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Sample records for dental articulators

  1. Virtual articulator for the analysis of dental occlusion: An update

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2012-01-01

    The future of dental practice is closely linked to the utilization of computer-based technology, specifically virtual reality, which allows the dental surgeon to simulate true life situations in patients. The virtual articulator has been designed for the exhaustive analysis of static and dynamic occlusion, with the purpose of substituting mechanical articulators and avoiding their errors. These tools will help both odontologists and dental prosthetists to provide the best individualized treatment for each patient. The present review analyzes the studies published in the literature on the design, functioning and applications of virtual articulators. A Medline-PubMed search was made of dental journals, with the identification of 137 articles, of which 16 were finally selected. The virtual articulator can simulate the specific masticatory movement of the patient. During mandibular animation, the program calculates the sites where the opposing teeth come into contact. The studies made to assess the reliability of the virtual articulator show good correspondence in visualization of the number and position of the dynamic contacts. The virtual articulator is a precise tool for the full analysis of occlusion in a real patient. Key words: Virtual articulator, dental occlusion, dental articulator. PMID:22157663

  2. Articulation in dental hygiene education from the student's perspective.

    PubMed

    Glick, N L

    1989-01-01

    Articulation deals with the transfer of associate degree and certificate dental hygiene students to four-year colleges or universities to complete baccalaureate degrees in the most efficient manner possible. Since a buyer's market exists in higher education at the present time, informed student consumers can select degree completion programs that will best meet their specific long-term career goals. The advantages of securing the bachelor's degree, the degree completion options available, and the factors that affect the articulation process are discussed. Recommendations are offered on how to acquire information about degree completion programs. Questions that students should ask before making a final choice of a four-year institution are also presented. Advance planning by students is a key to future mobility and career adaptability in dental hygiene. To this end, high school and college counselors and faculty members in all dental hygiene programs are instrumental in the articulation process.

  3. Articulated dental cast analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic populations

    PubMed Central

    Cordray, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324

  4. An Articulation Model in Dental Assisting for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylves, Jane M.; Boody, Sandra

    A curriculum development project was conducted to generate additional competency-based modules to be used within the articulation model for Pennsylvania dental assisting programs, established in 1988. Project activities included reviewing, modifying, and providing parallel competency-based structure for the courses at the A.W. Beattie Technical…

  5. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articulator. 872.3150 Section 872.3150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3150 Articulator. (a) Identification. An articulator is a...

  11. Effectiveness of systematic articulation training program accessing computers (SATPAC) approach to remediate dentalized and interdental /s, z/: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Flipsen, Peter; Sacks, Stephen; Neils-Strunjas, Jean

    2013-10-01

    Traditional methods for treating speech distortion errors in older school-age children have tended to yield mixed success. The current study was a preliminary evaluation of an alternative approach called the Systematic Articulation Training Program Accessing Computers (SATPAC), which was tested for the remediation of /s/ and /z/. Procedures involved a sequence of phonetic placement and/or oral-motor placement cues as needed to establish the targets, followed by concentrated drill structured around a facilitating context nonsense word and then advanced to more natural contexts. Participants were 18 children aged 6 years, 9 months to 11 years, 10 months. Treatment involved once per week, individual, 10-min. sessions with an experienced speech-language pathologist. Group A (n = 9) received 15 weeks of treatment, while treatment was delayed for Group B (n = 9). Then the groups were reversed. During period one, Group A (treated) significantly improved their accuracy of /s, z/ in spontaneous speech, while Group B (untreated) showed no significant change. During period two, Group B improved significantly when treatment was applied. The majority of the participants retained proficiency two years later.

  12. Advancing Health Promotion in Dentistry: Articulating an Integrative Approach to Coaching Oral Health Behavior Change in the Dental Setting

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Oral health is managed based on objective measures such as the presence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. In recent years, oral health researchers and practitioners have shown increasing interest in a widened array of physical, psychological, and social factors found to influence patients’ oral health. In this article, we introduce a behavior change coaching approach that can be used to enhance psychosocial diagnosis and client-centered delivery of health-promoting interventions. Briefly, this health coaching approach is based on an interactive assessment (both physical and psychological), a non-judgmental exploration of patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, a mapping of patient behaviors that may contribute to disease progression, gauging patient motivation, and tailoring health communication to encourage health-promoting behavior change. Developed in a clinical setting, this coaching model is supported by interdisciplinary theory, research, and practice on health behavior change. We suggest that, with supervision, this coaching process may be learned. PMID:26457237

  13. Advancing Health Promotion in Dentistry: Articulating an Integrative Approach to Coaching Oral Health Behavior Change in the Dental Setting.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lance T; Howard, Anita R

