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Sample records for dental arch study

  1. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  2. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  3. The Shortened Dental Arch concept from the perspective of Swedish General Dental Practitioners: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Korduner, Eva-Karin; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bagewitz, Ingrid Collin; Von Steyern, Vult; Wolf, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the cognizance of and attitudes towards the Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) concept among Swedish General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) and the application of the SDA concept in their treatment planning using Qualitative Content Analysis. Eleven Swedish GDPs were purposively selected and all agreed to participate. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and covered treatment considerations concerning two patient cases and the participants' reflections regarding pre-formulated statements about the SDA concept. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze this data.The emerging theme was "the SDA concept is irrelevant" in the sense of the GDPs disregarding treatments providing dentitions with loss of posterior teeth. There was a strong reluctance to extract teeth, without consideration of the SDA concept, and a firmly patient-focused attitude towards the needs, age and financial situation of the patients. Within the limitations of this study, Swedish GDPs show little or no cognizance of the SDA concept and it does not seem to be applied in their treatment planning. The results show that the qualitative methodology can be beneficial for further understanding of cognizance and attitudes towards the SDA concept. PMID:27464377

  4. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Ivor M; Kumar, H. C. Kiran; Shetty, K. Sadashiva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females) were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA). Pretreatment (T1), postexpansion (T2), and posttreatment (T3) dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1–T2, T2–T3 and T1–T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1–T2, T2–T3 and T1–T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar regions

  5. Comparison of Commercially Available Arch Wires with Normal Dental Arch in a Group of Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Fakhri, Farnaz; Moshkel Gosha, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The stability of orthodontic treatment depends on preserving the patient’s pretreatment arch form and arch size during and after treatment. Purpose This investigation was aimed to study the size and shape of Iranian mandibular dental arch and evaluate the correlation of their average dental arch with commercially available preformed rectangular nickel-titanium arch wires. Materials and Method In this study, 148 subjects were selected among students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The inclusion criteria were having Angle class I in molar and canine relationships, and normal growth pattern. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured after scanning their mandibular dental casts. Three main arch form templates; square, ovoid and tapered (Orthoform TM; 3M, Unitek, CA, USA) and 12 commercially available preformed mandibular nickel-titanium arch wires were scanned. Intercanine and intermolar widths of arch wires were compared with dental arch widths of the study samples. Arch width, arch form and the most appropriate arch wire were determined for each cast. Student’s t-test was used to compare arch widths and arch depths of male and female subjects. Coefficient of variance was used to determine the variability of indices in the study samples. Results Most preformed arch wires were wider than the average width of the normal Iranian dental arch. The most frequent arch form in Iranian population was tapered. Inter molar width was the only statistically significant variable between males and females. Conclusion Variation in available preformed arch wires does not entirely cover the range of diversity of the normal dental arch of our population. Narrow arch wires with a tapered shape are better consistent with the Iranian lower arch. PMID:26046106

  6. Dental arch shape: a statistical analysis using conic sections.

    PubMed

    Sampson, P D

    1981-05-01

    This report addresses two problems in the study of the shape of human dental arches; (1) the description of arch shape by mathematical functions and (2) the description of variation among the dental arch shapes in a population. A new algorithm for fitting conic sections is used to model the maxillary dental arches of a sample of sixty-six subjects. A statistical model for shapes represented by arcs of conic sections is demonstrated on the sample of sixty-six dental arches. It permits the definition of an "average shape" and the graphic representation of variation in shape. The model and methods of analysis presented should help dental scientists to better define and quantify "normal" or "ideal" shapes and "normal ranges of variation" for the shape of the dental arch.

  7. The effects of early headgear treatment on dental arches and craniofacial morphology: a report of a 2 year randomized study.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, Raimo; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Pykäläinen, Aila

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of early headgear treatment on dental arches and craniofacial morphology in children in the early mixed dentition. The total study group comprised 68 children of both sexes (40 boys and 28 girls) aged 7.6 years [standard deviation (SD) 0.3]. The children, who had a Class II tendency in occlusion and moderate crowding of the dental arches, were randomly divided into two groups of equal size, matched according to gender. In the headgear (HG) group, treatment was initiated immediately. The mean treatment time was 16 months. In the second group, which served as the control, only interceptive procedures were performed during the follow-up period. The records, which included dental casts and lateral cephalograms, were obtained after follow-up periods of 1 and 2 years. The lengths and the widths of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches were significantly increased in the HG group after the 2 year follow-up period. The mean increase in lower arch length and width was 2.4 mm (SD 1.7) and 2.2 mm (SD 1.2), respectively. On average, the space gain in the lower arch was half that of the upper arch. No significant changes were found in the arch dimensions of the control group. Maxillary growth restraint and labial tilting of the incisors were the most significant cephalometric findings in the HG group when compared with the controls. The use of headgear in the early mixed dentition is effective in the treatment of moderate crowding. It is noteworthy that significant space gain in the dimensions of the lower arch can be achieved by headgear application to the upper first molars.

  8. Loss of space and changes in the dental arch after premature loss of the lower primary molar: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Padma Kumari, B; Retnakumari, N

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the space changes, dental arch width, arch length and arch perimeter, after the unilateral extraction of lower first primary molar in the mixed dentition period. A longitudinal study was conducted among forty children in the age group of 6-9 years, who reported for extraction of lower first primary molar in the department of Pedodontics, Govt. Dental College, Trivandrum. Study models were made from alginate impression taken before extraction and after extraction at the periodical intervals of two months, four months, six months and eight months. The mesiodistal width of lower first primary molar of the non-extracted side was taken as the control. The results of the study showed statistically significant space loss in the extraction side ( P value < 0.01) and no significant space loss in the control side (P value > 0.05). The rate of loss was greatest in the first four months. The arch width, arch length and arch perimeter had no significant change from initial to eight months follow up. The present study challenges the use of a space maintenance under the circumstances of premature loss of mandibular primary molar for preventing space loss.

  9. The randomized shortened dental arch study (RaSDA): design and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the long time required for the treatment impede respective clinical trials. Methods/design This 14-center randomized controlled investigator-initiated trial is ongoing. Last patient out will be in 2010. Patients over 35 years of age with all molars missing in one jaw and with at least both canines and one premolar left on each side were eligible. One group received a treatment with removable dental prostheses for molar replacement (treatment A). The other group received a treatment limited to the replacement of all missing anterior and premolar teeth using fixed bridges (treatment B). A pilot trial with 32 patients was carried out. Two hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled in the main trial where 109 patients were randomized for treatment A and 106 for treatment B. The primary outcome measure is further tooth loss during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures encompassed clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG WA 831/2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5). Discussion The particular value of this trial is the adaptation of common design components to the very specific features of complex dental prosthetic treatments. The pilot trial proved to be indispensable because it led to a number of adjustments in the study protocol that considerably improved the practicability. The expected results are of high clinical relevance and will show the efficacy of two common treatment approaches in terms of

  10. Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth: A longitudinal study on orofacial skeletons and dental arches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2008-10-01

    The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and

  11. The Impact of Subject Age, Gender, and Arch Length on Attitudes of Syrian Dentists towards Shortened Dental Arches.

    PubMed

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Al-Nahhal, Tammam Ibrahim; Kujan, Omar; Tarakji, Bassel; Kay, Elizabeth Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subject age, gender, and arch length on dentists' attitudes towards unrestored shortened dental arches. Materials and Methods. 93 Syrian dentists were interviewed and presented with 24 scenarios for male and female subjects of different ages and shortened dental arches of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analogue scale how they would value the health of the mouth if the posterior space was left unrestored. Results. A value of 0.0 represented the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 represented the best. The highest mean value (0.73) was assigned to a shortened dental arch with missing second molar teeth in the mouth of a 70-year-old subject. A 35-year-old female subject with an extremely shortened dental arch (all molar and premolar teeth are missing) attracted the lowest mean value (0.26). The statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in the value placed on unrestored shortened dental arches as the number of remaining teeth decreased (p < 0.008). While subject gender had almost no impact on dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, the scenarios for the older shortened dental arch subjects attracted significantly higher values compared to the scenarios for the younger subjects (p < 0.017). Conclusion. Subject age and arch length affect dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, but subject gender does not.

  12. Loss of space and dental arch length after the loss of the lower first primary molar: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cuoghi, O A; Bertoz, F A; de Mendonca, M R; Santos, E C

    1998-01-01

    The premature loss of primary teeth may harm the normal occlusal development, although there are debates relating to the necessity of using space maintainer appliances. The aim of the study is to evaluate the changes in the dental arch perimeter and the space reduction after the premature loss of the lower first primary molar in the mixed dentition stage. The sample consists of 4 lower arch plaster models of 31 patients, within the period of pre-extraction, 6, 12 and 18 months after the lower first primary molar extraction. A reduction of space was of noted with the cuspid dislocation and the permanent incisors moving toward the space of the extraction site. It was concluded that the lower first molar primary premature loss, during the mixed dentition, implicates an immediate placement of a space maintainer.

  13. Dental arch size in healthy human permanent dentitions: ethnic differences as assessed by discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Carvajal, R; Duncan, V; Palomino, H

    1999-01-01

    Race and ethnicity variably influence the form of the human craniofacial complex. In the present study, the effects of ethnicity and sex on the global size of normal adult dental arches were analyzed. The dental arches of 47 northern Chilean mestizos (25 men, 22 women) and 95 northern Italian Caucasians (50 men, 45 women) were cast in stone. All subjects had a complete dentition in both arches. In all models the coordinates of dental cusp tips were digitized using an image analyzer. The center of gravity of each tooth was computed and arches were interpolated using a polynomial model (y = ax + bx2 + cx3 + dx4). In all arches, the intercanine, intermolar, and mid-intercanine to mid-intermolar distances were computed from the dental centers of gravity. These arch distances were entered in a linear discriminant function analysis. The polynomial model accurately interpolated data points in all instances, and most of the dental arch form was determined by the first and second degree coefficients. On average, Italian Caucasian arches were smaller than Chilean mestizo arches. Male mean distances were larger than female distances regardless of ethnic group or arch. The linear discriminant analysis performed between male and female arches within ethnic groups was significant only for both Italian Caucasian arches, but the percentage errors for the classification of a new individual were very high (about 30%). Conversely, Italian Caucasian arches could always be discriminated from Chilean mestizo arches of the same sex with a much smaller error.

  14. Determining shapes and dimensions of dental arches for the use of straight-wire arches in lingual technique

    PubMed Central

    Kairalla, Silvana Allegrini; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Triviño, Tarcila; Velasco, Leandro; Lombardo, Luca; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the shape and dimension of dental arches from a lingual perspective, and determine shape and size of a straight archwire used for lingual Orthodontics. METHODS: The study sample comprised 70 Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion and at least four of Andrew's six keys. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were digitized (3D) and the images were analyzed by Delcam Power SHAPET 2010 software. Landmarks on the lingual surface of teeth were selected and 14 measurements were calculated to determine the shape and size of dental arches. RESULTS: Shapiro-Wilk test determined small arch shape by means of 25th percentile (P25%) - an average percentile for the medium arch; and a large one determined by means of 75th percentile (P75%). T-test revealed differences between males and females in the size of 12 dental arches. CONCLUSION: The straight-wire arch shape used in the lingual straight wire technique is a parabolic-shaped arch, slightly flattened on its anterior portion. Due to similarity among dental arch sizes shown by males and females, a more simplified diagram chart was designed. PMID:25715725

  15. The effects of early headgear treatment on dental arches and craniofacial morphology: an 8 year report of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Mäntysaari, Raimo; Pykäläinen, Aila; Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Laitala, Timo; Karikko, Jaana

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of early headgear (HG) treatment on craniofacial structures. The total study group comprised 68 children (40 males and 28 females) aged 7.6 years (standard deviation 0.3 years). The children, who had a Class II tendency in occlusion and moderate crowding, were randomly divided into two groups of equal size. In the first group, HG treatment was initiated immediately. In the second group, which served as a control group, only minor interceptive procedures were performed during the first follow-up period of 2 years. During the 8 year follow-up, orthodontic therapy, including fixed appliances and possible extractions, was carried out when necessary. The results showed that the most evident difference between the groups was the wider and longer dental arches in the HG group, which could only partly be explained by the higher rate of extractions in the control group. For the cephalometric measurements, the most significant difference was in the maxillary plane orientation. The peer assessment rating (PAR) score, showing the general outcome of treatment, was at the same level in both groups at follow-up. The deficit of the early HG treatment was the longer mean total treatment time, resulting from the two-phase treatment.

  16. Mathematical definition of the shape of dental arches in human permanent healthy dentitions.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1994-08-01

    Dental arch shape was studied in 50 men and 45 women aged 20-27 years with sound dentitions. Maxillary and mandibular arches were reconstructed by a fourth-order polynomial and a 'mixed' elliptical (anterior teeth), plus parabolic (post-canine teeth) interpolation of buccal cusp tips (central incisor to second molar). The maxillary arch resulted wider than the mandibular arch regardless of gender. Gender differences were found especially in the maxillary arch, where they reflect more a size discrepancy than a shape difference. The polynomial interpolation allowed the evaluation of arch asymmetry, which resulted negligible in all the subjects. The elliptical plus parabolic interpolation gave mean plots which were well superimposable to the ones obtained by the polynomial interpolation. These curves are geometrically simple and can be used for the mathematical description of dental arch shape in non-patient subjects. Moreover, they allow separate analysis of teeth with a different functional meaning.

  17. The association between dental arch dimensions and occurrence of Finnish dental consonant misarticulations in cleft lip/palate children.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, J; Ranta, R; Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maxillary and mandibular dental arch width, length, and palatal height dimensions are associated with the occurrence of misarticulations (phonetic or phonologic errors) in the dental consonants /r/, /s/, and /1/ in different cleft types and sexes. The subjects were 263 (109 girls, 154 boys) 6-year-old Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n=79), deft lip/alveolus (CL(A), n=77), unilateral (UCLP, n=80), and bilateral (BCLP, n=27) cleft lip and palate. Dental plaster casts were measured by two authors using the technique of Moorrees, and auditive speech was analyzed with high reliability by two speech pathologists. The results showed that the occurrence of misarticulations increased and dental arch dimensions decreased with the severity of the cleft. Narrower and shorter maxillary arches as well as shallower palates were related to problems with the studied dental consonants. Mandibular arch dimensions were not related to the misarticulations. However, statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences in dental arch dimensions between subjects with and without misarticulations when they were compared separately for different cleft types. The etiology of clefting per se--isolated deft palate versus cleft lip with or without deft palate--did not seem to explain the associations between dental arch dimensions and the studied misarticulations.

  18. Correlation between maxillary central incisor crown morphology and mandibular dental arch form in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Lima, Carolina Souto; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Torres, Fernando Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the mandibular dental arch and the maxillary central incisor crown. Cast models from 51 Caucasian individuals, older than 15 years, with optimal occlusion, no previous orthodontic treatment, featuring 4 of the 6 keys to normal occlusion by Andrews (the first being mandatory) were observed. The models were digitalized using a 3D scanner, and images of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular dental arch were obtained. These were printed and placed in an album below pre-set models of arches and dental crowns, and distributed to 12 dental surgeons, who were asked to choose which shape was most in accordance with the models and crown presented. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate the concordance among evaluators while the chi-square test was used to verify the association between the dental arch and central incisor morphology, at a 5% significance level. The Kappa test showed moderate agreement among evaluators for both variables of this study, and the chi-square test showed no significant association between tooth shape and mandibular dental arch morphology. It may be concluded that the use of arch morphology as a diagnostic method to determine the shape of the maxillary central incisor is not appropriate. Further research is necessary to assess tooth shape using a stricter scientific basis.

  19. The shortened dental arch: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Armellini, Debora; von Fraunhofer, J Anthony

    2004-12-01

    The functional demands of patients are highly variable and individual, requiring dental treatment to be tailored to the individual's needs and adaptive capability. The World Health Organization indicates that a functional, esthetic, natural dentition has at least 20 teeth, while the literature indicates that dental arches comprising the anterior and premolar regions meet the requirements of a functional dentition. The English-language peer-reviewed literature pertaining to the short dental arch (SDA) was identified through the Medline search engine covering the period between 1966 and the present and critically reviewed. This treatment option for the partially dentate patient may provide oral functionality, improved oral hygiene, comfort, and, possibly, reduced costs.

  20. Individual tooth macrowear pattern guides the reconstruction of Sts 52 (Australopithecus africanus) dental arches.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schulz, Dieter; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Weber, Gerhard W

    2013-02-01

    The functional restoration of the occlusal relationship between maxillary and mandibular tooth rows is a major challenge in modern dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Similar technical challenges are present in paleoanthropology when considering fragmented and deformed mandibular and maxillary fossils. Sts 52, an Australopithecus africanus specimen from Sterkfontein Member 4, represents a typical case where the original shape of the dental arches is no longer preserved. It includes a partial lower face (Sts 52a) and a fragmented mandible (Sts 52b), both incomplete and damaged to such an extent to thwart attempts at matching upper and lower dentitions. We show how the preserved macro wear pattern of the tooth crowns can be used to functionally reconstruct Sts 52's dental arches. High-resolution dental stone casts of Sts 52 maxillary and mandibular dentition were mounted and repositioned in a dental articulator. The occlusal relationship between antagonists was restored based on the analysis of the occlusal wear pattern of each preserved tooth, considering all dental contact movements represented in the occlusal compass. The reconstructed dental arches were three-dimensional surface scanned and their occlusal kinematics tested in a simulation. The outcome of this contribution is the first functional restoration of A. africanus dental arches providing new morphometric data for specimen Sts 52. It is noteworthy that the method described in this case study might be applied to several other fossil specimens.

  1. Correlation Between Dental Arch Width and Sagittal Dento-Skeletal Morphology in Untreated Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Etezadi, Tahura

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dental arch form is one of the most important characteristics of dentition. However, this dimension usually receives less attention in diagnosis or treatment planning and orthodontic patients are traditionally classified with regard to their sagittal characteristics. The objectives of this study were to investigate if a relationship exists between the dental arch width (transverse dimension) and sagittal skeletal and dental parameters in orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: Dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 108 consecutive untreated Iranian patients (47 males and 61 females) between 16 and 31 years of age were evaluated. Arch width (AW) parameters including upper and lower inter-molar width (UIMW and LIMW) and upper and lower inter-canine width (UICW and LICW) were measured by a digital caliper. Sagittal parameters included SNA and SNB angle and Wits’ appraisal obtained from lateral cephalograms in addition to upper and lower arch length (UAL and LAL) obtained from dental casts. The correlation between the aforementioned parameters was evaluated applying Pearson correlation coefficients. Molar and canine relationship according to Angle’s classification was also recorded and the means of all parameters were compared between three occlusal relationship classes and two gender groups by means of two-way ANOVA. Results: According to statistical analysis a significant positive correlation between sagittal parameters and arch width measures exists between SNA and UICW and between LICW and LAL. Upper and lower ICW were significantly correlated, the relationship between upper and lower IMW and between UAL and LAL were significant. Among sagittal measures, both UAL and LAL were correlated with the ANB angle. The means of arch width parameters in three occlusal classes were not significantly different. Conclusion: The only significant correlation between arch width and sagittal parameters existed between UICW and SNA angle and between LICW and

  2. Relationship of difficult forceps delivery to dental arches and occlusion.

    PubMed

    Pirttiniemi, P; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L; Heikkinen, T; Osborne, R

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the extensive use of forceps procedures during delivery and later occlusal characteristics. The work uses data collected in National Collaborative Perinatal Research Project (USA), in which more than 60,000 pregnancies and the children's health were followed by regular medical tests and examinations. Of these, a subsample of 2,074 children participated in dental examinations, including the production of dental casts with wax bites to register occlusion. A total of 84 children, 55 boys and 29 girls, were coded as having undergone difficult or very difficult forceps deliveries. A control group was matched by age, sex, race, and site of dental examination. The results show a significant increase in asymmetric molar occlusion (P < 0.005) and canine relations (P < 0.001) in the study group. The sagittal length of the mandibular arch was increased in the difficult forceps delivery group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, difficult forceps procedures are associated with a later asymmetric occlusion.

  3. Dental arch diameters and relationships to oral habits.

    PubMed

    Aznar, T; Galán, A F; Marín, I; Domínguez, A

    2006-05-01

    The objective was to analyze variations in dental arch width in relation to oral habits. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar distance were determined in relation to certain oral habits in 1297 children (ages 3 to 6 years). After an oral examination, the parents of each child completed a questionnaire about oral habits, including the use of a dummy or a bottle (or both), finger sucking, mouth breathing, breast- or bottle-feeding, and duration of these habits. Data were subjected to statistical analysis by the chi-square test for qualitative variables and analysis of variance for quantitative variables with homogeneous variances. Statistical significance was P < .05. In general, the maxillary arch was larger than the mandibular arch with regard to both the intercanine and the intermolar distances and more significantly so in boys. In relation to age, a significant increase was found only for the mandibular intercanine distance (P = .001). When arch width was analyzed in relation to various oral habits, the maxillary intercanine distance was less in children who used a dummy, especially one of a round design (P = .003). The maxillary intercanine distance was also less in children who breathed through their mouth (P = .002). In most cases, dummy use and mouth breathing were associated with a reduction in the intercanine distance in the maxillary arch. A dummy habit leads to a reduction in maxillary arch width, and mouth breathing causes a reduction in the size of both arches.

  4. Dental arch asymmetry in young healthy human subjects evaluated by Euclidean distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1993-03-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. A recently proposed method (Euclidean distance matrix analysis; EDMA) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. Here it has been applied to study the asymmetry of mandibular and maxillary arches in 50 men and 45 women with sound dentitions. The centres of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar) were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. The form of the right and left maxillary and mandibular hemi-arches was separately assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth within arch and side. Side differences were tested by EDMA. In men, the maxillary and the mandibular arches were both symmetrical (i.e. there were no significant differences in size or shape between the left and right hemi-arches). In women, the mandibular arch was symmetrical, but in the maxillary arch the two antimeres had a significantly different shape. No size differences were found between the left and right female hemi-arches.

  5. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  6. Dental crowding in primary dentition and its relationship to arch and crown dimensions among preschool children of Davangere.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, A R; Ravi, G R; Kurthukoti, Ameet J; Shubha, A B

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate dental crowding in the deciduous dentition and its relationship to the crown and the arch dimensions among preschool children of Davangere. Stratified randomized selection of one hundred, 3-4 year old healthy children with all primary teeth erupted was done and divided into two groups. One group had children with anterior crowding in both the arches while the other had spacing. Alginate impressions of the upper and lower arches were made and the study casts were obtained. The tooth and arch dimensions were determined. Mesiodistal dimensions of all the teeth were significantly larger in the crowded arch group. However, the buccolingual dimensions of the maxillary right central incisor, mandibular lateral incisors and the maxillary molars and the crown shape ratio of maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular canines and mandibular right second molar was statistically different. No significant correlation was found between the arch width and the presence of crowding of deciduous dentition. The arch depth of the spaced dentition was greater when compared to the crowded ones. The arch perimeter of the crowded arches was significantly less than the spaced arches.

  7. Three-dimensional dental arch curvature in human adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G; Colombo, A

    1999-04-01

    The three-dimensional arrangement of dental cusps and incisal edges in human dentitions has been reported to fit the surface of a sphere (the curve of Monson), with a radius of about 4 inches in adults. The objective of the current study was to compare the three-dimensional curvature of the mandibular dental arch in healthy permanent dentitions of young adults and adolescents. The mandibular casts of 50 adults (aged 19 to 22 years) and 20 adolescents (aged 12 to 14 years) with highly selected sound dentitions that were free from temporomandibular joint problems were obtained. The three coordinates of cusp tips excluding the third molars were digitized with a three-dimensional digitizer, and used to derive a spherical model of the curvature of the occlusal surfaces. From the best interpolating sphere, the radii of the left and right curves of Spee (quasi-sagittal plane) and of molar curve of Wilson (frontal plane) were computed. Mandibular arch size (interdental distances) was also calculated. The occlusal curvature of the mandibular arch was not significantly influenced by sex, although a significant effect of age was found (Student t, P <.005). The radii of the overall sphere, right and left curves of Spee, and curve of Wilson in the molar area were about 101 mm in adults, and about 80 mm in adolescents. Arch size was not influenced by either sex or age. The different curvatures of the occlusal plane in adolescents and adults may be explained by a progressive rotation of the major axis of the teeth moving the occlusal plane toward a more buccal position. These dental movements should be performed in a frontal plane on an anteroposterior axis located next to the dental crown.

  8. Three-dimensional dental arch and palatal form changes after extraction and nonextraction treatment. Part 1. Arch length and area.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Wolfgang; Niederwanger, Andreas; Bancher, Beatrix; Bittermann, Gabriele; Neunteufel, Nikolaus; Kulmer, Siegfried

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in arch length, arch area, and irregularity index in patients treated with and without premolar extractions. Records collected at pretreatment, at bracket removal, at the end of retention, and 5 years out of retention were examined. Stone casts were mounted on an articulator with an anatomic face-bow and a central wax record, and measurements were made with a 3-dimensional digitizer. In general, the maxillary arch exhibited less relapse tendency than did the mandibular arch for both patient groups. In general, the extraction group showed the same relapse tendency as the nonextraction group.

  9. Mandibular dental arch changes associated with treatment of crowding using self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nicholas; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment of mandibular crowding with self-ligating and conventional brackets on dental arch variables. Fifty-six patients were selected from a pool of subjects satisfying the following inclusion criteria: non-extraction treatment in the mandibular or maxillary arches, eruption of all mandibular teeth, no spaces and an irregularity index greater than 2 mm in the mandibular arch, and no adjunct treatment such as etxra- or intraoral appliances. The patients were assigned to two groups: one group received treatment with the self-ligating bracket and the other with a conventional edgewise appliance, both with a 0.022 inch slot. Lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of treatment were used to assess the alteration in mandibular incisor inclination, and measurements of intercanine and intermolar widths were made on dental casts to investigate changes associated with the correction. The results were analysed with bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis in order to examine the effect of the bracket systems on arch width or lower incisor inclination, adjusting for the confounding effect of demographic and clinical characteristics. An alignment-induced increase in the proclination of the mandibular incisors was observed for both groups; no difference was identified between self-ligating and conventional brackets with respect to this parameter. Likewise, an increase in intercanine and intermolar widths was noted for both bracket groups; the self-ligating group showed a higher intermolar width increase than the conventional group, whereas the amount of crowding and Angle classification were not significant predictors of post-treatment intermolar width. PMID:19959610

  10. Investigation of complete dental arches of 23 patients aged at least 75 years.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Beniamino; Di Carlo, Stefano; Shahinas, Jorida; Mencio, Francesca; Fusco, Raimondo; Pompa, Giorgio

    2011-03-01

    Numerous factors help to conserve the dentition of elderly patients, such as healthy food habits, a strong physical constitution, and a good quality of life. The aim of this study was to define a model that takes into account the integration of both the structural and functional aspects of a healthy dentition. Twenty-three patients aged at least 75 years were recruited. The patients were required to possess all of their dentition and have no prosthetic rehabilitations and be asymptomatic for temporomandibular joint disorders. Occlusal characteristics were measured and recorded using the criteria adopted by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: presence or absence of rotation of the upper arches, trend of the occlusal table, and distribution of occlusal contacts during movements. We believe that the following parameters are predictive of a condition of the dental arches' equilibrium: crowding and disalignment of the teeth, derotated position of the upper arches, absence of the curve of Spee, an occlusal plane trend contrary to spherical theory, and presence of group function on the working side and malocclusion on the nonworking side. We consider that these factors are merely the consequence of correct functioning within the framework of favorable environmental factors.

  11. The shortened dental arch: prevalence and normative treatment needs in a sample of older Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R J

    1998-01-01

    The concept of the shortened dental arch (SDA) was used to classify the dentition status and normative treatment needs of older adults. From 1982 to 1992, a descriptive survey was conducted in North York, Canada, of 1531 dentate adults aged 65 and over; 69% were nursing home residents. Based on the SDA concept, a "good" guadrant was defined as one which contained all premolar and anterior teeth. A "good" arch was defined as one which had two "good" quadrants. Only 6.3% of nursing home subjects and 7.5% of independently living subjects were classified as having "good" upper and lower arches; these subjects were considered to have a "functional dentition" by the criteria of the SDA concept. For subjects of both residence types, a higher percentage had a "good" lower arch (20%, 30%) as compared with a "good" upper arch (9%, 13%), and a higher proportion of non-denture wearers had "good" arches and quadrants compared with denture wearers. The most common reason for failure to meet SDA criteria was due to the loss of one or more upper premolar teeth; loss of lower canines was least frequently the reason. For subjects of both residence types, normative need for tooth extraction and prosthetic care was significantly associated with having no "good" arches. This was found for both denture wearers and non-denture wearers. Among non-denture wearers of both residence types, the need for urgent care was significantly associated with having no "good" arches.

  12. Reporting of dental status from full-arch radiographs: Descriptive analysis and methodological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Huettig, Fabian; Axmann, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify standards, how entities of dental status are assessed and reported from full-arch radiographs of adults. METHODS: A PubMed (Medline) search was performed in November 2011. Literature had to report at least one out of four defined entities using radiographs: number of teeth or implants; caries, fillings or restorations; root-canal fillings and apical health; alveolar bone level. Cohorts included to the study had to be of adult age. Methods of radiographic assessment were noted and checked for the later mode of report in text, tables or diagrams. For comparability, the encountered mode of report was operationalized to a logical expression. RESULTS: Thirty-seven out of 199 articles were evaluated via full-text review. Only one article reported all four entities. Eight articles reported at the maximum 3 comparable entities. However, comparability is impeded because of the usage of absolute or relative frequency, mean or median values as well as grouping. Furthermore the methods of assessment were different or not described sufficiently. Consequently, established sum scores turned out to be highly questionable, too. The amount of missing data within all studies remained unclear. It is even so remissed to mention supernumerary and aplased teeth as well as the count of third molars. CONCLUSION: Data about dental findings from radiographs is, if at all possible, only comparable with serious limitations. A standardization of both, assessing and reporting entities of dental status from radiographs is missing and has to be established within a report guideline. PMID:25325067

  13. Human dental arch shape evaluated by euclidean-distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1993-04-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. When landmark data are available, a recently proposed method (euclidean-distance matrix analysis) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. This method also localizes those areas which differ most between the two structures. We have applied it to analyze the sexual dimorphism in dental arch form in a sample of 50 men and 45 women. Subjects ranged in age between 20 and 27 years, and had sound dentitions. Fourteen landmarks, corresponding to the centers of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar), were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. All the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth were computed, thus creating four mean form matrices (one for each arch within sex). Gender differences were tested by using euclidean-distance matrix analysis. No significant differences were demonstrated in the shape of arches, while male arches proved to be slightly bigger than female arches.

  14. Finite element analysis of stresses in the maxillary and mandibular dental arches and TMJ articular discs during clenching into maximum intercuspation, anterior and unilateral posterior occlusion.

    PubMed

    Pileicikiene, Gaivile; Surna, Algimantas; Barauskas, Rimantas; Surna, Rimas; Basevicius, Algidas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate distribution of stresses in the human TMJ discs, generated during clenching into various occlusal positions. The work presents a biomechanical finite element model of interaction of mandibular and maxillary dental arches and the TMJ discs of a particular person, based on real geometrical data obtained from spiral computed tomography two-dimensional images. 3D contour coordinates - point clouds were collected from these images and solid model was created. The system under investigation consisted of eight basic parts: two rigid structures representing the mandibular and maxillary dental arches, two mandibular condyles, two mandibular fossae of temporal bone, and solid models of two articular discs. The model of maxillary dental arch was fixed in space. The model of the mandibular dental arch was able to move in space synchronically with the mandibular condyles under action of applied forces, which were considered as prescribed and known at insertion points of masticatory muscles. The motion of the mandible was constrained by interdental contact interactions and contact interaction with articular discs, which were situated in between mandibular condyles and mandibular fossae of temporal bone. The model was implemented by using LS-DYNA finite element software. The obtained results presented a 3D view of stresses exhibited in the articular discs, as well as the real contact points of dental interactions at given masticatory geometry of a particular subject and the values of interaction forces. The expected practical value of the developed model is the facilitation of biomechanical evaluations of the influence of tolerances of teeth shapes and occlusal areas together with the supporting areas on the final stress distribution in the dental arches and articular discs.

  15. Differences in Functional Outcomes for Adult Patients with Prosthodontically-Treated and -Untreated Shortened Dental Arches: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saadika; Musekiwa, Alfred; Chikte, Usuf M. E.; Omar, Ridwaan

    2014-01-01

    This review examined differences in functional outcomes and patient satisfaction when shortened dental arches are left untreated compared to their restoration to complete arch lengths with different prosthodontic interventions. Methods A protocol was developed according to the criteria for a systematic review. All relevant databases were searched to identify appropriate clinical trials regardless of language or publication status. Predetermined eligibility criteria were applied, trial quality assessed and data extracted for each study. Relevant outcomes assessed were: functioning ability, patient satisfaction and harmful effects on oral structures. Results Searches yielded 101 articles: 81 from electronic databases and 20 from reference lists of retrieved articles (PEARLing searches). Sixty-nine citations were assessed for eligibility after removing 32 duplicate records. After reading titles and abstracts, a total of 41 records were excluded and the full-texts of the remaining 28 records were read. Only 21 records were included for the SR because 7 records were excluded after reading the full-text reports. These 21 records report the outcomes of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one non-randomized clinical trial (CT) which were pre-specified and used for this review. No on-going studies were found and no eligible studies were excluded for failure to report the reviewer’s pre-specified outcomes. Outcomes were reported in the retrieved 21 articles. A narrative explanation of the pre-specified outcomes is reported for the 3 comparison groups (which were based on the different interventions used for the individual clinical trials). The shortened dental arch as a treatment option is encouraging in terms of functioning, patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. By using only high quality studies it was expected that the results would be more reliable when making conclusions and recommendations, but some of the included studies had to be downgraded due to

  16. Correlation between interdental occlusal plane and plantar arches. An EMG study.

    PubMed

    Valentino, B; Melito, F; Aldi, B; Valentino, T

    2002-01-01

    The Authors carried out an experimental study on a homogeneous group of young people to provide evidence of functional correlation among masticatory muscles and, indirectly, between changes to the interdental occlusal plane and modifications of the plantar arches due to talipes valgus and flat foot. In the two analysed conditions, the masticatory muscles undergo different functional alterations. This is due to the fact that the mechanoreceptors in the tendons of the muscles governing the plantar arch configuration are stimulated in different ways during the activation of long osteoarthromuscular chains. Dental specialists will have to take these correlation into account when diagnosing TMJ disorders.

  17. Evaluation of facial morphology and sagittal relationship between dental arches in primary and mixed dentition

    PubMed Central

    Traldi, Aline; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; de Souza, Luciane Zanin; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. METHODS: The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationship between dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects. PMID:26352847

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Different Pre-impression Preparation Procedures of Dental Arch

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika; Gupta, Naveen; Agarwal, Manisha; Verma, Rohit; Rathod, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bubbles and voids on the occlusal surface impede the actual intercuspation and pre-impression preparation aims to reduce the incidence of air bubbles and voids as well as influences the quality of occlusal reproduction and actual clinical intercuspation in the articulator. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of different pre-impression preparation procedures of antagonistic dental arch on the quality of the occlusal reproduction of the teeth in irreversible hydrocolloid impressions and to determine most reliable pre-impression preparation method to reduce the incidence of air bubbles. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects were selected having full complement of mandibular teeth from second molar to second molar with well demarcated cusp height. 200 impressions were made with irreversible hydrocolloid material. The impressions were divided into five groups of 40 impressions each and each group had one specific type of pre-impression preparation. All the impressions were poured in die stone. A stereomicroscope with graduated eyepiece was used to count the number of bubbles on the occlusal surface of premolars and molars. The mean and standard deviations were calculated for each group. Mann–Whitney U-test was applied to find the significant difference between different groups. Results: Least bubbles were found in the group in which oral cavity was dried by saliva ejector and fluid hydrocolloid was finger painted onto the occlusal surfaces immediately before the placement of impression tray in the mouth. Conclusion: It was found that finger painting the tooth surfaces with fluid hydrocolloid immediately before the placement of loaded impression tray in the mouth was the most reliable method. The oral cavity can be cleared more easily of excess saliva by vacuum suction rather than by use of an astringent solution. PMID:26229376

  19. The esthetic rehabilitation of misplaced dental arch after fracture of anterior maxillae: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Turna, Çagri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In cases where the patient experiences trauma, the teeth may be fractured or a bone segment could be fractured causing misplaced teeth. Ceramic veneer restorations may be a solution for re-establishing the ideal position. The treatment of misplaced dental arch segment is presented and treatment options are discussed. Case presentation A 30-years-old female Turkish patient had a history of a dentoalveolar trauma and a surgical operation. Her main complaints were about the unpleasant appearance of her anterior teeth. The maxillary anterior teeth were positioned labially and had irregularities in vertical position inharmonious with each other and the horizontal plane. The misplaced sector treated with minimally invasive dentin bonded porcelain laminate veneers. Conclusion Ceramic veneers can be a solution for patients with malpositioned anterior teeth even the situation is severe and excessive tooth reduction is needed. PMID:19918401

  20. Hybrid Endovascular Repair in Aortic Arch Pathologies: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Wei; Liu, Xiaoping; Yin, Tai; Jia, Xin; Xiong, Jiang; Zhang, Hongpeng; Wang, Lijun

    2010-01-01

    The aortic arch presents specific challenges to endovascular repair. Hybrid repair is increasingly evolving as an alternative option for selected patients, and promising initial results have been reported. The aim of this study was to introduce our experiences and evaluate mid-term results of supra aortic transpositions for extended endovascular repair of aortic arch pathologies. From December 2002 to January 2008, 25 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections involving the aortic arch were treated with hybrid endovascular treatment in our center. Of the 25 cases, 14 were atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysms and 11 were thoracic aortic dissection. The hybrid repair method included total-arch transpositions (15 cases) or hemi-arch transpositions (10 cases), and endovascular procedures. All hybrid endovascular procedures were completed successfully. Three early residual type-I endoleaks and one type-II endoleak were observed. Stroke occurred in three patients (8%) during the in-hospital stage. The perioperative mortality rate was 4%; one patients died post-operatively from catheter related complications. The average follow-up period was 15 ± 5.8 months (range, 1–41 months). The overall crude survival rate at 15 months was 92% (23/25). During follow-up, new late endoleaks and stent-raft related complications were not observed. One case (4%) developed a unilateral lower limb deficit at 17 days and was readmitted to hospital. In conclusion, the results are encouraging for endovascular aortic arch repair in combination with supra-aortic transposition in high risk cases. Aortic endografting offers good mid-term results. Mid-term results of the hybrid approach in elderly patients with aortic arch pathologies are satisfying. PMID:21151464

  1. Bimaxillary full arch fixed dental implant supported treatment for a patient with renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis; Mancini, Mark

    2015-04-01

    A long-term dialysis patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) also referred to as chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to IgA nephropathy complicated by severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy was successfully treated with dental implant-supported fixed prostheses. Phosphate binders, vitamin D, calcium cinacalcet calcimimetic therapy, and dialysis 3 times weekly had been instituted with standard divalent ion serum assessments. Successful control of the patient's secondary hyperparathyroidism was achieved. Long and wide diameter implants were used with an anterior guidance occlusion scheme to reduce the per-square-millimeter off-axial implant force delivered to the bone. Patients with ESRD and renal osteodystrophy may be successfully surgically and prosthetically treated with long wide dental implants supporting fixed full arch splinted dental prostheses with an appropriate occlusal scheme. PMID:24372491

  2. Accuracy and precision of polyurethane dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional subtractive rapid prototyping method with an intraoral scanning technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of polyurethane (PUT) dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) subtractive rapid prototyping (RP) method with an intraoral scanning technique by comparing linear measurements obtained from PUT models and conventional plaster models. Methods Ten plaster models were duplicated using a selected standard master model and conventional impression, and 10 PUT models were duplicated using the 3D subtractive RP technique with an oral scanner. Six linear measurements were evaluated in terms of x, y, and z-axes using a non-contact white light scanner. Accuracy was assessed using mean differences between two measurements, and precision was examined using four quantitative methods and the Bland-Altman graphical method. Repeatability was evaluated in terms of intra-examiner variability, and reproducibility was assessed in terms of inter-examiner and inter-method variability. Results The mean difference between plaster models and PUT models ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.33 mm. Relative measurement errors ranged from 2.2% to 7.6% and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, when comparing plaster models and PUT models. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of PUT dental models for evaluating the performance of oral scanner and subtractive RP technology was acceptable. Because of the recent improvements in block material and computerized numeric control milling machines, the subtractive RP method may be a good choice for dental arch models. PMID:24696823

  3. Effects of early and late cheiloplasty on anterior part of maxillary dental arch development in infants with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study is to compare the impact of early and late reconstruction of complete unilateral cleft lip and palate on the growth and development of the front of the dentoalveolar arch. Methods. This study was carried out in the years 2012–2015 at the Clinic of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery in Banska Bystrica. Infants with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of lip reconstruction. Group A consisted of infants with early lip reconstruction–realised in the first 14 days of life. Group B consisted of infants with later lip reconstruction–realised in the third month of age. Maxillary dental casts were obtained for each child in four periods–in the first 14 days of life, in the third month, in the sixth month and in the age of one year. These were followed by the identification, measurement and evaluation of anthropometric parameters. Results. Significant differences were occurred after the reconstruction of the lips in linear and angle measurements between infants in the A and B groups. Conclusion. The early surgical reconstruction of the lips in the first 14 days of life has a positive effect on the growth and development of the anterior segment of the dentoalveolar arch. Early lip reconstruction forms a continuous pressure on the frontal segment, resulting in the earlier remedy of anatomical properties and creates appropriate conditions for the best development of this area. PMID:26893957

  4. [Accuracy of complete dental arch impressions and stone casts using a three-dimensional measurement system. Effect on accuracy of rubber impression materials and trays].

    PubMed

    Ishida, K

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the accuracy of complete dental arch impressions and stone casts made from two kinds of impression materials (addition type silicone and polysulfide rubber) and trays (custom tray and modified custom tray). In addition, the effect of quantity of gypsum was examined. Impressions were made from a metallic model of a simplified maxillary dentition. Impressions and stone casts were measured respectively using the three-dimensional measuring microscope. The results were as follows: 1. Distortion of impressions was so small that the reproducibility of impressions was superior three-dimensionally. 2. These kinds of impressions and trays did not influence the accuracy of impressions but had an effect on the accuracy of the stone casts. 3. Generally, the setting expansion of gypsum in the impression occurred in all directions. 4. Arch widths and lengths on the stone casts tended to increase in number. 5. Stone casts made from an addition/type silicone impression material and a custom tray were the most accurate because the combination of the impression material and tray effectively suppressed the setting expansion of gypsum. 6. By controlling the quantity of gypsum, the accuracy of stone casts could be improved.

  5. Accuracy of complete dental arch impressions and stone casts using a three-dimensional measurement system. Effects on accuracy of rubber impression materials and trays.

    PubMed

    Ishida, K

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the accuracy of complete dental arch impressions and stone casts made with two kinds of impression materials (addition-type silicone and polysulfide rubber) and trays (custom tray and modified custom tray). In addition, the effect of the quantity of stone was examined. Impressions were made from a metallic model of a simplified maxillary dentition. Impressions and stone casts were measured respectively with a three-dimensional measuring microscope. The results were as follows: 1. Distortions of impressions were so small that the reproducibilities of impressions were superior three-dimensionally. These kinds of impressions and trays did not influence the accuracy of impressions. 2. The setting expansion of the stone in the impression occurred in the outward direction and was affected by the kinds of impressions and trays. 3. The arch widths and lengths of the stone casts tended to increase in number. 4. Stone casts made with addition-type silicone impression material and a custom tray were the most accurate because the combination of the impression material and tray effectively suppressed the setting expansion of stone. 5. The accuracy of stone casts could be improved by controlling the quantity of stone.

  6. Restoration of the maxillary arch using implants, natural teeth and the Konus crown: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sethi, A; Sochor, P

    1994-03-01

    Restoring the maxillary arch by using a suprastructure retained by a Konus crown means that the patient can remove the crown for oral hygiene. This construction enables large embrasure spaces to be avoided without compromising phonetics, that is, without adversely affecting the patient's speech. It also enables the dental surgeon to monitor the tooth and implant abutments and the soft tissues around them. In this article we demonstrate successful restoration of the maxillary arch by the use of Konus crowns on a combination of implants and natural teeth.

  7. Intermaxillary fixation screws versus Erich arch bars in mandibular fractures: A comparative study and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Ahtesham Ahmad; Reddy, Umesh K.; Warad, N. M.; Badal, Sheeraz; Jamadar, Amjad Ali; Qurishi, Nilofar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Various techniques have been employed from time to time to achieve maxillomamdibular fixation. Although arch bars provide an effective and versatile means of maxillomandibular fixation, their use is not without shortcomings. However the introduction of intermaxillary fixation screws (IMF) has eliminated many of these issues of arch bars. The aim of the present study was to compare the advantages and disadvantages of intermaxillary fixation screws over the Erich arch bars in mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: Sixty dentulous patients who reported to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Ameen Dental College and Hospital, Bijapur with mandibular fractures and required intermaxillary fixation as a part of treatment plan followd by open reduction and internal fixation under GA were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients each that is Group A and Group B. Group A included patients who received intermaxillary fixation with Erich arch bars. Group B includes patients who received intermaxillary fixation with IMF Screws. The parameters compared in both the groups included, surgical time taken, gloves perforation, post-operative occlusion, IMF stability, oral hygiene, patient acceptance and comfort and non-vitality characteristics. Results: The average surgical time taken and gloves perforations were more in Group A,the patient acceptance and oral hygiene was better in Group B, there was not much statistically significant difference in postoperative occlusion and IMF stability in both groups. Accidental root perforation was the only limitation of IMF screws. Conclusion: Intermaxillary fixation with IMF screws is more efficacious compared to Erich arch bars in the treatment of mandibular fractures. PMID:27563602

  8. Validity and reliability of a three-dimensional dental cast simulator for arch dimension measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mahtab; Asefi, Sohrab; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Aminian, Amin; Shamsa, Mohammad; Massudi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accuracy and reproducibility of measurements in a locally made three dimensional (3D) simulator was assessed and compared with manual caliper measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 casts were scanned by our laser scanner. Software capabilities included dimensional measurements, transformation and rotation of the cast as a whole, separation and rotation of each tooth and clip far. Two orthodontists measured the intercanine width, intermolar width and canine, molar and arch depth on the casts and in 3D simulator. For calculating the reliability coefficient and comparing random and systematic errors between the two methods, intra-class correlation coefficient of reliability (ICC), Dahlberg and paired t-test were used, respectively. The ICC and Dahlberg's formula were also applied to assess intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability of measurements on the casts and in the simulator (P < 0.05). Results: Canine and molar depth measurements had low reliability on the casts. Reliability between methods for the remaining three variables was 0.87, 0.98 and 0.98 in the maxilla and 0.92, 0.77 and 0.94 in the mandible, respectively. The method error was between 0.31 and 0.48 mm. The mean intra-observer difference were 0.086 and 0.23 mm in the 3D method and caliper. The inter-observer differences were 0.21 and 0.42 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The maximum average absolute difference between the two methods was <0.5 mm, indicating that the new system is indeed clinically acceptable. The examiner reliability was higher in 3D measurements. PMID:25540660

  9. Comparison of arch form between ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Xinwei, Eunice Soh; Lim, Sheh Yinn; Jamaludin, Marhazlinda; Mohamed, Nor Himazian; Yusof, Zamros Yuzaidi Mohd; Shoaib, Lily Azura; Nik Hussein, Nik Noriah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare the frequency distribution of various arch shapes in ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia and to investigate the morphological differences of arch form between these two ethnic groups. Methods We examined 120 ethnic Malay study models (60 maxillary, 60 mandibular) and 129 Malaysian Aboriginal study models (66 maxillary, 63 mandibular). We marked 18 buccal tips and incisor line angles on each model, and digitized them using 2-dimensional coordinate system. Dental arches were classified as square, ovoid, or tapered by printing the scanned images and superimposing Orthoform arch templates on them. Results The most common maxillary arch shape in both ethnic groups was ovoid, as was the most common mandibular arch shape among ethnic Malay females. The rarest arch shape was square. Chi-square tests, indicated that only the distribution of the mandibular arch shape was significantly different between groups (p = 0.040). However, when compared using independent t-tests, there was no difference in the mean value of arch width between groups. Arch shape distribution was not different between genders of either ethnic group, except for the mandibular arch of ethnic Malays. Conclusions Ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines have similar dental arch dimensions and shapes. PMID:23112931

  10. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion with a memory palatal split screw on the morphology of the maxillary dental arch and nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Halicioğlu, Koray; Kiliç, Nihat; Yavuz, İbrahim; Aktan, Bülent

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with a memory palatal split screw on the morphology of the maxillary dental arch and nasal airway resistance (NAR). The material consisted of the rhinomanometric records and study models of 15 patients (8 females and 7 males) with mean age of 12.89 ± 1.20 years. Data were collected before expansion (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). Maxillary expansion was completed within 8 days in all subjects. The data were analysed by analysis of variance. The least significant difference test was also used to determine between which periods the changes in the measurements were significant. Statistical analyses showed that NAR decreased (P < 0.01) and intermolar and interpremolar distances increased (P < 0.001) significantly at all observation periods, except between T2 and T3. RME using a memory palatal split screw is effective for improvement of nasal respiration via a widening effect on the nasal cavity. PMID:20403958

  11. Double arch mirror study. Part 2: Engineering analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraninejad, B.; Vukobratovich, D.

    1983-01-01

    A method of mounting a cryogenically cooled, lightweight, double arch, class mirror for infrared, astronomical telescopes was developed. A 50 cm, fused silica mirror was modified for use in a new mount configuration. The flexures and the finite element analysis of the mirror stresses are reported.

  12. Computational Study of Growth and Remodeling in the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Patrick W.; Taber, Larry A.

    2009-01-01

    Opening angles (OAs) are associated with growth and remodeling in arteries. One curiosity has been the relatively large OAs found in the aortic arch of some animals. Here, we use computational models to explore the reasons behind this phenomenon. The artery is assumed to contain a smooth muscle/collagen phase and an elastin phase. In the models, growth and remodeling of smooth muscle/collagen depends on wall stress and fluid shear stress. Remodeling of elastin, which normally turns over very slowly, is neglected. The results indicate that OAs generally increase with longitudinal curvature (torus model), earlier elastin production during development, and decreased wall stiffness. Correlating these results with available experimental data suggests that all of these effects may contribute to the large OAs in the aortic arch. The models also suggest that the slow turnover rate of elastin limits longitudinal growth. These results should promote increased understanding of the causes of residual stress in arteries. PMID:18792831

  13. Double arch mirror study. Part 3: Fabrication and test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    A method of mounting a cryogenically cooled, lightweight, double arch, glass mirror was developed for infrared, astronomical telescopes such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). A 50 cm, fused silica mirror which was previously fabricated was modified for use with a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed. The modification of the mirror, the fabrication of the mirror mount, and the room temperature testing of the mounted mirror are reported. A design for a SIRTF class primary mirror is suggested.

