonlinear properties of Alfvén waves in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Troy; Dorfman, Seth; Gekelman, Walter; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; van Compernolle, Bart; Vincena, Steve; Rossi, Giovanni; Jenko, Frank

    2015-11-01

    An overview will be given of recent experimental research into linear and nonlinear properties of Alfvén waves in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay instability is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of LAPD, producing a damped ion acoustic mode. The decay of a lone, large amplitude Alfvén wave has been observed, producing co-propagating daughter waves with characteristics consistent with kinetic Alfvén waves. The process has an amplitude threshold and the frequency of the daughter modes varies with the amplitude of the pump. A new plasma source based on LaB6 cathode has been added to LAPD, enabling much higher density (x50), electron temperature (x2) and ion temperature (x6). This provides the opportunity to study the physics of waves and instabilities with space and astrophysically relevant β. Topics under investigation include the physics of Alfvén waves in increased β plasmas, electromagnetic effects in drift-Alfvén wave turbulence and the excitation of ion-temperature-anisotropy driven modes such as the mirror and firehose. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  18. The mechanical properties of density graded hemp/polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvegis, Raphaël; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the production and mechanical characterization of density graded biocomposites based on high density polyethylene and hemp fibres was performed. The effect of coupling agent addition (maleated polyethylene) and hemp content (0-30%) was studied to determine the effect of hemp distribution (graded content) inside the composite (uniform, linear, V and Λ). Tensile and flexural properties are reported to compare the structures, especially in terms of their stress-strain behaviors under tensile loading.

  19. Correlation of densities with shear wave velocities and SPT N values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Uday, Anjali; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.; Al-Arifi, Nassir S. N.

    2016-06-01

    Site effects primarily depend on the shear modulus of subsurface layers, and this is generally estimated from the measured shear wave velocity (V s) and assumed density. Very rarely, densities are measured for amplification estimation because drilling and sampling processes are time consuming and expensive. In this study, an attempt has been made to derive the correlation between the density (dry and wet density) and V s/SPT (standard penetration test) N values using measured data. A total of 354 measured V s and density data sets and 364 SPT N value and density data sets from 23 boreholes have been used in the study. Separate relations have been developed for all soil types as well as fine-grained and coarse-grained soil types. The correlations developed for bulk density were compared with the available data and it was found that the proposed relation matched well with the existing data. A graphical comparison and validation based on the consistency ratio and cumulative frequency curves was performed and the newly developed relations were found to demonstrate good prediction performance. An attempt has also been made to propose a relation between the bulk density and shear wave velocity applicable for a wide range of soil and rock by considering data from this study as well as that of previous studies. These correlations will be useful for predicting the density (bulk and dry) of sites having measured the shear wave velocity and SPT N values.

  20. Charge density wave in layered La1 -xCexSb2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luccas, R. F.; Fente, A.; Hanko, J.; Correa-Orellana, A.; Herrera, E.; Climent-Pascual, E.; Azpeitia, J.; Pérez-Castañeda, T.; Osorio, M. R.; Salas-Colera, E.; Nemes, N. M.; Mompean, F. J.; García-Hernández, M.; Rodrigo, J. G.; Ramos, M. A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2015-12-01

    The layered rare-earth diantimonides R Sb2 are anisotropic metals with generally low electronic densities whose properties can be modified by substituting the rare earth. LaSb2 is a nonmagnetic metal with a low residual resistivity presenting a low-temperature magnetoresistance that does not saturate with the magnetic field. It has been proposed that the latter can be associated to a charge density wave (CDW), but no CDW has yet been found. Here we find a kink in the resistivity above room temperature in LaSb2 (at 355 K) and show that the kink becomes much more pronounced with substitution of La by Ce along the La1 -xCexSb2 series. We find signatures of a CDW in x-ray scattering, specific heat, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments in particular for x ≈0.5 . We observe a distortion of rare-earth-Sb bonds lying in-plane of the tetragonal crystal using x-ray scattering, an anomaly in the specific heat at the same temperature as the kink in resistivity and charge modulations in STM. We conclude that LaSb2 has a CDW which is stabilized in the La1 -xCexSb2 series due to substitutional disorder.

  1. Wave Function Arbitrariness of Noninteracting Fermion Model in Quantal Density Functional Theory^1(QDFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht

    2006-03-01

    In the QDFT mapping from a ground or excited state of the interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a particular excited state with equivalent density, there is an arbitrariness in the wave function of the model system. For example, in the case of a two-electron atom, the mapping to the excited singlet 2^1S state of the model system, there are three wave functions that lead to the same density: two single Slater determinants of the orbitals that are eigen functions of only Sz, and a linear combination of Slater determinants of these orbitals that is an eigen function of both Sz and S^2. Neither of the wave functions is more appropriate than the other, since all three wave functions deliver the same density. However, based on the choice of wave function, the structure of the corresponding Fermi and Coulomb holes, and therefore the values of the resulting Pauli and Coulomb correlation energies, will differ. Their sum, the Fermi-Coulomb holes, and the Pauli-Coulomb energy, remains unchanged. The wave function arbitrariness will be demonstrated via the Hooke's atom.1 Quantal Density Functional Theory, V. Sahni (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

  2. Structured mass density slab as a waveguide of fast magnetoacoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.

    Coronal loops are waveguides for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. These loops are expected to be structured. Therefore, in the present paper, we numerically studied the propagation of the fast MHD waves in the structured density slab (composed from a broad density slab with one axisymmetric narrow sub-slab superposed), and analysed the wave signals. Then, this structured slab was divided into its components, i.e., to simple broad and narrow slabs and the same analysis was made. We compared results of both these cases. For the calculations we adopted a two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, in which we solved a full set of ideal time-dependent MHD equations using the FLASH code, applying the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method. To initiate the fast sausage magnetoacoustic waves, we used axisymmetric Gaussian velocity perturbation. Wave signals were detected in different locations along the slab and as a diagnostic tool of these waves, the wavelet analysis method has been used. We found that for the structured density slab with sufficiently sharp boundaries, i.e., for good quality waveguides (without an energy leakage), the guided waves in the structured slab behave similarly as in its separated (simple slab) components.

  3. Shear wave reflectivity and physical properties of the southern Appalachian Thorn Hill Paleozoic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.E.; Christensen, N.I. . Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The physical properties of a sequence of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been examined in detail, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements of density, shear wave velocity, shear wave splitting, and Vp/Vs ratios. Seismic properties of 147 cores from 49 rock samples collected from the thorn hill sedimentary sequence of eastern Tennessee are examined in terms of implications for future seismic studies in the southern Appalachians. The shear wave velocities of these rocks are strongly influenced by the relatively high shear wave velocity of quartz. Shear wave velocity anisotropy is present in most of the lithologic groups: it is highest in the shales while being almost insignificant in the dolostones. The related phenomenon of shear wave splitting occurs to some degree in all of the lithologies studied and at high pressures originates from mineral orientation. Compressional to shear velocity (Vp/Vs) ratios of approximately 1.82 (dolostones) and 1.95 (limestones) effectively characterize the carbonates while other lithologies display wider ranges of Vp/Vs, primarily due to the influence of accessory minerals such as quartz. Densities of the sample suite range from 2.34 g/cm[sup 3] (shale) to 2.86 g/cm[sup 3] (dolostone). Normal incidence shear and compressional wave synthetic seismograms of the entire Thorn Hill section indicate that three zones of high amplitude reflections would be seen on reflection records obtained over this 3,327 meter thick sequence. differences are seen at some interfaces in the Mississippian-Devonian interval, which are more reflective to shear waves, and in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, which appears more reflective to compressional waves.

  4. Analyzing and improving viscoelastic properties of high density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Reaj Uddin

    2011-12-01

    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is closely packed, less branched polyethylene having higher mechanical properties, chemical resistance, and heat resistance than Low Density Polyentylene (LDPE). Better properties and cost effectiveness make it an important raw material over LDPE in packaging industries. Stacked containers made of HDPE experience static loading and deformation strain during their storage period in a warehouse. As HDPE is a viscoelastic material, dimensional stability of stacked HDPE containers depends on time dependent properties such as creep and stress relaxation. Now, light weighting is a driving force in packaging industries, which results in lower production costs but performance of the product becomes a challenge. Proper understanding of the viscoelastic properties of HDPE, with relevant FE simulation can facilitate improved designs. This research involves understanding and improving viscoelastic properties, creep behavior, and stress relaxation of HDPE. Different approaches were carried out to meet the objectives. Organic filler CaCO3 was added to HDPE at increasing weight fractions and corresponding property changes were investigated. Annealing heat treatments were also carried out for potential property improvements. The effect of ageing was also investigated on both annealed and non annealed HDPE. The related performance of different water bottles against squeeze pressure was also characterized. Both approaches, incorporation of CaCO3 and annealing, showed improvements in the properties of HDPE over neat HDPE. This research aids finding the optimum solution for improving viscoelastic properties, stress relaxation, and creep behavior of HDPE in manufacturing.

  5. Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campi, G.; Bianconi, A.; Poccia, N.; Bianconi, G.; Barba, L.; Arrighetti, G.; Innocenti, D.; Karpinski, J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Kazakov, S. M.; Burghammer, M.; Zimmermann, M. V.; Sprung, M.; Ricci, A.

    2015-09-01

    It has recently been established that the high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconducting state coexists with short-range charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder arising from dopants and strain. This complex, multiscale phase separation invites the development of theories of high-temperature superconductivity that include complexity. The nature of the spatial interplay between charge and dopant order that provides a basis for nanoscale phase separation remains a key open question, because experiments have yet to probe the unknown spatial distribution at both the nanoscale and mesoscale (between atomic and macroscopic scale). Here we report micro X-ray diffraction imaging of the spatial distribution of both short-range charge-density-wave `puddles' (domains with only a few wavelengths) and quenched disorder in HgBa2CuO4 + y, the single-layer cuprate with the highest Tc, 95 kelvin (refs 26, 27, 28). We found that the charge-density-wave puddles, like the steam bubbles in boiling water, have a fat-tailed size distribution that is typical of self-organization near a critical point. However, the quenched disorder, which arises from oxygen interstitials, has a distribution that is contrary to the usually assumed random, uncorrelated distribution. The interstitial-oxygen-rich domains are spatially anticorrelated with the charge-density-wave domains, because higher doping does not favour the stripy charge-density-wave puddles, leading to a complex emergent geometry of the spatial landscape for superconductivity.

  6. Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor.

    PubMed

    Campi, G; Bianconi, A; Poccia, N; Bianconi, G; Barba, L; Arrighetti, G; Innocenti, D; Karpinski, J; Zhigadlo, N D; Kazakov, S M; Burghammer, M; Zimmermann, M v; Sprung, M; Ricci, A

    2015-09-17

    It has recently been established that the high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconducting state coexists with short-range charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder arising from dopants and strain. This complex, multiscale phase separation invites the development of theories of high-temperature superconductivity that include complexity. The nature of the spatial interplay between charge and dopant order that provides a basis for nanoscale phase separation remains a key open question, because experiments have yet to probe the unknown spatial distribution at both the nanoscale and mesoscale (between atomic and macroscopic scale). Here we report micro X-ray diffraction imaging of the spatial distribution of both short-range charge-density-wave 'puddles' (domains with only a few wavelengths) and quenched disorder in HgBa2CuO4 + y, the single-layer cuprate with the highest Tc, 95 kelvin (refs 26-28). We found that the charge-density-wave puddles, like the steam bubbles in boiling water, have a fat-tailed size distribution that is typical of self-organization near a critical point. However, the quenched disorder, which arises from oxygen interstitials, has a distribution that is contrary to the usually assumed random, uncorrelated distribution. The interstitial-oxygen-rich domains are spatially anticorrelated with the charge-density-wave domains, because higher doping does not favour the stripy charge-density-wave puddles, leading to a complex emergent geometry of the spatial landscape for superconductivity. PMID:26381983

  7. Computation of Thermally Perfect Properties of Oblique Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon a value of cp expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135, and with a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics code. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use, and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).

  8. Computation of Thermally Perfect Oblique Shock Wave Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1997-01-01

    A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon the specific heat expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).

  9. Optical monitoring of chemical processes in turbid biogenic liquid dispersions by Photon Density Wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hass, Roland; Munzke, Dorit; Ruiz, Salomé Vargas; Tippmann, Johannes; Reich, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In turbid biogenic liquid material, like blood or milk, quantitative optical analysis is often strongly hindered by multiple light scattering resulting from cells, particles, or droplets. Here, optical attenuation is caused by losses due to absorption as well as scattering of light. Fiber-based Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is a very promising method for the precise measurement of the optical properties of such materials. They are expressed as absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μ a and μ s', respectively) and are linked to the chemical composition and physical properties of the sample. As a process analytical technology, PDW spectroscopy can sense chemical and/or physical processes within such turbid biogenic liquids, providing new scientific insight and process understanding. Here, for the first time, several bioprocesses are analyzed by PDW spectroscopy and the resulting optical coefficients are discussed with respect to established mechanistic models of the chosen processes. As model systems, enzymatic casein coagulation in milk, temperature-induced starch hydrolysis in beer mash, and oxy- as well as deoxygenation of human donor blood were investigated by PDW spectroscopy. The findings indicate that also for very complex biomaterials (i.e., not well-defined model materials like monodisperse polymer dispersions), obtained optical coefficients allow for the assessment of a structure/process relationship and thus for a new analytical access to biogenic liquid material. This is of special relevance as PDW spectroscopy data are obtained without any dilution or calibration, as often found in conventional spectroscopic approaches.

  10. Surface Current Density Mapping for Identification of Gastric Slow Wave Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, L. A.; Cheng, L. K.; Richards, W. O.; Pullan, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetogastrogram records clinically relevant parameters of the electrical slow wave of the stomach noninvasively. Besides slow wave frequency, gastric slow wave propagation velocity is a potentially useful clinical indicator of the state of health of gastric tissue, but it is a difficult parameter to determine from noninvasive bioelectric or biomagnetic measurements. We present a method for computing the surface current density (SCD) from multichannel magnetogastrogram recordings that allows computation of the propagation velocity of the gastric slow wave. A moving dipole source model with hypothetical as well as realistic biomagnetometer parameters demonstrates that while a relatively sparse array of magnetometer sensors is sufficient to compute a single average propagation velocity, more detailed information about spatial variations in propagation velocity requires higher density magnetometer arrays. Finally, the method is validated with simultaneous MGG and serosal EMG measurements in a porcine subject. PMID:19403355

  11. Density response of the mesospheric sodium layer to gravity wave perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Lidar observations of the mesospheric sodium layer often reveal wavelike features moving through the layer. It is often assumed that these features are a layer density response to gravity waves. Chiu and Ching (1978) described the approximate form of the linear response of atmospheric layers to gravity waves. In this paper, their results are used to predict the response of the sodium layer to gravity waves. These simulations are compared with experimental observations and a good correlation is found between the two. Because of the thickness of the sodium layer and the density gradients found in it, a linear model of the layer response is not always adequate to describe gravity wave-sodium layer interactions. Inclusion of nonlinearities in the layer response is briefly discussed. Experimental data is seen to contain features consistent with the predicted nonlinearities.

  12. Collective excitations and sum rules for the Hubbard model in the spin-density-wave regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monien, H.; Bedell, K. S.

    1992-02-01

    A variational estimate for the spin-wave velocity of the one-band Hubbard model on a square lattice in the spin-density-wave regime is studied. The estimate is given by the ratio of the f-sum rule to the static structure factor of the transverse-spin response function. The known results for the Heisenberg model are used to obtain results for those quantities in the large-U limit of the Hubbard model. The f-sum rule and static structure factor are calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA). The spin-wave velocity calculated in the RPA, in the spin-density wave ground state, violates the variational bound.

  13. Numerical Tests and Properties of Waves in Radiating Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M; Klein, R I

    2009-09-03

    We discuss the properties of an analytical solution for waves in radiating fluids, with a view towards its implementation as a quantitative test of radiation hydrodynamics codes. A homogeneous radiating fluid in local thermodynamic equilibrium is periodically driven at the boundary of a one-dimensional domain, and the solution describes the propagation of the waves thus excited. Two modes are excited for a given driving frequency, generally referred to as a radiative acoustic wave and a radiative diffusion wave. While the analytical solution is well known, several features are highlighted here that require care during its numerical implementation. We compare the solution in a wide range of parameter space to a numerical integration with a Lagrangian radiation hydrodynamics code. Our most significant observation is that flux-limited diffusion does not preserve causality for waves on a homogeneous background.

  14. Long-range order and pinning of charge-density waves in competition with superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Yosef; Wachtel, Gideon; Orgad, Dror

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments show that charge-density-wave correlations are prevalent in underdoped cuprate superconductors. The correlations are short ranged at weak magnetic fields but their intensity and spatial extent increase rapidly at low temperatures beyond a crossover field. Here we consider the possibility of long-range charge-density-wave order in a model of a layered system where such order competes with superconductivity. We show that in the clean limit, low-temperature long-range order is stabilized by arbitrarily weak magnetic fields. This apparent discrepancy with the experiments is resolved by the presence of disorder. Like the field, disorder nucleates halos of charge-density wave, but unlike the former it also disrupts interhalo coherence, leading to a correlation length that is always finite. Our results are compatible with various experimental trends, including the onset of longer range correlations induced by interlayer coupling above a characteristic field scale.

  15. Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg-dressed fermions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Sarma, S Das

    2015-01-01

    Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. PMID:25972134

  16. On the Linear Damping Relation for Density Waves in Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jürgen; Colwell, Joshua E.; Lehmann, Marius; Marouf, Essam A.; Salo, Heikki; Spahn, Frank; Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the equation for viscous damping of density waves derived from linearized theory and show that the damping is not only determined by the magnitudes of shear and bulk viscosity. Modifications arise from the dependence of the viscosity on the ring’s surface mass density. This was noted more than 30 years ago by Goldreich & Tremaine (1978b). Still, to date the consequences have not been explored. In the literature these terms have been neglected throughout when fitting the rings’ viscosity from observations of wave damping. Therefore, one must suspect that these viscosities, as well as the dispersion velocities inferred from them, suffer from systematic bias, which might be small or significant, depending on the local conditions in the ring. We show that the modified damping formula, to linear order, is related to the stability threshold for viscous overstability and argue that the appearance of density waves may be altered by this instability.

  17. Measurements of ICRF wave-induced density fluctuations in LHD by a microwave reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, A.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujii, N.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H.; Kamio, S.; Seki, R.; Mutoh, T.; Yamada, I.; Takase, Y.

    2015-12-01

    An O-mode microwave reflectometer has been developed to measure ICRF wave induced electron density fluctuations in LHD plasmas. The system has two probing frequencies (28.8 and 30.1 GHz) to measure two spatial points simultaneously. The rms density fluctuation levels are typically 0.01%. The linearity between the measured density fluctuation amplitude and the square root of the RF power is discussed. The decay length of the RF field was estimated to be 1 to 7 m under the operational condition investigated. A typical spatial distance between the two measurement points corresponding to the two probing frequencies is a few centimeters, and the fluctuation amplitudes at the two points are similar in amplitude. The phase difference between the two fluctuations show in-phase relationship on average. Out-of phase relationships, which implies a standing wave structure, are often observed when the wave absorption is expected to be poor.

  18. Suppression of Three-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Ordering via Thickness Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gideok; Neumann, Michael; Kim, Minu; Le, Manh Duc; Kang, Tae Dong; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-11-01

    Barium bismuth oxide (BaBiO3 ) is the end member of two families of high-Tc superconductors, i.e., BaPb1 -xBix O3 and Ba1 -xKx BiO3 . The undoped parent compound is an insulator, exhibiting a charge density wave that is strongly linked to a static breathing distortion in the oxygen sublattice of the perovskite structure. We report a comprehensive spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction study of BaBiO3 thin films, showing that the minimum film thickness required to stabilize the breathing distortion and charge density wave is ≈11 unit cells, and that both phenomena are suppressed in thinner films. Our results constitute the first experimental observation of charge density wave suppression in bismuthate compounds without intentionally introducing dopants.

  19. Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg-dressed fermions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Sarma, S Das

    2015-01-01

    Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. PMID:25972134

  20. Universal and nonuniversal properties of wave-chaotic scattering systems.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Hart, James A; Bradshaw, Elliott; Antonsen, Thomas M; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M

    2010-02-01

    Prediction of the statistics of scattering in typical wave-chaotic systems requires combining system-specific information with universal aspects of chaotic scattering as described by random matrix theory. This Rapid Communication shows that the average impedance matrix, which characterizes such system-specific properties, can be semiclassically calculated in terms of ray trajectories between ports. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results for a microwave billiard, demonstrating that the theory successfully uncovered universal statistics of wave-chaotic scattering systems.

  1. Determination of basic physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks from P-wave velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakuş, Askeri; Akatay, Mahmut

    2013-12-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks used as main building material in historical buildings in Diyarbakir show great diversity depending on the place of origin. Especially, earthquake studies as well as restoration jobs and civil engineers and architects who work on building dynamics need to know basic material properties of basaltic rocks that are the main building material. In this study, the basalt samples obtained from 18 different locations of the Diyarbakir area were tested in order to estimate the main material properties of basalts used in historical buildings without collecting samples from them. Subsequently, statistical relationships between the nondestructive P-wave velocity and other properties of basalts were investigated. Consequently, highly correlated models (R2 = 0.717-0.890) were obtained between P-wave velocity and density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio.

  2. Effect of pulse slippage on beat wave THz generation in a rippled density magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Rajouria, Satish Kumar; K, Magesh Kumar K.

    2013-10-01

    Beat wave excitation of terahertz radiation by nonlinear mixing of two laser pulses in a ripple density magnetized plasma is investigated allowing for the effect of pulse slippage. The lasers' ponderomotive-force-induced electron drift couples with the density ripple to produce a nonlinear current that resonantly drives the terahertz at the beat frequency. Density ripple provides the phase matching while the magnetic field, transverse to the direction of laser propagation, provides a transverse component to current density. However, the group velocity mismatch between the lasers and the terahertz radiation leads to slippage of the latter behind the laser pulses leading to saturation of the terahertz amplitude.

  3. Microwave absorption properties of composite powders with low density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Guohong; Shen, Haigen; Qiu, Jianxun; Gu, Mingyuan

    2006-12-01

    The composites of barium ferrite coated on hollow ceramic microspheres were prepared using sol-gel technique. The crystal structure, morphology and microwave absorption properties of composite powders with different weight ratio of microspheres were studied with XRD, EDS, FESEM and vector network analyzer. The results show that the microwave absorption properties of composite powders are greatly improved. The maximum microwave loss of composite powders reaches 31 dB with an amount of 50 wt.% microspheres, and its density is only about 1.80 g/cm 3. The effect of hollow ceramic microspheres on the microwave absorption property is also discussed.

  4. Energy flow, energy density of Timoshenko beam and wave mode incoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na

    2015-10-01

    Time-averaged energy flow and energy density are of significance in vibration analysis. The wave decomposition method is more fruitful and global in physical sense than the state variables depicted point by point. By wave approach, the Timoshenko beam vibration field is decomposed into two distinct modes: travelling and evanescent waves. Consequently, the power and energy functions defined on these waves' amplitude and phase need to be established. However, such formulas on Timoshenko beam are hardly found in literatures. Furthermore, the incoherence between these two modes is of theoretical and practical significance. This characteristic guarantees that the resultant power or energy of a superposed wave field is equal to the sum of the power or energy that each wave mode would generate individually. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beam, such incoherence in the Timoshenko beam case has not been theoretically proved so far. Initially, the power and energy formulas based on wave approach and the corresponding incoherence proof are achieved by present work, both in theoretical and numerical ways. Fortunately, the theoretical and numerical results show that the travelling and evanescent wave modes are incoherent with each other both on power and energy functions. Notably, the energy function is unconventional and self-defined in order to obtain the incoherence. Some remarkable power transmission characteristics of the evanescent wave are also illustrated meanwhile.

  5. KRONOSEISMOLOGY: USING DENSITY WAVES IN SATURN'S C RING TO PROBE THE PLANET'S INTERIOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2013-07-01

    Saturn's C ring contains multiple spiral patterns that appear to be density waves driven by periodic gravitational perturbations. In other parts of Saturn's rings, such waves are generated by Lindblad resonances with Saturn's various moons, but most of the wave-like C-ring features are not situated near any strong resonance with any known moon. Using stellar occultation data obtained by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft, we investigate the origin of six unidentified C-ring waves located between 80,900 and 87,200 km from Saturn's center. By measuring differences in the waves' phases among the different occultations, we are able to determine both the number of arms in each spiral pattern and the speeds at which these patterns rotate around the planet. We find that all six of these waves have between two and four arms and pattern speeds between 1660 Degree-Sign day{sup -1} and 1861 Degree-Sign day{sup -1}. These speeds are too large to be attributed to any satellite resonance. Instead, they are comparable to the predicted pattern speeds of waves generated by low-order normal-mode oscillations within the planet. The precise pattern speeds associated with these waves should therefore provide strong constraints on Saturn's internal structure. Furthermore, we identify multiple waves with the same number of arms and very similar pattern speeds, indicating that multiple m = 3 and m = 2 sectoral (l = m) modes may exist within the planet.

  6. A Study of Saturn's Normal Mode Oscillations and Their Forcing of Density Waves in the Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedson, Andrew James; Cao, Lyra

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) ring occultation profiles has revealed the presence of spiral density waves in Saturn's C ring that are consistent with being driven by gravitational perturbations associated with normal-mode oscillations of the planet [1]. These waves allow the C ring to serve as a sort of seismometer, since their pattern speeds (i.e., azimuthal phase speeds) can in principle be mapped onto the frequencies of the predominant normal oscillations of the planet. The resonant mode frequencies in turn are sensitive to Saturn's internal structure and rotational state. Characterization of the normal modes responsible for the forcing holds the potential to supply important new constraints on Saturn's internal structure and rotation. We perform numerical calculations to determine the resonant frequencies of the normal modes of a uniformly rotating planet for various assumptions regarding its internal stratification and compare the implied pattern speeds to those of density waves observed in the C ring. A question of particular interest that we address is whether quasi-toroidal modes are responsible for exciting a mysterious class of slowly propagating density waves in the ring. We also explore the implications of avoided crossings between modes for explaining observed fine splitting in the pattern speeds of spiral density waves having the same number of spiral arms, and weigh the role that convective overstability may play in exciting large-scale quasi-toroidal modes in Saturn. [1] Hedman, M.M. and Nicholson, P.D. 2014. MNRAS 444, 1369.

  7. Evidence for a Peierls phase-transition in a three-dimensional multiple charge-density waves solid

    PubMed Central

    Mansart, Barbara; Cottet, Mathieu J. G.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Dugdale, Stephen B.; Tediosi, Riccardo; Chergui, Majed; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dimensionality on materials properties has become strikingly evident with the recent discovery of graphene. Charge ordering phenomena can be induced in one dimension by periodic distortions of a material’s crystal structure, termed Peierls ordering transition. Charge-density waves can also be induced in solids by strong coulomb repulsion between carriers, and at the extreme limit, Wigner predicted that crystallization itself can be induced in an electrons gas in free space close to the absolute zero of temperature. Similar phenomena are observed also in higher dimensions, but the microscopic description of the corresponding phase transition is often controversial, and remains an open field of research for fundamental physics. Here, we photoinduce the melting of the charge ordering in a complex three-dimensional solid and monitor the consequent charge redistribution by probing the optical response over a broad spectral range with ultrashort laser pulses. Although the photoinduced electronic temperature far exceeds the critical value, the charge-density wave is preserved until the lattice is sufficiently distorted to induce the phase transition. Combining this result with ab initio electronic structure calculations, we identified the Peierls origin of multiple charge-density waves in a three-dimensional system for the first time. PMID:22451898

  8. Properties of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves. III; Wave Propagation in Solar and Stellar Wind Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the analytic properties of longitudinal tube waves taking into account ambient wind flows. This is an extension of the studies of Papers I and II, which assumed a mean flow speed of zero and also dealt with a simplified horizontal pressure balance. Applications include the study of longitudinal flux tube waves in stars with significant mass loss and heating and dynamics of plumes in the solar wind. Slow magnetosonic waves, also called longitudinal waves, have been observed in solar plumes and are likely an important source of heating. We show that the inclusion of ambient wind flows considerably alters the limiting shock strength as well as the energy damping length of waves.

  9. Properties of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves. III; Wave Propagation in Solar and Stellar Wind FLows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the analytic properties of longitudinal tube waves taking into account ambient wind flows. This is an extension of the studies of Papers I and II, which assumed a mean flow speed of zero and also dealt with a simplified horizontal pressure balance. Applications include the study of longitudinal flux tube waves in stars with significant mass loss and the heating and dynamics of plumes in the solar wind. Slow magnetosonic waves, also called longitudinal waves, have been observed in solar plumes and are likely an important source of heating. We show that the inclusion of ambient wind flows considerably alters the limiting shock strength as well as the energy damping length of the waves.

  10. Evolution of the temporal slope density function for waves propagating according to the inviscid Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Muhlestein, Michael B; Gee, Kent L

    2016-02-01

    An exact formulation for the evolution of the probability density function of the time derivative of a waveform (slope density) propagating according to the one-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation is given. The formulation relies on the implicit Earnshaw solution and therefore is only valid prior to shock formation. As explicit examples, the slope density evolution of an initially sinusoidal plane wave, initially Gaussian-distributed planar noise, and an initially triangular wave are presented. The triangular wave is used to examine weak-shock limits without violating the theoretical assumptions. It is also shown that the moments of the slope density function as a function of distance may be written as an expansion in terms of the moments of the source slope density function. From this expansion, approximate expressions are presented for the above cases as well as a specific non-Gaussian noise case intended to mimic features of jet noise. Finally, analytical predictions of the propagation of initially Gaussian-distributed noise are compared favorably with plane-wave tube measurements.

  11. Direct Observation of Spin- and Charge-Density Waves in a Luttinger Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chenglin; Marcum, Andrew; Mawardi Ismail, Arif; Fonta, Francisco; O'Hara, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    At low energy, interacting fermions in one dimension (e.g. electrons in quantum wires or fermionic atoms in 1D waveguides) should behave as Luttinger liquids. In stark contrast to Fermi liquids, the low-energy elementary excitations in Luttinger liquids are collective sound-like modes that propagate independently as spin-density and/or charge-density (i.e. particle-density) waves with generally unequal, and interaction-dependent, velocities. Here we aim to unambiguously confirm this hallmark feature of the Luttinger liquid - the phenomenon of spin-charge separation - by directly observing in real space the dynamics of spin-density and ``charge''-density waves excited in an ultracold gas of spin-1/2 fermions confined in an array of 1D optical waveguides. Starting from a two-component mixture of 6 Li atoms harmonically confined along each of the 1D waveguides, we excite low lying normal modes of the trapped system - namely the spin dipole and density dipole and quadrupole modes - and measure their frequency as a function of interaction strength. Luttinger liquid theory predicts that the spin dipole frequency is strongly dependent on interaction strength whereas the density dipole and quadrupole mode frequencies are relatively insensitive. We will also discuss extending our approach to exciting localized spin density and particle density wavepackets which should propagate at different velocities. Supported by AFOSR and NSF.

  12. Travelling waves of density for a fourth-gradient model of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    In mean-field theory, the non-local state of fluid molecules can be taken into account using a statistical method. The molecular model combined with a density expansion in Taylor series of the fourth order yields an internal energy value relevant to the fourth-gradient model, and the equation of isothermal motions takes then density's spatial derivatives into account for waves travelling in both liquid and vapour phases. At equilibrium, the equation of the density profile across interfaces is more precise than the Cahn and Hilliard equation, and near the fluid's critical point, the density profile verifies an Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, allowing kinks, which converges towards the Cahn-Hillard equation when approaching the critical point. Nonetheless, we also get pulse waves oscillating and generating critical opalescence.