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is managed based on objective measures such as the presence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. In recent years, oral health researchers and practitioners have shown increasing interest in a widened array of physical, psychological, and social factors found to influence patients' oral health. In this article, we introduce a behavior change coaching approach that can be used to enhance psychosocial diagnosis and client-centered delivery of health-promoting interventions. Briefly, this health coaching approach is based on an interactive assessment (both physical and psychological), a non-judgmental exploration of patients' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, a mapping of patient behaviors that may contribute to disease progression, gauging patient motivation, and tailoring health communication to encourage health-promoting behavior change. Developed in a clinical setting, this coaching model is supported by interdisciplinary theory, research, and practice on health behavior change. We suggest that, with supervision, this coaching process may be learned.

  14. Intersegmental Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CATESOL Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodically devotes entire issues to specific themes. The theme of this issue is "Intersegmental Articulation" (especially in California schools). Articles include: "Why Is ESL a Burning Issue?" (Robby Ching, Anne Ediger, Debbie Poole); "Challenges Facing California ESL…

  15. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  16. The Role of Virtual Articulator in Prosthetic and Restorative Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Aljanakh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator. PMID:25177664

  17. Articulation: The Continuing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, Stephen

    1975-01-01

    Calls for increased attention by colleges to articulate their efforts with those of earlier schooling, out of school learning, and subsequent life-long learning, both formal and informal. Discusses various social trends which increase the need for attention to articulation. (JT)

  18. Articulation Report, December 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    Focusing on data from 1991 to 1993, this articulation report provides information on students enrolled in Florida's State University System (SUS). Prior to enrolling in their respective universities, these students attended one of Florida's 28 public community colleges. Following an overview of articulation in Florida, 15 tables are provided,…

  19. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  20. Competencies for Articulation: Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Community Coll., Lincoln, NE.

    Designed to help articulate vocational education student progress from one level of training to another and to employment, this electronics education guide lists competencies for soldering; performing basic operations with test equipment; servicing basic logic circuits; servicing DC power supplies; servicing solid state amplifiers; and servicing…

  1. Articulation Costing. Phase II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Within the British Columbia post-secondary system, significant numbers of students transfer among colleges, institutes, universities and university colleges. These transfers may be handled individually student by student or through a set of articulation agreements administered and facilitated by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and…

  2. Articulation Agreements: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

    Designed to assist the Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education (NCCPE) in the development of a statewide policy for transfer of credit from two- and four-year postsecondary institutions and a smooth transition from secondary to postsecondary learning, this report describes articulation agreements and cooperative programs in…

  3. Competencies for Articulation: Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Community Coll., Lincoln, NE.

    Designed to help articulate vocational education student progress from one level of training to another and to employment, this drafting guide lists competencies for a core curriculum prerequisite to all drafting areas and competencies for machine, architectural, and civil drafting. The format for each competency is task statement, list of…

  4. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  5. Acceptance of the Video Articulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Frederick S.

    Described are basic electronic features and results of research on the Video Articulator, an electrovisual speech analyzing device which has been used in speech training for the hearing impaired. Data are presented from studies of the validity and reliability of video patterns produced by various speakers using the Video Articulator and by the…

  6. Articulating Success in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

  7. Articulation Workbook for Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Doris; And Others

    The first part of this workbook reviews and advocates articulation between high school cooperative education programs and vocational programs in higher education. It begins by defining some of the most common terms used to describe articulation, such as "tech prep" and "2+2", and for the implementation of articulation…

  8. The psychoacoustics of musical articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelberg, Scott Charles

    This dissertation develops psychoacoustical definitions of notated articulations, the necessary first step in articulation research. This research can be useful to theorists interested in timbre analysis, the psychology of performance, analysis and performance, the psychology of style differentiation, and performance pedagogy. An explanation of wavelet transforms precedes the development of new techniques for analyzing transient sounds. A history of timbre perception research reveals the inadequacies of current sound segmentation models, resulting in the creation of a new model, the Pitch/Amplitude/Centroid Trajectory (PACT) model of sound segmentation. The new analysis techniques and PACT model are used to analyze recordings of performers playing a melodic fragment in a series of notated articulations. Statistical tests showed that the performers generally agreed on the interpretation of five different articulation groups. A cognitive test of articulation similarity, using musicians and non-musicians as participants, revealed a close correlation between similarity judgments and physical attributes, though additional unknown factors are clearly present. A second psychological test explored the perceptual salience of articulation notation, by asking musically-trained participants to match stimuli to the same notations the performers used. The participants also marked verbal descriptors for each articulation, such as short/long, sharp/dull, loud/soft, harsh/gentle, and normal/extreme. These results were matched against the results of Chapters Five and Six, providing an overall interpretation of the psychoacoustics of articulation.