  14. Medial Longitudinal Arch Angle Presents Significant Differences Between Foot Types: A Biplane Fluoroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Megan E R; Bushey, Kristen M; Dombroski, Colin E; LeBel, Marie-Eve; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2016-10-01

    The structure of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) affects the foot's overall function and its ability to dissipate plantar pressure forces. Previous research on the MLA includes measuring the calcaneal-first metatarsal angle using a static sagittal plane radiograph, a dynamic height-to-length ratio using marker clusters with a multisegment foot model, and a contained angle using single point markers with a multisegment foot model. The objective of this study was to use biplane fluoroscopy to measure a contained MLA angle between foot types: pes planus (low arch), pes cavus (high arch), and normal arch. Fifteen participants completed the study, five from each foot type. Markerless fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis (fRSA) was used with a three-dimensional model of the foot bones and manually matching those bones to a pair of two-dimensional radiographic images during midstance of gait. Statistically significant differences were found between barefoot arch angles of the normal and pes cavus foot types (p = 0.036), as well as between the pes cavus and pes planus foot types (p = 0.004). Dynamic walking also resulted in a statistically significant finding compared to the static standing trials (p = 0.014). These results support the classification of individuals following a physical assessment by a foot specialist for those with pes cavus and planus foot types. The differences between static and dynamic kinematic measurements were also supported using this novel method.

  15. Periodontal and dental effects of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, assessed by using digital study models

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Fernandes, Mariana dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the maxillary dental arch changes produced by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). METHODS: Dental casts from 18 patients (mean age of 23.3 years) were obtained at treatment onset (T1), three months after SARME (T2) and 6 months after expansion (T3). The casts were scanned in a 3D scanner (D-250, 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Maxillary dental arch width, dental crown tipping and height were measured and assessed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Increased transversal widths from T1 and T2 and the maintenance of these values from T2 and T3 were observed. Buccal teeth tipping also showed statistically significant differences, with an increase in all teeth from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3. No statistically significant difference was found for dental crown height, except for left first and second molars, although clinically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: SARME proved to be an effective and stable procedure, with minimum periodontal hazards. PMID:26154457

  16. Dental shape match rates in selected and orthodontically treated populations in New York State: a two-dimensional study.

    PubMed

    Sheets, H David; Bush, Peter J; Brzozowski, Cynthia; Nawrocki, Lillian A; Ho, Phyllis; Bush, Mary A

    2011-05-01

    Forensically identifying a suspect's dentition from a bitemark in an open population requires the supposition that every person's dental alignment is different. There have been few studies that have tested this claim. Four hundred and ten lower anterior dentitions from a selected population and 110 lower anterior dentitions from one that was orthodontically treated were measured using geometric morphometric analysis, allowing comparison of arch shape. Dental match rates of 1.46% and 42.7% of individuals were found in the respective populations, given an established measurement error. Orthodontic treatment had a strong effect on match rate suggesting that treated or naturally well-aligned dentitions may be indistinguishable. Sexual dimorphism was found to be only slightly significant. Principal shape variation in both populations was degree of arch curvature. Results of studying these populations show that dental matches can occur, and that statements of certainty concerning individualization in such populations should be approached with caution. PMID:21361951

  17. Double aortic arch

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic arch anomaly; Double arch; Congenital heart defect - double aortic arch; Birth defect heart - double aortic arch ... aorta is a single arch that leaves the heart and moves leftward. In double aortic arch, some ...

  18. Evaluation of arch width variations among different skeletal patterns in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Kannampallil, Senny Thomas; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anterior cranial base can be taken as a reference line (SN) to determine the steepness of mandibular plane. Subjects with high mandibular plane angle tend to have a long face and one with low MP-SN angle has a shorter face. Objective: This study was done to investigate if dental arch widths correlated with vertical facial types and if there are any differences in arch widths between untreated male and female adults in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalogram and dental casts were obtained from 180 untreated South Indian adults (90 males and 90 females) above 18 year old with no cross bite, minimal crowding and spacing. The angle between the anterior cranial base and the mandibular plane was measured on lateral cephalogram of each patient. Dental casts were used to obtain comprehensive dental measurements including maxillary and mandibular inter canine, inter premolar and inter molar widths, as well as amount of crowding or spacing. Results: The results showed that male arch widths were significantly larger than those of females (P < 0.05) and there was a significant decrease in inter arch width as the MP-SN angle increased in untreated adult South Indian population. The results obtained in our study when compared with studies done in other population groups showed that there is difference in inter arch widths according to ethnicity and race. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dental arch width is associated with gender, race and vertical facial morphology. Thus using individualized arch wires according to each patient's pre treatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment. PMID:23633842

  19. A quadrant tray and bite registration as an alternative to dual-arch impressions for fixed prosthetics: a clinical and dental laboratory technique.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Barry D; Myers, Michael L; Haywood, Van B

    2011-01-01

    To perform fixed prosthodontic procedures, dentists take a full-arch or quadrant impression and articulate the casts. The dual-arch impression technique is a popular quadrant technique for crown fabrication. The technique described in this article, which uses a quadrant impression and separate interocclusal record, offers several advantages over the traditional dual-arch method.

  20. Evaluation of nickel ion release from various orthodontic arch wires: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Senkutvan, R. S.; Jacob, Sanjay; Charles, Anila; Vadgaonkar, Vaishali; Jatol-Tekade, Suruchi; Gangurde, Parag

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The high incidence of nickel (Ni) allergy and the increasing use of Ni-containing dental biomaterials have been of growing concern. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze and evaluate the rate of Ni ion release from different types arch wires used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Four groups of arch wires (nickel titanium [NiTi], SS, Cu NiTi and ion implanted NiTi) with twelve samples were stored in artificial saliva with a pH 5.6-7.0 thermostated at (36.5°C) and tested at different intervals i.e., 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day. The amount of Ni and Ti ions released from the sample were evaluated using an atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The solution was replaced with a fresh bottle to avoid sediments. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric tests (Student's paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison test by Tukey “Honestly significant difference”). The statistical package SPSS PC plus (version 4.0.1) was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results showed significantly statistical influence on the release amount of Ni and Ti ions. Large variation in concentration of Ni released from brackets and bands combined. However, the amount of Ni ions released in all test solutions diminished with time and was below the critical value necessary to induce allergy and below daily dietary intake level. Conclusions: The daily release of NiTi, SS, Cu NiTi and ion implanted NiTi by an orthodontic appliance in acid pH, particularly favorable to corrosion, was well below that ingested with a normal daily diet. It is therefore concluded that the quantities of metal ions released in our experimental conditions should not be cause for concern in utilizing the appliance. PMID:24818088

  1. On the Chaotic Vibrations of Electrostatically Actuated Arch Micro/Nano Resonators: A Parametric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajaddodianfar, Farid; Hairi Yazdi, Mohammad Reza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat

    Motivated by specific applications, electrostatically actuated bistable arch shaped micro-nano resonators have attracted growing attention in the research community in recent years. Nevertheless, some issues relating to their nonlinear dynamics, including the possibility of chaos, are still not well known. In this paper, we investigate the chaotic vibrations of a bistable resonator comprised of a double clamped initially curved microbeam under combined harmonic AC and static DC distributed electrostatic actuation. A reduced order equation obtained by the application of the Galerkin method to the nonlinear partial differential equation of motion, given in the framework of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, is used for the investigation in this paper. We numerically integrate the obtained equation to study the chaotic vibrations of the proposed system. Moreover, we investigate the effects of various parameters including the arch curvature, the actuation parameters and the quality factor of the resonator, which are effective in the formation of both static and dynamic behaviors of the system. Using appropriate numerical tools, including Poincaré maps, bifurcation diagrams, Fourier spectrum and Lyapunov exponents we scrutinize the effects of various parameters on the formation of chaotic regions in the parametric space of the resonator. Results of this work provide better insight into the problem of nonlinear dynamics of the investigated family of bistable micro/nano resonators, and facilitate the design of arch resonators for applications such as filters.

  2. New classification of lingual arch form in normal occlusion using three dimensional virtual models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were 1) to classify lingual dental arch form types based on the lingual bracket points and 2) to provide a new lingual arch form template based on this classification for clinical application through the analysis of three-dimensional virtual models of normal occlusion sample. Methods Maxillary and mandibular casts of 115 young adults with normal occlusion were scanned in their occluded positions and lingual bracket points were digitized on the virtual models by using Rapidform 2006 software. Sixty-eight cases (dataset 1) were used in K-means cluster analysis to classify arch forms with intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar widths and width/depth ratios as determinants. The best-fit curves of the mean arch forms were generated. The remaining cases (dataset 2) were mapped into the obtained clusters and a multivariate test was performed to assess the differences between the clusters. Results Four-cluster classification demonstrated maximum intercluster distance. Wide, narrow, tapering, and ovoid types were described according to the intercanine and intermolar widths and their best-fit curves were depicted. No significant differences in arch depths existed among the clusters. Strong to moderate correlations were found between maxillary and mandibular arch widths. Conclusions Lingual arch forms have been classified into 4 types based on their anterior and posterior dimensions. A template of the 4 arch forms has been depicted. Three-dimensional analysis of the lingual bracket points provides more accurate identification of arch form and, consequently, archwire selection. PMID:25798413

  3. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ahmet A.; Keklik, Hakan; Tan, Enes; Ucar, Faruk I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III) and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III) subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth based on mandibular tooth thickness data. Four linear and two proportional measurements were taken. The subjects were grouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid and square) in order to have frequency distribution compared between ethnic groups in each Angle classification. Results: The Turkish group showed significantly lower molar depth and more significant molar width-depth (W/D) ratio in all three Angle classifications. On the other hand, the Turkish group also showed a significantly larger intercanine width in Class III malocclusion and intermolar width in Class II malocclusion. The most frequent arch forms seen were the ovoid arch form in the Turkish group and the tapered form in the white group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that when treating Turkish patients, one should expect to use preformed ovoid arch form orthodontic wires in a significant percentage of patients. PMID:27275615

  4. Educational material of dental anatomy applied to study the morphology of permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Siéssere, Selma; Vitti, Mathias; de Sousa, Luiz Gustavo; Semprini, Marisa; Regalo, Simone Cecílio Hallak

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present educational material that would allow the dental student to learn to easily identify the morphologic characteristics of permanent teeth, and how they fit together (occlusion). In order to do this, macro models of permanent teeth with no attrition were carved in wax and later molded with alginate. These molds were filled with plaster, dental stone and/or cold-cured acrylic resin. The large individual dental stone tooth models were mounted on a wax base, thus obtaining maxillary and mandibular arches which were occluded. These dental arches were molded with plaster or dental stone. The authors suggest that these types of macro models allow an excellent visualization of the morphologic characteristics of permanent teeth and occlusion. Dental students are able to carve the permanent dentition in wax with great facility when they can observe macro models.

  5. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction) studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp), to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders). It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction. PMID:25548769

  6. Calculus detection calibration among dental hygiene faculty members utilizing dental endoscopy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Partido, Brian B; Jones, Archie A; English, Dana L; Nguyen, Carol A; Jacks, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    Dental and dental hygiene faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction in the clinical environment, especially in tasks requiring clinical judgment. From previous efforts to calibrate faculty members in calculus detection using typodonts, researchers have suggested using human subjects and emerging technology to improve consistency in clinical instruction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a dental endoscopy-assisted training program would improve intra- and interrater reliability of dental hygiene faculty members in calculus detection. Training included an ODU 11/12 explorer, typodonts, and dental endoscopy. A convenience sample of six participants was recruited from the dental hygiene faculty at a California community college, and a two-group randomized experimental design was utilized. Intra- and interrater reliability was measured before and after calibration training. Pretest and posttest Kappa averages of all participants were compared using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA to determine the effectiveness of the calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability. The results showed that both kinds of reliability significantly improved for all participants and the training group improved significantly in interrater reliability from pretest to posttest. Calibration training was beneficial to these dental hygiene faculty members, especially those beginning with less than full agreement. This study suggests that calculus detection calibration training utilizing dental endoscopy can effectively improve interrater reliability of dental and dental hygiene clinical educators. Future studies should include human subjects, involve more participants at multiple locations, and determine whether improved rater reliability can be sustained over time. PMID:25640616

  7. Effect of 5 years of dental studies on the oral health of Tunisian dental students.

    PubMed

    Maatouk, F; Maatouk, W; Ghedira, H; Ben Mimoun, S

    2006-09-01

    This study is a follow-up of one made in 1998-99 on first-year dental students in Monastir. Now in their fifth year, we assessed the effect of dental studies on students' oral health practices and dental health. Of the 155 students in the first study, 140 were still enrolled. Periodontal troubles, malocclusion and dental decay affected 84.3%, 80.0% and 43.0% of the students respectively. Compared with the previous study, students had achieved a better dental health status--tooth brushing rate was much higher, prevalence of dental decay and periodontal pockets had decreased, and DMF index had improved. However, the prevalence of smoking, bleeding and calculus had not changed, and the frequency of malocclusion had increased.

  8. A Comparative Study of Bio Degradation of Various Orthodontic Arch Wires: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gopikrishnan, S; Melath, Anil; Ajith, V V; Mathews, N Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthodontic wires are the corner stones of the science and art of orthodontics and they remain in the patient’s mouth for a prolonged period of 18-24 months. It is but natural to expect that they will undergo some biodegradation when in the oral environment during that period. This study aims to compare the biodegradation characteristics of four different orthodontic wires, stainless steel, nickel titanium (NiTi), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), and copper NiTi and to assess whether these biodegradation products, are within acceptable limits. Materials and Methods: This study involved the incubation of four different wires in artificial saliva and analyzing the amount of metal released from them at the end of a 28 days study period. The metals analyzed for where nickel, chromium, copper, cobalt, manganese, iron, molybdenum, and titanium. The artificial saliva was changed on days 7, 14, and 21 to prevent the saturation of metals in the artificial saliva. At the end of 28 days, these four samples of artificial saliva of each wire were mixed together and analyzed for the eight metals using an inductively coupled plasma spectroscope. Results: The results showed only the release of nickel, chromium, and iron from stainless steel wire, nickel from NiTi wire, nickel, and chromium from copper NiTi and none from TMA wire. Conclusion: The metals released from arch wires are of such minute quantities to be of any biologic hazard. The amount of metals released is well within acceptable biocompatible limits. Though this study has analyzed the biodegradation of various orthodontic wires, orthodontic wires are never used alone in mechanotherapy. Orthodontic wires along with multiband appliance system with which it is always used and in combination with accessories like face bows may release more metals. PMID:25709360

  9. Atresia of the Aortic Arch in 4-Year-Old Child: A Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Stimato, Vittoria; Didier, Dominique; Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect with a high mortality when associated with other intracardiac defects. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides the exact anatomy of the aortic arch and collateral circulation and is useful to diagnose-associated aortic arch anomalies. This report describes the case of a 4-year-old child with atresia of the aortic arch, referred to our institution with the diagnosis of aortic coarctation and bicuspid aortic valve. On clinical exam, the femoral pulses were not palpable and there was a significant differential blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs. The echocardiography showed a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve but was limited for the exact description of the aortic arch. CMR showed absence of lumen continuity between the ascending and descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, extending over 5 mm, with the presence of a bend in the arch and diverticulum on either side of the zone of discontinuity, suggesting the diagnosis atresia of the aortic arch rather than coarctation or interruption. The patient benefited from a successful surgical commissurotomy of the aortic valve and reconstruction of the aortic arch with a homograft. The post-operative CMR confirmed the good surgical result. This case emphasizes the utility of CMR to provide good anatomical information to establish the exact diagnosis and the operative strategy. PMID:25853109

  10. Three-dimensional dental arch and palatal form changes after extraction and nonextraction treatment. Part 2. Palatal volume and height.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Wolfgang; Niederwanger, Andreas; Bancher, Beatrix; Bittermann, Gabriele; Neunteufel, Nikolaus; Kulmer, Siegfried

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in palatal volume and palatal height in patients treated with and without premolar extractions. Records were collected at pretreatment, at bracket removal, at the end of retention, and 5 years out of retention. Stone casts were mounted in a SAM 2 articulator with an anatomic face-bow and a central wax record, and measurements were made with a 3-dimensional digitizer. The hypothesis, that orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions changes the palatal form, was verified. Increases in palatal volume and height were demonstrated in the nonextraction group. The extraction group showed a decrease in palatal volume but could compensate for some loss by an increase in volume in the anterior segment.

  11. Dentoalveolar mandibular changes with self-ligating versus conventional bracket systems: A CBCT and dental cast study

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Futagami, Cristina; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare dentoalveolar changes in mandibular arch, regarding transversal measures and buccal bone thickness, in patients undergoing the initial phase of orthodontic treatment with self-ligating or conventional bracket systems. METHODS: A sample of 25 patients requiring orthodontic treatment was assessed based on the bracket type. Group 1 comprised 13 patients bonded with 0.022-in self-ligating brackets (SLB). Group 2 included 12 patients bonded with 0.022-in conventional brackets (CLB). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and a 3D program (Dolphin) assessed changes in transversal width of buccal bone (TWBB) and buccal bone thickness (BBT) before (T1) and 7 months after treatment onset (T2). Measurements on dental casts were performed using a digital caliper. Differences between and within groups were analyzed by Student's t-test; Pearson correlation coefficient was also calculated. RESULTS: Significant mandibular expansion was observed for both groups; however, no significant differences were found between groups. There was significant decrease in mandibular buccal bone thickness and transversal width of buccal bone in both groups. There was no significant correlation between buccal bone thickness and dental arch expansion. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences between self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets systems regarding mandibular arch expansion and changes in buccal bone thickness or transversal width of buccal bone. PMID:26154456

  12. Wellness Among Dental Students: An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter L; Shaddox, Luciana M; Garvan, Cynthia W; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2016-09-01

    The high prevalence of distress among health professionals during their education has fostered increased interest in the study of student well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the self-perceived wellness of dental students and determine the relationship between factors affecting wellness and demographic variables. An online questionnaire was distributed to 334 first-through fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school. The questionnaire consisted of modified versions of the Perceived Wellness Survey, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and Mental Health Inventory and also collected demographic information. The response rate was 78% (N=261). More than 80% of the respondents reported that they were happy all, most, or a good bit of the time. These students exhibited a strong sense of self-worth, were positive about their friendships, and perceived they had good social support. Less than 20% of respondents did not view their physical health as excellent and identified a lack of self-perceived wellness. First-year and single students reported statistically less social support. Students who were parents perceived their wellness less favorably. Hispanic and Asian students were less happy regarding their mental health than white and African American students. These findings suggest that students, especially Hispanic and Asian students, may benefit from programs that promote student well-being. Academic programs that encourage students to work together and promote peer-to-peer involvement may be beneficial, especially for first-year and single students. PMID:27587579

  13. A controlled study of associated dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, T

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal patterns of association among seven types of dental anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, ectopic eruption of first molars, supernumerary teeth, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines) in an untreated orthodontic population, ages 7 to 14. The prevalence of associated tooth anomalies in seven groups of 100 subjects selected according to one primarily diagnosed dental anomaly was compared with the prevalence of the examined dental anomalies in a control group of 1,000 subjects. Significant reciprocal associations (p < 0.005) were found among five of the anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines), suggesting a common genetic origin for these conditions. Supernumerary teeth appeared to be a separate etiological entity with respect to all other examined tooth anomalies. The existence of associations between different tooth anomalies is clinically relevant, as the early diagnosis of one anomaly may indicate an increased risk for others. PMID:9622764

  14. Prevalence of dental erosions in GERD: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    PICOS, ALINA M.; POENAR, SIMINA; OPRIS, ALEXANDRA; CHIRA, ALEXANDRA; BUD, MARIUS; BERAR, ANTONELA; PICOS, ANDREI; DUMITRASCU, DAN L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental erosions are determined by a mechanism involving increased oral acidity. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) represents the pathological reflux of gastric content into the oral cavity, affecting the hard dental tissues integrity, with a major risk of advanced tooth wear. Aim This study aims to investigate the prevalence of dental erosions in GERD patients, in order to obtain a basis for therapeutic strategies and specific prophylactic measures. Methods We incorporated a mandatory dental consultation in the therapeutic protocol of GERD patients. The study was carried out in a group of 60 patients with GERD. Dental examination of these patients revealed 21 cases showing visible dental erosions. The control group included 60 patients, without GERD, age and sex matched. All examinations were carried out in a tertiary center by the same team of dentists, instructed in dental erosion recognition and questionnaire administration. Results The dental erosion prevalence in patients with GERD was 35%. In the control group, erosions were 13% (OR: 3.6); 67% of patients with dental erosions were females and 33% were males. Middle age showed the highest risk for dental erosions, with peaks in the fourth and sixth decades. Conclusions The risk of dental erosion was significantly higher in GERD patients as compared to the control group. The sex ratio shows a higher prevalence of erosion in females PMID:26527975

  15. Long-term changes in arch form after orthodontic treatment and retention.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, A; Sampson, P; Little, R M; Artun, J; Shapiro, P A

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term stability of orthodontically induced changes in maxillary and mandibular arch form. Dental casts were evaluated before treatment, after treatment, and a minimum of 10 years after retention for 45 patients with Class I and 42 Class II, Division 1 malocclusions who received four first premolar extraction treatment. Computer generated arch forms were used to assess changes in arch shape over time. Buccal cusp tips of first molars, premolars, and canines plus mesial, distal, and central incisal aspects of incisors were marked, photocopied, and digitized in a standardized manner. An algorithm was used to fit conic sections to the digitized points. The shape of the fitted conics at each time period was described by calculating the parameter eccentricity; a small value represented a more rounded shape and a larger value represented a more tapered shape. Findings demonstrated a rounding of arch form during treatment followed by a change to more tapered. Arch form tended to return toward the pretreatment shape after retention. The greater the treatment change, the greater the tendency for postretention change. However, individual variation was considerable. The patient's pretreatment arch form appeared to be the best guide to future arch form stability, but minimizing treatment change was no guarantee of postretention stability.

  16. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  17. [Comparative analysis of 3D data accuracy of single tooth and full dental arch captured by different intraoral and laboratory digital impression systems].

    PubMed

    Parunov, V A; Yurkovets, P V; Lebedenko, I Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine changes in physical and mechanical properties of dental alloys depending of the initial composition at re-casting. Russianc precious alloys: Plagodent (AuPtPd) and Palladent (PdAu) and base alloys: Vitiriy-N (NiCrMo) and Vitiriy-C (CoCrMo) were used as study samples, which were divided in three groups: a primary casting from the granules; 50% of re-casting; 100% of re-casting. We investigated the yield strength in bending, coefficient of thermal expansion and hardness. Changing in the composition of the alloys has led to changes of all physical and mechanical properties. PMID:27636767

  18. [Comparative analysis of 3D data accuracy of single tooth and full dental arch captured by different intraoral and laboratory digital impression systems].

    PubMed

    Parunov, V A; Yurkovets, P V; Lebedenko, I Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine changes in physical and mechanical properties of dental alloys depending of the initial composition at re-casting. Russianc precious alloys: Plagodent (AuPtPd) and Palladent (PdAu) and base alloys: Vitiriy-N (NiCrMo) and Vitiriy-C (CoCrMo) were used as study samples, which were divided in three groups: a primary casting from the granules; 50% of re-casting; 100% of re-casting. We investigated the yield strength in bending, coefficient of thermal expansion and hardness. Changing in the composition of the alloys has led to changes of all physical and mechanical properties.

  19. Study on Optimal Grouting Timing for Controlling Uplift Deformation of a Super High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Li, Qingbin; Liu, Hongyuan; Yu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    A grouting model is developed for use during the grouting of the complex foundation of a super high arch dam. The purpose as to determine the optimal grouting timing and appropriate grouting pressure involved in controlling the uplift deformation of the dam. The model determines the optimal grouting time as the height of the arch dam increases with the concrete pouring, by checking the tensile stresses in the dam against standard specifications. The appropriate grouting pressures are given on the basis of the actual grouting pressures monitored during the upstream riverbed foundation grouting. An engineering procedure, applying the model, was then proposed and used during foundation grouting under the toe block of the Xiluodu super high-arch dam in south-western China. The quality of the foundation grouting was evaluated against the results from pressurized water permeability tests, acoustic wave velocity tests, elastic modulus tests and panoramic photographing of the rockmass on completion of the foundation grouting. The results indicated that the proposed grouting model can be applied to effectively reduce the uplift deformation and associated cracking risk for super high arch dams, and it can be concluded that the proposed engineering grouting procedure is a valuable tool for improving foundation grouting under the toe blocks of a super high arch dam.

  20. Applications of ARCH and GARCH time series analysis methods in study of Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefty, J.; Kormonikova, M.; Bognár, T.

    Non-linear methods of Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) modelling are applied for analysis of short-term (periods <100 days) fluctuations of ERP. It is shown that 1-day sampled time series of x, y, and UT1R from 1993.0 to 1999.3 can be modelled as linear autoregressive process and non-linear time dependent variance. The latter is well modelled as GARCH(1,1) process for x and y and ARCH(2) process for UT1R.

  1. Gender identification and morphologic classification of tooth, arch and palatal forms in Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Aljanakh; Koralakunte, Pavankumar Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To determine various tooth form, arch form, and palatal form with gender identification between males and females of the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: Irreversible hydrocolloid impressions were made of the maxillary teeth of 100 dentate male and female subjects to obtain study casts. A standardized procedure was adopted to photograph the maxillary dental arches and the maxillary central incisors on the study casts taken from each subject. The outline form of tooth, arch, and palatal form were determined using a standardized method. The average of six prosthodontist's evaluation was considered who classified the outline tracings visually. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square and results tabulated. Results: The predominant tooth is combination form in males and ovoid form in females, the predominant arch is ovoid form in males and square form in females and the predominant palatal form are both U and V shaped in males and U-shaped in females. Conclusion: Except for the tooth form there was a significant difference with arch and palatal form among males and females of the population group studied. The determined tooth, arch and palatal forms are useful in selection and arrangement of artificial teeth among Saudi edentulous population group. Generalizing from the study is questionable as the sample size is small. Further studies should be conducted in a larger sample to confirm the study results PMID:26538903

  2. Income, income inequality, dental caries and dental care levels: an ecological study in rich countries.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Sheiham, A; Sabbah, W

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that beyond a certain level of absolute income, there is a weak relationship between income and population health. On the other hand, relative income or income inequality is more strongly related to health than absolute income in rich countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships of income and income inequality with dental caries and dental care levels in 35- to 44-year-old adults among rich countries. Income was assessed by gross domestic product and gross national income, income inequality by Gini coefficient and the ratio between the income of the richest and poorest 20% of the population, dental caries by DMFT and dental care levels by the care, restorative and treatment indices. Pearson and partial correlation were used to examine the relationships between income, income inequality, caries experience and dental care. Income measures were not related to either dental caries or dental care levels. However, income inequality measures were inversely and significantly related to number of filled teeth, DMFT, care index and restorative index, but not to number of decayed or missing teeth. It is concluded that DMFT scores were higher in more equal countries and may be explained by greater levels of restorative care in those countries.

  3. [Microscopic studies of the structures of different dental floss types].

    PubMed

    Dörfer, C; Böök, M; Staehle, H J

    1993-01-01

    26 different dental flosses, made from silk, polyamide (Nylon) or Teflon, were analyzed with respect to their surface structure and their cross-section. Principally, two different types of manufacturing could be distinguished. The dental flosses either consisted of a large number of individual fibers, or a single, falted membrane. Even flosses that were manufactured in the same manner revealed considerable differences. Apart from the chemical composition, the structure of dental flosses is decisive for their use and this is why an exact classification would be desirable. In this study the requirements for classifying dental flosses are provided.

  4. Do dental students use optimal study strategies?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Maureen; Kamboj, Rajit S; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2015-01-01

    Research on human learning has shown that repeated retrieval practice or self-testing maximizes learning. However, recent studies have found undergraduate students to be largely unaware of the benefits of self-testing. The aim of this study was to examine dental students' study strategies and utilization of retrieval techniques for learning. All second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry were invited to participate. Of the total 360 students, 66 completed the two-question survey, for a response rate of 18.3%. The first question asked students to choose from a list of twelve study strategies the ones they used and to rank their top five in order of personal preference. Repeated reading was the most frequently used strategy with 83.3% of students reporting that they used it and 43.9% naming it as their top strategy. Of these students, 45.5% indicated that they self-tested while studying, but none indicated it was their number one strategy. The second question asked students how they would study after reading a textbook chapter for the first time. They were asked to choose one option from three possibilities: going back and restudying, self-testing (with the possibility of restudying afterward), or some other strategy. On this question, 25.8% chose restudying, 45.5% chose self-testing, and 28.8% indicated they would use another study strategy. Thus, 54.6% of the students reported they would not test themselves after reading a textbook chapter. Of those who chose self-testing, only seven students indicated they would do so to improve learning. The results of this study suggest that the students lacked sufficient awareness of the superiority of self-testing for learning.

  5. Do dental students use optimal study strategies?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Maureen; Kamboj, Rajit S; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2015-01-01

    Research on human learning has shown that repeated retrieval practice or self-testing maximizes learning. However, recent studies have found undergraduate students to be largely unaware of the benefits of self-testing. The aim of this study was to examine dental students' study strategies and utilization of retrieval techniques for learning. All second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry were invited to participate. Of the total 360 students, 66 completed the two-question survey, for a response rate of 18.3%. The first question asked students to choose from a list of twelve study strategies the ones they used and to rank their top five in order of personal preference. Repeated reading was the most frequently used strategy with 83.3% of students reporting that they used it and 43.9% naming it as their top strategy. Of these students, 45.5% indicated that they self-tested while studying, but none indicated it was their number one strategy. The second question asked students how they would study after reading a textbook chapter for the first time. They were asked to choose one option from three possibilities: going back and restudying, self-testing (with the possibility of restudying afterward), or some other strategy. On this question, 25.8% chose restudying, 45.5% chose self-testing, and 28.8% indicated they would use another study strategy. Thus, 54.6% of the students reported they would not test themselves after reading a textbook chapter. Of those who chose self-testing, only seven students indicated they would do so to improve learning. The results of this study suggest that the students lacked sufficient awareness of the superiority of self-testing for learning. PMID:25576550

  6. Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires

    PubMed Central

    Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

    2007-01-01

    Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots. PMID:19662123

  7. Carbon Dioxide in the Aortic Arch: Coronary Effects and Implications in a Swine Study

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, William C. Porter, Thomas R.; Culp, William C.; Vonk, Brian N.

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: CO{sub 2} angiography is considered dangerous in the aortic arch where bubbles may cause critical cerebral and cardiac ischemia. We investigated CO{sub 2}distribution, physiologic effects in the heart, methods of detection and treatments. Methods: Eight pigs had CO{sub 2}and iodinated contrast arch angiograms in supine and both lateral decubitus positions. An electrocardiogram, physiologic data and cardiac ultrasound were obtained. Therapies included precordial thumps and rolls to lateral decubitus positions. Results: Supine high descending aorta CO{sub 2} injections floated retrograde up the arch during diastole and preferentially filled the right coronary artery (RCA): mean score 3.5 (of 4), in nominate artery 2.4, left coronary artery 1.2; n = 17; p = 0.0001. Aortic root injections preferentially filled the RCA when the animal was supine, left coronary in the right decubitus position, and showed a diffuse pattern in the left decubitus position. Right decubitus rolls filled both coronaries causing several lethal arrhythmias. Precordialthumps successfully cleared CO{sub 2}. Ultrasound is a sensitive detector of myocardial CO{sub 2}. Conclusion: Arch distribution of CO{sub 2} primarily involves the RCA. Diagnostic ultrasound detects cardiac CO{sub 2} well. Precordial thumps are an effective treatment.

  8. Challenges to dental access - England as a case study.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Raman

    2006-06-01

    Access to dental services because of an insufficient workforce is a historic challenge faced by many developing countries. In recent years, however, it has become a major issue for many industrialized countries. The growing demand for cosmetic dentistry, an increase in patients' willingness to pay for dental treatment, and growing numbers of older dentate patients have all put pressure on dental systems. Ways of meeting these challenges and ensuring reasonable dental access will vary from country to country, but the solutions often lie in how the dental workforce is regulated. This case study of the dental reforms currently being implemented in England highlights progress at a particular point in time (Summer 2005). It is clear that it will take a number of years to find a new national dental payment system (the National Health Service) to replace the system which has changed little since 1948. However, the political pressure to address poor access to state-funded dental services calls for more immediate actions. The initial approach was to increase the dental workforce via international recruitment, and in the medium term to increase the number of dental students in training and to expand the numbers of other members of the dental team. An additional stratagem is to retain those already providing dental care under the National Health Service by the introduction of a new method of remuneration. England is trying to improve both access to care and the oral health of the population by creating a workforce more suitable to public demands and changing oral health needs. PMID:16674754

  9. Dental x-ray validation study: comparison of information from patient interviews and dental charts

    SciTech Connect

    Preston-Martin, S.; Bernstein, L.; Maldonado, A.A.; Henderson, B.E.; White, S.C.

    1985-03-01

    Information was collected from dentists of a subset of participants in a case-control interview study conducted in Los Angeles County, California, in August 1980-August 1981 to evaluate the relationship of dental x-rays to tumors of the parotid gland. Complete dental charts were available from 142 dentists of 84 cases and from 130 dentists of 79 control. Analysis of data from these interview chart comparisons indicates that recall appears to be unbiased since the measures of agreement between interview and dental chart data are similar for cases and controls. The authors further conclude that interview data alone may be used for case-control comparisons of dental x-ray exposure and would, because of unbiased misclassification, tend to underestimate the relative risks. 12 references, 3 tables.

  10. Quantitative effects of a nickel-titanium palatal expander on skeletal and dental structures in the primary and mixed dentition: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Garattini, Giovanna; Colombo, Anna; Filippi, Vittorio; Pozzoli, Silvio; Sforza, Chiarella

    2003-08-01

    The present study analysed the six-month effects of a nickel-titanium (NiTi) palatal expander on the dental and palatal structures of four primary (mean age 5.8 years) and nine mixed dentition children (mean age 8.7 years), with a posterior unilateral crossbite. Standardized dental and palatal landmarks were digitized using a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic instrument. Collected data were analysed with geometric-mathematical models. During a six-month interval, the natural growth and development of the dental arches and hard tissue palate was negligible, as assessed in seven control children (two in the primary dentition, mean age 4.4 years; five in the mixed dentition, mean age 7.7 years). In all children the crossbite was completely corrected. Indeed, dental expansion was always more than or corresponded to the palatal expansion. A smoothing of the size-independent (shape) palatal curvature in the transverse plane was observed. No differences in maximum palatal height were noted. Symmetrical derotation of the anchorage teeth in a distal direction occurred in almost all children. The inclination of the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) in the anatomical transverse plane of those teeth with differences between dental and palatal expansion always showed significant modifications (vestibular inclination up to 16.7 degrees). The clinical crown height of anchorage teeth remained nearly the same in all patients. No significant modifications in mandibular arch size were observed. The increase in maxillary arch width, especially in younger children, was probably due to a combination of different effects: opening of the midpalatal suture, tipping of the alveolar process, and molar tipping.

  11. Dental erosion: a case study of a marathon runner.

    PubMed

    Moore, D; Wilson, M A

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a recreational runner who unwittingly has caused severe damage to her dentition through her lifestyle and dietary habits. It should serve as a reminder to all dental practitioners that dental problems occur even in patients who seem to be following a healthy lifestyle.

  12. Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital models and 3D printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether 3D printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible 3D printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available 3D printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from the Orthodontic department, Department of Stomatology, 2nd medical Faulty, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic. Material and methods Each of 10 plaster casts were scanned by inEos Blue scanner and the printed on 3D printer RepRap [10 models] and ProJet HD3000 3D printer [1 model]. Linear measurements between selected points on the dental arches of upper and lower jaws on plaster casts and its 3D copy were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results 3D printed copies have many advantages over traditional plaster casts. The precision and accuracy of the RepRap 3D printed copies of plaster casts were confirmed based on the statistical analysis. Although the commercially available 3D printing enables to print more details than the RepRap system, it is expensive and for the purpose of clinical use can be replaced by the cheaper prints obtained from RepRap printed copies. Conclusions Scanning of the traditional plaster casts to obtain a digital model offers a pragmatic approach. The scans can subsequently be used as a template to print the plaster casts as required. Using 3D printers can replace traditional plaster casts primarily due to their accuracy and price. PMID:23721330

  13. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Khosravifard, Negar; Golkari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. Aim: To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all 8-10 year olds was calculated from patients’ dental models. Thirty-six children were randomly selected from those with TSALD of equal or less than 4mm (those with crowding). Each selected case was matched for sex and age with another child (as control) with TSALD>−4mm attending the same clinic, in the same time period. The existing panoramic radiographs were traced and the eruption percentages were measured for mandibular canine and first premolar teeth. The mean difference between canine and first premolar eruption percentages was compared between the case and control groups using the SPSS (version PASW 18) software and a paired sample t-test. Results: Canine and first premolar eruption percentages in the case group were 65.82±13.00 and 78.92±10.15 percent, respectively. The mean eruption percentages for canines and first premolars of the control group were 74.12±14.55 and 75.47±11.60 percent, respectively. There was a significant difference in pre-eruptive positions of canine and first premolar teeth in those with moderate to severe crowding when compared to the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings may improve the early diagnosis of children with high risk of developing moderate to severe crowding during mixed dentition. PMID:25110582

  14. Choosing indicators of natural resource condition: A case study in Arches National Park, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy visitor use in many areas of the world have necessitated development of ways to assess visitation impacts. Arches National Park recently completed a Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) plan. Integral to this plan was developing a method to identify biological indicators that would both measure visitor impacts and response to management actions. The process used in Arches for indicator selection is outlined here as a model applicable to many areas facing similar challenges. The steps were: (1) Vegetation types most used by visitors were identified. Impacted and unimpacted areas in these types were sampled, comparing vegetation and soil factors. (2) Variables found to differ significantly between compared sites were used as potential indicators. (3) Site-specific criteria for indicators were developed, and potential indicators evaluated using these criteria. (4) Chosen indicators were further researched for ecological relevancy. (5) Final indicators were chosen, field tested, and monitoring sites designated. In Arches, indicators were chosen for monitoring annually (soil crust index, soil compaction, number of used social trails and soil aggregate stability) and every five years (vegetation cover and frequency; ground cover; soil chemistry; and plant tissue chemistry).

  15. Oral cavity evaluation and dental chart registration of coati (Nasua nasua) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Elisângela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Mendes, Guilherme M; Gioso, Marco A

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a dental evaluate any oral cavity disease, develop gypsum models of the dental arches, and to register the occlusions found in coatis (Nasua nasua) in captivity Formulation of the dental chart was assisted by intraoral radiographs from the head of an adult coati cadaver of the same species with the following dental formula.: I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2. Seven live coatis of the Nasua nasua species were evaluated. Five of the seven coatis presented with various dental abnormalities as follows: dental plaque (71.4 0%), gingivitis (71.4 %), periodontitis (57.1 %), dental stain (42.9 %), dental abrasion (57.1 %), dental fracture (57.1 %), pulp exposure (42.9 %), malocclusion (57.1 %) and supernumerary teeth (14.2 %). PMID:18751661

  16. [Study progress of dental pulp stem cells in tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Shiyu, Shi; Jiamin, Xie

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, modern tissue engineering is becoming emerging and developing rapidly, and the acquisition, cultivation and differentiation of seed cells is the premise and foundation of the construction of tissue engineering, so more and more scholars pay attention to stem cells as seed cells for tissue engineering construction. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) is a kind of adult stem cells derived from dental pulp, and as a new kind of seed cells of tissue engineering, the study of DPSCs presents important significance in tissue and organ regeneration. In this review, we introduced the progress of studies on dental pulp stem cells and discussed their clinical application prospects. PMID:27051964

  17. The ARCHES Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, C.; Arches Consortium

    2015-09-01

    The Astronomical Resource Cross-matching for High Energy Studies (ARCHES) project is a FP7-Space funded programme started in 2013 and involving the Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg including the CDS (France), the Leibniz- Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (Germany), the University of Leicester (UK), the Universidad de Cantabria (IFCA, Spain) and the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (Spain). ARCHES will provide the international astronomical community with well-characterised multi-wavelength data in the form of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for large samples of objects extracted from the 3XMM X-ray catalogue of serendipitous sources. The project develops new tools implementing fully probabilistic simultaneous cross-correlation of several catalogues and a multi-wavelength finder for clusters of galaxies. SEDs are based on an enhanced version of the 3XMM catalogue and on a careful selection of the most relevant multi-wavelength archival catalogues. In order to ensure the largest audience, SEDs will be distributed to the international community through CDS services and through the Virtual Observatory. These enhanced resources are tested in the framework of several science cases. More information may be found at http://www.arches-fp7.eu/

  18. Experimental Study on Cracking, Reinforcement, and Overall Stability of the Xiaowan Super-High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhou, Weiyuan; Liu, Hongyuan

    2015-03-01

    The Xiaowan super-high arch dam has faced challenging construction problems. Here, we provide a scientifically-based reference for applying geomechanical model testing to support the nonlinear design of super-high arch dams. We applied experimental similarity theory and techniques. Based on four 3D geomechanical model tests, the dam stress characteristics, deformation distribution, and the safety factors of the dam foundation were identified and compared. We also analyzed cracking characteristics of the up- and downstream dam surfaces and induced joints in the dam heel, the rock mass failure process of the dam-foundation interface, and the abutments. We propose foundation reinforcement measures for weak rock masses, alteration zones, and other faults in the abutments based on the 3D and plane tests each at a different elevation. The results show that all dam deformations remained normal with no yielding or tensile cracking under a normal water load. The reinforced rock mass increased the crack initial safety in the dam heel and toe by ~20 %. The minimum crack initial safety factor ( K 1) of the dam heel was 1.4. The induced joint in the dam heel contributed to a reduction in tensile stress at the upstream dam heel, improving K 1. Compared with similar projects following reinforcement measures, the abutment stiffness and overall stability of the Xiaowan arch dam satisfy operational requirements. Four years of monitoring operations show that key areas near the dam remained normal and the dam foundation is functioning well. Our results may also be applicable to the design and construction of similar projects worldwide.

  19. Computational Study of Non-Physiological Hemodynamics in the Cephalic Arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Mahmoudzadeh, S. M. Javid; Hammes, Mary

    2012-11-01

    Numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are performed for the flow in a two-dimensional geometry created from radiological images and Doppler flow measurements of the cephalic arch in dialysis patients with a brachiocephalic fistula (surgically placed direct arterial-venous connection). The simulations are performed before insertion of the fistula and at subsequent time intervals as the cephalic vein arterializes over a period of three to six months. A mature fistula, with increased diameter and flow rate, can exhibit Reynolds numbers that are more than one order of magnitude larger than that of the pre-fistula vein. We evaluate the effect of this increased (physiologically abnormal) Reynolds number on flow structures and wall shear stresses through the curved cephalic arch, which is a site prone to stenosis in fistula patients. The long-term goal is to investigate if the development of initimal hyperplasia and stenoses correlates with wall shear stresses or other hemodynamic variables obtained using computational hemodynamics. Research supported by the National Institute of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01DK090769.

  20. Dental Health Status and Treatment Needs of Police Personnel of a North Indian State: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sohi, RK; Gambhir, RS; Sogi, GM; Veeresha, KL; Randhawa, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Police personnel form the backbone for safety and security of a community hence their health is of utmost importance. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of police personnel employed in police stations of three districts within 35 km radius around Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all the available police personnel at various police stations. Final sample size comprised of 652 subjects. The data were recorded on modified World Health Organization format (1997). Results: The mean age of subjects was 41.02 years (standard deviation = 12.29), 98.9% (645/652) were males and 1.1% (7/652) were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 54.3% (352/652) and the mean decayed, missing and filled teeth was 3.05. Mean number of teeth requiring filling and extraction were 0.44 and 0.67 respectively. Only 2.92% (19/652) of subjects possessed prosthesis in mandibular arch and a same number of individuals possessed prosthesis in maxillary arch. Regarding highest community periodontal index (CPI) score, 23.6% (153/652) subjects had a healthy periodontium whereas maximum subjects (61.3%, 398/652) had a CPI score 2. Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was quite high. Despite a high prosthetic need, only a small number of subjects possessed dental prosthesis. Overall periodontal status was satisfactory with a high number of subjects having completely healthy periodontium. PMID:25221706

  1. The anatomical evaluation of the dental arches using cone beam computed tomography - an investigation of the availability of bone for placement of mini-screws

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the amount of maxillary and mandibular inter-radicular bone mass and determine the most reliable mini-screw placement sites. Materials and methods Retrospective Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images of 40 Angle Class I subjects (20 females, 20 males, aged 16 to 32) were obtained. Measurements on the buccal (BI), medial (MI) and lingual (LI) sides of the inter-radicular spaces were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mm from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) in an apical direction. Results The male and female BI scores ranged from 2.99±0.73 mm to 6.18±1.03 mm and 2.69±0.84 mm to 6.21±1.22 mm respectively. The male and female MI scores ranged from 1.36±0.38 mm to 4.50±0.99 and 1.53±0.66 to 4.77±1.99 mm respectively. LI scores ranged from 2.37±0.70 to 6.47±1.0 mm and 2.45±0.56 mm and 6.66±1.33 mm respectively. In both maxillary and mandibular arch, the inter-radicular space increased in the apical direction except for the buccal and medial inter-radicular spaces between the maxillary first and second molars. Conclusion The medial inter-radicular spaces are the decisive parameter for mini-screw placement. In the maxillary arch, regions between central and lateral incisors, lateral incisor and canine, first and second molars are not viable for mini-screw insertion. The residual inter-radicular regions are proper for implantation at 3 mm above the CEJ. In the mandible, the regions between incisors and canines are too narrow for mini-screw insertion and the reliable sites for mini-screws are regions between premolars, molars or first molar and second premolar at 2 mm below the CEJ. PMID:23601073

  2. Dental care utilization: a study of 50- to 75-year-olds in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bagewitz, Ingrid Collin; Söderfeldt, Björn; Palmqvist, Sigvard; Nilner, Krister

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates dental care utilization in an adult population in Southern Sweden in relation to dental and social conditions, attitudes to costs, and perceived need to obtain dental services. The study was based on responses to a questionnaire sent in 1998 to a random sample, 1974 persons, aged 56-75 years. The response rate was 66%. A significantly higher probability of dental care utilization less than once a year was found for men, for those with few remaining teeth, and for those with removable dentures. A higher probability of dental care utilization less than once a year was found for those who stated perceived need to obtain dental care with no possibility because of the cost and for those who stated that the cost had influenced their attendance for dental care. The results showed that there were differences for sex and dental conditions in dental care utilization and that dental care utilization was related to attitudes towards costs of dental care.

  3. Evaluation of senior Brazilian dental students about mouth preparation and removable partial denture design.

    PubMed

    Neto, Arcelino Farias; Duarte, Antônio Ricardo Calazans; Shiratori, Fábio Kenji; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Pedro Henrique; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia Marisa; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of senior dental students about mouth preparation and removable partial denture (RPD) design. Two hundred sixty-six senior students from eleven dental schools in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, comprised the sample. The subjects examined two partially edentulous casts mounted on a semiadjustable articulator, answered a questionnaire regarding the treatment plan, and drew the RPD design. The casts consisted of Kennedy Class III, modification 1 maxillary arch and Class II mandibular arch. Ninety percent of the students believed that mouth preparation should be performed although no one was able to name all necessary procedures. For the maxillary arch, 12 percent of the denture designs were completely appropriate, 51 percent were partially appropriate, and 37 percent were inappropriate. For the mandibular arch, the results were 3 percent, 40 percent, and 57 percent, respectively.

  4. Mediators between education and dental pain: a cross-sectional study to assess the role of dental services utilization.

    PubMed

    Constante, Helena M; Peres, Marco A; Schroeder, Fernanda C; Bastos, João L

    2016-02-01

    This study tested whether the pattern of dental services utilization and the reason for the last dental visit mediate the association between educational attainment and dental pain. This is a cross-sectional analysis (n = 1099) based on data from a prospective cohort study in adults, southern Brazil. The mediating effects were assessed by including interaction terms in logistic regression models and by the KHB method, which estimated the direct, mediated, and total effects of education on dental pain. The prevalence of dental pain was 17.5%. Individuals with less than 12 yr of study who visited the dentist to solve dental problems had a 20% higher odds of reporting dental pain than those with 12 or more years of study, who sought the dentist for preventive reasons. Dental services should also focus on preventive measures, especially if less-educated individuals visit the dentist only to treat problems; this may help reduce the frequency of negative oral health outcomes, including dental pain. PMID:26718615

  5. The use of computer-guided flapless dental implant surgery (NobelGuide) and immediate function to support a fixed full-arch prosthesis in fresh-frozen homologous patients with bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Nocini, Pier Francesco; Castellani, Roberto; Zanotti, Guglielmo; Bertossi, Dario; Luciano, Umberto; De Santis, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    The behavior of fresh-frozen homologous bone (FFB) when used in combination with computer-guided implant surgery has not been investigated yet, and there is a lack of clinical evidence in the literature. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the implant survival and related fixed full-arch prostheses at the 1- to 5-year follow-up when performed with immediate function using a flapless surgical procedure and computer-aided technology (NobelGuide; Nobel Biocare AB, Goteborg, Sweden) in patients previously treated with FFB grafts. Furthermore, the related values of torque and complications observed were analyzed and discussed. Clinical charts of patients with edentulous arches treated with FFB grafts and NobelGuide system with at least 1 year follow-up were reviewed retrospectively.A total of 65 patients met the criteria of inclusion, receiving a total of 342 implants and 77 full-arch prostheses, with a mean follow-up of 32.87 months (range, 1-5 years). Survival of implants and prostheses was high, reaching 96.5% and 95%, respectively. Factors significantly related to failure of the implants were smoking, position of the implant as last distal abutment, and fracture of basal maxillary bone. Prostheses survival was influenced by bruxism, failure of multiple implants, and torque level of implant equal to 0 at implant insertion. All implants and prostheses failures occurred in the first year. A higher torque level at implant insertion did not correspond to a lower risk of implant failure.Within the limitations of our retrospective study, this treatment modality was predictable with high survival rates and high insertion torque. However, a few implant and prosthetic failures were found, together with several complications. PMID:24220464

  6. Different study conditions between dental students in China and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xu; Yi, Zhe; Wang, Xu; Jinno, Yohei; Zhang, Xinwen; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Ai, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the study conditions of dental students towards dental education in China and Japan. Methods: 60 students from the Stomatology School of China Medical University and 51 students from the Dental Faculty of Kyushu University, Japan, participated in this study. Information was derived from a self-answered questionnaire consisting of 10 items. Results: More Japanese students (60%) compared to Chinese students (28%) were satisfied with their lives in dental school. For the main reason of discontent, 23.5% of the Japanese students attributed to busy study and lacking of spare time, while 38.3% of the Chinese students indicated small campus lacking of infrastructure. Conclusions: Both students of two countries think they were in big pressure. The main stressor of Japanese students was the examination, but that of Chinese students was anxiety of their future and obtains employment. The main source of tuition and maintenance was family in the both countries, but more Japanese students (25.5%) were dependent on scholarship compared with Chinese students (3.3%). Clinical Implications: The findings from this study enhance our understanding of study conditions among dental students and help to define strategies to improve student management in both Japan and China. PMID:26379955

  7. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Moen, BE; Hollund, BE; Riise, T

    2008-01-01

    Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41), as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64) in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest). Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms among the dental assistants

  8. [Association between malocclusion and dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance: study with Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Borges, Carolina Marques; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-12-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of malocclusion in adolescents reported worldwide, there are few studies that have investigated the association between normative malocclusion and self-rated dental and gingival appearance among adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify the association between normative malocclusion and dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance among Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adolescents aged 15 to 19 years (n= 16,126) living in 250 towns of all five Brazilian regions. Dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance was the outcome. The main explanatory variable was malocclusion assessed by using the Dental Aesthetic Index - DAI. The other explanatory variables included were per capita family income, schooling delay, study conditions, sex, age, skin color, dental outcomes (untreated dental caries, missing teeth due dental caries, dental calculus, fluorosis, and dental pain) and use of dental services. Simple and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed. Dissatisfaction with dental appearance reached 11.4% (95%CI: 10.4-12.5) of the entire sample. All levels of malocclusion were associated with dissatisfaction with dental appearance. Adjusted multivariable analysis showed that dissatisfaction with dental appearance among individuals affected by severe or very severe malocclusion was respectively 40% and 80% higher than among those with normal occlusion. Malocclusion was associated with dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance. The results contribute to include self-rated dental appearance criteria in orthodontic treatment decision, mainly within the National Health System - SUS.