  13. Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Hugoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from particl velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.

  14. Numerical study of density cavitations by inertial Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Dwivedi, N. K.; Sharma, R. P.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-07-01

    In this manuscript, we study the localization and density cavitations using inertial Alfvén wave (AW) and fast AW in the auroral ionosphere. We first develop a system of equations semi-analytically for both wave modes by using two-fluid model and then solve the model equations numerically using two-dimensional pseudo-spectral approach to analyze the localized structures and cavity formation at different instant of time. The ponderomotive force associated with the pump wave changes the background density and as the inertial AWs propagate through the modified density channel it gets localized. Therefore, the inertial AW splits up into filamentary/localized structures. A low frequency fast AW traveling through these complex structures created by inertial AW, is intensified having its own filamentary structures. The filamentary structures grow with time until the instability acquires steady state. We notice that the density cavities are also accompanied by the high amplitude magnetic fields. The amplitude of the strongest density cavity is estimated as ˜0.26 n 0 ( n 0 is unperturbed plasma number density). We also discuss the implications of the present study in the context of auroral ionosphere.

  15. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  16. Space-time properties of wind-waves: a new look at directional wave distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckler, Fabien; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Benetazzo, Alvise; Fedele, Francesco; Bergamasco, Filippo; Dulov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Few accurate observed directional wave spectra are available in the literature at spatial scales ranging between 0.5 and 5.0 m. These intermediate wave scales, relevant for air-sea fluxes and remote sensing are also expected to feed back on the dominant wave properties through wave generation. These wave scales can be prolifically investigated using the well-known optical stereo methods that provides, from a couple of synchronized images, instantaneous representation of wave elevations over a given sea surface. Thus, two stereo systems (the so-called Wave Acquisition Stereo Systems, WASS) were deployed on top of the deep-water platform at Katsiveli, in the Black Sea, in September 2011 and 2013. From image pairs taken by the couple of synchronized high-resolution cameras, ocean surfaces have been reconstructed by stereo-triangulation. Here we analyze sea states corresponding to mean wind speeds of 11 to 14 m/s, and young wave ages of 0.35 to 0.42, associated to significant wave heights of 0.3 to 0.55m. As a result, four 12 Hz time evolutions of sea surface elevation maps with areas about 10 x 10 m2 have been obtained for sequence durations ranging between 15 and 30 minutes, and carefully validated with nearby capacitance wave gauges. The evolving free surfaces elevations were processed into frequency-wavenumber-direction 3D spectra. We found that wave energy chiefly follows the dispersion relation up to frequency of 1.6Hz and wavenumber of 10 rad/m, corresponding to wavelength of about 0.5 m. These spectra also depict well the energy contribution from non-linear waves, which is quantified and compared to theory. A strong bi-modality of the linear spectra was also observed, with the angle of the two maxima separated by about 160 degrees. Furthermore, spectra also exhibit the bimodality of the non-linear part. Integrated over positive frequencies to obtain wavenumber spectra unambiguous in direction, the bimodality of the spectra is partially hidden by the energy from

  17. Fiber optic techniques for measuring various properties of shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinse, Wim C.; van Esveld, Rene; Oostdam, Rene; van Rooijen, Murk; Bouma, Richard

    1999-06-01

    For the past years we have developed several optical techniques to measure properties of shock waves. The fiber optic probe (FOP) is developed to measure the shock-wave velocity and/or the detonation velocity inside an explosive. The space resolution can be as small as 0.5 mm. Single fibers are used as velocity pins, and as devices to measure the flatness of flyers. Arrays of fibers are used to measure the curvature of a shock or detonation front. Also a Fabry-Perot velocity Interferometer System is constructed to measure the velocity of the flyer of an electric gun and the particle velocity in a shock wave. It is possible to combine these two measurements to determine simultaneously the flyer velocity that induces a shock wave in sample and the particle velocity in a window material at the back in a single streak record.

  18. Measurement of mechanical properties of homogeneous tissue with ultrasonically induced shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2007-03-01

    Fundamental mechanical properties of tissue are altered by many diseases. Regional and systemic diseases can cause changes in tissue properties. Liver stiffness is caused by cirrhosis and fibrosis. Vascular wall stiffness and tone are altered by smoking, diabetes and other diseases. Measurement of tissue mechanical properties has historically been done with palpation. However palpation is subjective, relative, and not quantitative or reproducible. Elastography in which strain is measured due to stress application gives a qualitative estimate of Young's modulus at low frequency. We have developed a method that takes advantage of the fact that the wave equation is local and shear wave propagation depends only on storage and loss moduli in addition to density, which does not vary much in soft tissues. Our method is called shearwave dispersion ultrasonic velocity measurement (SDUV). The method uses ultrasonic radiation force to produce repeated motion in tissue that induces shear waves to propagate. The shear wave propagation speed is measured with pulse echo ultrasound as a function of frequency of the shear wave. The resulting velocity dispersion curve is fit with a Voight model to determine the elastic and viscous moduli of the tissue. Results indicate accurate and precise measurements are possible using this "noninvasive biopsy" method. Measurements in beef along and across the fibers are consistent with the literature values.

  19. Strong Evidence for the Density-wave Theory of Spiral Structure in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour-Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Davis, Benjamin L.; Shields, Douglas W.; Shameer Abdeen, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    The density-wave theory of galactic spiral-arm structure makes a striking prediction that the pitch angle of spiral arms should vary with the wavelength of the galaxy’s image. The reason is that stars are born in the density wave but move out of it as they age. They move ahead of the density wave inside the co-rotation radius, and fall behind outside of it, resulting in a tighter pitch angle at wavelengths that image stars (optical and near-infrared) than those that are associated with star formation (far-infrared and ultraviolet). In this study we combined large sample size with wide range of wavelengths, from the ultraviolet to the infrared to investigate this issue. For each galaxy we used an optical wavelength image (B-band: 445 nm) and images from the Spitzer Space Telescope at two infrared wavelengths (infrared: 3.6 and 8.0 μm) and we measured the pitch angle with the 2DFFT and Spirality codes. We find that the B-band and 3.6 μm images have smaller pitch angles than the infrared 8.0 μm image in all cases, in agreement with the prediction of density-wave theory. We also used images in the ultraviolet from Galaxy Evolution Explorer, whose pitch angles agreed with the measurements made at 8 μm.

  20. Topological density-wave states in a particle-hole symmetric Weyl metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Ye, Peng

    2016-08-01

    We study the instabilities of a particle-hole symmetric Weyl metal with both electron and hole Fermi surfaces (FSs) around the Weyl points. For a repulsive interaction we find that the leading instability is towards a longitudinal spin-density-wave (SDWz) order. Besides, there exist three degenerate subleading instabilities: a charge-density-wave (CDW) instability, and two transverse spin-density-wave (SDWx ,y) instabilities. For an attractive interaction the leading instabilities are towards two pair-density-wave (PDW) orders which pair the two FSs separately. Both the PDW and SDWz order parameters fully gap out the FSs, while the CDW and SDWx ,y ones leave line nodes on both FSs. For the SDWz and the PDW states, the surface Fermi arc in the metallic state evolves to a chiral Fermi line which passes the projection of the Weyl points and traverses the full momentum space. For the CDW state, the line node projects to a "drumhead" band localized on the surface, which can lead to a topological charge polarization. We verify the surface states by computing the angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data.

  1. Orthogonality of embedded wave functions for different states in frozen-density embedding theory.

    PubMed

    Zech, Alexander; Aquilante, Francesco; Wesolowski, Tomasz A

    2015-10-28

    Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded wave functions obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles--embedded wave functions are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities--working with orthogonal functions has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded wave functions which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded wave function, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy functional. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities. PMID:26520497

  2. Orthogonality of embedded wave functions for different states in frozen-density embedding theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zech, Alexander; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.; Aquilante, Francesco

    2015-10-28

    Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded wave functions obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles — embedded wave functions are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities — working with orthogonal functions has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded wave functions which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded wave function, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy functional. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.

  3. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  4. Persistent order due to transiently enhanced nesting in an electronically excited charge density wave

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rettig, L.; Cortés, R.; Chu, J. -H.; Fisher, I. R.; Schmitt, F.; Moore, R. G.; Shen, Z. -X.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Wolf, M.; Bovensiepen, U.

    2016-01-25

    Non-equilibrium conditions may lead to novel properties of materials with broken symmetry ground states not accessible in equilibrium as vividly demonstrated by non-linearly driven mid-infrared active phonon excitation. Potential energy surfaces of electronically excited states also allow to direct nuclear motion, but relaxation of the excess energy typically excites fluctuations leading to a reduced or even vanishing order parameter as characterized by an electronic energy gap. Here, using femtosecond time-and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tendency towards transient stabilization of a charge density wave after near-infrared excitation, counteracting the suppression of order in the non-equilibrium state. Analysis of themore » dynamic electronic structure reveals a remaining energy gap in a highly excited transient state. In conclusion, our observation can be explained by a competition between fluctuations in the electronically excited state, which tend to reduce order, and transiently enhanced Fermi surface nesting stabilizing the order.« less

  5. Charge density wave fluctuations, heavy electrons, and superconductivity in KNi2S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, James R.; McQueen, Tyrel M.; Llobet, Anna; Wen, Jiajia; Suchomel, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the complexities of electronic and magnetic ground states in solids is one of the main goals of solid-state physics. Materials with the canonical ThCr2Si2-type structure have proved particularly fruitful in this regard, as they exhibit a wide range of technologically advantageous physical properties described by “many-body physics,” including high-temperature superconductivity and heavy fermion behavior. Here, using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction and time-of-flight neutron scattering, we show that the isostructural mixed valence compound KNi2S2 displays a number of highly unusual structural transitions, most notably the presence of charge density wave fluctuations that disappear on cooling. This behavior occurs without magnetic or charge order, in contrast to expectations based on other known materials exhibiting related phenomena. Furthermore, the low-temperature electronic state of KNi2S2 is found to exhibit many characteristics of heavy-fermion behavior, including a heavy electron state (m*/me˜ 24), with a negative coefficient of thermal expansion, and superconductivity below Tc=0.46(2) K. In the potassium nickel sulfide, these behaviors arise in the absence of localized magnetism, and instead appear to originate in proximity to charge order.

  6. The response of plasma density to breaking inertial gravity wave in the lower regions of ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenbo Mahalov, Alex

    2014-04-15

    We present a three-dimensional numerical study for the E and lower F region ionosphere coupled with the neutral atmosphere dynamics. This model is developed based on a previous ionospheric model that examines the transport patterns of plasma density given a prescribed neutral atmospheric flow. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in the model allows us to examine the charge-neutral interactions over the full evolution cycle of an inertial gravity wave when the background flow spins up from rest, saturates and eventually breaks. Using Lagrangian analyses, we show the mixing patterns of the ionospheric responses and the formation of ionospheric layers. The corresponding plasma density in this flow develops complex wave structures and small-scale patches during the gravity wave breaking event.

  7. Effect of Radial Density Configuration on Wave Field and Energy Flow in Axially Uniform Helicon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lei; Li, Qingchong; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Yinghong; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Bailing; Zhuang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the radial density configuration in terms of width, edge gradient and volume gradient on the wave field and energy flow in an axially uniform helicon plasma is studied in detail. A three-parameter function is employed to describe the density, covering uniform, parabolic, linear and Gaussian profiles. It finds that the fraction of power deposition near the plasma edge increases with density width and edge gradient, and decays in exponential and “bump-on-tail” profiles, respectively, away from the surface. The existence of a positive second-order derivative in the volume density configuration promotes the power deposition near the plasma core, which to our best knowledge has not been pointed out before. The transverse structures of wave field and current density remain almost the same during the variation of density width and gradient, confirming the robustness of the m=1 mode observed previously. However, the structure of the electric wave field changes significantly from a uniform density configuration, for which the coupling between the Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) mode and the helicon mode is very strong, to non-uniform ones. The energy flow in the cross section of helicon plasma is presented for the first time, and behaves sensitive to the density width and edge gradient but insensitive to the volume gradient. Interestingly, the radial distribution of power deposition resembles the radial profile of the axial component of current density, suggesting the control of the power deposition profile in the experiment by particularly designing the antenna geometry to excite a required axial current distribution. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11405271)

  8. Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Marukovich, Alexander; Mikutski, Vitali; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Hryhoryeu, Siarhei; Sadykov, Vladislav

    2016-06-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams were manufactured by multiple replications of a polyurethane foam template structure using ethanolic solutions of phenolic resin. The aims were to create an algorithm of fine tuning the precursor foam density and ensure an open-cell reticulated porous structure in a wide density range. The precursor foams were pyrolyzed in inert atmospheres at 700°C, 1100°C and 2000°C, and RVC foams with fully open cells and tunable bulk densities within 0.09-0.42 g/cm3 were synthesized. The foams were characterized in terms of porous structure, carbon lattice parameters, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and corrosive resistance. The reported manufacturing approach is suitable for designing the foam microstructure, including the strut design with a graded microstructure.

  9. Upstream waves at Mercury, Venus and earth - Comparison of the properties of one Hertz waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlowski, D. S.; Crawford, G. K.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Venus foreshock region contains low-frequency upstream waves similar to those in the terrestrial foreshock, but perhaps with different amplitudes than at earth. This paper compares the properties of a second class of upstream waves, analogous to the so-called 1 Hz waves at earth. The waves observed at Mercury, Venus, and earth have very similar properties, i.e., propagation angles less than 55 degrees to the magnetic field and less than 35 degrees to the solar wind flow direction. The waves occur exclusively on the field lines connected to the bow shock. They are most commonly left-hand elliptically polarized with similar fractional amplitudes, approximately 0.1 of the background field strength. Their amplitudes decrease with increasing distance from the shock. The observed frequencies are similar for Mercury, Venus, and earth when scaled by the interplanetary magnetic field. If, as generally assumed at earth, these waves arise in regions of backstreaming electrons, these results imply that similar electron foreshocks occur at earth, Venus and Mercury despite differences in bow shock size and the nature of the obstacle to the solar wind.

  10. The physical properties of the blast wave produced by a stoichiometric propane/oxygen explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, M. C.; Dewey, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    The trajectory of the primary shock produced by the explosion of a nominal 18.14 t (20 tn) hemispherical propane/oxygen charge was analysed previously to provide the physical properties immediately behind the shock, but gave no information about the time-resolved properties throughout the blast wave. The present study maps all the physical properties of the wave throughout and beyond the positive durations for a range of distances from about 1.6-18 m scaled to a 1 kg charge at NTP. The physical properties were calculated using a hydro-code to simulate the flow field produced by a spherical piston moving with a specific trajectory. This technique has been used extensively to determine the physical properties of blast waves from a variety of sources for which the piston path was determined by high-speed photography of smoke tracers established close to the charges immediately before detonation. In the case of the propane/oxygen explosion, smoke tracer data were not available to determine the trajectory of the spherical piston. An arbitrary piston path was used and its trajectory iteratively adjusted until it produced a blast wave with a primary shock whose trajectory exactly matched the measured trajectory from the propane/oxygen explosion. Throughout the studied flow field the time histories of hydrostatic pressure, density and particle velocity are well described by fits to the modified Friedlander equation. The properties are presented as functions of scaled radius and are compared with the properties of the blast wave from a 1 kg TNT surface burst explosion, and with other measurements of the same explosion.

  11. The physical properties of the blast wave produced by a stoichiometric propane/oxygen explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, M. C.; Dewey, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    The trajectory of the primary shock produced by the explosion of a nominal 18.14 t (20 tn) hemispherical propane/oxygen charge was analysed previously to provide the physical properties immediately behind the shock, but gave no information about the time-resolved properties throughout the blast wave. The present study maps all the physical properties of the wave throughout and beyond the positive durations for a range of distances from about 1.6-18 m scaled to a 1 kg charge at NTP. The physical properties were calculated using a hydro-code to simulate the flow field produced by a spherical piston moving with a specific trajectory. This technique has been used extensively to determine the physical properties of blast waves from a variety of sources for which the piston path was determined by high-speed photography of smoke tracers established close to the charges immediately before detonation. In the case of the propane/oxygen explosion, smoke tracer data were not available to determine the trajectory of the spherical piston. An arbitrary piston path was used and its trajectory iteratively adjusted until it produced a blast wave with a primary shock whose trajectory exactly matched the measured trajectory from the propane/oxygen explosion. Throughout the studied flow field the time histories of hydrostatic pressure, density and particle velocity are well described by fits to the modified Friedlander equation. The properties are presented as functions of scaled radius and are compared with the properties of the blast wave from a 1 kg TNT surface burst explosion, and with other measurements of the same explosion.

  12. NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2013-08-10

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

  13. Excitation, propagation and damping of helicon waves in a high density, low temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caneses, J. F.; Blackwell, B. D.

    2015-11-01

    The MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE) is a helicon linear plasma device built to study fusion relevant plasma-surface interactions. In this work, we investigate helicon wave propagation in high density (1018-1019 m-3) low temperature (2-4 eV) magnetized (50-200 G) hydrogen plasma produced by a half-helical antenna operated at 7 MHz and 20 kW. Using the cold dielectric tensor with collisional terms (electron-neutral and Coulomb), helicon wave damping is calculated along the length of MAGPIE using a WKB approximation. Comparison with experiment indicates that wave damping, under these conditions, is entirely collisional. Numerical results from a fully electromagnetic wave code and 2D wavefield measurements indicate that helicon waves are excited at the plasma edge by the antenna's transverse current straps while the helical straps play a secondary role. These waves propagate towards the center of the discharge along the whistler wave ray direction (19 degrees to the background magnetic field), interfere on-axis and form the axial interference pattern commonly observed in helicon devices.

  14. Luther-Emery Phase and Atomic-Density Waves in a Trapped Fermion Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xianlong; Rizzi, M.; Polini, Marco; Tosi, M. P.; Fazio, Rosario; Campo, V. L. Jr.; Capelle, K.

    2007-01-19

    The Luther-Emery liquid is a state of matter that is predicted to occur in one-dimensional systems of interacting fermions and is characterized by a gapless charge spectrum and a gapped spin spectrum. In this Letter we discuss a realization of the Luther-Emery phase in a trapped cold-atom gas. We study by means of the density-matrix renormalization-group technique a two-component atomic Fermi gas with attractive interactions subject to parabolic trapping inside an optical lattice. We demonstrate how this system exhibits compound phases characterized by the coexistence of spin pairing and atomic-density waves. A smooth crossover occurs with increasing magnitude of the atom-atom attraction to a state in which tightly bound spin-singlet dimers occupy the center of the trap. The existence of atomic-density waves could be detected in the elastic contribution to the light-scattering diffraction pattern.

  15. Density-wave-modulated crystallization in nanoscale silicon films and droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yongjun; Bi, Qingling; Yan, Xinqing

    2016-06-01

    Free surfaces have been known to significantly influence the crystallization of tetrahedral liquids. However, a comprehensive understanding of the influence mechanism is still lacking at present. By employing molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the nucleation probability in nanoscale silicon films and droplets exhibits a ripple-like distribution spatially. This phenomenon is closely related to the structural order wave, which is induced by the density fluctuations arisen from the volume expansion in a confinement environment defined by free surfaces. By the aid of the intrinsic relation between the tetrahedral order and the density, the analytic results based on the density wave equation well account for the nucleation probability distributions in both films and droplets. Our findings reveal the underlying mechanism of the surface-assisted nucleation in tetrahedral liquids and provide an overall description of crystallization in liquid films and droplets.

  16. Density-wave-modulated crystallization in nanoscale silicon films and droplets.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yongjun; Bi, Qingling; Yan, Xinqing

    2016-06-21

    Free surfaces have been known to significantly influence the crystallization of tetrahedral liquids. However, a comprehensive understanding of the influence mechanism is still lacking at present. By employing molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the nucleation probability in nanoscale silicon films and droplets exhibits a ripple-like distribution spatially. This phenomenon is closely related to the structural order wave, which is induced by the density fluctuations arisen from the volume expansion in a confinement environment defined by free surfaces. By the aid of the intrinsic relation between the tetrahedral order and the density, the analytic results based on the density wave equation well account for the nucleation probability distributions in both films and droplets. Our findings reveal the underlying mechanism of the surface-assisted nucleation in tetrahedral liquids and provide an overall description of crystallization in liquid films and droplets.

  17. Luther-Emery Phase and Atomic-Density Waves in a Trapped Fermion Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianlong, Gao; Rizzi, M.; Polini, Marco; Fazio, Rosario; Tosi, M. P.; Campo, V. L., Jr.; Capelle, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Luther-Emery liquid is a state of matter that is predicted to occur in one-dimensional systems of interacting fermions and is characterized by a gapless charge spectrum and a gapped spin spectrum. In this Letter we discuss a realization of the Luther-Emery phase in a trapped cold-atom gas. We study by means of the density-matrix renormalization-group technique a two-component atomic Fermi gas with attractive interactions subject to parabolic trapping inside an optical lattice. We demonstrate how this system exhibits compound phases characterized by the coexistence of spin pairing and atomic-density waves. A smooth crossover occurs with increasing magnitude of the atom-atom attraction to a state in which tightly bound spin-singlet dimers occupy the center of the trap. The existence of atomic-density waves could be detected in the elastic contribution to the light-scattering diffraction pattern.

  18. Correlating P-wave Velocity with the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Different Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    In mining and civil engineering projects, physico-mechanical properties of the rock affect both the project design and the construction operation. Determination of various physico-mechanical properties of rocks is expensive and time consuming, and sometimes it is very difficult to get cores to perform direct tests to evaluate the rock mass. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationships between the different physico-mechanical properties of the various rock types with the P-wave velocity. Measurement of P-wave velocity is relatively cheap, non-destructive and easy to carry out. In this study, representative rock mass samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were collected from the different locations of India to obtain an empirical relation between P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, punch shear, density, slake durability index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, impact strength index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. A very strong correlation was found between the P-wave velocity and different physico-mechanical properties of various rock types with very high coefficients of determination. To check the sensitivity of the empirical equations, Students t test was also performed, which confirmed the validity of the proposed correlations.

  19. Dispersion properties of electrostatic sound wave modes in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2010-01-15

    The theoretical analysis of electrostatic sound wave modes in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is presented within the framework of the fluid theory in conjunction with the Poisson's equation. The electron and ion components of each wall of nanotubes are regarded as two-species plasma system, in which the perturbed electron number density is deduced by means of the quantum hydrodynamic model, while the ion density perturbation follows the classical expression. An analytical expression of the dispersion relation is obtained for the quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in the system. Numerical result is prepared for a two-walled carbon nanotube, giving rise to a splitting of the frequencies of the electrostatic oscillations due to the small coupling between the two cylinders.

  20. Suppressing a charge density wave by changing dimensionality in the ferecrystalline compounds ([SnSe]1.15)1(VSe2)n with n = 1, 2, 3, 4.

    PubMed

    Falmbigl, Matthias; Fiedler, Andreas; Atkins, Ryan E; Fischer, Saskia F; Johnson, David C

    2015-02-11

    The compounds, ([SnSe]1.15)1(VSe2)n with n = 1, 2, 3, and 4, were prepared using designed precursors in order to investigate the influence of the thickness of the VSe2 constituent on the charge density wave transition. The structure of each of the compounds was determined using X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The charge density wave transition observed in the resistivity of ([SnSe]1.15)1(VSe2)1 was confirmed. The electrical properties of the n = 2 and 3 compounds are distinctly different. The magnitude of the resistivity change at the transition temperature is dramatically lowered and the temperature of the resistivity minimum systematically increases from 118 K (n = 1) to 172 K (n = 3). For n = 1, this temperature correlates with the onset of the charge density wave transition. The Hall-coefficient changes sign when n is greater than 1, and the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient of the n = 2 and 3 compounds is very similar to the bulk, slowly decreasing as the temperature is decreased, while for the n = 1 compound the Hall coefficient increases dramatically starting at the onset of the charge density wave. The transport properties suggest an abrupt change in electronic properties on increasing the thickness of the VSe2 layer beyond a single layer.

  1. Engineering chiral density waves and topological band structures by multiple-Q superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Ozawa, Ryo; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic orders characterized by multiple ordering vectors harbor noncollinear and noncoplanar spin textures and can be a source of unusual electronic properties through the spin Berry phase mechanism. We theoretically show that such multiple-Q states are stabilized in itinerant magnets in the form of superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down (UUDD) spin states, which accompany the density waves of vector and scalar chirality. The result is drawn by examining the ground state of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized moments, especially when the Fermi surface is tuned to be partially nested by the symmetry-related commensurate vectors. We unveil the instability toward a double-Q UUDD state with vector chirality density waves on the square lattice and a triple-Q UUDD state with scalar chirality density waves on the triangular lattice, using the perturbative theory and variational calculations. The former double-Q state is also confirmed by large-scale Langevin dynamics simulations. We also show that, for a sufficiently large exchange coupling, the chirality density waves can induce rich nontrivial topology of electronic structures, such as the massless Dirac semimetal, Chern insulator with quantized topological Hall response, and peculiar edge states which depend on the phase of chirality density waves at the edges.

  2. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  3. Correlation of materials properties with the atomic density concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the number of atoms per unit volume, accurately calculable for any substance of known real density and chemical composition, various characterizing parameters (energy levels of electrons interacting among atoms of the same or different kinds, atomic mass, bond intensity) were chosen for study. A multiple exponential equation was derived to express the relationship. Various properties were examined, and correlated with the various parameters. Some of the properties considered were: (1) heat of atomization, (2) boiling point, (3) melting point, (4) shear elastic modulus of cubic crystals, (5) thermal conductivity, and (6) refractive index for transparent substances. The solid elements and alkali halides were the materials studied. It is concluded that the number of different properties can quantitively be described by a common group of parameters for the solid elements, and a wide variety of compounds.

  4. Electron waves resonance properties in superdimensional microwave Cherenkov devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyavsky, I.A.; Pikunov, V.M.

    1995-11-01

    The electron waves resonance properties in the one-stage and two-stage microwave Cherenkov devices based on the superdimensional slow-wave structures are investigated by the linear theory methods near {pi}-cutoff of E{sub 01} waveguide mode. The variation of the generation frequencies and it`s starting currents, when diode voltage changes in a wide range of value, are investigated. concept of a longitudinal electron oscillations (LEO) is defined for a one-stage device. The dependencies of the generation frequency and starting current versus the drift tube length are investigated for the two-stage device in detail.

  5. Numerical Study of Interaction of a Vortical Density Inhomogeneity with Shock and Expansion Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povitsky, A.; Ofengeim, D.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the interaction of a vortical density inhomogeneity (VDI) with shock and expansion waves. We call the VDI the region of concentrated vorticity (vortex) with a density different from that of ambiance. Non-parallel directions of the density gradient normal to the VDI surface and the pressure gradient across a shock wave results in an additional vorticity. The roll-up of the initial round VDI towards a non-symmetrical shape is studied numerically. Numerical modeling of this interaction is performed by a 2-D Euler code. The use of an adaptive unstructured numerical grid makes it possible to obtain high accuracy and capture regions of induced vorticity with a moderate overall number of mesh points. For the validation of the code, the computational results are compared with available experimental results and good agreement is obtained. The interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave is studied for a range of initial and induced circulations and obtained flow patterns are presented. The splitting of the VDI develops into the formation of a non-symmetrical vortex pair and not in a set of vortices. A method for the analytical computation of an overall induced circulation Gamma(sub 1) as a result of the interaction of a moving VDI with a number of waves is proposed. Simplified, approximated, expressions for Gamma(sub 1) are derived and their accuracy is discussed. The splitting of the VDI passing through the Prandtl-Meyer expansion wave is studied numerically. The obtained VDI patterns are compared to those for the interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave for the same values of initial and induced circulations. These patterns have similar shapes for corresponding time moments.

  6. Reverse propagation and negative angular momentum density flux of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial fractional Bessel vortex beam of progressive waves.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2016-09-01

    Energy and angular momentum flux density characteristics of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial vector Bessel vortex beam of fractional order are examined based on the dual-field method for the generation of symmetric electric and magnetic fields. Should some conditions determined by the polarization state, the half-cone angle as well as the beam-order (or topological charge) be met, the axial energy and angular momentum flux densities vanish (representing Poynting singularities), before they become negative. These negative counterintuitive properties suggest retrograde (negative) propagation as well as a rotation reversal of the angular momentum with respect to the beam handedness. These characteristics of nondiffracting nonparaxial Bessel fractional vortex beams of progressive waves open new capabilities in optical tractor beam tweezers, optical spanners, invisibility cloaks, optically engineered metamaterials, and other applications. PMID:27607486

  7. Reverse propagation and negative angular momentum density flux of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial fractional Bessel vortex beam of progressive waves.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2016-09-01

    Energy and angular momentum flux density characteristics of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial vector Bessel vortex beam of fractional order are examined based on the dual-field method for the generation of symmetric electric and magnetic fields. Should some conditions determined by the polarization state, the half-cone angle as well as the beam-order (or topological charge) be met, the axial energy and angular momentum flux densities vanish (representing Poynting singularities), before they become negative. These negative counterintuitive properties suggest retrograde (negative) propagation as well as a rotation reversal of the angular momentum with respect to the beam handedness. These characteristics of nondiffracting nonparaxial Bessel fractional vortex beams of progressive waves open new capabilities in optical tractor beam tweezers, optical spanners, invisibility cloaks, optically engineered metamaterials, and other applications.

  8. A model for the probability density function of downwelling irradiance under ocean waves.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meng; Xu, Zao; Yue, Dick K P

    2011-08-29

    We present a statistical model that analytically quantifies the probability density function (PDF) of the downwelling light irradiance under random ocean waves modeling the surface as independent and identically distributed flat facets. The model can incorporate the separate effects of surface short waves and volume light scattering. The theoretical model captures the characteristics of the PDF, from skewed to near-Gaussian shape as the depth increases from shallow to deep water. The model obtains a closed-form asymptotic for the probability that diminishes at a rate between exponential and Gaussian with increasing extreme values. The model is validated by comparisons with existing field measurements and Monte Carlo simulation.

  9. Electronic excitation spectra from time-dependent density functional response theory using plane-wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doltsinis, Nikos L.; Sprik, Michiel

    2000-11-01

    The time-dependent density functional response theory method for the computation of electronic excitation spectra has been implemented in a plane-wave basis set/pseudo-potential formalism. We compare our test results for N2 and H2CO to literature atomic basis set calculations and find good agreement. We also discuss some of the technical complications specific to the use of plane-wave basis sets. As an application, the thermally broadened photoabsorption spectrum of formamide at room temperature is computed by averaging over a number of vibrational configurations sampled from an ab initio molecular dynamics run and compared to experiment.

  10. Drift-Alfven wave mediated particle transport in an elongated density depression

    SciTech Connect

    Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2006-06-15

    Cross-field particle transport due to drift-Alfven waves is measured in an elongated density depression within an otherwise uniform, magnetized helium plasma column. The depression is formed by drawing an electron current to a biased copper plate with cross-field dimensions of 28x0.24 ion sound-gyroradii {rho}{sub s}=c{sub s}/{omega}{sub ci}. The process of density depletion and replenishment via particle flux repeats in a quasiperiodic fashion for the duration of the current collection. The mode structure of the wave density fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field is revealed using a two-probe correlation technique. The particle flux as a function of frequency is measured using a linear array of Langmuir probes and the only significant transport occurs for waves with frequencies between 15%-25% of the ion cyclotron frequency (measured in the laboratory frame) and with perpendicular wavelengths k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub s}{approx}0.7. The frequency-integrated particle flux is in rough agreement with observed increases in density in the center of the depletion as a function of time. The experiments are carried out in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the Basic Plasma Science Facility located at the University of California, Los Angeles.

  11. The hydrodynamic and radiative properties of low-density foams heated by x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmej, O. N.; Suslov, N.; Martsovenko, D.; Vergunova, G.; Borisenko, N.; Orlov, N.; Rienecker, T.; Klir, D.; Rezack, K.; Orekhov, A.; Borisenko, L.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Dudzak, R.; Maeder, R.; Schaechinger, M.; Schoenlein, A.; Zaehter, S.; Jacoby, J.; Limpouch, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Zhidkov, N.

    2015-09-01

    An advanced type of hydrodynamic stable plasma targets with homogeneous distribution of plasma parameters has been proposed for application in experiments on heavy ion stopping in plasmas and relativistic laser based particle acceleration. Plasma was created via x-ray heating of polymer aerogels with a mean density 103 times lower than that of solid matter. Hydrodynamic and radiation properties of low-density polymer aerogels heated by x-rays, which were generated due to laser interaction with a gold hohlraum, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. In experiments carried out at the PALS laser facility in Prague, the parameters of the hohlraum based soft x-ray source and the fraction of x-ray energy absorbed by foam layers have been measured. The results of these experiments and numerical simulations show that the x-ray heat process occurs via propagation of supersonic radiation driven heat waves. The measured heat wave velocity of 107 cm s-1 allows one to estimate the plasma temperature reached as 25 eV. The hydrodynamic stability of x-ray heated plasma layers has been demonstrated by means of an optical streak camera viewing the plasma expansion process. Simulations of the foam heating process denote rather homogeneous distribution of the plasma temperature and density in the x-ray heated plasma layer and sharp plasma boundaries. The investigated features of such plasma targets are a great advantage for experiments with heavy ion and relativistic laser beams.

  12. Density Functional Study of the structural properties in Tamoxifen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss-Martinez, Romeo; Tapia, Jorge A.; Quijano-Quiñones, Ramiro F.; Canto, Gabriel I.

    2013-03-01

    Using the density functional theory, we have studied the structural properties of Tamoxifen. The calculations were performed with two methodological approaches, which were implemented in SIESTA and Spartan codes. For SIESTA, we considerate a linear combination of atomic orbitals method, using pseudopotentials and the van der Waals approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Here we analyzed and compared the atomic structure between our results and other theoretical study. We found differences in the bond lengths between the results, that could be attributed to code approaches in each one. This work was supported under Grant FOMIX 2011-09 N: 170297 of Ph.D. A. Tapia.

  13. Electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of amorphous carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-07-10

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7-50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was -25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at -10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2-18 GHz.

  14. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties of Amorphous Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7–50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was −25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at −10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. PMID:25007783

  15. Confinement transition to density wave order in metallic doped spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Aavishkar A.; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Allais, Andrea; Sachdev, Subir

    2016-04-01

    Insulating quantum spin liquids can undergo a confinement transition to a valence bond solid via the condensation of topological excitations of the associated gauge theory. We extend the theory of such transitions to fractionalized Fermi liquids (FL*): These are metallic doped spin liquids in which the Fermi surfaces only have gauge neutral quasiparticles. Using insights from a duality transform on a doped quantum dimer model for the U(1)-FL* state, we show that projective symmetry group of the theory of the topological excitations remains unmodified, but the Fermi surfaces can lead to additional frustrating interactions. We propose a theory for the confinement transition of Z2-FL* states via the condensation of visons. A variety of confining, incommensurate density wave states are possible, including some that are similar to the incommensurate d -form factor density wave order observed in several recent experiments on the cuprate superconductors.

  16. Jovian plasma sheet density profile from low-frequency radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, H. O.; Ladreiter, H. P.; Leblanc, Y.; Jones, D.; Kurth, W. S.

    1989-04-01

    By using planetary radio astronomy (PRA), plasma wave system (PWS), and magnetometer (MAG) data from Voyager 1 and 2 (V1 and V2), essential features of the nightside Jovian plasma sheet are derived, and the density gradient of the corotating plasma structure in the middle Jovian magnetosphere is calculated. The PRA experiment gives information about the plasma wave polarization. The density profile of the plasma sheet is determined using the hinge point position of the plasma disk derived from MAG data, and the low-frequency cutoffs observed at three frequencies (562 Hz, 1 kHz, and 1.78 kHz) from the PWS experiment. It is shown that the hinge point position varies with the solar wind ram pressure.

  17. Ultrafast Spin Density Wave Transition in Chromium Governed by Thermalized Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, C. W.; Monney, C.; Carley, R.; Frietsch, B.; Bowlan, J.; Weinelt, M.; Wolf, M.

    2016-09-01

    The energy and momentum selectivity of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is exploited to address the ultrafast dynamics of the antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) transition photoexcited in epitaxial thin films of chromium. We are able to quantitatively extract the evolution of the SDW order parameter Δ through the ultrafast phase transition and show that Δ is governed by the transient temperature of the thermalized electron gas, in a mean field description. The complete destruction of SDW order on a sub-100 fs time scale is observed, much faster than for conventional charge density wave materials. Our results reveal that equilibrium concepts for phase transitions such as the order parameter may be utilized even in the strongly nonadiabatic regime of ultrafast photoexcitation.

  18. Charge density waves in the graphene sheets of the superconductor CaC(6).

    PubMed

    Rahnejat, K C; Howard, C A; Shuttleworth, N E; Schofield, S R; Iwaya, K; Hirjibehedin, C F; Renner, Ch; Aeppli, G; Ellerby, M

    2011-01-01

    Graphitic systems have an electronic structure that can be readily manipulated through electrostatic or chemical doping, resulting in a rich variety of electronic ground states. Here we report the first observation and characterization of electronic stripes in the highly electron-doped graphitic superconductor, CaC(6), by scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The stripes correspond to a charge density wave with a period three times that of the Ca superlattice. Although the positions of the Ca intercalants are modulated, no displacements of the carbon lattice are detected, indicating that the graphene sheets host the ideal charge density wave. This provides an exceptionally simple material-graphene-as a starting point for understanding the relation between stripes and superconductivity. Furthermore, our experiments suggest a strategy to search for superconductivity in graphene, namely in the vicinity of striped 'Wigner crystal' phases, where some of the electrons crystallize to form a superlattice. PMID:22127054

  19. Field-induced spin-density wave beyond hidden order in URu2Si2

    PubMed Central

    Knafo, W.; Duc, F.; Bourdarot, F.; Kuwahara, K.; Nojiri, H.; Aoki, D.; Billette, J.; Frings, P.; Tonon, X.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Flouquet, J.; Regnault, L.-P.

    2016-01-01

    URu2Si2 is one of the most enigmatic strongly correlated electron systems and offers a fertile testing ground for new concepts in condensed matter science. In spite of >30 years of intense research, no consensus on the order parameter of its low-temperature hidden-order phase exists. A strong magnetic field transforms the hidden order into magnetically ordered phases, whose order parameter has also been defying experimental observation. Here, thanks to neutron diffraction under pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T, we identify the field-induced phases of URu2Si2 as a spin-density-wave state. The transition to the spin-density wave represents a unique touchstone for understanding the hidden-order phase. An intimate relationship between this magnetic structure, the magnetic fluctuations and the Fermi surface is emphasized, calling for dedicated band-structure calculations. PMID:27762260

  20. Collective modes in charge-density waves and long-range Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virosztek, Attila; Maki, Kazumi

    1993-07-01

    We study theoretically the collective modes in charge-density waves in the presence of long-range Coulomb interaction. We find that earlier works by Takada and his collaborators are inadequate since they introduced inconsistent approximations in evaluating a variety of correlation functions. The amplitude mode is unaffected by the Coulomb interaction, while the phase mode splits into the phason with linear dispersion (i.e., acoustic mode) and the optical mode with an energy gap in the presence of the Coulomb interaction. In particular, we establish the temperature dependence of the phason velocity vφ. A comparison with recent neutron-scattering data on the phason velocity in the charge-density wave of a single crystal of blue bronze K0.3MoO3 indicates that mean-field theory which includes the long-range Coulomb interaction gives an excellent description of the observed phason velocity.

  1. Testing Density Wave Theory with Resolved Stellar Populations around Spiral Arms in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yumi; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2015-09-01

    Stationary density waves rotating at a constant pattern speed {{{Ω }}}{{P}} would produce age gradients across spiral arms. We test whether such age gradients are present in M81 by deriving the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of 20 regions around one of M81's grand-design spiral arms. For each region, we use resolved stellar populations to determine the SFH by modeling the observed color-magnitude diagram constructed from archival Hubble Space Telescope F435W and F606W imaging. Although we should be able to detect systematic time delays in our spatially resolved SFHs, we find no evidence of star formation propagation across the spiral arm. Our data therefore provide no convincing evidence for a stationary density wave with a single pattern speed in M81, and instead favor the scenario of kinematic spiral patterns that are likely driven by tidal interactions with the companion galaxies M82 and NGC 3077.

  2. Variation of particle size distribution in Saturn's rings and search for density waves in Uranus rings

    SciTech Connect

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    A bimodal size distribution for particles in Saturn's rings has been determined via an analysis of PPS, UVS and RSS occultation data. The variation of the size distribution in featureless regions indicates that the dust variation is nearly constant in the Saturn's rings and exhibits a slight anti-correlation with 1 cm sized particles. Sub-centimeter sized particles increase outward in the rings, with a maximum in the B ring, similar to the variation of 1 cm sized particles. However, the ratio of subcentimeter sized particles to 1 cm sized particles does not vary significantly in the rings. Janus 5:4 density wave differs significantly from the featureless regions. The amount of dust is greater by a factor of about 2. Both dust and sub-centimeter sized particles are strongly anti-correlated with 1 cm sized particles. Partial formation of gaps is evident for both sub- and supra-centimeter sized particles, consistent with the predictions of Goldreich and Tremaine (1978). Dust is insensitive to the gravitational torque associated with the resonance. The results are also consistent with Dones (1987). In wave regions, large particles collide and produce dust and do not break up into smaller particles. The author searched the Uranian rings, via time series analysis methods, to identify periodic phenomena in the rings. A possible wave-like feature has been identified in both the {epsilon} and the {delta} rings of Uranus. A density wave has been identified in the inner half of the {delta} ring. It implies the existence of a moonlet between the {gamma} and {delta} rings and a possible shepherd for the outer edge of the {gamma} ring and an inner shepherd for the {delta} ring. Comparison of density waves in the two ring systems are similar, indicating the similarity of the local ring environments.

  3. Density-wave instability in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sogo, Takaaki; Ito, Toru; Miyakawa, Takahiko

    2010-07-15

    We consider a uniform dipolar Fermi gas in two dimensions (2D) where the dipole moments of fermions are aligned by an orientable external field. We obtain the ground state of the gas in the Hartree-Fock approximation and investigate random-phase-approximation stability against density fluctuations of finite momentum. It is shown that the density-wave instability takes place in a broad region where the system is stable against collapse. We also find that the critical temperature can be a significant fraction of Fermi temperature for a realistic system of polar molecules.

  4. Large-scale simulations of spin-density-wave order in frustrated lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Kipton; Batista, Cristian; Chern, Gia-Wei

    We investigate spin-density-wave (SDW) phases within a generalized mean-field approximation. This approach incorporates the thermal fluctuations of SDW order and the development of short-range order above magnetic ordering temperatures Tc. Using a new Langevin dynamics method, we study mesoscale structures associated with triple- Q SDW states that are induced by Fermi surface nesting in triangular and kagome lattice Hubbard models. The core of our linear-scaling Langevin dynamics simulations is an efficient stochastic kernel polynomial method for computing the electron density matrix. We also investigate exotic phases above Tc arising from preformed magnetic moments.

  5. Plasma Densities in the Vicinity of Callisto from Galileo Plasma Wave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft has made seven close flybys of Jupiter's moon Callisto. During the closest of these (C22), which approached to within 535 km of the surface, the plasma wave instrument detected a very clear upper hybrid emission as the spacecraft passed near the moon. The peak electron density indicated by the upper hybrid resonance emission was 400/cc, almost one-thousand times the, electron density in the magnetosphere of Jupiter at the orbit of Callisto. These observations indicate that Callisto is probably surrounded by a dense ionospheric-like plasma.

  6. Inertial Alfven-Wave-Driven Convective Cells in Low-Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhotelov, O.A.; Onishchenko, O.G.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Stenflo, L.; Balikhin, M.A.

    2005-10-15

    The parametric interaction of inertial Alfven waves with large-scale convective cells in a low-density plasma is investigated. It is shown that, in plasmas where the Alfven velocity is comparable to or exceeds the speed of light, the parametric interaction is substantially suppressed. A compact expression for the optimal scale and instability growth rate of the fastest growing mode is obtained. The relevance of our theory to spacecraft measurements in the Earth's ionosphere is discussed.

  7. Suppression of polarization fluctuations in chromium alloys with commensurate spin-density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. P.; Weissman, M. B.; Ritley, K.; Huang, J. C.; Flynn, C. P.

    1993-02-01

    We compare electrical resistance noise in commensurate and incommensurate phases of the spin-density wave (SDW) in Cr and dilute CrMn alloys. The commensurate phase gives much less polarization fluctuation noise than the incommensurate phase. The incommensurability of the SDW and the lattice in Cr may affect the SDW dynamics through the existence of weak planes in which the induced orbital moment contribution to the SDW is close to zero.

  8. Field-induced spin density wave and spiral phases in a layered antiferromagnet

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Garlea, Vasile O.; Grenier, B.; Ressouche, E.; Samulon, Eric C.; Fisher, Ian R.

    2015-07-28

    Here we determine the low-field ordered magnetic phases of the S=1 dimerized antiferromagnet Ba3Mn2O8 using single crystal neutron diffraction. We find that for magnetic fields between μ0H=8.80 T and 10.56 T applied along themore » $$1\\bar{1}0$$ direction the system exhibits spin density wave order with incommensurate wave vectors of type (η,η,ε). For μ0H > 10.56 T, the magnetic order changes to a spiral phase with incommensurate wave vectors only along the [hh0] direction. For both field induced ordered phases, the magnetic moments are lying in the plane perpendicular to the field direction. Finally, the nature of these two transitions is fundamentally different: the low-field transition is a second order transition to a spin-density wave ground state, while the one at higher field, toward the spiral phase, is of first order.« less

  9. Field-induced spin density wave and spiral phases in a layered antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Garlea, Vasile O.; Grenier, B.; Ressouche, E.; Samulon, Eric C.; Fisher, Ian R.

    2015-07-28

    Here we determine the low-field ordered magnetic phases of the S=1 dimerized antiferromagnet Ba3Mn2O8 using single crystal neutron diffraction. We find that for magnetic fields between μ0H=8.80 T and 10.56 T applied along the $1\\bar{1}0$ direction the system exhibits spin density wave order with incommensurate wave vectors of type (η,η,ε). For μ0H > 10.56 T, the magnetic order changes to a spiral phase with incommensurate wave vectors only along the [hh0] direction. For both field induced ordered phases, the magnetic moments are lying in the plane perpendicular to the field direction. Finally, the nature of these two transitions is fundamentally different: the low-field transition is a second order transition to a spin-density wave ground state, while the one at higher field, toward the spiral phase, is of first order.

  10. A structural study of charge-density-wave perturbations in mixed-halide MX solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Brian; Johnson, Sabina R.; Swanson, Basil I.

    Mixed-halide crystals have been formed by co-crystallizing pure (Pt(en)2Cl2)(Pt(en)2)(ClO4)4(PtCl) and (Pt(en)2I2)(Pt(en)2)(ClO4)4(PtI), where en = 1,2 diaminoethane. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals that these crystals are of high quality. The pure PtI and PtCl contain chains of alternating Pt and halogen atoms that have undergone a Peierls distortion and commensurate charge disproportionation, resulting in alternating valence states on the platinum atoms: X-Pt(IV)-X---Pt(II)---X. The Peierls distortion results in a charge-density-wave (CDW), the strength of which is measured as the ratio, rho, of the short Pt(IV)-X bond distance to the long Pt(II)---X bond distance. PtCl is a strong CDW system with rho = 0.750 and PtI is a weak CDW system with rho = 0.919. The mixed-halide systems have the stoichiometry PtCl(1-x)I(x), with x = 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.7, 0.8, 0.85, and 0.90. A Chain lattice constant versus composition study strongly suggests distorted PtI and PtCl chains in these solids. A single crystal diffraction study on PtCl(0.85)I(0.15) shows significant perturbations in the PtCl and PtI chain CDW strengths, with the PtI segment showing no Peierls distortion (rho = 1). This control of the CDW strength, which is strongly tied to electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in these solids, potentially allows tuning of electronic and optical properties on a nanometer scale.

  11. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  12. Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect

    Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Kabalan, K.; Decker, J.

    2015-12-10

    In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.

  13. Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.

  14. Chiral Charge Density Wave and Superconductivity in CuxTiSe2 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetrov, Goran; Husanikova, P.; Cambel, V.; Szabó, P.; Samuely, P.; Fedor, J.; Iavarone, M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate atomic scale scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in CuxTiSe2 single crystals at low temperatures. We map the CDW and superconducting phase diagram as a function of copper doping. STM measurements reveal coexistence of chiral charge density wave and superconductivity. In case of optimally doped and overdoped cases we find that the amplitude of charge density wave modulation is strongly suppressed with respect to strongly underdoped case (x < 0 . 06) with the chiral domain size remaining approximately the same. Superconductivity exhibits BCS character at variety of dopings with 2 Δ / kTc ~ 3 . 6 ÷ 3 . 7 indicating an intermediate coupling strength. Application of the external magnetic field introduces the Abrikosov vortex lattice that is weakly pinned. The size of the vortex core extracted from vortex images corresponds to the one extracted from the magnetization measurements. Our results suggest that, if charge density wave quantum critical point exist, it should be well above the optimal copper concentration of x=0.08. This work is supported by the Army Research Office Grant #W911NF-14-1-0567.

  15. Time-domain pumping a quantum-critical charge density wave ordered material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the exact time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for a nesting driven charge density wave (described by the spinless Falicov-Kimball model within dynamical mean-field theory). The pump-probe experiment involves two light pulses: the first is an ultrashort intense pump pulse that excites the system into nonequilibrium, and the second is a lower amplitude, higher frequency probe pulse that photoexcites electrons. We examine three different cases: the strongly correlated metal, the quantum-critical charge density wave, and the critical Mott insulator. Our results show that the quantum critical charge density wave has an ultraefficient relaxation channel that allows electrons to be de-excited during the pump pulse, resulting in little net excitation. In contrast, the metal and the Mott insulator show excitations that are closer to what one expects from these systems. In addition, the pump field produces spectral band narrowing, peak sharpening, and a spectral gap reduction, all of which rapidly return to their field free values after the pump is over.

  16. Properties of whistler mode wave packets at the leading edge of steepened magnetosonic waves - Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Smith, Edward J.; Brinca, Armando L.; Thorne, Richard M.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    The physical characteristics of high-frequency wave packets detected at the steepened edge of magnetosonic waves near Comet Giacobini-Zinner are explored, based on an examination of over 45 well-defined events. The results suggest that the wave packets play an important role in the reorientation and reduction in field magnitude from the steepened magnetosonic waves to the upstream ambient field. The observed properties of the wave packets are shown to be consistent with anomalously Doppler-shifted right-hand polarized waves.

  17. Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ({{n}\\text{e}}∼ 1–2 × 1019 m‑3, {{T}\\text{e}}∼ 1–6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50–200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (4–8 G and {λz}∼ 10–15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40–50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based on experimental measurements. Theoretical calculations are consistent with experiment and indicate that for conditions where Coulomb collisions are dominant classical collisionality is sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in helicon based linear plasma devices.

  18. Electron Density Measurements on LTX Using Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, S.; Nguyen, X. V.; Peebles, W. A.; Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Schmitt, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamic evolution of the electron density profile is tracked using microwave and millimeter-wave diagnostics on LTX. The 296 GHz (λ =1 mm) interferometer provides a radial line density measurement at the midplane, while an FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous-wave) reflectometer (13.5 -33 GHz, or O-mode 0 . 2 - 1 . 3 ×1013 cm-3) provides density profile measurements for the low-field side. Data taken during FY2015 will be compared with measurements from Thomson scattering and estimates of the plasma position from LRDFIT. Measurements of density fluctuations due to low-frequency (<100 kHz) MHD instabilities will also be shown. Future plans include the installation of a correlation reflectomter (Ka-band, 27-40 GHz) with dual tuneable sources and a frequency bandwidth of up to 5 MHz. This system will utilize the same antennas as the profile reflectometer to provide radial and/or toroidal/poloidal correlations. Further diagnostic details will be presented at the meeting. Supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54527 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Evidence for intertwined superfluid and density wave order in two dimensional 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, John

    2015-03-01

    We report the identification of a new state of quantum matter with intertwined superfluid and density wave order in a system of two dimensional bosons subject to a triangular lattice potential. Using a torsional oscillator we have measured the response of the second atomic layer of 4He adsorbed on the surface of graphite over a wide temperature range down to 2 mK. Superfluidity is observed over a narrow range of film densities, emerging suddenly and collapsing towards a quantum critical point, near to layer completion where a Mott insulating phase is predicted to form. The unusual temperature dependence of the superfluid density in the T --> 0 limit and the absence of a clear superfluid onset temperature are explained, self-consistently, by an ansatz for the excitation spectrum, reflecting density wave order, and a quasi-condensate wavefunction breaking both gauge and translational symmetry. In collaboration with Jan Nyeki, Anastasia Phillis, Andrew Ho, Derek Lee, Piers Coleman, Jeevak Parpia, Brian Cowan. Supported by EPSRC (U.K) EP/H048375/1.

  20. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density.

  1. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density. PMID:27290650

  2. Implementation of density functional embedding theory within the projector-augmented-wave method and applications to semiconductor defect states

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian

    2015-09-14

    We report a new implementation of the density functional embedding theory (DFET) in the VASP code, using the projector-augmented-wave (PAW) formalism. Newly developed algorithms allow us to efficiently perform optimized effective potential optimizations within PAW. The new algorithm generates robust and physically correct embedding potentials, as we verified using several test systems including a covalently bound molecule, a metal surface, and bulk semiconductors. We show that with the resulting embedding potential, embedded cluster models can reproduce the electronic structure of point defects in bulk semiconductors, thereby demonstrating the validity of DFET in semiconductors for the first time. Compared to our previous version, the new implementation of DFET within VASP affords use of all features of VASP (e.g., a systematic PAW library, a wide selection of functionals, a more flexible choice of U correction formalisms, and faster computational speed) with DFET. Furthermore, our results are fairly robust with respect to both plane-wave and Gaussian type orbital basis sets in the embedded cluster calculations. This suggests that the density functional embedding method is potentially an accurate and efficient way to study properties of isolated defects in semiconductors.

  3. A novel technique for plasma density measurement using surface-wave transmission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dine, S.; Booth, J.-P.; Curley, G. A.; Corr, C. S.; Jolly, J.; Guillon, J.

    2005-11-01

    A technique for the measurement of the absolute electron density in low-pressure plasmas using microwaves is described. It is based on observing the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (SW) at a plasma-sheath boundary, guided by a dielectric cylinder immersed in the plasma. The transmission spectrum is measured between two antennas situated at either end of the dielectric cylinder and connected to a network analyser. Analytical theory based on the Trivelpiece-Gould work (Trivelpiece and Gould 1959 J. Appl. Phys. 30 1784, Trivelpiece 1967 Slow-Wave Propagation in Plasma Waveguides) indicates that the lowest frequency at which the SW can propagate is equal to 1/\\sqrt{2} of the plasma frequency, which is directly related to the electron number density at the plasma-sheath boundary. We call this probe the plasma transmission probe (PTP) in contrast to the plasma absorption probe proposed by Sugai and co-workers (Kokura et al 1999 Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 38 5262). The PTP is promising for the measurement of low densities (>=109 cm-3) at relatively high gas pressure (<=1 Torr). An axi-symmetric finite element model of the probe is presented and used to calculate transmission spectra. Experimental spectra measured in a radio-frequency capacitively coupled discharge in argon at various plasma densities and pressures (40-750 mTorr) are presented and compared with the calculated ones. Plasma densities derived from the transmission spectra were compared with those obtained with a Langmuir probe. The PTP was also compared with a microwave 1/4-wave resonator ('hairpin probe') at low pressure (5-45 mTorr) in an ICP discharge in argon. The densities determined by the PTP were found to be lower by a factor of 0.5-0.7 compared with those obtained with a Langmuir and a hairpin probe. We believe this can be attributed to the pre-sheath plasma density gradient, as the PTP determines the sheath edge electron density, not the bulk value.

  4. The role of energy density and acoustic cavitation in shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Loske, Achim M

    2010-02-01

    Today a high percentage of urinary stones are successfully treated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL); however, misconceptions regarding fragmentation mechanisms, as well as treatment parameters like dose, applied energy and focal area are still common. A main stone comminution mechanism during SWL is acoustic cavitation. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of cavitation and energy density on stone fragmentation. A research lithotripter was used to expose a large set of artificial kidney stones to shock waves varying different parameters. Hundreds of pressure records were used to calculate the energy density of the lithotripter at different settings. Results indicate that energy density is a crucial parameter and that better SWL treatment outcomes could be obtained placing the calculus at a prefocal position.

  5. Revisiting the Emission from Relativistic Blast Waves in a Density-jump Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J. J.; Wu, X. F.; Li, Liang; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.

    2014-09-01

    Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps cannot be produced under common conditions, rather only a short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at an early time (<104 s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be caused by other scenarios.

  6. Disordered cellular automaton traffic flow model: phase separated state, density waves and self organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourrate, K.; Loulidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a disordered traffic flow model that captures many features of traffic flow. It is an extension of the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) stochastic cellular automata for single line vehicular traffic model. It incorporates random acceleration and deceleration terms that may be greater than one unit. Our model leads under its intrinsic dynamics, for high values of braking probability pr, to a constant flow at intermediate densities without introducing any spatial inhomogeneities. For a system of fast drivers pr→0, the model exhibits a density wave behavior that was observed in car following models with optimal velocity. The gap of the disordered model we present exhibits, for high values of pr and random deceleration, at a critical density, a power law distribution which is a hall mark of a self organized criticality phenomena.

  7. Revisiting the emission from relativistic blast waves in a density-jump medium

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.; Wu, X. F.; Li, Liang E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2014-09-01

    Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps cannot be produced under common conditions, rather only a short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at an early time (<10{sup 4} s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be caused by other scenarios.

  8. Galactic rotation curve and spiral density wave parameters from 73 masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Based on kinematic data on masers with known trigonometric parallaxes and measurements of the velocities of HI clouds at tangential points in the inner Galaxy, we have refined the parameters of the Allen-Santillan model Galactic potential and constructed the Galactic rotation curve in a wide range of Galactocentric distances, from 0 to 20 kpc. The circular rotation velocity of the Sun for the adopted Galactocentric distance R 0 = 8 kpc is V 0 = 239 ± 16 km s-1. We have obtained the series of residual tangential, Δ V θ , and radial, V R , velocities for 73 masers. Based on these series, we have determined the parameters of the Galactic spiral density wave satisfying the linear Lin-Shu model using the method of periodogram analysis that we proposed previously. The tangential and radial perturbation amplitudes are f θ = 7.0±1.2 km s-1 and f R = 7.8±0.7 km s-1, respectively, the perturbation wave length is λ = 2.3±0.4 kpc, and the pitch angle of the spiral pattern in a two-armed model is i = -5.2° ±0.7°. The phase of the Sun ζ ⊙ in the spiral density wave is -50° ± 15° and -160° ± 15° from the residual tangential and radial velocities, respectively.

  9. Stirring Coronal Spaghetti: Exploring Multiple Interactions Between MHD Waves and Density Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    The solar corona has been revealed in the past few decades to be a highly dynamic nonequilibrium plasma environment. Both the loop-filled coronal base and the extended acceleration region of the solar wind appear to be strongly turbulent, and models that invoke the dissipation of incompressible Alfvenic fluctuations have had some success in explaining the heating. However, many of these models neglect the mounting evidence that density and pressure variations may play an important role in the mass and energy balance of this system. In this presentation I will briefly review observations of both compressible and incompressible MHD fluctuations in the corona and solar wind, and discuss future prospects with DKIST. I will also attempt to outline the many ways that these different fluctuation modes have been proposed to interact with one another -- usually with an eye on finding ways to enhance their dissipation and heating. One under-appreciated type of interaction is the fact that Alfven waves will undergo multiple reflections and refractions in a "background plasma" filled with localized density fluctuations. It is becoming increasingly clear that models must not only include the effects of longitudinal variability (e.g., magnetoacoustic waves and pulse-like jets) but also transverse "striations" that appear naturally in a structured magnetic field with small-scale footpoint variability. Future off-limb observations, such as those with DKIST's Cryo-NIRSP instrument, will be crucial for providing us with a detailed census of MHD waves and their mutual interactions in the corona.

  10. Near-resonant excitation and propagation of eccentric density waves by external forcing. [in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Shu, Frank H.; Adams, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the astronomical evidence that relatively massive, distended, gaseous disks form as a natural by-product of the process of star formation, and also the numerical evidence that SLING-amplified eccentric modes in the outer parts of such disks can drive one-armed spiral density waves in the inner parts by near-resonant excitation and propagation. An ordinary differential equation (ODE) of the second order that approximately governs the nonlocalized forcing of waves in a disk satisfying Lindblad resonance almost everywhere is derived. When transformed and appended with an extra model term, this ODE implies, for free waves, the usual asymptotic results of the WKBJ dispersion relationship and the propagation Goldreich-Tremaine (1978) formula for the resonant torque exerted on a localized Lindblad resonance. An analytical solution is given for the rate of energy and angular momentum transfer by nonlocalized near-resonant forcing in the case when the disk has power-law dependences on the radius of the surface density and temperature.

  11. Filamentation of dispersive Alfven waves in density channels: Hall magnetohydrodynamics description

    SciTech Connect

    Borgogno, D.; Laveder, D.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Sulem, C.

    2008-06-15

    Filamentation of dispersive Alfven waves initiated by low or high density channels (depending on the plasma beta) is simulated numerically in the framework of ideal Hall magnetohydrodynamics, and asymptotically modeled with a two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation including a linear attracting potential. Compared with the dynamics in a homogeneous plasma, the phenomenon is accelerated and occurs for a broader range of parameters. In the case of an isolated channel with a width comparable to the pump wavelength, the transverse wave collapse can be replaced by a moderate amplification. In many cases, a relatively complex dynamics takes place, characterized by an oscillation between magnetic filaments and magnetic ribbons, leading to the formation of small scales at which dissipative effects could become relevant. Alfven vortices, governed by the equations of the reduced magnetohydrodynamics, are also identified in the simulations, in spite of their small amplitude relative to the wave. The formation of structures under the effect of periodic or random distributions of low and high density channels is also discussed.

  12. Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations.