  9. The ARCHES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, C.; Arches Consortium

    2014-07-01

    ARCHES (Astronomical Resource Cross-matching for High Energy Studies) is a FP7-Space funded project started in 2013 and involving the Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg including the CDS (France), the Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (Germany), the University of Leicester (UK), the Universidad de Cantabria (IFCA, Spain) and the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (Madrid, Spain). ARCHES aims at providing the international astronomical community with well-characterised multi-wavelength data in the form of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for large sets of objects extracted from the 3XMM catalogue. The project develops new tools implementing fully probabilistic simultaneous cross-correlation of several catalogues. SEDs are based on an enhanced version of the 3XMM catalogue and on a careful selection of the most relevant multi-wavelength archival catalogues. In order to ensure the largest audience, SEDs will be distributed to the international community through CDS services and through the Virtual Observatory. These enhanced resources are currently tested in the framework of several science cases. An integrated cluster finder is developed at Potsdam, AGN science is studied at Leicester and IFCA while populations of Galactic X-ray sources are investigated at Strasbourg and Madrid.

  10. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  11. Arches and contact forces in a granular pile.

    PubMed

    Carlevaro, C M; Pugnaloni, L A

    2012-06-01

    Assemblies of granular particles mechanically stable under their own weight contain arches. These are structural units identified as sets of mutually stable grains. It is generally assumed that these arches shield the weight above them and should bear most of the stress in the system. We test such hypothesis by studying the stress born by in-arch and out-of-arch grains. We show that, indeed, particles in arches withstand larger stresses. In particular, the isotropic stress tends to be larger for in-arch grains whereas the anisotropic component is marginally distinguishable between the two types of particles. The contact force distributions demonstrate that an exponential tail (compatible with the maximization of entropy under no extra constraints) is followed only by the out-of-arch contacts. In-arch contacts seem to be compatible with a Gaussian distribution consistent with a recently introduced approach that takes into account constraints imposed by the local force balance on grains.

  12. Ambient resonance of rock arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison Margaret

    Resonant frequencies of structural elements are related to fundamental material properties of mass and stiffness, and monitoring over time can thus serve as an indirect indictor of internal mechanical change. Until now, however, this methodology has not been applied to natural rock structures such as arches and towers. We evaluated the resonance characteristics of four rock arches in southeastern Utah, combining in-situ ambient vibration measurements with numerical modal analysis. At each location, we measured the spectral and polarization attributes of ambient vibrations using up to two broadband seismometers. Ambient vibration spectra measured on the arches showed clear peaks at distinct frequencies (typically between 1-10 Hz), which we interpret as resonant frequencies, as opposed to the relatively flat spectra recorded on nearby bedrock. Polarization analysis helped us identify the orientations of vibration and explore resonant mode shapes. We then verified the measured resonant frequencies through 3D finite-element numerical modal analysis, and in most cases we were able to match the fundamental along with several higher-order modes. Repeat occupation and short-term continuous ambient vibration monitoring were aimed at assessing daily and seasonal changes in resonant frequencies, which in turn may provide evidence of internal mechanical change; Mesa Arch in Canyonlands National Park served as the main focus for our repeat measurements. Results revealed that minor, reversible changes in resonant frequencies can be created by thermal effects, i.e., changes in bulk material stiffness as the arch expands and contracts on daily and seasonal time scales. No irreversible change in the resonant frequency of Mesa Arch was detected over the period of this study. Our research provides the first step towards monitoring the long-term structural health of natural rock arches as they change through time or in the wake of a damaging event. We have shown that the resonance

  13. Effect of therapeutic insoles on the medial longitudinal arch in patients with flatfoot deformity: a three-dimensional loading computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Masamitsu; Ikoma, Kazuya; Hara, Yusuke; Imai, Kan; Maki, Masahiro; Ikeda, Takumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Inoue, Nozomu; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Background Insoles are frequently used in orthotic therapy as the standard conservative treatment for symptomatic flatfoot deformity to rebuild the arch and stabilize the foot. However, the effectiveness of therapeutic insoles remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of therapeutic insoles for flatfoot deformity using subject-based three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) models by evaluating the load responses of the bones in the medial longitudinal arch in vivo in 3D. Methods We studied eight individuals (16 feet) with mild flatfoot deformity. CT scans were performed on both feet under non-loaded and full-body-loaded conditions, first with accessory insoles and then with therapeutic insoles under the same conditions. Three-dimensional CT models were constructed for the tibia and the tarsal and metatarsal bones of the medial longitudinal arch (i.e., first metatarsal bone, cuneiforms, navicular, talus, and calcaneus). The rotational angles between the tarsal bones were calculated under loading with accessory insoles or therapeutic insoles and compared. Findings Compared with the accessory insoles, the therapeutic insoles significantly suppressed the eversion of the talocalcaneal joint. Interpretation This is the first study to precisely verify the usefulness of therapeutic insoles (arch support and inner wedges) in vivo. PMID:25457972

  14. Dental superimposition: a pilot study for standardising the method.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, D; Cattaneo, C; Grandi, M

    2007-11-01

    Dental superimposition is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of illegal immigrants (at least in Italy), with no clinical history, no personal effects or relatives useful for genetic comparison, whose friends and acquaintances can usually only produce photographs. Very few authors have been involved in devising and using this method. The goal of the present study is to establish whether it is possible, and under which conditions, to identify individuals by dental superimposition of teeth visible in an ante-mortem photograph and dental casts of an unidentified body, and to develop a protocol for the spatial orientation analysis of the dentition and qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of superimpositions. A non-mathematical scoring system has been applied to each superimposition as a first step towards the optimisation of a cheap, quick, semi-quantitative method of identifying individuals when other more used methods are not applicable.

  15. Space maintenance in a child dental care program.

    PubMed

    Hill, C J; Sorenson, H W; Mink, J R

    1975-04-01

    Five types of space maintainers were placed in 196 children participating in an extensive dental care program during a four-year study. Children with space maintainers were examined at six-month intervals. During the study, some sort of difficulty was encountered with 43% of the appliances inserted. The most common problem encountered was lost or missing appliances. Sixteen appliances had broken arch wires or loop wires; only ten broken bands were noted. Anther problem was distortion of arch wires. Suggestions are made for possible modifications in the space maintainers to reduce the incidence of problems.

  16. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  17. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators. PMID:26246527

  18. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    The quality of water from dental units is of considerable importance since patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from the dental unit. This study analyzed the microbial quality of water obtained for periodical monitoring from 56 dental units in different dental practices in Hesse. Contamination by Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and increased total colony counts were detected in 27.8%, 3.5%, and 17% of samples. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for 28% of Legionella isolates. The Legionella concentration was >100 cfu/100 ml in 84% of contaminated samples. Samples collected from an instrument channel were more frequently contaminated by Legionella than those from cup filler (41.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.02). After release of these results, decontamination measures were performed in units that had revealed unsatisfactory results. The outcome of the intervention was followed-up by microbiological analysis. At follow-up, 65.2% and 72.7% of waterlines that had previously been contaminated by Legionella or had shown increased total colony counts were free of contamination. Our results show a high rate of contamination of water from dental units in dental practices in Hesse. They highlight the risk of exposure for patients and personnel and the need for effective strategies to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24265918

  19. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Mardjan; Hack, Alfons

    2013-03-01

    The quality of water from dental units is of considerable importance since patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from the dental unit. This study analyzed the microbial quality of water obtained for periodical monitoring from 56 dental units in different dental practices in Hesse. Contamination by Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and increased total colony counts were detected in 27.8%, 3.5%, and 17% of samples. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for 28% of Legionella isolates. The Legionella concentration was >100 cfu/100 ml in 84% of contaminated samples. Samples collected from an instrument channel were more frequently contaminated by Legionella than those from cup filler (41.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.02). After release of these results, decontamination measures were performed in units that had revealed unsatisfactory results. The outcome of the intervention was followed-up by microbiological analysis. At follow-up, 65.2% and 72.7% of waterlines that had previously been contaminated by Legionella or had shown increased total colony counts were free of contamination. Our results show a high rate of contamination of water from dental units in dental practices in Hesse. They highlight the risk of exposure for patients and personnel and the need for effective strategies to reduce microbial contamination.

  20. Dental pain, oral impacts and perceived need for dental treatment in Tanzanian school students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Åstrøm, Anne N; David, Jamil; Masalu, Joyce R

    2009-01-01

    Background Dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems influence people's oral quality of life and thus their perceived need for dental care. So far there is scant information as to the psychosocial impacts of dental diseases and the perceived treatment need in child populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives Focusing on primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania, a district deprived of dental services and with low fluoride concentration in drinking water, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP), and to describe the distribution of OIDP by socio-demographics, dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems. The relationship of perceived need estimates with OIDP was also investigated. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. A total of 1745 students (mean age 13.8 yr, sd = 1.67) completed an extensive personal interview and under-went clinical examination. The impacts on daily performances were assessed using a Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP instrument and caries experience was recorded using WHO (1997) criteria. Results A total of 36.2% (41.3% urban and 31.4% rural, p < 0.001) reported at least one OIDP. The prevalence of dental caries was 17.4%, dental pain 36.4%, oral problems 54.1% and perceived need for dental treatment 46.8% in urban students. Corresponding estimates in rural students were 20.8%, 24.4%, 43.3% and 43.8%. Adjusted OR for reporting oral impacts if having dental pain ranged from 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.6) (problem smiling) to 4.7 (95% CI 3.4–6.5) (problem sleeping),- if having oral problems, from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3–2.6) (problem sleeping) to 3.8 (95% CI 2.7–5.2) (problem eating) and if having dental caries from 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–2.0) (problem eating) to 2.2 (95% CI 1.5–2.9) (problem sleeping). Students who perceived need for dental care were less likely to be females (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.6–0.9) and more likely to have impacts on eating (OR = 1

  1. Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: relationships between tooth width, arch length, and crowding.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, T; Matsumoto, Y; Suzuki, J; Sato, N; Oguchi, H

    1999-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of serial extraction alone on crowding. We also investigated the relationships between tooth width, arch length, and irregularity index. Maxillary dental casts from 32 subjects who had undergone only serial extraction were analyzed at 3 stages: before deciduous canines extraction, after first premolars extraction, and at the end of the observation period. The mean of the irregularity index decreased significantly as serial extraction proceeded and further decreased during the observation period. In cases where the width of the incisor was more than 2 standard deviations above the means for the control subjects, there was a significant correlation between tooth width of the lateral incisors and irregularity index before extraction as well as a significant correlation between the summation of tooth widths of the central and lateral incisors and irregularity index at that time. There was a significant negative correlation between arch length discrepancy and irregularity index before extraction and also a significant correlation between arch length discrepancy and correction of the irregularity index from before deciduous canines extraction to after first premolars extraction. These results suggest that tooth width and arch length discrepancy might preferentially affect the degree of anterior crowding in cases of severe crowding. There was no aggravation of the average crowding level during the observation period in the present study. The present study quantitatively suggested that serial extraction was useful for the purpose of correcting crowding in most cases.

  2. Clinical study protocol for the ARCH project - computational modeling for improvement of outcome after vascular access creation.

    PubMed

    Bode, Aron; Caroli, Anna; Huberts, Wouter; Planken, Nils; Antiga, Luca; Bosboom, Marielle; Remuzzi, Andrea; Tordoir, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite clinical guidelines and the possibility of diagnostic vascular imaging, creation and maintenance of a vascular access (VA) remains problematic: avoiding short- and long-term VA dysfunction is challenging. Although prognostic factors for VA dysfunction have been identified in previous studies, their potential interplay at a systemic level is disregarded. Consideration of multiple prognostic patient specific factors and their complex interaction using dedicated computational modeling tools might improve outcome after VA creation by enabling a better selection of VA configuration. These computational modeling tools are developed and validated in the ARCH project: a joint initiative of four medical centers and three industrial partners (FP7-ICT-224390). This paper reports the rationale behind computational modeling and presents the clinical study protocol designed for calibrating and validating these modeling tools. The clinical study is based on the pre-operative collection of structural and functional data at a vascular level, as well as a VA functional evaluation during the follow-up period. The strategy adopted to perform the study and for data collection is also described here. PMID:21667457

  3. Immediate Loading of Dental Implants Inserted in Edentulous Maxillas and Mandibles: 5-Year Results of a Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Satoshi; Ohba, Seigo; Nakashima, Ken; Takanashi, Yoshiaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of immediately loaded full-arch, fixed, one-piece prostheses supported by dental implants inserted in completely edentulous maxillae and mandibles. Twenty-eight completely edentulous jaws in 27 patients were treated with screw-fixed provisional prostheses on the same day as implant insertion. A total of 189 implants were inserted into the jaws of the patients. All provisional prostheses were the one-piece bridge type and were made with acrylic resin. Final restoration was performed more than 2 months after surgery. Implant survival rate, prosthesis success rate, and complications during the follow-up period were evaluated. Implant size (diameter and length) and bone quality (Hounsfield units) of the region of the implant were also analyzed. Mean follow-up time was 77.9 months. The cumulative survival rate of the implants was 100%, and the success rate of the prostheses was also 100% during the observation time. Although 3 types of minor complications occurred in 10 jaws (10/28; 35.7%), no major complications were found. Immediate loading of dental implants produces an equivalent outcome as that reported in previous studies using conventional loading. We believe this study not only adds to the immediate loading data but also confirms that the immediate loading technique may be most advantageous strategy for edentulous patients. PMID:24707886

  4. Dental plaque associated with self-ligating brackets during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment: A 3-month preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anezi, Saud A

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare changes in the amount and distribution of dental plaque associated with placement of elastomeric modules over a self-ligating bracket during orthodontic treatment and to relate these changes to the periodontal inflammation. Materials and Methods: A cross-arch randomization trial was carried out at Bristol Dental School, United Kingdom. Clinical measurements of periodontal inflammation and plaque accumulation and microbiological test were done on 24 patients aged 11-14 years [Mean (SD) age = 12.6 (1.01) years] wearing fixed appliances (Damon 2 brackets, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA) at the start and 3 months into fixed orthodontic treatment. Results: In the first 3 months of treatment there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding on probing between incisors with and without elastomeric modules (P = 0.125 and 0.508, respectively). The difference in plaque accumulation was not statistically significant (P = 0.78). The difference in probing depths between the incisors was not statistically significant (P = 0.84). The microbiological analysis showed no difference. Conclusions: Based on this preliminary 3 months study, elastomeric modules were not significantly associated with any increased risk during treatment when compared to self-ligating brackets. The longer term studies are needed to further confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:24987657

  5. Prospective Study of Dental Intervention for Hematopoietic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K.; Akashi, M.; Furudoi, S.; Yakushijin, K.; Kawamoto, S.; Okamura, A.; Matsuoka, H.; Komori, T.

    2015-01-01

    Various chemotherapeutic agents used in patients with hematopoietic malignancy cause serious side effects, including myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression makes patients more susceptible to infection, resulting in an increased risk of infectious complications, including the development of severe septicemia that may be life-threatening. It is necessary for dental staff to be familiar with an appropriate protocol in such cases and to share information about the chemotherapy with a hematologist. To verify the effectiveness of our dental intervention protocol, we conducted a prospective study on the incidence of complications for each myelosuppressive grade of chemotherapy in patients with hematopoietic malignancy. We compared the incidence of complications between treatment P (patients who finished all the dental treatments according to the protocol) and treatment Q (patients who did not) per grade (A, B, C, D) and incidence of systemic or oral findings. We also compared the incidence of oral complication related to the residual teeth between first chemo (patients who were undergoing chemotherapy for the first time) and prior chemo (not the first time). There were significant differences in inflammatory complications between treatment P and treatment Q. We found that both systemic and oral inflammatory complications increased with higher-grade myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Additionally, there was a significant difference between the incidence of oral complications related to the residual teeth between first chemo and prior chemo. Complete implementation of the dental intervention protocol was associated with fewer oral and systemic infectious and inflammatory complications in patients with hematopoietic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. The incidence of oral and systemic complications also increased with grade of chemotherapy. These results support the validity of our dental intervention protocol. We should pay close attention to the oral

  6. Follow-Up Study of 1993 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, Number 17, June 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Palatine, Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of its dental hygiene students. The survey instrument was mailed to all 31 1993 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, and a response rate of 97% (n=30) was attained. Results of the…

  7. Dental Hygienists' Perceptions of Preparedness for Clinical Practice: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Lezlie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify, compile, and describe how community college graduate dental hygienists perceived their initial dental hygiene curriculum preparation and how they subsequently adapted their curriculum preparation in order to perform their responsibilities in their first clinical dental hygiene job.…

  8. The Diversity Dilemma: A National Study of Minorities in Dental Hygiene Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tracye A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the predicted shortages of minority dental healthcare providers in the United States and the expanding diversity of the general population, it is important to recruit and retain an ethnically and culturally diverse allied dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore why the profession of dental hygiene exhibits minimal…

  9. Maxillary versus mandibular arch form differences in human permanent dentition assessed by Euclidean-distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1994-02-01

    Euclidean-distance matrix analysis (EDMA) was used to analyse the dental arch form in 50 men and 45 women aged 20-27 yr with sound dentitions. Fourteen landmarks, corresponding to the centres of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar), were identified on the dental casts of subjects. All the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth were computed and maxillary/mandibular arch differences within sex were tested by EDMA. In both sexes, the maxillary arch was larger than the mandibular arch; arch shape was also significantly different. All teeth contributed to the shape difference between arches regardless of gender. EDMA also separated the influence of anterior and posterior teeth in the determination of upper/lower arch characteristics.

  10. Arching Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s STEREO (Ahead) spacecraft watched as an eruptive prominence rose up and arched out in a horseshoe shape far above the Sun’s surface (Aug. 25, 2010). The image and movie show the action in a...

  11. Three-dimensional dental arch and palatal form changes after extraction and nonextraction treatment. Part 3. Transversal and sagittal palatal form.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Wolfgang; Niederwanger, Andreas; Bancher, Beatrix; Bittermann, Gabriele; Neunteufel, Nikolaus; Kulmer, Siegfried

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the palatal form in patients treated with and without premolar extractions. Records collected at pretreatment, at bracket removal, at the end of retention, and 5 years out of retention were examined. Stone casts were mounted on an articulator with an anatomic face-bow and a central wax record, and measurements were made with a 3-dimensional digitizer. The hypothesis that orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions changes the palatal form was verified.

  12. Modal Analysis of Landscape and Double-O Arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. R.; Dorsey, A.; Wood, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Bilderback, E.

    2014-12-01

    We combine in-situ ambient vibration measurements with 3D numerical modeling to study the resonance characteristics of two prominent arches in Arches National Park, Utah: Landscape Arch and Double-O Arch. We placed broadband seismometers on each arch and recorded up to three hours of ambient seismic data. Identified spectral peaks are interpreted to represent resonant frequencies of the arches, and further studied for their polarization attributes. We developed 3D models of each site using ground-based photogrammetry in order to perform numerical modal analyses. Assigning representative material properties, we are able to match the measured fundamental frequency of each arch, as well as certain higher-order resonant frequencies. Landscape Arch is the longest arch in North America and is remarkably slender, while Double-O Arch is a prominent visitor attraction. Repeat ambient vibration measurements over time will be used to assess changes in resonance characteristics, which in turn provide evidence of internal mechanical change. Our goal is to understand how the arches respond to their environment, and ultimately be able to assess progressive damage of these iconic features.

  13. Restructuring an undergraduate dental curriculum to global standards--a case study in an Indian dental school.

    PubMed

    Kadagad, P; Tekian, A; Pinto, P X; Jirge, V L

    2012-05-01

    Globalisation has affected all aspects of life and dentistry is no exception. In the context of today's dentist being a global citizen, undergraduate training in dentistry is set to ensure converging standards so that international recognition of dental qualifications can move forward. The decision of the Dental Council of India to expand the undergraduate dental program to five years provides an opportunity to be part of the endeavor of the Global Dental Congress to achieve converging standards which was initially for the European Union, and now spreading out globally. Economic emergence in Indian subcontinent has resulted in growing oral health care needs both in quality and quantity. To address this issue, the graduating dentist needs to be trained following a competency based curricular model. Access to Internet facilitated the goal of achieving converging standards of dental schools to be feasible because of the instant communication and capacity to share information about training strategies via technology across the globe. Upgrading the undergraduate training to global standards by dental schools in India could be a wise and strategic move both for attracting students to study in India, as well as retaining the graduates after their training. The following is a case study of an Indian dental school set to restructure the undergraduate curriculum to global standards using the 8 steps of Kotter's transformational change. Change in curriculum and the subsequent accreditation of the school in global platform not only attracts prospective students but also results in producing competent dentists. Dental education provided by the institution can result in quality assurance, benchmarking the assessment system to achieve international recognition. This paper highlights the need and importance of facilitation of international convergence with long term aspirations for mutual recognition of international degrees. PMID:22494308

  14. Restructuring an undergraduate dental curriculum to global standards--a case study in an Indian dental school.

    PubMed

    Kadagad, P; Tekian, A; Pinto, P X; Jirge, V L

    2012-05-01

    Globalisation has affected all aspects of life and dentistry is no exception. In the context of today's dentist being a global citizen, undergraduate training in dentistry is set to ensure converging standards so that international recognition of dental qualifications can move forward. The decision of the Dental Council of India to expand the undergraduate dental program to five years provides an opportunity to be part of the endeavor of the Global Dental Congress to achieve converging standards which was initially for the European Union, and now spreading out globally. Economic emergence in Indian subcontinent has resulted in growing oral health care needs both in quality and quantity. To address this issue, the graduating dentist needs to be trained following a competency based curricular model. Access to Internet facilitated the goal of achieving converging standards of dental schools to be feasible because of the instant communication and capacity to share information about training strategies via technology across the globe. Upgrading the undergraduate training to global standards by dental schools in India could be a wise and strategic move both for attracting students to study in India, as well as retaining the graduates after their training. The following is a case study of an Indian dental school set to restructure the undergraduate curriculum to global standards using the 8 steps of Kotter's transformational change. Change in curriculum and the subsequent accreditation of the school in global platform not only attracts prospective students but also results in producing competent dentists. Dental education provided by the institution can result in quality assurance, benchmarking the assessment system to achieve international recognition. This paper highlights the need and importance of facilitation of international convergence with long term aspirations for mutual recognition of international degrees.

  15. Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hugar, Deepa; Hugar, Santosh; Ranjan, Shashi; Kadani, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Infection control and modes of sterilizations are the key factors to avoid cross transmission of infection in the field of dentistry. Transmission of disease or infection is noted with improper sterilization of reused instruments. Dental burs are the most important tool in any endodontic or conservative procedures of teeth involving tooth contouring, restorative filling procedures and endodontic procedures. Hence, the present study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of different methods of sterilization or decontamination which are routinely used in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: For the present study 96 round diamond burs were selected and divided into 6 groups. These burs were used for the access cavity preparation to get contamination and subjected for bacteriological culture. After getting base line date burs were subjected to manual scrubbing, hot air oven, glass bead sterilizer, ultrasonic cleaner and autoclave to get post decontamination data. Results: The study revealed that mean colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans decreased maximum for autoclave with 80% reduction, for Lactobacilli 76% reduction and for Candida albicans maximum reduction seen for glass bead sterilizer with 74%. Conclusion: Findings of our study revealed that none of the methods used were found to be absolutely efficacious in the decontamination of dental burs. However, among the experimental groups used in the present study, autoclave was found to be the relatively best method. PMID:25121062

  16. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy, patient management, and periodontics, which is the study of gum disease. High school students interested in becoming dental hygienists should take courses in biology, chemistry, and math. Most dental hygiene programs also require applicants to have completed at ...

  17. Comparative evaluation of border molding, using two different techniques in maxillary edentulous arches - An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Yarapatineni, Rameshbabu; Vilekar, Abhishek; Kumar, J Phani; Kumar, G Ajay; Aravind, Prasad; Kumar, P Anil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken to compare the retention between sectional border molding using low fusing greenstick compound and single step border molding using condensation silicone (putty) impression material in three stages- A. Immediately following border molding, B. After final impression and C. With the finished permanent denture base. Materials & Methods: In this study evaluation of retentive values of sectional border molding (Group I) (custom impression trays border molded with green stick compound ) and single step border molding (Group II) ( border molding with condensation silicone (putty) impression material ). In both techniques definitive wash impression were made with light body condensation silicone and permanent denture base with heat cure polymerization resin. Results: Group II was significantly higher (mean=8011.43) than Group I (mean=5777.43) in test-A. The t-value (1.5883) infers that there was significant difference between Group I and Group II (p =0.15). Group I was significantly higher (mean=6718.57) than Group II (mean=5224.29) in test -B. The t-value (1.6909) infers that there was significant difference between Group I and Group II (p=0.17). Group II was higher (mean=4025.14) than Group I (mean=3835.07) in test -C. The t-value was 0.1239. But it was found to be statistically insignificant (p=0.005). Conclusion: Within the limitation of this clinical study border molding custom tray with low fusing green stick compound provided similar retention as compared to custom impression tray with condensation silicone in permanent denture base. How to cite this article: Yarapatineni R, Vilekar A, Kumar JP, Kumar GA, Aravind P, Kumar PA. Comparative evaluation of border molding, using two different techniques in maxillary edentulous arches - An in vivo study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):82-7 . PMID:24453450

  18. Awareness of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai: A knowledge, attitude, practice study

    PubMed Central

    Preethi, S; Einstein, A; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Conclusion: Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai. PMID:22408322

  19. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilization in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T.; Billings, R J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilization in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative-effectiveness study. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomized into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a Teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Results Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0 to 34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of Teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. Statistics The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. Conclusions The data show that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilization by inner-city preschool children. PMID:21640057

  20. Social equality and dental conditions--a study of an adult population in Southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bagewitz, I C; Söderfeldt, B; Palmqvist, S; Nilner, K

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to: describe dental conditions--focusing on prosthodontic variables--in relation to social conditions in the late 1990s in an adult population of Southern Sweden, evaluate if a change could be traced in the pattern of socioeconomic influences on dental conditions, and study if various attitudes toward dental care were associated with social as well as dental conditions. The study was based on questionnaire responses. Significant differences in dental conditions and denture prevalence were found for age and education. To a majority of the sample it was very important to have own teeth and/or fixed restorations and the opportunity to attend regular dental care. The cost for dental care was very important for 52% of the sample especially for men, those with low education, and those wearing removable denture. Need for dental care that could not be provided for because of the costs was experienced by 9%. Eighteen percent stated that they once or more had refrained from dental care because of the cost. Those with removable dentures and low education dominated. Besides socioeconomic differences in dental conditions, there were sociodental differences in attitudes concerning the importance of costs, self-estimated needs, and cost-barriers for dental care.

  1. Accuracy of optical dental digitizers: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Vandeweghe, Stefan; Vervack, Valentin; Vanhove, Christian; Dierens, Melissa; Jimbo, Ryo; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, in terms of trueness and precision, of optical dental scanners. An experimental acrylic resin cast was created and digitized using a microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanner, which served as the reference model. Five polyether impressions were made of the acrylic resin cast to create five stone casts. Each dental digitizer (Imetric, Lava ST, Smart Optics, KaVo Everest) made five scans of the acrylic resin cast and one scan of every stone cast. The scans were superimposed and compared using metrology software. Deviations were calculated between the datasets obtained from the dental digitizers and the microCT scanner (= trueness) and between datasets from the same dental digitizer (= precision). With exception of the Smart Optics scanner, there were no significant differences in trueness for the acrylic resin cast. For the stone casts, however, the Lava ST performed better than Imetric, which did better than the KaVo scanner. The Smart Optics scanner demonstrated the highest deviation. All digitizers demonstrated a significantly higher trueness for the acrylic resin cast compared to the plaster cast, except the Lava ST. The Lava ST was significantly more precise compared to the other scanners. Imetric and Smart Optics also demonstrated a higher level of precision compared to the KaVo scanner. All digitizers demonstrated some degree of error. Stone cast copies are less accurate because of difficulties with scanning the rougher surface or dimensional deformations caused during the production process. For complex, large-span reconstructions, a highly accurate scanner should be selected. PMID:25734714

  2. Experimental study determining the mechanical properties of dental floss holders.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Anna; Pritsch, Maria; Dörfer, Christof; Staehle, Hans Jörg

    2011-06-01

    This study determined the mechanical properties of 19 dental floss holders. Eight single-use holders and 11 reusable ones were tested. An in vitro model with dental proximal contact strength of 8 N was created. Every device had to pass the proximal contact 30 times. We measured (1) the displacement of the floss [mm], (2) the force [N] necessary to pass the proximal contact after the 30th passage, (3) the loosening of the floss (offset [mm]), and (4) the change in the distance between the branches [mm]. Each measurement was repeated seven times. The results are displacement of the floss after 30 passages, 2.0 to 9.2 mm; passage force, 2.6 to 11 N; increases in branch distance, 0-2.9 mm; offset of the floss, 0-1.8 mm (all numbers are medians). Based on cleaning a full dentition (30 passages), we suggest introducing minimal requirements of <4 mm for the displacement of the floss, ≥11 N for the force, and <0.1 mm for the difference in branch distance and the offset. Only two products fulfilled our criteria. The tests show that dental floss holders vary extremely in their mechanical properties. Their effective use seems often impossible due to limited mechanical properties.

  3. Experience of dental caries and its effects on early dental occlusion: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Valeria; Fabbrizi, Miriam; Coloni, Camilla; Mastrantoni, Cristina; Mirra, Carla; Bossù, Maurizio; Vestri, Annarita; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aim Describe the occurrence of dental caries in a sample of pre-school children and school children, aged 3 and 12, and study the possible association between caries and malocclusion. Methods We selected and analyzed the medical records of a sample of 588 patients who had their first dental examination at the Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences of Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome. Results In the sample, 55.4% of the children had no decayed deciduous elements, while 44.6% had at least one decayed deciduous element. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 10.2%, while 89.8% had no decayed permanent teeth. In the sample, 9.4% of the children showed advanced carious lesions, that needed tooth extraction and 6.6% needed a space maintainer for post-extractive interceptive treatment. In the sample, 26.7% of the examined patients had increased overjet, while 3.7% had decreased overjet and 25.4% of the sample had an increased overbite, 11, 2% had reduced over-bite values. A percentage over 10% of the sample had an anterior openbite in centric occlusion. The prevalence of posterior crossbite among entire samples was 19.8%. Conclusions Although the incidence of caries disease was high in the selected samples, the study did not show a statistically significant association between caries and clinical orthodontic abnormalities, except for the association between the midline deviation and the severe carious diseases, necessitating extraction. PMID:22238717

  4. Radiochromic films for dental CT dosimetry: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Rampado, O; Bianchi, S D; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Rossetti, V; Ropolo, R

    2014-02-01

    Dental CT dose evaluations are commonly performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) inside anthropomorphic phantoms. Radiochromic films with good sensitivity in the X-ray diagnostic field have recently been developed and are commercially available as GAFCHROMIC XR-QA. There are potential advantages in the use of radiochromic films such as a more comprehensive dosimetry thanks to the adjustable size of the film samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using radiochromic films for dental CT dose evaluations. Film samples were cut with a width of 5mm and a length of 25 mm (strips), the same size as the Alderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom holes used in this study. Dental CT dose measurements were performed using simultaneously both TLD and radiochromic strips in the same phantom sites. Two equipment types were considered for dental CT examinations: a 16 slice CT and a cone beam CT. Organ equivalent doses were then obtained averaging the measurements from the sites of the same organ and effective doses were calculated using ICRP 103 weighting factors. The entire procedure was repeated four times for each CT in order to compare also the repeatability of the two dosimeter types. A linear correlation was found between the absorbed dose evaluated with radiochromic films and with TLD, with slopes of 0.930 and 0.944 (correlation r>0.99). The maximum difference between the two dosimeter's measurements was 25%, whereas the average difference was 7%. The measurement repeatability was comparable for the two dosimeters at cumulative doses above 15 mGy (estimated uncertainty at 1 sigma level of about 5%), whereas below this threshold radiochromic films show a greater dispersion of data, of about 10% at 1 sigma level. We obtained, using respectively Gafchromic and TLD measurements, effective dose values of 107 μSv and 117 μSv (i.e. difference of 8.6%) for the cone beam CT and of 523 μSv and 562 μSv (i.e. difference of 7%) for the

  5. Considerations on Optimal Fluoride Intake using Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Outcomes – A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kanellis, Michael J.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The “optimal” intake of fluoride has been widely accepted for decades as between 0.05 and 0.07 mg fluoride per kilogram of body weight but is based on limited scientific evidence. The purpose of this paper is to present longitudinal fluoride intake data for children free of dental fluorosis in the early-erupting permanent dentition and free of dental caries in both the primary and early-erupting permanent teeth as an estimate of optimal fluoride intake. Methods Data on fluoride ingestion were obtained from parents of 602 Iowa Fluoride Study children through periodic questionnaires at the ages of 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 months, and then at 6-month intervals thereafter. Estimates of total fluoride intake at each time point were made by summing amounts from water, dentifrice, and supplements as well as other foods and beverages made with or containing water. Caries data were obtained from examinations of children at ages 5 and 9 years, while fluorosis data were obtained from examinations only at age 9. Results The estimated mean daily fluoride intake for those children with no caries history and no fluorosis at age 9 was at or below 0.05 mgF/kg bw for nearly all time points through the first 48 months of life, and this level declined thereafter. Children with caries had generally slightly less intakes, while those with fluorosis generally had slightly higher intakes. Conclusions Given the overlap among caries/fluorosis groups in mean fluoride intake and extreme variability in individual fluoride intakes firmly recommending an “optimal” fluoride intake is problematic. PMID:19054310

  6. BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED AROUND EIGHT YEARS BEFORE THIS DATE. - Whittlesey Road Bridge, Spanning Black River at Whittlesey Road, Lyons Falls, Lewis County, NY

  7. 9. DETAIL OF EAST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF EAST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, ARTICULATED HANGER AND GUARDRAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  8. 10. DETAIL OF WEST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF WEST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, HANGERS AND GUARDRAIL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Choosing Indicators of Natural Resource Condition: A Case Study in Arches National Park, Utah, USA

    PubMed

    Belnap

    1998-07-01

    / Heavy visitor use in many areas of the world have necessitated development of ways to assess visitation impacts. Arches National Park recently completed a Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) plan. Integral to this plan was developing a method to identify biological indicators that would both measure visitor impacts and response to management actions. The process used in Arches for indicator selection is outlined here as a model applicableto many areas facing similar challenges. The steps were: (1) Vegetation types most used by visitors were identified. Impacted and unimpacted areas in these types were sampled, comparing vegetation and soil factors. (2) Variables found to differ significantly between compared sites were used as potential indicators. (3) Site-specific criteria for indicators were developed, and potential indicators evaluated using these criteria. (4) Chosen indicators were further researched for ecological relevancy. (5) Final indicators were chosen, field tested, and monitoring sites designated. In Arches, indicators were chosen for monitoring annually (soil crust index, soil compaction, number of used social trails and soil aggregate stability) and every five years (vegetation cover and frequency; ground cover; soil chemistry; and plant tissue chemistry).KEY WORDS: Biological indicators; Recreation impacts; Recreation management; Desert soils; Trampling

  10. Ethical considerations of study participants in dental caries clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1976-03-01

    During the past 30 years there has been increasing concern for ethical considerations that pertain to the conduct of human biomedical research. Consequently, many national and international medical and dental organizations and agencies have developed regulations, policies or ethical guidelines for the protection of human subjects who take part in clinical investigations. In the United States, more than 500 research institutions have established permanent committees to review research in humans conducted by their institutions. Members of these committees must represent a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and concerns. Prospective study subjects must be able to make an informed decision on whether to participate in any study, without any element of force, deceit, duress, or other form of constraint or coercion. Obtaining informed consent for studies of children, the mentally infirm, and persons with restricted civil freedom presents special problems. Ethical considerations also raise questions on appropriate designs for clinical studies, e.g. use of untreated controls. Dental studies, particularly those testing caries-preventive agents, raise special questions of design, informed consent, ethical procedures and the use of diagnostic radiographs. The director of a clinical study is responsible for the conduct of all personnel connected with the investigation.

  11. Alignment of a buccally displaced maxillary canine in the late mixed dentition with a modified utility arch: a patient report.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Licciardello, Valeria; Greco, Mariagrazia; Rossetti, Bruno; Barbato, Ersilia

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary canines and first molars are the most common ectopic teeth in young people. Ectopic buccal eruption of maxillary canines is strongly associated with lack of space or crowding in the dental arch. This report demonstrates the management of a buccally erupted maxillary canine in an 11-year, 8-month-old boy without sufficient space. The patient had a mostly dental Class II occlusion and was in the late mixed dentition, and the root development of his canines was consistent with his dental age. To correct the distal occlusion and gain space in the maxillary arch for the eruption of both canines, the patient received cervical headgear. To guide the maxillary left canine into occlusion, it was surgically exposed and a modified utility arch inserted. The result of this approach proves that a custom-designed utility arch allows the distal movement of a buccally displaced canine, while at the same time increasing the maxillary arch length.

  12. Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring. PMID:25298710

  13. Microstructural studies of dental amalgams using analytical transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooghan, Tejpal Kaur

    Dental amalgams have been used for centuries as major restorative materials for decaying teeth. Amalgams are prepared by mixing alloy particles which contain Ag, Sn, and Cu as the major constituent elements with liquid Hg. The study of microstructure is essential in understanding the setting reactions and improving the properties of amalgams. Until the work reported in this dissertation, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used commonly to analyze amalgam microstructures. No previous systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has been performed due to sample preparation difficulties and composite structure of dental amalgams. The goal of this research was to carry out detailed microstructural and compositional studies of dental amalgams. This was accomplished using the enhanced spatial resolution of the TEM and its associated microanalytical techniques, namely, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and micro-microdiffraction (mumuD). A new method was developed for thinning amalgam samples to electron transparency using the "wedge technique." Velvalloy, a low-Cu amalgam, and Tytin, a high-Cu amalgam, were the two amalgams characterized. Velvalloy is composed of a Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1)/HgSnsb{7-9}\\ (gammasb2) matrix surrounding unreacted Agsb3Sn (gamma) particles. In addition, hitherto uncharacterized reaction layers between Agsb3Sn(gamma)/Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb2)\\ and\\ Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1)/HgSnsb{7-9}\\ (gammasb2) were observed and analyzed. An Ag-Hg-Sn (betasb1) phase was clearly identified for the first time. In Tytin, the matrix consists of Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1) grains. Fine precipitates of Cusb6Snsb5\\ (etasp') are embedded inside the gammasb1 and at the grain boundaries. These precipitates are responsible for the improved creep resistance of Tytin compared to Velvalloy. The additional Cu has completely eliminated the gammasb

  14. Orthodontic characteristics of maxillary arch deficiency in 5-year-old patients undergoing unilateral cleft lip and palate repair with and without early gingivoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wojtaszek-Slominska, Anna; Renkielska, Alicja; Dobke, Marek; Gosman, Amanda; Slominski, Wojciech

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the maxillary arch morphology in 5-year-old children treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) with early gingivoplasty (EGP) and without this procedure (non-EGP). Three-dimensional (3-D) imaging was used to verify which measurements and to what degree specific orthodontic parameters differ in both groups. The study included 120 non-syndromic 4.5-5.5-year-old children treated surgically at the age of 6-18 months. Fifty-six children underwent EGP utilising a Skoog-type of technique. The (non-EGP) group consisted of 64 patients. Patients in both groups were treated without nasoalveolar moulding prior to cleft lip repair. The maxillary arch models were obtained and subjected to the 3-D computer-aided imaging procedure and metric analysis. Ten selected orthodontic measurements were calculated based on imaging landmarks. The computed data derived from models in both (EGP and non-EGP) groups were compared. The differences between groups were statistically analysed using Student's test. Five orthodontic measurements: the angle of the lesser segment inclination, dental arch radius of this segment, anterior palatal depth, palatal surface and length of dental arch demonstrate more severe maxillary underdevelopment in patients with previous EGP. The results reaffirm the negative impact of EGP with wide undermining of periosteal flaps on maxillary development and suggest that these five parameters may be the most sensitive early indicators of growth alteration.

  15. Arch width changes in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first premolar extraction and non-extraction method

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Sajjad; Kachoei, Mojgan; Shahvaghar-Asl, Naiemeh; Shirazi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine arch width changes during maxillary first premolars extraction and non-extraction treatment in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion. Material and Methods Dental casts of 91 Class II division 1 patients (36 males and 55 females) were evaluated. The minimum age of the subjects at the beginning of treatment was above 16 years. 48 patients were treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and 43 patients were treated without extraction. Pre- and post-treatment maxillary and mandibular inter-canine and inter-molar arch widths were measured. Results At the end of treatment, maxillary and mandibular inter-canine widths of both groups increased significantly. The maxillary inter-molar width decreased in the extraction group and increased in the non-extraction group. The mandibular inter-molar width increased significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between males and females. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that there was a tendency for an increase in arch width during both the extraction and non-extraction treatment except maxillary inter-molar width in the extraction cases. Key words:Dental arch, malocclusion, angle Class II, tooth movement, extraction. PMID:27703608

  16. [The exposure dose of the sella turcica in panoramic dental radiography with an intraoral radiogenic source].

    PubMed

    Pastremoli, A; Cucchi, G; Ciminari, R

    1991-06-01

    Panoramic dental radiography using an intraoral X-ray source exposes critical organs, such as the crystalline and the thyroid, as well as organs of fundamental importance such as the pituitary gland, to X-rays. An experimental study was carried out to assess the exposure dose to the sella turcica during the radiological examination of the upper and lower dental arches using an X-ray source within the oral cavity. The comprehensive exposure dose for the upper and lower dental arches exceeded that found in orthopantomography (110 micro Gy/examination vs 47 micro Gy/examination) with errors which are respectively inferior to 15% and 30%. The authors conclude that the risk of provoking anatomical or functional changes of the pituitary gland is extremely remote using this type of examination.

  17. Prosthetic procedure for simultaneous immediate loading of opposing edentulous arches.

    PubMed

    Biscaro, Leonello; Ferlin, Paolo; Becattelli, Alberto; Vigolo, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    For patients with complete edentulism, a significant problem is the transfer of diagnostic data to the definitive casts when an immediate loading technique is used. This article presents a prosthetic procedure to allow simultaneous treatment of opposing edentulous arches with immediate implant loading. This technique uses 2 occlusal acrylic resin devices to transfer the diagnostic cast information to the definitive casts. Esthetic and functional fixed dental prostheses are fabricated from diagnostic information acquired in the presurgical phase without any impression or recording of the maxillomandibular relationship during or after surgery. This methodology is applicable when the simultaneous immediate loading of implants in 2 edentulous arches is indicated.

  18. Which is a stronger indicator of dental caries: oral hygiene, food, or beverage? A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Poonam; Gary, Julie J

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with various risk factors. Oral hygiene and dietary factors--specifically, the consumption of snacks and beverages with added sugars--have been shown to be risk indicators for this disease. It is critical for dental professionals to understand the relative roles of each of these food categories in the dental caries process. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 76 people living in a Southern Illinois fluoridated community. The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, snack food consumption, plaque index, and age showed statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable--dental caries (P < 0.05). The results indicated that dietary factors and oral hygiene both contribute equally to dental caries in young adults living in a fluoridated community. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was a much stronger indicator of dental caries than snack food consumption in our study population.

  19. Comparative study of mechanical properties of dental restorative materials and dental hard tissues in compressive loads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Yeop

    2014-01-01

    There are two objectives. One is to show the differences in the mechanical properties of various dental restorative materials compared to those of enamel and dentin. The other is to ascertain which dental restorative materials are more suitable for clinical treatments. Amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy were processed as dental restorative material specimens. The specimens (width, height, and length of 1.2, 1.2, and 3.0 mm, respectively) were compressed at a constant loading speed of 0.1 mm/min. The maximum stress (115.0 ± 40.6, 55.0 ± 24.8, 291.2 ± 45.3, 274.6 ± 52.2, 2206.0 ± 522.9, and 953.4 ± 132.1 MPa), maximum strain (7.8% ± 0.5%, 4.0% ± 0.1%, 12.7% ± 0.8%, 32.8% ± 0.5%, 63.5% ± 14.0%, and 45.3% ± 7.4%), and elastic modulus (1437.5 ± 507.2, 1548.4 ± 583.5, 2323.4 ± 322.4, 833.1 ± 92.4, 3895.2 ± 202.9, and 2222.7 ± 277.6 MPa) were evident for amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy, respectively. The reference hardness value of amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy was 90, 420, 130–135, 86.6–124.2, 1250, and 349, respectively. Since enamel grinds food, its abrasion resistance is important. Therefore, hardness value should be prioritized for enamel. Since dentin absorbs bite forces, mechanical properties should be prioritized for dentin. The results suggest that gold alloy simultaneously has a hardness value lower than enamel (74.8 ± 18.1), which is important in the wear of the opposing natural teeth, and higher maximum stress, maximum strain, and elastic modulus than dentin (193.7 ± 30.6 MPa, 11.9% ± 0.1%, 1653.7 ± 277.9 MPa, respectively), which are important considering the rigidity to absorb bite forces. PMID:25352921

  20. Thermal-lens study of semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in restorative dental resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Leandro P.; Pilla, Viviane; Iwazaki, Adalberto N.; Barja, Paulo R.; Munin, Egberto

    2013-02-01

    Thermal Lens (TL) and spectroscopic characterizations were performed in CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) embedded into two commercial dental resin composites. The thermal-optical studies were performed in CdSe/ZnS QDs (core size Φ= 4.1 nm) and PMMA-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS (Φ= 3.7 nm) embedded in restorative dental resins at concentration of 0.025 and 0.42 % in mass, respectively. The thermal diffusivity (D) results are characteristics of the dental resin composites studied. Photoacoustic (PA) technique results for the dental resin composites support the TL results.

  1. Dental amalgam and urinary mercury concentrations: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental amalgam is a source of elemental and inorganic mercury. The safety of dental amalgam in individuals remains a controversial issue. Urinary mercury concentrations are used to assess chronic exposure to elemental mercury. At present, there are no indications of mercury-associated adverse effects at levels below 5 μg Hg/g creatinine (Cr) or 7 μg Hg/L (urine). The purpose of the present study is to determine the overall urinary mercury level in the Canadian general population in relation to the number of dental amalgam surfaces. Methods Data come from the 2007/09 Canadian Health Measures Survey, which measured urinary mercury concentrations in a nationally representative sample of 5,418 Canadians aged 6–79 years. Urinary mercury concentrations were stratified by sex, age, and number of dental amalgam surfaces. Results The overall mean urinary mercury concentration varied between 0.12 μg Hg/L and 0.31 μg Hg/L or 0.13 μg Hg/g Cr and 0.40 μg Hg/g Cr. In general, females showed slightly higher mean urinary mercury levels than men. The overall 95th percentile was 2.95 μg Hg/L, the 99th percentile was 7.34E μg Hg/L, and the 99.9th percentile was 17.45 μg Hg/L. Expressed as μg Hg/g Cr, the overall 95th percentile was 2.57 μg Hg/g Cr, the 99th percentile was 5.65 μg Hg/g Cr, and the 99.9th percentiles was 12.14 μg Hg/g Cr. Overall, 98.2% of participants had urinary mercury levels below 7 μg Hg/L and 97.7% had urinary mercury levels below 5 μg Hg/g Cr. All data are estimates for the Canadian population. The estimates followed by the letter “E” should be interpreted with caution due to high sampling variability (coefficient of variation 16.6%-33.3%). Conclusions The mean urinary mercury concentrations in the general Canadian population are significantly lower than the values considered to pose any risks for health. PMID:24015978

  2. Immediate loading with fixed full-arch prostheses in the maxilla: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Covani, Ugo; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To critically review the evidence-based literature on immediate loading of implants with fixed full-arch prostheses in the maxilla to determine 1) currently recommended performance criteria and 2) the outcomes that can be expected with this procedure. Study Desing: Studies from 2001 to 2011 on immediate loading with fixed full-arch maxillary prostheses were reviewed. Clinical series with at least 5 patients and 12 months of follow-up were included. Case reports, studies with missing data and repeatedly published studies were excluded. In each study the following was assessed: type of study, implant type, number of patients, number of implants, number of implants per patient, use of post-extraction implants, minimum implant length and diameter, type of prosthesis, time until loading, implant survival rate, prosthesis survival rate, marginal bone loss, complications andmean follow-up time. Criteria for patient selection, implant primary stability and bone regeneration were also studied. Results: Thirteen studies were included, reporting a total of 2484 immediately loaded implants in 365 patients. Currently accepted performance criteria regarding patient and implant selection, and surgical and prosthetic procedures were deduced from the reviewed articles. Implant survival rates went from 87.5% to 100%, prosthesis survival rates from 93.8% to 100% and radiographic marginal bone loss from 0.8 mm to 1.6 mm.No intraoperative complications and only minor prosthetic complications were reported. Conclusions: The literature on immediate loading with fixed full-arch prostheses in the maxilla shows that a successful outcome can be expected if adequate criteria are used to evaluate the patient, choose the implant and perform the surgical and prosthetic treatment. Lack of homogeneity within studies limits the relevance of the conclusions that can be drawn, and more controlled randomized studies are necessary to enable comparison between the immediate and the

  3. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  4. Articulated dental cast analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic populations.