  13. Dynamical properties of ultrathin armchair boron nitride nanotubes using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabhi, Shweta D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2016-08-01

    Using density functional theory, we studied electronic and vibrational properties of small (n, n; n = 2–7) single walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in armchair configuration with diameter ranging from 3 Å to 9.8 Å. We used plane wave pseudo potential method and generalized gradient approximation as exchange correlation functional. Armchair BNNT is a semiconductor with a large indirect band gap ∼4–5 eV unlike armchair carbon nanotubes (CNT) which are metallic. As n varies from 2 to 7 i.e. with increasing diameter, there is no major variation in band-gap. For even number of n, the lowest π* is at Z point and singly degenerate, while for odd n, it is doubly degenerate. Density of states show sharp singularities following E‑1/2 trend which is characteristics of 1D structure. Phonon dispersion curves for all BNNTs show no imaginary frequencies throughout the Brillouin zone confirming the dynamical stability of BNNTs with small diameter. Phonon frequencies are found to be diameter dependent. Results of the electronic and vibrational properties using ab initio calculations are comparable to the previous experimental and theoretical studies with highlighting variation in properties as change in diameter of nanotube.

  14. Dynamical properties of ultrathin armchair boron nitride nanotubes using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabhi, Shweta D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2016-08-01

    Using density functional theory, we studied electronic and vibrational properties of small (n, n; n = 2-7) single walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in armchair configuration with diameter ranging from 3 Å to 9.8 Å. We used plane wave pseudo potential method and generalized gradient approximation as exchange correlation functional. Armchair BNNT is a semiconductor with a large indirect band gap ˜4-5 eV unlike armchair carbon nanotubes (CNT) which are metallic. As n varies from 2 to 7 i.e. with increasing diameter, there is no major variation in band-gap. For even number of n, the lowest π* is at Z point and singly degenerate, while for odd n, it is doubly degenerate. Density of states show sharp singularities following E-1/2 trend which is characteristics of 1D structure. Phonon dispersion curves for all BNNTs show no imaginary frequencies throughout the Brillouin zone confirming the dynamical stability of BNNTs with small diameter. Phonon frequencies are found to be diameter dependent. Results of the electronic and vibrational properties using ab initio calculations are comparable to the previous experimental and theoretical studies with highlighting variation in properties as change in diameter of nanotube.

  15. Properties of Dwarf Ellipticals in Low-Density Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Debnil; Guhathakurta, P.; Toloba, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical galaxies have been studied only in dense cluster environments, where they are the most common type of object. While this suggests that their location affects their formation and evolution, the role of distance is not fully understood. Thus, to investigate the physical processes that shape these galaxies, we have conducted a study of dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in low-density environments to compare their properties with those in clusters. Catalogs of such objects have not been created; thus, we have developed a novel objective method to find new dEs through comparing photometric properties with those of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster Catalog. This method utilizes optical colors, surface brightness and ellipticity, and it confirms smoothness through visual classification. In this last step, we found a very low contamination rate, which suggests the procedure’s utility in finding dEs. Through the NSA Sloan Atlas, we have analyzed the spectrophotometric properties of the dE candidates as a function of distance to the nearest massive galaxy, which we refer to as their host. We have found that these dEs are younger and more actively forming stars than dEs in denser regions. This is consistent with a transformation scenario in which low luminosity spiral galaxies are affected by the environment and transformed into quiescent galaxies. This low density regime contains objects in an intermediate state between the spiral galaxy and the classical dE in Virgo, where no star formation is ongoing. The correlation of the studied properties with the distance to the host galaxy provides new evidence that the dEs are created by a process called ram-pressure stripping: the interstellar medium of a host galaxy removes the gas of a smaller star-forming galaxy and provokes its quenching. We are currently analysing Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of some of the dE candidates from our catalog to explore in more detail their connection to cluster dEs. Possible similarities

  16. Local properties of three-body atomic wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V. B.; Varga, K.

    2000-06-01

    The local properties and accuracy of the positronium negative-ion (Ps{sup -}) ground-state wave functions obtained by the stochastic variational method (SVM) and by direct solution of the Schroedinger equation with the help of the correlation-function hyperspherical-harmonic method (CFHHM) are studied and compared. Though the energy, calculated by both methods, agrees to up to ten digits, the amplitudes of the values of the operator D=H{psi}/E{psi}-1, characterizing local deviation of the wave function from its true value, in all of the coordinate space in the SVM are consistently larger (by up to five orders of magnitude) than in the CFHHM, despite the fact that the SVM observables except <{delta}(r{sub k})> converge to significantly more digits than the CFHHM observables for their respective selected bases. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons: A density functional investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sandeep Sharma, Hitesh

    2015-05-15

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed on graphene nano ribbons (GNRs) to investigate the electronic properties as a function of chirality, size and hydrogenation on the edges. The calculations were performed on GNRs with armchair and zigzag configurations with 28, 34, 36, 40, 50, 56, 62, 66 carbon atoms. The structural stability of AGNR and ZGNR increases with the size of nanoribbon where as hydrogenation of GNR tends to lowers their structural stability. All GNRs considered have shown semiconducting behavior with HOMO-LUMO gap decreasing with the increase in the GNR size. The hydrogenation of GNR decreases its HOMO-LUMO gap significantly. The results are in agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results.

  18. Density and Tensile Properties Changed by Aging Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Choi, B W; Thompson, S R; Woods, C H; Hopkins, D J; Ebbinghaus, B B

    2005-03-14

    We present volume, density, and tensile property change observed from both naturally and accelerated aged plutonium alloys. Accelerated alloys are plutonium alloys with a fraction of Pu-238 to accelerate the aging process by approximately 18 times the rate of unaged weapons-grade plutonium. After thirty-five equivalent years of aging on accelerated alloys, the dilatometry shows the samples at 35 C have swelled in volume by 0.12 to 0.14% and now exhibit a near linear volume increase due to helium in-growth while showing possible surface effects on samples at 50 C and 65 C. The engineering stress of the accelerated alloy at 18 equivalent years increased significantly compared to at 4.5 equivalent years.

  19. Gravitational-wave signal from binary neutron stars: A systematic analysis of the spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Takami, Kentaro

    2016-06-01

    A number of works have shown that important information on the equation of state of matter at nuclear density can be extracted from the gravitational waves emitted by merging neutron-star binaries. We present a comprehensive analysis of the gravitational-wave signal emitted during the inspiral, merger, and postmerger of 56 neutron-star binaries. This sample of binaries, arguably the largest studied to date with realistic equations of state, spans six different nuclear-physics equations of state and ten masses, allowing us to sharpen a number of results recently obtained on the spectral properties of the gravitational-wave signal. Overall we find the following: (i) for binaries with masses differing no more than 20%, the frequency at gravitational-wave amplitude's maximum is related quasiuniversally with the tidal deformability of the two stars; (ii) the spectral properties vary during the postmerger phase, with a transient phase lasting a few milliseconds after the merger and followed by a quasistationary phase; (iii) when distinguishing the spectral peaks between these two phases, a number of ambiguities in the identification of the peaks disappear, leaving a simple and robust picture; (iv) using properly identified frequencies, quasiuniversal relations are found between the spectral features and the properties of the neutron stars; (v) for the most salient peaks analytic fitting functions can be obtained in terms of the stellar tidal deformability or compactness. Altogether, these results support the idea that the equation of state of nuclear matter can be constrained tightly when a signal in gravitational waves from binary neutron stars is detected.

  20. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  1. The Effects of the Scattering by Edge Plasma Density Fluctuations on Lower Hyybrid Wave Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, N; Bonoli, P T; Harvey, R W; Smirnov, A P; Baek, S G; Parker, R R; Phillips, C K; Valeo, E J; Wilson, J R; Wright, J C

    2012-08-27

    Scattering effects induced by edge density fluctuations on lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation are investigated. The scattering model used here is based on the work of Bonoli and Ott [Phys. Fluids 25 (1982) 361]. It utilizes an electromagnetic wave kinetic equation solved by a Monte Carlo technique. This scattering model has been implemented in GENRAY , a ray tracing code which explicitly simulates wave propagation, as well as collisionless and collisional damping processes, over the entire plasma discharge, including the scrape-off layer (SOL) that extends from the separatrix to the vessel wall. A numerical analysis of the LH wave trajectories and the power deposition profile with and without scattering is presented for Alcator CMod discharges. Comparisons between the measured hard x-ray emission on Alcator C-Mod and simulations of the data obtained from the synthetic diagnostic included in the GENRAY/CQL3D package are shown, with and without the combination of scattering and collisional damping. Implications of these results on LH current drive are discussed.

  2. Investigation of the density wave activity in the thermosphere above 220 KM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illés-Almár, E.; Almár, I.; Bencze, P.

    Based on CACTUS (Capteur Accélérométrique Capacitif Triaxial Ultra Sensible) microaccelerometer measurements it has been demonstrated that - after taking into account all effects included in the MSIS'86=CIRA'86 (COSPAR, 1988) model - there are residual fluctuations in the density of the upper atmosphere much larger than that the accuracy of the measurements can account for. These fluctuations are attributed to some kind of wave activity (Illés-Almár, 1993, Illés-Almár et al. 1996a). The average deviations from a model are considered as a measure of the amplitude of the waves in the atmosphere and are analysed as a function of geomagnetic coordinates, altitude and local solar time, in order to identify possible wave sources either in the lower lying atmosphere or in the thermosphere/ionosphere system. As a first step, the present investigation intends to make a map of the wave pattern by this method.

  3. Ionospheric theory. [effect of vertically propagating waves on NO densities in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the atmospheric dynamics on the ionosphere and neutral chemistry of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere were studied. Effects of vertically propagating planetary waves on NO densities in the 70 to 120 km altitude region were investigated. A time dependent model was developed to calculate the transport of NO due to planetary wave induced winds. These transports are sensitive to the planetary wave forcing used at the lower boundary, as well as to the structure of the zonal mean basic state. Fluxes and transport of NO are calculated for the months of January and February, using a separate basic state and boundary forcing for each month. The zonal mean wind profile for the months of January and February were inferred from NMC data. A major stratospheric warming occurred near the end of the month of February. The large planetary wave amplitude and reduction in zonal mean wind velocities due to this warming are reflected in the February average boundary forcing and zonal mean state.

  4. New chorus wave properties near the equator from Van Allen Probes wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Santolik, O.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-05-01

    The chorus wave properties are evaluated using Van Allen Probes data in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere. Two distinct modes of lower band chorus are identified: a quasi-parallel mode and a quasi-electrostatic mode, whose wave normal direction is close to the resonance cone. Statistical results indicate that the quasi-electrostatic (quasi-parallel) mode preferentially occurs during relatively quiet (disturbed) geomagnetic activity at lower (higher) L shells. Although the magnetic intensity of the quasi-electrostatic mode is considerably weaker than the quasi-parallel mode, their electric intensities are comparable. A newly identified feature of the quasi-electrostatic mode is that its frequency peaks at higher values compared to the quasi-parallel mode that exhibits a broad frequency spectrum. Moreover, upper band chorus wave normal directions vary between 0° and the resonance cone and become more parallel as geomagnetic activity increases. Our new findings suggest that chorus-driven energetic electron dynamics needs a careful examination by considering the properties of these two distinct modes.

  5. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xianlong; Zeng, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW) caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW) caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1) comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2) comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3) SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  6. STM Studies of TbTe3: Evidence for a Fully Incommensurate Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, A.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; Kapitulnik, A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    We observe unidirectional charge density wave ordering on the cleaved surface of TbTe{sub 3} with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope at {approx}6 K. The modulation wave-vector q{sub CDW} as determined by Fourier analysis is 0.71 {+-} 0.02 x2{pi}/c. Where c is one edge of the in-plane 3D unit cell. Images at different tip-sample voltages show the unit cell doubling effects of dimerization and the layer below. Our results agree with bulk X-ray measurements, with the addition of (1/3) x2{pi}/a ordering perpendicular to the CDW. Our analysis indicates that the CDW is incommensurate.

  7. 3. QUANTUM DOTS AND WELLS, MESOSCOPIC NETWORKS : Submicron charge-density-wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zant, H. J. S.; Markovic, N.; Slot, E.

    2001-10-01

    We review our fabrication methods to produce submicron charge-density-wave (CDW) structures and present measurements of CDW dynamics on a microscopic scale. Our data show that mesoscopic CDW dynamics is different from bulk behavior. We have studied current-conversion and found a size-effect that can not be accounted for by existing models. An explanation might be that the removal and addition of wave fronts becomes correlated in time when probe spacing is reduced below a few µm. On small segments we occasionally observe negative differential resistance in the I(V) characteristics and sometimes the resistance may even become negative. We believe that the interplay between CDW deformations (strain) and quasi-particles may yield non-equilibrium effects that play a crucial role in this new phenomenon. No detailed theoretical calculations are available. Our measurements clearly show the need of a microscopic model for CDW dynamics.

  8. Structure and control of charge density waves in two-dimensional 1T-TaS2

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Adam W.; Hovden, Robert; Wang, Dennis; Kim, Young Duck; Okamoto, Junichi; Spoth, Katherine A.; Liu, Yu; Lu, Wenjian; Sun, Yuping; Hone, James C.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Kim, Philip; Pasupathy, Abhay N.

    2015-01-01

    The layered transition metal dichalcogenides host a rich collection of charge density wave phases in which both the conduction electrons and the atomic structure display translational symmetry breaking. Manipulating these complex states by purely electronic methods has been a long-sought scientific and technological goal. Here, we show how this can be achieved in 1T-TaS2 in the 2D limit. We first demonstrate that the intrinsic properties of atomically thin flakes are preserved by encapsulation with hexagonal boron nitride in inert atmosphere. We use this facile assembly method together with transmission electron microscopy and transport measurements to probe the nature of the 2D state and show that its conductance is dominated by discommensurations. The discommensuration structure can be precisely tuned in few-layer samples by an in-plane electric current, allowing continuous electrical control over the discommensuration-melting transition in 2D. PMID:26598707

  9. Estimates of the Electron Density Profile on LTX Using FMCW Reflectometry and mm-Wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, W. A.; Kubota, S.; Nguyen, X. V.; Holoman, T.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Labrie, D.; Schmitt, J. C.; Majeski, R.

    2014-10-01

    An FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous-wave) reflectometer has been installed on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) for electron density profile and fluctuation measurements. This diagnostic consists of two channels using bistatic antennas with a combined frequency coverage of 13.5 -33 GHz, which corresponds to electron density measurements in the range of 0 . 2 - 1 . 3 ×1013 cm-3 (in O-mode). Initial measurements will utilize O-mode polarization, which will require modeling of the plasma edge. Reflections from the center stack (delayometry above the peak cutoff frequency), as well as line density measurements from a 296 GHz interferometer (single-chord, radial midplane), will provide constraints for the profile reconstruction/estimate. Typical chord-averaged line densities on LTX range from 2 -6 ×1012 cm-3, which correspond to peak densities of 0 . 6 - 1 . 8 ×1013 cm-3 assuming a parabolic shape. If available, EFIT/LRDFIT results will provide additional constraints, as well as the possibility of utilizing data from measurements with X-mode or dual-mode (simultaneous O- and X-mode) polarization. Supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54527 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Huang, S L; Wang, S; Zhao, W

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. PMID:27250446

  11. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Huang, S. L.; Wang, S.; Zhao, W.

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  12. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Huang, S L; Wang, S; Zhao, W

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  13. Instability and charge density wave of metallic quantum chains on a silicon surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, H.W.; Takeda, S.; Rotenberg, E.; Matsuda, I.; Horikoshi, K.; Schaefer, J.; Lee, C.M.; Kevan, S.D.; Ohta, T.; Nagao, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    1999-06-14

    Self-assembled indium linear chains on the Si(111) surface are found to exhibit instability of the metallic phase and 1D charge density wave (CDW). The room-temperature metallic phase of these chains undergoes a temperature-induced, reversible transition into a semiconducting phase. The 1D CDW along the chains is observed directly in real space by scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperature. The Fermi contours of the metallic phase measured by angle-resolved photoemission exhibit a perfect nesting predicting precisely the CDW periodicity.

  14. High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, S.A.; Fawcett, E.; Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G.

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.

  15. High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, S.A. . Dept. of Physics); Fawcett, E. . Dept. of Physics); Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G. )

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.

  16. Laser-Induced Charge-Density-Wave Transient Depinning in Chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, V. L. R.; Laulhé, C.; Moisan, N.; Ravy, S.; Le Bolloc'h, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report on time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements following femtosecond laser excitation in pure bulk chromium. Comparing the evolution of incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) and atomic lattice reflections, we show that, a few nanoseconds after laser excitation, the CDW undergoes different structural changes than the atomic lattice. We give evidence for a transient CDW shear strain that breaks the lattice point symmetry. This strain is characteristic of sliding CDWs, as observed in other incommensurate CDW systems, suggesting the laser-induced CDW sliding capability in 3D systems. This first evidence opens perspectives for unconventional laser-assisted transport of correlated charges.

  17. Instability and Charge Density Wave of Metallic Quantum Chains on a Silicon Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.; Rotenberg, E.; Matsuda, I.; Horikoshi, K.; Schäfer, J.; Lee, C. M.; Kevan, S. D.; Ohta, T.; Nagao, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    1999-06-14

    Self-assembled indium linear chains on the Si(111) surface are found to exhibit instability of the metallic phase and 1D charge density wave (CDW). The room-temperature metallic phase of these chains undergoes a temperature-induced, reversible transition into a semiconducting phase. The 1D CDW along the chains is observed directly in real space by scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperature. The Fermi contours of the metallic phase measured by angle-resolved photoemission exhibit a perfect nesting predicting precisely the CDW periodicity.

  18. Superconductivity and magnetic field induced spin density waves in the (TMTTF)2X family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balicas, L.; Behnia, K.; Kang, W.; Canadell, E.; Auban-Senzier, P.; Jérome, D.; Ribault, M.; Fabre, J. M.

    1994-10-01

    We report magnetotransport measurements in the quasi one dimensional (Q-1-D) organic conductor (TMTTF)2Br at pressures up to 26 kbar, clown to 0.45 K in magnetic fields up to 19 T along the c^{ast} direction. It is found that a superconducting ground state is stabilized under 26 kbar at T_C = 0.8 K. No magnetic field induced spin density wave (FISDW) transitions are observed below 19T unlike other Q-1-D superconductors pertaining to the selenium series. The computed amplitude of the interchain coupling along transverse directions is unable to explain the missing; FISDW instability.

  19. Earthquake source properties and wave propagation in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhaes de Matos Viegas Fernandes, Gisela Sofia

    The study of intraplate earthquakes is fundamental for the understanding of the physics of faulting, seismic hazard assessment, and nuclear monitoring, but large to moderate well recorded intraplate earthquakes are scarce. I use the best recorded earthquake in Eastern North America (ENA)---the Mw 5.0 20 April 2002, Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake and its aftershock sequence to investigate wave propagation and earthquake source properties in ENA. The Au Sable Forks epicenter is located near the boundary of two distinct geological provinces Appalachian (New England) and Grenville (New York). Existing regional one-dimensional (1D) crustal models were derived from seismic surveys or from sparse ground-motions recordings from regional moderate earthquakes. I obtain improved 1D crustal models for these two provinces by forward modeling, for the first time, multi-path high-quality ground-motions of a moderate earthquake in ENA. Using Au Sable Forks earthquake records at 16 stations (epicentral distances < 400 km) at intermediate frequencies (<1 Hz), I generate synthetic seismograms using the frequency-wave number method. The new models improve the fit of synthetics to data at all 6 stations in the Grenville province and at 5 of the 10 stations in the Appalachian province. I identify complex wave paths along the boundary between the provinces, and 3% azimuthal anisotropy in the Appalachian crust. It is unknown how much earthquake source properties depend on the tectonic setting in which the earthquakes occur. Debate exists regarding the invariance of stress drop with earthquake size in ENA, and whether earthquakes in intraplate regions have higher stress drops than those in more tectonically active regions. I estimate source parameters for 22 earthquakes (M1-M5) of the Au Sable Forks sequence, using two alternative methods: a direct wave method (Empirical Green's Function) and a coda wave method (Coda Ratio) applied for the first time to small magnitude earthquakes. Both

  20. Latitudinal Density Dependence of Magnetic Field Lines Inferred from Polar Plasma Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J.; Denton, R. E.; Hudson, M. K.; Miftakhova, E. G.; Menietti, J. D.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using observations of the electron density, n(sub e), based on measurement of the upper hybrid resonance frequency by the Polar spacecraft Plasma Wave Instrument, we have examined the radial density dependence along field lines in the outer plasmasphere and the near plasmatrough. Sampled L values range from 2.5 to 6.6. Our technique depends on the fact that Polar crosses particular L values at two different points with different radial distance R. In our plasmaspheric data set (n(sub e) > 100/cm3), we find that on average n(sub e) is flat along field lines from the equator up to the latitudes sampled by Polar (R approximately equal to or > 2.0). In the plasmatrough data set (n(sub e) < 100/cm-3), there is on average a mild radial dependence n(sub e) varies as R(exp -1.7).

  1. Eigen-Frequencies of MHD Wave Equations in the Presence of Longitudinal Stratification Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Shahriar; Nasiri, Mojtaba; Dadashi, Neda; Safari, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Loops oscillations and MHD waves propagating in solar corona and transition region has been observed by TRACE telescope in 1999. In this Study, the MHD mode oscillations of the coronal plasma are studied. The aim is to identify the effect of structuring such as density on the frequencies of oscillations. We modeled the coronal medium as a zero-plasma with longitudinally density stratification. Magnetic flux tube oscillations are categorized into sausage, kink and torsion modes. The MHD equations are reduced and the governing equation are solved numerically using Finite Element Method. Eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions are extracted. The torsional mode is analyzed. By changing the stratification parameter the antinodes move towards the footpoints and we also concluded that in the thin tube approximation, leakage modes are propagated.

  2. Properties of thermospheric gravity waves on earth, Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Pesnell, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    A spectral model with spherical harmonics and Fourier components that can simulate atmospheric perturbations in the global geometry of a multiconstituent atmosphere is presented. The boundaries are the planetary surface where the transport velocities vanish and the exobase where molecular heat conduction and viscosity dominate. The time consuming integration of the conservation equations is reduced to computing the transfer function (TF) which describes the dynamic properties of the medium divorced from the complexities in the temporal and horizontal variations of the excitation source. Given the TF, the atmospheric response to a chosen source distribution is then obtained in short order. Theoretical studies are presented to illuminate some properties of gravity waves on earth, Venus and Mars.

  3. High Density Plasma Heating by EC-Waves Injected from the High-Field Side for Mode Conversion to Electron Bernstein Waves in LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Nishiura, M.; Ogasawara, S.; Makino, R.; Mutoh, T.; Yamada, H.; Komori, A.

    2013-02-01

    To realize an excitation of electron Bernstein waves (EBW) via mode conversion from X-mode waves injected from the high magnetic field side (HFS), new inner-vessel mirrors were installed close to a helical coil in the large helical device (LHD). 77 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) wave beams injected from an existing EC-wave injection system toward the new mirror are reflected on the mirror so that the beams are injected to plasmas from HFS. Evident increases in the electron temperature at the plasma core region and the plasma stored energy were observed by the HFS beam injection to the plasmas with the line-average electron density of 7.5×1019 m-3, which is slightly higher than the plasma cut-off density of 77 GHz EC-waves, 7.35×1019 m-3. The heating efficiency evaluated from the changes in the time derivative of the plasma stored energy reached ~70%. Although so far it is not clear which is the main cause of the heating effect, the mode-converted EBW or the X-mode wave itself injected from the HFS, an effective heating of high-density plasma over the plasma cut-off of EC-wave was successfully demonstrated.

  4. Waves, instabilities and turbulence properties in Depolarisation Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David L.; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Eastwood, Jonathan; Divin, Andrey; Pucci, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The new mission MMS is currently focusing on the magnetopause but we need to be ready for the study of the tail. An aspect of great importance there are the Dipolarization fronts (DF), formed by reconnection outflows interacting with the pre-existing environment. These regions are host of important energy and wave phenomena [1-3]. Our recent work has investigated these regions via fully kinetic 3D simulations [4-5]. As reported recently on Nature Physics [3], based on 3D fully kinetic simulations started with a well defined x-line, we observe that in the DF reconnection transitions towards a more chaotic regime. In the fronts an instability develops caused by the local gradients of the density and by the unfavourable acceleration and field line curvature. The consequence is the break up of the fronts in a fashion similar to the classical fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the onset of waves and secondary instabilities, transitioning towards a turbulent state. We investigate here especially the wave signatures that are observed in fully 3D simulations, looking for signatures of interchange-type lower hybrid waves [8], of whistler waves [7]. The end result present a vast array of waves and it is best analysed relying on concepts mutated by the turbulence theory. The end result of these waves and particle flows [2,6] are energy exchanges. We evaluate the different terms of the energy exchanges (energy deposition, J.E, and energy fluxes) and evaluate their relative improtance. The results presented are contrasted against existing results [1,9] and will provided useful guidance in analysis of future MMS data. [1] Hamrin, Maria, et al. "The evolution of flux pileup regions in the plasma sheet: Cluster observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 118.10 (2013): 6279-6290. [2] Angelopoulos, V., et al. "Electromagnetic energy conversion at reconnection fronts." Science 341.6153 (2013): 1478-1482. [3] Zhou, Meng, et al. "THEMIS observation of multiple

  5. Gas dynamics in barred spirals - Gaseous density waves and galactic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.; Van Albada, G. D.; Huntley, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Steady-state gasdynamical studies, previously limited to tightly wound normal spiral galaxies, are extended to models of barred spirals with a 5% to 10% perturbing potential. The models show that a strong wave manifestation is an important constituent of the bar structure in many barred spirals and that a density-wave shock wave can form a bar structure as pronounced as the narrow bars often evident in optical photographs of barred spirals. The dark narrow dust lanes often observed along the leading edges of bar structures are identified as tracers of shocks, and it is found that strong shocks along a bar structure during even a small part of a galaxy's lifetime might easily deplete a large enough proportion of the gas to cause a lack of gas in the inner annuli encompassing the bar by the time of the present epoch. It is emphasized that even moderate-amplitude barlike perturbations in the disk can drive large noncircular gas motions, typically 50 to 150 km/s.

  6. Evolution and Instability of Galactic Gas Disks inresponse to A Spiral Density-wave Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chi; Yen, D. C.; Wang, H. H.

    2006-12-01

    We revisit the classic problem of the response of the gas in a galactic disk to an imposed spiral density-wave potential of stellar origin. The results show the distinct difference between waves generated by resonance excitation and forced oscillation. To avoid the confusion of mixing these two types of waves, we systematically reduce the strength of the spiral potential or the force near the primary Lindblad resonances. So we can study the original problem of shock formation and star formation problem formulated by Roberts (1969). For the cases without self-gravitation of the gas disk, in addition to the primary doubly periodic shocks, the presence of the branch-like structures which correspond to the ultra-harmonic resonances is pronounced. On the other hand, once the self-gravitation is included, unlike the work of Chakrabarti et al. (2003), the sub-structures associated with the ultra-harmonics are not necessarily enhanced by the self-gravity. Their growth may be deteriorated by the growth of the primary shocks. Sub-structures other than those identified with the ultra-harmonics may result from shear instability of Rayleigh's kind or gravitational instability of Toomre's kind. They are responsible for the branches, feathers or chaotic sub-structures observed in nearby galaxies in far infra-red. The work is in parts supported by a grant from National Science Council, Taiwan NSC95-2752-M-001-009-PAE.

  7. Joint Bayesian inversion of free oscillations and body waves for Earth's radial velocity and density structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wit, R. W.; Valentine, A. P.; Trampert, J.

    2013-12-01

    Existing 1-D seismic models are the basis for 3-D seismic tomography and most earthquake location algorithms. It is therefore important to evaluate the quality of such 1-D reference models, yet quantifying uncertainties in seismological models is challenging. Ideally, quality assessment is an integral part of the inverse method. Our aim in this study is two-fold: (i) we show one approach to solving a Bayesian non-linear inverse problem and quantifying model uncertainties, and (ii) we analyse the constraint on radial P and S-wave velocity and density structure provided by normal mode and travel time data. We jointly invert body-wave travel times from the EHB bulletin (phases Pn, P, PP, PKP, Sn and S) and centre frequencies of recently measured splitting functions for the Earth's free oscillations up to 10 mHz. We adopt a machine learning approach to extract all information on the 1-D model that is available in the seismic data. We use artificial neural networks, which are very common in pattern recognition problems and can be used to approximate an arbitrary function. We obtain probability density functions (pdfs), which provide a quantitative description of our knowledge of the individual earth model parameters.

  8. Carbon loaded Teflon (CLT): a power density meter for biological experiments using millimeter waves.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Ross, James A

    2007-01-01

    The standard technique for measurement of millimeter wave fields utilizes an open-ended waveguide attached to a HP power meter. The alignment of the waveguide with the propagation (K) vector is critical to making accurate measurements. Using this technique, it is difficult and time consuming to make a detailed map of average incident power density over areas of biological interest and the spatial resolution of this instrument does not allow accurate measurements in non-uniform fields. For biological experiments, it is important to know the center field average incident power density and the distribution over the exposed area. Two 4 ft x 4 ft x 1/32 inch sheets of carbon loaded Teflon (CLT) (one 15% carbon and one 25% carbon) were procured and a series of tests to determine the usefulness of CLT in defining fields in the millimeter wavelength range was initiated. Since the CLT was to be used both in the laboratory, where the environment was well controlled, and in the field, where the environment could not be controlled, tests were made to determine effects of change in environmental conditions on ability to use CLT as a millimeter wave dosimeter. The empirical results of this study indicate CLT to be an effective dosimeter for biological experiments both in the laboratory and in the field.

  9. Charge Density Wave Behavior of Ionic Liquid Gated Strontium Titanate Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretz-Sullivan, Terence; Goldman, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of ionic liquid gated nanometer scale channels of strontium titanate have been carried out. These characteristics exhibit a large voltage threshold for conduction and a nonlinear power law behavior at all temperatures measured. The source-drain current of these nanowires scales as a power law of the difference between the source-drain voltage and the threshold voltage. The temperature dependence of the threshold voltage appears to be related to the inverse of the temperature dependent dielectric constant of strontium titanate in qualitative agreement with a simple model of charge density wave depinning. These observations, when taken together, are evidence that a gate induced charge density wave has been induced, and is depinned by strong electric fields. This work was supported by DOE Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-FG02-02ER46004. Samples were fabricated at the Minnesota Nanofabrication Center. Parts of this work were carried out in the University of Minnesota Characterization Facility, a member of the Materials Research Facilities Network (www.mrfn.org) funded via the NSF MRSEC program.

  10. Physics in Superconductors with a Spin Density Wave: Quasiclassical Description of a two-band Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moor, Andreas; Volkov, Anatoly; Efetov, Konstantin

    2014-03-01

    Using a simple model of a two-band superconductor with a spin density wave we investigate the physics in the coexistence regime of the two order parameters, i.e., the spin density wave (SDW) and the superconductivity (SC). We use the quasiclassical Green's functions approach. Our findings concern, i.a., the Knight shift, the proximity and the Josephson effects, and the time and spatial dependence of the magnetic order parameter near the quantum critical point. In particular we find a solution of the stationary equation which describes a domain wall in the magnetic structure. In the center of the domain wall we find a local enhancement of SC. Investigating the stability of a uniform commensurate SDW we obtain the values of the doping parameter at which the first order transition into the state with m = 0 takes place or to the state with an inhomogeneous SDW occurs. We appreciate the financial support from the DFG by the Project EF 11/8-1.

  11. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály

    2016-08-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  12. Long-range charge-density-wave proximity effect at cuprate/manganate interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frano, A.; Blanco-Canosa, S.; Schierle, E.; Lu, Y.; Wu, M.; Bluschke, M.; Minola, M.; Christiani, G.; Habermeier, H. U.; Logvenov, G.; Wang, Y.; van Aken, P. A.; Benckiser, E.; Weschke, E.; Le Tacon, M.; Keimer, B.