    PubMed

    Cordray, Frank E

    2016-06-30

    Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint.

  5. Articulated dental cast analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic populations

    PubMed Central

    Cordray, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324

  6. Articulated dental cast analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic populations.

    PubMed

    Cordray, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324

  7. Association Between Dental Students' Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance: A Study at Six Dental Colleges in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Puranik, Manjunath P; Sowmya, K R

    2016-05-01

    Since the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in achieving academic excellence requires further research, the aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess EI and its associated factors and to determine any association between EI and academic performance among final-year dental students in Bengaluru, India. In 2015, 208 dental students from six dental colleges in Bengaluru were invited to participate in the study. Their demographic and lifestyle data were collected, and EI was assessed with the 30-item Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment Checklist developed by Sterrett. Academic performance was assessed using grades obtained in the final-year undergraduate examination. The response rate was 96% (N=200). Overall, 54.5% of the participants had high EI scores (≥120), although only 51 (25.5%) had a high EI score in all the domains (≥20). EI was significantly greater in females than males. Gender, sleep, meeting friends, physical exercise, recreational activities, and academic performance were significantly associated with EI and accounted for 42% variance in hierarchical regression analysis. EI was also positively associated with academic performance. Gender and healthy lifestyle habits were positively associated with EI, which in turn influenced these students' academic performance. These findings suggest a possible need for attention to developing dental students' EI.

  8. Dental injuries at the 1989 Canada games: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lee-Knight, C T; Harrison, E L; Price, C J

    1992-10-01

    The management and prevention of dental trauma is an integral part of the medical services provided at major athletic events. This paper reviews the organization and delivery of the dental services provided at the 1989 Canada Games. The nature, incidence and management of the dental problems reported in the participant population of 3,411 athletes are also described. During the two-week competition, 15 participants were assessed and treated for various dental conditions, including hard- and soft-tissue injury of the oral cavity, and temporomandibular joint sprain. The sports with the highest incidence of dental injury for the male population were wrestling (one per cent) and basketball (0.8 per cent). For the female population, these sports were basketball (2.5 per cent) and field hockey (1.3 per cent). The dental services provided during the games included emergency assessment and treatment, fabrication of mouthguards, and in-service education to medical team members.

  9. [Study on factors concerning patients' anxiety in a dental clinic].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toru

    2009-06-01

    To clarify the extent to which patients feel anxious about dental treatment, anonymized data of a self-completed questionnaire obtained at a dental clinic in Saitama Prefecture were used for this study. The subjects were 278 patients older than 15 years of age and who had given informed consent The questionnaire contained 71 questions concerning the following seven characteristic factors: sense of hearing, sense of sight, sense of smell, sense of taste, sense of touch, sense of pain, and other situations. Each question was rated on a four-point scale. Exploratory factor analysis of the 262 answers was performed with the principal factor method and normalized varimax rotation. Six factors were extracted using the Kaiser Criterion and the Screeplot These factors were interpreted as follows: anxiety before treatment, unpleasantness of pain and bleeding, unpleasantness of smell and taste or feeling of the tongue, a sound or appliance that recalled pain, a meaningful sound such as talking by the dentist, and an unpleasant sound from an appliance. The senses of smell, taste and touch in the oral cavity were extracted as the same factor. The sense of hearing was divided into the factor of dissonance and the factor of anxiety recalled by sound in memory. However, no factor concerning the stimulation of sight was extracted. Therefore, the sense of sight might be related with the recognition method of the patient based on past experience and knowledge.

  10. Dental behaviour management problems among children and adolescents--a matter of understanding? Studies on dental fear, personal characteristics and psychosocial concomitants.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis was to study dental fear, personal characteristics and psychosocial concomitants in relation to dental behaviour management problems (DBMP) and dental attendance. The study sample consisted of children (8-12 yrs) and adolescents (13-19 yrs) referred to the Specialized Paediatric Dental Clinic because of DBMP. They were compared to a reference group of same aged dental patients in ordinary dental care. A methodological study explored the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) in terms of agreement between self and parental ratings and age- and gender-differentiated cut-off scores as compared to the commonly used. Baseline data on children's and adolescents' dental fear, psychosocial situation and everyday life, and personal characteristics were analysed according to a variable-based approach using logistic regression analyses and tree-based modelling of group differences. From the frequency of missed or/and cancelled appointments or interruption of dental treatment the group of referred children was separated into two groups (non-attendees vs. attendees). The differences between the groups were analysed using logistic regression analyses and tree-based modelling. It was found that children and adolescents referred because of DBMP differ in several ways from children and adolescents in ordinary dental care. These differences concerns dental fear, emotional and behavioural problems and temperamental aspects, as well as psychosocial concomitants. The results indicated an overall more negative and complex picture for the children and adolescents referred because of DBMP. The occurrence of single-parent families, child-parent separations, and professional support actions were clearly more frequent among patients referred because of DBMP. Dental fear was the only variable with consistent discriminatory capacity for DBMP through all age and gender subgroups. Aspects of anxiety, temperament, and behavioural symptoms

  11. Finite Element Analysis Generates an Increasing Interest in Dental Research: A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Abdoulaziz; Mushegyan, Vagan; Naveau, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to provide a longitudinal overview of published studies that use finite element analysis in dental research, by using the SCI-expanded database of Web of Science® (Thomson Reuters). Material and Methods: Eighty publications from 1999-2000 and 473 from 2009-2010 were retrieved. This literature grew faster than the overall dental literature. The number of publishing countries doubled. The main journals were American or English, and dealt with implantology. For the top 10 journals publishing dental finite element papers, the mean impact factor increased by 75% during the decade. Results: Finite elements generate an increasing interest from dental authors and publishers worldwide. PMID:27006722

  12. Improving Dental Experiences by Using Virtual Reality Distraction: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; P. White, Mathew; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n = 69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people’s previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events. PMID:24621518

  13. Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1 mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8 mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018 × 0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0 mm, namely, at the level of 0.3 mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement. PMID:25610497

  14. Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-Ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1 mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8 mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018 × 0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0 mm, namely, at the level of 0.3 mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement.

  15. [Evaluation of the timing of orthodontic arch expansion and graft in cleft lip and palate].

    PubMed

    Chang, Le; Wang, Yingnan; Liu, Hongyan

    2016-04-01

    Maxillary transverse growth is inhibited by congenital cleft, early surgical scar strain, and oppression of lipmuscles in patients with cleft lip and palate. Clinical manifestations have shown severely constricted maxilla, insufficientmaxillary width, mismatch of upper and lower dental arches, and crossbite. Alveolar bone graft and arch expansion can effectively correct the deficiency in maxillary width. This paper discusses the timing and success rate of alveolar bone graft, as wellas the relationship between alveolar bone graft and arch expansion. Secondary alveolar bone graft is optimally performed beforepermanent canine eruption, especially when the teeth have formed between half and three quarters of their roots. Rapid maxillaryexpansion prior to alveolar bone graft is beneficial because this process increases the gap of the cleft, expands bone graft, andreduces the difficulty. However, the stability of this process remains controversial. Small-scale studies have reported that rapidmaxillary expansion after alveolar bone graft can open the midpalatal suture without bone graft loss. Slow maxillary expansioncan provide continuous light forces to reconstruct the bone. However, these studies are coordinated with fixed orthodontictreatment. Further research is necessary to determine the effects of maxillary expansion on long-term stability of teeth. PMID:27337934

  16. Burmese Arched Harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Robert M.

    Our knowledge of the history, construction, and tunings of the Burmese arched harp (saùng gauk) comes from a variety of sources. Conversations with master harpists, together with recordings made of their performances between 1960 and 1980, provide richly detailed examples of the effect of Western music on a non-Western musical tradition. Scholars' essays and conference proceedings complement these first-hand accounts, expanding our understanding of Burmese music and musical instruments.

  17. Dental pain and associated factors among pregnant women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Marta S M; Lang, Celina A; Almeida, Luiza H S; Bello-Corrêa, Fernanda O; Romano, Ana R; Pappen, Fernanda G

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic factors and oral health conditions among 315 pregnant women in South Brazil. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data, such as age, educational level, employment status, family income, and marital and parity status. Medical and dental histories were also collected, including the occurrence of dental pain and the use of dental services during pregnancy. Clinical examinations were performed to assess the presence of visible plaque and gingival bleeding and to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Means and standard deviations of continuous variables and frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Independent variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 173 (54.9 %) pregnant women reported dental pain during pregnancy. After adjustment of the analysis, caries activity remained the main determinant of dental pain (odds ratio 3.33, 95 % CI 1.67-6.65). The prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy was high and the presence of caries activity was a determinant of dental pain. Moreover, access to oral health care was low, despite pregnant women's increased need for dental assistance. PMID:24894731

  18. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  19. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  20. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XX, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1990 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper (WRHC) College in Palatine, Illinois. A survey was mailed to all 30…

  1. The Effects of Patient Contact upon First-Year Dental Students: A Study of Changing Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Roger G.; And Others

    This study attempted to determine the effects of early patient contact through clinic experience upon the perceptions and attitudes of first year dental students. Questionnaires were administered at the beginning and end of students' first year in an innovative and new dental school where they were introduced to clinic experience within the first…

  2. [Dental fluorosis in San Luis Potosi and its solution alternatives (pilot study)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Prieto, M; Vázquez Guerrero, V; Silva Romo, E; Moreno Vélez, R; Ochoa Flores, L; Hernández, M J

    1988-12-01

    A study exposing the situation affecting the population of San Luis Potosí in central México, caused by dental fluorosis. Findings point to the need of implementing devices capable of regulating the concentrations of Fluorine ion (generating the efficient prevention of dental cavity incidence), to maintain them at optimal levels and without deletereal effects.

  3. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  4. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  5. Standardizing Foot-Type Classification Using Arch Index Values

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. Method: For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Results: Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Conclusions: Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types. PMID:23729964

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Efficacy of CIA and CNA Intrusion Arches

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Sambhav; Pandey, Vinisha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Excessive overbite is one of the most common problems that confront the orthodontist. Deep bite can be due to infraocclusion of posterior teeth, supraocclusion of anterior teeth or a combination of the two. Correction of same can be carried out by extrusion of molars, intrusion of incisors or by a combination of both respectively. Various intrusion arches are recommended for correcting deep bite by true intrusion of anterior teeth, Utility arches, Segmental arch, Connecticut Intrusion Arch (CIA) and Connecticut New Arch (CNA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of CIA and CNA intrusion arches. Materials and Methods Tracings recorded from pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 25 patients treated by CIA (Group I) and another 25 patients treated by CNA (Group II) intrusion arches in deep bite cases after four months of treatment were analysed and findings were recorded. Statistical Analysis Paired t-test was used to compare pre and post-treatment changes within Groups I and II and unpaired t-test was used to compare treatment changes between Group I and Group II. A P-value of < 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Results Findings of this study demonstrate that an average of 1mm of intrusion takes place with CIA intrusion arch and 1.3mm with CNA intrusion arch in a period of 4 months. Both intrusion arches do not affect the position of molar in vertical or anteroposterior plane. Interpretation & Conclusion Both CIA and CNA intrusion arches are effective in bringing about intrusion of lower incisors. PMID:26501008

  7. Statistical analysis of arch shape with conic sections.

    PubMed

    Sampson, P D

    1983-06-01

    Arcs of conic sections are used to model the shapes of human dental arches and to provide a basis for the statistical and graphical analysis of a population of shapes. The Bingham distribution, an elliptical distribution on a hypersphere, is applied in order to model the coefficients of the conic arcs. It provides a definition of an 'average shape' and it quantifies variation in shape. Geometric envelopes of families of conic arcs whose coefficients satisfy a quadratic constraint are used to depict the distribution of shapes in the plane and to make graphical inferences about the average shape. The methods are demonstrated with conic arcs fitted to a sample of 66 maxillary dental arches.

  8. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  9. Dental fear among children and adolescents in a multicultural population--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fägerstad, Anida; Lundgren, Jesper; Arnrup, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore dental fear in a multicultural population of child and adolescent dental patients, with background, gender, age, and socioeconomic status taken into account. A specific aim was to investigate whether the level of DF differed between patients with a non- Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background. In conjunction with a routine visit to the dental clinic, 301 patients (8-19 years old) assessed their dental fear on the Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale, using self-ratings. Following an interview protocol, patients' and their parents' country of birth, and parents' education and occupation/employment were registered. An interpreter was present when needed. Self-rated dental fear was almost equal among patients coming from a non-Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background. Girls scored higher than boys and younger children scored slightly higher compared to older children, but the pattern of dental fear variation was inconsistent. Socioeconomic status differed between the groups with a non-Swedish vs. a Swedish background, but no impact on dental fear was revealed. When children and adolescents with a non-Swedish vs. a Swedish background were modelled separately, female gender and younger age had an impact on dental fear only in the group with a Swedish background. No differences in dental fear were found between children and adolescents from non-Swedish vs. Swedish backgrounds. Dental fear variations according to gender and age were more pronounced in the group with a Swedish background compared to the group with a non-Swedish background. No impact of socioeconomic status could be revealed. PMID:26529836

  10. Electrochemical study of insulating properties of dental amalgam bonding polymers.

    PubMed

    Toumelin-Chemla, F; Degrange, M

    1998-06-01

    The standard techniques used for amalgam restorations often result in a lack of adhesion to mineralized dental tissues. The bonding of amalgam with polymer has been suggested to improve its adaptation to dental tissues. Moreover the polymer involved in the bonding should inhibit the corrosion and the diffusion of metallic ions. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of bonded amalgam to prevent ionic diffusion and migration. In this respect, an original method employing electrochemical techniques was used to determine the leakage current of bonded amalgam restorations. The electrochemical behaviour of conventional and bonded amalgam restorations was compared using a potentiostat driven by a computerized system (Voltamaster, Radiometer Analytical) with software for specific applications such as chronoamperometry or cyclic voltammetry. Samples of recently extracted teeth of young patients were first examined, and then the results were checked by other experimental assays using protected and unprotected copper sticks. The measurements obtained with chronoamperometry (E = +300 mV/SCE) in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C showed that after polarization for 30 h the oxidation current decreased threefold for bonded samples (10 microA cm(-2)) as compared with the unprotected samples (35 microA cm(-2)). These results, as well as those obtained with the copper wires, demonstrated that even with two layers of adhesive the bonded joint is permeable to ions probably as a result of the hydrophylic properties of HEMA, a component of the adhesive. However, using five layers of adhesive reduced the ionic current by a factor as large as 10(6).

  11. [Nosocomial infections--study about the implementation level of preventive measures in the dental office].

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Cristina; Anţilă, Melisa; Suciu, Oana; Cheptănariu, Delia; Olariu, T R

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial infection occurs in the hospital and other medical offices and expresses any disease, that affects the patient due to hospital admission or the received care, the activity of the medical personnel, no matter that symptoms appear or not in the hospital or outside. In the performed study we proposed to investigate the implementation level of the measures of nosocomial infections prophylaxis in dental office. The study consisted in a transversal epidemiologic inquiry through a specific questionnaire applying in a sample of 50 patients treated for dental diseases in the dental office. The items refer to the implementation level of the prophylaxis measures in the dental office. The obtained results revealed a proper patients' addressing at dental office and some deficiencies of the personnel medical activity in dental office, such as : does not wear the surgery gloves and mask, does not use the salvo vacuum for patients protection. Also, we find out a deficient medical education referring to hygiene conditions in dental office. In conclusion, there are deficiencies of the prophylaxis measures in dental office.

  12. Interprofessional education in U.S. and Canadian dental schools: an ADEA Team Study Group report.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Allan J; Andrieu, Sandra C; Buchanan, Judith A; Childs, Gail Schneider; Gibbs, Micaela; Inglehart, Marita R; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Pyle, Marsha A; D'Abreu, Kim; Evans, Lauren

    2012-09-01

    The state of interprofessional education (IPE) in U.S. and Canadian dental schools was studied by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Team Study Group on Interprofessional Education. The study group reviewed the pertinent IPE literature, examined IPE competencies for dental students, surveyed U.S. and Canadian dental schools to determine the current and planned status of IPE activities, and identified best practices. Members of the study group prepared case studies of the exemplary IPE programs of six dental schools, based on information provided by those schools; representatives from each school then reviewed and approved its case study. Six reviewers critiqued a draft of the study group's report, and study group members and reviewers met together to prepare recommendations for schools. This report identifies four domains of competence for student achievement in IPE and summarizes responses to the survey (which had an 86 percent response rate). It also includes the case descriptions of six schools' IPE programs and the study group's recommendations for dental schools. The report concludes that there is general recognition of the goals of IPE across U.S. and Canadian dental schools, but a wide range of progress in IPE on the various campuses. Challenges to the further development of IPE are discussed.

  13. Digital radiological research in forensic dental investigation: case studies.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Di Vella, G

    2012-04-01

    The advent of dental digital radiology and new portable X-ray devices allows the execution of periapical X-ray images not only in the dental surgery but also in hitherto difficult locations such as field military hospitals, archaeological excavation sites, morgues and in cases of house arrest. In this work authors evaluated the feasibility of Nomad Examiner (Aribex inc.) handheld X-ray device combined with a digital sensor and a portable pc in forensic odontology applications. Employed for the first time forensically during the 2004 Tsunami victim identification process, the Nomad Examiner has now passed all security and conformity requirements of US and EU regulations. Examples of the practical use and the technical features of this device are seen when employed in odontological assessment of skeletonised and carbonized individuals and the assessment of individuals under house arrest complaining dental lesions. Results from the use this portable device demonstrate the benefits of a dental radiological assessment during an autopsy with the aim of human identification and the importance of a complete dental assessment (clinical and radiological) when evaluating dental traumatic lesions of individuals who cannot visit a dental surgery. In the first example forensic dentist would work alongside a forensic pathologist. On the other hand in the second example an odontologist - dentist could be appointed as an expert witness directly by a Court. PMID:22441419

  14. Dental solid waste characterization and management in Iran: a case study of Sistan and Baluchestan Province.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Mohammadi, Leili; Mostafapour, Ferdos Kord; Moghaddam, Alireza Ansari

    2014-02-01

    The management of dental solid waste continues to be a major challenge, particularly in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. In Iran, few studies on management of dental solid waste and its composition are available. An effort has been made through this study to evaluate the hazardous and infectious status of dental solid waste, keeping in mind its possible role in cross-infection chain. For this study, 123 private dental centres and 36 public dental centres were selected and the composition and generation rate of dental solid waste produced were measured. Dental solid waste was classified to four main categories: (i) domestic-type; (ii) potentially infectious; (iii) chemical and pharmaceutical; and (iv) toxic, which constituted 11.7, 80.3, 6.3, and 1.7%, respectively, of the total. Also, the results indicated that the dental solid waste per patient per day generation rate for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 169.9, 8.6, 153.3, 11.2, and 3.3 g/patient/d, respectively. Furthermore, the per day generation rates for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 194.5, 22.6, 156.1, 12.3, and 3.4 kg/d, respectively. According to findings of this study, for best management of dental waste it is suggested that source reduction, separation, reuse, and recycling programmes be implemented and each section of dental waste be collected and disposed of separately and in accordance with related criteria.

  15. Occurrence and timing of complications following traumatic dental injuries: A retrospective study in a dental trauma department

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shaul; Pilosof, Nir; Karawani, Munir; Wigler, Ronald; Kaufman, Arieh Y.; Teich, Sorin T.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study explores the pattern of complications occurrence resulting from traumatic dental injuries, the relation of this pattern to the number of years from the time of the injury to its first diagnosis, and other contributing characteristics such as root development and trauma characteristic. Material and Methods Patients’ data treated following dental trauma from 2002 to 2014 were classified and grouped according to age, gender, tooth type, injury type, diagnosis and the time that elapsed between the traumatic event and the diagnosis of complications (TIC). The distribution function of the quantitative parameters was determined with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Fisher exact test was used to test differences between categorical parameters. Results The review identified 166 patients (114 male and 52 female), with a total of 287 traumatized teeth, and a mean of 1.8 injured teeth per incident. Maxillary teeth were involved significantly more often in traumatic dental injuries. The follow-up period range (TIC) had a mean of 2.99 years. The most frequent complication was pulp necrosis (34.2%). The most frequent complication related to avulsion was ankylotic root resorption (50%) diagnosed after a median TIC of 1.18 years. Open apices at the occurrence of trauma were observed in 52 teeth. Of these, 54.9% experienced pulp necrosis and 9.8% inflammatory root resorption with a median TIC of 1.63 years. Teeth that experienced multiple traumatic events showed significantly more late pulp necrosis compared to teeth that experienced a single traumatic injury (61.9% vs. 25.3%, respectively, p<0.0001). Conclusions Follow-up periods should be based on the type of traumatic dental injury and the severity of the potential complications for the tooth. Current recommendations for follow-up after traumatic dental injury should be revised to reflect the need for more frequent and overall prolonged follow-up. Key words:Dental trauma, avulsion, open apex, pulp necrosis

  16. Dental Occlusion and Ophthalmology: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Marchili, Nicola; Ortu, Eleonora; Pietropaoli, Davide; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Monaco, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Stomatognathic system is strictly correlated to other anatomical regions; many studies investigated relationship between temporomandibular joint and posture, several articles describe cranio-facial pain from dental causes, such as trigger points. Until now less interest has been given to connections between dental occlusion and ophthalmology, even if they are important and involving. Clinical experience in dental practice claims that mandibular latero-deviation is connected both to eye dominance and to defects of ocular convergence. The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the twelve cranial nerves. The trigeminal system represents the connection between somitic structures and those derived from the branchial arches, collecting the proprioception from both somitic structures and oculomotor muscles. The intermedius nucleus of the medulla is a small perihypoglossal brainstem nucleus, which acts to integrate information from the head and neck and relays it on to the nucleus of the solitary tract where autonomic responses are generated. This intriguing neurophysiological web led our research group to investigate anatomical and functional associations between dental occlusion and vision. In conclusion, nervous system and functional pathways strictly connect vision and dental occlusion, and in the future both dentists and oculists should be more and more aware of this correlation for a better diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27733873

  17. Space maintainer effects on intercanine arch width and length.

    PubMed

    Dincer, M; Haydar, S; Unsal, B; Turk, T

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of space maintainers in intercanine arch width and length, twenty cases, characterized with the early loss of mandibular primary molars were selected and divided into two groups. The treatment group used removable space maintainers, while the other ten cases served as the control group. The first dental casts of the treatment and control groups were obtained when the primary canines were in the mouth. After the eruption of permanent canines second dental casts were obtained in both groups. Six measurements were made on the dental casts of each patient. No parameter was found to be statistically significant in the treatment group. In the control group the increase in intercanine arch width and perimeter were found to be statistically significant. Also the increase at the buccal and lingual bone measurements were found to be statistically significant. These results showed that space maintainers might cease the increase in intercanine arch width and length during the transition period between the primary and permanent canines.

  18. 35. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS, WITH ARCH REPEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS, WITH ARCH REPEATED BETWEEN TOWER LEGS, AND ASHLAR MASONRY WALLS AND PYLONS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Cluster Effects in a National Dental PBRN Restorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Litaker, M.S.; Gordan, V.V.; Rindal, D.B.; Fellows, J.L.; Gilbert, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Items in clusters, such as patients of the same clinician or teeth within the same patient, tend to be more similar than items from different groups. This within-group similarity, represented by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), reduces precision, yielding less statistical power and wider confidence intervals, compared with non-clustered samples of the same size. This must be considered in the design of studies including clusters. We present ICC estimates from a study of 7,826 restorations placed in previously unrestored tooth surfaces of 4,672 patients by 222 clinicians in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network, as a resource for sample size planning in restorative studies. Our findings suggest that magnitudes of ICCs in practice-based research can be substantial. These can have large effects on precision and the power to detect treatment effects. Generally, we found relatively large ICCs for characteristics that are influenced by clinician choice (e.g., 0.36 for rubber dam use). ICCs for outcomes within individual patients, such as tooth surfaces affected by a caries lesion, tended to be smaller (from 0.03 to 0.15), but were still sufficiently large to substantially affect statistical power. Clustering should be taken into account in the design of oral health studies and derivation of statistical power estimates for these studies (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00847470). PMID:23857643

  20. Ambient resonance of Mesa Arch, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the resonance characteristics of a prominent natural arch in Canyonlands National Park, Mesa Arch, as measured from ambient seismic data. Evaluating spectral and polarization attributes, we distinguished the first four resonant frequencies of the arch, 2.9, 6.0, 6.9, and 8.5 Hz, as well as basic properties of the associated mode shapes. We then affirmed experimental data using 3-D numerical modal analysis, providing estimates of material properties and clarifying vibrational mode shapes. Monitoring resonant frequencies over time, we searched for shifts associated with changing environmental conditions and long-term progressive damage. We measured ~3% direct daily variation in resonant frequency associated with changing rock temperature, thermal stress, and stiffening of the rock matrix. Independent tilt data showed similar diurnal cycles associated with thermoelastic stresses and deformation of the arch. We observed no permanent resonant frequency shifts related to irreversible damage of Mesa Arch during our study period.

  1. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bech, Mickael; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore, dentists appear to be the most important actors for the spatial spillover effects, and these effects are especially strong for municipalities situated in the same county that use private dental clinics. There is no evidence of political spatial spillover effects between municipalities.

  2. Musculoskeletal neck and back pain in undergraduate dental students at a UK dental school - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vijay, S; Ide, M

    2016-09-01

    Objective Limited data exist on musculoskeletal problems within dental students: we aimed to determine the prevalence of these disorders.Design Single centre cross-sectional study.Setting A UK Dental School 2015.Methods Students completed a modified Nordic pain questionnaire.Main outcome measures Self-reported frequency and severity of pain, fitness and coping strategies.Results 63% of 390 respondents were female and 75% aged under 23. Seventy-nine percent experienced pain with 42% experiencing pain for 30 or more days in the past year. Lower back pain was most common (54%) and was most frequently the worst area of pain (48%). Thirty-six percent reported pain lasting at least four hours. The mean 'average pain intensity' VAS score was 3.81/10 (sd = 1.75) and mean 'worst pain intensity' was 5.56 (sd = 2.10). More females reported neck pain (58% versus 37%, P <0.001) and higher 'average pain intensity' (mean 4.02, sd 1.82 versus 3.43 sd 1.55, P = 0.012. Daily stretching was used by 55.7% of respondents, and this positively correlated with 'average' and 'worst pain intensity' (P = 0.096 and P = 0.001) scores. Eighteen percent sought professional help to manage pain.Conclusion Musculoskeletal pain is a problem for dental students. Education in self-care may be helpful; however, assessments of possible interventions are needed. PMID:27608577

  3. Key Techniques and Risk Management for the Application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) Excavation Method: A Case Study of the Zhongjie Subway Station

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-ping; Zhao, Wen; Li, Shen-gang; Zhang, Guo-bin

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area. PMID:25221783

  4. Key techniques and risk management for the application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method: a case study of the Zhongjie subway station.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yong-ping; Zhao, Wen; Li, Shen-gang; Zhang, Guo-bin

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area. PMID:25221783

  5. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Joanna L

    2015-09-01

    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.

  6. Effect of year of study on stress levels in male undergraduate dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stress among dental students can be a significant threat, resulting in physical and/or mental illness, and have a negative effect on students’ performance and the professional practice of dentistry. Stress can occur from different sources. The purpose of this study is to test whether the year of study has an effect on the stress levels of dental students. Method Our study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out by male undergraduate dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh City during the 2010–2011 academic year (n = 214). Results The results show the most common sources of stress: examinations and completing clinical requirements. Moreover, in the five-year lecture-based traditional curriculum, the third year students reported the highest level of stress, whereas the first year reported the lowest level of stress. Conclusion Third year undergraduate dental students reported the highest level of stress. This stress could be reduced by reviewing and modifying the dental curriculum by allowing students to have contact with patients more gradually, starting from the first year, in addition to adding stress prevention and intervention programs in dental curricula. PMID:24159265

  7. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  8. Studies on microleakage associated with visible light cured dental composites.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V K; Bindhu, D B; Manjusha, K

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was twofold: 1) to determine the extent of microleakage associated with two visible light cured dental composites, one of which is an indigenously developed light cure composite (chitra light cure system) compared with a commercially available control material (Prisma APH light cure system), and 2) to study the effect of using bonding agents upon the above phenomena. The bonding agents used along with the above composites during restoration were chitra bonding agent system containing chitra primer/chitra resin and a control (Probond) which was purchased commercially. A comparison of microleakage in freshly restored human premolar teeth by silver nitrate staining technique was made during the above study. Cavities were restored with both composites with and without bonding agents, stored in 50 percent silver nitrate, and sections were cut after developing. The microtomed sections were observed under the optical light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Results indicate that bonding agents are mandatory for effective bonding at the tooth/resin interface and subsequent reduction in marginal leakage. Chitra bonding agent showed excellent adhesive bonding characteristics at the dentine/composite interface with minimal marginal leakage compared to the control bonding system. The chitra light cure composite material also showed lower shrinkage characteristics compared to Prisma APH composite. PMID:8859406

  9. Critical Transitions in Early Embryonic Aortic Arch Patterning and Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, William J.; Dur, Onur; Wang, Yajuan; Patrick, Michael J.; Tinney, Joseph P.; Keller, Bradley B.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2013-01-01

    Transformation from the bilaterally symmetric embryonic aortic arches to the mature great vessels is a complex morphogenetic process, requiring both vasculogenic and angiogenic mechanisms. Early aortic arch development occurs simultaneously with rapid changes in pulsatile blood flow, ventricular function, and downstream impedance in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. These dynamic biomechanical environmental landscapes provide critical epigenetic cues for vascular growth and remodeling. In our previous work, we examined hemodynamic loading and aortic arch growth in the chick embryo at Hamburger-Hamilton stages 18 and 24. We provided the first quantitative correlation between wall shear stress (WSS) and aortic arch diameter in the developing embryo, and observed that these two stages contained different aortic arch patterns with no inter-embryo variation. In the present study, we investigate these biomechanical events in the intermediate stage 21 to determine insights into this critical transition. We performed fluorescent dye microinjections to identify aortic arch patterns and measured diameters using both injection recordings and high-resolution optical coherence tomography. Flow and WSS were quantified with 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Dye injections revealed that the transition in aortic arch pattern is not a uniform process and multiple configurations were documented at stage 21. CFD analysis showed that WSS is substantially elevated compared to both the previous (stage 18) and subsequent (stage 24) developmental time-points. These results demonstrate that acute increases in WSS are followed by a period of vascular remodeling to restore normative hemodynamic loading. Fluctuations in blood flow are one possible mechanism that impacts the timing of events such as aortic arch regression and generation, leading to the variable configurations at stage 21. Aortic arch variations noted during normal rapid vascular remodeling at stage 21 identify a

  10. Spectrum of Dental Phenotypes in Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefting.

    PubMed

    Howe, B J; Cooper, M E; Vieira, A R; Weinberg, S M; Resick, J M; Nidey, N L; Wehby, G L; Marazita, M L; Moreno Uribe, L M

    2015-07-01

    Children with oral clefts show a wide range of dental anomalies, adding complexity to understanding the phenotypic spectrum of orofacial clefting. The evidence is mixed, however, on whether the prevalence of dental anomalies is elevated in unaffected relatives and is mostly based on small samples. In the largest international cohort to date of children with nonsyndromic clefts, their relatives, and controls, this study characterizes the spectrum of cleft-related dental anomalies and evaluates whether families with clefting have a significantly higher risk for such anomalies compared with the general population. A total of 3,811 individuals were included: 660 cases with clefts, 1,922 unaffected relatives, and 1,229 controls. Dental anomalies were identified from in-person dental exams or intraoral photographs, and case-control differences were tested using χ(2) statistics. Cases had higher rates of dental anomalies in the maxillary arch than did controls for primary (21% vs. 4%, P = 3 × 10(-8)) and permanent dentitions (51% vs. 8%, P = 4 × 10(-62)) but not in the mandible. Dental anomalies were more prevalent in cleft lip with cleft palate than other cleft types. More anomalies were seen in the ipsilateral side of the cleft. Agenesis and tooth displacements were the most common dental anomalies found in case probands for primary and permanent dentitions. Compared with controls, unaffected siblings (10% vs. 2%, P = 0.003) and parents (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.001) showed a trend for increased anomalies of the maxillary permanent dentition. Yet, these differences were nonsignificant after multiple-testing correction, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in some families carrying susceptibility to both overt clefts and dental anomalies. Collectively, the findings suggest that most affected families do not have higher genetic risk for dental anomalies than the general population and that the higher prevalence of anomalies in cases is primarily a physical consequence of the

  11. Spectrum of Dental Phenotypes in Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefting

    PubMed Central

    Howe, B.J.; Cooper, M.E.; Vieira, A.R.; Weinberg, S.M.; Resick, J.M.; Nidey, N.L.; Wehby, G.L.; Marazita, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with oral clefts show a wide range of dental anomalies, adding complexity to understanding the phenotypic spectrum of orofacial clefting. The evidence is mixed, however, on whether the prevalence of dental anomalies is elevated in unaffected relatives and is mostly based on small samples. In the largest international cohort to date of children with nonsyndromic clefts, their relatives, and controls, this study characterizes the spectrum of cleft-related dental anomalies and evaluates whether families with clefting have a significantly higher risk for such anomalies compared with the general population. A total of 3,811 individuals were included: 660 cases with clefts, 1,922 unaffected relatives, and 1,229 controls. Dental anomalies were identified from in-person dental exams or intraoral photographs, and case-control differences were tested using χ2 statistics. Cases had higher rates of dental anomalies in the maxillary arch than did controls for primary (21% vs. 4%, P = 3 × 10−8) and permanent dentitions (51% vs. 8%, P = 4 × 10−62) but not in the mandible. Dental anomalies were more prevalent in cleft lip with cleft palate than other cleft types. More anomalies were seen in the ipsilateral side of the cleft. Agenesis and tooth displacements were the most common dental anomalies found in case probands for primary and permanent dentitions. Compared with controls, unaffected siblings (10% vs. 2%, P = 0.003) and parents (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.001) showed a trend for increased anomalies of the maxillary permanent dentition. Yet, these differences were nonsignificant after multiple-testing correction, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in some families carrying susceptibility to both overt clefts and dental anomalies. Collectively, the findings suggest that most affected families do not have higher genetic risk for dental anomalies than the general population and that the higher prevalence of anomalies in cases is primarily a physical consequence of the cleft

  12. Views of Dental Providers on Primary Care Coordination at Chairside: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Birenz, Shirley; Gomes, Danni; Golembeski, Cynthia A.; Greenblatt, Ariel Port; Shelley, Donna; Russell, Stefanie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is a need for research to facilitate the widespread implementation, dissemination, and sustained utilization of evidence-based primary care screening, monitoring, and care coordination guidelines, thereby increasing the impact of dental hygienists’ actions on patients’ oral and general health. The aims of this formative study are to: (1) explore dental hygienists’ and dentists’ perspectives regarding the integration of primary care activities into routine dental care; and (2) assess the needs of dental hygienists and dentists regarding primary care coordination activities and use of information technology to obtain clinical information at chairside. Methods This qualitative study recruited ten hygienists and six dentists from ten New York City area dental offices with diverse patient mixes and volumes. A New York University faculty hygienist conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis consisted of multilevel coding based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, resulting in emergent themes with accompanying categories. Results The dental hygienists and dentists interviewed as part of this study fail to use evidence-based guidelines to screen their patients for primary care sensitive conditions. Overwhelmingly, dental providers believe that tobacco use and poor diet contribute to oral disease, and report using electronic devices at chairside to obtain web-based health information. Conclusion Dental hygienists are well positioned to help facilitate greater integration of oral and general health care. Challenges include lack of evidence-based knowledge, coordination between dental hygienists and dentists, and systems-level support, with opportunities for improvement based upon a theory-driven framework. PMID:27340183

  13. Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Qualitative Study Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, SH; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; McGrath, Colman; King, Nigel M

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) refers to the fear of and anxiety towards going to the dentist. It exists in a considerable proportion of children and adolescents and is a major dilemma in pediatric dental practice. As an Internet social medium with increasing popularity, the video-sharing website YouTube offers a useful data source for understanding health behaviors and perceptions of the public. Objective Using YouTube as a platform, this qualitative study aimed to examine the manifestations, impacts, and origins of DFA in children and adolescents from the public’s perspective. Methods To retrieve relevant information, we searched YouTube using the keywords “dental fear”, “dental anxiety”, and “dental phobia”. Videos in English expressing a layperson’s views or experience on children’s or adolescent’s DFA were selected for this study. A video was excluded if it had poor audiovisual quality, was irrelevant, was pure advertisement or entertainment, or contained only the views of professionals. After the screen, we transcribed 27 videos involving 32 children and adolescents, which were reviewed by a panel of 3 investigators, including a layperson with no formal dental training. Inductive thematic analysis was applied for coding and interpreting the data. Results The videos revealed multiple manifestations and impacts of DFA, including immediate physical reactions (eg, crying, screaming, and shivering), psychological responses (eg, worry, upset, panic, helplessness, insecurity, resentment, and hatred), and uncooperativeness in dental treatment. Testimonials from children, adolescents, and their parents suggested diverse origins of DFA, namely personal experience (eg, irregular dental visits and influence of parents or peers), dentists and dental auxiliaries (eg, bad manner, lack of clinical skills, and improper work ethic), dental settings (eg, dental chair and sounds), and dental procedures (eg, injections, pain, discomfort, and

  14. A Study of Nutrition in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Deborah L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to document the extent of nutritional content in U.S. dental hygiene program curricula; identify program directors' opinions, perceptions, and barriers to expanding nutritional content; and evaluate if a proposed nutrition curriculum model would be beneficial. This mixed methods study involved quantitative and qualitative aspects. An invitation letter was sent to all 335 directors of entry-level U.S. dental hygiene programs. In response, 55 directors submitted nutrition course syllabi from their programs (16.4% of the total) for the quantitative analysis. In addition, 14 nutrition instructors and ten program directors were interviewed regarding their perceptions and opinions of nutrition education for dental hygiene students. All aspects of the content analysis results revealed that nutrition content in entry-level dental hygiene programs is diverse. Some programs did not include nutrition content, while others provided oral and systemic nutrition intervention subject matter. Some programs offered multiple clinical nutrition applications and patient contact opportunities while most required none. The interview results disclosed a variety of opinions and perceptions of dental hygienists' role in nutrition. Several interviewees viewed dental hygienists' role in nutrition to be an integral part of patient care, while others indicated no role or providing caries prevention counseling only. Although dental hygienists are expected to provide nutrition assessments and interventions, no standards or standardized competencies exist for nutrition in dental hygiene education. A standardized nutrition model could be beneficial for entry-level programs to ensure dental hygienists possess basic knowledge to perform nutrition assessments and intervention to address Healthy People 2020's intervention initiatives.

  15. Study on frequency of dental developmental alterations in a Mexican school-based population

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Salcido-García, Juan-Francisco; Hernández-Flores, Florentino

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to know the distribution of dental developmental alterations in the population requesting stomatological attention at the Admission and Diagnosis Clinic of our institution in Mexico City. Material and Methods We reviewed the archives and selected those files with developmental dental alterations. Analyzed data were diagnoses, age, gender, location and number of involved teeth. Results Of the 3.522 patients reviewed, 179 (5.1%) harbored 394 developmental dental alterations. Of them, 45.2% were males and 54.8% were females with a mean age of 16.7 years. The most common were supernumeraries, dental agenesia and dilaceration. Adults were 30.7% of the patients with dental developmental alterations. In them, the most common lesions were agenesia and supernumeraries. Mesiodens was the most frequently found supernumerary teeth (14.7%). Conclusions Our finding that 30.7% of the affected patients were adults is an undescribed and unusually high proportion of patients that have implications on planning and prognosis of their stomatological treatment. Key words:Developmental dental alterations, developmental alterations, supernumerary teeth, dental agenesia, root dilaceration. PMID:26946196

  16. [A study on the dental adhesive containing phosphate diesters].

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Chen, Z; Guan, L; Li, J; Wu, G; Qui, J

    1990-09-01

    Although a lot of kinds of dental adhesives have been applied recently, all of them cannot meet clinical requirement completely. This paper reports a new dental adhesive containing partial phosphate diesters developed by us. We synthesized aryl phosphorodichloridates (APDC), nine kinds of phosphate diester (PDE) adhesive monomers, sodium p-toluenesulfinate (TSS) and p-toluenesulfinic acid (TSA) accelerators, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) powder and the other compounds. The chemical structures of PDE adhesive monomers were confirmed by IR, 1HNMR, 31PNMR, refractive index and elementary analysis etc. The results showed that the tensile bond strength (TBS) between PDE dental adhesive and human tooth was better than others reported in China and some others reported in literature.

  17. Retrospective study of dental trauma in children with autism spectrum disorders: a paired study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Natália Silva; Dutra, Thaís Torres Barros; Fernandes, Regina Fátima; Moita Neto, José Machado; Mendes, Regina Ferraz; Prado Júnior, Raimundo Rosendo

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the history of traumatic dental injury (TDI) among children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at the Centro Integrado de Educação Especial (CIES), in Teresina, Brazil. The dental records of 228 children, 114 with ASD (SG = study group) and 114 without ASD (CG = control group), paired by age, gender and socioeconomic characteristics between January 2007 and September 2014 were reviewed. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression (alpha = 5.0%). Dental trauma in SG was lower than in the CG (24.6% and 41.2%, respectively, p = 0.007). The risk of trauma was lower among males in SG (OR: 0.35; 95%CI: 0.18 to 0.67). The likelihood of TDI in SG was 3.17 higher in females than that of males (p = 0.040). The prevalence of TDI was lower in ASD individuals compared to controls. Dental trauma was higher among ASD girls than ASD boys.

  18. Dental age estimation using Willems method: A digital orthopantomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Krishnamraju, P. V.; Prasanth, P. S.; Sanghvi, Praveen; Lata Reddy, M. Asha; Jyotsna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, age estimation has become increasingly important in living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as a birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army, and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of left seven mandibular teeth for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population using Willems method. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomogram of 332 subjects (166 males, 166 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular teeth (from central incisor to the second molar on left quadrant) development was undertaken and DA was assessed using Willems method. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males (r = 0.71 and females (r = 0.88). The overall mean difference between the estimated DA and CA for males was 0.69 ± 2.14 years (P < 0.001) while for females, it was 0.08 ± 1.34 years (P > 0.05). Willems method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.69 years and females by 0.08 years and showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. The mean difference between DA and CA according to Willems method was 0.39 years and is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed significant relation between DA and CA. Thus, digital radiographic assessment of mandibular teeth development can be used to generate mean DA using Willems method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. PMID:25191076

  19. Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients.

    PubMed

    Daas, M; Assaf, A; Dada, K; Makzoumé, J

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years. PMID:26064119

  20. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of a Dental Handpiece Air Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Neng; Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Chang, Ya-Yi

    2011-06-01

    Dental air turbine handpieces have been widely used in clinical dentistry for over 30 years, however, little work has been reported on their performance. In dental air turbine handpieces, the types of flow channel and turbine blade shape can have very different designs. These different designs can have major influence on the torque, rotating speed, and power performance. This research is focused on the turbine blade and the flow channel designs. Using numerical simulation and experiments, the key design parameters which influence the performance of dental hand pieces can be studied. Three types of dental air turbine designs with different turbine blades, nozzle angles, nozzle flow channels, and shroud clearances were tested and analyzed. Very good agreement was demonstrated between the numerical simulation analyses and the experiments. Using the analytical model, parametric studies were performed to identify key design parameters.

  1. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.

  2. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  3. Microscopic Study of Surface Microtopographic Characteristics of Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Sezin, M.; Croharé, L.; Ibañez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the micro topographic characteristics of dental implants submitted to different surface treatments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Implants were divided into 7 groups of 3 specimens each, according to the surface treatment used: group 1: Osseotite, BIOMET 3i; group 2: SLA surface, Institut Straumann AG; group 3: Oxalife surface, Tree-Oss implant; group 4: B&W implant surface; group 5: Q-implant surface; group 6: ML implant surface; group 7: RBM surface, Rosterdent implant. The surfaces were examined under SEM (Carl Zeiss FE-SEM-SIGMA). Image Proplus software was used to determine the number and mean diameter of pores per area unit (mm). The data obtained were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. A confocal laser microscope (LEXT-OLS4100 Olympus) was used to conduct the comparative study of surface roughness (Ra). Data were analyzed using Tukey's HSD test. Results: The largest average pore diameter calculated in microns was found in group 5 (3.45 µm+/-1.91) while the smallest in group 7 (1.47µm+/-1.29). Significant differences were observed among each one of the groups studied (p<0.05). The largest number of pores/mm2 was found in group 2 (229343) and the smallest number in group 4 (10937). Group 2 showed significant differences regarding the other groups (p<0.05). The greatest roughness (Ra) was observed in group 2 (0.975µm+/-0.115) and the smallest in group 4 (0.304µm+/-0.063). Group 2 was significantly different from the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The micro topography observed in the different groups presented dissimilar and specific features, depending on the chemical treatment used for the surfaces.. PMID:27335615

  4. Motivations for Studying Dentistry Among First-Year Dental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, R.; Coburn, D.

    1977-01-01

    Reasons for choosing dentistry as a profession were analyzed among first-year dental students at the University of Toronto. An extrinsic motivation, financial reward, was found to be the most widespread, but other widely-chosen motivations were intrinsic, including working with people, stimulating work, and being autonomous. (LBH)

  5. Dental emergencies in a university-based pediatric dentistry postgraduate outpatient clinic: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Agostini, F G; Flaitz, C M; Hicks, M J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and types of dental emergencies occurring in a university-based, pediatric dentistry postgraduate outpatient clinic. All patients presenting for emergency dental care during scheduled clinic hours over a three year were identified, and their charts were retrieved. Each record was reviewed for demographic information, chief complaint and clinical diagnosis. Only those charts with both chief complaints and clinical diagnoses recorded were included in this study. A total of 816 patients received emergency care, representing 15.3 percent of all patient treated during the study period. The patient population had a slight female predilection (53 percent female, 47 percent male) and a mean age of 5.1 years (range 10 days to 15 years). Ethnicity (39 percent African-American, 36 percent Hispanic, 24 percent Caucasian <1 percent Asian-American) was similar to that for the clinic in general. Reimbursement for dental care was primarily via Medicaid (91 percent) with <10 percent covered by insurance or payment by responsible parents. For one quarter of the children, the emergency visit was their first dental visit. Reasons for seeking emergency included 1) pain or discomfort due to caries [30.1 percent] with 27 percent due to early childhood caries; 2) dental trauma [23 percent];3) eruption difficulties [18 percent] with 27 percent due to early childhood caries; 2) dental trauma [23 percent];3 eruption difficulties [18 percent];4) soft tissue pathoses [16 percent]; 5) problems with orthodontic appliances or space maintainers [10 percent]; and 6) lost restorations [2 percent]. Pain and bleeding were the most common reasons for seeking emergency dental care. Most causes for seeking outpatient emergency dental care are disease processes which may be avoided by infant oral health and preventive dentistry programs and early treatment intervention.

  6. Clinical effects of lateral wedge arch support insoles in knee osteoarthritis: A prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-07-01

    We compared the short-term efficacy of rigid versus soft lateral wedge arch support (LWAS) insoles for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), as assessed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) system, through a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.Participants who fulfilled the combined radiographic and clinical criteria for knee OA, as defined by the American College of Rheumatology, were randomly prescribed 1 pair of rigid or soft LWAS insoles. Body functions and structures were evaluated according to Kellgren-Lawrence scores, the Foot Posture Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, postural stability, dynamic balance, and fall risk; activities and participation were assessed according to 10-m fast speed walking, stair climbing and chair rising times, and Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses; and knee OA-related health status was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, physical activity, balance, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses, and the KOOS were recorded before treatment and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups.We enrolled 90 participants, 70 women and 20 men, with mean ages of 60.6 ± 10.8 and 63.1 ± 10.8 years in the rigid and soft LWAS insole groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant time × group effect improvements in pain (P = 0.008 for the KOOS), stair ascent time (P = 0.003), daily living function (P = 0.003 for the KOOS), sports and recreation function (P = 0.012 for the KOOS), and quality of life (P = 0.021 for the KOOS) in the soft LWAS insole group.Patients with knee OA who used soft LWAS insoles for a short term showed more significant improvement than did those who used rigid LWAS insoles in pain, physical activity, daily living function, sports and recreation function

  7. Clinical effects of lateral wedge arch support insoles in knee osteoarthritis: A prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-07-01

    We compared the short-term efficacy of rigid versus soft lateral wedge arch support (LWAS) insoles for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), as assessed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) system, through a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.Participants who fulfilled the combined radiographic and clinical criteria for knee OA, as defined by the American College of Rheumatology, were randomly prescribed 1 pair of rigid or soft LWAS insoles. Body functions and structures were evaluated according to Kellgren-Lawrence scores, the Foot Posture Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, postural stability, dynamic balance, and fall risk; activities and participation were assessed according to 10-m fast speed walking, stair climbing and chair rising times, and Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses; and knee OA-related health status was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, physical activity, balance, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses, and the KOOS were recorded before treatment and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups.We enrolled 90 participants, 70 women and 20 men, with mean ages of 60.6 ± 10.8 and 63.1 ± 10.8 years in the rigid and soft LWAS insole groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant time × group effect improvements in pain (P = 0.008 for the KOOS), stair ascent time (P = 0.003), daily living function (P = 0.003 for the KOOS), sports and recreation function (P = 0.012 for the KOOS), and quality of life (P = 0.021 for the KOOS) in the soft LWAS insole group.Patients with knee OA who used soft LWAS insoles for a short term showed more significant improvement than did those who used rigid LWAS insoles in pain, physical activity, daily living function, sports and recreation function

  8. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive.

  9. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  10. Flowable resin used as a sealant in molars affected by dental fluorosis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Mendoza-Razo, Veronica; Rodriguez-Juarez, Fernando; Campos-Cambranis, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    The decline in prevalence and incidence of dental caries in developed countries over the last two decades is considered to be due mainly to the widespread use of fluoride in different forms, but simultaneously with decline in caries, an increase in dental fluorosis has been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the Conventional Sealant Technique (CST) and Enameloplasty Sealant Technique (EST) using a flowable resin as sealant in molars affected by dental fluorosis. A total of 40 extracted third molars affected by dental fluorosis were divided at random into two groups of 20 teeth each, and Tetric Flow resin was used as sealant. All teeth were studied for lateral adaptation and resin penetration by direct and indirect techniques; all samples were replicated in epoxy resin and were evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that EST allowed a deeper sealant penetration and a superior sealant adaptation than CST, both in direct and indirect evaluations by SEM. The most important variables being penetration-interface and penetration depth both being statistically significant (p<0.05). The CST did not flow into the bottom of the fissures, leaving spaces that can favor the fracture of the material and initiate the process of dental caries. We conclude that a flowable ceromer is an excellent material alternative to be used as sealant and that EST is quite necessary in molars affected by dental fluorosis, the combination of both being a reliable method to be used as primary prevention approach of dental caries in endemic areas of dental fluorosis.

  11. Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemule, Marian

    2015-09-01

    There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI), which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11) since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.

  12. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  13. The diagnostic reliability of clinical dental auxiliaries in caries prevalence surveys--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kwan, S Y; Prendergast, M J; Williams, S A

    1996-09-01

    The Nuffield Report recommended the development of further education and training for dental auxiliary personnel. The extent to which clinical dental auxiliaries might carry out oral assessments is under consideration currently. While other countries have employed clinical dental auxiliaries as examiners in national surveys, there is no evidence to suggest that they are able to perform oral assessments effectively in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using dental hygienists or therapists as examiners in epidemiological surveys. Five dentists and three clinical dental auxiliaries were trained and calibrated together using standardised BASCD training procedures. Forty 5-year-old children in Leeds were recruited to the training and calibration exercise. Data were analysed according to BASCD recommendations. There were no differences in performance between dentists and auxiliaries. All examiners fell within 95 percent confidence limits of the group mean dt, mt, ft and dmft. Mean grouped dmft scores for the benchmark examiner, dentists and auxiliaries were 1.92, 1.84 and 1.92 respectively. Sensitivity values for dentists and auxiliaries ranged from 0.54 to 1.00 and 0.80 to 0.94 respectively. Kappa scores were 0.70 to 0.90 for dentists; and 0.82 to 0.87 for the auxiliaries. It was concluded that the dental hygienists and therapist recruited to this study could be used in epidemiological surveys of caries in 5-year-old children.

  14. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  15. Right Aortic Arch and Coarctation: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Ismat, Fraz A.; Weinberg, Paul M.; Rychik, Jack; Karl, Tom R.; Fogel, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Understand anatomical and clinical correlatives to coarctation in right aortic arch. Background Coarctation of the aorta is rare in patients with a functional right aortic arch. We reviewed a single institutional experience, examining associated diagnoses, diagnostic methodology, and surgical approaches. Methods A retrospective study was performed of our echocardiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, catheterization, and surgical databases from 1988 to 2001. Results Of 240 patients with right aortic arch, 10 (4.1%) had coarctation, constituting 1.9% of all native coarctations (n = 524). Nine (90%) had long-segment hypoplasia. Six (60%) had an aberrant left subclavian artery or retroesophageal diverticulum, 3 (30%) had mirror image branching, and 1 (10%) had a double arch with an atretic left arch. Other congenital heart defects were seen in 6 (60%) comprising 3 with ventricular septal defects, and one each with double-outlet right ventricle, cor triatriatum, and pulmonary valve abnormality. No patients with long-segment hypoplasia had bicuspid aortic valve. Six (60%) had vascular rings, and 5 (50%) had other associated syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or echocardiography successfully diagnosed all of these patients. Although long-segment right aortic arch coarctation courses behind the trachea posteriorly, only 2 needed an extra-anatomic (jump) graft; the remainders were repaired with patch angioplasty. Conclusion Coarctation with right aortic arch is rare, constituting 4.1% of all patients with right aortic arch, compared with 5–8% of patients with left aortic arch and congenital heart disease. Nearly all had long-segment hypoplasia without bicuspid aortic valve, and half were part of other syndrome complexes. This association can be diagnosed noninvasively and can often be repaired by patch angioplasty. PMID:17330153

  16. 1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS (2. N. Front Street starts at left) - North Front Street Area Study, 2-66 North Front Street (Commercial Buildings), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  18. Dental Procedures, Oral Practices, and Associated Anxiety: A Study on Late-teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Rahul; Malhotra, Reema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to determine the degree of anxiety pertaining to dental procedures and various oral hygiene practices among college teenagers. Methods Corah's Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was administered on a randomly chosen sample of 100 Indian college students (50 males and 50 females) of Delhi University, belonging to the age group of 17–20 years. Results Descriptive statistical computations revealed 12.14 years as the mean age of first dental visit, with moderately high levels of anxiety (60.75%) for various dental procedures among the Indian teenagers and 5% lying in the “phobic or extremely anxious” category. With merely 4.16% people going for regular consultations, general check-ups evoked 78.3% anxiety and having an injection or a tooth removed was perceived as the most threatening. The sample subgroup not using mouthwash and mouthspray, smokers, and alcohol drinkers with improper oral hygiene practices experienced much higher anxiety towards routine dental procedures. Conclusion The majority of the Indian youngsters had an evasive attitude of delaying dental treatment. The core problems lay in deficient health care knowledge, lack of patient-sensitive pedagogy to train dental professionals, inaccessibility of services, and a dismissive attitude towards medical help. The feelings of fear and anxiety prevalent among the Indian youth offer significant insights into causes and preventive measures for future research and practice. Methods of education and motivation could be developed to dissipate the anxiety amongst Indian teenagers that prevent routine dental visits and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene. PMID:25379373

  19. Disinfection of dental unit water line using aloe vera: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Atri, Mansi; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

  20. Behavioral Pattern during Dental Pain in Intellectually Disabled Children: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Muthukali; Shivakumar, Vetrivel; Anitha, Vijayarangan; Meenapriya, Bagavathi Perumal; Aishwarya, Srinivasan; Anitha, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Children with developmental disabilities generally experience more pain than the normal children. Description of pain is generally difficult in children and more so in children with intellectual disabilities. The study aimed at evaluating dental pain in children with intellectual disabilities. Methods. The survey was carried out in an institution caring for intellectually disabled children to determine the oral health status and the treatment needs of the special kids. 236 children were surveyed out of which the test group is comprised of 111 intellectually disabled children and the control group had 125 normal children with age ranging between five to eighteen years. A questionnaire was presented to the caregivers to elaborate about dental pain in their wards using the dental discomfort questionnaire (DDQ+). The children were examined for dental caries and periodontal status based on the WHO indices for oral hygiene status. Result. Results revealed a statistically significant difference between intellectual disability and brushing, chewing, and earache. The frequency of reporting dental pain was lesser in the intellectually disabled group. Conclusion. Children with intellectual disability tended to report dental pain of any nature with lesser frequency than typically developing peers. They also faced greater difficulty in brushing and chewing. PMID:27437469

  1. Behavior of Dental/Implant Alloys in Commercial Mouthwash Solution Studied by Electrochemical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareci, Daniel; Strugaru, Sorin Iacob; Iacoban, Sorin; Bolat, Georgiana; Munteanu, Corneliu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the electrochemical behavior of the various dental materials: Paliag (Ag-Pd based), Wiron 99 (Ni-Cr based), Cp-Ti (commercial pure titanium), and experimental Ti12Mo5Ta alloy in commercial mouthwash solution with 500 ppm F- (Oral B®) and compares it with the behavior of the same dental materials in artificial saliva. Linear potentiodynamic polarization (LPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are the electrochemical procedures of investigation. The passivation of all dental samples in artificial saliva and mouthwash solution occurred spontaneously at open circuit potential. The corrosion current density of all tested dental materials in mouthwash solution were low (1-2 μA/cm2). The results suggest a non-predominant fluoride effect on the passive layer formed on all samples at open circuit potential. No passivation could be established with Paliag alloy when polarized in mouthwash solution. The EIS results confirm that all dental sample exhibit passivity in mouthwash solution at open circuit potential (polarization resistance was around 5 × 105 Ω cm2). For Paliag alloy after LPP in mouthwash solution the protectiveness passive layer was no more present. The corrosion resistances of four dental materials in mouthwash solution are in the following order: Ti12Mo5Ta > Cp-Ti > Wiron 99 > Paliag.

  2. Dental implants in patients at high risk for infective endocarditis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Findler, M; Chackartchi, T; Regev, E

    2014-10-01

    The safety of dental implant placement in patients at high risk for infective endocarditis (IE) has never been shown. The outcome of osseointegrated implants in patients with artificial heart valves or with a history of an infected valve is not known. In this article we describe our experience of dental implant placement in patients at high risk for IE. A retrospective study was conducted on patients at high risk for IE who underwent dental implant placement. All the patients received prophylactic antibiotic treatment before the surgical procedure, in accordance with the relevant American Heart Association guidelines. A total 13 patients underwent 16 surgical procedures for the placement of 57 dental implants over a period of 17 years. Within the follow-up period, no case of IE was reported. Two implants failed before exposure in one patient, one patient suffered from mitral valve thrombosis 14 days after the dental procedure, and another patient suffered a stroke 6 months following treatment. Despite the limitation of the small group of patients and the known low incidence of IE, dental implants may be regarded as a legitimate procedure for patients at high risk for IE. PMID:24893765

  3. Disinfection of Dental Unit Water Line Using Aloe Vera: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. PMID:24089615

  4. The assessment of crowding without the need to record arch perimeter. Part I: Arches with acceptable alignment.

    PubMed

    Battagel, J M

    1996-05-01

    A simplified, mathematically determined technique for calculating arch perimeter (the overlap method) is described and its validity in determining an accurate assessment of crowding is tested. Indices, expressed in millimetres of crowding or spacing, were computed for both the whole arch and the labial segment alone. Study casts of 36 individuals with clinically acceptable lower arches were used to validate the method. The degree of crowding or spacing calculated was compared with a "clinical' assessment of each arch, in which the irregularity was measured directly using a steel ruler. Various calculation schemes were tested. Depending on exactly how the overlap was determined, the results varied slightly. Although the arches showed acceptable alignment, it was preferable to include a strategy for normalizing the positions of any rotated teeth before the overlaps were calculated. Repositioning any bucco-lingually displaced teeth into the line of the arch, however, was not useful. For the complete arch good agreement with the clinical assessment was reached on 31 occasions and for the labial segment, all but one appraisals were within 0.5 mm of each other. In the remaining instances (five complete arches and one labial segment), the degree of crowding or spacing was between 0.5 and 1 mm of the clinical assessment. Considering that clinical measurement of minor degrees of crowding and spacing cannot be precise, these results were considered acceptable. The method was easy to use, relying only on the recording of mesio-distal tooth widths and was acceptably reproducible. The technique would therefore appear to provide a valid yet simple research tool with which to record the degree of crowding. Its ability to cope with irregular and crowded arches will be the subject of a subsequent review.

  5. Asynchronous dentofacial development and dental crowding: a cross-sectional study in a contemporary sample of children in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The causes of dental crowding are not fully understood, but it may result from an evolutionary trend towards reduced facial volume, without a proportional reduction in tooth sizes. Most previous studies conducted among modern humans have revealed a very low or non-existent correlation between tooth size and jaw size. Cross-comparison between dental age and facial skeletal age could help to provide better knowledge of the dynamic process of dental crowding. The primary objective of this research was to study the synchronism of dental maturation and skeletal facial growth in a sample of modern children living in France. The secondary objective was to assess the link between dentofacial asynchronism and dental crowding. Results The random sample comprised 28 subjects (16 girls, 12 boys). Mean chronological age was 13.5 years (±2.1; range 9.2–17.6). Mean dental age was 14.2 years (±2.8; range 7.5–17) and mean facial skeletal age was 12.8 years (±2.6, range 7–22). In the estimations of dental age and facial skeletal age, there was no evidence of systematic bias. There were 10 subjects (9 girls, 1 boy) with asynchronous dentofacial development. Finally, there were 13 subjects (8 girls, 5 boys) with dental crowding. A significant association was found between delayed facial skeletal growth/advanced dental maturation and dental crowding (P = 0.01). Conclusions Dental maturation and facial growth are not necessarily synchronous. Further understanding of the interactions between dental maturation and facial growth could have crucial implications in biological anthropology, as well as for the clinical practice of orthodontists. From an anthropological perspective, this study suggests that asynchronous dentofacial development could, at least partially, explain the frequency of dental crowding in modern populations. PMID:24252616

  6. Cultural Competency Education in Academic Dental Institutions in Australia and New Zealand: A Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Sheree L; Hayes, Melanie J; Taylor, Jane A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cultural competency education in Australian and New Zealand dental, dental hygiene, and oral health therapy programs. The study sought to explore the extent to which cultural competence is included in these programs' curricula, building on similar studies conducted in the United States and thus contributing to the international body of knowledge on this topic. A 12-item instrument was designed with questions in four areas (demographics, content of cultural competency education, organization of overall program curriculum, and educational methods used to teach cultural competence) and was sent to all Australian and New Zealand dental, dental hygiene, and oral health therapy educational programs. Of the total 24 programs, 15 responded for a response rate of 62.5%. The results showed that lectures were the most frequent teaching method used in cultural competency education; however, the variation in responses indicated inconsistencies across study participants, as discussions and self-directed learning also featured prominently in the responses. The majority of respondents reported that cultural competence was not taught as a specific course but rather integrated into their programs' existing curricula. The variations in methods may indicate the need for a standardized framework for cultural competency education in these countries. In addition, the notion of cultural competency education in academic dental institutions demands additional evaluation, and further research is required to develop a solid evidence base on which to develop cultural competency education, specifically regarding content, most effective pedagogies, and assessment of student preparedness. PMID:27480708

  7. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.

  8. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  9. Attitudes of Iranian dental students toward their future careers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Baharvand, Maryam; Moghaddam, Elnaz Jalali; Pouretemad, Hamidreza; Alavi, Kaveh

    2011-11-01

    Students' attitudes toward and reasons for choosing careers are of great interest for educational systems around the world. The aims of this study were to investigate Iranian dental students' motivations in choosing dentistry as a career and their attitudes toward their future profession. A cross-sectional study of a group of 219 out of 225 (response rate: 97 percent) final-year dental students in four accredited dental schools in Tehran was conducted using a self-administered, structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 and the Mann-Whitney test. The most popular reasons for these students' choice of dentistry as a career were a general interest in medicine and desire to enter a prestigious profession with high social status. The majority of the students planned to enter private practice; fewer intended to pursue specialty education abroad. Most of the female students planned to work in a group practice environment such as a clinic rather than a solo practice. Single students showed greater enthusiasm than married ones for pursuing further studies abroad after graduation. Overall, these dental students appeared to have positive attitudes about the dental profession. PMID:22058399

  10. Forensic revolution need maintenance of dental records of patients by the dentists: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anamika; Mishra, Gaurav; Bhutani, Hemant; Hoshing, Chetan; Bhalla, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: With the growth of forensic odontology, dental records have become an essential source of information, especially for medicolegal cases in general practice. It is mandated by the law that every dentist must keep some kind of records for every patient they treat. After the death of an individual, remnants of teeth are usually damaged at the last among all body parts. Dental records assist in personal identification in cases of mass disasters, criminal investigations, and medicolegal issues. However, in India, rules for maintaining dental records are not very strictly followed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge regarding the maintenance of dental records among dentists in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Data collection was performed via a questionnaire. The study population responded to the questions pertaining to knowledge regarding forensic odontology methods and the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice through a personal interview. A descriptive analysis was carried out for the data. The data were summarized and analyzed using the statistical software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. Results: A very low percentage (22%) of the dentists were seen to be maintaining records on a regular basis. Seventy-eight percent of the dentists were not maintaining any records. Conclusion: This study clearly indicates that the dentists in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh need to be properly trained for any kind of forensic and medicolegal needs. PMID:27583219

  11. Knowledge regarding prescription of drugs among dental students: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ankita; Gupta, Devanand; Singh, Deepika; Garg, Yogesh; Saxena, Antima; Chaudhary, Himani; Singh, Alpana; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The act of indicating one or more drugs to be taken by the patient, its dosage, and the interval of the treatment is known as prescribing. It is a dynamic and individualized clinical process. Cultural, social, economic and promotional factors can influence the pattern of prescription. Thus the present study was conducted to evaluate the drug prescription knowledge in third year and final year dental students at Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methodology: A questionnaire consisting of 10 open-ended questions was used in a study which was conducted among 170 male and female, third year and final year dental students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre. Tables and graphs were used to represent data. Results: Pain was found to be the most important reason for prescribing medication. Diclofenac was found to be the most commonly prescribed NSAID. While amoxicillin was found to be the most widely prescribed antibiotic. Lack of knowledge about drug posology was the basic reason for error done by students. Maximum number of students gets their information for prescribing drugs from their professors. Maximum number of students was unacquainted about the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing. Conclusion: The knowledge of prescribing drugs is of utmost need for good dental practice and hence, it is essential to expand the knowledge related to pharmacological therapy and to know about the proper therapeutic guidelines. With the help of WHO Guide to Good Prescribing, and some educational programs students will develop better prescribing skills. PMID:26792957

  12. Dental students' glucometer experience and attitudes toward diabetes counseling, monitoring, and screening: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare glucometer experience and attitudes toward counseling, monitoring, and screening for diabetes between two classes of graduating students at one dental school to determine if there were differences by experience and year of graduation. Dental students graduating in 2010 and 2013 completed a survey about their experience with use of a glucometer as well as their attitudes toward and perceived barriers to performing glucose monitoring, screening, and counseling. Response rates for the two classes were 100 percent and 95.7 percent, respectively. Students in the two classes were in general agreement that activities related to glucose monitoring and counseling of patients with diabetes are within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. Examination of their attitudes toward diabetes monitoring and counseling activities by level of glucometer experience indicated that students with more experience using a glucometer were more likely to consider these activities to be within the scope of dental practice and less likely to perceive barriers to such activities compared to those with little or no experience. In addition, regardless of experience, there was significantly higher endorsement for monitoring of patients who had already been diagnosed than for screening of patients who had not been diagnosed. This study suggests that any strategy to encourage dental students' and dentists' involvement in nontraditional health promotion activities should include ample direct clinical experience with these activities.

  13. Development of an inexpensive optical method for studies of dental erosion process in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, A. M. T.; Noerjanto, B.; Triwanto, L.

    2008-09-01

    Teeth have important roles in digestion of food, supporting the facial-structure, as well as in articulation of speech. Abnormality in teeth structure can be initiated by an erosion process due to diet or beverages consumption that lead to destruction which affect their functionality. Research to study the erosion processes that lead to teeth's abnormality is important in order to be used as a care and prevention purpose. Accurate measurement methods would be necessary as a research tool, in order to be capable for quantifying dental destruction's degree. In this work an inexpensive optical method as tool to study dental erosion process is developed. It is based on extraction the parameters from the 3D dental visual information. The 3D visual image is obtained from reconstruction of multiple lateral projection of 2D images that captured from many angles. Using a simple motor stepper and a pocket digital camera, sequence of multi-projection 2D images of premolar tooth is obtained. This images are then reconstructed to produce a 3D image, which is useful for quantifying related dental erosion parameters. The quantification process is obtained from the shrinkage of dental volume as well as surface properties due to erosion process. Results of quantification is correlated to the ones of dissolved calcium atom which released from the tooth using atomic absorption spectrometry. This proposed method would be useful as visualization tool in many engineering, dentistry, and medical research. It would be useful also for the educational purposes.

  14. Dental peculiarities in the silvery mole-rat: an original model for studying the evolutionary and biological origins of continuous dental generation in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Unravelling the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that have impacted the mammalian dentition, since more than 200 Ma, is an intricate issue. Interestingly, a few mammal species, including the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus, are able to replace their dentition by the addition of supernumerary molars at the back of jaw migrating then toward the front. The aim here was to demonstrate the potential interest of further studying this rodent in order to better understand the origins of continuous dental replacement in mammals, which could also provide interesting data concerning the evolution of limited dental generation occurring in first mammals. In the present study, we described the main stages of the dental eruptive sequence in the silvery mole-rat and the associated characteristics of horizontal replacement using X-ray microtomography. This was coupled to the investigation of other African mole-rats which have no dental replacement. This method permitted to establish evidence that the initial development of the dentition in Heliophobius is comparable to what it is observed in most of African mole-rats. This rodent first has premolars, but then identical additional molars, a mechanism convergent to manatees and the pygmy rock-wallaby. Evidence of continuous replacement and strong dental dynamics were also illustrated in Heliophobius, and stressed the need to deeply investigate these aspects for evolutionary, functional and developmental purposes. We also noticed that two groups of extinct non-mammalian synapsids convergently acquired this dental mechanism, but in a way differing from extant mammals. The discussion on the diverse evolutionary origins of horizontal dental replacement put emphasis on the necessity of focusing on biological parameters potentially involved in both continuous and limited developments of teeth in mammals. In that context, the silvery mole-rat could appear as the most appropriate candidate to do so. PMID:26401449

  15. Dental peculiarities in the silvery mole-rat: an original model for studying the evolutionary and biological origins of continuous dental generation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Unravelling the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that have impacted the mammalian dentition, since more than 200 Ma, is an intricate issue. Interestingly, a few mammal species, including the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus, are able to replace their dentition by the addition of supernumerary molars at the back of jaw migrating then toward the front. The aim here was to demonstrate the potential interest of further studying this rodent in order to better understand the origins of continuous dental replacement in mammals, which could also provide interesting data concerning the evolution of limited dental generation occurring in first mammals. In the present study, we described the main stages of the dental eruptive sequence in the silvery mole-rat and the associated characteristics of horizontal replacement using X-ray microtomography. This was coupled to the investigation of other African mole-rats which have no dental replacement. This method permitted to establish evidence that the initial development of the dentition in Heliophobius is comparable to what it is observed in most of African mole-rats. This rodent first has premolars, but then identical additional molars, a mechanism convergent to manatees and the pygmy rock-wallaby. Evidence of continuous replacement and strong dental dynamics were also illustrated in Heliophobius, and stressed the need to deeply investigate these aspects for evolutionary, functional and developmental purposes. We also noticed that two groups of extinct non-mammalian synapsids convergently acquired this dental mechanism, but in a way differing from extant mammals. The discussion on the diverse evolutionary origins of horizontal dental replacement put emphasis on the necessity of focusing on biological parameters potentially involved in both continuous and limited developments of teeth in mammals. In that context, the silvery mole-rat could appear as the most appropriate candidate to do so. PMID:26401449

  16. Clarifying the anatomy of the fifth arch artery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The artery allegedly forming in the fifth pharyngeal arch has increasingly been implicated as responsible for various vascular malformations in patients with congenitally malformed hearts. Observations from studies on developing embryos, however, have failed to provide support to substantiate several of these inferences such that the very existence of the fifth arch artery remains debatable. To the best of our knowledge, in only a solitary human embryo has a vascular channel been found that truly resembled the artery of the fifth arch. Despite the meager evidence to support its existence, the fifth arch artery has been invoked to explain the morphogenesis of double-barreled aorta, some unusual forms of aortopulmonary communications, and abnormalities of the brachiocephalic arteries. In most of these instances, the interpretations have proved fallible when examined in the light of existing knowledge of cardiac development. In our opinion, there are more plausible alternative explanations for the majority of these descriptions. Double-barreled aorta is more likely to result from retention of the recently identified dorsal collateral channels while abnormalities of brachiocephalic arteries are better explained on the basis of extensive remodeling of aortic arches during fetal development. Some examples of aortopulmonary communications, nonetheless, may well represent persistence of the developing artery of the fifth pharyngeal arch. We here present one such case — a patient with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, in whom the fifth arch artery provided a necessary communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary arteries. In this light, we discuss the features we consider to be essential before attaching the tag of “fifth arch artery” to a candidate vascular channel. PMID:27011696

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopic study on the electronic structures of the dental gold alloys and their interaction with L-cysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Koji; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Azuma, Junpei; Kamada, Masao; Tsujibayashi, Toru; Ichimiya, Masayoshi; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Sumimoto, Michinori

    2011-11-15

    The valence electronic structures of the dental gold alloys, type 1, type 3, and K14, and their interaction with L-cysteine have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the electronic structures of the type-1 and type-3 dental alloys are similar to that of polycrystalline Au, while that of the K14 dental alloy is much affected by Cu. The peak shift and the change in shape due to alloying are observed in all the dental alloys. It is suggested that the new peak observed around 2 eV for the L-cysteine thin films on all the dental alloys may be due to the bonding of S 3sp orbitals with the dental alloy surfaces, and the Cu-S bond, as well as the Au-S and Au-O bonds, may cause the change in the electronic structure of the L-cysteine on the alloys.

  18. The effect of foot arch on plantar pressure distribution during standing.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, R; Anand, Sneh

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how foot type affects plantar pressure distribution during standing. In this study, 32 healthy subjects voluntarily participated and the subject feet were classified as: normal feet (n = 23), flat feet (n = 14) and high arch feet (n = 27) according to arch index (AI) values obtained from foot pressure intensity image analysis. Foot pressure intensity images were acquired by a pedopowergraph system to obtain a foot pressure distribution parameter-power ratio (PR) during standing in eight different regions of the foot. Contact area and mean PR were analysed in hind foot, mid-foot and fore foot regions. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine statistical differences between groups. The contact area and mean PR value beneath the mid-foot was significantly increased in the low arch foot when compared to the normal arch foot and high arch foot (p < 0.001) in both feet. However, subjects with low-arch feet had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) compared to subjects with high-arch feet (p < 0.05) and subjects with normal arch feet (p < 0.05) in both feet. In addition, subjects with low-arch feet had significant differences in arch index (AI) value as compared to subjects with high-arch feet (p < 0.001) and subjects with normal arch feet (p < 0.05) in both feet. Mean mid-foot PR value were positively (r = 0.54) correlated with increased arch index (AI) value. A significant (p < 0.05) change was obtained in PR value beneath the mid-foot of low arch feet when compared with other groups in both feet. The findings suggest that there is an increased mid-foot PR value in the low arch foot as compared to the normal arch foot and high arch foot during standing. Therefore, individuals with low arch feet could be at high risk for mid-foot collapse and Charcot foot problems, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for foot injury.

  19. Pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan-Qiang; Yao, Feng; Shang, An-Dong; Pan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch is uncommonly associated with cancer, and is extremely rare in pulmonary cancer. Here, we report an unusual and successfully treated case of aortic arch pseudoaneurysm in a male patient with lung squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A 64-year-old male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department, presenting with massive hemoptysis (>500 mL blood during the 12 hours prior to treatment). The diagnosis of aortic arch pseudoaneurysm was confirmed after inspection of computed tomographic angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction. We processed the immediate endovascular stent-grafting for this patient. Results: This patient recovered with no filling or enlargement of the pseudoaneurysm, no episodes of hemoptysis, and no neurological complications during the 4-week follow-up period. Conclusion: Herein, we compare our case with other cancer-related pseudoaneurysms in the medical literature and summarize the clinical features and treatment of this unusual case. PMID:27495079

  20. Fit accuracy of metal partial removable dental prosthesis frameworks fabricated by traditional or light curing modeling material technique: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anan, Mohammad Tarek M.; Al-Saadi, Mohannad H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the fit accuracies of metal partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) frameworks fabricated by the traditional technique (TT) or the light-curing modeling material technique (LCMT). Materials and methods A metal model of a Kennedy class III modification 1 mandibular dental arch with two edentulous spaces of different spans, short and long, was used for the study. Thirty identical working casts were used to produce 15 PRDP frameworks each by TT and by LCMT. Every framework was transferred to a metal master cast to measure the gap between the metal base of the framework and the crest of the alveolar ridge of the cast. Gaps were measured at three points on each side by a USB digital intraoral camera at ×16.5 magnification. Images were transferred to a graphics editing program. A single examiner performed all measurements. The two-tailed t-test was performed at the 5% significance level. Results The mean gap value was significantly smaller in the LCMT group compared to the TT group. The mean value of the short edentulous span was significantly smaller than that of the long edentulous span in the LCMT group, whereas the opposite result was obtained in the TT group. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the fit of the LCMT-fabricated frameworks was better than the fit of the TT-fabricated frameworks. The framework fit can differ according to the span of the edentate ridge and the fabrication technique for the metal framework. PMID:26236129

  1. An Epidemiological Study on the Selection, Usage and Disposal of Dental Burs among the Dental Practioner’s

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sumeet; Shankar, Ravi; Srinivas, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this cross sectional study was to understand and evaluate local practioner’s knowledge on dental bur selection, its usage, sterilization procedures undertaken and the method of disposal of dental burs in restorative procedures. Materials and Methods: A Questionnaire proforma was prepared with each question having 4 answers. A total of 20 questions were framed and were sub-divided in to 3 categories namely selection, usage sterilization and disposal. These Questionnaire were sent to all the local practioner’s by mail and to ensure a high response rate as they were followed up by telephone calls. The results were analyzed statistically and were represented in the form of percentage. Results: A total 131 out of 150 practioner’s answered the questions, a response rate of 87%. Most of the practioner’s preferred diamonds (75%) over tungsten carbide (15%) burs. most of the dentists used burs till they were worn out (85%) and many of the dentists agreed that the cutting efficiency of bur decreased with usage (33%). Clinicians usually sterilized burs either once daily (35%) or for every patient (35%). Almost every practioner discarded their worn out burs into dustbin (100%). Conclusion: From the survey we came to know the operators attitude towards one group of burs in terms of cutting efficiency. In terms of cutting efficiency diamond burs predominated the choice irrespective of the grit size. Burs were used repeatedly till they were worn out and minimal coolant was used during tooth preparation and believed that it didn’t have any effect on the cutting efficiency. PMID:24596788

  2. [Comparative analysis of the results of patient prosthetic treatment by removable arch and elastic constructions in cases of end mandibular defects based on microcirculation study of prosthetic bed tissues].

    PubMed

    Churygin, S N

    2007-01-01

    Study was performed of the microcirculation in gingival tissues of prosthetic bed in patients with end mandibular defects treated by removable arch and elastic constructions in order to increase prosthetic treatment efficacy. It was established that most favourable stimulating effect upon trophics was achieved in patients who had received removable plate constructions made according to the technology of thermoinjection system produced by the company Valplast on nylon base. PMID:18163066

  3. Dental Students' Learning Experiences and Preferences Regarding Orofacial Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T; Alonso, Aurelio A; Lang, Lisa; Heima, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Pain is a global health problem, the effects of which range from diminished quality of life to pain management costs and loss of work and productivity. Pain in the head and neck region is defined as a separate entity: orofacial pain (OFP). However, some graduates from dental schools have reported feeling less competent in their ability to diagnose OFP than in other areas of dentistry. The aims of this study were to assess how students at one U.S. dental school had learned about OFP and to identify the teaching methods and venues they would like to see enhanced in the school's OFP curriculum. A cross-sectional four-question survey was administered to 140 dental students in their third and fourth years; the survey had a response rate of 53%. Most students reported having gained their OFP knowledge mainly in dental school, and 91.9% selected didactic courses as the main teaching method in which they had learned about this topic. Clinical education was the main teaching venue these students said they would like to see enhanced in order to gain more knowledge in most forms of OFP; this result aligned with their learning preferences in general. These findings may help dental schools design their OFP curricula to take account of students' preferences as well as practical limitations regarding availability of clinical experiences. PMID:26427780

  4. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy. PMID:25941146

  5. Association of dental infections with systemic diseases in Brazilian Native Indigenous: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lívia S F; Santos, Jean N; Vieira, Carolina L Z; Caramelli, Bruno; Ramalho, Luciana M P; Cury, Patricia R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between dental infections and systemic diseases in the Indigenous population of Brazil. A representative sample of 225 Indigenous (≥19 years) was assessed. The T-test and bivariate and logistic models were used to assess the associations of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity with dental caries and destructive periodontal disease. After adjustments for covariates, dental caries were associated with hypertension (odds ratio = 1.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.66; P = .04). Individuals with destructive periodontal disease had a higher systolic blood pressure (124 ± 20.34 mm Hg) than those without destructive periodontal disease (117.52 ± 16.54 mm Hg; P = .01). In conclusion, dental infections were found to be associated with hypertension in the present population. Thus, patients diagnosed with hypertension should be referred for dental evaluation and vice versa. PMID:27039160

  6. Absence of lymphatic vessels in human dental pulp: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Renato; Secciani, Ilaria; Sozio, Francesca; Rossi, Antonella; Weber, Elisabetta; Lorenzini, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Few and controversial data are available in the literature regarding the presence of lymphatic vessels in the human dental pulp. The present study was designed to examine morphologically the existence of a lymph drainage system in human dental pulp. Human dental pulp and skin sections were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies for lymphatic endothelium (D2-40, LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3], and Prox-1), with the pan-endothelial markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), and with the blood-specific marker CD34. Several blood vessels were identified in human pulps and skin. Lymphatic vessels were found in all human skin samples but in none of the pulps examined. Western blotting performed on human dermis and on pulps treated with collagenase (to remove odontoblasts) confirmed these results. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that vessels which, by light microscopy, appeared to be initial lymphatic vessels had no anchoring filaments or discontinuous basement membrane, both of which are typical ultrastructural characteristics of lymphatic vessels. These results suggest that under normal conditions human dental pulp does not contain true lymphatic vessels. The various theories about dental pulp interstitial fluid circulation should be revised accordingly.

  7. Dental Students' Learning Experiences and Preferences Regarding Orofacial Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T; Alonso, Aurelio A; Lang, Lisa; Heima, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Pain is a global health problem, the effects of which range from diminished quality of life to pain management costs and loss of work and productivity. Pain in the head and neck region is defined as a separate entity: orofacial pain (OFP). However, some graduates from dental schools have reported feeling less competent in their ability to diagnose OFP than in other areas of dentistry. The aims of this study were to assess how students at one U.S. dental school had learned about OFP and to identify the teaching methods and venues they would like to see enhanced in the school's OFP curriculum. A cross-sectional four-question survey was administered to 140 dental students in their third and fourth years; the survey had a response rate of 53%. Most students reported having gained their OFP knowledge mainly in dental school, and 91.9% selected didactic courses as the main teaching method in which they had learned about this topic. Clinical education was the main teaching venue these students said they would like to see enhanced in order to gain more knowledge in most forms of OFP; this result aligned with their learning preferences in general. These findings may help dental schools design their OFP curricula to take account of students' preferences as well as practical limitations regarding availability of clinical experiences.

  8. The Association of Patients’ Oral Health Literacy and Dental School Communication Tools: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A.; Richards, Jessica K.; Holtzman, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients’ ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school’s general dental clinic during 2012–13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects’ oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults’ oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients’ ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy. PMID:25941146

  9. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  10. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy.

  11. Dental crowding in a prehistoric population.

    PubMed

    Mockers, O; Aubry, M; Mafart, B

    2004-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate dental crowding from the Copper Age and examine the extent and patterns of wear. Crowding was estimated in 43 adult mandibles using Little's irregularity index. Dental wear, dental diameters, arch width and the presence of third molars were also studied as possible aetiological factors for crowding. The remains were found at the archaeological site of Roaix, located in the south of France. Radiocarbon dating indicated that the lower layer was from 2150 +/- 140 years BC (date +/- 1 standard deviation) and the upper level from 2090 +/- 140 years. The graves were estimated to contain the remains of 150 adults and 50 children. Forty-three intact mandibles were used for this study. All of the mandibles presented incisor crowding with a majority of minimal and moderate irregularities, but in seven cases there were extreme irregularities and in two canine impaction was observed. These results are in contrast with the literature where it is reported that malocclusions were rare in prehistoric populations. The findings of this study suggest that crowding may be of a genetic origin and might not be caused by excessive tooth size or changes in environmental factors (masticatory activity).

  12. The Foot’s Arch and the Energetics of Human Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Stearne, Sarah M.; McDonald, Kirsty A.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; North, Ian; Oxnard, Charles E.; Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The energy-sparing spring theory of the foot’s arch has become central to interpretations of the foot’s mechanical function and evolution. Using a novel insole technique that restricted compression of the foot’s longitudinal arch, this study provides the first direct evidence that arch compression/recoil during locomotion contributes to lowering energy cost. Restricting arch compression near maximally (~80%) during moderate-speed (2.7 ms−1) level running increased metabolic cost by + 6.0% (p < 0.001, d = 0.67; unaffected by foot strike technique). A simple model shows that the metabolic energy saved by the arch is largely explained by the passive-elastic work it supplies that would otherwise be done by active muscle. Both experimental and model data confirm that it is the end-range of arch compression that dictates the energy-saving role of the arch. Restricting arch compression had no effect on the cost of walking or incline running (3°), commensurate with the smaller role of passive-elastic mechanics in these gaits. These findings substantiate the elastic energy-saving role of the longitudinal arch during running, and suggest that arch supports used in some footwear and orthotics may increase the cost of running. PMID:26783259

  13. Oro-dental features of Pallister-Killian syndrome: Evaluation of 21 European probands.

    PubMed

    Bagattoni, Simone; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Sadotti, Agnese; Alkhamis, Nadia; Rocca, Alessandro; Cocchi, Guido; Krantz, Ian David; Piana, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare sporadic multi-systemic developmental disorder caused by a mosaic tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12. A wide range of clinical characteristics including intellectual disability, seizures, and congenital malformations has previously been described. Individuals with PKS show a characteristic facial phenotype with frontal bossing, alopecia, sparse eyebrows, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, telecanthus, and posteriorly rotated ears. Oro-dental features, such as "Pallister lip," macroglossia, delayed eruption of primary teeth, high arched-palate, prognathism, and cleft palate have been occasionally reported in the medical literature. The aim of the study was to assess the oro-dental phenotype of PKS and to describe the oral health status in a cohort participating in the First European Workshop on PKS. A clinical dental examination was performed in 21 Caucasian probands and data regarding medical and dental history collected. Twelve probands (57%) showed an atypical dental pattern, with multiple missing teeth (primarily the first permanent molars) and 2 (10%) a double teeth. The severity of gingivitis and dental caries increased with age and gingival overgrowth was a common finding. A characteristic occlusive phenotype was found: a high-arched palate with mandibular prognathism associated with an anterior openbite and crossbite and with posterior crossbite (unilateral or bilateral). The prevalence of oral habits (non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, bruxism) was high, even in older probands. This study suggests that individuals affected by PKS should be observed closely for oro-dental diseases and a multidisciplinary approach is needed to implement the right preventive measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27354242

  14. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more. PMID:27587574

  15. [The atraumatic restorative treatment approach in pediatric dental care: a comparative clinical study].

    PubMed

    Dmitrova, A G; Kulakov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the discomfort levels during Atraumatic Restorative Treatment and Minimal Cavity Preparation using rotary instruments and Air abrasion method. The results of the study suggest that ART induces less discomfort, therefore this method can be recommended for children who have a fear of dental procedures as well as for children with intellectual disabilities. PMID:26145474

  16. A Study of Mathematics Needed for Dental Laboratory Technology, Medical Laboratory Technology, and Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Keith J.

    A study was conducted to determine what mathematics skills were needed for Dental Laboratory Technology, Medical Laboratory Technology, and Respiratory Therapy. Data obtained from studies, course outlines, textbooks, and reports were used to construct a 79-item mathematics skill questionnaire. This questionnaire was administered to employers,…

  17. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  18. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  19. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112

  20. Frontal plane multi-segment foot kinematics in high- and low-arched females during dynamic loading tasks.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas W; Long, Benjamin; Milner, Clare E; Zhang, Songning

    2011-02-01

    The functions of the medial longitudinal arch have been the focus of much research in recent years. Several studies have shown kinematic differences between high- and low-arched runners. No literature currently compares the inter-segmental foot motion of high- and low-arched recreational athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine inter-segmental foot motion in the frontal plane during dynamic loading activities in high- and low-arched female athletes. Inter-segmental foot motions were examined in 10 high- and 10 low-arched female recreational athletes. Subjects performed five barefooted trials in each of the following randomized movements: walking, running, downward stepping and landing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded. High-arched athletes had smaller peak ankle eversion angles in walking, running and downward stepping than low-arched athletes. At the rear-midfoot joint high-arched athletes reached peak eversion later in walking and downward stepping than the low-arched athletes. The high-arched athletes had smaller peak mid-forefoot eversion angles in walking, running and downward stepping than the low-arched athletes. The current findings show that differences in foot kinematics between the high- and low-arched athletes were in position and not range of motion within the foot.

  1. Identifying service quality strengths and weaknesses using SERVQUAL: a study of dental services.

    PubMed

    Kaldenberg, D; Becker, B W; Browne, B A; Browne, W G

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine responses among dental patients to the most recent version of SERVQUAL, and to evaluate that instrument as a tool for measuring satisfaction in a dental practice. Items on the reliability and responsiveness dimensions produced the lowest satisfaction ratings, while improvements in providing services as promised and instilling confidence have the greatest potential for producing higher satisfaction among patients. Finally, using open-ended questions, we identified a number of patient events or experiences which caused either high or low scores on individual SERVQUAL items.

  2. Identifying service quality strengths and weaknesses using SERVQUAL: a study of dental services.

    PubMed

    Kaldenberg, D; Becker, B W; Browne, B A; Browne, W G

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine responses among dental patients to the most recent version of SERVQUAL, and to evaluate that instrument as a tool for measuring satisfaction in a dental practice. Items on the reliability and responsiveness dimensions produced the lowest satisfaction ratings, while improvements in providing services as promised and instilling confidence have the greatest potential for producing higher satisfaction among patients. Finally, using open-ended questions, we identified a number of patient events or experiences which caused either high or low scores on individual SERVQUAL items. PMID:10179451

  3. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a disorder linked to the chromosome X long arm (Xq27.3), which is identified by a constriction named fragile site. It determines various changes, such as behavioral or emotional problems, learning difficulties, and intellectual disabilities. Craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated and narrow face, prominent forehead, broad nose, large and prominent ear pavilions, strabismus, and myopia are frequent characteristics. Regarding the oral aspects, deep and high-arched palate, mandibular prognathism, and malocclusion are also observed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: The patients were in the range of 6–17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. Results: The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05). In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%), giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%), and partial anodontia (1.82%) were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals. PMID:27812623

  4. Dental students' perceptions of and attitudes about poverty: a Canadian participatory case study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Clarice M R; Rodriguez, Charo; Macaulay, Ann C; Bedos, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    This qualitative case study was conducted in a Canadian dental school using a participatory approach and was based on Paulo Freire's theoretical concept of conscientização, a form of critical consciousness that involves awareness of social reality and fosters action towards social justice. The aim of the study was to understand dental students' perceptions of and attitudes about poverty and dental care provided to people living in poverty. It also examined how these perceptions shape students' plans for their professional careers, as well as their opinions on educational strategies to prepare them to work with poor patients. The sources of data generation were semistructured interviews, participant observations, and document analysis. A deductive-inductive thematic strategy was used to analyze the data. Out of a class of thirty-five senior dental students, the authors interviewed a convenience sample of twelve: five male and seven female. The findings suggest that the students had incipient conscientização about poverty-related themes. They perceived poverty as a distant issue and as the responsibility of the government or of the poor individuals themselves. The students did not have plans to work with patients living in poverty in the future and struggled to envision ways to address these patients' needs other than volunteer work. This research supports the need for academic dental institutions to adopt strategies to increase students' critical consciousness about oral health inequities. Reducing oral health inequities is a matter of social justice, and dental care providers are key actors in this endeavor.

  5. Dental students' perceptions of and attitudes about poverty: a Canadian participatory case study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Clarice M R; Rodriguez, Charo; Macaulay, Ann C; Bedos, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    This qualitative case study was conducted in a Canadian dental school using a participatory approach and was based on Paulo Freire's theoretical concept of conscientização, a form of critical consciousness that involves awareness of social reality and fosters action towards social justice. The aim of the study was to understand dental students' perceptions of and attitudes about poverty and dental care provided to people living in poverty. It also examined how these perceptions shape students' plans for their professional careers, as well as their opinions on educational strategies to prepare them to work with poor patients. The sources of data generation were semistructured interviews, participant observations, and document analysis. A deductive-inductive thematic strategy was used to analyze the data. Out of a class of thirty-five senior dental students, the authors interviewed a convenience sample of twelve: five male and seven female. The findings suggest that the students had incipient conscientização about poverty-related themes. They perceived poverty as a distant issue and as the responsibility of the government or of the poor individuals themselves. The students did not have plans to work with patients living in poverty in the future and struggled to envision ways to address these patients' needs other than volunteer work. This research supports the need for academic dental institutions to adopt strategies to increase students' critical consciousness about oral health inequities. Reducing oral health inequities is a matter of social justice, and dental care providers are key actors in this endeavor. PMID:25480275

  6. Trouble-shooting dual arch impressions II.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1997-09-01

    Dual arch impression procedures can produce accurate impressions and bite registrations for the fabrication of single crowns. To accomplish this, the dentist must select an appropriately sized and shaped tray, appropriate impression material and a dual arch impression procedure suitable for each case. Dual arch impression procedures can save impression material and chair time.

  7. Comparison of Dental Students' Self-Directed, Faculty, and Software-Based Assessments of Dental Anatomy Wax-Ups: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Pauline H; Faraone, Karen L; Patzelt, Sebastian B M; Keaser, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about self-directed and self-reflective assessment in preclinical dental curricula. The aim of this study was to evaluate a visual dental anatomy teaching tool to train dental students to self-assess their dental anatomy wax carving practical examinations. The students self-assessed two waxing practical examinations (tooth #8 and tooth #19) using high-quality digital images in an assessment tool incorporated into a digital testing program. Student self-assessments were compared to the faculty evaluations and the results of a software-based evaluation tool (E4D Compare). Out of a total 130 first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school, wax-ups from 57 participants were available for this study. The assessment data were submitted to statistical analyses (p<0.05). For tooth #8, the student self-assessments were significantly different from the faculty and software assessments at a 400 micrometer level of tolerance (p=0.036), whereas the faculty assessment was not significantly different from the software assessment at a 300 micrometer level of tolerance (p=0.69). The evaluation of tooth #19 resulted in no significant differences between faculty members (p=0.94) or students (p=0.21) and the software at a level of tolerance of 400 micrometers. This study indicates that students can learn to self-assess their work using self-reflection in conjunction with faculty guidance and that it may be possible to use software-based evaluation tools to assist in faculty calibration and as objective grading tools.

  8. The Algebra of the Arches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buerman, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Finding real-world examples for middle school algebra classes can be difficult but not impossible. As we strive to accomplish teaching our students how to solve and graph equations, we neglect to teach the big ideas of algebra. One of those big ideas is functions. This article gives three examples of functions that are found in Arches National…

  9. Users’ dissatisfaction with dental care: a population-based household study

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; dos Santos, Pedro Eleutério; Carreiro, Danilo Lima; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether demographic, socioeconomic conditions, oral health subjectivity and characterization of dental care are associated with users’ dissatisfaction with such are. METHODS Cross-sectional study of 781 people who required dental care in Montes Claros, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2012, a city with of medium-sized population situated in the North of Minas Gerais. Household interviews were conducted to assess the users’ dissatisfaction with dental care (dependent variable), demographic, socioeconomic conditions, oral health subjectivity and characterization of dental care (independent variables). Sample calculation was used for the finite population, with estimates made for proportions of dissatisfaction in 50.0% of the population, a 5.0% error margin, a non-response rate of 5.0% and a 2.0% design effect. Logistic regression was used, and the odds ratio was calculated with a 5% significance level and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Of the interviewed individuals, 9.0% (7.9%, with correction for design effect) were dissatisfied with the care provided. These were associated with lower educational level; negative self-assessment of oral health; perception that the care provider was unable to give dental care; negative evaluation of the way the patient was treated, the cleanliness of the rooms, based on the examination rooms and the toilets, and the size of the waiting and examination rooms. CONCLUSIONS The rate of dissatisfaction with dental care was low. This dissatisfaction was associated with socioeconomic conditions, subjectivity of oral health, skill of the health professionals relating to the professional-patient relationship and facility infrastructure. Educational interventions are suggested that aim at improving the quality of care among professionals by responsible agencies as is improving the infrastructure of the care units. PMID:26270017

  10. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  11. Study of Visual and Auditory Presentation in Dental Lecture and Laboratory Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William H.; And Others

    This study compared the relative effectiveness of an automated teaching machine with instructor presented instruction in graduate dental teaching. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of 3 laboratory instructional procedures used in combination with 2 lectures on the acquisition of manual operative skills, the learning of information…

  12. Access Barriers to Dental Health Care in Children with Disability. A Questionnaire Study of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of…

  13. Palmar arch reconstruction using dorsal venous arch of foot for revascularisation of multiple digits

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, K. S.; Petkar, Kiran; Lateef, Sameer; Rasalkar, Jyoti; Arun, T. J.; Suresh, V.

    2014-01-01

    A case of trauma causing total loss of superficial and deep palmar arches of hand with ischemia of all the digits was managed using dorsal venous arch of the foot to reconstruct the palmar arch. The ends of the venous arch were anastomosed to radial and ulnar arteries and the tributaries to the arch were coapted to the cut ends of the common digital vessels and princeps pollicis. The surgery yielded gratifying results, successfully revascularising all the digits. PMID:24987216

  14. High Palatoglossal Arch: A New Indication for Pre-prosthetic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Raikwar, Kanchan R; Ghodke, Monali; Garde, Janardan B; Suryavanshi, Rajendrakumar

    2016-07-01

    Pre-prosthetic surgery helps to overcome the challenge of prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient including restoration of the best masticatory function possible, combined with restoration or improvement of dental and facial esthetics. Maxillary denture prosthesis fabrication should include thorough examination of the soft palate and palatoglossal arch anatomy. This case report emphasizes on high palatoglossal arch as a rare and new cause of loss of posterior palatal seal and thereby retention of maxillary denture with rational, treated by pre-prosthetic surgery, ever reported in literature. PMID:27408462

  15. A pilot study in the recovery and recognition of non-osseointegrated dental implants following cremation.

    PubMed

    Berketa, J; James, H; Marino, V

    2011-12-01

    Minimal dimensional changes in free standing dental implants when incinerated in a kiln to a temperature of 1125°C have been reported previously. However, in the same study colour changes were observed between commercially pure titanium and titanium alloy type of implants, with speculation that this change may be a useful distinguishing tool in cases requiring forensic identification. The present study was instigated to determine what changes occur following cremation to bone-supported dental implants placed within mandibles of sheep. A selection of dental implants was photographed and radiographed. They were then surgically placed in sheep mandibles and the entire sheep heads cremated in a commercial cremator. There was detachment of the dental implants from the mandible, which could have implications for scene recovery. Following retrieval and re-irradiating of the implants, image subtraction evaluation of the radiographs was recorded using Adobe(®) Photoshop.(®) As with the previous study there was slight oxidation of the implant surfaces leading to minor alteration of the images. There was, however, no gold crust colour change in the commercially pure titanium. Photography within the retrieved implants revealed the batch number within the Straumann™ implant was still visible, which could significantly add weight to the identification of deceased persons.