    2016-08-01

    The interplay between charge density waves (CDWs) and high-temperature superconductivity is currently under intense investigation. Experimental research on this issue is difficult because CDW formation in bulk copper oxides is strongly influenced by random disorder, and a long-range-ordered CDW state in high magnetic fields is difficult to access with spectroscopic and diffraction probes. Here we use resonant X-ray scattering in zero magnetic field to show that interfaces with the metallic ferromagnet La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 greatly enhance CDW formation in the optimally doped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+δ (δ ~ 1), and that this effect persists over several tens of nanometres. The wavevector of the incommensurate CDW serves as an internal calibration standard of the charge carrier concentration, which allows us to rule out any significant influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry, and to attribute the observed phenomenon to a genuine electronic proximity effect. Long-range proximity effects induced by heterointerfaces thus offer a powerful method to stabilize the charge-density-wave state in the cuprates and, more generally, to manipulate the interplay between different collective phenomena in metal oxides.

  13. Long-range charge-density-wave proximity effect at cuprate/manganate interfaces.

    PubMed

    Frano, A; Blanco-Canosa, S; Schierle, E; Lu, Y; Wu, M; Bluschke, M; Minola, M; Christiani, G; Habermeier, H U; Logvenov, G; Wang, Y; van Aken, P A; Benckiser, E; Weschke, E; Le Tacon, M; Keimer, B

    2016-08-01

    The interplay between charge density waves (CDWs) and high-temperature superconductivity is currently under intense investigation. Experimental research on this issue is difficult because CDW formation in bulk copper oxides is strongly influenced by random disorder, and a long-range-ordered CDW state in high magnetic fields is difficult to access with spectroscopic and diffraction probes. Here we use resonant X-ray scattering in zero magnetic field to show that interfaces with the metallic ferromagnet La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 greatly enhance CDW formation in the optimally doped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+δ (δ ∼ 1), and that this effect persists over several tens of nanometres. The wavevector of the incommensurate CDW serves as an internal calibration standard of the charge carrier concentration, which allows us to rule out any significant influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry, and to attribute the observed phenomenon to a genuine electronic proximity effect. Long-range proximity effects induced by heterointerfaces thus offer a powerful method to stabilize the charge-density-wave state in the cuprates and, more generally, to manipulate the interplay between different collective phenomena in metal oxides. PMID:27322824

  14. Nonlocal density-functional description constructed from a correlated many-body wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Naoto; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2004-03-01

    We suggest a new approach to the nonlocal density-functional theory. In our method, the nonlocal correlation functional is derived from a correlated many-body wave function using the transcorrelated similarity transformation [1,2]. Our formalism is rigorous in principle if the v-representable density is assumed. In practice, Jastrow-Slater-type wave function is adopted and the correlation functional consists of many-body interactions originated from the Jastrow factor. Instead of struggling with these higher order interactions, we retain only 2-body interactions multiplying an adjusting parameter so that it can reproduce the exact correlation energy for the homogeneous electron gas. Therefore, the computational cost is comparable to the exact exchange method. Moreover, parameters in the Jastrow factor are determined by the two conditions: the cusp conditions and the random-phase approximation without empirical fitting. We found that our correlation functional gives fairly good results for small atoms and ions (He, Li^+, Be^2+, Li, and Be). [1]S. F. Boys and N. C. Handy, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 309, 209; 310, 43; 310, 63; 311, 309. [2] N. Umezawa and S. Tsuneyuki, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10015 (2003).

  15. Quasiparticle interference, quasiparticle interactions, and the origin of the charge density wave in 2H-NbSe2.

    PubMed

    Arguello, C J; Rosenthal, E P; Andrade, E F; Jin, W; Yeh, P C; Zaki, N; Jia, S; Cava, R J; Fernandes, R M; Millis, A J; Valla, T; Osgood, R M; Pasupathy, A N

    2015-01-23

    We show that a small number of intentionally introduced defects can be used as a spectroscopic tool to amplify quasiparticle interference in 2H-NbSe2 that we measure by scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging. We show, from the momentum and energy dependence of the quasiparticle interference, that Fermi surface nesting is inconsequential to charge density wave formation in 2H-NbSe2. We demonstrate that, by combining quasiparticle interference data with additional knowledge of the quasiparticle band structure from angle resolved photoemission measurements, one can extract the wave vector and energy dependence of the important electronic scattering processes thereby obtaining direct information both about the fermiology and the interactions. In 2H-NbSe2, we use this combination to confirm that the important near-Fermi-surface electronic physics is dominated by the coupling of the quasiparticles to soft mode phonons at a wave vector different from the charge density wave ordering wave vector.

  16. Particle-in-cell Simulations of Electromagnetic Wave Scattering From Numerically Generated Flute-type Density Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, D. S.; Caplinger, J.; Kim, T. C.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves can be influenced by the presence of plasma turbulence. It is known that Flute-type density irregularities can develop during the nonlinear stage of an interchange instability in Earth's ionosphere and can affect radio communication channels. These density structures play an important role in the refraction and scattering of EM waves in Earth's ionosphere and also in laser diagnostic scattering experiments. To generate Flute-type density irregularities, we will use previously obtained numerical solution of nonlinear fluid equations involving the electrostatic potential and density. The solutions to these fluid equations govern the development of an interchange instability and results in the spatial dependence of density irregularities which can be used to analyze scattering of high frequency EM waves. This solution contains both large scale vortex density structures coexisting with short scale density perturbations. Next we will initialize a PIC simulation with the density structure from the fluid simulation to calculate the scattering cross-section and compare the results with an analytic solution obtained using numerically calculated density spectra. Because the linear and non-linear stages are well separated in time, we will compare the effect of scattering from density irregularities which form in both the linear and non-linear stages.

  17. Interplay of charge density wave and multiband superconductivity in 2H-PdxTaSe2.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, D; Khim, S; Nam, W; Lee, B S; Kim, Chanhee; Jeon, B-G; Min, B H; Park, S; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2016-04-05

    2H-TaSe2 has been one of unique transition metal dichalcogenides exhibiting several phase transitions due to a delicate balance among competing electronic ground states. An unusual metallic state at high-T is sequentially followed by an incommensurate charge density wave (ICDW) state at ≈122 K and a commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) state at ≈90 K, and superconductivity at TC ~ 0.14 K. Upon systematic intercalation of Pd ions into TaSe2, we find that CCDW order is destabilized more rapidly than ICDW to indicate a hidden quantum phase transition point at x ~ 0.09-0.10. Moreover, TC shows a dramatic enhancement up to 3.3 K at x = 0.08, ~24 times of TC in 2H-TaSe2, in proportional to the density of states N(EF). Investigations of upper critical fields Hc2 in single crystals reveal evidences of multiband superconductivity as temperature-dependent anisotropy factor γH = , quasi-linear increase of , and an upward, positive-curvature in near TC. Furthermore, analysis of temperature-dependent electronic specific heat corroborates the presence of multiple superconducting gaps. Based on above findings and electronic phase diagram vs x, we propose that the increase of N(EF) and effective electron-phonon coupling in the vicinity of CDW quantum phase transition should be a key to the large enhancement of TC in PdxTaSe2.

  18. Interplay of charge density wave and multiband superconductivity in 2H-PdxTaSe2

    PubMed Central

    Bhoi, D.; Khim, S.; Nam, W.; Lee, B. S.; Kim, Chanhee; Jeon, B.-G.; Min, B. H.; Park, S.; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2016-01-01

    2H-TaSe2 has been one of unique transition metal dichalcogenides exhibiting several phase transitions due to a delicate balance among competing electronic ground states. An unusual metallic state at high-T is sequentially followed by an incommensurate charge density wave (ICDW) state at ≈122 K and a commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) state at ≈90 K, and superconductivity at TC ~ 0.14 K. Upon systematic intercalation of Pd ions into TaSe2, we find that CCDW order is destabilized more rapidly than ICDW to indicate a hidden quantum phase transition point at x ~ 0.09–0.10. Moreover, TC shows a dramatic enhancement up to 3.3 K at x = 0.08, ~24 times of TC in 2H-TaSe2, in proportional to the density of states N(EF). Investigations of upper critical fields Hc2 in single crystals reveal evidences of multiband superconductivity as temperature-dependent anisotropy factor γH = , quasi-linear increase of , and an upward, positive-curvature in near TC. Furthermore, analysis of temperature-dependent electronic specific heat corroborates the presence of multiple superconducting gaps. Based on above findings and electronic phase diagram vs x, we propose that the increase of N(EF) and effective electron-phonon coupling in the vicinity of CDW quantum phase transition should be a key to the large enhancement of TC in PdxTaSe2. PMID:27045426

  19. Resonant plasmon-axion excitations induced by charge density wave order in a Weyl semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redell, Matthew D.; Mukherjee, Shantanu; Lee, Wei-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the charge excitations of a Weyl semimetal in the axionic charge density wave (axionic CDW) state. While it has been shown that the topological response (anomalous Hall conductivity) is protected against the CDW state, we find that the long-wavelength plasmon excitation is radically influenced by the dynamics of the CDW order parameter. In the normal state, we show that an undamped collective mode should exist at q ⃗≈Q⃗CDW if there is an attractive interaction favoring the formation of the CDW state. The undamped nature of this collective mode is attributed to a gaplike feature in the particle-hole continuum at q ⃗≈Q⃗CDW due to the chirality of the Weyl nodes, which is not seen in other materials with CDW instability. In the CDW state, the long-wavelength plasmon excitations become more dispersive due to the additional interband scattering not allowed in the normal state. Moreover, because the translational symmetry is spontaneously broken, umklapp scattering, the process conserving the total momentum only up to n Q⃗CDW , with n an integer and Q⃗CDW the ordering wave vector, emerges in the CDW state. We find that the plasmon excitation couples to the phonon mode of the CDW order via the umklapp scattering, leading to two branches of resonant collective modes observable in the density-density correlation function at q ⃗≈0 and q ⃗≈Q⃗CDW . Based on our analysis, we propose that measuring these resonant plasmon-axion excitations around q ⃗≈0 and q ⃗≈Q⃗CDW by momentum-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy could serve as a reliable way to detect the axionic CDW state in Weyl semimetals.

  20. Prediction of Building Limestone Physical and Mechanical Properties by Means of Ultrasonic P-Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Concu, Giovanna; De Nicolo, Barbara; Valdes, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic P-wave velocity as a feature for predicting some physical and mechanical properties that describe the behavior of local building limestone. To this end, both ultrasonic testing and compressive tests were carried out on several limestone specimens and statistical correlation between ultrasonic velocity and density, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity was studied. The effectiveness of ultrasonic velocity was evaluated by regression, with the aim of observing the coefficient of determination r2 between ultrasonic velocity and the aforementioned parameters, and the mathematical expressions of the correlations were found and discussed. The strong relations that were established between ultrasonic velocity and limestone properties indicate that these parameters can be reasonably estimated by means of this nondestructive parameter. This may be of great value in a preliminary phase of the diagnosis and inspection of stone masonry conditions, especially when the possibility of sampling material cores is reduced. PMID:24511286

  1. Mode properties of low-frequency waves: Kinetic theory versus Hall-MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Omidi, N.; Quest, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    theory also dictates the use of different mode properties to distinguish between them in observational data. For example, the phase between the density and magnetic field perturbation may become useless at high beta, whereas the direction of the magnetic field perturbations with respect to k and B(sub o) remains a useful characteristic. Two quantities based on this characteristic are suggested and are shown to be useful also to distinguish between the mirror mode and A/IC waves in a plasma with temperature anisotropy.

  2. Subshell fitting of relativistic atomic core electron densities for use in QTAIM analyses of ECP-based wave functions.

    PubMed

    Keith, Todd A; Frisch, Michael J

    2011-11-17

    Scalar-relativistic, all-electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations were done for free, neutral atoms of all elements of the periodic table using the universal Gaussian basis set. Each core, closed-subshell contribution to a total atomic electron density distribution was separately fitted to a spherical electron density function: a linear combination of s-type Gaussian functions. The resulting core subshell electron densities are useful for systematically and compactly approximating total core electron densities of atoms in molecules, for any atomic core defined in terms of closed subshells. When used to augment the electron density from a wave function based on a calculation using effective core potentials (ECPs) in the Hamiltonian, the atomic core electron densities are sufficient to restore the otherwise-absent electron density maxima at the nuclear positions and eliminate spurious critical points in the neighborhood of the atom, thus enabling quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses to be done in the neighborhoods of atoms for which ECPs were used. Comparison of results from QTAIM analyses with all-electron, relativistic and nonrelativistic molecular wave functions validates the use of the atomic core electron densities for augmenting electron densities from ECP-based wave functions. For an atom in a molecule for which a small-core or medium-core ECPs is used, simply representing the core using a simplistic, tightly localized electron density function is actually sufficient to obtain a correct electron density topology and perform QTAIM analyses to obtain at least semiquantitatively meaningful results, but this is often not true when a large-core ECP is used. Comparison of QTAIM results from augmenting ECP-based molecular wave functions with the realistic atomic core electron densities presented here versus augmenting with the limiting case of tight core densities may be useful for diagnosing the reliability of large-core ECP models in

  3. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.

    2010-12-01

    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.

  4. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, Nurul; Free, Charles

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  5. Theoretical and lidar studies of the density response of the mesospheric sodium layer to gravity wave perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The density response of atmospheric layers to gravity waves is developed in two forms, an exact solution and a perturbation series solution. The degree of nonlinearity in the layer density response is described by the series solution whereas the exact solution gives insight into the nature of the responses. Density perturbation in an atmospheric layer are shown to be substantially greater than the atmospheric density perturbation associated with the propagation of a gravity wave. Because of the density gradients present in atmospheric layers, interesting effects were observed such as a phase reversal in the linear layer response which occurs near the layer peak. Once the layer response is understood, the sodium layer can be used as a tracer of atmospheric wave motions. A two dimensional digital signal processing technique was developed. Both spatial and temporal filtering are utilized to enhance the resolution by decreasing shot noise by more han 10 dB. Many of the features associated with a layer density response to gravity waves were observed in high resolution density profiles of the mesospheric sodium layer. These include nonlinearities as well as the phase reversal in the linear layer response.

  6. Organic Carbon Influences on Soil Particle Density and Rheological Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Shipitalo, M. J.

    2006-07-01

    Soil particle density (rs) is not routinely measured and is assumed to range between 2.60 and 2.70 Mgm23 or to be a constant (2.65 Mgm23) when estimating essential properties such as porosity, and volumetric water and air relations. Values of rs for the same soil may, however, differ significantly from the standard range due to management induced changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations. We quantified the rs and Atterberg limits of a Rayne silt loam for five long-term (.22 yr) moldboard-plowed continuous corn (Zea mays L.; MP), no-till continuous corn (NT), no-till continuous corn with beef cattle manure (NTm), pasture, and forest systems.We also assessed the relationships of SOC concentration with rs and the Atterberg limits and the impact of rs on soil porosity. Mean rs across NT, NTm, and pasture (2.35 Mg m23) was |7% lower than that for MP in the 0- to 10-cm soil depth (2.52 Mg m23, P , 0.01). Forest had the lowest rs of all soils (1.79 Mg m23). The NTm caused a greater reduction in rs and a greater increase in SOC concentration, liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), and plasticity index (PI) than NT. Surface soils under MP had the highest rs and rb and the lowest SOC concentration, LL, PL, and PI. The SOC concentration was correlated negatively with rs (r 2 5 0.75) and positively with Atterberg limits (r 2 . 0.64) at .20-cm depth. Estimates of soil porosity for NT, NTm, and pasture using the constant rs overestimated the ''true'' porosity by 12% relative to that using the measured rs.

  7. The preplasma effect on the properties of the shock wave driven by a fast electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llor Aisa, E.; Ribeyre, X.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2016-08-01

    Strong shock wave generation by a mono-energetic fast electron beam in a plasma with an increasing density profile is studied theoretically. The proposed analytical model describes the shock wave characteristics for a homogeneous plasma preceded by a low density precursor. The shock pressure and the time of shock formation depend on the ratio of the electron stopping length to the preplasma areal density and on the initial energy of injected electrons. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations.

  8. Shock- and release-wave properties of MJ-2 grout

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Furnish, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    High pressure Hugoniot and release equation of state data are provided for a high-silica high-water content rock-simulating grout (Mini Jade Two grout) over a pressure range of approximately 1 to 70 GPa. High velocity gun impact shock wave techniques and velocity interferometry diagnostics were used to obtain the experimental data. New experimental methods and analysis techniques were developed to perform the tests and extract the Hugoniot and pressure-volume release properties of the grout. The data are appropriate for high pressure equation of state development through both computational simulation and direct comparison with Hugoniot and release isentrope behavior. Nonlinear deformation phenomena associated with material strength, pressure-induced phase transformation and pressure-volume hysteresis are identified within the experimental results and the underlying responsible physical issues are addressed. 29 refs., 68 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Invariance property of wave scattering through disordered media.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Romain; Ambichl, Philipp; Gigan, Sylvain; Haber, Alexander; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan

    2014-12-16

    A fundamental insight in the theory of diffusive random walks is that the mean length of trajectories traversing a finite open system is independent of the details of the diffusion process. Instead, the mean trajectory length depends only on the system's boundary geometry and is thus unaffected by the value of the mean free path. Here we show that this result is rooted on a much deeper level than that of a random walk, which allows us to extend the reach of this universal invariance property beyond the diffusion approximation. Specifically, we demonstrate that an equivalent invariance relation also holds for the scattering of waves in resonant structures as well as in ballistic, chaotic or in Anderson localized systems. Our work unifies a number of specific observations made in quite diverse fields of science ranging from the movement of ants to nuclear scattering theory. Potential experimental realizations using light fields in disordered media are discussed.

  10. Invariance property of wave scattering through disordered media

    PubMed Central

    Pierrat, Romain; Ambichl, Philipp; Gigan, Sylvain; Haber, Alexander; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental insight in the theory of diffusive random walks is that the mean length of trajectories traversing a finite open system is independent of the details of the diffusion process. Instead, the mean trajectory length depends only on the system's boundary geometry and is thus unaffected by the value of the mean free path. Here we show that this result is rooted on a much deeper level than that of a random walk, which allows us to extend the reach of this universal invariance property beyond the diffusion approximation. Specifically, we demonstrate that an equivalent invariance relation also holds for the scattering of waves in resonant structures as well as in ballistic, chaotic or in Anderson localized systems. Our work unifies a number of specific observations made in quite diverse fields of science ranging from the movement of ants to nuclear scattering theory. Potential experimental realizations using light fields in disordered media are discussed. PMID:25425671

  11. Invariance property of wave scattering through disordered media.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Romain; Ambichl, Philipp; Gigan, Sylvain; Haber, Alexander; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan

    2014-12-16

    A fundamental insight in the theory of diffusive random walks is that the mean length of trajectories traversing a finite open system is independent of the details of the diffusion process. Instead, the mean trajectory length depends only on the system's boundary geometry and is thus unaffected by the value of the mean free path. Here we show that this result is rooted on a much deeper level than that of a random walk, which allows us to extend the reach of this universal invariance property beyond the diffusion approximation. Specifically, we demonstrate that an equivalent invariance relation also holds for the scattering of waves in resonant structures as well as in ballistic, chaotic or in Anderson localized systems. Our work unifies a number of specific observations made in quite diverse fields of science ranging from the movement of ants to nuclear scattering theory. Potential experimental realizations using light fields in disordered media are discussed. PMID:25425671

  12. Material properties identification using ultrasonic waves and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements: a multi-input multi-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R.; Vanlanduit, S.; Guillaume, P.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a multi-input multi-output approach able to determine the material properties of homogeneous materials is presented. To do so, an experimental set-up which combines the use of multi harmonic signals with interleaved frequencies and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements has been developed. A modeling technique, based on transmission and reflection measurements, allowed the simultaneous determination of longitudinal wave velocity, density and thickness of the materials under test with high levels of precision and accuracy.

  13. Dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves encountering a density bump or void

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  14. Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Blast Waves Encountering a Density Bump or Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  15. Density-dependent acoustic properties of PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Thompson, Darla G; Deluca, Racci; Hartline, Ernest L; Hagelberg, Stephanie I

    2009-07-31

    We have measured the longitudinal and shear acoustic velocities of PBX 9502 as a function of density for die-pressed samples over the range 1.795 g/cc to 1.888 g/cc. The density dependence of the velocities is linear. Thermal cycling of PBX 9502 is known to induce irreversible volume growth. We have measured this volume growth dependence on density for a subset of the pressed parts and find that the most growth occurs for the samples with lowest initial density. The acoustic velocity changes due to the volume growth are significant and reflect damage in the samples.

  16. Impurity-Mediated Early Condensation of a Charge Density Wave in an Atomic Wire Array.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han Woong; Oh, Deok Mahn; Wippermann, Stefan; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2016-01-26

    We directly show how impurity atoms induce the condensation of a representative electronic phase, the charge density wave (CDW) phase, in atomic scale with scanning tunneling microscopy. Oxygen impurity atoms on the self-assembled metallic atomic wire array on a silicon crystal condense the CDW locally above the pristine transition temperature. More interestingly, the CDW along the wires is induced not by a single atomic impurity but by the cooperation of multiple impurities. First-principles calculations disclose the mechanism of the cooperation as the coherent superposition of the local lattice strain induced by impurities, stressing the coupled electronic and lattice degrees of freedom for the CDW. This opens the possibility of the strain engineering over electronic phases of atomic-scale systems.

  17. Evidence for Charge-Density-Wave in Underdoped Bi2201 from ARPES and LEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, J. A.; Comin, R.; Levy, G.; Fournier, D.; Zhu, Z.-H.; Ludbrook, B.; Veenstra, C. N.; Wong, D.; Dosanjh, P.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Petaccia, L.; Damascelli, A.

    2012-02-01

    While there is mounting evidence for a broken symmetry in the pseudogap state of the high-Tc cuprates, the identification of a specific phase remains elusive. Through the combination of electronic (ARPES) and structural (LEED) probes, we uncover a temperature dependent evolution of the CuO2 plane band dispersion in highly-ordered Bi2201, which is directly associated with a hitherto-undetected evolution of the incommensurate superstructure. The quasilinear, continuous variation of the modulation wavelength 2π/Q2 from ˜ 6 to 43,elow a characteristic TQ2 30,, provides evidence for an electronically-driven charge-density-wave ordering. This points to a remarkable electron-lattice coupling, in which the footprint of the BiO-layer-induced superstructure is found in the modulated electronic structure of the CuO2 plane.

  18. Descreened Fröhlich mode in charge density wave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, T.; Wonneberger, W.

    1989-11-01

    The Fukuyama-Lee-Rice approach to the a.c. response problem of pinned charge density waves in quasi one-dimensional solids requires perfect screening by quasi particles. We account for descreening at low temperatures by using a frequency dependent damping function appearing only in internal lines of the phason propagator. It is shown that this procedure agrees with Littlewood's prescription of descreening. Phason self energies are evaluated within the self-consistent Born approximation for strong and weak pinning. Quantitative results for σ(ω)are obtained for spatial dimensions d = 1 and d = 3. Two new frequency scales appear in σ(ω): the dielectric screening frequency of the quasi particles and the frequency of the longitudinal optical phason. The latter frequency modifies the pinning frequency and its concentration dependence and the former the low frequency tail of the Fröhlich mode absorption profile Re σ(ω).

  19. Cooperative interplay between impurities and charge density wave in the phase transition of atomic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyungjoon; Lee, Geunseop; Hyun, Jung-Min; Kim, Hanchul

    2015-09-01

    Impurities interact with a charge density wave (CDW) and affect the phase transitions in low-dimensional systems. By using scanning tunneling microscopy, we visualize the interaction between oxygen impurities and the CDW in indium atomic wires on Si(111), a prototypical one-dimensional electronic system, and unveil the microscopic mechanism of the intriguing O-induced increase of the transition temperature (Tc). Driven by the fluctuating CDW, the O atoms adopt an asymmetric structure. By adjusting the asymmetry, a pair of O impurities in close distance can pin the one-dimensional CDW, which develops into the two-dimensional domains. First-principles calculations showed that the asymmetric interstitially-incorporated O defects induce shear strains, which assists the formation of hexagon structure of the CDW phase. The cooperative interplay between the O impurities and the CDW is responsible for the enhancement of the CDW condensation and the consequent increase in Tc.

  20. Kink antikink density wave of an extended car-following model in a cooperative driving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Shi, Zhongke; Zhou, Bingchang

    2008-12-01

    We propose an extended optimal velocity model applicable to cooperative driving control system by considering the headway of arbitrary number of cars that precede and the relative velocity. The stability condition of the extended model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point by applying the nonlinear analysis. Thus the traffic jams can be described by the kink-antikink density wave which is the solution of the mKdV equation. The simulation results confirm the analytical results and show that the traffic jams are suppressed more efficiently with considering not only the headway of more vehicles ahead but also the relative velocity.

  1. Decay of density waves in coupled one-dimensional many-body-localized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelovšek, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This work analyzes the behavior of coupled disordered one-dimensional systems as modelled by identical fermionic Hubbard chains with the on-site potential disorder and coupling emerging through the interchain hopping t'. The study is motivated by the experiment on fermionic cold atoms on a disordered lattice, where a decay rate of the quenched density wave was measured. We present a derivation of the decay rate Γ within perturbation theory and show that, even at large disorder along the chains, the interaction leads to finite Γ >0 , the mechanism being the interaction-induced coupling of in-chain localized and interchain extended single-fermion states. Explicit expressions for Γ are presented for a weak interaction U U >t' . It is shown that, in both regimes, Γ increases with the interchain hopping t', as well as decreases with increasing disorder.

  2. Monte Carlo studies of diamagnetism and charge density wave order in the cuprate pseudogap regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward Sierens, Lauren; Achkar, Andrew; Hawthorn, David; Melko, Roger; Sachdev, Subir

    2015-03-01

    The pseudogap regime of the hole-doped cuprate superconductors is often characterized experimentally in terms of a substantial diamagnetic response and, from another point of view, in terms of strong charge density wave (CDW) order. We introduce a dimensionless ratio, R, that incorporates both diamagnetic susceptibility and the correlation length of CDW order, and therefore reconciles these two fundamental characteristics of the pseudogap. We perform Monte Carlo simulations on a classical model that considers angular fluctuations of a six-dimensional order parameter, and compare our Monte Carlo results for R with existing data from torque magnetometry and x-ray scattering experiments on YBa2Cu3O6+x. We achieve qualitative agreement, and also propose future experiments to further investigate the behaviour of this dimensionless ratio.

  3. Coexistence of bulk superconductivity and charge density wave in CuxZrTe3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangde; Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C

    2011-06-17

    We report the coexistence of bulk superconductivity with T(c)=3.8  K and charge density wave (CDW) in Cu intercalated quasi-two-dimensional crystals of ZrTe(3). The Cu intercalation results in the expansion of the unit cell orthogonal to the Zr-Zr metal chains and partial filling of CDW energy gap. We present anisotropic parameters of the superconducting state. We also show that the contribution of CDW to the scattering mechanism is anisotropic in the a-b plane. The dominant scattering mechanism in the normal state for both ZrTe(3) and Cu(0.05)ZrTe(3) along the b axis is the electron-electron umklapp scattering.

  4. Bayesian semiparametric power spectral density estimation with applications in gravitational wave data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Matthew C.; Meyer, Renate; Christensen, Nelson

    2015-09-01

    The standard noise model in gravitational wave (GW) data analysis assumes detector noise is stationary and Gaussian distributed, with a known power spectral density (PSD) that is usually estimated using clean off-source data. Real GW data often depart from these assumptions, and misspecified parametric models of the PSD could result in misleading inferences. We propose a Bayesian semiparametric approach to improve this. We use a nonparametric Bernstein polynomial prior on the PSD, with weights attained via a Dirichlet process distribution, and update this using the Whittle likelihood. Posterior samples are obtained using a blocked Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampler. We simultaneously estimate the reconstruction parameters of a rotating core collapse supernova GW burst that has been embedded in simulated Advanced LIGO noise. We also discuss an approach to deal with nonstationary data by breaking longer data streams into smaller and locally stationary components.

  5. Atomistic view of impurities interacting with a quasi-one-dimensional charge density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Deok Mahn; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-06-01

    Atomistic details of the interaction of impurities with quasi-one-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) are revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Oxygen and pentacene adsorbates are utilized as strongly and weakly interacting impurities, respectively, on the well-known CDW state of the In atomic wire array on the Si(111) surface. Distinct CDW pinning configurations are identified for oxygen impurities with different atomic structures, indicating the strong pinning. The governing role of local strain field for the strong pinning is elucidated. In contrast, a few different pinning configurations occur for a unique adsorption structure of pentacene indicating a weak pinning. Pentacene molecules commonly induce characteristic phase shifts, which readily couple with other phase defects, in particular, solitons in order to avoid interwire phase misfits. This work provides the mechanism and methodology for the atomic scale control over phases, solitons, and domain boundaries of CDW.

  6. Helical spin-density wave in Fe/Cr trilayers with perfect interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, R.S.

    1998-07-01

    Despite the presence of only collinear, commensurate (C) and incommensurate (I) spin-density waves (SDW`s) in bulk Cr, the interfacial steps in Fe/Cr multilayers are now believed to stabilize a helical (H) SDW within the Cr spacer. Yet H SDW`s were first predicted in an Fe/Cr trilayer with perfect interfaces when the orientation of the Fe moments does not favor C ordering: if the number of Cr monolayers is even (odd) and the Fe moments are pointing in the same (opposite) direction, then a C SDW does not gain any coupling energy. Under these circumstances, a simple model verifies that H ordering is indeed favored over 1 ordering provided that the Fermi surface mismatch is sufficiently small or the temperature sufficiently high.

  7. Impurity-Mediated Early Condensation of a Charge Density Wave in an Atomic Wire Array.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han Woong; Oh, Deok Mahn; Wippermann, Stefan; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2016-01-26

    We directly show how impurity atoms induce the condensation of a representative electronic phase, the charge density wave (CDW) phase, in atomic scale with scanning tunneling microscopy. Oxygen impurity atoms on the self-assembled metallic atomic wire array on a silicon crystal condense the CDW locally above the pristine transition temperature. More interestingly, the CDW along the wires is induced not by a single atomic impurity but by the cooperation of multiple impurities. First-principles calculations disclose the mechanism of the cooperation as the coherent superposition of the local lattice strain induced by impurities, stressing the coupled electronic and lattice degrees of freedom for the CDW. This opens the possibility of the strain engineering over electronic phases of atomic-scale systems. PMID:26634634

  8. Industrial applications of photon density wave spectroscopy for in-line particle sizing [Invited].

    PubMed

    Hass, Roland; Münzberg, Marvin; Bressel, Lena; Reich, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy in highly turbid liquid material is often restricted by simultaneous occurrence of absorption and scattering of light. Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is one of the very few, yet widely unknown, technologies for the independent quantification of these two optical processes. Here, a concise overview about modern PDW spectroscopy is given, including all necessary equations concerning the optical description of the investigated material, dependent light scattering, particle sizing, and PDW spectroscopy itself. Additionally, it is shown how the ambiguity in particle sizing, arising from Mie theory, can be correctly solved. Due to its high temporal resolution, its applicability to highest particle concentrations, and its purely fiber-optical probe, PDW spectroscopy possesses all fundamental characteristics for optical in-line process analysis. Several application examples from the chemical industry are presented.