  16. A pilot study in the recovery and recognition of non-osseointegrated dental implants following cremation.

    PubMed

    Berketa, J; James, H; Marino, V

    2011-12-01

    Minimal dimensional changes in free standing dental implants when incinerated in a kiln to a temperature of 1125°C have been reported previously. However, in the same study colour changes were observed between commercially pure titanium and titanium alloy type of implants, with speculation that this change may be a useful distinguishing tool in cases requiring forensic identification. The present study was instigated to determine what changes occur following cremation to bone-supported dental implants placed within mandibles of sheep. A selection of dental implants was photographed and radiographed. They were then surgically placed in sheep mandibles and the entire sheep heads cremated in a commercial cremator. There was detachment of the dental implants from the mandible, which could have implications for scene recovery. Following retrieval and re-irradiating of the implants, image subtraction evaluation of the radiographs was recorded using Adobe(®) Photoshop.(®) As with the previous study there was slight oxidation of the implant surfaces leading to minor alteration of the images. There was, however, no gold crust colour change in the commercially pure titanium. Photography within the retrieved implants revealed the batch number within the Straumann™ implant was still visible, which could significantly add weight to the identification of deceased persons. PMID:22717912

  17. Human amygdala activation by the sound produced during dental treatment: A fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Kuo, Song-Bor; Wu, Chung-De; Wai, Yau-Yau; Chen, Yi-Fen; Peng, Ying-Chin

    2015-01-01

    During dental treatments, patients may experience negative emotions associated with the procedure. This study was conducted with the aim of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to visualize cerebral cortical stimulation among dental patients in response to auditory stimuli produced by ultrasonic scaling and power suction equipment. Subjects (n = 7) aged 23-35 years were recruited for this study. All were right-handed and underwent clinical pure-tone audiometry testing to reveal a normal hearing threshold below 20 dB hearing level (HL). As part of the study, subjects initially underwent a dental calculus removal treatment. During the treatment, subjects were exposed to ultrasonic auditory stimuli originating from the scaling handpiece and salivary suction instruments. After dental treatment, subjects were imaged with fMRI while being exposed to recordings of the noise from the same dental instrument so that cerebral cortical stimulation in response to aversive auditory stimulation could be observed. The independent sample confirmatory t-test was used. Subjects also showed stimulation in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, indicating that the ultrasonic auditory stimuli elicited an unpleasant response in the subjects. Patients experienced unpleasant sensations caused by contact stimuli in the treatment procedure. In addition, this study has demonstrated that aversive auditory stimuli such as sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece also cause aversive emotions. This study was indicated by observed stimulation of the auditory cortex as well as the amygdala, indicating that noise from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece was perceived as an aversive auditory stimulus by the subjects. Subjects can experience unpleasant sensations caused by the sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece based on their auditory stimuli.

  18. Human amygdala activation by the sound produced during dental treatment: A fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Kuo, Song-Bor; Wu, Chung-De; Wai, Yau-Yau; Chen, Yi-Fen; Peng, Ying-Chin

    2015-01-01

    During dental treatments, patients may experience negative emotions associated with the procedure. This study was conducted with the aim of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to visualize cerebral cortical stimulation among dental patients in response to auditory stimuli produced by ultrasonic scaling and power suction equipment. Subjects (n = 7) aged 23-35 years were recruited for this study. All were right-handed and underwent clinical pure-tone audiometry testing to reveal a normal hearing threshold below 20 dB hearing level (HL). As part of the study, subjects initially underwent a dental calculus removal treatment. During the treatment, subjects were exposed to ultrasonic auditory stimuli originating from the scaling handpiece and salivary suction instruments. After dental treatment, subjects were imaged with fMRI while being exposed to recordings of the noise from the same dental instrument so that cerebral cortical stimulation in response to aversive auditory stimulation could be observed. The independent sample confirmatory t-test was used. Subjects also showed stimulation in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, indicating that the ultrasonic auditory stimuli elicited an unpleasant response in the subjects. Patients experienced unpleasant sensations caused by contact stimuli in the treatment procedure. In addition, this study has demonstrated that aversive auditory stimuli such as sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece also cause aversive emotions. This study was indicated by observed stimulation of the auditory cortex as well as the amygdala, indicating that noise from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece was perceived as an aversive auditory stimulus by the subjects. Subjects can experience unpleasant sensations caused by the sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece based on their auditory stimuli. PMID:26356376

  19. Effects of three-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arches and cervical headgear on dentofacial structures.

    PubMed

    Altug-Atac, Ayse T; Erdem, Dilek

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dentofacial effects of an intraoral technique, the three-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch (3D-BMDA), with an extraoral technique, cervical headgear (CH), in subjects requiring maxillary molar distalization. Twenty-one patients (12 females, 9 males; mean age at the start of treatment: 14.7 years) were treated with 3D-BMDA and 18 subjects (11 females, 7 males; mean age at the start of treatment: 13.3 years) with CH. Since the treatment period was longer in the CH group, the results for this group were also compared with a separate 'untreated' control group of 17 subjects (12 females, 5 males; mean age at the start of observation: 13.1 years). The measurements were carried out on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at two time points (T(1): start of treatment/control, T(2): end of molar distalization/control). Paired t-tests were performed within, and analysis of variance to determine the differences between the groups. The total amount of distalization for the 3D-BMDA and CH was similar (3.55 and 4.56 mm, respectively). However, there were statistically significant differences in the total treatment period (3.4 and 10.2 months, respectively) and the monthly amount of distalization (1.11 and 0.55 mm, respectively). The 3D-BMDA system did not have a significant effect on mandibular rotation (an increase of 0.01 degrees), while the CH group showed a mean posterior rotation of the mandible of 1.08 degrees. The most significant differences between the two maxillary first molar distalization techniques were observed in the mandibular dental arches. Moderate anchorage loss in the mandibular dental arch was observed in the 3D-BMDA group. While the 3D-BMDA and CH techniques are both effective in distalizing maxillary molar teeth, the distalization time and rate of molar movement were significantly shorter with the 3D-BMDA than the CH.

  20. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas. PMID:27139205

  1. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas.

  2. Predictors of academic performance for applicants to an international dental studies program in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela; King, Patricia A; Chambers, David W

    2011-12-01

    The number of U.S. and Canadian dental schools offering programs for dentists with degrees from other countries leading to the D.D.S. or D.M.D. degree has increased recently. This fact, along with the diversity of educational systems represented by candidates for these programs, increases the importance of identifying valid admissions predictors of success in international dental student programs. Data from 148 students accepted into the international dental studies program at the University of the Pacific from 1994 through 2004 were analyzed. Dependent variables were comprehensive cumulative GPA at the end of both the first and second years of the two-year program. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and both Parts I and II of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) were significant positive predictors of success. Performance on laboratory tests of clinical skill in operative dentistry and in fixed prosthodontics and ratings from interviewers were not predictive of overall success in the program. Although this study confirms the predictive value of written tests such as the TOEFL and NBDE, it also contributes to the literature documenting inconsistent results regarding other types of predictors. It may be the case that characteristics of individual programs or features of the applicant pools for each may require use of admissions predictors that are unique to schools.

  3. Equivalence study of a dental anatomy computer-assisted learning program.

    PubMed

    Bogacki, Russell E; Best, Al; Abbey, Louis M

    2004-08-01

    Tooth Morphology is a computer-assisted learning program designed to teach the anatomy of the adult dentition. The purpose of this study was to test whether Tooth Morphology could teach dental anatomy to first-year dental students as well as the traditional lecture. A randomized controlled trial was performed with forty-five first-year dental students. The students were randomly assigned to either the Tooth Morphology group (n=23), which used the computer-assisted learning program and did not attend lecture, or the lecture group (n=22), which attended the traditional lecture and did not use Tooth Morphology. The Tooth Morphology group had a final exam average of 90.0 (standard deviation=5.2), and the lecture group had a final exam average of 90.9 (sd=5.3). Analysis showed that the two groups' scores were statistically equivalent (p<0.05), with a priori equivalence bounds around the difference between the groups set at +/-5 points. It was concluded that Tooth Morphology taught the anatomy of the adult dentition as well as traditional lecture, as measured by exams. Based on the results of this study and student feedback, Tooth Morphology, in combination with interactive class meetings, has replaced the traditional dental anatomy lectures.

  4. Predictors of academic performance for applicants to an international dental studies program in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela; King, Patricia A; Chambers, David W

    2011-12-01

    The number of U.S. and Canadian dental schools offering programs for dentists with degrees from other countries leading to the D.D.S. or D.M.D. degree has increased recently. This fact, along with the diversity of educational systems represented by candidates for these programs, increases the importance of identifying valid admissions predictors of success in international dental student programs. Data from 148 students accepted into the international dental studies program at the University of the Pacific from 1994 through 2004 were analyzed. Dependent variables were comprehensive cumulative GPA at the end of both the first and second years of the two-year program. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and both Parts I and II of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) were significant positive predictors of success. Performance on laboratory tests of clinical skill in operative dentistry and in fixed prosthodontics and ratings from interviewers were not predictive of overall success in the program. Although this study confirms the predictive value of written tests such as the TOEFL and NBDE, it also contributes to the literature documenting inconsistent results regarding other types of predictors. It may be the case that characteristics of individual programs or features of the applicant pools for each may require use of admissions predictors that are unique to schools. PMID:22184596

  5. Image manipulation: Fraudulence in digital dental records: Study and review

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhry, Aman; Sircar, Keya; Popli, Deepika Bablani; Tandon, Ankita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In present-day times, freely available software allows dentists to tweak their digital records as never before. But, there is a fine line between acceptable enhancements and scientific delinquency. Aims and Objective: To manipulate digital images (used in forensic dentistry) of casts, lip prints, and bite marks in order to highlight tampering techniques and methods of detecting and preventing manipulation of digital images. Materials and Methods: Digital image records of forensic data (casts, lip prints, and bite marks photographed using Samsung Techwin L77 digital camera) were manipulated using freely available software. Results: Fake digital images can be created either by merging two or more digital images, or by altering an existing image. Discussion and Conclusion: Retouched digital images can be used for fraudulent purposes in forensic investigations. However, tools are available to detect such digital frauds, which are extremely difficult to assess visually. Thus, all digital content should mandatorily have attached metadata and preferably watermarking in order to avert their malicious re-use. Also, computer alertness, especially about imaging software's, should be promoted among forensic odontologists/dental professionals. PMID:24696587

  6. Kinematic differences between normal and low arched feet in children using the Heidelberg foot measurement method.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D; McIntosh, A S; Simon, J; Lowe, K; Wolf, S I

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics of normal arched and low arched feet in children and use this data to quantify the differences between the two foot types during walking gait. Multi-segment foot motion was measured, using the Heidelberg foot measurement method (HFMM), for 25 normal arched feet and 27 low arched feet in 9-12-year-old children. The kinematic differences in the foot between the two groups during walking were relatively small, except for the medial arch and forefoot supination angles. The magnitude of the medial arch angle was approximately 10 degrees greater in the low arched group than the normal arched group throughout the gait cycle. There was a significant difference found in the forefoot supination angle (p<0.03), relative to the midfoot, between the two groups at initial heel strike, and maximum and minimum values throughout the gait cycle. The values for the normal group were significantly higher in all these angles indicating that the forefoot of the low arched foot remains less pronated during the gait cycle. There was no significant difference in the motion of the rearfoot between the two foot types. The results of this study provide normative values for children's feet and highlight the mechanical differences in flexible flat feet in this age group. This data contributes to knowledge on foot kinematics in children and will be valuable for future research on the structure, function and potential treatment of the flexible flat foot.

  7. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  8. A Study of Changes in Dental Health Care Behavior of 4-H Youth in Selected Louisiana Parishes. R and T--Summary 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael Alan

    The effectiveness of the Dental Hygiene Education Program in changing the dental health care practices of 4-H club youth in four Louisiana parishes and youth knowledge of dental care principles were studied in this before-after experimental design. The study sample consisted of 258 youth from 10 4-H clubs. Subjects completed a four-item…

  9. Learning climate in dental hygiene education: a longitudinal case study of a Japanese and Canadian programme.

    PubMed

    Saito, A; Sunell, S; Rucker, L; Wilson, M; Sato, Y; Cathcart, G

    2010-05-01

    Educational climates have been found to have important influences on learning, but little feedback has been obtained from dental hygiene students. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the learning climate in Japanese and Canadian dental hygiene programmes for the purpose of making positive changes. A survey instrument with 10 dimensions relating to learning climate was adapted from business and dental models, and designated as the Dental Hygiene Student Learning Climate Survey (DHS-LCS). Higher scores indicated a more positive and supportive learning climate, and lower scores indicated an environment that is potentially less desirable. Students enrolled in a Japanese and a Canadian dental hygiene programme participated in this four-year study from 2005 to 2008. A total of 402 surveys were returned for an average response rate of 62%. The mean total DHS-LCS score of Canadian students was statistically significantly higher than that of Japanese students (P < 0.001) in all years tested, indicating that the Canadian students' perceptions of their learning environment were more favourable than those of the Japanese students. Based on the analyses of the DHS-LCS data, interventions to improve learning climates were designed and implemented. There were statistically significant improvements (P < 0.01) in DHS-LCS scores of Japanese and Canadian students over the years of the study, suggesting that student-centred interventions improved the perceived learning environment. The instrument appears to be helpful in identifying student concerns and can be used to implement interventions to help support a healthier learning climate.

  10. The Responsiveness of Patients’ Quality of Life to Dental Caries Treatment—A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ding-Yu; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responsiveness of oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) (oral health impact profile [OHIP] and oral impact on daily performance [OIDP]) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (World Health Organization quality of life scale, brief [WHOQOL-BREF]) in dental caries restoration treatment. The study also aimed to assess the influence of treatment on the responsiveness of patients’ quality of life (QoL). A total of 126 patients (aged 16–40 years) received dental caries restoration treatment with a 2-week follow-up and pre- and posttreatment interviews by questionnaire. Patients were assessed for their perceptions of OHRQoL and HRQoL by using the OHIP, OIDP, and WHOQOL-BREF measures. The responsiveness of all outcome measurements was assessed by effect size (ES). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association with the responsiveness of all outcome measurements. Significant differences were found between OIDP (ES = 0.39), OHIP (ES = 0.54), and WHOQOL-BREF (ES = 0.13) with regard to pretreatment and posttreatment (p-values: <0.0001, <0.0001, and 0.0120, respectively). Sex and dental caries status at baseline were significantly associated with responsiveness by all measurements. This study suggests that dental caries treatment moderately improves OHRQoL, but is less related to HRQoL. Furthermore, the number of dental caries and restoration are important factors affecting the improvement of patients’ perceived OHRQoL. PMID:27776148

  11. [Study on availability of dental health services for children in health center--correlation between attendance of 3-year-old children at dental health services and caries prevalence].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental health services for children in a health center. The samples were 316 children who had 3-year-old dental examination at a health center in Tokyo. The analysis was carried out by a computer using the results of the children's oral status and of their mothers', questionnaires and past records showing when and how many times they had attended such activities. The results were as follows: 1. Attendance of children at dental services showed the effectiveness in preventing dental caries, and it was suggested that attendance at least 3 times before the age of 18 months should be the most effective way to decrease the dental caries in the 3-year-olds. 2. According to the questionnaires, time of going to bed, snacks time, and the habit of thumb-sucking at the age of 3 years, and stopping the habit of bottle-feeding and of night breast-feeding at 18 months of age showed a great correlation concerning the number of dental caries in the 3-year-olds. 3. The more often the children had attended the dental services, the more often their behavior for eating snacks and toothbrushing changed for the better. 4. The more the mothers had dental caries, the more was the number of dental caries in their children and moreover their attendance at the dental services was less.

  12. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India

    PubMed Central

    Satheeshkumar, PS; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. Materials and Methods: A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Results: Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Conclusion: Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease. PMID:23349577

  13. First Hard X-Ray Detection of the Non-Thermal Emission Around the Arches Cluster: Morphology and Spectral Studies With NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivonos, Roman A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bauer, Franz E.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, JaeSub; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe K(alpha) line emission at 6.4 keV from material that is neutral or in a low ionization state can be produced either by X-ray photoionization or by cosmic-ray particle bombardment or both. In this paper, we report on the first detection of the extended emission around the Arches cluster above 10 keV with the NuSTAR mission, and present results on its morphology and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity of the possible illuminating hard X-ray source. The properties of the observed emission are also in broad agreement with the low-energy cosmic-ray proton excitation scenario. Key words: cosmic rays - Galaxy: center - ISM: general - X-rays: individual (Arches cluster)

  14. A case study on development of an integrated, multidisciplinary dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Nadershahi, Nader A; Bender, Daniel J; Beck, Lynn; Alexander, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Calls for fundamental reform of dental education were made twice in the twentieth century. More recently, spurred by the work of the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (ADEA CCI), North American dental educators have again begun advocating for major curriculum reform in order to develop in students the higher order thinking skills required for the contemporary practice of dentistry. This case study describes the process of curricular reform at one school designed to move from a traditional siloed curriculum to one that uses case-based, integrated multidisciplinary courses to improve teaching and learning. The process was broad-based and comprehensive and included a schoolwide values clarification exercise and agreement on desired characteristics of an ideal graduate. Stakeholders agreed that the reform curriculum should incorporate inter- and multidisciplinary courses, case-based and active learning strategies, and concepts from adult learning theory. The new curriculum model is comprised of five unique but related curriculum "strands," each managed by a small group of interdisciplinary faculty content experts. Challenges in the development and implementation of the reform curriculum are discussed, and an assessment plan is presented.

  15. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, M; Chung, NE; Ajdaharian, J; Wink, C; Klokkevold, P; Wilder-Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on plaque and gingival health. The dental gel was designed to (1) break up and prevent re-accumulation of microbial biofilm, and (2) inhibit metal mediated inflammation. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. On Days 0, 7, 14 and 21, plaque levels (Quigley-Hein, Turesky Modification Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index) and gingival bleeding (modified Sulcus Bleeding Index) were determined by one blinded, investigator using a pressure sensitive probe. Results After 3 weeks, all 3 clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P<0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P<0.05). Conclusion The novel dental gel formulation was provided effective plaque control and reduced gingival inflammation. Clinical Relevance A novel dentifrice formulation may be an effective tool for plaque removal and maintaining gingival health. PMID:26052472

  16. Out-of-plane free vibration analysis of a cable-arch structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H. J.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Zhu, H. P.

    2013-02-01

    Cable-arch structure has been widely used in many long-span structures such as cable roofs and cable-stayed arch bridges, but its dynamics is still not well understood. In this paper, the out-of-plane dynamic behavior of a cable-arch structure is investigated. The equations governing the out-of-plane free vibration of the structure are derived using d'Alembert's principle. A transfer matrix method is used to solve the governing equations and determine the frequencies of the out-of-plane vibration. The theories are then used to study two specific cases: free vibration of a model cable-arch and simulation of an arch erection process. The effects of some key parameters of cable and arch, such as tension of cable and radius, open-angle and shape of arch, are examined. The results indicate that in-plane and spatial cables can largely improve the out-of-plane dynamic behavior of arch structures, which are further verified by analyzing the out-of-plane buckling of cable-arch structures. The present work should be valuable and significant not only for the fundamental research but also engineering design of roofs and bridges.

  17. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries Differs between the Sexes: A Family-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience has been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although may be partly explained by the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family-based study (N=2,663; 740 families; ages 1–93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:25612913

  19. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  20. Giant aortic arch aneurysm complicating Kawasaki's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Kaouthar; Boussada, Rafik; Chaker, Lilia; Ouarda, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a common acute vasculitis in pediatric population that usually involves small- and middle-sized arteries, commonly coronary arteries. Although the incidence and natural course of coronary aneurysms after KD are well documented in studies, related reports on peripheral arterial and aortic aneurysms are scarce. We report the occurrence of a giant aortic aneurysm involving the horizontal part of aortic arch in a 28-month-old boy diagnosed with KD. This complication was managed by steroids therapy in the beginning. Because of mechanical complication and potential risk of rupture, surgery was undertaken. PMID:25298695

  1. The efficacy of screening for common dental diseases by hygiene-therapists: a diagnostic test accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Macey, R; Glenny, A; Walsh, T; Tickle, M; Worthington, H; Ashley, J; Brocklehurst, P

    2015-03-01

    Regularly attending adult patients are increasingly asymptomatic and not in need of treatment when attending for their routine dental examinations. As oral health improves further, using the general dental practitioner to undertake the "checkup" on regular "low-risk" patients represents a substantial and potentially unnecessary cost for state-funded systems. Given recent regulatory changes in the United Kingdom, it is now theoretically possible to delegate a range of tasks to hygiene-therapists. This has the potential to release the general dental practitioner's time and increase the capacity to care. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic test accuracy of hygiene-therapists when screening for dental caries and periodontal disease in regularly attending asymptomatic adults who attend for their checkup. A visual screen by hygiene-therapists acted as the index test, and the general dental practitioner acted as the reference standard. Consenting asymptomatic adult patients, who were regularly attending patients at 10 practices across the Northwest of England, entered the study. Both sets of clinicians made an assessment of dental caries and periodontal disease. The primary outcomes measured were the sensitivity and specificity values for dental caries and periodontal disease. In total, 1899 patients were screened. The summary point for sensitivity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87) and 0.89 (0.86 to 0.92), respectively. The summary point for specificity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92) and 0.75 (0.66 to 0.82), respectively. The results suggest that hygiene-therapists could be used to screen for dental caries and periodontal disease. This has important ramifications for service design in public-funded health systems.

  2. Pain and problems: a prospective cross-sectional study of the impact of dental emergencies.

    PubMed

    Currie, C C; Stone, S J; Durham, J

    2015-12-01

    One-third of the population will only attend the dentist for an acute problem, often waiting a period of time before presenting. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels of pain in patients presenting for a dental emergency and the impact this had on their quality of life. Questionnaires were provided to adult patients attending dental emergency services over 1 week. Demographic and clinical details were collected. Quality of life was measured using EQ-5D-5L. Pain and the interference it caused were examined using the graded chronic pain scale. Data were analysed in STATA using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests. Results showed that majority of patients (64%) seen were male; the mean age was 36 (±14) years. Forty six per cent of patients reported having a general dental practitioner. One-third of the patients had attended this service previously for emergency care, and 13% consulted for the same problem. The mean duration of pain was 17·7 (±52·3) days prior to seeking care. The mean characteristic pain intensity was 53·6 (±23·6). The mean disability score was 43·4 (±33·6). The mean EQ-5D-5L score was 0·57 (±0·27). In conclusion, a large number of patients attend the emergency dental services despite being 'registered' with a general dental practitioner. A proportion of these individuals will re-attend for the same condition. Patients will often be in pain for over 2 weeks before attending, which may have a significant impact on their quality of life. Further research is warranted to investigate these care-seeking behaviours and patterns. PMID:26174692

  3. Study of the impacts of patient-educators on the course of basic sciences in dental studies.

    PubMed

    Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C

    2015-02-01

    Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients. PMID:24628743

  4. Posterior partially edentulous jaws, planning a rehabilitation with dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Emily V F; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Filho, Osvaldo Magro; Goiato, Marcelo C

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To discuss important characteristics of the use of dental implants in posterior quadrants and the rehabilitation planning. METHODS: An electronic search of English articles was conducted on MEDLINE (PubMed) from 1990 up to the period of March 2014. The key terms were dental implants and posterior jaws, dental implants/treatment planning and posterior maxilla, and dental implants/treatment planning and posterior mandible. No exclusion criteria were used for the initial search. Clinical trials, randomized and non randomized studies, classical and comparative studies, multicenter studies, in vitro and in vivo studies, case reports, longitudinal studies and reviews of the literature were included in this review. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two articles met the inclusion criteria of treatment planning of dental implants in posterior jaw and were read in their entirety. The selected articles were categorized with respect to their context on space for restoration, anatomic considerations (bone quantity and density), radiographic techniques, implant selection (number, position, diameter and surface), tilted and pterygoid implants, short implants, occlusal considerations, and success rates of implants placed in the posterior region. The results derived from the review process were described under several different topic headings to give readers a clear overview of the literature. In general, it was observed that the use of dental implants in posterior region requires a careful treatment plan. It is important that the practitioner has knowledge about the theme to evaluate the treatment parameters. CONCLUSION: The use of implants to restore the posterior arch presents many challenges and requires a detailed treatment planning. PMID:25610852

  5. Demand study for advanced dental hygiene educational degrees: part 2: assessing educational demand.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Annelise Ydstebo; Fottler, Myron; Liberman, Aaron; Pitts, Louise; Wan, Thomas T H

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the debate over the addition of the midlevel provider position for dental hygienists rages on. The midlevel provider (similar to the physician's assistant) in dentistry exists in a handful of states in various forms, but is hotly contested in many other states. This is the second half of a 2-part study undertaken to add to the current body of knowledge by addressing the clinical needs changing in our population and the associated demand study for additional educational degrees for dental hygienists to address these changing needs. Part 1 addressed a literature update on oral health and systemic correlations contributing to our populations' declining health conditions, whereas part 2 illustrates the results of the demand study. It attempts to benchmark "adequate demand" and applies the stakeholder theory as its theoretical framework.

  6. Effectiveness of Various Sensory Input Methods in Dental Health Education Among Blind Children- A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Namineni, Srinivas; Vaaka, Phani Himaja; K, Vamsilatha; Das, Rupali; Devi, Maruti; Akkaloori, Anitha; Kumbakonam, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate effectiveness of various sensory input methods in dental health education among blind children. Oral hygiene status was assessed through visible plaque index and oral hygiene knowledge was assessed through questionnaire before and after oral health education. Materials and Methods The study involved of 200 blind children with the age range of 8 to 14 years of both genders from two blind schools similar in standard of teaching. The total study population (n=200) was randomized and divided into five Groups, comprising of 40 children in each Group. The first four were the experimental Groups who received dental health education through different modes, while the fifth Group served as control. Oral health related knowledge and plaque scores were assessed in all the study Groups before and after dental health education. Results After intervention, the mean knowledge scores and plaque scores were statistically significant in all the study Groups when compared to the baseline scores. Conclusion The present study proved that blind children can maintain an acceptable level of oral hygiene when taught with special customized methods like multisensory approach with creative use of other senses which was found to be effective than unisensory method. PMID:26557623

  7. A Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Dental Anxiety for People with Learning Disabilities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Simon J.; Green, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Dental anxiety is a common form of anxiety problem, and research suggests that more people with learning disabilities experience dental anxiety than in the general population. Very little work has been done to investigate effective non-medical approaches for supporting people with a learning disability and dental anxiety to access dental care.…

  8. Repeat film analysis and its implications for quality assurance in dental radiology: An institutional case study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Shruthi; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Acharya, Shashidhar

    2015-01-01

    Context: The goal of any radiologist is to produce the highest quality diagnostic radiographs, while keeping patient exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the reasons for radiograph rejections through a repeat film analysis in an Indian dental school. Settings and Design: An observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Materials and Methods: During a 6-month study period, a total of 9,495 intra-oral radiographs and 2339 extraoral radiographs taken in the Radiology Department were subjected to repeat film analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Version 16. Descriptive analysis used. Results: The results showed that the repeat rates were 7.1% and 5.86% for intraoral and extraoral radiographs, respectively. Among the causes for errors reported, positioning error (38.7%) was the most common, followed by improper angulations (26.1%), and improper film placement (11.2%) for intra-oral radiographs. The study found that the maximum frequency of repeats among extraoral radiographs was for panoramic radiographs (49%) followed by lateral cephalogram (33%), and paranasal sinus view (14%). It was also observed that repeat rate of intraoral radiographs was highest for internees (44.7%), and undergraduate students (28.2%). Conclusions: The study pointed to a need for more targeted interventions to achieve the goal of keeping patient exposure ALARA in a dental school setting. PMID:26321841

  9. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; dos Santos, Fábio Gomes; Moura, Eline Freitas de Farias; da Costa, Fernanda Clotilde Mariz; Auad, Sheyla Marcia; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2014-01-01

    Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion. PMID:24695943

  10. A 22-year follow-up of the nonsurgical expansion of maxillary and mandibular arches in a young adult: Are the outcomes stable, relapsed, or unstable with aging?

    PubMed

    Valladares-Neto, José; Evangelista, Karine; Miranda de Torres, Hianne; Melo Pithon, Matheus; Alves Garcia Santos Silva, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Adult maxillary and mandible arch expansion without a surgical approach can be uncertain when long-term stability is considered. This case report describes the treatment of a 19-year-old woman with an Angle Class I malocclusion with constricted maxillary and mandibular arches. The patient's main complaint was mandibular anterior crowding. The treatment plan included expansion of the mandibular arch concurrent with semirapid maxillary expansion. An edgewise appliance was used to adjust the final occlusion. Smile esthetics and dental alignment were improved without straightening the profile. This outcome was followed up with serial dental casts for 22 years after treatment. At the end of that period, the occlusion and tooth alignment were clinically satisfactory, further supported by mandibular fixed retention. However, the transverse widths were continuously and gradually reduced over time, superposing orthodontic transverse relapse and natural arch constriction caused by aging. PMID:27585782

  11. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants Main Content Dental sealants are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing surfaces of children’s back teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants ...

  12. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Dental health of children with autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Waldman, H Barry; Zablotsky, Nevin; Perlman, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were used to investigate how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and comorbidity are associated with the dental health needs of children. The results of this study help provide insights into the greater oral needs of the increasing population of children with ASD that reside in our communities and their dependency upon local practitioners for treatment. PMID:23930328

  14. Evaluation of dental morphometrics during the orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostic orthodontic and prosthetic procedures commence with an initial examination, during which a number of individual findings on occlusion or malocclusion are clarified. Nowadays we try to replace standard plaster casts by scanned objects and digital models. Method Geometrically calibrated images aid in the comparison of several different steps of the treatment and show the variation of selected features belonging to individual biomedical objects. The methods used are based on geometric morphometrics, making a new approach to the evaluation of the variability of features. The study presents two different methods of measurement and shows their accuracy and reliability. Results The experimental part of the present paper is devoted to the analysis of the dental arch objects of 24 patients before and after the treatment using the distances between the canines and premolars as the features important for diagnostic purposes. Our work proved the advantage of measuring digitalized orthodontic models over manual measuring of plaster casts, with statistically significant results and accuracy sufficient for dental practice. Conclusion A new method of computer imaging and measurements of a dental stone cast provides information with the precision required for orthodontic treatment. The results obtained point to the reduction in the variance of the distances between the premolars and canines during the treatment, with a regression coefficient RC=0.7 and confidence intervals close enough for dental practice. The ratio of these distances pointed to the nearly constant value of this measure close to 0.84 for the given set of 24 individuals. PMID:24893983

  15. The Finnish Family Competence Study: the relationship between caries, dental health habits and general health in 3-year-old Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Paunio, P; Rautava, P; Helenius, H; Alanen, P; Sillanpää, M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how dental health related habits, infectious diseases and long-term illness are associated with dental health at the age of 3 in first-born children resident in a Finnish province. The study was designed as a survey using stratified randomised cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires and clinical dental examinations. The results were analysed using polytomous logistic models. In the stepwise analysis the only statistically significant explanatory factors were the use of juice at night and dental cleanliness. Antibiotic treatment or long-term illness was not significantly associated with dental health.

  16. Monolithic Lithium Disilicate Full-Contour Crowns Bonded on CAD/CAM Zirconia Complete-Arch Implant Bridges With 3 to 5 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Alessandro; Tallarico, Marco; Barlattani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried on to assess the clinical performance of a novel restorative concept consisting in single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia complete-arch implant bridges, to overcome the drawbacks related to the chipping of porcelain fused to zirconia restorations. Sixteen patients received 18 implant-supported hybrid screw-cement-retained complete-arch restorations, consisting of single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks. The restorations were supported by 4-8 implants. All patients were followed up for at least 3 years on function (range 36 to 60 months, mean 49.3 months). Clinical controls were scheduled every 4 months. The outcomes were implant and prosthetic survival and success rates, any complications, patient satisfaction, and soft tissue parameters. No dropouts occurred. The overall implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100%. One of 18 restorations (1 of 236 dental units) showed a chip-off fracture of the veneering ceramic that was polished intraorally without any additional treatment, scoring a cumulative prosthetic success rate of 100%, according to the California Dental Association index. All patients were functionally and esthetically highly satisfied with their restorations. Successful soft tissue parameters were found around all implants. Single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns, bonded on CAD/CAM screw-retained complete-arch zirconia frameworks, showed favorable preliminary outcomes with medium-term follow-up. However, randomized controlled studies of this technique are required for further conclusive recommendations.

  17. Fixation of a severely resorbed mandible for complete arch screw-retained rehabilitation: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Vinicius; Bacchi, Atais

    2016-05-01

    Severely resorbed mandibles with placed endosteal dental implants can fracture. Therefore, techniques to reduce the risk or minimize the consequences of these fractures are needed. This clinical report presents a technique for placing a titanium plate in a severely resorbed mandible subjected to complete-arch implant therapy. The titanium plate is placed in the same surgical procedure as the implants, allowing immediate implant loading. This technique provides safe implant-supported treatment for patients with severe mandibular resorption.

  18. Sources of stress in Canadian dental students: a prospective mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Elani, Hawazin W; Bedos, Christophe; Allison, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe sources of stress in predoctoral dental students and first-year residents at one dental school and to understand how these sources evolved during the four-year curriculum and in the first year after graduation. The study used a mixed methods design. Quantitative data were collected from subjects in each of the five cohorts of students and residents, every month for a period of one year (other than the summer holiday period; N varied each month from 77 to 127). Sources of stress were measured using the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES). The investigators administered the DES twice, once at the end of each academic semester, and used DES categories that emerged from factor analysis to assess monthly sources of stress. Qualitative data collected through individual interviews (N=6) were aimed at understanding the main sources of stress in each year of the curriculum. Results from both quantitative and qualitative phases demonstrated that the main stressors for all dental students throughout the year were examinations and grades as well as workload. Students in the clinical years were also concerned about patient treatment. The residents and final-year students reported future plans as an additional stressor. Over the year, there was a significant increase for workload stress in the fourth year (p<0.05); in the third year there was a significant increase in patient treatment stress (p<0.05) with a significant decrease for personal factors (p<0.05). The study demonstrated that sources of stress in these students and first-year residents varied according to their stage in the program and the period of the year.

  19. Perception and knowledge of dental interns toward interdepartmental coordination for successful prosthodontic treatment: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shigli, Kamal; Kakodkar, Pradnya; Agrawal, Neha; Hebbal, Mamata; Huddar, Dayanand; Vikneshan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The graduating dentist should be trained in providing treatment utilizing the interdisciplinary approach because of the rapid advancements and increase in patient expectations, which demands for collaboration between the different specialists. Purpose: A pilot study was undertaken with an aim to assess the perception and knowledge of dental interns toward interdepartmental coordination for successful prosthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: Dental interns from two dental colleges in Sangli (India) participated in the study. A 24-item self-administered, structured closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. Four questions assessed the perception and 20 questions assessed the knowledge, which were based on the four domains viz.: General, Endodontics, Orthodontics, and Prosthodontics. They were framed from case scenarios reporting to the Department of Prosthodontics, which required interdepartmental consultation. The questionnaire was validated before its application and reliability were also assessed. The final score for each question was calculated based on the correct responses. Descriptive analysis was calculated using the frequencies, percentages, and mean values by using SPSS 16 software. Results: Among 117 interns who participated in the study, 79.5% reported that they lacked training in an interdisciplinary approach. Approximately, 96% reported that the curriculum should be designed to include interdisciplinary training. Nearly, 88% reported that specialist from different specialty should be posted in one interdisciplinary department. Around 60% reported that they did not have the confidence of treating the patient as a whole. When the overall mean scores were considered, the highest scores were obtained for the general domain (95.3) and the lowest for the prosthodontic domain (83.6). Conclusion: The dental interns perceived that they lacked training in interdisciplinary approach, and the curriculum should include

  20. Sources of stress in Canadian dental students: a prospective mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Elani, Hawazin W; Bedos, Christophe; Allison, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe sources of stress in predoctoral dental students and first-year residents at one dental school and to understand how these sources evolved during the four-year curriculum and in the first year after graduation. The study used a mixed methods design. Quantitative data were collected from subjects in each of the five cohorts of students and residents, every month for a period of one year (other than the summer holiday period; N varied each month from 77 to 127). Sources of stress were measured using the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES). The investigators administered the DES twice, once at the end of each academic semester, and used DES categories that emerged from factor analysis to assess monthly sources of stress. Qualitative data collected through individual interviews (N=6) were aimed at understanding the main sources of stress in each year of the curriculum. Results from both quantitative and qualitative phases demonstrated that the main stressors for all dental students throughout the year were examinations and grades as well as workload. Students in the clinical years were also concerned about patient treatment. The residents and final-year students reported future plans as an additional stressor. Over the year, there was a significant increase for workload stress in the fourth year (p<0.05); in the third year there was a significant increase in patient treatment stress (p<0.05) with a significant decrease for personal factors (p<0.05). The study demonstrated that sources of stress in these students and first-year residents varied according to their stage in the program and the period of the year. PMID:24192414

  1. Revisiting impressions using dual-arch trays.

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Making routine perfect impressions is the goal of any restorative dentist. Using dual-arch trays is an easy, repeatable way to accomplish that goal, as long as each step is done before the next and each step is performed perfectly. This column reviewed several articles that support the metal dual-arch concept and provided some clinical tips that might help restorative dentists. The dual-arch technique does have its limits and is meant for one or two teeth in a quadrant when there are other teeth to occlude with. Also, if the case involves anterior guidance, a full-arch impression maybe advisable.

  2. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    PubMed

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (p<0.001). Dental students also had the least positive attitudes about clinical interactions between dental hygiene and dental students (p<0.001) and perceived the fewest benefits of dental hygiene student peer teaching (p<0.001) before experiencing peer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about

  3. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    PubMed

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (p<0.001). Dental students also had the least positive attitudes about clinical interactions between dental hygiene and dental students (p<0.001) and perceived the fewest benefits of dental hygiene student peer teaching (p<0.001) before experiencing peer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about

  4. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994

  5. A study of the abrasive resistance of metal alloys with applications in dental prosthetic fixators.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Fernández, E; Manero, J M; Planell, J A; Sabrià, J; Cortada, M; Giner, L

    1995-01-01

    Wear is one of the main surface failure mechanisms in materials and it will play a leading role in substitutive dental biomaterials. The aim of the present study is to compare the abrasive wear of different metallic materials used in dental applications. The results show that the abrasive wear of alloys based on precious metals such as Pt, Pd, Au and Ag is higher than for Ti and Ti based alloys. The alloy with the highest wear resistance is the Co-Cr which exhibits as well the highest hardness and Young's modulus. Since the method corresponds to a well-established abrasive wear standard, the behaviour of the different materials can be easily compared.

  6. Study of antibiotic prescribing among dental practitioners in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Vessal, G; Khabiri, A; Mirkhani, H; Cookson, B D; Askarian, M

    2011-10-01

    Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics by health care professionals is a worldwide concern. This study evaluated the knowledge and practices of dental practitioners in the city of Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran regarding their therapeutic use of antibiotics for patients with dentoalveolar infections. Of 219 (48.6%) dentists responding to the questionnaire more than 40% would prescribe antibiotics for localized fluctuant swelling and for problems for which antibiotics are not required according to good practice guidelines (acute pulpitis, chronic apical infection, periodontal abscess, chronic gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, pericoronitis and dry socket). A majority correctly prescribed antibiotics for acute periapical infection (77.2%), cellulitis (75.3%) and acute ulcerated gingivitis (63.0%). Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic for all clinical conditions but there was a wide variation in dosage, frequency and duration for all antibiotics used. Guidelines on rational antibiotic use are needed for dental practitioners in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  7. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) differentiation study by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Collart-Dutilleul, P.-Y.; Gergely, C.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative medicine brings a huge application for Mesenchymal stem cells such as Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs). Confocal Raman microscopy, a non-invasive, label free , real time and high spatial resolution imaging technique is used to study osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Integrated Raman intensities in the 2800-3000 cm-1 region (C-H stretching) and 960 cm-1 peak (phosphate PO4 3-) were collected. In Dental Pulp Stem Cells 21st day differentiated in buffer solution, phosphate peaks ν1 PO4 3- (first vibrational mode) at 960cm-1 and ν2 PO4 3- at 430cm-1 and ν4 PO4 3- at 585cm-1 are obviously present. Confocal Raman microscopy enables the detection of cell differentiation and it can be used to investigate clinical stem cell research.

  8. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  9. Impact of Dental Neglect Scale on Oral Health Status Among Different Professionals in Indore City-A Cross- Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dasar, Pralhad; Nagarajappa, Sandesh; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Sandeep; Balsaraf, Swati; Lalani, Afsheen; Chauhan, Astha

    2015-01-01

    Background Young educated Indian generation are very much health conscious. They take adequate nutritious balanced diet and practice physical exercise regularly to keep themselves active and healthy. Oral health is a part of general health care system. If oral health is neglected it may affect our general health and as a result it affects our quality of life too. Aim To assess dental negligence and oral health status by using Dental Neglect scale questionnaire among different professionals of Indore city. Materials and Methods The study consisted of a convenient sample of 400 students of aged 18-25 years from 4 different professional colleges of Sri Aurobindo Group of Institutes of the same campus. A pretested validated questionnaire was used for assessing dental neglect and home dental care practices. Oral health examination was conducted to assess dental caries and oral hygiene status by using DMFT and OHIS respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS Software (version 20). Results For OHI(S), majority of the respondents (57.7%) showed fair oral hygiene for DNS score <15, whereas majority of the professionals (63.7%), showed poor oral hygiene for DNS score >15. The Dental Neglect Scale (DNS) score was found statistically significant with OHIS and caries experience at 95% Confidence Interval. There was no statistically significant difference between DNS score and frequency of Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth DMFT. Conclusion The Dental Neglect Scale appears to be a sound method for objectifying dental neglect. It has many of the features of a satisfying health index. However, further validation with other age groups, cultures, place and a larger population is required in order to justify the utility of Dental Neglect Scale in different situations. PMID:26557621

  10. Parental attitudes and experiences of dental care in children and adolescents with ADHD--a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Staberg, Marie; Norén, Jörgen G; Johnson, Mats; Kopp, Svenny; Robertson, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsiveness or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to analyze parental attitudes to and experience of dental care, oral hygiene and dietary habits in children/adolescents with ADHD. Twenty- six parents of 31 subjects, 20 boys and 11 girls, aged 5-19 years with ADHD registered at the Gothenburg Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, were invited. The parents answered a questionnaire regarding different oral problems when visiting the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Gothenburg, for an oral examination of their child. The parents felt the dental care at the Public Dental Service was good, but noted a lack of knowledge regarding child neuropsychiatry among the dental staff which may influence the dental treatment. Fifteen parents reported their children had experienced mouth pain and 15 reported their child had suffered from both discomfort and pain from local anesthesia. Thirteen of the children had a dental trauma and 12 parents reported pain in connection to the dental treatment. Pain related to filling therapy was stated by 11 parents. According to the parents, five children suffered from dental fear but 15 reported the child had a general fear. Pursuant to the parents, the beverage for dinner was mainly milk or water, while sweet drinks were more frequent when thirsty. Seventeen parents reported their children had poor oral hygiene or could not manage to brush their teeth and 14 of the 31 children only brushed once a day or less. The results show that the parents experience a lack of child neuropsychiatric knowledge, care and patience from the dental staff, which may influence the treatment. Oral hygiene/tooth brushing is neglected and the frequent consumption of sugar is difficult for the parents to handle. PMID:25102720

  11. Clinical Advantages and Limitations of Monolithic Zirconia Restorations Full Arch Implant Supported Reconstruction: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Carames, Joao; Yu, Yung Cheng Paul; Pérez, Alejandro; Kang, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to evaluate the clinical advantages and limitations of monolithic zirconia restorations for full arch implant supported restorations and report the rate of complications up to 2 years after insertion. Materials and Methods. Fourteen patients received implant placement for monolithic zirconia full arch reconstructions. Four implants were placed in seven arches, eleven arches received six implants, two arches received seven implants, two arches received eight implants, and one arch received nine implants. Results. No implant failures or complications were reported for an implant survival rate of 100% with follow-up ranging from 3 to 24 months. Conclusions. Monolithic zirconia CAD-/CAM-milled framework restorations are a treatment option for full arch restorations over implants, showing a 96% success rate in the present study. Some of the benefits are accuracy, reduced veneering porcelain, and minimal occlusal adjustments. The outcome of the present study showed high success in function, aesthetics, phonetics, and high patient satisfaction. PMID:26124835

  12. The development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches

    PubMed Central

    GRAHAM, ANTHONY

    2001-01-01

    A muscularised pharynx, with skeletal support, serving the dual functions of feeding and respiration, is a fundamental vertebrate characteristic. Embryologically, the pharyngeal apparatus has its origin in a series of bulges that form on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches, whose development is complex. These structures are composed of a number of disparate embryonic cell types: ectoderm, endoderm, neural crest and mesoderm, whose development must be coordinated to generate the functional adult apparatus. In the past, most studies have emphasised the role played by the neural crest, which generates the skeletal elements of the arches, in directing pharyngeal arch development, but it has also become apparent that the endoderm plays a prominent role in directing arch development. Neural crest cells are not required for arch formation, their regionalisation nor to some extent their sense of identity. Furthermore, the endoderm is the major site of expression of a number of important signalling molecules, and this tissue has been shown to be responsible for promoting the formation of particular components of the arches. Thus vertebrate pharyngeal morphogenesis can now be seen to be a more complex process than was previously believed, and must result from an integration of both neural crest and endodermal patterning mechanisms. Interestingly, this also mirrors the fact that the evolutionary origin of pharyngeal segmentation predates that of the neural crest, which is an exclusively vertebrate characteristic. As such, the evolution of the vertebrate pharynx is also likely to have resulted from an integration between these 2 patterning systems. Alterations in the interplay between neural crest and endodermal patterning are also likely to be responsible for the evolutionary that occurred to the pharyngeal region during subsequent vertebrate evolution. PMID:11523815

  13. Cervical aortic arch and a new type of double aortic arch. Report of a case.

    PubMed Central

    Cornali, M; Reginato, E; Azzolina, G

    1976-01-01

    A case of cervical aortic arch is reported. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first to be associated with a serious intracardiac anomaly. In addition, it is part of a new type of double aortic arch, caused by failure of reabsorption of both dorsal aortic roots and persistence of the fourth right and second (or third) left branchial arches. PMID:971387

  14. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  15. Diffuse reflectance study of the effects of bleaching agents in damaged dental pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Trejo-Tzab, R.; Macias, J. D.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the most important subjects of interest in dentistry and teeth preservation is related to the effects of bleaching agents on the integrity of the dental pieces. This is especially crucial when teeth surface has received some damage, generated by chemical, biological and mechanical agents or weathering in the case of dental pieces recovered from burial sites. In this work the time evolution of the effects of bleaching agents on the surface of dental pieces is monitored using diffuse reflectance in the visible spectrum is reported. The effects were monitored in teeth previously subject to chemical agents. Bleaching was induced using commercial whitening products. It is shown that the time evolution of the reflectance depends strongly on the condition of the surface as well as on the thickness of enamel. Additionally the colorimetric analysis of the samples during the bleaching is presented. This is especially useful in for comparing with previous studies. In order to complement our studies, the effects of the bleaching on the surface of the teeth were monitored by scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Nano-crystalline diamond-coated titanium dental implants - a histomorphometric study in adult domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Philipp; von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Stadlinger, Bernd; Zemann, Wolfgang; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Rosiwal, Stephan; Rupprecht, Stephan

    2013-09-01

    Promising biomaterial characteristics of diamond-coatings in biomedicine have been described in the literature. However, there is a lack of knowledge about implant osseointegration of this surface modification compared to the currently used sandblasted acid-etched Ti-Al6-V4 implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the osseointegration of microwave plasma-chemical-vapour deposition (MWP-CVD) diamond-coated Ti-Al6-V4 dental implants after healing periods of 2 and 5 months. Twenty-four MWP-CVD diamond-coated and 24 un-coated dental titanium-alloy implants (Ankylos(®)) were placed in the frontal skull of eight adult domestic pigs. To evaluate the effects of the nano-structured surfaces on bone formation, a histomorphometric analysis was performed after 2 and 5 months of implant healing. Histomorphometry analysed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC). No significant difference in BIC for the diamond-coated implants in comparison to reference implants could be observed for both healing periods. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an adequate interface between the bone and the diamond surface. No delamination or particle-dissociation due to shearing forces could be detected. In this study, diamond-coated dental titanium-alloy implants and sandblasted acid-etched implants showed a comparable degree of osseointegration.

  17. M-OSCE as a method to measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McComas, Martha J; Wright, Rebecca A; Mann, Nancy K; Cooper, Mary D; Jacks, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Educators in all academic disciplines have been encouraged to utilize assessment strategies to evaluate students' critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of the modified objective structured clinical examination (m-OSCE) to evaluate critical thinking in dental hygiene education. This evaluation utilized a convenience sample of senior dental hygiene students. Students participated in the m-OSCE in which portions of a patient case were revealed at four stations. The exam consisted of multiple-choice questions intended to measure students' ability to utilize critical thinking skills. Additionally, there was one fill-in-the-blank question and a treatment plan that was completed at the fifth station. The results of this study revealed that the m-OSCE did not reliably measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking. Statistical analysis found no satisfactory reliability within the multiple-choice questions and moderately reliable results within the treatment planning portion of the examination. In addition, the item analysis found gaps in students' abilities to transfer clinical evidence/data to basic biomedical knowledge as demonstrated through the multiple-choice questioning results. This outcome warrants further investigation of the utility of the m-OSCE, with a focus on modifications to the evaluation questions, grading rubric, and patient case.

  18. Use of Clinical UV Chamber to Disinfect Dental Impressions: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kumar, Varun; Gupta, Neelu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dental impressions are potential source of infection in a prosthodontic practice. Risk of transmission of infection through saliva, blood etc is considered as hazard for both dentist as well as dental auxiliary staff. A number of methods are currently employed for disinfecting the impressions which are technique sensitive and time consuming. This study focuses on disinfecting impression using dental UV chamber which is commonly employed for storing sterilized instruments. Aim The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate the use of clinical UV chamber to disinfect various impression materials at different time intervals and its comparison with 2% glutaraldehyde using standard immersion technique. Materials and Methods Total sample size of 180 specimens was taken from three different impression materials. The impressions were made from 30 dentulous subjects. A total of ten impressions were made for each impression material i.e. alginate, addition silicone and polyether impression material. Six punch samples were taken from each impression. Out of 6 punch sample, one was kept as control, second was disinfected by immersing in freshly prepared 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 10 minutes and remaining four were exposed to UV rays for 3 minutes, 6 minutes, 10 minutes and 15 minutes using dental UV chamber. Amount of disinfection achieved was evaluated by counting the colonies over the culture plates with the help of digital colony. Results The results showed that the mean CFUs for alginate were found to be i.e. 11797.40 ± 5989.73 (mean ± SD). The mean CFUs for addition silicone impression material was found 7095.40 with a standard deviation of 4268.83 and the mean CFUs for polyether impression material was found to be 2168.92 ± 1676 (mean ± SD). Conclusion For alginate and addition silicone impression material, disinfection was achieved on exposure to UV rays for a period of 10 minutes. However, for polyether impression material 3 minutes of exposure to

  19. A cone-beam CT based technique to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface.

    PubMed

    Swennen, G R J; Mommaerts, M Y; Abeloos, J; De Clercq, C; Lamoral, P; Neyt, N; Casselman, J; Schutyser, F

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used for maxillofacial imaging. 3D virtual planning of orthognathic and facial orthomorphic surgery requires detailed visualisation of the interocclusal relationship. This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the use of a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface. The impressions of the dental arches and the wax bite wafer were scanned for ten patient separately using a high resolution standardized CBCT scanning protocol. Surface-based rigid registration using ICP (iterative closest points) was used to fit the virtual models on the wax bite wafer. Automatic rigid point-based registration of the wax bite wafer on the patient scan was performed to implement the digital virtual dental arches into the patient's skull model. Probability error histograms showed errors of < or =0.22 mm (25% percentile), < or =0.44 mm (50% percentile) and < or =1.09 mm (90% percentile) for ICP surface matching. The mean registration error for automatic point-based rigid registration was 0.18+/-0.10 mm (range 0.13-0.26 mm). The results show the potential for a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to set-up a 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  20. First hard x-ray detection of the non-thermal emission around the arches cluster: Morphology and spectral studies with NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Krivonos, Roman A.; Tomsick, John A.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bauer, Franz E.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Christensen, Finn E.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Hong, JaeSub; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-02-01

    The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe Kα line emission at 6.4 keV from material that is neutral or in a low ionization state can be produced either by X-ray photoionization or by cosmic-ray particle bombardment or both. In this paper, we report on the first detection of the extended emission around the Arches cluster above 10 keV with the NuSTAR mission, and present results on its morphology and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity of the possible illuminating hard X-ray source. The properties of the observed emission are also in broad agreement with the low-energy cosmic-ray proton excitation scenarioþ.

  1. Simultaneous individually controlled upper and lower body perfusion for valve-sparing root and total aortic arch replacement: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Philip; Mayer, Rick; Adams, Corey; Chu, Michael W A

    2011-12-01

    Optimal perfusion strategies for extensive aortic resection in patients with mega-aortic syndromes include: tailored myocardial preservation, antegrade cerebral perfusion, controlled hypothermia and selective organ perfusion. Typically, the aortic arch resection and elephant trunk procedure are performed under hypothermic circulatory arrest with myocardial and cerebral protection. However, mesenteric and systemic ischemia occur during circulatory arrest and commonly rely upon deep hypothermia alone for metabolic protection. We hypothesized that simultaneously controlled mesenteric and systemic perfusion can attenuate some of the metabolic debt accrued during circulatory arrest, which may help improve perioperative outcomes. The perfusion strategy consisted of delivering a 1 to 3 liter per minute flow at 25 degrees C to the head/upper body via right axillary graft and simultaneous perfusion to the lower body/ mesenteric organs of 1 to 3 liters per minute at 30 degrees C via a right femoral arterial graft. We describe our technique of simultaneous mesenteric, systemic, cerebral and myocardial perfusion, and protection utilized for a young male patient with Marfan's syndrome, while undergoing a valve sparing root replacement, total arch replacement and elephant trunk reconstruction. This perfusion technique allowed us to deliver differential flow rates and temperatures to the upper and lower body (cold head/warm lower body perfusion) to minimize ischemic debt and quickly reverse metabolic derangements. PMID:22416605

  2. Full dimensional computer simulations to study pulsatile blood flow in vessels, aortic arch and bifurcated veins: Investigation of blood viscosity and turbulent effects.

    PubMed

    Sultanov, Renat A; Guster, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We report computational results of blood flow through a model of the human aortic arch and a vessel of actual diameter and length. A realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Calculations for bifurcation type vessels are also carried out and presented. Different mathematical methods for numerical solution of the fluid dynamics equations have been considered. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated together with turbulence effects. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of three different geometries are presented: for pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and the widely used method in the literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, the wall shear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. Turbulent effects are found to be important, particularly in the case of bifurcation vessels. PMID:19964834

  3. Surface effects after a combination of dental bleaching and enamel microabrasion: An in vitro and in situ study.

    PubMed

    Franco, Laura Molinar; Machado, Lucas Silveira; Salomão, Fabio Martins; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld, Renato Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of combining enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching on the physical properties of enamel, using in vitro and in situ conditions and evaluating surface roughness, enamel microhardness and scanning electron microscopy images. One hundred sound bovine teeth were sectioned and cut into discs and randomly divided into 10 study groups (n=10). The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures, followed by the Tukey test, with significance at 5%. Enamel surface roughness was significantly influenced by microabrasion, regardless of being combined with dental bleaching, for both HS (Human Saliva) or AS (Artificial Saliva) condition. Enamel microhardness was significantly decreased in the groups in which enamel microabrasion was performed, regardless its combination with dental bleaching; although storage in HS reestablished the initial enamel microhardness. It was concluded that dental bleaching does not cause major damage to microabraided enamel, and that only human saliva recovered the initial enamel microhardness. PMID:26830820

  4. Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Somasundaram, Sujatha; Gawthaman, Murugesan; Vinodh, Selvaraj; Manikandan, Sundaram; Gokulnathan, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88%) children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6%) than in girls (61.5%). The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended. PMID:25210362

  5. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838

  6. Effect of Nd: YAG laser on titanium dental implants studied by AFM.

    PubMed

    Vassalli, Massimo; Giannelli, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of dental implants is considered the main cause of implant failure. Recently, the laser treatment of the implant surface has been proposed as an useful method for decontamination. In such a view, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of a Nd:YAG laser on the surface morphology of a titanium dental implant by means of an atomic force microscope. We demonstrated that, when the pulse energy of the laser was kept below 30 mJ, independently from the pulse rate, the laser-treated specimens exhibited a qualitatively similar surface morphology when compared to the untreated titanium implants, suggesting that the implant surface was unaffected by the treatment, in these particular conditions. We also found that, by cooling the implant surface with an air flow? during laser irradiation, the mean temperature of the implant was maintained under 37 degrees C. All these data taken together suggest the possibility to use Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of failing dental implants.

  7. A study of the dental solid waste produced in a school of dentistry in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Murat; Sanin, F Dilek

    2004-01-01

    Dental wastes are regulated under medical waste control regulations in most countries. Even though the quantity of hazardous wastes in dental solid wastes is a small proportion, there is still cross infection risk and potential danger for environment associated with mismanaged wastes. For this reason, knowledge of waste composition and development of proper management alternatives are necessary. In this study, the composition of solid wastes coming from eight clinics of the dental school of a University hospital in Turkey is examined. Although the waste has some variations between the two samplings, the general picture is such that the major components remain pretty much the same (in terms of %) for a fixed clinic. The composition of waste changes from one clinic to the other as expected. However, one can deduce from the data obtained that at about 35%, rubber gloves constitute close to the half of the total solid waste in almost all the clinics. Other major component is paper forming approximately 30% of the solid waste. In general, total waste coming from the clinics is related with the number of procedures conducted on patients at the clinics. Only a small fraction of the waste is hazardous indicating that at Hacettepe University School of Dentistry, hazardous waste collection rules are obeyed in most of the times.

  8. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  9. Outcome-Based Quality Control by a Dental Reference Profile of a Population-Based Study (SHIP-0)

    PubMed Central

    Samietz, Stefanie; Söhnel, Andreas; Schwahn, Christian; Holtfreter, Birte; Mundt, Torsten; Meisel, Peter; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kocher, Thomas; Biffar, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to develop an instrument for quality control in dental practices. We compared the number of teeth of subjects of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0) with those from patients of dental practices. Methods. Patients from seven dental practices (n = 1,497) were randomly sampled by age strata and gender for a period of two years. Dental status derived from patient files was transformed into practice profiles using age-specific number of teeth as a parameter. Practice profiles were compared with a nomogram, which was based on the age-specific number of teeth of 3,990 SHIP-0 participants regularly visiting the dentist. Further, negative binomial regression models were evaluated to model associations between the number of teeth with age and dental practices, including interactions. Results. The practice profiles ranged between the 45th and 95th quantile curves of the reference population SHIP-0. The rate ratios (RR) for the number of missing teeth ranged from 0.37 to 0.67 (p < 0.001) between the different dental practices, indicating lower risk for higher numbers of missing teeth in comparison to SHIP-0. Conclusions. This study showed considerable differences between dental practices and the reference population of SHIP-0 regarding the pattern of tooth loss and confirms the value of nomograms to compare age-specific numbers of teeth between patients of dental practices and a population-based-study as a tool for quality control. For further analyses, the socioeconomic status of patients and relevant risk factors will be used to adjust for structural differences in order to improve the validity of the comparisons. PMID:27347549

  10. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries

  11. Success of multiple endosseous dental implant designs to second-stage surgery across study sites.

    PubMed

    Morris, H F; Manz, M C; Tarolli, J H

    1997-12-01

    A multicenter clinical study of dental implants is being conducted by the Dental Implant Clinical Research Group to investigate the influence of implant design, application, and site on clinical performance and crestal bone. This article reports on the percentage of success up to implant uncovering for different implant designs and the distribution of failures across study sites. Data from 2,847 implants placed at 32 study sites were analyzed. Percentages of success up to implant uncovering were calculated for study implants overall, by implant design, by implant design within study strata, and according to individual study sites and quartile groupings of sites based on success. Comparisons were made, with chi-square and exact tests employed where appropriate. Differences were found between the different implant designs for the study overall, and between implant designs within the different study strata. Although some implant designs were found to have generally high success across study sites, some study sites designated as having surgeons with less experience tended to have higher failure levels, and one implant design failed at higher rates in a subset of study sites. The percentage and distribution of implant failures varied across study sites and by implant design. These differences appeared to be in part related to the level of experience of the surgeons. Further investigation should focus on identification of factors that contribute to higher success in implant placement with different implant designs.

  12. Maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width groups

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups. Materials and Methods: The calculated sample size was 128 subjects. The crown width/height, arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width of the maxilla and mandible were obtained via digital calliper (Mitutoyo, Japan). A total of 4325 variables were measured. The sex differences in the crown width and height were evaluated. Analysis of variance was applied to evaluate the differences between arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups. Results: Males had significantly larger mean values for crown width and height than females (P ≤ 0.05) for maxillary and mandibular arches, both. There were no significant differences observed for the crown width/height ratio in various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups (P ≤ 0.05) in maxilla and mandible, both. Conclusions: Our results indicate sexual disparities in the crown width and height. Crown width and height has no significant relation to various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups of maxilla and mandible. Thus, it may be helpful for orthodontic and prosthodontic case investigations and comprehensive management. PMID:26929686

  13. Abnormal aortic arch morphology in Turner syndrome patients is a risk factor for hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Katya; Devos, Daniël; Van Herck, Koen; Demulier, Laurent; Buysse, Wesley; De Schepper, Jean; De Wolf, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension in Turner syndrome (TS) is a multifactorial, highly prevalent and significant problem that warrants timely diagnosis and rigorous treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal aortic arch morphology and hypertension in adult TS patients. This was a single centre retrospective study in 74 adult TS patients (age 29.41 ± 8.91 years) who underwent a routine cardiac MRI. Patients were assigned to the hypertensive group (N = 31) if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg and/or if they were treated with antihypertensive medication. Aortic arch morphology was evaluated on MRI images and initially assigned as normal (N = 54) or abnormal (N = 20), based on the curve of the transverse arch and the distance between the left common carotid-left subclavian artery. We additionally used a new more objective method to describe aortic arch abnormality in TS by determination of the relative position of the highest point of the transverse arch (AoHP). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension is significantly and independently associated with age, BMI and abnormal arch morphology, with a larger effect size for the new AoHP method than for the classical method. TS patients with hypertension and abnormal arch morphology more often had dilatation of the ascending aorta. There is a significant association between abnormal arch morphology and hypertension in TS patients, independent of age and BMI, and not related to other structural heart disease. We suggest that aortic arch morphology should be included in the risk stratification for hypertension in TS and propose a new quantitative method to express aortic arch morphology.

  14. Division of labor by sex and age in Neandertals: an approach through the study of activity-related dental wear.

    PubMed

    Estalrrich, Almudena; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of activity-related dental wear patterns in prehistoric anatomically modern humans and modern hunter-gatherers has shown sex differences attributable to a gendered division of labor. Neandertals are known to have extensive anterior dental wear related to the use of their front teeth as a tool. In this study we analyze the i) cultural striations (scratches on the labial surface of the anterior teeth with a cut-mark morphology), and ii) dental chipping (ante-mortem microfracture involving enamel or both enamel and dentine) in 19 Neandertal individuals from the l'Hortus (France), Spy (Belgium), and El Sidrón (Spain) sites, and compare the characteristics of those traits with the age and sex estimation for the individuals and among samples. The study reveals that all individuals have cultural striations, but those detected on the adult females are longer than the striations found in adult males. Regarding the distribution of dental chipping, the prevalence of this trait is higher in the maxillary dentition of males whereas females have the majority of dental chipping on their mandibular teeth. The differences detected on the overall activity-related dental wear pattern denote a difference or a division of labor by age and sex in Neandertals while using the mouth as a third hand, i.e., in activities other than the provisioning of food, and provide new evidence for the lifestyle of this Pleistocene fossil human species. PMID:25681013

  15. Feasibility of implementing rapid oral fluid HIV testing in an urban University Dental Clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 1 million individuals in the U.S. are infected with HIV; approximately 20% of whom do not know they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV infection results in earlier access to treatment and reductions in HIV transmission. In 2006, the CDC recommended that health care providers offer routine HIV screening to all adolescent and adult patients, regardless of community seroprevalence or patient lifestyle. Dental providers are uniquely positioned to implement these recommendations using rapid oral fluid HIV screening technology. However, thus far, uptake into dental practice has been very limited. Methods The study utilized a qualitative descriptive approach with convenience samples of dental faculty and students. Six in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with dental faculty and three focus groups were conducted with fifteen dental students. Results Results were fairly consistent and indicated relatively high levels of acceptability. Barriers and facilitators of oral fluid HIV screening were identified in four primary areas: scope of practice/practice enhancement, skills/knowledge/training, patient service/patient reactions and logistical issues. Conclusions Oral fluid HIV screening was described as having benefits for patients, dental practitioners and the public good. Many of the barriers to implementation that were identified in the study could be addressed through training and interdisciplinary collaborations. PMID:22571324

  16. Division of labor by sex and age in Neandertals: an approach through the study of activity-related dental wear.

    PubMed

    Estalrrich, Almudena; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of activity-related dental wear patterns in prehistoric anatomically modern humans and modern hunter-gatherers has shown sex differences attributable to a gendered division of labor. Neandertals are known to have extensive anterior dental wear related to the use of their front teeth as a tool. In this study we analyze the i) cultural striations (scratches on the labial surface of the anterior teeth with a cut-mark morphology), and ii) dental chipping (ante-mortem microfracture involving enamel or both enamel and dentine) in 19 Neandertal individuals from the l'Hortus (France), Spy (Belgium), and El Sidrón (Spain) sites, and compare the characteristics of those traits with the age and sex estimation for the individuals and among samples. The study reveals that all individuals have cultural striations, but those detected on the adult females are longer than the striations found in adult males. Regarding the distribution of dental chipping, the prevalence of this trait is higher in the maxillary dentition of males whereas females have the majority of dental chipping on their mandibular teeth. The differences detected on the overall activity-related dental wear pattern denote a difference or a division of labor by age and sex in Neandertals while using the mouth as a third hand, i.e., in activities other than the provisioning of food, and provide new evidence for the lifestyle of this Pleistocene fossil human species.

  17. The distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies among dental malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Hasan; Yildırım, Eren

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of our study were to investigate the distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies (CVAs) among dental Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions in Turkish population and whether a correlation between CVA and dental malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University. The final sample of 318 orthodontic patients was included in the study. Dental malocclusions were performed according to Angle classification. CVAs were categorized: (1) fusion and (2) posterior arch deficiency (PAD). The Chi-square test was used to the analysis of the potential differences among dental malocclusions. Results: The final sample of 318 patients was examined. CVA was observed in 42 individuals (of 26 [8.17%] had fusion and 16 [5.03%] had PAD), with a frequency of 13.2%. Of the 26 fusion defect, 8 (30.7%) had Angle Class I, 8 (30.7%) had Angle Class II, and 10 (38.4%) had Angle Class III malocclusion. Of the 16 PAD, 8 (50%) had Angle Class I, 8 (50%) had Angle Class II but no patients with Angle Class III malocclusion was observed. The distribution of dental malocclusions regarding CVA was not statistically significant (P = 0.076). Of these 42 individuals with CVA, 52.3% (15 fusions and 7 PAD) were females and 47.7% (11 fusions and 9 PAD) were males. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of fusion and PAD were found 8.1% and 5.0% in Turkish population, respectively. Besides, no statistically significant correlation between CVA and Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions were found. Our findings support the studies showing no gender dimorphism. PMID:26692691

  18. Dental care provided to sickle cell anemia patients stratified by age: A population-based study in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva; Aires, Bárbara Tamires Cruz; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Souza, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in the dental care provided to sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients depending on age. This retrospective study used secondary data from the dental records of the Center of Hematology and Hemotherapy in Maranhão (HEMOMAR). Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 574 dental records of patients with SCA treated or under treatment in the Dental Department of HEMOMAR from 2000 to 2011. Data on the gender, age, duration of dental treatment, number of patients submitted to periodontal treatment (PT), number of filled teeth (FT), teeth extracted (EX), endodontically treated teeth (ET), and reason for the dental procedures were collected. The Kruskal–Wallis test together with Dunn's post hoc test, Chi-square test, and Spearman's correlation was used for statistical analysis. An alpha error of 5% was considered acceptable. Results: Significant differences were found for FT, EX (P < 0.05), ET and PT (P < 0.001) between the age groups. There were fewer FT in children compared to other age groups (P < 0.001). The most common reasons for restorations and endodontic treatment were dental caries (100%) and irreversible pulpitis (55.6%), respectively. The main reasons for teeth extractions were residual roots (21.3%), chronic apical periodontitis (19.7%), and crown destruction (19.3%). There were positive correlations between age and EX (r = 0.93; P = 0.025) and ET (r = 0.92; P = 0.028). Conclusions: FT, ET, EX, and PT procedures become more common in older patients. Tooth decay is the main reason for dental treatment in SCA patients. PMID:27403053

  19. Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in oligosymptomatic patients with dental erosion: A pH-impedance and endoscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Materna, Andrea; Martig, Lukas; Lussi, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental erosion is a complication of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) according to the Montreal consensus statement. However, GORD has not been comprehensively characterized in patients with dental erosions and pH-impedance measures have not been reported. Objectives Characterize GORD in patients with dental erosions using 24-h multichannel intraluminal pH-impedance measurements (pH-MII) and endoscopy. Methods This single-centre study investigated reflux in successive patients presenting to dentists with dental erosion using pH-MII and endoscopy. Results Of the 374 patients, 298 (80%) reported GORD symptoms <2 per week, 72 (19%) had oesophagitis and 59 (16%) had a hiatal hernia. In the 349 with pH-MII the mean percentage time with a pH <4 (95% CI) was 11.0 (9.3–12.7), and 34.4% (31.9–36.9) for a pH <5.5, a critical threshold for dental tissue. The mean numbers of total, acidic and weakly acidic reflux episodes were 71 (63–79), 43 (38–49) and 31 (26–35), respectively. Of the reflux episodes, 19% (17–21) reached the proximal oesophagus. In 241 (69%) patients reflux was abnormal using published normal values for acid exposure time and reflux episodes. No significant associations between the severity of dental erosions and any reflux variables were found. The presence of GORD symptoms and of oesophagitis or a hiatal hernia was associated with greater reflux, but not with increased dental erosion scores. Conclusions Significant oligosymptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs in the majority of patients with dental erosion. The degree of dental erosion did not correlate with any of the accepted quantitative reflux indicators. Definition of clinically relevant reflux parameters by pH-MII for dental erosion and of treatment guidelines are outstanding. Gastroenterologists and dentists need to be aware of the widely prevalent association between dental erosion and atypical GORD. PMID:25922678

  20. Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude towards Emergency Management of Dental Trauma among the Parents of Kolkata-An Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Parul; Angrish, Paras; Saha, Subrata; Patra, Tamal Kanti; Saha, Nilanjana; Mitra, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic dental injuries are one of the commonly encountered dental emergencies. Missing anterior tooth in children due to any injury can be a source of considerable physical and psychological discomfort for the child. The prognosis of some dental injuries depends to a great extent on parents’ knowledge of correct and prompt emergency measures. Aim The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness level of parents regarding the emergency management of dental trauma and to find out the relation of the responses to social variables. Materials and Methods A total of 2000 parents were surveyed over a period of three months using a pretested close ended questionnaire prepared in English, Hindi as well as in the regional language which was divided into three parts: Part 1 contained questions on personal information, Part 2 on an imaginary case of trauma to assess their knowledge regarding trauma management and Part 3 related to their attitude towards dental trauma management education. The data was statistically analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results The overall knowledge of parents regarding emergency management of trauma was not satisfactory. Although most of the people were in favour of taking professional consultation for emergency management of trauma but most of them were unaware of the steps that need to be taken on their part so as to minimize complications and improve prognosis. Conclusion Educational campaigns are the need of the day to increase the knowledge of parents regarding emergency management of dental trauma.

  1. Genotoxicity evaluation of locally produced dental porcelain--an in vitro study using the Ames and Comet assays.

    PubMed

    Noushad, Mohammed; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Husein, Adam; Abdullah, Haswati; Ismail, Abdul Rashid

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of a locally produced dental porcelain (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia) using the Ames and Comet assays. In the Ames assay, four genotypic variants of the Salmonella strains (TA98, TA100, TA1537 and TA1535) carrying mutations in several genes were used. The dental porcelain was incubated with these four strains in five different doses both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9) and the result was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. Concurrently, appropriate positive controls were used so as to validate the test. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with locally produced dental porcelain was less than double as compared to that of negative control. In the Comet assay, L929 (CCL-1 ATCC, USA) mouse fibroblast cells were treated with the dental porcelain in three different concentrations along with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment which was used as a measurement of DNA damage was almost equal to that of the negative control, suggesting that the locally produced dental porcelain did not induce any DNA damage. The results indicated that the locally produced dental porcelain is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions.

  2. [Provision and utilization of dental services in Amazonas State, Brazil: a case study in a riverine population in Coari municipality].

    PubMed

    Cohen-Carneiro, Flávia; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Pontes, Danielson Guedes; Salino, Alessandra Valle; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa

    2009-08-01

    This case study described the conditions in the provision and utilization of dental services in two riverine populations in the municipality (county) of Coari, Amazonas State, Brazil. Structured questionnaires were applied to individuals 18 years and older to measure dental services utilization rates. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with key informants to characterize the provision of such services. Although the bivariate analysis did not detect any statistically significant differences, residents of the area farthest from the county seat had gone more time since their last dental visit and received less care from public health services and riverboat clinics. The qualitative analysis showed: no permanent dental services in the communities; sporadic services provided by riverboat clinics, with less frequent visits to the remotest community; high transportation cost for river-dwellers to seek treatment in the county seat; and dental treatment focused on pain control, mainly through tooth extraction. Limited access to dental services for riverine populations highlights the need to implement comprehensive health promotion measures and expand the availability of services.

  3. A Pilot Study of Parent, Dentist, and Independent Rater Assessment of Child Distress During Preventive Dental Visits

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Travis M.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Kim, Amy; Scott, JoAnna M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although typically not painful, preventive dental care can be distressing to young children. A greater understanding of how adults perceive child distress may enable clinicians to improve the patient/parent experience through alignment of values and facilitation of shared decision-making. This study examined the association between parent, dentist, and independent observer (IO) ratings of child distress during preventive dental procedures. Methods 65 children under 3 years of age were seen for preventive dental care at a university-based dental clinic. Parents, dentists, and an IO rated intensity of child distress (0 = none; 5 = extreme) during 4 phases of the dental visit: pre-exam, positioning, prophylaxis/exam/fluoride, and post-exam. Results The average age of the children was 24.4 months (SD 7.2). The prophylaxis/exam/fluoride phase was judged to be most distress inducing. Mean distress ratings for this phase were: 2.30 (parents), 2.47 (dentists), and 3.08 (IO). This difference was statistically significant (p = .04). The IO ratings were significantly different from parents (for 3 phases) and dentists (for 1 phase); no statistically significant differences were noted between parent and dentist ratings for any phase. Conclusions There was a strong agreement between parents’ and dentists’ ratings of child distress during preventive dental procedures. PMID:27620517

  4. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  5. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Tool for Dental Implant Osseointegration: an Experimental Study in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Eriberto; Botticelli, Daniele; Sivolella, Stefano; Bengazi, Franco; Guazzo, Riccardo; Sbricoli, Luca; Ricci, Sara; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Velez, Joaquin Urbizo; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The biological interaction between the jaw bones and dental implant is fundamental for the long-term success of dental implant placement. Nevertheless, the insufficient bone volume remains a major clinical problem, especially in case of immediate dental implant. Using a canine model, the present study proves the regenerative potential of adipose- derived stem cells (ADSCs) to repair peri-implant bone defects occurring in immediate dental implant placement. In six labradors, all mandibular premolars and the first molars were extracted bilaterally and three months later dental implants were installed with a marginal gap. The marginal defects were filled with hydroxyapatite (HA)-based scaffolds previously seeded with ADSCs. After one month of healing, specimens were prepared for histological and histomorphometric evaluations. Histological analyses of ground sections show that ADSCs significantly increase bone regeneration. Several new vessels, osteoblasts and new bone matrix were detected. By contrast, no inflammatory cells have been revealed. ADSCs could be used to accelerate bone healing in peri- implant defects in case of immediate dental implant placement. PMID:27014644

  6. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  7. Attitudes of dental students towards using computers in education--a mixed design study.

    PubMed

    El Tantawi, M M A; Saleh, S M

    2008-01-01

    This mixed design study explored attitudes of dental students towards use of computers. It employed quantitative analyses of a questionnaire answered by 979 students and qualitative analysis of suggestions by a subgroup of 339. Positive attitudes towards computers were predicted by "computer use for > 1 year" and "year of study". Qualitative analysis of students' suggestions confirmed these findings and brought up new issues such as the need for establishing a website for the faculty. The results indicate that careful planning is needed to improve students' skills and incorporate computer applications in educational curricula.

  8. Effectiveness of preoperative analgesics on postoperative dental pain: a study.

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, M.; Hunter, K. M.; Baker, A. B.

    1996-01-01

    Patients undergoing extractions of third molar teeth under general anesthesia were given a placebo, diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) 100 mg, or methadone (an opiate) 10 mg 60 to 90 min prior to surgery, and their pain scores and postoperative medication requirements were measured for 3 days. All patients received local anesthetic blocks and analgesic drugs during the perioperative period. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the pain scores and medication requirements during the period of study. It was concluded that preoperative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates may not offer a preemptive analgesic effect in patients who have had adequate analgesia during the surgery. Continued use of analgesic drugs during the postoperative period is perhaps more useful for this purpose. There appears to be a higher incidence of vomiting following opiates (methadone), precluding its clinical use in day-care patients. PMID:10323113

  9. Perspectives of studying fluorescence of dental solid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, M. T.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Kozma, S. J.; Romanov, A. M.

    1999-07-01

    As an object of study extracted human teeth were used. The whole was explored 30 teeth; measurements were conducted in intact regions of tooth: enamel, dentine, cement, root canal and in pathologically changed areas: caries of teeth and a solid teeth plaque. From present fluorescent spectrums of intact: enamel, dentine, cement; and of pathological: caries and teeth stone is seen that curves are likely shaped for each of the groups, but their amplitudes are not the same. Fluorescence maximum of all tooth areas falls on 700 nm, herewith possible to say that, spectrum shapes are specific for each tooth area, that can be used in diagnostic purposes, for example when processing a carious cavity. As to florescence intensity that teeth stone possesses the maximum of fluorescence, then an area submitted to caries, intact areas possess a weak fluorescence.

  10. Dental studies of a Finnish skeletal material: a paleopathologic approach.

    PubMed

    Varrela, J; Varrela, T M

    1991-05-01

    This paper reviews a series of paleo-pathologic studies made to investigate associations between dietary factors and development of occlusion, periodontal diseases and caries. The findings indicate that the change from hard to soft food, which has taken place during the last few hundred years, influences occlusion, craniofacial structures and oral health in several ways. Comparative studies show that the frequency of malocclusion has increased substantially. In the same time, a number of alterations have taken place in the morphology of the craniofacial skeleton. The results support the hypothesis that masticatory stress is a regulative factor in craniofacial growth and occlusal development. With soft food and low masticatory activity, jaw growth is not adequate for optimal occlusal development. Approximal wear itself, caused by the attritive diet, seems to be only a minor adjustive factor. Because of the occlusal wear, the crown height decreased with age and the teeth continued to erupt. As a result, root surfaces were exposed. This process has been equated with bone loss but the lack of inflammatory changes on the bone surface indicates that the alveolar bone was not affected by periodontal diseases. This suggests that the alveolar height was maintained at a constant level throughout life and no growth nor resorption took normally place at the crest. Only the exposure of the furcations increased the occurrence of periodontitis. The caries frequency was decreased by mechanical cleaning effect of attritive food but increased by exposure of the root surfaces. Furthermore, the oral microflora may have been modified by factors related to the chemical and physical properties of the diet.

  11. Dental Calculus Links Statistically to Angina Pectoris: 26-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dental infections, such as periodontitis, associate with atherosclerosis and its complications. We studied a cohort followed-up since 1985 for incidence of angina pectoris with the hypothesis that calculus accumulation, proxy for poor oral hygiene, links to this symptom. Methods In our Swedish prospective cohort study of 1676 randomly selected subjects followed-up for 26 years. In 1985 all subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. By using data from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden we analyzed the association of oral health parameters with the prevalence of in-hospital verified angina pectoris classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases, using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1676 subjects, 51 (28 women/23 men) had been diagnosed with angina pectoris at a mean age of 59.8 ± 2.9 years. No difference was observed in age and gender between patients with angina pectoris and subjects without. Neither was there any difference in education level and smoking habits (in pack years), Gingival index and Plaque index between the groups. Angina pectoris patients had significantly more often their first maxillary molar tooth extracted (d. 16) than the other subjects (p = 0.02). Patients also showed significantly higher dental calculus index values than the subjects without angina pectoris (p = 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed odds ratio 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.17–4.17) in the association between high calculus index and angina pectoris (p = 0.015). Conclusion Our study hypothesis was confirmed by showing for the first time that high dental calculus score indeed associated with the incidence of angina pectoris in this cohort study. PMID:27336307

  12. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  13. Fibronectin-Grafted Titanium Dental Implants: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Ho, Kuo-Ning; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Chang, Chia-Hsun; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Pan, Yu Hwa; Chang, Wei-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the physiochemical properties of titanium surfaces using glow discharge plasma (GDP) and fibronectin coating has been shown to enhance the surface hydrophilicity, surface roughness, cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the bone integration efficacy of a biologically modified implant surface. Two different surface-modified implants (Ar-GDP and GDP-fib) were placed in the mandibular premolar area of six beagle dogs for 2-8 weeks. Three techniques [histologic evaluation, resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation] were used to detect the implant stability and bone-implant contact. The implant stability quotient values of GDP-fib implants were significantly greater than the Ar-GDP implants at 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.01). The bone volume/total volume ratio of GDP-fib implants was greater than the Ar-GDP implants in micro-CT evaluation. A high positive correlation was observed between RFA and micro-CT measurements. At 2 weeks, osteoblasts were seen to line the implant surface, and multinuclear osteoclasts could be seen on the surface of old parent bone. After 8 weeks, a majority of the space in the wound chamber appeared to be replaced by bone. Enhancement of the stability of biologically modified implants was proved by the results of RFA, micro-CT, and histological analysis. This enhanced stability may help fasten treatment and be clinically beneficial.

  14. Fibronectin-Grafted Titanium Dental Implants: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Ho, Kuo-Ning; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Chang, Chia-Hsun; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Pan, Yu Hwa; Chang, Wei-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the physiochemical properties of titanium surfaces using glow discharge plasma (GDP) and fibronectin coating has been shown to enhance the surface hydrophilicity, surface roughness, cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the bone integration efficacy of a biologically modified implant surface. Two different surface-modified implants (Ar-GDP and GDP-fib) were placed in the mandibular premolar area of six beagle dogs for 2-8 weeks. Three techniques [histologic evaluation, resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation] were used to detect the implant stability and bone-implant contact. The implant stability quotient values of GDP-fib implants were significantly greater than the Ar-GDP implants at 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.01). The bone volume/total volume ratio of GDP-fib implants was greater than the Ar-GDP implants in micro-CT evaluation. A high positive correlation was observed between RFA and micro-CT measurements. At 2 weeks, osteoblasts were seen to line the implant surface, and multinuclear osteoclasts could be seen on the surface of old parent bone. After 8 weeks, a majority of the space in the wound chamber appeared to be replaced by bone. Enhancement of the stability of biologically modified implants was proved by the results of RFA, micro-CT, and histological analysis. This enhanced stability may help fasten treatment and be clinically beneficial. PMID:27366739

  15. Fibronectin-Grafted Titanium Dental Implants: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Ho, Kuo-Ning; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Chang, Chia-Hsun; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Pan, Yu Hwa; Chang, Wei-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the physiochemical properties of titanium surfaces using glow discharge plasma (GDP) and fibronectin coating has been shown to enhance the surface hydrophilicity, surface roughness, cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the bone integration efficacy of a biologically modified implant surface. Two different surface-modified implants (Ar-GDP and GDP-fib) were placed in the mandibular premolar area of six beagle dogs for 2–8 weeks. Three techniques [histologic evaluation, resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation] were used to detect the implant stability and bone-implant contact. The implant stability quotient values of GDP-fib implants were significantly greater than the Ar-GDP implants at 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.01). The bone volume/total volume ratio of GDP-fib implants was greater than the Ar-GDP implants in micro-CT evaluation. A high positive correlation was observed between RFA and micro-CT measurements. At 2 weeks, osteoblasts were seen to line the implant surface, and multinuclear osteoclasts could be seen on the surface of old parent bone. After 8 weeks, a majority of the space in the wound chamber appeared to be replaced by bone. Enhancement of the stability of biologically modified implants was proved by the results of RFA, micro-CT, and histological analysis. This enhanced stability may help fasten treatment and be clinically beneficial. PMID:27366739

  16. How to Perfuse: Concepts of Cerebral Protection during Arch Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Habertheuer, Andreas; Wiedemann, Dominik; Kocher, Alfred; Laufer, Guenther; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Arch surgery remains undoubtedly among the most technically and strategically challenging endeavors in cardiovascular surgery. Surgical interventions of thoracic aneurysms involving the aortic arch require complete circulatory arrest in deep hypothermia (DHCA) or elaborate cerebral perfusion strategies with varying degrees of hypothermia to achieve satisfactory protection of the brain from ischemic insults, that is, unilateral/bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). Despite sophisticated and increasingly individualized surgical approaches for complex aortic pathologies, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the optimal method of cerebral protection and circulatory management during the time of arch exclusion. Many recent studies argue in favor of ACP with various degrees of hypothermic arrest during arch reconstruction and its advantages have been widely demonstrated. In fact ACP with more moderate degrees of hypothermia represents a paradigm shift in the cardiac surgery community and is widely adopted as an emergent strategy; however, many centers continue to report good results using other perfusion strategies. Amidst this important discussion we review currently available surgical strategies of cerebral protection management and compare the results of recent European multicenter and single-center data. PMID:26713319

  17. Resonant Frequency Monitoring at Mesa Arch, Canyonlands National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, A.; Moore, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Culp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The national parks of southern Utah are home to a number of spectacular landmarks that draw visitors from across the world. However, there is currently no methodology in place to evaluate the structural health of these structures as they change through time or in the wake of a damaging event. Our study combines in-situ ambient vibration measurements with 3D numerical modeling to monitor the resonance characteristics of Mesa Arch, a prominent arch in Canyonlands National Park. We measure spectral and polarization attributes of ambient vibrations using two broadband seismometers: one placed on the arch and the other located at a distance of ~100 m for reference. Repeat measurements, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 3 days, are aimed at assessing short- and long-term changes in resonance characteristics, which in turn provide evidence of internal mechanical change. Numerical modal analysis, executed by inputting geometric and representative material properties of the arch into 3D modeling software, allows us to match the measured fundamental frequency as well as higher-order modes. Preliminary results suggest minor variations in resonant frequencies are predominantly controlled by thermal effects, i.e. changes in bulk material stiffness as the rock expands and contracts.

  18. Three-dimensional stiffness of the carpal arch.

    PubMed

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The carpal arch of the wrist is formed by irregularly shaped carpal bones interconnected by numerous ligaments, resulting in complex structural mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the three-dimensional stiffness characteristics of the carpal arch using displacement perturbations. It was hypothesized that the carpal arch would exhibit an anisotropic stiffness behavior with principal directions that are oblique to the conventional anatomical axes. Eight (n=8) cadavers were used in this study. For each specimen, the hamate was fixed to a custom stationary apparatus. An instrumented robot arm applied three-dimensional displacement perturbations to the ridge of trapezium and corresponding reaction forces were collected. The displacement-force data were used to determine a three-dimensional stiffness matrix using least squares fitting. Eigendecomposition of the stiffness matrix was used to identify the magnitudes and directions of the principal stiffness components. The carpal arch structure exhibited anisotropic stiffness behaviors with a maximum principal stiffness of 16.4±4.6N/mm that was significantly larger than the other principal components of 3.1±0.9 and 2.6±0.5N/mm (p<0.001). The principal direction of the maximum stiffness was pronated within the cross section of the carpal tunnel which is accounted for by the stiff transverse ligaments that tightly bind distal carpal arch. The minimal principal stiffness is attributed to the less constraining articulation between the trapezium and scaphoid. This study provides advanced characterization of the wrist׳s three-dimensional structural stiffness for improved insight into wrist biomechanics, stability, and function.

  19. Early-phase dental students' motivations and expectations concerning the study and profession of dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, R; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Yengopal, V

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the career choice and aspirations of early phase dental students in the four dental schools in South Africa, namely the University of the Western Cape (UWC), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), University of Limpopo (Medunsa) and University of Pretoria (UP). Willing participants completed a self-administered questionnaire (n=184). Motivations for entering a dentistry programme were similar across race and university, with wanting a secure job most often stated as an important factor. For a third of respondents, dentistry was not a first choice. Amongst the White students, it was a first choice for 82% compared with 59% amongst Black Africans. Expected income five-years after graduation also differed significantly across race and university, with White and UP students expecting to earn considerably higher than the others. About 36% of students were concerned about the levels of personal debt related to studying, with the White and Asian students less concerned. Those who expected lower levels of income from the profession were more concerned about personal debts. Most students planned to enter general dental practice (GDP) after community service, almost all White and Wits students expressed this intention, compared with only 35% of Black Africans and 39% of Medunsa students. Orthodontics and Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery were the most popular specialities of choice. The professional attribute "Has a friendly manner and good relationship with patients" was ranked high most often. In conclusion, career advice may not need to be tailored differently for the different racial groups. There is however a need for further investigations on how to address the concerns of financial security which may be realised by the practice of dentistry, and in particular the racial disparities observed in expectations of the profession. This study further highlights the need for government financial assistance for students from under-represented groups.

  20. Osteogenic Potential of Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Preclinical Studies: A Systematic Review Using Modified ARRIVE and CONSORT Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthi, Murali; Bakkar, Mohammed; Jordan, Jack; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Dental stem cell-based tissue engineered constructs are emerging as a promising alternative to autologous bone transfer for treating bone defects. The purpose of this review is to systematically assess the preclinical in vivo and in vitro studies which have evaluated the efficacy of dental stem cells on bone regeneration. Methods. A literature search was conducted in Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science up to October 2014. Implantation of dental stem cells in animal models for evaluating bone regeneration and/or in vitro studies demonstrating osteogenic potential of dental stem cells were included. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to ensure the quality of the search. Modified ARRIVE (Animal research: reporting in invivo experiments) and CONSORT (Consolidated reporting of trials) were used to critically analyze the selected studies. Results. From 1914 citations, 207 full-text articles were screened and 137 studies were included in this review. Because of the heterogeneity observed in the studies selected, meta-analysis was not possible. Conclusion. Both in vivo and in vitro studies indicate the potential use of dental stem cells in bone regeneration. However well-designed randomized animal trials are needed before moving into clinical trials. PMID:26106427

  1. [Use of hypnosis in treating a patient with dental anxiety: A case study].

    PubMed

    Meyerson, J; Ratson, T

    2015-10-01

    Dental anxiety is quite common and may lead to dental neglect due to lack of regular visits to the dental clinic. The difficulties in managing anxious patients are characterized by prolonged visits, a tendency to cancel appointments and a tense atmo- sphere during treatment. The use of hypnosis while treating an anxious patient can help create a posi- tive environment and shorten the duration of dental appointments as well. The article describes a case in which hypnosis was used while treating a patient who had suffered from dental anxiety for over 20 years.

  2. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  3. Dental Aesthetic Index of school students in Telangana region - An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Anita, G; Kumar, G Anil; Reddy, Vamsi; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Rao, M S Rama; Wankhade, Swapnil B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malocclusion should be identified at its earliest before it produces any detrimental effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the orthodontic status and treatment need of school children in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, using Dental Aesthetic Index. Materials & Methods: One thousand children in the age group of 12 - 14 years who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered. The demographic details of the students along with the information on the orthodontic status were collected using a predesigned questionnaire by a single orthodontist. The information on orthodontic status was obtained using Dentofacial Anomalies with the criteria of Dental Aesthetic Index (W H O Oral Health Assessment form 1997). Results: Results were subjected to ANOVA, Tukeys test and chi square test using SPSS, version 16. 86.1% of the subjects had DAI score of less than 25, suggesting ‘no treatment’; 10% had DAI score of 26-30, suggesting ‘elective treatment’; 3% had DAI score of 31-35, suggesting ‘highly desirable treatment’; 0.9% had DAI score of >36, indicating ‘mandatory treatment’; Higher prevalence of malocclusion among females than males. Conclusion: It is necessary to identify this abnormality at its earliest before it produces detrimental effects. It is also essential to know the prevalence of malocclusion in any society, as it reveals the true extent of the problem and guides in overcoming it. The general public can, then, be educated on widespread occurrence of malocclusion and its deleterious effects, so that appropriate preventive and corrective measures can be instituted. How to cite this article: Anita G, Kumar GA, Reddy V, Reddy TP, Rao MS, Wankhade SB. Dental Aesthetic Index of school students in Telangana region - An epidemiological study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):55-60 . PMID:24453445

  4. Arching in tapped deposits of hard disks.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Luis A; Valluzzi, Marcos G; Valluzzi, Lucas G

    2006-05-01

    We simulate the tapping of a bed of hard disks in a rectangular box by using a pseudodynamic algorithm. In these simulations, arches are unambiguously defined and we can analyze their properties as a function of the tapping amplitude. We find that an order-disorder transition occurs within a narrow range of tapping amplitudes as has been seen by others. Arches are always present in the system although they exhibit regular shapes in the ordered regime. Interestingly, an increase in the number of arches does not always correspond to a reduction in the packing fraction. This is in contrast with what is found in three-dimensional systems.

  5. Evaluation of bone loss in antibacterial coated dental implants: An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina; Sevilla, Pablo; Nart, José; Manzanares, Norberto; Manero, José M; Gil, Francisco Javier; Boyd, Steven K; Rodríguez, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effect of antibacterial modified dental implants in the first stages of peri-implantitis. Thirty dental implants were inserted in the mandibular premolar sites of 5 beagle dogs. Sites were randomly assigned to Ti (untreated implants, 10units), Ti_Ag (silver electrodeposition treatment, 10units), and Ti_TSP (silanization treatment, 10units). Coated implants were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two months after implant insertion, experimental peri-implantitis was initiated by ligature placement. Ligatures were removed 2months later, and plaque formation was allowed for 2 additional months. Clinical and radiographic analyses were performed during the study. Implant-tissue samples were prepared for micro computed tomography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, histomorphometric and histological analyses and ion release measurements. X-ray, SEM and histology images showed that vertical bone resorption in treated implants was lower than in the control group (P<0.05). This effect is likely due to the capacity of the treatments to reduce bacteria colonization on the implant surface. Histological analysis suggested an increase of peri-implant bone formation on silanized implants. However, the short post-ligature period was not enough to detect differences in clinical parameters among implant groups. Within the limits of this study, antibacterial surface treatments have a positive effect against bone resorption induced by peri-implantitis. PMID:27612745

  6. Evaluation of bone loss in antibacterial coated dental implants: An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina; Sevilla, Pablo; Nart, José; Manzanares, Norberto; Manero, José M; Gil, Francisco Javier; Boyd, Steven K; Rodríguez, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effect of antibacterial modified dental implants in the first stages of peri-implantitis. Thirty dental implants were inserted in the mandibular premolar sites of 5 beagle dogs. Sites were randomly assigned to Ti (untreated implants, 10units), Ti_Ag (silver electrodeposition treatment, 10units), and Ti_TSP (silanization treatment, 10units). Coated implants were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two months after implant insertion, experimental peri-implantitis was initiated by ligature placement. Ligatures were removed 2months later, and plaque formation was allowed for 2 additional months. Clinical and radiographic analyses were performed during the study. Implant-tissue samples were prepared for micro computed tomography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, histomorphometric and histological analyses and ion release measurements. X-ray, SEM and histology images showed that vertical bone resorption in treated implants was lower than in the control group (P<0.05). This effect is likely due to the capacity of the treatments to reduce bacteria colonization on the implant surface. Histological analysis suggested an increase of peri-implant bone formation on silanized implants. However, the short post-ligature period was not enough to detect differences in clinical parameters among implant groups. Within the limits of this study, antibacterial surface treatments have a positive effect against bone resorption induced by peri-implantitis.

  7. Analysis of dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures for forensic applications: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe and record the macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic findings obtained after subjecting the teeth to high temperatures. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to observe macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic changes in dental hard tissues in 60 unrestored non carious extracted human teeth. The teeth were grouped based on age: Below 30 years, 30–40 years, and above 40 years The teeth from each age group were further divided into five subgroups, and each subgroup was subjected to a particular temperature: 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. [C = Celsius]. Results: Various degrees of changes in relation to temperature were observed macroscopically, radiographically, and microscopically. The histological examination was limited for teeth exposed to 200°C. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out to study the gross changes, radiographic changes and histological changes in dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures, which is an important part of forensic science. The aforementioned alterations caused by heat may provide useful information about temperature ranges and duration of exposure to high temperatures. PMID:27555725

  8. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  9. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society. PMID:24046337

  10. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  11. Case study of an anxious child with extensive caries treated in general dental practice: financial viability under the terms of the UK National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Shelley, A; Mackie, I

    2001-10-01

    This case study describes the management of Callum, an anxious 7-year-old boy with extensive caries. Callum's dental care was carried out in a general dental practice in the North of England under the terms of the National Health Service. A preventive programme was carried out in conjunction with the restorative philosophy according to guidelines published by the Dental Practice Board in 1997.

  12. A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy.

  13. Dental Informatics tool “SOFPRO” for the study of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Erlewad, Dinesh Masajirao; Mundhe, Kalpana Anandrao; Hazarey, Vinay K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental informatics is an evolving branch widely used in dental education and practice. Numerous applications that support clinical care, education and research have been developed. However, very few such applications are developed and utilized in the epidemiological studies of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) which is affecting a significant population of Asian countries. Aims and Objectives: To design and develop an user friendly software for the descriptive epidemiological study of OSF. Materials and Methods: With the help of a software engineer a computer program SOFPRO was designed and developed by using, Ms-Visual Basic 6.0 (VB), Ms-Access 2000, Crystal Report 7.0 and Ms-Paint in operating system XP. For the analysis purpose the available OSF data from the departmental precancer registry was fed into the SOFPRO. Results: Known data, not known and null data are successfully accepted in data entry and represented in data analysis of OSF. Smooth working of SOFPRO and its correct data flow was tested against real-time data of OSF. Conclusion: SOFPRO was found to be a user friendly automated tool for easy data collection, retrieval, management and analysis of OSF patients.

  14. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-12-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen's size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics.

  15. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  16. The natural history of dental caries lesions: a 4-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Zandoná, A; Santiago, E; Eckert, G J; Katz, B P; Pereira de Oliveira, S; Capin, O R; Mau, M; Zero, D T

    2012-09-01

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous disease affecting all age groups and segments of the population. It is known that not all caries lesions progress to cavitation, but little is known regarding the progression pattern of caries lesions. This study's purpose was to evaluate the natural history of dental caries using a standardized, visually based system, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The study population consisted of 565 consenting children, who were enrolled and examined at baseline and at regular intervals over 48 months with ICDAS and yearly bitewing radiographs. Of these, 338 children completed all examinations. Not all lesions cavitated at the same rate, differing by surface type and baseline ICDAS severity score and activity status. With increasing severity, the percentage of lesions progressing to cavitation increased: 19%, 32%, 68%, and 66% for ICDAS scores 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Lesions on occlusal surfaces were more likely to cavitate, followed by buccal pits, lingual grooves, proximal surfaces, and buccal and lingual surfaces. Cavitation was more likely on molars, followed by pre-molars and anterior teeth. Predictors of cavitation included age, gender, surfaces and tooth types, and ICDAS severity/activity at baseline. In conclusion, characterization of lesion severity with ICDAS can be a strong predictor of lesion progression to cavitation.

  17. An Outcomes Study of 40 Years of Graduates of a General Practice Dental Residency.

    PubMed

    Lau, Agnes; Dodson, Thomas B; Sonis, Stephen T; Kaban, Leonard B

    2015-08-01

    Assessing program quality and outcomes is essential to improve postgraduate dental education. This study's aims were to document career direction and practice patterns of graduates of the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) General Practice Residency (GPR), to compare BWH GPR outcomes to those of other American GPRs, and to identify characteristics of the BWH GPR program that trainees valued. This was a retrospective cohort study with a sample comprised of BWH GPR graduates between 1973 and 2013. Outcomes examined included pursuit of specialty training and positions on academic or hospital staff. Data sources were a survey of BWH GPR graduates and published national surveys. Of the 190 BWH graduates (95% of total) who were located and contacted, 133 (70% response rate) completed the survey. Compared to national survey data, BWH GPR graduates were significantly more likely to be specialists, full-time hospital staff, or full-time or part-time dental school faculty. Most BWH graduates (96.2%) ranked the program as outstanding or good. Faculty characteristics were considered by BWH graduates to be the most important factors in judging program quality. Since faculty characteristics were the most important factors in residents' judgment of program quality, GPR programs should recruit, maintain, and develop a quality faculty in order to attract students.