  9. Photoemission study of the electronic structure and charge density waves of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, S. Y.; Jiang, J.; Ye, Z. R.; Niu, X. H.; Song, Y.; Zhang, C. L.; Dai, P. C.; Xie, B. P.; Lai, X. C.; Feng, D. L.

    2015-04-30

    The electronic structure of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O single crystal is studied by photon energy and polarization dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The obtained band structure and Fermi surface agree well with the band structure calculation of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O in the non-magnetic state, which indicates that there is no magnetic order in Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O and the electronic correlation is weak. Polarization dependent ARPES results suggest the multi-band and multi-orbital nature of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O. Photon energy dependent ARPES results suggest that the electronic structure of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O is rather two-dimensional. Moreover, we find a density wave energy gap forms below the transition temperature and reaches 65 meV at 7 K, indicating that Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O is likely a weakly correlated CDW material in the strong electron-phonon interaction regime. (author)

  10. Possibility of charge density wave transition in a SrPt2Sb2 superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ibuka, Soshi; Imai, Motoharu

    2016-04-27

    The first-order transition at T(0) =  270 K for the platinum-based SrPt2Sb2 superconductor was investigated using x-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. When polycrystalline SrPt2Sb2 was cooled down through T(0), the structure was transformed from monoclinic to a modulated orthorhombic structure, and no magnetic order was formed, which illustrates the possibility of a charge density wave (CDW) transition at T(0). SrPt2Sb2 can thus be a new example to examine the interplay of CDW and superconductivity in addition to SrPt2As2, BaPt2As2, and LaPt2Si2. It is unique that the average structure of the low-temperature phase has higher symmetry than that of the high-temperature phase.

  11. Collinear spin-density-wave ordering in Fe/Cr multilayers and wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, R.S.; Shi, Z.

    1999-06-01

    Several recent experiments have detected a spin-density wave (SDW) within the Cr spacer of Fe/Cr multilayers and wedges. We use two simple models to predict the behavior of a collinear SDW within an Fe/Cr/Fe trilayer. Both models combine assumed boundary conditions at the Fe-Cr interfaces with the free energy of the Cr spacer. Depending on the temperature and the number {ital N} of Cr monolayers, the SDW may be either commensurate ({ital C}) or incommensurate ({ital I}) with the bcc Cr lattice. Model I assumes that the Fe-Cr interface is perfect and that the Fe-Cr interaction is antiferromagnetic. Consequently, the {ital I} SDW antinodes lie near the Fe-Cr interfaces. With increasing temperature, the Cr spacer undergoes a series of transitions between {ital I} SDW phases with different numbers {ital n} of nodes. If the {ital I} SDW has n=m nodes at T=0, then {ital n} increases by one at each phase transition from {ital m} to m{minus}1 to m{minus}2 up to the {ital C} phase with n=0 above T{sub IC}(N). For a fixed temperature, the magnetic coupling across the Cr spacer undergoes a phase slip whenever {ital n} changes by one. In the limit N{r_arrow}{infinity}, T{sub IC}(N) is independent of the Fe-Cr coupling strength. We find that T{sub IC}({infinity}) is always larger than the bulk N{acute e}el transition temperature and increases with the strain on the Cr spacer. These results explain the very high IC transition temperature of about 600 K extrapolated from measurements on Fe/Cr/Fe wedges. Model II assumes that the {ital I} SDW nodes lie precisely at the Fe-Cr interfaces. This condition may be enforced by the interfacial roughness of sputtered Fe/Cr multilayers. As a result, the {ital C} phase is never stable and the transition temperature T{sub N}(N) takes on a seesaw pattern as n{ge}2 increases with thickness. In agreement with measurements on both sputtered and epitaxially grown multilayers, model II predicts the {ital I} phase to be unstable above the bulk N

  12. Quantum Tunneling of Charge-Density Waves in Quasi One-Dimensional Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John Harris, Jr.

    The charge-density wave (CDW) dynamics of the linear chain compound orthorhombic TaS(,3) is characterized by extensive measurements of dc conductivity, ac admittance, direct mixing, harmonic mixing, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation as functions of dc bias voltage, applied frequencies, and, in some cases, the amplitude of an additional ac signal. Measurements of the direct and harmonic mixing responses of NbSe(,3) are also reported. The results are analyzed in terms of an extension of the tunneling theory of CDW depinning, proposed by John Bardeen, coupled to the theory of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT). Where possible, the results are also compared with predictions of the classical overdamped oscillator model of CDW transport. The tunneling model is shown to provide a complete and semiquantitative interpretation of the entire small -signal ac dynamics at megahertz frequencies, using only the measured dc I-V curve and an experimentally inferred frequency-voltage scaling parameter, and also accounts for much of the large-signal behavior studied thus far. The observation of both an induced ac harmonic mixing current and a third harmonic generation current whose amplitudes peak at output frequencies far below the measured "cross -over frequency" for ac conductivity agrees with the phenomenological tunneling model, but is in serious disagreement with the classical overdamped oscillator model of CDW motion. Furthermore, the absence of any observed quadrature component in the harmonic mixing response, even though the measured linear response at the applied frequencies has substantial frequency -dependent in-phase and quadrature components, is probably impossible to reconcile with any classical theory. The results reported here thus provide compelling evidence in favor of collective, coherent quantum tunneling as the mechanism of charge-density wave depinning, and indicate that macroscopic quantum effects are observed in the megahertz frequency

  13. Capillary wave Hamiltonian for the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson density functional.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro

    2016-06-22

    We study the link between the density functional (DF) formalism and the capillary wave theory (CWT) for liquid surfaces, focused on the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) model, or square gradient DF expansion, with a symmetric double parabola free energy, which has been extensively used in theoretical studies of this problem. We show the equivalence between the non-local DF results of Parry and coworkers and the direct evaluation of the mean square fluctuations of the intrinsic surface, as is done in the intrinsic sampling method for computer simulations. The definition of effective wave-vector dependent surface tensions is reviewed and we obtain new proposals for the LGW model. The surface weight proposed by Blokhuis and the surface mode analysis proposed by Stecki provide consistent and optimal effective definitions for the extended CWT Hamiltonian associated to the DF model. A non-local, or coarse-grained, definition of the intrinsic surface provides the missing element to get the mesoscopic surface Hamiltonian from the molecular DF description, as had been proposed a long time ago by Dietrich and coworkers.

  14. The amplitudes and the structure of the charge density wave in YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkov, Y. A.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2016-10-01

    We find unknown s- and d-wave amplitudes of the recently discovered charge density wave (CDW) in underdoped cuprates. To do so we perform a combined analysis of experimental data for ortho-II YBa2Cu3Oy. The analysis includes data on nuclear magnetic resonance, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, and hard X-ray diffraction. The amplitude of doping modulation found in our analysis is 3.5 · 10‑3 in a low magnetic field and T = 60 K, the amplitude is 6.5 · 10‑3 in a magnetic field of 30T and T = 1.3 K. The values are in units of elementary charge per unit cell of a CuO2 plane. We show that the data rule out a checkerboard pattern, and we also show that the data might rule out mechanisms of the CDW which do not include phonons.

  15. Accelerated dynamics of blast wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in high energy density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, N.; Kuranz, C.; Drake, R. P.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2014-10-01

    We report the systematic analysis of experimental data describing the late time evolution of the high Mach number and high Reynolds number Rayleigh-Taylor instability which is driven by a blast wave. The parameter regime is relevant to high energy density plasmas and astrophysics. The experiments have been conducted at the Omega laser facility. By processing the experimental x-ray images, we quantified the delicate features of RT dynamics, including the measurements of the curvature of the transmitted shock and the interface envelopes, the positions of RT bubbles and spikes, and the quantification of statistics of RT mixing. The measurements were performed at four time steps and for three different initial perturbations of the target (single mode and two two-mode). We found that within the noise level the curvatures of the shock and interface envelope evolve steadily and are an imprint of laser imperfections. At late times, the bubble merge does not occur, and the flow keeps significant degree of order. Yet, the blast-wave-driven RT spikes do accelerate with the power-law exponent smaller than that in case of sustained acceleration. We compared the experimental results with the momentum model of RT mixing and stochastic model achieving good agreement. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  16. Low-energy density of states in d-wave superconductors with extended scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adagideli, I.; Sheehy, D. E.; Goldbart, P. M.

    2002-03-01

    We investigate a novel contribution to the low-energy quasiparticle density of states (DOS) of a disordered d-wave superconductor. Related work (C. Pépin and P. A. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 63), 054502 (2001). found that the DOS is singular at zero energy, but it was later argued (A.G. Yashenkin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86), 5982 (2001); A. Altland, cond-mat/0108079 (unpublished). that the results of Ref. [1] are valid only in special cases requiring fine-tuning of the parameters, and that the DOS vanishes at E=0 except in these cases. A common feature of these approaches is the assumption that the disorder potential is due to pointlike scatterers. However, previous work (I. Adagideli et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83) 5571 (1999). showed that the presence of extended impurities in d-wave superconductors gives rise to additional low-energy quasiparticle states. Motivated by this fact, we focus on the (previously neglected) contribution to the low-energy DOS arising from a disorder potential that consists of a random collection of extended impurities. We find that the DOS is singular at zero energy, diverging as ρ_ext(E) ~ 1/\\vert E(ln \\vert E\\vert)^3 \\vert. Our calculation neglects the role of nodal quasiparticles; indeed, we expect that they will merely furnish a subdominant additive contribution to ρ_ ext. This work was supported by D.O.E.

  17. Surface-Wave Excitation in High-Density Planar Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanashev, I.; Morita, S.; Nagatsu, M.; Sugai, H.; Toyoda, N.

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic surface waves introduced into a metal chamber through large(K. Komachi J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A) 11 (1993) 164. or slot-type(H. Sugai et al Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.) 7 (1998) 192. apertures of various shapes can sustain overdense plasmas in a wide range of gas pressures. A simple cavity model(I. Ghanashev et al Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 36 (1997) 337. successfully identifies the eigen-modes in the case of single-mode operation and small slot antennas, while neglecting the latter. The stability analysis(I. Ghanashev et al Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 36 (1997) 4704. suggests that the source performance is governed by the dependence of the chamber power reflection coefficient R on the plasma density n_e. The values of R depend on the geometry of the coupling aperture(s) and thus cannot be suggested by a simple theory neglecting them. In this communication we present a full-wave electromagnetic analysis taking into account the aperture(s), along with experimental results for the character of the R--ne dependence. The simulation results suggest, in accordance with the experimental observations, that, depending on the operating conditions, both single- and multi-mode regimes can be realised. This work was supported by Toshiba Corp. and Nisshin Electronic MFG Co., Ltd.

  18. Capillary wave Hamiltonian for the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    We study the link between the density functional (DF) formalism and the capillary wave theory (CWT) for liquid surfaces, focused on the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) model, or square gradient DF expansion, with a symmetric double parabola free energy, which has been extensively used in theoretical studies of this problem. We show the equivalence between the non-local DF results of Parry and coworkers and the direct evaluation of the mean square fluctuations of the intrinsic surface, as is done in the intrinsic sampling method for computer simulations. The definition of effective wave-vector dependent surface tensions is reviewed and we obtain new proposals for the LGW model. The surface weight proposed by Blokhuis and the surface mode analysis proposed by Stecki provide consistent and optimal effective definitions for the extended CWT Hamiltonian associated to the DF model. A non-local, or coarse-grained, definition of the intrinsic surface provides the missing element to get the mesoscopic surface Hamiltonian from the molecular DF description, as had been proposed a long time ago by Dietrich and coworkers.

  19. The amplitudes and the structure of the charge density wave in YBCO

    PubMed Central

    Kharkov, Y. A.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    We find unknown s- and d-wave amplitudes of the recently discovered charge density wave (CDW) in underdoped cuprates. To do so we perform a combined analysis of experimental data for ortho-II YBa2Cu3Oy. The analysis includes data on nuclear magnetic resonance, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, and hard X-ray diffraction. The amplitude of doping modulation found in our analysis is 3.5 · 10−3 in a low magnetic field and T = 60 K, the amplitude is 6.5 · 10−3 in a magnetic field of 30T and T = 1.3 K. The values are in units of elementary charge per unit cell of a CuO2 plane. We show that the data rule out a checkerboard pattern, and we also show that the data might rule out mechanisms of the CDW which do not include phonons. PMID:27721385

  20. Very High Density of CHO Cells in Perfusion by ATF or TFF in WAVE Bioreactor™. Part I. Effect of the Cell Density on the Process

    PubMed Central

    Clincke, Marie-Françoise; Mölleryd, Carin; Zhang, Ye; Lindskog, Eva; Walsh, Kieron; Chotteau, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    High cell density perfusion process of antibody producing CHO cells was developed in disposable WAVE Bioreactor™ using external hollow fiber filter as cell separation device. Both “classical” tangential flow filtration (TFF) and alternating tangential flow system (ATF) equipment were used and compared. Consistency of both TFF- and ATF-based cultures was shown at 20–35 × 106 cells/mL density stabilized by cell bleeds. To minimize the nutrients deprivation and by-product accumulation, a perfusion rate correlated to the cell density was applied. The cells were maintained by cell bleeds at density 0.9–1.3 × 108 cells/mL in growing state and at high viability for more than 2 weeks. Finally, with the present settings, maximal cell densities of 2.14 × 108 cells/mL, achieved for the first time in a wave-induced bioreactor, and 1.32 × 108 cells/mL were reached using TFF and ATF systems, respectively. Using TFF, the cell density was limited by the membrane capacity for the encountered high viscosity and by the pCO2 level. Using ATF, the cell density was limited by the vacuum capacity failing to pull the highly viscous fluid. Thus, the TFF system allowed reaching higher cell densities. The TFF inlet pressure was highly correlated to the viscosity leading to the development of a model of this pressure, which is a useful tool for hollow fiber design of TFF and ATF. At very high cell density, the viscosity introduced physical limitations. This led us to recommend cell densities under 1.46 × 108 cell/mL based on the analysis of the theoretical distance between the cells for the present cell line. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 29:754–767, 2013 PMID:23436789

  1. Inverse problems in cancellous bone: Estimation of the ultrasonic properties of fast and slow waves using Bayesian probability theory

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christian C.; Bauer, Adam Q.; Holland, Mark R.; Pakula, Michal; Laugier, Pascal; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Miller, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasonic characterization of cancellous bone can be complicated by artifacts introduced by analyzing acquired data consisting of two propagating waves (a fast wave and a slow wave) as if only one wave were present. Recovering the ultrasonic properties of overlapping fast and slow waves could therefore lead to enhancement of bone quality assessment. The current study uses Bayesian probability theory to estimate phase velocity and normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation (nBUA) parameters in a model of fast and slow wave propagation. Calculations are carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo with simulated annealing to approximate the marginal posterior probability densities for parameters in the model. The technique is applied to simulated data, to data acquired on two phantoms capable of generating two waves in acquired signals, and to data acquired on a human femur condyle specimen. The models are in good agreement with both the simulated and experimental data, and the values of the estimated ultrasonic parameters fall within expected ranges. PMID:21110589

  2. Strong cylindrical shock wave in a self-gravitating rotational axisymmetric dusty gas with density varying exponentially

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    2016-07-01

    The propagation of a strong cylindrical shock wave in a self-gravitating and rotational axisymmetric dusty gas, having variable azimuthal and axial fluid velocities is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of small solid particles and perfect gas. The equilibrium flow conditions are assumed to be maintained. The density of the mixture and the fluid velocities in the ambient medium are assumed to be varying and obeying an exponential law. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. Non-similarity solutions are obtained and the effects of variation of the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, and the gravitational parameter on the flow variables in the region behind the shock are investigated at a given time. Also, a comparison between the isothermal and adiabatic flow is made.

  3. Statistical properties of wave groups described by group-induced long waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiqi; Huang, Peiji

    1992-03-01

    A new method using group-induced second-order long waves (GSLW) to describe wave groups is presented in this paper on the basis of the GSLW theory by Longuet-Higgins and Steward (1964). In the method, the parabolic relationship between GSLW and the wave envelope is first deduced, and then the distribution function of GSLW amplitude is derived. Thus, the formulae in terms of the moments of GSLW and short wave spectra for the average time duration and the mean length of runs of wave heights exceeding a certain level can be derived. A new groupiness factor equivalent to half the mean wave number in wave groups is defined by taking into account the widths of spectra of GSLW and short waves. Compared with theoretical results of others, ours are closer to measured wave data.

  4. Superconductivity and Charge Density Wave in ZrTe3-xSex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangde; Ning, Wei; Li, Lijun; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Jinglei; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Yu; Pi, Li; Ma, Yongchang; Du, Haifeng; Tian, Minglian; Sun, Yuping; Petrovic, Cedomir; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-01-01

    Charge density wave (CDW), the periodic modulation of the electronic charge density, will open a gap on the Fermi surface that commonly leads to decreased or vanishing conductivity. On the other hand superconductivity, a commonly believed competing order, features a Fermi surface gap that results in infinite conductivity. Here we report that superconductivity emerges upon Se doping in CDW conductor ZrTe3 when the long range CDW order is gradually suppressed. Superconducting critical temperature Tc(x) in ZrTe3-xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) increases up to 4 K plateau for 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07. Further increase in Se content results in diminishing Tc and filametary superconductivity. The CDW modes from Raman spectra are observed in x = 0.04 and 0.1 crystals, where signature of ZrTe3 CDW order in resistivity vanishes. The electronic-scattering for high Tc crystals is dominated by local CDW fluctuations at high temperatures, the resistivity is linear up to highest measured T = 300 K and contributes to substantial in-plane anisotropy. PMID:27253150

  5. Superconductivity and Charge Density Wave in ZrTe3-xSex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangde; Ning, Wei; Li, Lijun; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Jinglei; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Yu; Pi, Li; Ma, Yongchang; Du, Haifeng; Tian, Minglian; Sun, Yuping; Petrovic, Cedomir; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-06-02

    Charge density wave (CDW), the periodic modulation of the electronic charge density, will open a gap on the Fermi surface that commonly leads to decreased or vanishing conductivity. On the other hand superconductivity, a commonly believed competing order, features a Fermi surface gap that results in infinite conductivity. Here we report that superconductivity emerges upon Se doping in CDW conductor ZrTe3 when the long range CDW order is gradually suppressed. Superconducting critical temperature Tc(x) in ZrTe3-xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) increases up to 4 K plateau for 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07. Further increase in Se content results in diminishing Tc and filametary superconductivity. The CDW modes from Raman spectra are observed in x = 0.04 and 0.1 crystals, where signature of ZrTe3 CDW order in resistivity vanishes. The electronic-scattering for high Tc crystals is dominated by local CDW fluctuations at high temperatures, the resistivity is linear up to highest measured T = 300 K and contributes to substantial in-plane anisotropy.

  6. Superconductivity and Charge Density Wave in ZrTe3−xSex

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiangde; Ning, Wei; Li, Lijun; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Jinglei; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Yu; Pi, Li; Ma, Yongchang; Du, Haifeng; Tian, Minglian; Sun, Yuping; Petrovic, Cedomir; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-01-01

    Charge density wave (CDW), the periodic modulation of the electronic charge density, will open a gap on the Fermi surface that commonly leads to decreased or vanishing conductivity. On the other hand superconductivity, a commonly believed competing order, features a Fermi surface gap that results in infinite conductivity. Here we report that superconductivity emerges upon Se doping in CDW conductor ZrTe3 when the long range CDW order is gradually suppressed. Superconducting critical temperature Tc(x) in ZrTe3−xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) increases up to 4 K plateau for 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07. Further increase in Se content results in diminishing Tc and filametary superconductivity. The CDW modes from Raman spectra are observed in x = 0.04 and 0.1 crystals, where signature of ZrTe3 CDW order in resistivity vanishes. The electronic-scattering for high Tc crystals is dominated by local CDW fluctuations at high temperatures, the resistivity is linear up to highest measured T = 300 K and contributes to substantial in-plane anisotropy. PMID:27253150

  7. Superconductivity and Charge Density Wave in ZrTe3‑xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangde; Ning, Wei; Li, Lijun; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Jinglei; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Yu; Pi, Li; Ma, Yongchang; Du, Haifeng; Tian, Minglian; Sun, Yuping; Petrovic, Cedomir; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-06-01

    Charge density wave (CDW), the periodic modulation of the electronic charge density, will open a gap on the Fermi surface that commonly leads to decreased or vanishing conductivity. On the other hand superconductivity, a commonly believed competing order, features a Fermi surface gap that results in infinite conductivity. Here we report that superconductivity emerges upon Se doping in CDW conductor ZrTe3 when the long range CDW order is gradually suppressed. Superconducting critical temperature Tc(x) in ZrTe3‑xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) increases up to 4 K plateau for 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07. Further increase in Se content results in diminishing Tc and filametary superconductivity. The CDW modes from Raman spectra are observed in x = 0.04 and 0.1 crystals, where signature of ZrTe3 CDW order in resistivity vanishes. The electronic-scattering for high Tc crystals is dominated by local CDW fluctuations at high temperatures, the resistivity is linear up to highest measured T = 300 K and contributes to substantial in-plane anisotropy.

  8. First density profile measurements using frequency modulation of the continuous wave reflectometry on JET.

    PubMed

    Meneses, L; Cupido, L; Sirinelli, A; Manso, M E

    2008-10-01

    We present the main design options and implementation of an X-mode reflectometer developed and successfully installed at JET using an innovative approach. It aims to prove the viability of measuring density profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution using broadband reflectometry operating in long and complex transmission lines. It probes the plasma with magnetic fields between 2.4 and 3.0 T using the V band [approximately (0-1.4)x10(19) m(-3)]. The first experimental results show the high sensitivity of the diagnostic when measuring changes in the plasma density profile occurring ITER relevant regimes, such as ELMy H-modes. The successful demonstration of this concept motivated the upgrade of the JET frequency modulation of the continuous wave (FMCW) reflectometry diagnostic, to probe both the edge and core. This new system is essential to prove the viability of using the FMCW reflectometry technique to probe the plasma in next step devices, such as ITER, since they share the same waveguide complexity. PMID:19068528

  9. Superconductivity and charge density wave in ZrTe3–xSex

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Xiangde; Ning, Wei; Li, Lijun; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Jinglei; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Yu; Pi, Li; Ma, Yongchang; et al

    2016-06-02

    Charge density wave (CDW), the periodic modulation of the electronic charge density, will open a gap on the Fermi surface that commonly leads to decreased or vanishing conductivity. On the other hand superconductivity, a commonly believed competing order, features a Fermi surface gap that results in infinite conductivity. Here we report that superconductivity emerges upon Se doping in CDW conductor ZrTe3 when the long range CDW order is gradually suppressed. Superconducting critical temperature Tc(x) in ZrTe3–xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) increases up to 4 K plateau for 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07. Further increase in Se content results inmore » diminishing Tc and filametary superconductivity. The CDW modes from Raman spectra are observed in x = 0.04 and 0.1 crystals, where signature of ZrTe3 CDW order in resistivity vanishes. As a result, the electronic-scattering for high Tc crystals is dominated by local CDW fluctuations at high temperatures, the resistivity is linear up to highest measured T = 300 K and contributes to substantial in-plane anisotropy.« less

  10. Scattering from edge density fluctuations on the lower hybrid waves in FTU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrò, Giuseppe; Ridolfini, V. Pericoli

    2007-09-01

    Careful measurements of density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) plasma have been carried out. The analytical model proposed by Andrews and Perkins for the scattering of lower hybrid (LH) waves by density fluctuations will constitute the basis of our discussion. The envelop of the scattering processes occurring on single points sampled along the poloidal profile of the launching antenna at fixed step Δθ is considered. The trajectories and N∥ (LH parallel refraction index) evolution of the corresponding ray bundles are followed using the fast ray tracing code (FRTC), coupled to the transport code ASTRA to infer the radial absorption profile on a given target plasma. Interpretative ASTRA simulations are presented to support the correctness of the scattering model assumed. The current drive (CD) efficiency calculated is then compared with that measured for the shot assumed as reference and with the scaling valid for FTU. Comparison of measured pump frequency spectral broadening on FTU and theoretical prediction is also presented.

  11. Superconductivity in Pd-intercalated charge-density-wave rare earth poly-tellurides RETe n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. B.; Wang, P. P.; Yang, H. X.; Long, Y. J.; Zhao, L. X.; Ma, C.; Yang, M.; Wang, D. M.; Shangguan, X. C.; Xue, M. Q.; Zhang, P.; Ren, Z. A.; Li, J. Q.; Liu, W. M.; Chen, G. F.

    2016-06-01

    Charge density waves (CDWs) are periodic modulations of the conduction electron density in solids, which are generally considered to remove electrons from the Fermi level, and thus preclude a superconducting state. However, in a variety of CDW materials, such as the prototypical transition metal chalcogenides, superconductivity has also been observed at very low temperature (Yokoya et al 2001 Science 294 2518; Morosan et al 2006 Nat. Phys. 2 544; Kiss et al 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 720), in which, although the two electronic correlated states are believed to occur in different parts of Fermi surface sheets derived mainly from chalcogen p-states and transition metal d-states, the nature of the relationship between them has not yet been unambiguously determined. Here we report the discovery of superconductivity in Pd-intercalated RETe n (RE = rare earth; n = 2.5, 3) CDW systems, in which the chalcogen layers alone are responsible for both superconductivity and CDW instability. Our finding could provide an ideal model system for comprehensive study of the interplay between CDW and superconductivity due to the remarkable simplicity of the electronic structure of Te planes.

  12. DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS AND THE ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS BY BEAM-GENERATED LANGMUIR WAVES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, H.; Bian, N. H.; Kontar, E. P.

    2012-12-20

    Non-thermal electron populations are observed throughout the heliosphere. The relaxation of an electron beam is known to produce Langmuir waves which, in turn, may substantially modify the electron distribution function. As the Langmuir waves are refracted by background density gradients and as the solar and heliospheric plasma density is naturally perturbed with various levels of inhomogeneity, the interaction of Langmuir waves with non-thermal electrons in inhomogeneous plasmas is an important topic. We investigate the role played by ambient density fluctuations on the beam-plasma relaxation, focusing on the effect of acceleration of beam electrons. The scattering of Langmuir waves off turbulent density fluctuations is modeled as a wavenumber diffusion process which is implemented in numerical simulations of the one-dimensional quasilinear kinetic equations describing the beam relaxation. The results show that a substantial number of beam electrons are accelerated when the diffusive timescale in wavenumber space {tau}{sub D} is of the order of the quasilinear timescale {tau}{sub ql}, while when {tau}{sub D} << {tau}{sub ql}, the beam relaxation is suppressed. Plasma inhomogeneities are therefore an important means of energy redistribution for waves and hence electrons, and so must be taken into account when interpreting, for example, hard X-ray or Type III emission from flare-accelerated electrons.

  13. A Note on the Wave Action Density of a Viscous Instability Mode on a Laminar Free-shear Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsa, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Using the assumptions of an incompressible and viscous flow at large Reynolds number, we derive the evolution equation for the wave action density of an instability wave traveling on top of a laminar free-shear flow. The instability is considered to be viscous; the purpose of the present work is to include the cumulative effect of the (locally) small viscous correction to the wave, over length and time scales on which the underlying base flow appears inhomogeneous owing to its viscous diffusion. As such, we generalize our previous work for inviscid waves. This generalization appears as an additional (but usually non-negligible) term in the equation for the wave action. The basic structure of the equation remains unaltered.

  14. Mapping the energy density of shaped waves in scattering media onto a complete set of diffusion modes.

    PubMed

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Mosk, Allard P; Vellekoop, Ivo M; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L

    2016-08-01

    We study the energy density of shaped waves inside a quasi-1D disordered waveguide. We find that the spatial energy density of optimally shaped waves, when expanded in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation, is well described by considering only a few of the lowest eigenfunctions. Taking into account only the fundamental eigenfunction, the total internal energy inside the sample is underestimated by only 2%. The spatial distribution of the shaped energy density is very similar to the fundamental eigenfunction, up to a cosine distance of about 0.01. We obtain the energy density of transmission eigenchannels inside the sample by numerical simulation of the scattering matrix. Computing the transmission-averaged energy density over all transmission channels yields the ensemble averaged energy density of shaped waves. From the averaged energy density, we reconstruct its spatial distribution using the eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. The results of our study have exciting applications in controlled biomedical imaging, efficient light harvesting in solar cells, enhanced energy conversion in solid-state lighting, and low threshold random lasers. PMID:27505816

  15. Excitation of surface plasma waves by a density modulated electron beam at a conductor-dusty plasma interface

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ruby; Sharma, Suresh C.; Prakash, Ved

    2011-05-15

    A density modulated electron beam propagating through a conductor-dusty plasma interface drives electromagnetic surface plasma waves (SPWs) to instability via Cerenkov and cyclotron interaction. The SPWs propagate across an external magnetic field parallel to the interface. Numerical calculations of the growth rate and unstable mode frequencies have been carried out for the typical parameters of the SPWs. The frequency and the growth rate of the unstable wave instability increase with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains {delta} (= n{sub io}/n{sub eo}, where n{sub io} is the ion plasma density and n{sub eo} is the electron plasma density). The phase velocity of the unstable waves also increases with {delta}. In addition, the growth rate of the instability increases with the beam density and scales as one-third power of the beam density in Cerenkov interaction and square root of beam density in fast cyclotron interaction. Moreover, the dispersion relation of SPWs has been retrieved in the absence of the modulated beam and without dust grains.

  16. Mapping the energy density of shaped waves in scattering media onto a complete set of diffusion modes.

    PubMed

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Mosk, Allard P; Vellekoop, Ivo M; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L

    2016-08-01

    We study the energy density of shaped waves inside a quasi-1D disordered waveguide. We find that the spatial energy density of optimally shaped waves, when expanded in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation, is well described by considering only a few of the lowest eigenfunctions. Taking into account only the fundamental eigenfunction, the total internal energy inside the sample is underestimated by only 2%. The spatial distribution of the shaped energy density is very similar to the fundamental eigenfunction, up to a cosine distance of about 0.01. We obtain the energy density of transmission eigenchannels inside the sample by numerical simulation of the scattering matrix. Computing the transmission-averaged energy density over all transmission channels yields the ensemble averaged energy density of shaped waves. From the averaged energy density, we reconstruct its spatial distribution using the eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. The results of our study have exciting applications in controlled biomedical imaging, efficient light harvesting in solar cells, enhanced energy conversion in solid-state lighting, and low threshold random lasers.

  17. Temperature Dependence of the Magnetic Penetration Depth in the Case of the Coexistence of Charge Density Waves and Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, M. V.; Sunyaev, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    An analytical expression for the temperature dependence of the superfluid density in the regime of the coexistence of charge density waves (CDW) and superconductivity has been derived beyond the effective mass approximation. In contrast to the previous research on this subject, possible dispersions of both order parameters have been taken into account. In particular, it was found that when the CDW gap parameter depends on the wave vector, London's type current is nonzero even above T_c , i.e., in the interval T_c

  18. Detailed investigation of the phase transition in KxP4W8O32 and experimental arguments for a charge density wave due to hidden nesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolincio, Kamil; Pérez, Olivier; Hébert, Sylvie; Fertey, Pierre; Pautrat, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Detailed structural and magnetotransport properties of monophosphate tungsten bronze Kx(PO2)4(WO3)8 single crystals are reported. Both galvanomagnetic and thermal properties are shown to be consistent with a charge density wave electronic transition due to hidden nesting of the quasi-1D portion of the Fermi surface. We also observe the enhancement of electronic anisotropy due to reconstruction of the Fermi surface at the Peierls transition. The resistivity presents a thermal hysteresis suggesting a first-order nature characteristic of a strong-coupling scenario. However, other measurements such as the change of carrier density demonstrate a second-order Peierls scenario with weak-coupling features. We suggest that the structural transition driven by the residual strain in the K-P-O environment is responsible for the resistivity hysteresis and modifies the Fermi surface which then helps the rise to the second-order Peierls instability.