  18. Dental Informatics tool “SOFPRO” for the study of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Erlewad, Dinesh Masajirao; Mundhe, Kalpana Anandrao; Hazarey, Vinay K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental informatics is an evolving branch widely used in dental education and practice. Numerous applications that support clinical care, education and research have been developed. However, very few such applications are developed and utilized in the epidemiological studies of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) which is affecting a significant population of Asian countries. Aims and Objectives: To design and develop an user friendly software for the descriptive epidemiological study of OSF. Materials and Methods: With the help of a software engineer a computer program SOFPRO was designed and developed by using, Ms-Visual Basic 6.0 (VB), Ms-Access 2000, Crystal Report 7.0 and Ms-Paint in operating system XP. For the analysis purpose the available OSF data from the departmental precancer registry was fed into the SOFPRO. Results: Known data, not known and null data are successfully accepted in data entry and represented in data analysis of OSF. Smooth working of SOFPRO and its correct data flow was tested against real-time data of OSF. Conclusion: SOFPRO was found to be a user friendly automated tool for easy data collection, retrieval, management and analysis of OSF patients. PMID:27601808

  19. Reporting of research quality characteristics of studies published in 6 major clinical dental specialty journals.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Madianos, Phoebus; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this article was to record reporting characteristics related to study quality of research published in major specialty dental journals with the highest impact factor (Journal of Endodontics, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics; Pediatric Dentistry, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, and International Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry). The included articles were classified into the following 3 broad subject categories: (1) cross-sectional (snap-shot), (2) observational, and (3) interventional. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted for effect estimation using the journal as the response and randomization, sample calculation, confounding discussed, multivariate analysis, effect measurement, and confidence intervals as the explanatory variables. The results showed that cross-sectional studies were the dominant design (55%), whereas observational investigations accounted for 13%, and interventions/clinical trials for 32%. Reporting on quality characteristics was low for all variables: random allocation (15%), sample size calculation (7%), confounding issues/possible confounders (38%), effect measurements (16%), and multivariate analysis (21%). Eighty-four percent of the published articles reported a statistically significant main finding and only 13% presented confidence intervals. The Journal of Clinical Periodontology showed the highest probability of including quality characteristics in reporting results among all dental journals. PMID:21605830

  20. Ultraviolet Events Observed in Active Regions. 2; An Interpretation of Flaring Arches and Associated Small Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J.; Rovira, M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze Hz, UV, and X-ray emissions in and around the spectacular arch system seen in the corona on 1980 March 27 during the Solar Maximum Mission. The flaring of the arch plasma is studied, and its dependence on triggering mechanisms related to the observed small limb flare in the arch footpoint is analyzed. To drive these events, we propose a mechanism in which small electric current circuits and the localized magnetic free energy are continuously generated at a magnetic null by a pressure gradient, which then compress or expand the plasma. This free energy dissipates by Joule effect and upward transport.

  1. Anomalous Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery from the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Evan H.; Song, Linda H.; Villela, Natalia L. A.; Fasani-Feldberg, Gregory B.; Jacobs, Jonathan L.; Kim, Dolly O.; Nathawat, Akshay; Patel, Devika; Bender, Roger B.; Peters, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic anomalies of the aortic arch have implications for clinical practice if their significance is understood. Our case study involves a cadaveric finding of the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch. Although this anatomical variation has been documented, the prevalence of this anomaly may be generally underestimated. After noting this anomaly, we analyzed 27 cases and found that four female cadavers had the left vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch rather than the left subclavian artery. With a prevalence rate of 14.8%, it would seem that this anomaly is more significant than previously thought, which could have implications for surgical practice. PMID:27757404

  2. Dental students' perceived preparedness to treat patients in clinic after a fixed prosthodontics course: survey results of a case study.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Carlos; Duqum, Ibrahim; Petrola, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Previous research regarding dental students has found modest predictive value in preclinical didactic course grades in predicting clinical performance, but systematic assessment of students' feedback on their perceived preparedness has received little attention as a preclinical assessment methodology. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of the dental students at one U.S. academic dental institution regarding their preparedness for clinical performance following the preclinical fixed prosthodontics course. Third- and fourth-year dental students participated in a survey about their perceived preparedness to diagnose and treat patients with fixed prosthodontics needs in the school's dental clinics. The respondents (79 out of 161 students, for a response rate of 49%) rated each item on a five-point Likert scale. Responses about which preclinical procedures of the course prepared students the least and the best were consistent for the third- and fourth-year students. Less than 60% of all responding students felt prepared for planning complex cases and performing laboratory-related procedures. The findings of this study indicate that improvement is required in teaching students about laboratory procedures and problem-solving to adequately prepare them for clinical treatment of patients with fixed prosthodontics needs.

  3. Risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaws: a case-control study from the CONDOR Dental PBRN.

    PubMed

    Barasch, A; Cunha-Cruz, J; Curro, F A; Hujoel, P; Sung, A H; Vena, D; Voinea-Griffin, A E; Beadnell, Steven; Craig, Ronald G; DeRouen, Timothy; Desaranayake, Ananda; Gilbert, Ann; Gilbert, Gregg H; Goldberg, Ken; Hauley, Richard; Hashimoto, Mariko; Holmes, Jon; Latzke, Brooke; Leroux, Brian; Lindblad, Anne; Richman, Joshua; Safford, Monika; Ship, Jonathan; Thompson, Van P; Williams, O Dale; Wanrong, Yin

    2013-04-01

    Case reports and cohort studies have linked bisphosphonate therapy and osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ), but neither causality nor specific risks for lesion development have been clearly established. We conducted a 1:3 case-control study with 3 dental practice-based research networks, using dentist questionnaires and patient interviews for collection of data on bisphosphonate therapy, demographics, co-morbidities, and dental and medical treatments. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested associations between bisphosphonate use and other risk factors with ONJ. We enrolled 191 ONJ cases and 573 controls in 119 dental practices. Bisphosphonate use was strongly associated with ONJ (odds ratios [OR] 299.5 {95% CI 70.0-1282.7} for intravenous [IV] use and OR = 12.2 {4.3-35.0} for oral use). Risk markers included local suppuration (OR = 7.8 {1.8-34.1}), dental extraction (OR = 7.6 {2.4-24.7}), and radiation therapy (OR = 24.1 {4.9-118.4}). When cancer patients (n = 143) were excluded, bisphosphonate use (OR = 7.2 {2.1-24.7}), suppuration (OR = 11.9 {2.0-69.5}), and extractions (OR = 6.6 {1.6-26.6}) remained associated with ONJ. Higher risk of ONJ began within 2 years of bisphosphonate initiation and increased 4-fold after 2 years. Both IV and oral bisphosphonate use were strongly associated with ONJ. Duration of treatment >2 years; suppuration and dental extractions were independent risk factors for ONJ.

  4. Green LED associated to 20% hydrogen peroxide for dental bleaching: nanomorfologic study of enamel by scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Santos, Gustavo M. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Sampaio, Fernando J. P.; Gesteira, Maria F. M.; Zanin, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Marcos A. V.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    Dental bleaching is a much requested procedure in clinical dental practice and widely related to dental esthetics. The literature is contradictory regarding the effects of bleaching agents on the morphology and demineralization of enamel after bleaching. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the effect of hydrogen peroxide at 20% at neutral pH, cured by the green LED, to evaluate the action of these substances on dental enamel. We selected 15 pre-molars, lingual surfaces were sectioned and previously marked with a central groove to take the experimental and control groups on the same specimen. The groups were divided as follows. The mesial hemi-faces were the experimental group and distal ones as controls. For morphological analysis were performed 75 electron micrographs SEM with an increase of X 43, X 220 and X 1000 and its images were evaluated by tree observers. Was also performed quantitative analysis of the determination of the surface atomic composition of the samples through microanalysis with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. The use of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 20% at photoactivated green LED showed no significant changes in mineral composition of the samples or the dental morphological structure of the same when compared to their controls, according to the study protocol.

  5. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants Are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  6. Dental Assistant Specialist. (AFSC 98150).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eling, David R.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for dental assistant specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are an introduction to dental services (the mission and organization of medical/dental service, career ladder progressions, medical readiness/wartime training, and…

  7. Trouble-shooting dual arch impressions.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1996-02-01

    Dual arch impression techniques enable the dentist to capture an impression of the prepared tooth, the opposing teeth and the occlusal registration in one procedure. This saves chair time and impression material.

  8. Glowing Solar Material Arches Up and Out

    NASA Video Gallery

    An elongated, streaming arch of solar material rose up at the sun’s edge before breaking apart in this animation of imagery captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory on April 28, 2016. While so...

  9. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice: a community-based feasibility study from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M.; Qvist, Vibeke; Palmore, Randall; Gesko, David; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing, and both undiagnosed patients and poor disease control among those already diagnosed are widely reported. We conducted a feasibility study of blood glucose screening in “The Dental Practice-Based Research Network” (DPBRN) as a potential strategy to detect undiagnosed DM, or poorly controlled DM among those with diagnosed disease. Methods Practitioners and staff were trained to use the glucose meter. Consecutive patients ≥19 years old were enrolled at each practice until 15 qualified and consented. Qualifying patients had at least one risk factor for DM according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Perceived barriers and benefits to testing were reported using patient and dentist/staff questionnaires. Results Twenty-eight practices enrolled 498 subjects. Glucose testing lasted <2min, 2–5min, or >5 min/patient in 29%, 64% and 7% of the practices, respectively. Twenty-six of 28 dentists (93%) considered testing necessary; 85% agreed it was beneficial; 75% agreed that testing may help identify patients at risk for periodontitis. Fifteen of 67 dental office personnel (22%) who returned questionnaires thought testing was time-consuming but 58% did not; 4% found the test too expensive (51% did not) and 4% thought that testing may open practices to liability (72% did not). Among subjects, 83% thought testing in dental practice was a good idea, 85% found it was easy and 62% said the test made them more likely to recommend their dentist to others. Discussion Glucose testing was well-received by patients and practitioners. These results should dispel the belief that glucose testing is time consuming, expensive and poorly accepted by patients. PMID:22383207

  10. [Determinants of dental services utilization by adults: a population-based study in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Camila Dal-Bó Coradini; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental services utilization by adults and to identify associated socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, and self-awareness factors. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with adults living in the urban area of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2009. Associations were tested between use of dental services and predisposing, enabling, and needs-based variables. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson regression with estimates of prevalence ratios and was stratified by place of last dental appointment. Prevalence of dental services utilization was 66% (95%CI: 62.9-70.7). Dental visits were 20% more frequent among women and 72% more frequent among individuals with more schooling (the latter in both public and private dental services). Individuals with private dental plans used dental services 13% more than those without. Schooling was the most important variable in predicting utilization. The study's results show the importance of monitoring associated factors in order to promote more equitable use of dental services.

  11. Footprint-based estimates of arch structure are confounded by body composition in adults.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Grigg, Nicole L; Lau, Hin C; Smeathers, James E

    2012-08-01

    Previous research employing indirect measures of arch structure, such as those derived from footprints, have indicated that obesity results in a "flatter" foot type. In the absence of radiographic measures, however, definitive conclusions regarding the osseous alignment of the foot cannot be made. We determined the effect of body mass index (BMI) on radiographic and footprint-based measures of arch structure. The research was a cross-sectional study in which radiographic and footprint-based measures of foot structure were made in 30 subjects (10 males, 20 female) in addition to standard anthropometric measures of height, weight, and BMI. Multiple (univariate) regression analysis demonstrated that both BMI (β = 0.39, t(26) = 2.12, p = 0.04) and radiographic arch alignment (β = 0.51, t(26) = 3.32, p < 0.01) were significant predictors of footprint-based measures of arch height after controlling for all variables in the model (R(2) = 0.59, F(3,26) = 12.3, p < 0.01). In contrast, radiographic arch alignment was not significantly associated with BMI (β = -0.03, t(26) = -0.13, p = 0.89) when Arch Index and age were held constant (R(2) = 0.52, F(3,26) = 9.3, p < 0.01). Adult obesity does not influence osseous alignment of the medial longitudinal arch, but selectively distorts footprint-based measures of arch structure. Footprint-based measures of arch structure should be interpreted with caution when comparing groups of varying body composition.

  12. The Role of Arch Compression and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dynamics in Modulating Plantar Fascia Strain in Running.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kirsty A; Stearne, Sarah M; Alderson, Jacqueline A; North, Ian; Pires, Neville J; Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Elastic energy returned from passive-elastic structures of the lower limb is fundamental in lowering the mechanical demand on muscles during running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the two length-modulating mechanisms of the plantar fascia, namely medial longitudinal arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) excursion, and to determine how these mechanisms modulate strain, and thus elastic energy storage/return of the plantar fascia during running. Eighteen runners (9 forefoot and 9 rearfoot strike) performed three treadmill running trials; unrestricted shod, shod with restricted arch compression (via an orthotic-style insert), and barefoot. Three-dimensional motion capture and ground reaction force data were used to calculate lower limb kinematics and kinetics including MPJ angles, moments, powers and work. Estimates of plantar fascia strain due to arch compression and MPJ excursion were derived using a geometric model of the arch and a subject-specific musculoskeletal model of the plantar fascia, respectively. The plantar fascia exhibited a typical elastic stretch-shortening cycle with the majority of strain generated via arch compression. This strategy was similar in fore- and rear-foot strike runners. Restricting arch compression, and hence the elastic-spring function of the arch, was not compensated for by an increase in MPJ-derived strain. In the second half of stance the plantar fascia was found to transfer energy between the MPJ (energy absorption) and the arch (energy production during recoil). This previously unreported energy transfer mechanism reduces the strain required by the plantar fascia in generating useful positive mechanical work at the arch during running.

  13. The Role of Arch Compression and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dynamics in Modulating Plantar Fascia Strain in Running.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kirsty A; Stearne, Sarah M; Alderson, Jacqueline A; North, Ian; Pires, Neville J; Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Elastic energy returned from passive-elastic structures of the lower limb is fundamental in lowering the mechanical demand on muscles during running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the two length-modulating mechanisms of the plantar fascia, namely medial longitudinal arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) excursion, and to determine how these mechanisms modulate strain, and thus elastic energy storage/return of the plantar fascia during running. Eighteen runners (9 forefoot and 9 rearfoot strike) performed three treadmill running trials; unrestricted shod, shod with restricted arch compression (via an orthotic-style insert), and barefoot. Three-dimensional motion capture and ground reaction force data were used to calculate lower limb kinematics and kinetics including MPJ angles, moments, powers and work. Estimates of plantar fascia strain due to arch compression and MPJ excursion were derived using a geometric model of the arch and a subject-specific musculoskeletal model of the plantar fascia, respectively. The plantar fascia exhibited a typical elastic stretch-shortening cycle with the majority of strain generated via arch compression. This strategy was similar in fore- and rear-foot strike runners. Restricting arch compression, and hence the elastic-spring function of the arch, was not compensated for by an increase in MPJ-derived strain. In the second half of stance the plantar fascia was found to transfer energy between the MPJ (energy absorption) and the arch (energy production during recoil). This previously unreported energy transfer mechanism reduces the strain required by the plantar fascia in generating useful positive mechanical work at the arch during running. PMID:27054319

  14. The Role of Arch Compression and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dynamics in Modulating Plantar Fascia Strain in Running

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kirsty A.; Stearne, Sarah M.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; North, Ian; Pires, Neville J.; Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Elastic energy returned from passive-elastic structures of the lower limb is fundamental in lowering the mechanical demand on muscles during running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the two length-modulating mechanisms of the plantar fascia, namely medial longitudinal arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) excursion, and to determine how these mechanisms modulate strain, and thus elastic energy storage/return of the plantar fascia during running. Eighteen runners (9 forefoot and 9 rearfoot strike) performed three treadmill running trials; unrestricted shod, shod with restricted arch compression (via an orthotic-style insert), and barefoot. Three-dimensional motion capture and ground reaction force data were used to calculate lower limb kinematics and kinetics including MPJ angles, moments, powers and work. Estimates of plantar fascia strain due to arch compression and MPJ excursion were derived using a geometric model of the arch and a subject-specific musculoskeletal model of the plantar fascia, respectively. The plantar fascia exhibited a typical elastic stretch-shortening cycle with the majority of strain generated via arch compression. This strategy was similar in fore- and rear-foot strike runners. Restricting arch compression, and hence the elastic-spring function of the arch, was not compensated for by an increase in MPJ-derived strain. In the second half of stance the plantar fascia was found to transfer energy between the MPJ (energy absorption) and the arch (energy production during recoil). This previously unreported energy transfer mechanism reduces the strain required by the plantar fascia in generating useful positive mechanical work at the arch during running. PMID:27054319

  15. Integrated exploration locates Cincinnati arch dolomite breccias

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, S.A. )

    1994-11-28

    Dolomite breccias or chimneys are prolific reservoirs found along the Cincinnati arch and adjacent basins from Tennessee to Ontario. An integrated approach using seismic and surface geochemistry, augmented by subsurface geology and magnetics, has led to a dramatic increase in the number of these fields being discovered in the past 10 years. Historically the reservoirs have been found by random drilling. The paper describes the geology of the arch, breccia characteristics, and case histories of discoveries using this integrated approach.

  16. Dental practice network of U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Monica A; Beeson, Dennis C; Hans, Mark G

    2009-12-01

    As dental schools incorporate training in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) into their curricula, students must learn how to critically evaluate systematic reviews and meta-analyses. It is important that dental education in the United States support the American Dental Association's position statement on EBD, which defines "best evidence" as data obtained from all study designs. Given that much evidence is missing when EBD is derived from Cochrane Systematic Reviews' randomized clinical trials, we propose the creation of a dental practice network of U.S. dental schools. We developed an electronic clinical dentistry research database for EBD using Epi-Info (available at www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/downloads.htm). As a free, public use software, Epi-Info provides the foundation for the development of clinical research databases that can increase the research capacity through multisite studies designed to generate outcomes data on the effectiveness of dental treatment. The creation of a dental practice network of dental schools with their large number of patients would expand the research capacity for EBD practice and advance the EBD science regarding the effectiveness of dental treatment. The next step is to link clinical dental researchers/educators at multiple dental schools through a collaborative clinical research network, so that the findings can be applied to the EBD component of problem-based learning curricula of dental education.

  17. Radiographic Study of the Prevalence of Dens Invaginatus in a Sample Set of Turkish Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Hakan; Tan, Enes; Aylıkçı, Bahadır Uğur; Uzgur, Recep; Turkal, Mustafa; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dens invaginatus in a sample of Turkish dental patients. Materials and Methods: The sample included 6, 912 panoramic radiographs from different Turkish dental patients. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 50 years. A tooth was considered having dens invaginatus if an infolding of a radiopaque ribbon-like structure equal in density to enamel was seen extending from the cingulum into the root canal. Maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated on panoramic radiographs to determine the type of dens invaginatus using Oehlers’ classification. Results: The overall incidence of patients with dens invaginatus was 0.17%. Dens invaginatus were detected in 15 teeth of a total of 192 150 teeth to give a tooth prevalence of 0.008%. Maxillary lateral incisors were most commonly affected teeth in the mouth (80% of cases), followed by maxillary canine teeth (20% of cases). The bilateral incidence of a symmetrical distribution was 25%. Conclusion: The occurrence of dens invaginatus among this Turkish population was rare. Attention should be paid to the presence of dens invaginatus and the treatment problems associated with it. PMID:22919548

  18. [Acceptance of the meridol toothbrush by dental hygienists. A questionnaire study].

    PubMed

    Saxer, Ulrich P; Nittner, Thomas; Toutenburg, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Two manual toothbrushes were tested in a questionnaire study by 171 dental hygienists in a crossover design: a new toothbrush with conical filaments (meridol toothbrush, GABA International AG) and a reference toothbrush with end-rounded filaments (ADA toothbrush, American Dental Association). Each trial subject tested the two manual toothbrushes in two consecutive periods. Not only was the immediate impression of interest but also the impression after a period of three weeks. Therefore, four questionnaires in total had to be answered. All but a few questions (e.g. "the most often used toothbrush up to date" in the first questionnaire) were identical in the four questionnaires. After a single use the overall impression of the meridol toothbrush was good and very good for 95.1% of the trial subjects (ADA: 26.4%). The feeling along the gingival margin was very positively judged after a single brushing by the meridol user: 92.7% (ADA: 35.3%). The cleaning performance of the meridol toothbrush was found to be good and very good by 85.5% of the meridol beginner group, whereas only 60.2% of the ADA beginner group judged the ADA toothbrush as good or very good. The most remarkable fact is that nearly 90% of these professional trial subjects have decided to continue to use the meridol toothbrush and more than 90% would recommend it to their patients.

  19. Tooth movement and vascularity of the dental pulp: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wong, V S; Freer, T J; Joseph, B K; Daley, T J

    1999-04-01

    The effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp was assessed histologically in twelve subjects. The participants in this study required the extraction of at least two maxillary first premolars for orthodontic treatment. They were asked to wear a maxillary removable appliance that acted to move a randomly determined premolar in a buccal direction. The appliance was designed to avoid contacting the contra-lateral tooth that was used as the matched control. The appliance was initially worn for a week to ensure patient comfort and cooperation. The appliance was then activated and the patient dismissed. After two weeks, the appliance was reactivated. Both the control and experimental teeth were extracted three weeks later, on the thirty-fifth day of activated appliance wear. The teeth were fixed, decalcified and sectioned. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination. This investigation demonstrated that orthodontic tooth movement did have an effect upon the dental pulp, causing vasodilation in the pulp of an orthodontically stressed tooth.

  20. Dental Students' Knowledge of Oral Health for Persons with Special Needs: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Fouad; Al-Balkhi, Bader; Abdelmegid, Faika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of dental students with respect to oral health care of the person with special health care needs (SHCN) and evaluate effectiveness of an education program on improving their knowledge. Method. An evaluation consisting of a questionnaire was answered before and immediately after a 30-minute educational presentation in the form of a DVD that includes a PowerPoint and a video of oral health care for individuals with SHCN. The questionnaire was based on the materials and information presented in the DVD and included 26 questions (true/false/I do not know). Results. The mean (±SD) score on the pretest was 10.85 (±5.20), which increased to 16.85 (±5.47) on the posttest. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Forty percent of the students surveyed reported that they were very satisfied with the educational part of the presentation, while 50% were somewhat satisfied. Thirty percent of students expressed that the educational intervention used is very effective. Conclusions. Viewing the educational intervention was effective in informing the sophomore students and providing them with instructive basic information on person with SHCN. Dental colleges should increase students' knowledge, training, and exposure to individuals with SHCN. PMID:25950019

  1. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; LEITE, Aline de Lima; CHANG, Sywe-Ren; LIU, Jun; CZAJKA-JAKUBOWSKA, Agata; CLARKSON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain) or resistant (129P3/J strain) to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Material and Methods Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain) were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra) was measured. Results The mean (±SD) Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm) was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm) but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247). Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm) were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013) than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm). Conclusion Enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis. PMID:25025555

  2. Dental anomalies in the primary dentition and their repetition in the permanent dentition: a diagnostic performance study.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Andrea; Giuntini, Veronica; Franchi, Lorenzo; Tollaro, Isabella; Baccetti, Tiziano; Defraia, Efisio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the recurrence in the permanent dentition of dental anomalies of the primary dentition. A sample of 189 subjects (100 males, 89 females, mean age of 5 years and 7 months) with anomalies of primary teeth (tooth hypodontia, supernumerary teeth, geminated teeth, and fused teeth) was selected and re-analyzed at a mean age of 11 years and 2 months for the recurrence of the dental anomalies in the permanent dentition. As a control group, 271 subjects (123 males, 148 females) without dental anomalies in the primary dentition were selected. The recurrence in the permanent dentition of the dental anomalies in the primary dentition was evaluated by measures of diagnostic performance. The results showed high values for the repetition of hypodontia (positive likelihood ratio = 102.0); low score for the repetition of hyperdontia (positive likelihood ratio = 6.5); low positive likelihood ratio (9.1) for gemination of primary teeth resulting in supernumerary permanent teeth; high positive likelihood ratio (47.0) for fusion of primary teeth followed by missing permanent teeth. Dental anomalies in the primary dentition are associated with an increased likelihood of anomalies of the succedaneous permanent.

  3. Perception of dental visit pictures in children with autism spectrum disorder and their caretakers: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wibisono, Witriana L.; Suharsini, Margaretha; Wiguna, Tjhin; Sudiroatmodjo, Budiharto; Budiardjo, Sarworini B.; Auerkari, Elza I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: One of the most common ways to communicate to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is by using pictures. This study was conducted to identify the easiest perception of dental visit by children with ASD when using pictures as printed photographs. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants from a school for children with special needs in south Jakarta. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 autistic children aged 13–17 years, 2 parents, and 2 teachers. Open-ended questions were asked to participants regarding pictures of dental clinic personnel and activity. Conversations were noted, tape recorded, and then categorized to extract a theme. The data were analyzed using Dedoose mixed methods software. Results: Most respondents showed a positive perception of the dental visit pictures. Many of the pictures were easily recognized by children with ASD, but some failed to be understood. Caretakers not only gave their perception but also recommendations for improvement of the pictures. Conclusions: Dental visit pictures could be used as useful communication tools for children with ASD. Based on the results, the pictures related to dental visit were generally easy to understand, however, some needed correction to be comprehensible. PMID:27583225

  4. Free vibrations of spatial Timoshenko arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliò, I.; Greco, A.; D'Urso, D.

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the exact natural frequencies and vibration modes of structures obtained by assemblage of plane circular arched Timoshenko beams. The exact dynamic stiffness matrix of the single circular arch, in which both the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are taken into account, is derived in an useful dimensionless form by revisiting the mathematical approach already adopted by Howson and Jemah (1999 [18]), for the in plane and the out-of-plan natural frequencies of curved Timoshenko beams. The knowledge of the exact dynamic stiffness matrix of the single arch makes the direct evaluation of the exact global dynamic stiffness matrix of spatial arch structures possible. Furthermore, it allows the exact evaluation of the frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes, for the distributed parameter model, through the application of the Wittrick and Williams algorithm. Consistently with the dimensionless form proposed in the derivation of the equations of motion and the dynamic stiffness matrix, an original and extensive parametric analysis on the in-plane and out-of-plane dynamic behaviour of the single arch, for a wide range of structural and geometrical dimensionless parameters, has been performed. Moreover, some numerical applications, relative to the evaluation of exact frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes in spatial arched structures, are reported. The exact solution has been numerically validated by comparing the results with those obtained by a refined finite element simulation.

  5. Modified Arch-First Technique Performed on a Beating Heart for an Arch Aneurysm with Atheromatous Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A shaggy aorta with unstable atheromatous plaques has a high risk of neurologic complications in cases of arch aneurysm. We report the use of a modified arch-first technique involving arch replacement for a beating heart after reconstruction of supra-aortic vessels while maintaining normal blood pressure. The procedure was performed in a patient who had an arch aneurysm, complicated by an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) and a shaggy aorta ascending to the aortic arch. This modified arch-first technique is an alternative surgical approach that is used for arch aneurysms involving a shaggy aorta, in order to prevent embolic debris-related complications. PMID:23825510

  6. Arch size distribution in a two-dimensional pile of disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, M. A.; Pugnaloni, L. A.; Divoux, T.; Grande, J. G.

    2009-06-01

    Arch formation in a granular pile is a dynamical process. Staring at a static pile one cannot identify such structures. Indeed, it is necessary to know which grains are in contact, but also to access the whole history of the packing formation to distinguish the contacts which really sustain arches. In a recent article, arch formation has been studied numerically [Arévalo et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 021303 (2006)]. Here, we report preliminary results of an experiment which consists of a time-resolved study of arch formation during the deposition of a disk assembly. The whole experiment is horizontally set. A conveyor belt makes it possible to tune the disk deposition-rate and thus to follow entirely the deposition dynamics. We compare our experimental findings to the previously cited numerical study.

  7. Evaluation of Groundwater Leakage into a Drainage Tunnel in Jinping-I Arch Dam Foundation in Southwestern China: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Hong, Jia-Min; Zheng, Hua-Kang; Li, Yi; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2016-03-01

    The Jinping-I double-curvature arch dam, located in the middle reach of Yalong River and with a maximum height of 305 m, is the world's highest dam of this type that has been completed. Since the second stage of reservoir impounding, after which the reservoir water level was gradually raised by about 232 m, a significant amount of leakage was observed from the drainage holes drilled in the lowest drainage tunnel at the left bank abutment at an elevation of 1595 m a.s.l. (above sea level), with an observed maximum pressure of about 0.3 MPa. A number of investigations, including water quality analysis, digital borehole imaging, tunnel geological mapping, and in situ groundwater monitoring, were performed to examine the source of leaking, the groundwater flow paths, and the performance of the grouting curtains. By defining two objective functions using the in situ time series measurements of flow rate and hydraulic head, respectively, a multiobjective inverse modeling procedure was proposed to evaluate the permeability of the foundation rocks that was underestimated in the design stage. This procedure takes advantage of the orthogonal design, finite element forward modeling of the transient groundwater flow, artificial neural network, and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, hence significantly reducing the computational cost and improving the reliability of the inversed results. The geological structures that lead to the leakage were identified and the seepage flow behaviors in the dam foundation and the left bank abutment were assessed. Based on the field measurements and the inverse modeling results, the effects of the engineering treatments of the leakage event on the dam safety were analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the seepage control system is effective in lowering the groundwater level and limiting the amount of seepage in the dam foundation, and the leakage event does not pose a threat to the safety of the dam.

  8. [Socioeconomic inequalities in the use of dental services: a study of Mexican schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Márquez-Corona, María de Lourdes; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Portillo-Núñez, Carlos López; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators and use of dental services in a sample of 3,048 Mexican schoolchildren. The dependent variable 'use of dental services' and independent variables were collected through a questionnaire addressed to mothers. To determine oral health needs, a clinical oral examination was performed. The adjusted associations were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression. Adjusted by gender, the categories associated with both preventive and curative services were age, greater frequency of brushing, earlier initiation of brushing, healthcare coverage, and better socioeconomic status. In addition, for preventive services only, use of services was associated with enrolment in private school, and for curative services only, family's possession of an automobile and having moderate to high oral health needs. The results suggest the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in the use of both preventive and curative dental services by Mexican children.

  9. Sensory Adapted Dental Environments to Enhance Oral Care for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cermak, Sharon A.; Stein Duker, Leah I.; Williams, Marian E.; Dawson, Michael E.; Lane, Christianne J.; Polido, José C.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot and feasibility study examined the impact of a sensory adapted dental environment (SADE) to reduce distress, sensory discomfort, and perception of pain during oral prophylaxis for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 44 children ages 6-12 (n=22 typical, n=22 ASD). In an experimental crossover design, each participant underwent two professional dental cleanings, one in a regular dental environment (RDE) and one in a SADE, administered in a randomized and counterbalanced order three to four months apart. Outcomes included measures of physiological anxiety, behavioral distress, pain intensity, and sensory discomfort. Both groups exhibited decreased physiological anxiety and reported lower pain and sensory discomfort in the SADE condition compared to RDE, indicating a beneficial effect of the SADE. PMID:25931290

  10. Self-efficacy and oral hygiene beliefs about toothbrushing in dental patients: a model-guided study.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Buchanan, Heather; Frousiounioti, Sofia; Niakas, Dimitris; Potamianos, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    Building on previous research on psychosocial variables associated with oral hygiene behavior, this study examined the ability of Health Belief Model variables (perceived benefits, barriers, susceptibility, severity) and self-efficacy beliefs about toothbrushing to inform prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing frequency. To accomplish this goal, a sample of 125 dental patients completed self-report questionnaires and provided data on demographic and behavioral factors. A path analysis model with manifest variables was tested. Oral hygiene beliefs emerged as a multidimensional construct. Results suggested that stronger self-efficacy beliefs (β = .81) and greater perceived severity of oral diseases (β = .18) were related to increased toothbrushing frequency, which in turn was associated with better oral health status, as indicated by the total number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth due to dental caries (β = -.39). Possible strategies for improving oral health are discussed.

  11. Treatment effects of mandibular total arch distalization using a ramal plate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jonghan; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Sungkon; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Yoonji

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment effects after distalization of the mandibular dentition using ramal plates through lateral cephalograms. Methods Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and dental casts of 22 adult patients (11 males and 11 females; mean age, 23.9 ± 5.52 years) who received ramal plates for mandibular molar distalization were analyzed. The treatment effects and amount of distalization of the mandibular molars were calculated and tested for statistical significance. The significance level was set at p < 0.001. Results The mandibular first molar distalization at the crown and root were 2.10 mm (p < 0.001) and 0.81 mm (p = 0.011), respectively. In the evaluation of skeletal variables, there was a significant increase in the Wits appraisal (p < 0.001). In the evaluation of the soft tissue, there was no significant effect on upper lip position, but the lower lips showed a significant retraction of 2.2 mm (p < 0.001). Conclusions The mandibular molars showed a significant amount of distalization accompanied by limited extrusion and mesiobuccal rotation of the crowns. A ramal plate may be a viable device for mandibular total arch distalization in Class III patients who are reluctant to undergo orthognathic surgery. PMID:27478798

  12. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  13. Impact of a "TED-Style" presentation on potential patients' willingness to accept dental implant therapy: a one-group, pre-test post-test study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Henry; Abi-Nader, Samer

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE A survey was conducted to assess the impact of a TED-like educational session on participants' willingness to accept dental implant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Volunteers interested in having information about dental implant therapies were recruited and asked to complete a two-part survey before and after an educational session. The initial survey elicited demographic information, self-perceived knowledge on dental implants and willingness to this kind of treatment. A "TED-style" presentation that provided information about dental implant treatments was conducted before asking the participants to complete a second set of questions assessing the impact of the session. RESULTS The survey was completed by 104 individuals, 78.8% were women and the mean age was 66.5±10.8. Before the educational session, 76.0% of the participants refused dental implants mainly due to lack of knowledge. After the educational session, the rejection of dental implants decreased by almost four folds to 20.2%. CONCLUSION This study proved that an educational intervention can significantly increase willingness to accept treatment with dental implants in a segment of the population who is interested in having information about dental implant therapy. Furthermore, educational interventions, such as TED-like talks, might be useful to increase popular awareness on dental implant therapy. PMID:26816573

  14. Collapse displacements for a mechanism of spreading-induced supports in a masonry arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, Simona; Di Carlo, Fabio; Rinaldi, Zila

    2015-09-01

    Masonry arch systems and vaulted structures constitute a structural typology widely spread in the historical building heritage. Small displacements of the supports, due to different causes, among which subsidence of foundation systems or movements of underlying structures can lead the masonry arch to a condition of collapse because of gradual change in its geometry. This paper presents a tool, based on a kinematic approach, for the computation of the magnitude of the displacements that cause the collapse of circular arches subject to dead loads, and allows the evaluation of the related thrust value. A parametric study has been carried out in order to develop a deeper understanding of the influence of the involved parameters. In addition, analytic formulations of the maximum allowed displacement and the associated thrust are proposed. Finally, a case study related to the behavior of a masonry arch on spreading-induced abutments is undertaken and discussed.

  15. Premedication with midazolam in intellectually disabled dental patients: Intramuscular or oral administration? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068

  16. Optimization of microCT data processing for modelling of dental structures in orthodontic studies.

    PubMed

    Viecilli, R; Katona, T; Roberts, W

    2007-08-01

    Dental studies evaluating microCT output often examine resolution as a parameter that affects the data, but many other factors can influence image quality. The objective of this paper is to present the issues involved with the optimization of microCT data acquisition and processing for two biomechanical animal models. The first model evaluates surface and volumetric changes in root structure after in vitro fatigue loading of dog incisors. The second evaluates the in vivo morphometric bone and tooth responses to application of orthodontic force in inbred and transgenic mice. This type of data required specific magnification and noise control microCT settings to segment and render objects with acceptable definition. The proposed procedures enabled high definition rendering of changes in tooth and bone morphology in orthodontic studies. They also allowed for the construction of solid models for finite element analyses. PMID:17671859

  17. Plaque removal by dental floss or toothpicks. An intra-individual comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bergenholtz, A; Brithon, J

    1980-12-01

    The amount of plaque accumulation was assessed in an intraindividual study comprising 10 individuals. During different 2-week periods, the test subjects used nylon floss (unwaxed, waxed and specially treated), silk floss (unwaxed and waxed), Superfloss or triangular toothpicks for interdental tooth cleaning. Only teeth in contact with neighboring ones and with open interdental spaces were included in the study. The plaque removal of the interdental aids used was registered by estimating the amount of plaque present at the end of each experimental period according to a Plaque Index (Silness & Löe 1964) modified for plaque registration on 10 surface units around each tooth. In general, dental floss had a higher plaque removing potential than triangular toothpicks, especially on lingual axial surfaces.

  18. [Comparative study bone tissue temperature changes by using conventional and piezosurgical methods in dental implantology].

    PubMed

    Kulakov, A A; Vinnichenko, O Yu; Badalyan, V A

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory study compared thermal bone lesion by the formation of dental implant bed using traditional and piezosurgical method with varying degrees of irrigation. The study was carried out on cadaveric mandible and porcine mandible with preserved soft tissues. Implant bed was formed by Implantmed dispenser (W&H, Austria) and AstraTech drills (Sweden) according to standard clinical protocol or by piezosurgical device Implant Center (Satelec Acteon Group, France) with Intra Lift II (Satelec Acteon Group, Франция) and №1 scalpel tips with D1 power under minimal and maximal irrigation. The results showed that the formation of the bone bed was safe when using both conventional and piezosurgical method under copious irrigation. The possibility of bone tissue thermal damage increases when using minimum irrigation or no irrigation.

  19. Interdisciplinary, web-based, self-study, interactive programs in the dental undergraduate program: a pilot.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard B; Walker, Stephanie R; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Spero, Lawrence

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this project was to encourage interdisciplinary, integrative health teaching and research in dental education through the development of web-accessible programs, collectively called the "StudyWeb." The specific objective of the project was the construction and integration of a series of prototypes of self-study modules. Four pilot modules were developed using existing teaching materials in histology, pharmacology, prosthodontics, and oral radiology and utilizing a variety of widely available software programs, including FrontPage and Photoshop. Low-end technological choices were made in order to facilitate compatibility with a wide range of hardware, software, and types of Internet access. Modules were tested for functionality, usability, and ease of navigation. The scope of the initial project was limited to development and functionality testing of the original modules. The next phase of this project will involve testing of the effectiveness of these web-based self-instruction tools.

  20. Study on antibacterial dental resin using tri-n-butyl(4-vinylbenzyl)phosphonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Shigeaki; Hamada, Nobushiro; Kanazawa, Akihiko; Endo, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of a polymeric phosphonium salt were studied to determine its suitability as an additive to develop an antibacterial dental resin. The phosphonium salt monomer studied was tri-n-butyl(4-vinylbenzyl)phosphonium chloride (VP), and acrylic acid (AC) and methacryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MA) were used as controls. The antibacterial activity of these monomers and their corresponding polymers (PVP, PAC, and PMA) against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) was examined. When incubating S. mutans in a medium containing 10 μmol/mL for 24 hours, the antibacterial activity of PVP against S. mutans was high, while the antibacterial activity of PMA and VP was lower. AC, PAC and PMA exhibited the lowest antibacterial activity. The mechanical properties of the copolymers of methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and VP decreased as VP content increased, and were lower than those of poly(methyl methacrylate).

  1. Complex Atheromatosis of the Aortic Arch in Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Capmany, Ramón Pujadas; Ibañez, Montserrat Oliveras; Pesquer, Xavier Jané

    2010-01-01

    In many stroke patients it is not possible to establish the etiology of stroke. However, in the last two decades, the use of transesophageal echocardiography in patients with stroke of uncertain etiology reveals atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic arch, which often protrude into the lumen and have mobile components in a high percentage of cases. Several autopsy series and retrospective studies of cases and controls have shown an association between aortic arch atheroma and arterial embolism, which was later confirmed by prospectively designed studies. The association with ischemic stroke was particularly strong when atheromas were located proximal to the ostium of the left subclavian artery, when the plaque was ≥ 4 mm thick and particularly when mobile components are present. In these cases, aspirin might not prevent adequately new arterial ischemic events especially stroke. Here we review the evidence of aortic arch atheroma as an independent risk factor for stroke and arterial embolism, including clinical and pathological data on atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta as an embolic source. In addition, the impact of complex plaques (≥ 4 mm thick, or with mobile components) on increasing the risk of stroke is also reviewed. In non-randomized retrospective studies anticoagulation was superior to antiplatelet therapy in patients with stroke and aortic arch plaques with mobile components. In a retrospective case-control study, statins significantly reduced the relative risk of new vascular events. However, given the limited data available and its retrospective nature, randomized prospective studies are needed to establish the optimal secondary prevention therapeutic regimens in these high risk patients. PMID:21804777

  2. Dental Hygiene Faculty Calibration Using Two Accepted Standards for Calculus Detection: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Lisa J; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Peterson, Teri; Bowen, Denise M

    2016-08-01

    Faculty calibration studies for calculus detection use two different standards for examiner evaluation, yet the only therapeutic modality that can be used for nonsurgical periodontal treatment is scaling/root debridement or planing. In this study, a pretest-posttest design was used to assess the feasibility of faculty calibration for calculus detection using two accepted standards: that established by the Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Inc. (CRDTS; readily detectible calculus) and the gold standard for scaling/root debridement (root roughness). Four clinical dental hygiene faculty members out of five possible participants at Halifax Community College agreed to participate. The participants explored calculus on the 16 assigned teeth (64 surfaces) of four patients. Calculus detection scores were calculated before and after training. Kappa averages using CRDTS criteria were 0.561 at pretest and 0.631 at posttest. Kappa scores using the scaling/root debridement or planing standard were 0.152 at pretest and 0.271 at posttest. The scores indicated improvement from moderate (Kappa=0.41-0.60) to substantial agreement (Kappa=0.61-0.80) following training using the CRDTS standard. Although this result differed qualitatively and Kappas were significantly different from 0, the differences for pre- to post-Kappas for patient-rater dyads using CRDTS were not statistically significant (p=0.778). There was no difference (p=0.913) in Kappa scores pre- to post-training using the scaling/root debridement standard. Despite the small number of participants in this study, the results indicated that training to improve interrater reliability to substantial agreement was feasible using the CRDTS standard but not using the gold standard. The difference may have been due to greater difficulty in attaining agreement regarding root roughness. Future studies should include multiple training sessions with patients using the same standard for scaling/root debridement used for

  3. Maxillary Arch Dimensions and Spectral Characteristics of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Produce Middorsum Palatal Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…

  4. Association of dental and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A retrospective case controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the association of oral hygiene, dental caries, and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods A retrospective case-control study on 81 patients treated for neoplasms with bone metastases. Twenty-nine patients with bone necrosis and 52 controls treated with bisphosphonates were compared using the Oral Hygiene Index, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, and Residual Periodontal Bone. The null hypothesis stated that there was no difference in parameters of oral health between patients with and without bone necrosis. Differences of means of above-mentioned variables were compared between the groups with Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test and χ2 test. Value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Poorer oral hygiene (OHIs 1.94 vs. 1.32; p = 0.065), more advanced dental caries (DMFT 26.85 vs. 22.87; p = 0.05), and more advanced periodontal disease (CPITN: = 0: 21.05% vs. 42.51%; = 1 13.16% vs. 7.29%; = 2: 0% vs. 15.38%; = 3: 65.79% vs. 28.34%; = 4: 0% vs. 6.48%, Residual periodontal bone 73.1% vs. 80.51%; p = 0,001) were characteristic of patients with bisphosphonate related jaw necrosis when compared with control group. An advanced dental caries or periodontal disease required surgical intervention which directly contributed to the development of the bone necrosis. Conclusions Dental and periodontal disease can lead to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oncologic patients treated with bisphosphonates should be offered preventive care to reduce dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, and periodontal disease. PMID:24701224

  5. Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude towards Emergency Management of Dental Trauma among the Parents of Kolkata-An Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Parul; Angrish, Paras; Saha, Subrata; Patra, Tamal Kanti; Saha, Nilanjana; Mitra, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic dental injuries are one of the commonly encountered dental emergencies. Missing anterior tooth in children due to any injury can be a source of considerable physical and psychological discomfort for the child. The prognosis of some dental injuries depends to a great extent on parents’ knowledge of correct and prompt emergency measures. Aim The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness level of parents regarding the emergency management of dental trauma and to find out the relation of the responses to social variables. Materials and Methods A total of 2000 parents were surveyed over a period of three months using a pretested close ended questionnaire prepared in English, Hindi as well as in the regional language which was divided into three parts: Part 1 contained questions on personal information, Part 2 on an imaginary case of trauma to assess their knowledge regarding trauma management and Part 3 related to their attitude towards dental trauma management education. The data was statistically analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results The overall knowledge of parents regarding emergency management of trauma was not satisfactory. Although most of the people were in favour of taking professional consultation for emergency management of trauma but most of them were unaware of the steps that need to be taken on their part so as to minimize complications and improve prognosis. Conclusion Educational campaigns are the need of the day to increase the knowledge of parents regarding emergency management of dental trauma. PMID:27630963

  6. From Theory to Application: A Study of Knowledge Transfer in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltz, Ivy D.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, dental education is divided into two phases: pre-clinical and clinical education. The pre-clinical phase of dental education includes the assimilation of theoretical topical knowledge in addition to the completion of simulated exercises. Upon completion of and demonstration of competency in their pre-clinical courses, students begin…

  7. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. PMID:22610892

  8. Radiation Dosimetry Study in Dental Enamel of Human Tooth Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Tania; Romanyukha, Alex; Pass, Barry; Misra, Prabhakar

    2009-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of tooth enamel is used for individual dose reconstruction following radiation accidents. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid, minimally invasive technique of obtaining a sample of dental enamel small enough to not disturb the structure and functionality of a tooth and to improve the sensitivity of the spectral signals using X-band (9.4 GHz) and Q-band (34 GHz) EPR technique. In this study EPR measurements in X-band were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples and Q-band was performed on 4 mg, 1×1×3 mm enamel biopsy samples. All samples were obtained from discarded teeth collected during normal dental treatment. To study the variation of the Radiation-Induced Signal (RIS) at different orientations in the applied magnetic field, samples were placed in the resonance cavity for Q-band EPR. X-band EPR measurements were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples. In X-band spectra, the RIS is distinct from the "native" radiation-independent signal only for doses >0.5 Gy. Q-band, however, resolves the RIS and "native" signals and improves sensitivity by a factor of 20, enabling measurements in 2-4 mg tooth enamel samples, as compared to 100 mg for X-band. The estimated lower limit of Q-band dose measurement is 0.5 Gy. Q-band EPR enamel dosimetry results in greater sensitivity and smaller sample size through enhanced spectral resolution. Thus, this can be a valuable technique for population triage in the event of detonation of a radiation dispersal device ("dirty" bomb) or other radiation event with massive casualties. Further, the small 4 mg samples can be obtained by a minimally-invasive biopsy technique.

  9. Antibiotic prescribing for dental conditions: a community-based study in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, G; Arcoraci, V; Blandino, G; Miragliotta, G; Schito, A M; Pasquantonio, G; Nicoletti, G; Caputi, A P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate for which conditions antibiotics are being used in community dental practice, and which clinical features represent the most common reason for an antibacterial approach to the treatment of dental conditions. The study was carried out from November 1998 to June 1999. Dentists were selected according to the different areas of southern Italy, from a list provided by the Italian Society of Dentists. Out of 87 selected dentists, 33 agreed to participate and filled in 1615 questionnaires for each therapeutic intervention ending with antibiotic treatment. Analysis of data indicated that alveolar-gingival abscesses were the most commonly treated infection, accounting for 23.6% of total treatments, followed by acute periodontitis (20.6%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (18.5%). Parenteral antibiotics were chosen in 7.8% of cases. Penicillins were the most commonly used group, 40.1% of total treatments, followed by macrolides (30.2%) and cephalosporins (13.4%). Moreover, penicillins were widely used for post-surgery therapy (52.1%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (50.8%), while macrolides were the most commonly used group for gingivitis (44.1%) and parodontal diseases (55.0%). The choice of parenteral antibiotics was related to severe general symptoms (odds ratios [OR], 4.4; 95% CI: 2.2-9.0), pain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.1) and lymphonodal involvement (OR, 6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that antibiotic treatment is often based on the eradication of as many microorganisms as possible, and on the clinical assessment of the patients, rather than on any knowledge of the pathogens involved. PMID:11892902

  10. In vitro study on dental erosion provoked by various beverages using electron probe microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Willershausen, B; Schulz-Dobrick, B

    2004-09-29

    Tooth erosion is often based on chemical processes, among others the use of soft drinks or diverse beverages. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyse the erosive potential of different acidic beverages. Over a time span of 6 hours, dental slices (n=6 slices per tooth) from fully retained wisdom teeth were incubated with different beverages (coca cola, ice tea with lemon, apple juice and white wine). The controls were incubated with a 0.9% sodium chloride solution under the same conditions (37 degrees C, humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air). The quantitative elementary analysis for calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and other trace elements in the dental slices in various depths ranging from 5 to 50 microm was carried out using an electron probe micro-analyser (Jeol JXA 8900RL). A beverage-induced loss of minerals, particularly of the 2 main components calcium and phosphorus, especially in the uppermost layers of the enamel down to a depth of 30 microm could be observed. In the depth of 10 microm, the following total mineral loss could be determined: white wine (16%), coca cola (14.5%), apple juice (6.5%) and ice tea with lemon (6.5%). A direct correlation between the loss of minerals and the pH value of the beverages was not observed, because of the buffering effect of the drinks. The conversion of the weight percentages from the chemical analysis of Ca and P to their atomic percentages showed that during erosion the 2 main components were not dissolved in significantly different percentages. In this study the erosive potential of the tested soft drinks and other beverages could be demonstrated. However, it must be considered that numerous modifying factors influence the enamel surface, so an extrapolation from the in vitro study to an in vivo situation can only be applied with caution.

  11. Arch of the foot and postural balance in young judokas and peers.

    PubMed

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Wardzala, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Twenty-nine male judocas and nontraining peers participated in this study. The arch of the foot (as Clarke's angular values) was measured under non-weight-bearing conditions in two-leg and one-leg stands. Postural balance was assessed by the Flamingo balance test. Judocas presented better static balance and higher arches of the foot. Significant differences in Clarke's angular values in a sitting and standing on two-leg position were found in both groups. After transition to a one-leg stand, the height of the arches of the foot in nontraining participants was still significantly decreased. Weight bearing did not affect Clarke's angular values in judokas. A correlation was found between the Flamingo test and Clarke's angle. Better balance was observed in adolescents with higher arch of the foot. PMID:26110217

  12. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  13. Sensory Adapted Dental Environments to Enhance Oral Care for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cermak, Sharon A.; Stein Duker, Leah I.; Williams, Marian E.; Dawson, Michael E.; Lane, Christianne J.; Polido, José C.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot and feasibility study examined the impact of a sensory adapted dental environment (SADE) to reduce distress, sensory discomfort, and perception of pain during oral prophylaxis for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 44 children ages 6-12 (n = 22 typical, n = 22 ASD). In an experimental crossover design, each…

  14. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-01-01

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  15. A Comparison Between Lecture and Independent Study Methods of Instruction in Dental Radiology with Provision for Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Richard M.; Mazzocco, Daniel M.

    Hypothesizing that experimentation with various teaching methodologies and individual student differences may show certain teaching methods to be more effective than others for a certain type of student, the authors studied the application of such experimentation to a portion of the radiology sequence in the dental curriculum. A review of the…

  16. 'Healthy gums do matter': A case study of clinical leadership within primary dental care.

    PubMed

    Moore, D; Saleem, S; Hawthorn, E; Pealing, R; Ashley, M; Bridgman, C

    2015-09-25

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 heralded wide reaching reforms intended to place clinicians at the heart of the health service. For NHS general dental practice, the conduits for this clinical leadership are the NHS England local professional networks. In Greater Manchester, the local professional network has developed and piloted a clinician led quality improvement project: 'Healthy Gums