  19. Inferring the physical properties of gravitational wave sources from multi-wavelet waveform reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littenberg, Tyson; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The BayesWave burst detection and characterization algorithm was used during the first Advanced LIGO observing run as a follow-up analysis to candidate transient gravitational wave events. Among the BayesWave data products are robust reconstructed waveforms and probability density functions for metrics such as duration, bandwidth, etc. used to characterize the waveforms. We will demonstrate how the waveform metrics can be used to infer the astrophysical nature of a gravitational wave source, and present the status of BayesWave studies from the first advanced LIGO observing run.

  20. Ligand electronic properties modulate tau filament binding site density

    PubMed Central

    Cisek, Katryna; Jensen, Jordan R.; Honson, Nicolette S.; Schafer, Kelsey N.; Cooper, Grace L.; Kuret, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules that bind tau-bearing neurofibrillary lesions are being sought for premortem diagnosis, staging, and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathic neurodegenerative diseases. The utility of these agents will depend on both their binding affinity and binding site density (Bmax). Previously we identified polarizability as a descriptor of protein aggregate binding affinity. To examine its contribution to binding site density, we investigated the ability of two closely related benzothiazole derivatives ((E)-2-[[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]azo]-6-methoxybenzothiazole) and ((E)-2-[2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]-6-methoxybenzothiazole)) that differed in polarizability to displace probes of high (Thioflavin S) and low (radiolabeled (E,E)-1-iodo-2,5-bis(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-methoxy)styrylbenzene; IMSB) density sites. Consistent with their site densities, Thioflavin S completely displaced radiolabeled IMSB, but IMSB was incapable of displacing Thioflavin S. Although both benzothiazoles displaced the low Bmax IMSB probe, only the highly polarizable analog displaced near saturating concentrations of the Thioflavin S probe. Quantum calculations showed that high polarizability reflected extensive pi-electron delocalization fostered by the presence of electron donating and accepting groups. These data suggest that electron delocalization promotes ligand binding at a subset of sites on tau aggregates that are present at high density, and that optimizing this aspect of ligand structure can yield tau-directed agents with superior diagnostic and therapeutic performance. PMID:23072817

  1. Effects of disorder on atomic density waves and spin-singlet dimers in one-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianlong, Gao

    2008-08-01

    Using the Bethe-ansatz density-functional theory, we study a one-dimensional Hubbard model of confined attractively interacting fermions in the presence of a uniformly distributed disorder. The strongly correlated Luther-Emery nature of the attractive one-dimensional Hubbard model is fully taken into account as the reference system in the density-functional theory. The effects of the disorder are investigated on the atomic density waves in the weak-to-intermediate attractive interaction and on the spin-singlet dimers of doubly occupied sites in the strongly attractive regime. It is found that atomic density waves are sensitive to the disorder and the spin-singlet dimers of doubly occupied sites are quite unstable against the disorder. We also show that a very weak disorder could smear the singularities in the stiffness, thus, suppresses the spin-singlet pairs.

  2. Field-controlled spin-density-wave order and quantum critically in Sr3 Ru2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Stephen

    The quasi-2D metamagnetic perovskite metal Sr3Ru2O7 has been an enigma for the last decade. The application of a large magnetic field of 8T parallel to the c-axis creates a new phase at low temperatures. This phase shows ``electronic nematic'' properties in that strong anisotropy its resistivity can be created by tilting the field away from the c-axis. In addition, measurement of transport and thermodynamic properties suggest that the phase is at the centre of a quantum critical region. Here we use neutron scattering to show that the magnetic field actually induces spin-density-wave magnetic order in the proximity of a metamagnetic critical endpoint. In fact, Sr3Ru2O7 can be tuned through two magnetically-ordered SDW states which exist over relatively small ranges in field (< 0.4 T). Their origin is probably due to the electronic fine structure near the Fermi energy. The magnetic field direction is shown to control the SDW domain populations which naturally explains the strong resistivity anisotropy or ''electronic nematic'' behaviour observed in this material. We find that Sr3Ru2O7 is also unique in that its the quantum critical region is controlled by overdamped incommensurate low-energy spin fluctuations with a diverging relaxation time. The low-energy electronic properties reflect the presence of these fluctuations and, in particular, the field-dependent low-temperature specific heat is proportional to the spin relaxation rate. [Based on C. Lester, S. Ramos, R. S. Perry at el. Natural Materials 14, 373 (2015).

  3. Superlattice Structure in Chalcogen Square-Net Charge Density Wave Phases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foran, Brendan John

    Superstructures in materials with chalcogen square lattices are accounted for in terms of charge density waves associated with quasi-one-dimensional electronic structure. Two new compounds, DySe_{1.84} and Rb_{0.33}DySe _{2.67}, were grown in a RbCl/LiCl eutectic flux. Rb_{0.33}DySe _{2.67} has an orthorhombic subcell, space group Cmcm, a = 4.0579(6)A, b =26.47(1)A and c = 3.8909(6)A; the selenium square lattice has site occupancy waves and charge density waves. The average substructure of DySe_{1.84} is tetragonal, P4/nmm, but the complete modulated structure is better described in a 3 + 2 dimensional space group C_sp{c"m"m1}{Pm2 _1n}. The basic cell is a = 3.9912(3)A, b = 3.9863(1)A, and c = 8.206(1)A, with modulation wave vectors at q_1 = alpha{ bf a}^* + beta{bf b} ^* + 1/2{bf c}^*, and {bf q}_2 = alpha{ bf a}^* - beta{bf b} ^* + 1/2{bf c}^* where alpha = 0.33338(12), and beta = 0.27284(6). Refinement on main reflections plus first and second order satellites produced four solutions that could not be differentiated by R-factors. An energy minimum structure is predicted by mu_2 -scaled Huckel theory, and the superstructures found in elemental selenium, and LnQ_2(Ln=La,Ce; Q=S,Se) phases are rationalized. The concept of an effective band filling is introduced as a means of generating a model for the Fermi surface of a defective lattice from that of an ideal non-defective lattice. By this method the superstructures of La_{10}Se _{19}, Cs_3Te_{22 }, RbDy_3Se_8 and DySe _{1.84} are rationalized and predicted. The synthesis, structure and band structure analysis of the quaternary compound K_{0.33 }rm Ba_{0.67}AgTe_2 are reported. Crystals were obtained by reaction of K _2Te, BaTe, Ag and Te in a K _2Te/BaTe/Te flux cooling from 450 ^circC. The substructure is tetragonal, 14/mmm, a_{sub} = 4.624(2) A, {bf c}_{sub } = 23.326(4) A, 172 independent data, 13 variables, R/R_{w} = 0.054/0.067. A (Te_2]^{4/3-} square net should be metallic, but transport measurements show

  4. Universal properties of two-port scattering, impedance, and admittance matrices of wave-chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmady, Sameer; Zheng, Xing; Hart, James; Antonsen, Thomas M. Jr.; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.

    2006-09-15

    Statistical fluctuations in the eigenvalues of the scattering, impedance, and admittance matrices of two-port wave-chaotic systems are studied experimentally using a chaotic microwave cavity. These fluctuations are universal in that their properties are dependent only upon the degree of loss in the cavity. We remove the direct processes introduced by the nonideally coupled driving ports through a matrix normalization process that involves the radiation-impedance matrix of the two driving ports. We find good agreement between the experimentally obtained marginal probability density functions (PDFs) of the eigenvalues of the normalized impedance, admittance, and scattering matrix and those from random matrix theory (RMT). We also experimentally study the evolution of the joint PDF of the eigenphases of the normalized scattering matrix as a function of loss. Experimental agreement with the theory by Brouwer and Beenakker for the joint PDF of the magnitude of the eigenvalues of the normalized scattering matrix is also shown.

  5. Universal properties of two-port scattering, impedance, and admittance matrices of wave-chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Hemmady, Sameer; Zheng, Xing; Hart, James; Antonsen, Thomas M; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M

    2006-09-01

    Statistical fluctuations in the eigenvalues of the scattering, impedance, and admittance matrices of two-port wave-chaotic systems are studied experimentally using a chaotic microwave cavity. These fluctuations are universal in that their properties are dependent only upon the degree of loss in the cavity. We remove the direct processes introduced by the nonideally coupled driving ports through a matrix normalization process that involves the radiation-impedance matrix of the two driving ports. We find good agreement between the experimentally obtained marginal probability density functions (PDFs) of the eigenvalues of the normalized impedance, admittance, and scattering matrix and those from random matrix theory (RMT). We also experimentally study the evolution of the joint PDF of the eigenphases of the normalized scattering matrix as a function of loss. Experimental agreement with the theory by Brouwer and Beenakker for the joint PDF of the magnitude of the eigenvalues of the normalized scattering matrix is also shown.

  6. Electric field and plasma density measurements in the strongly driven daytime equatorial electrojet. I - The unstable layer and gradient drift waves. II - Two-stream waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Kelley, M. C.; Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B. G.; Baker, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of electric field and plasma density measurements in the strongly driven daytime equatorial electrojet over Peru, made during the March 1983 Condor electrojet experiment from Punta Lobos, Peru, are discussed together with the rocket instrumentation used for the measurements and the pertinent payload dynamics. The overall characteristics of the irregularity layer observed in situ in the electrojet are described. Special consideration is given to the waves generated by the gradient drift instability (observed between 90 and 106.5 km) and to primary and secondary two-stream waves detected by the two probes on the topside between 103 and 111 km, where the electron current was considered to be strongest.

  7. ABINIT: Plane-Wave-Based Density-Functional Theory on High Performance Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrent, Marc

    2014-03-01

    For several years, a continuous effort has been produced to adapt electronic structure codes based on Density-Functional Theory to the future computing architectures. Among these codes, ABINIT is based on a plane-wave description of the wave functions which allows to treat systems of any kind. Porting such a code on petascale architectures pose difficulties related to the many-body nature of the DFT equations. To improve the performances of ABINIT - especially for what concerns standard LDA/GGA ground-state and response-function calculations - several strategies have been followed: A full multi-level parallelisation MPI scheme has been implemented, exploiting all possible levels and distributing both computation and memory. It allows to increase the number of distributed processes and could not be achieved without a strong restructuring of the code. The core algorithm used to solve the eigen problem (``Locally Optimal Blocked Congugate Gradient''), a Blocked-Davidson-like algorithm, is based on a distribution of processes combining plane-waves and bands. In addition to the distributed memory parallelization, a full hybrid scheme has been implemented, using standard shared-memory directives (openMP/openACC) or porting some comsuming code sections to Graphics Processing Units (GPU). As no simple performance model exists, the complexity of use has been increased; the code efficiency strongly depends on the distribution of processes among the numerous levels. ABINIT is able to predict the performances of several process distributions and automatically choose the most favourable one. On the other hand, a big effort has been carried out to analyse the performances of the code on petascale architectures, showing which sections of codes have to be improved; they all are related to Matrix Algebra (diagonalisation, orthogonalisation). The different strategies employed to improve the code scalability will be described. They are based on an exploration of new diagonalization

  8. Reprint of : Connection between wave transport through disordered 1D waveguides and energy density inside the sample: A maximum-entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Pier A.; Shi, Zhou; Genack, Azriel Z.

    2016-08-01

    We study the average energy - or particle - density of waves inside disordered 1D multiply-scattering media. We extend the transfer-matrix technique that was used in the past for the calculation of the intensity beyond the sample to study the intensity in the interior of the sample by considering the transfer matrices of the two segments that form the entire waveguide. The statistical properties of the two disordered segments are found using a maximum-entropy ansatz subject to appropriate constraints. The theoretical expressions are shown to be in excellent agreement with 1D transfer-matrix simulations.

  9. Density and P-wave velocity structure beneath the Paraná Magmatic Province: Refertilization of an ancient lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Carlos; Ussami, Naomi; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    We estimate density and P-wave velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath the southeastern South America plate from geoid anomalies and P-wave traveltime residuals to constrain the structure of the lithosphere underneath the Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) and conterminous geological provinces. Our analysis shows a consistent correlation between density and velocity anomalies. The P-wave speed and density are 1% and 15 kg/m3 lower, respectively, in the upper mantle under the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic alkaline provinces, except beneath the Goiás Alkaline Province (GAP), where density (+20 kg/m3) and velocity (+0.5%) are relatively high. Underneath the PMP, the density is higher by about 50 kg/m3 in the north and 25 kg/m3 in the south, to a depth of 250 - 300 km. These values correlate with high-velocity perturbations of +0.5% and +0.3%, respectively. Profiles of density perturbation versus depth in the upper mantle are different for the PMP and the adjacent Archean São Francisco (SFC) and Amazonian (AC) cratons. The Paleoproterozoic PMP basement has a high-density root. The density is relatively low in the SFC and AC lithospheres. A reduction of density is a typical characteristic of chemically depleted Archean cratons. A more fertile Proterozoic and Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle has a higher density, as deduced from density estimates of mantle xenoliths of different ages and composition. In conjunction with Re-Os isotopic studies of the PMP basalts, chemical and isotopic analyses of peridodite xenoliths from the GAP in the northern PMP, and electromagnetic induction experiments of the PMP lithosphere, our density and P-wave speed models suggest that the densification of the PMP lithosphere and flood basalt generation are related to mantle refertilization. Metasomatic refertilization resulted from the introduction of asthenospheric components from the mantle wedge above Proterozoic subduction zones, which surrounded the Paraná lithosphere

  10. Continuous Shear Wave Elastography: A New Method to Measure Viscoelastic Properties of Tendons in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Daniel H; Suydam, Stephen M; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Buchanan, Thomas S; Elliott, Dawn M

    2015-06-01

    Viscoelastic mechanical properties are frequently altered after tendon injuries and during recovery. Therefore, non-invasive measurements of shear viscoelastic properties may help evaluate tendon recovery and compare the effectiveness of different therapies. The objectives of this study were to describe an elastography method for measuring localized viscoelastic properties of tendons and to discuss the initial results in healthy and injured human Achilles and semitendinosus tendons. The technique used an external actuator to generate the shear waves in the tendon at different frequencies and plane wave imaging to measure shear wave displacements. For each of the excitation frequencies, maps of direction-specific wave speeds were calculated using local frequency estimation. Maps of viscoelastic properties were obtained using a pixel-wise curve fit of wave speed and frequency. The method was validated by comparing measurements of wave speed in agarose gels with those obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. Measurements in human healthy Achilles tendons revealed a pronounced increase in wave speed as a function of frequency, which highlights the importance of tendon viscoelasticity. Additionally, the viscoelastic properties of the Achilles tendon were larger than those reported for other tissues. Measurements in a tendinopathic Achilles tendon indicated that it is feasible to quantify local viscoelastic properties. Similarly, measurement in the semitendinosus tendon revealed substantial differences in viscoelastic properties between the healthy and contralateral tendons. Consequently, this technique has the potential to evaluate localized changes in tendon viscoelastic properties caused by injury and during recovery in a clinical setting.

  11. Using line broadening to determine the electron density in an argon surface-wave discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Christova, M.; Christov, L.; Castanos-Martinez, E.; Moisan, M.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.

    2008-10-22

    Broadening due to collisions with charged particles (Stark broadening ) and neutral atoms, was determined for Ar I 522.1, 549.6 and 603.2 nm spectral lines from the spectral series 3p{sup 5}nd-3p{sup 5}4p, in order to evaluate the electron density in a surface-wave discharge at atmospheric pressure.

  12. Simultaneous excitation of large-scale geomagnetic field fluctuations and plasma density irregularities by powerful radio waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kuo, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    The physical mechanism of thermal filamentation instability of radio waves whose frequencies can be as low as in the VLF band and as high as in the SHF band are investigated. This instability can excite large-scale magnetic and plasma density fluctuations simultaneously in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Relevant experiments are reviewed in terms of this instability and other mechanisms.

  13. Effect of spatial density variation and O+ concentration on the growth and evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Fraser, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We simulate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave growth and evolution within three regions, the plasmasphere (or plasmaspheric plume), the plasmapause, and the low-density plasmatrough outside the plasmapause. First, we use a ring current simulation with a plasmasphere model to model the particle populations that give rise to the instability for conditions observed on 9 June 2001. Then, using two different models for the cold ion composition, we do a full scale hybrid code simulation in dipole coordinates of the EMIC waves on a meridional plane at MLT = 18 and at 1900 UT within a range of L shell frommore » L = 4.9 to 6.7. EMIC waves were observed during June 9, 2001 by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) spacecraft. While an exact comparison between observed and simulated spectra is not possible here, we do find significant similarities between the two, at least at one location within the region of largest wave growth. We find that the plasmapause is not a preferred region for EMIC wave growth, though waves can grow in that region. The density gradient within the plasmapause does, however, affect the orientation of wave fronts and wave vector both within the plasmapause and in adjacent regions. There is a preference for EMIC waves to be driven in the He+ band (frequencies between the O+ and He+ gyrofrequencies) within the plasmasphere, although they can also grow in the plasmatrough. If present, H+ band waves are more likely to grow in the plasmatrough. This fact, plus L dependence of the frequency and possible time evolution toward lower frequency waves, can be explained by a simple model. Large O+ concentration limits the frequency range of or even totally quenches EMIC waves. This is more likely to occur in the plasmatrough at solar maximum. Such large O+ concentration significantly affects the H+ cutoff frequency and hence the width in frequency of the stop band above the He+ gyrofrequency. EMIC wave surfaces predicted by cold

  14. Effect of spatial density variation and O+ concentration on the growth and evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Fraser, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We simulate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave growth and evolution within three regions, the plasmasphere (or plasmaspheric plume), the plasmapause, and the low-density plasmatrough outside the plasmapause. First, we use a ring current simulation with a plasmasphere model to model the particle populations that give rise to the instability for conditions observed on 9 June 2001. Then, using two different models for the cold ion composition, we do a full scale hybrid code simulation in dipole coordinates of the EMIC waves on a meridional plane at MLT = 18 and at 1900 UT within a range of L shell from L = 4.9 to 6.7. EMIC waves were observed during June 9, 2001 by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) spacecraft. While an exact comparison between observed and simulated spectra is not possible here, we do find significant similarities between the two, at least at one location within the region of largest wave growth. We find that the plasmapause is not a preferred region for EMIC wave growth, though waves can grow in that region. The density gradient within the plasmapause does, however, affect the orientation of wave fronts and wave vector both within the plasmapause and in adjacent regions. There is a preference for EMIC waves to be driven in the He+ band (frequencies between the O+ and He+ gyrofrequencies) within the plasmasphere, although they can also grow in the plasmatrough. If present, H+ band waves are more likely to grow in the plasmatrough. This fact, plus L dependence of the frequency and possible time evolution toward lower frequency waves, can be explained by a simple model. Large O+ concentration limits the frequency range of or even totally quenches EMIC waves. This is more likely to occur in the plasmatrough at solar maximum. Such large O+ concentration significantly affects the H+ cutoff frequency and hence the width in frequency of the stop band above the He+ gyrofrequency. EMIC wave surfaces predicted by cold plasma theory

  15. Origin of the Galactic Center S-Stars: Gravitational Torques from Lin-Shu-Type Spiral Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny

    2010-02-01

    The supermassive ~4 × 106 M sun black hole at the Galactic center is surrounded by a parsec-scale star disk, with several thousands of dynamically relaxed, evolved, late-type CO absorption line stars and a small ~100 population of luminous O and Wolf-Rayet stars which move in approximately circular Keplerian orbits. These bluish in color massive O and Wolf-Rayet stars are very young with an estimated age of 6 ± 2 Myr. Another small group of roughly 20 young (<10 Myr) blue B stars with the orbital periods as short as 15 years ("S-stars") follow eccentric, randomly oriented orbits well inside the disk stars. A model is proposed to explain the S-stars. Accordingly, the stars formed originally in the parsec-scale disk through Jeans' gravitational fragmentation of gas. The newly formed S-stars then migrated inward to the Galactic center via the torques exerted by Lin-Shu-type spiral density waves on the stars at an inner Lindblad resonance. The model explains both the number of observed S-stars orbiting the Galactic black hole within the nuclear (<0.05 pc) star cluster and the key property of the S-star orbits, namely, their high eccentricities.

  16. Level densities and thermodynamical properties of Pt and Au isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacoppo, F.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Firestone, R. B.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Koehler, P. E.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T.

    2014-11-01

    The nuclear level densities of Pt-196194 and Au,198197 below the neutron separation energy have been measured using transfer and scattering reactions. All the level density distributions follow the constant-temperature description. Each group of isotopes is characterized by the same temperature above the energy threshold corresponding to the breaking of the first Cooper pair. A constant entropy excess Δ S =1.9 kB and 1.1 kB is observed in 195Pt and 198Au with respect to 196Pt and 197Au, respectively, giving information on the available single-particle level space for the last unpaired valence neutron. The breaking of nucleon Cooper pairs is revealed by sequential peaks in the microcanonical caloric curve.

  17. Estimation of Heavy Ion Densities From Linearly Polarized EMIC Waves At Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-02-24

    Linearly polarized EMIC waves are expected to concentrate at the location where their wave frequency satisfies the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance condition as the result of a mode conversion process. In this letter, we evaluate absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance in the Earth geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of helium and azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers in dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentration, it only occurs for a limited range of azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Our results suggest that, at L = 6.6, linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated via mode conversion from the compressional waves near the crossover frequency. Consequently, the heavy ion concentration ratio can be estimated from observations of externally generated EMIC waves that have polarization.

  18. First-principles studies on the charge density wave in uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2016-06-01

    The charge density wave (CDW) state of α-U (called {α1} -U) was studied through a first-principles total-energy minimization using the conjugate gradient algorithm. The optimized crystal structure of {α1} -U was found to have the space group Pbnm, which was proposed in the earlier Landau-type theory and is isostructural with the α-Np structure. In particular, the changes in the lattice parameters of Pbnm-U with respect to α-U are consistent with the experimental observations. In addition, the energetic stability of Pbnm-U with respect to α-U was confirmed by enthalpy calculations, and the value of the critical pressure in the pressure-induced quantum transition from Pbnm-U to α-U is in good agreement with the experimental result. Moreover, the phonon calculation verified the dynamical instability of α-U and the stability of Pbnm-U. Finally, the calculated electronic structures exhibit features of the CDW state.

  19. Non-thermal separation of electronic and structural orders in a persisting charge density wave.

    PubMed

    Porer, M; Leierseder, U; Ménard, J-M; Dachraoui, H; Mouchliadis, L; Perakis, I E; Heinzmann, U; Demsar, J; Rossnagel, K; Huber, R

    2014-09-01

    The simultaneous ordering of different degrees of freedom in complex materials undergoing spontaneous symmetry-breaking transitions often involves intricate couplings that have remained elusive in phenomena as wide ranging as stripe formation, unconventional superconductivity or colossal magnetoresistance. Ultrafast optical, X-ray and electron pulses can elucidate the microscopic interplay between these orders by probing the electronic and lattice dynamics separately, but a simultaneous direct observation of multiple orders on the femtosecond scale has been challenging. Here we show that ultrabroadband terahertz pulses can simultaneously trace the ultrafast evolution of coexisting lattice and electronic orders. For the example of a charge density wave (CDW) in 1T-TiSe2, we demonstrate that two components of the CDW order parameter--excitonic correlations and a periodic lattice distortion (PLD)--respond very differently to 12-fs optical excitation. Even when the excitonic order of the CDW is quenched, the PLD can persist in a coherently excited state. This observation proves that excitonic correlations are not the sole driving force of the CDW transition in 1T-TiSe2, and exemplifies the sort of profound insight that disentangling strongly coupled components of order parameters in the time domain may provide for the understanding of a broad class of phase transitions.

  20. Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate d-symmetry form factor density wave state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidian, M. H.; Edkins, S. D.; Kim, Chung Koo; Davis, J. C.; MacKenzie, A. P.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Lawler, M. J.; Kim, E.-A.; Sachdev, S.; Fujita, K.

    2016-02-01

    Research on high-temperature superconducting cuprates is at present focused on identifying the relationship between the classic `pseudogap’ phenomenon and the more recently investigated density wave state. This state is generally characterized by a wavevector Q parallel to the planar Cu-O-Cu bonds along with a predominantly d-symmetry form factor (dFF-DW). To identify the microscopic mechanism giving rise to this state, one must identify the momentum-space states contributing to the dFF-DW spectral weight, determine their particle-hole phase relationship about the Fermi energy, establish whether they exhibit a characteristic energy gap, and understand the evolution of all these phenomena throughout the phase diagram. Here we use energy-resolved sublattice visualization of electronic structure and reveal that the characteristic energy of the dFF-DW modulations is actually the `pseudogap’ energy Δ1. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dFF-DW modulations at E = -Δ1 (filled states) occur with relative phase π compared to those at E = Δ1 (empty states). Finally, we show that the conventionally defined dFF-DW Q corresponds to scattering between the `hot frontier’ regions of momentum-space beyond which Bogoliubov quasiparticles cease to exist. These data indicate that the cuprate dFF-DW state involves particle-hole interactions focused at the pseudogap energy scale and between the four pairs of `hot frontier’ regions in momentum space where the pseudogap opens.

  1. Extended Bose Hubbard model of interacting bosonic atoms in optical lattices: From superfluidity to density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarella, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2006-01-15

    For systems of interacting, ultracold spin-zero neutral bosonic atoms, harmonically trapped and subject to an optical lattice potential, we derive an Extended Bose Hubbard (EBH) model by developing a systematic expansion for the Hamiltonian of the system in powers of the lattice parameters and of a scale parameter, the lattice attenuation factor. We identify the dominant terms that need to be retained in realistic experimental conditions, up to nearest-neighbor interactions and nearest-neighbor hoppings conditioned by the on-site occupation numbers. In the mean field approximation, we determine the free energy of the system and study the phase diagram both at zero and at finite temperature. At variance with the standard on site Bose Hubbard model, the zero-temperature phase diagram of the EBH model possesses a dual structure in the Mott insulating regime. Namely, for specific ranges of the lattice parameters, a density wave phase characterizes the system at integer fillings, with domains of alternating mean occupation numbers that are the atomic counterparts of the domains of staggered magnetizations in an antiferromagnetic phase. We show as well that in the EBH model, a zero-temperature quantum phase transition to pair superfluidity is, in principle, possible, but completely suppressed at the lowest order in the lattice attenuation factor. Finally, we determine the possible occurrence of the different phases as a function of the experimentally controllable lattice parameters.

  2. 1/f noise anomalies in nanoribbons of charge density wave materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhenzhong; Stabile, Adam; Marley, Peter M.; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sambandamurthy, Ganapathy

    2013-03-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) as an ordered form of matter has attracted attention for many decades. Below a critical temperature (TP), CDW materials undergo a Peierls transition and enter the CDW ground state, where the energy is minimized by a collectively pinning mechanism. Under a moderate electric field, CDWs can be depinned and they start sliding. An onset of a large broad band noise (BBN) has been observed in bulk CDW materials as a signature of this depinning process. We report low frequency conductance fluctuation (1/f noise) measurements on single nanoribbon devices of single-crystalline NbSe3, across both Peierls transitions. In the CDW state, a non-monotonic behavior in the noise magnitude was observed when approaching the threshold electric field for depinning: while increasing voltage from the zero-bias limit, the magnitude of BBN first decreases before increasing sharply near the threshold voltage. This unusually large BBN magnitude and the non-monotonic behavior below the depinning threshold suggest some inherent instability that could be suppressed by a small bias field, and is clearly different from results from bulk materials. Transport and noise studies from individual nanoribbons of NbSe3, Ta-doped NbSe3 and o-TaS3 will be presented.

  3. Orbital-free density functional theory implementation with the projector augmented-wave method

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtomäki, Jouko; Makkonen, Ilja; Harju, Ari; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Caro, Miguel A.

    2014-12-21

    We present a computational scheme for orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) that simultaneously provides access to all-electron values and preserves the OFDFT linear scaling as a function of the system size. Using the projector augmented-wave method (PAW) in combination with real-space methods, we overcome some obstacles faced by other available implementation schemes. Specifically, the advantages of using the PAW method are twofold. First, PAW reproduces all-electron values offering freedom in adjusting the convergence parameters and the atomic setups allow tuning the numerical accuracy per element. Second, PAW can provide a solution to some of the convergence problems exhibited in other OFDFT implementations based on Kohn-Sham (KS) codes. Using PAW and real-space methods, our orbital-free results agree with the reference all-electron values with a mean absolute error of 10 meV and the number of iterations required by the self-consistent cycle is comparable to the KS method. The comparison of all-electron and pseudopotential bulk modulus and lattice constant reveal an enormous difference, demonstrating that in order to assess the performance of OFDFT functionals it is necessary to use implementations that obtain all-electron values. The proposed combination of methods is the most promising route currently available. We finally show that a parametrized kinetic energy functional can give lattice constants and bulk moduli comparable in accuracy to those obtained by the KS PBE method, exemplified with the case of diamond.

  4. Resonant Enhancement of Charge Density Wave Diffraction in the Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.S.; Sorini, A.P.; Yi, M.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moritz, B.; Yang, W.L.; Chu, J.-H.; Kuo, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.G.Cruz; Fisher, I.R.; Hussain, Z.; Devereau, T.P.; Shen, Z.X.

    2012-05-15

    We performed resonant soft X-ray diffraction on known charge density wave (CDW) compounds, rare earth tri-tellurides. Near the M{sub 5} (3d - 4f) absorption edge of rare earth ions, an intense diffraction peak is detected at a wavevector identical to that of CDW state hosted on Te{sub 2} planes, indicating a CDW-induced modulation on the rare earth ions. Surprisingly, the temperature dependence of the diffraction peak intensity demonstrates an exponential increase at low temperatures, vastly different than that of the CDW order parameter. Assuming 4f multiplet splitting due to the CDW states, we present a model to calculate X-ray absorption spectrum and resonant profile of the diffraction peak, agreeing well with experimental observations. Our results demonstrate a situation where the temperature dependence of resonant X-ray diffraction peak intensity is not directly related to the intrinsic behavior of the order parameter associated with the electronic order, but is dominated by the thermal occupancy of the valence states.

  5. Magnetic field controlled charge density wave coupling in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x

    PubMed Central

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Ivashko, O.; Holmes, A. T.; Christensen, N. B.; Hücker, M.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Rütt, U.; Zimmermann, M. v.; Forgan, E. M.; Hayden, S M

    2016-01-01

    The application of magnetic fields to layered cuprates suppresses their high-temperature superconducting behaviour and reveals competing ground states. In widely studied underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO), the microscopic nature of field-induced electronic and structural changes at low temperatures remains unclear. Here we report an X-ray study of the high-field charge density wave (CDW) in YBCO. For hole dopings ∼0.123, we find that a field (B∼10 T) induces additional CDW correlations along the CuO chain (b-direction) only, leading to a three-dimensional (3D) ordered state along this direction at B∼15 T. The CDW signal along the a-direction is also enhanced by field, but does not develop an additional pattern of correlations. Magnetic field modifies the coupling between the CuO2 bilayers in the YBCO structure, and causes the sudden appearance of the 3D CDW order. The mirror symmetry of individual bilayers is broken by the CDW at low and high fields, allowing Fermi surface reconstruction, as recently suggested. PMID:27146255

  6. Optical observation of spin-density-wave fluctuations in Ba122 iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Dai, Y. M.; Xiao, H.; Shen, B.; Ye, Z. R.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.; Feng, D. L.; Wen, H. H.; Qiu, X. G.; Lobo, R. P. S. M.

    2016-08-01

    In iron-based superconductors, a spin-density-wave (SDW) magnetic order is suppressed with doping, and unconventional superconductivity appears in close proximity to the SDW instability. The optical response of the SDW order shows clear gap features: substantial suppression in the low-frequency optical conductivity, alongside a spectral weight transfer from low to high frequencies. Here, we study the detailed temperature dependence of the optical response in three different series of the Ba122 system [Ba1 -xKxFe2As2 , Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 , and BaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 ]. Intriguingly, we find that the suppression of the low-frequency optical conductivity and spectral weight transfer appear at a temperature T* much higher than the SDW transition temperature TSDW. Since this behavior has the same optical feature and energy scale as the SDW order, we attribute it to SDW fluctuations. Furthermore, T* is suppressed with doping, closely following the doping dependence of the nematic fluctuations detected by other techniques. These results suggest that the magnetic and nematic orders have an intimate relationship, in favor of the magnetic-fluctuation-driven nematicity scenario in iron-based superconductors.

  7. Magnetic field controlled charge density wave coupling in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Ivashko, O.; Holmes, A. T.; Christensen, N. B.; Hücker, M.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Rütt, U.; Zimmermann, M. V.; Forgan, E. M.; Hayden, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    The application of magnetic fields to layered cuprates suppresses their high-temperature superconducting behaviour and reveals competing ground states. In widely studied underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO), the microscopic nature of field-induced electronic and structural changes at low temperatures remains unclear. Here we report an X-ray study of the high-field charge density wave (CDW) in YBCO. For hole dopings ~0.123, we find that a field (B~10 T) induces additional CDW correlations along the CuO chain (b-direction) only, leading to a three-dimensional (3D) ordered state along this direction at B~15 T. The CDW signal along the a-direction is also enhanced by field, but does not develop an additional pattern of correlations. Magnetic field modifies the coupling between the CuO2 bilayers in the YBCO structure, and causes the sudden appearance of the 3D CDW order. The mirror symmetry of individual bilayers is broken by the CDW at low and high fields, allowing Fermi surface reconstruction, as recently suggested.

  8. Photoemission study of the electronic structure and charge density waves of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tan, S. Y.; Jiang, J.; Ye, Z. R.; Niu, X. H.; Song, Y.; Zhang, C. L.; Dai, P. C.; Xie, B. P.; Lai, X. C.; Feng, D. L.

    2015-04-30

    The electronic structure of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O single crystal is studied by photon energy and polarization dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The obtained band structure and Fermi surface agree well with the band structure calculation of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O in the non-magnetic state, which indicates that there is no magnetic order in Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O and the electronic correlation is weak. Polarization dependent ARPES results suggest the multi-band and multi-orbital nature of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O. Photon energy dependent ARPES results suggest that the electronic structure of Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O is rather two-dimensional. Moreover, we find a density wave energy gap forms below the transition temperature and reaches 65 meV atmore » 7 K, indicating that Na₂Ti₂Sb₂O is likely a weakly correlated CDW material in the strong electron-phonon interaction regime. (author)« less

  9. Self-interaction corrected LDA + U investigations of BiFeO3 properties: plane-wave pseudopotential method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakob, M. K.; Taib, M. F. M.; Lu, L.; Hassan, O. H.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    2015-11-01

    The structural, electronic, elastic, and optical properties of BiFeO3 were investigated using the first-principles calculation based on the local density approximation plus U (LDA + U) method in the frame of plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. The application of self-interaction corrected LDA + U method improved the accuracy of the calculated properties. Results of structural, electronic, elastic, and optical properties of BiFeO3, calculated using the LDA + U method were in good agreement with other calculation and experimental data; the optimized choice of on-site Coulomb repulsion U was 3 eV for the treatment of strong electronic localized Fe 3d electrons. Based on the calculated band structure and density of states, the on-site Coulomb repulsion U had a significant effect on the hybridized O 2p and Fe 3d states at the valence and the conduction band. Moreover, the elastic stiffness tensor, the longitudinal and shear wave velocities, bulk modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the Debye temperature were calculated for U = 0, 3, and 6 eV. The elastic stiffness tensor, bulk modulus, sound velocities, and Debye temperature of BiFeO3 consistently decreased with the increase of the U value.

  10. Whistler wave radiation from a pulsed loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrin, Alexander V.; Shkokova, Natalya M.; Ferencz, Orsolya E.; Zaboronkova, Tatyana M.

    2014-11-15

    Pulsed radiation from a loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density is studied. The radiated energy and its distribution over the spatial and frequency spectra of the excited waves are derived and analyzed as functions of the antenna and duct parameters. Numerical results referring to the case where the frequency spectrum of the antenna current is concentrated in the whistler range are reported. It is shown that under ionospheric conditions, the presence of an artificial duct with enhanced density can lead to a significant increase in the energy radiated from a pulsed loop antenna compared with the case where the same source is immersed in the surrounding uniform magnetoplasma. The results obtained can be useful in planning active ionospheric experiments with pulsed electromagnetic sources operated in the presence of artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities that are capable of guiding whistler waves.

  11. [Influence of the brain functional state evoked by spreading depression wave propagation on the recurrent waves properties].

    PubMed

    Roshchina, G Ia; Koroleva, V I; Davydov, V I

    2012-01-01

    EEG aftereffects of spreading depression waves were studied in waking rabbits in chronic experiments by spectral coherence analysis. Experiments were divided in two groups: early (from the first to the third-fourth experiments) and late (fifth-tenth experiments). During the early experimental series, unilateral persistent EEG changes consisting in an increase in the delta- and beta-band power with a simultaneous depression of the gamma-band activity were observed in the ipsilateral to SD hemisphere. In addition, interhemispheric coherence between symmetrical cortical points decreased. During the late experimental series, a generalized bilateral increase in the power of the delta and beta activity was demonstrated with a rise in coherence in the beta band. This generalized activity occurred cyclically and was distinct during a long period of time (2-3 hours) after propagation of a single SD wave. Such kind of cyclical activity blocked the propagation of subsequent SD waves in the neocortex of a waking rabbit and decreased the probability of recurrent wave origin up to a complete cessation of wave generation. Thus, a cortical SD wave provoked the appearance of synchronized beta oscillations in the EEG, which in turn actively influenced the properties of recurrent waves. PMID:23227733

  12. Effect of non-Gaussian properties of the sea surface on the low-incidence radar backscatter and its inversion in terms of wave spectra by an ocean wave spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Yin, Qiaohua; Huang, Ping

    2015-09-01

    The principle of ocean wave spectrometers was first presented several decades ago to detect the directional wave spectrum with real-aperture radar (Jackson, 1981). To invert wave spectra using an ocean wave spectrometer, for simplicity, the hydrodynamic forcing and wave-wave interaction effect are neglected and a Gaussian slope probability density function (pdf) is used to calculate the normalized backscattering cross-section ( σ 0) of the ocean surface. However, the real sea surface is non-Gaussian. It is not known whether the non-Gaussian property of the sea surface will affect the performance of the inversion of the wave spectrum if following existing inversion steps and methods. In this paper, the pdf of the sea surface slope is expressed as a Gram-Charlier fourth-order expansion, which is quasi-Gaussian. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is derived for a non-Gaussian slope pdf. The effects of non-Gaussian properties of the sea surface slope on the inversion process and result are then studied in a simulation of the SWIM (Surface Waves Investigation and Monitoring) instrument configuration to be used on the CFOSAT (China-France Oceanography Satellite) mission. The simulation results show that the mean trend of σ 0 depends on the sea slope pdf, and the peakedness and skewness coefficients of the slope pdf affect the shape of the mean trend of σ 0 versus incidence and azimuth; owing to high resolution of σ 0 in the range direction, MTF obtained using the mean trend of σ 0 is almost as accurate as that set in the direct simulation; in the inversion, if ignoring the non-Gaussian assumption, the inversion performances for the wave spectrum decrease, as seen for an increase in the energy error of the inverted wave slope spectrum. However, the peak wavelength and wave direction are the same for inversions that consider and ignore the non-Gaussian property.

  13. Correlation of materials properties with the atomic density concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradstreet, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Progress is described in developing, through mathematical expressions, values for the parameters which apparently determine the values of atomic density, melting point, and principal elastic constant for the alkali halides. This necessarily required the review and refinement of these data for the monohalides in general and for LiH. A more sensitive and dimensionless expression of the mass factor appears to have promise and a still more sensitive one is suggested for future study. A periodicity factor based on inert gas core configuration has been suggested to replace the atomic number previously used.

  14. Charge density wave order in 1D mirror twin boundaries of single-layer MoSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barja, Sara; Wickenburg, Sebastian; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Zhang, Yi; Ryu, Hyejin; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Wong, Ed; Salmeron, Miquel B.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    We provide direct evidence for the existence of isolated, one-dimensional charge density waves at mirror twin boundaries (MTBs) of single-layer semiconducting MoSe2. Such MTBs have been previously observed by transmission electron microscopy and have been predicted to be metallic in MoSe2 and MoS2. Our low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy measurements revealed a substantial bandgap of 100 meV opening at the Fermi energy in the otherwise metallic one-dimensional structures. We found a periodic modulation in the density of states along the MTB, with a wavelength of approximately three lattice constants. In addition to mapping the energy-dependent density of states, we determined the atomic structure and bonding of the MTB through simultaneous high-resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy. Density functional theory calculations based on the observed structure reproduced both the gap opening and the spatially resolved density of states.

  15. Image density property of optical information recording microcapsule material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Weidong; Li, Xiaowei; Li, Xinzheng; Fu, Guangsheng

    2009-05-01

    The microcapsules can act as novel optical functional material in which the optical recording substance such as color-forming substance, photoinitiator and prepolymer are encapsulated. In this paper, the microcapsules with average particle diameter of 300nm are prepared with interfacial polymerization method. The optical responding character of the microcapsule is analyzed based on IR spectra and image density technique. Results show that the microcapsule material encapsulated prepolymer TMPTA and photoinitiator Irgacure-ITX, TPO has thermal phase-change at 140°C, at which the penetrability of the microcapsule has the highest efficiency. With the increase of exposure time, the reduction in absorption intensities of the prepolymer TMPTA are observed at 1635cm-1 of C=C stretching and 898cm-1 of C-H stretching on the C=C molecular bond. Such a result can be ascribed to the double bond cleavage process of the prepolymer TMPTA is initiated by the optical-exposed photoinitiator, and superpolymer network is formed. The image density contrast between the unexposed and exposed microcapsule is enhanced with exposure time increased.

  16. Carboplatin versus cisplatin: density functional approach to their molecular properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornaghi, Elena; Andreoni, Wanda; Carloni, Paolo; Hutter, Jürg; Parrinello, Michele

    1995-12-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-based drug in common clinical use. Here we present the first ab initio calculation of its molecular properties, namely structural, electronic and vibrational. Comparison of the calculated molecular structure with experimental data taken in the solid phase shows quite good agreement. Comparison of our results on its parent complex, cisplatin, is particularly instructive. Unlike the chlorine ligands in cisplatin, the substituting dicarboxylate strongly participates in the chemically active orbitals.

  17. Statistical properties of directional ocean waves: the role of the modulational instability in the formation of extreme events.

    PubMed

    Onorato, M; Waseda, T; Toffoli, A; Cavaleri, L; Gramstad, O; Janssen, P A E M; Kinoshita, T; Monbaliu, J; Mori, N; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Stansberg, C T; Tamura, H; Trulsen, K

    2009-03-20

    We discuss two independent, large scale experiments performed in two wave basins of different dimensions in which the statistics of the surface wave elevation are addressed. Both facilities are equipped with a wave maker capable of generating waves with prescribed frequency and directional properties. The experimental results show that the probability of the formation of large amplitude waves strongly depends on the directional properties of the waves. Sea states characterized by long-crested and steep waves are more likely to be populated by freak waves with respect to those characterized by a large directional spreading.

  18. Kinetic Temperature and Electron Density Measurement in an Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch using Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Julia; Lyons, Wendy; Tong, WIlliam G.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser wave mixing is presented as an effective technique for spatially resolved kinetic temperature measurements in an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma. Measurements are performed in a 1 kW, 27 MHz RF plasma using a continuous-wave, tunable 811.5-nm diode laser to excite the 4s(sup 3)P2 approaches 4p(sup 3)D3 argon transition. Kinetic temperature measurements are made at five radial steps from the center of the torch and at four different torch heights. The kinetic temperature is determined by measuring simultaneously the line shape of the sub-Doppler backward phase-conjugate degenerate four-wave mixing and the Doppler-broadened forward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing. The temperature measurements result in a range of 3,500 to 14,000 K+/-150 K. Electron densities measured range from 6.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm to 10.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm. The experimental spectra are analyzed using a perturbative treatment of the backward phase-conjugate and forward-geometry wave-mixing theory. Stark width is determined from the collisional broadening measured in the phase-conjugate geometry. Electron density measurements are made based on the Stark width. The kinetic temperature of the plasma was found to be more than halved by adding deionized water through the nebulizer.

  19. Wave breaking signatures in OH airglow and sodium densities and temperatures 1. Airglow imaging, Na lidar, and MF radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Isler, J. R.; Senft, D. C.; Gardner, C. S.; Franke, S. J.

    The Collaborative Observations Regarding the Nightglow (CORN) campaign took place at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory during September 1992. The instrumentation included, among others, the Aerospace Corporation narrowband nightglow CCD camera, which observes the OH Meinel (6-2) band (hereafter designated OH) and the O2 atmospheric (0-1) band (hereafter designated O2) nightglow emissions; the University of Illinois Na density/temperature lidar; and the University of Illinois MF radar. Here we report on observations of small-scale (below 10-km horizontal wavelength) structures in the OH airglow images obtained with the CCD camera. These small-scale structures were aligned perpendicular to the motion of 30- to 50-km horizontal wavelength waves, which had observed periods of about 10-20 min. The small-scale structures were present for about 20 min and appear to be associated with an overturned or breaking atmospheric gravity wave as observed by the lidar. The breaking wave had a horizontal wavelength of between 500 and 1500 km, a vertical wavelength of about 6 km, and an observed period of between 4 and 6 hours. The motion of this larger-scale wave was in the same direction as the ~30- to 50-km waves. While such small-scale structures have been observed before, and have been previously described as ripple-type wave structures [Taylor and Hapgood, 1990], these observations are the first which can associate their occurrence with independent evidence of wave breaking. The characteristics of the observed small-scale structures are similar to the vortices generated during wave breakdown in three dimensions in simulations described in Part 2 of this study [Fritts et al., this issue]. The results of this study support the idea that ripple type wave structures we observe are these vortices generated by convective instabilities rather than structures generated by dynamical instabilities.

  20. Universal bulk charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabis, Wojciech

    2014-03-01

    The recent observation of bulk CDW order in YBa2Cu3O8+δ(YBCO) in competition with superconductivity is a significant development. Using Cu L-edge resonant X-ray scattering, we also observe bulk CDW order in HgBa2CuO4+δ(Hg1201 Tc = 72K). The correlations appear below TCDW ~ 200K, well below the pseudogap temperature T* ~ 320K associated with unusual magnetism, but coincident with the onset of Fermi-liquid-like charge transport. In contrast to YBCO, we observe no decrease of the CDW amplitude below Tc, and the correlation length is short and temperature independent. CDW correlations therefore are a universal property of underdoped cuprates, enhanced by low structural symmetry and a magnetic field, but fundamentally not in significant competition with superconductivity. We also discuss the relationship between the CDW modulation wave vector and the Fermi surface area extracted from QO experiments. Work supported by DOE-BES. In collaboration with Y. Li, M. Le Tacon, L. Braicovich, A. Kreyssig, M. Minola, G. Dellea, E. Weschke, M. Veit, A. Goldman, T. Schmitt, G. Ghiringhelli, N. Barisic, M.K. Chan, C. Dorow, G. Yu, X. Zhao, B. Keimer, M. Greven.

  1. Resonance excitation of spiral density waves in a gaseous disk. II - A nonlinear theory and application to the 3 kiloparsec arm

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chi; Cheng, Ye National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu STX Corp., New York )

    1991-07-01

    The present nonlinear theory of spiral density waves in a thin, viscous, self-gravitating gaseous disk views the waves as generated near the Lindblad resonance by periodic disturbances through an excitation mechanism. The suggestion of Yuan (1984), that either a minor oval distortion or an uneven distribution of mass in the center can excite a spiral density wave whose radial velocity and mass concentration are in excellent agreement with observations of the 3 kpc arm of the Galaxy, is confirmed. Reliable results are obtained for nonlinear density waves either in a gaseous disk or in the gas components of a galactic disk. 17 refs.

  2. Interaction of High Frequency Electromagnetic Waves with Vortex Density Structures: Comparison of Analytical and LSP Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of flute type vortex density structures and interaction of high frequency electromagnetic waves used for surveillance and communication with such structures. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics (HEDP), and in many other applications. We will present PIC simulation results of EM scattering on vortex type density structures using the LSP code and compare them with analytical results. Two cases will be analyzed. In the first case electromagnetic wave scattering will take place in the ionospheric plasma. In the second case laser probing in a high-beta Z-pinch plasma will be presented. This work was supported by the Air Force Research laboratory, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Naval Research Laboratory and NNSA/DOE Grant No. DE-FC52-06NA27616 at the University of Nevada at Reno.

  3. Pressure-induced quenching of the charge-density-wave state observed by x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchetti, A.

    2010-05-03

    We report an x-ray diffraction study on the charge-density-wave (CDW) LaTe{sub 3} and CeTe{sub 3} compounds as a function of pressure. We extract the lattice constants and the CDW modulation wave-vector, and provide direct evidence for a pressure-induced quenching of the CDW phase. We observe subtle differences between the chemical and mechanical compression of the lattice. We account for these with a scenario where the effective dimensionality in these CDW systems is dependent on the type of lattice compression and has a direct impact on the degree of Fermi surface nesting and on the strength of fluctuation effects.

  4. The properties of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with a functionally graded material top layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer.

  5. Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.

  6. On the accuracy of density functional theory and wave function methods for calculating vertical ionization energies

    SciTech Connect

    McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-05-21

    The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.

  7. Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate d-symmetry form factor density wave state

    SciTech Connect

    M. H. Hamidian; Kim, Chung Koo; Edkins, S. D.; Davis, J. C.; Mackenzie, A. P.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Lawler, M. J.; Kim, E. -A.; Sachdev, S.; Fujita, K.

    2015-10-26

    Research on high-temperature superconducting cuprates is at present focused on identifying the relationship between the classic ‘pseudogap’ phenomenon1, 2 and the more recently investigated density wave state3–13. This state is generally characterized by a wavevector Q parallel to the planar Cu–O–Cu bonds 4–13 along with a predominantly d-symmetry form factor 14–17 (dFF-DW). To identify the microscopic mechanism giving rise to this state 18–30, one must identify the momentum-space states contributing to the dFF-DW spectral weight, determine their particle–hole phase relationship about the Fermi energy, establish whether they exhibit a characteristic energy gap, and understand the evolution of all these phenomena throughout the phase diagram. Here we use energy-resolved sublattice visualization14 of electronic structure and reveal that the characteristic energy of the dFF-DW modulations is actually the ‘pseudogap’ energy Δ1. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dFF-DW modulations at E = –Δ1 (filled states) occur with relative phase π compared to those at E = Δ1 (empty states). Lastly, we show that the conventionally defined dFF-DW Q corresponds to scattering between the ‘hot frontier’ regions of momentum-space beyond which Bogoliubov quasiparticles cease to exist30–32. These data indicate that the cuprate dFF-DW state involves particle–hole interactions focused at the pseudogap energy scale and between the four pairs of ‘hot frontier’ regions in momentum space where the pseudogap opens.

  8. Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate d-symmetry form factor density wave state

    DOE PAGESBeta

    M. H. Hamidian; Kim, Chung Koo; Edkins, S. D.; Davis, J. C.; Mackenzie, A. P.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Lawler, M. J.; Kim, E. -A.; Sachdev, S.; et al

    2015-10-26

    Research on high-temperature superconducting cuprates is at present focused on identifying the relationship between the classic ‘pseudogap’ phenomenon1, 2 and the more recently investigated density wave state3–13. This state is generally characterized by a wavevector Q parallel to the planar Cu–O–Cu bonds 4–13 along with a predominantly d-symmetry form factor 14–17 (dFF-DW). To identify the microscopic mechanism giving rise to this state 18–30, one must identify the momentum-space states contributing to the dFF-DW spectral weight, determine their particle–hole phase relationship about the Fermi energy, establish whether they exhibit a characteristic energy gap, and understand the evolution of all these phenomenamore » throughout the phase diagram. Here we use energy-resolved sublattice visualization14 of electronic structure and reveal that the characteristic energy of the dFF-DW modulations is actually the ‘pseudogap’ energy Δ1. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dFF-DW modulations at E = –Δ1 (filled states) occur with relative phase π compared to those at E = Δ1 (empty states). Lastly, we show that the conventionally defined dFF-DW Q corresponds to scattering between the ‘hot frontier’ regions of momentum-space beyond which Bogoliubov quasiparticles cease to exist30–32. These data indicate that the cuprate dFF-DW state involves particle–hole interactions focused at the pseudogap energy scale and between the four pairs of ‘hot frontier’ regions in momentum space where the pseudogap opens.« less

  9. On the accuracy of density functional theory and wave function methods for calculating vertical ionization energies.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H; Cohen, Aron J; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-05-21

    The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.

  10. A theory for scattering by density fluctuations based on three-wave interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.; Crawford, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of scattering by charged particle fluctuations of a plasma is developed for the case of zero magnetic field. The source current is derived on the basis of: (1) a three wave interaction between the incident and scattered electromagnetic waves and one electrostatic plasma wave (either Langmuir or ion acoustic), and (2) a synchronous interaction between the same two electromagnetic waves and the discrete components of the charged particle fluctuations. Previous work is generalized by no longer making the assumption that the frequency of the electromagnetic waves in large compared to the plasma frequency. The general result is then applied to incoherent scatter, and to scatter by strongly driven plasma waves. An expansion is carried out for each of those cases to determine the lower order corrections to the usual high frequency scattering formulas.

  11. Influence of defects on the charge density wave of ([SnSe]1+δ)1(VSe2)1 ferecrystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Falmbigl, Matthias; Putzky, Daniel; Ditto, Jeffrey; Esters, Marco; Bauers, Sage R.; Ronning, Filip; Johnson, David C.

    2015-07-14

    A series of ferecrystalline compounds ([SnSe]1+δ)1(VSe2)1 with varying Sn/V ratios were synthesized using the modulated elemental reactant technique. Temperature-dependent specific heat data reveal a phase transition at 102 K, where the heat capacity changes abruptly. An abrupt increase in electrical resistivity occurs at the same temperature, correlated with an abrupt increase in the Hall coefficient. Combined with the magnitude and nature of the specific heat discontinuity, this suggests that the transition is similar to the charge density wave transitions in transition metal dichalcogenides. An ordered intergrowth was formed over a surprisingly wide compositional range of Sn/V ratios of 0.89 ≤more » 1 + δ ≤ 1.37. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal the formation of various volume defects in the compounds in response to the nonstoichiometry. The electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient data of samples with different Sn/V ratios show systematic variation in the carrier concentration with the Sn/V ratio. There is no significant change in the onset temperature of the charge density wave transition, only a variation in the carrier densities before and after the transition. Given the sensitivity of the charge density wave transitions of transition metal dichalcogenides to variations in composition, it is very surprising that the charge density wave transition observed at 102 K for ([SnSe]1.15)1(VSe2)1 is barely influenced by the nonstoichiometry and structural defects. As a result, this might be a consequence of the two-dimensional nature of the structurally independent VSe2 layers.« less

  12. Influence of Defects on the Charge Density Wave of ([SnSe](1+δ))1(VSe2)1 Ferecrystals.

    PubMed

    Falmbigl, Matthias; Putzky, Daniel; Ditto, Jeffrey; Esters, Marco; Bauers, Sage R; Ronning, Filip; Johnson, David C

    2015-08-25

    A series of ferecrystalline compounds ([SnSe]1+δ)1(VSe2)1 with varying Sn/V ratios were synthesized using the modulated elemental reactant technique. Temperature-dependent specific heat data reveal a phase transition at 102 K, where the heat capacity changes abruptly. An abrupt increase in electrical resistivity occurs at the same temperature, correlated with an abrupt increase in the Hall coefficient. Combined with the magnitude and nature of the specific heat discontinuity, this suggests that the transition is similar to the charge density wave transitions in transition metal dichalcogenides. An ordered intergrowth was formed over a surprisingly wide compositional range of Sn/V ratios of 0.89 ≤ 1 + δ ≤ 1.37. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal the formation of various volume defects in the compounds in response to the nonstoichiometry. The electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient data of samples with different Sn/V ratios show systematic variation in the carrier concentration with the Sn/V ratio. There is no significant change in the onset temperature of the charge density wave transition, only a variation in the carrier densities before and after the transition. Given the sensitivity of the charge density wave transitions of transition metal dichalcogenides to variations in composition, it is very surprising that the charge density wave transition observed at 102 K for ([SnSe]1.15)1(VSe2)1 is barely influenced by the nonstoichiometry and structural defects. This might be a consequence of the two-dimensional nature of the structurally independent VSe2 layers.

  13. Deconfinement and hadron properties at extremes of temperature and density

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, D.; Roberts, C.D.

    1998-08-01

    After introducing essential, qualitative concepts and results, the authors discuss the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to QCD at finite T and {mu}. They summarize the calculation of the critical exponents of two-light-flavor QCD using the chiral and thermal susceptibilities; and an algebraic model that elucidates the origin of an anticorrelation between the {mu}- and T-dependence of a range of meson properties. That model also provides an algebraic understanding of why the finite-T behavior of bulk thermodynamic properties is mirrored in their {mu}-dependence, and why meson masses decrease with {mu} even though f{sub {pi}} and {minus}<{anti q}q> increase. The possibility of diquark condensation is canvassed. Its realization is uncertain because it is contingent upon an assumption abut the quark-quark scattering kernel that is demonstrably false in some applications; e.g., it predicts the existence of colored diquarks in the strong interaction spectrum, which are not observed.

  14. Fine structure of transient waves in a random medium: The correlation and spectral density functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Alan R.

    1994-01-01

    This is essentially a progress report on a theoretical investigation of the propagation of transient waves in a random medium. The emphasis in this study is on applications to sonic-boom propagation, particularly as regards the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the sonic-boom waveform. The analysis is general, however, and is applicable to other types of waves besides sonic-boom waves. The phenomenon of primary concern in this investigation is the fine structure of the wave. A figure is used to illustrate what is meant by finestructure.

  15. Energy density of standing sound waves at the radiation-dominated phase of the universe expansion (hydrodynamic derivation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inogamov, N. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the early Universe up to hydrogen recombination in the Universe, the radiation pressure was much greater than the pressure of baryons and electrons. Moreover, the energy density of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons was greater than or close to the energy density contained in the rest mass of baryonic matter, i.e., the primordial plasma was a radiated-dominated one and the adiabatic index was close to 4/3. The small density perturbations from which the observed galaxies have grown grew as long as the characteristic perturbation scales exceeded the horizon of the Universe сt at that time. On smaller scales, the density perturbations were standing sound waves. Radiative viscosity and heat conduction must have led to the damping of sound waves on very small scales. After the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, J. Silk calculated the scales of this damping, which is now called Silk damping, knowing the CMBtemperature and assuming the density of baryons and electrons. Observations with the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the Planck satellite have revealed the predicted damping of acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum and confirmed one important prediction of the theory. In 1970, R.A. Sunyaev and Ya.B. Zeldovich showed that such energy release in the early Universe should lead to characteristic deviations of the CMB spectrum from the Planck one. The development of the technology of cryogenic detectors of submillimeter and millimeter wavelength radiation has made it possible to measure the CMB spectral distortions at 10-8 of its total intensity (PIXIE). This has sharply increased the interest of theoretical cosmologists in the problem of energy release when smallscale sound waves are damped. We have derived a relativistic formula for the energy of a standing sound wave in a photon-baryon-electron plasma from simple hydrodynamic and thermodynamic relations. This formula is applicable for an arbitrary relation between the

  16. Spectroscopic properties of nuclear skyrme energy density functionals.

    PubMed

    Tarpanov, D; Dobaczewski, J; Toivanen, J; Carlsson, B G

    2014-12-19

    We address the question of how to improve the agreement between theoretical nuclear single-particle energies (SPEs) and observations. Empirically, in doubly magic nuclei, the SPEs can be deduced from spectroscopic properties of odd nuclei that have one more or one less neutron or proton. Theoretically, bare SPEs, before being confronted with observations, must be corrected for the effects of the particle vibration coupling (PVC). In the present work, we determine the PVC corrections in a fully self-consistent way. Then, we adjust the SPEs, with PVC corrections included, to empirical data. In this way, the agreement with observations, on average, improves; nevertheless, large discrepancies still remain. We conclude that the main source of disagreement is still in the underlying mean fields, and not in including or neglecting the PVC corrections.

  17. The Shadow Knows: Inferring the Density Distribution of a Nonuniform Medium from Its Standing Wave Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Philippe; Cunnyngham, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In a recent note in this journal, Gluck presents a beautiful demonstration of the standing wave generated by a strip of material with linearly varying width (a trapezoid). As expected, the resulting wave envelope (and its shadow) showed a varying wavelength--smaller as the strip width gets larger.

  18. Remarkable Stability of Charge Density Wave Order in La1.875 Ba0.125 CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. M.; Thampy, V.; Mazzoli, C.; Barbour, A. M.; Miao, H.; Gu, G. D.; Cao, Y.; Tranquada, J. M.; Dean, M. P. M.; Wilkins, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of charge-density-wave (CDW) order in underdoped cuprates is now well established, although the precise nature of the CDW and its relationship with superconductivity is not. Theoretical proposals include contrasting ideas such as that pairing may be driven by CDW fluctuations or that static CDWs may intertwine with a spatially modulated superconducting wave function. We test the dynamics of CDW order in La1.825 Ba0.125 CuO4 by using x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the CDW wave vector, detected resonantly at the Cu L3 edge. We find that the CDW domains are strikingly static, with no evidence of significant fluctuations up to 2 ¾ h . We discuss the implications of these results for some of the competing theories.

  19. Quasiparticle interference, quasiparticle interactions, and the origin of the charge density wave in 2H–NbSe2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Arguello, C. J.; Rosenthal, E. P.; Andrade, E. F.; Jin, W.; Yeh, P. C.; Zaki, N.; Jia, S.; Cava, R. J.; Fernandes, R. M.; Millis, A. J.; et al

    2015-01-21

    We show that a small number of intentionally introduced defects can be used as a spectroscopic tool to amplify quasiparticle interference in 2H-NbSe₂, that we measure by scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging. We show from the momentum and energy dependence of the quasiparticle interference that Fermi surface nesting is inconsequential to charge density wave formation in 2H-NbSe₂. Thus, we demonstrate that by combining quasiparticle interference data with additional knowledge of the quasiparticle band structure from angle resolved photoemission measurements, one can extract the wavevector and energy dependence of the important electronic scattering processes thereby obtaining direct information both about the fermiologymore » and the interactions. In 2H-NbSe₂, we use this combination to show that the important near-Fermi-surface electronic physics is dominated by the coupling of the quasiparticles to soft mode phonons at a wave vector different from the CDW ordering wave vector.« less

  20. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.

    2014-06-23

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.