  9. Articulation Telecommunication Project 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    The Articulation Committee Telecommunication project was undertaken to assess how communications technologies are currently being used to facilitate articulation committee business across the province of British Columbia (BC). The project provided an opportunity to determine the level of use of communications technologies such as e-mail, list…

  10. Articulating Success in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

  11. Lingual articulation in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, Roderick A.; Rothgerber, John R.; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lingual articulation in humans is one of the primary means of vocal tract resonance filtering that produces the characteristic vowel formants of speech. In songbirds, the function of the tongue in song has not been thoroughly examined, although recent research has identified the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity as a resonance filter that is actively tuned to the frequency of the song. In northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), the volume of this cavity is inversely proportional to the frequency of the song above 2 kHz. However, cardinal song extends below this range, leaving the question of whether and how the vocal tract is tracking these low frequencies. We investigated the possible role of the tongue in vocal tract filtering using X-ray cineradiography of northern cardinals. Below 2 kHz, there was prominent tongue elevation in which the tip of the tongue was raised until it seemed to touch the palate. These results suggest that tongue elevation lowers the resonance frequency below 2 kHz by reducing the area of the passage from the oral cavity into the beak. This is consistent with a computational model of the songbird vocal tract in which resonance frequencies are actively adjusted by both changing the volume of the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity and constricting the opening into the beak. PMID:26685174

  12. Articulation points in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  13. Articulation points in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks. PMID:28139697

  14. Fluid simulation with articulated bodies.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Nipun; Wojtan, Chris; Carlson, Mark; Essa, Irfan; Mucha, Peter J; Turk, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for creating realistic animations of characters that are swimming through fluids. Our approach combines dynamic simulation with data-driven kinematic motions (motion capture data) to produce realistic animation in a fluid. The interaction of the articulated body with the fluid is performed by incorporating joint constraints with rigid animation and by extending a solid/fluid coupling method to handle articulated chains. Our solver takes as input the current state of the simulation and calculates the angular and linear accelerations of the connected bodies needed to match a particular motion sequence for the articulated body. These accelerations are used to estimate the forces and torques that are then applied to each joint. Based on this approach, we demonstrate simulated swimming results for a variety of different strokes, including crawl, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. The ability to have articulated bodies interact with fluids also allows us to generate simulations of simple water creatures that are driven by simple controllers.

  15. Vowel articulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Skodda, Sabine; Visser, Wenke; Schlegel, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze vowel articulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) speakers suffering from mild hypokinetic dysarthria as compared with healthy controls in correlation to net speech rate (NSR) and intonation variability (F(0)SD). Furthermore, we intended to reveal possible correlations among vowel articulation, global motor performance, and stage of disease. We examined 68 PD patients (34 male) with mild dysarthria (1 point according to the "speech" item 18 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale/UPDRS-III) and 32 age-matched control persons (16 male) using a reading task with subsequent acoustical analysis. F1 and F2 frequency values of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ were extracted from defined words within the text. Description of vowel articulation was based on measures of triangular vowel space area (tVSA) and Vowel Articulation Index (VAI). PD patients were scored according to UPDRS-III and Hoehn and Yahr stages. VAI values were significantly reduced in male and female PD patients as compared with the accordant control group, whereas tVSA was only reduced in the male PD speakers. NSR was negatively correlated to tVSA and VAI only in female PD speakers. No correlations were seen between vowel articulation and UPDRS-III and stage of disease. VAI seem to be superior to tVSA in the description of impaired vowel articulation in PD. Reduced VAI could be detected in male and female parkinsonian speakers suffering only from mild dysarthria with preserved speech intelligibility and therefore might be applicable to identify subclinical changes of vowel articulation. Moreover, some aspects of altered speech performance in PD seem to feature some gender-specific patterns, which justify further investigation. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A newer approach in positioning teeth for dental prosthetics using lateral cephalometric, trans-cranial radiographs, and the Denar-Witzig articulator: a case of hypodontia in an adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Chapra, A; White, G E

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally in full denture prosthetics, anterior teeth are set on the models, independent of the effects on the face. More enlightened dentists, will then adjust the wax-up for speech, and some effects on the lips. Consideration is infrequently given to restoring the face by repositioning the teeth and mandible. Rarely is thought given to the effects of occlusion on the posture of the body. This report uses several techniques to restore facial esthetics and body posture. The techniques used include a cephalometric radiograph, transcranial radiographs, an articulator that has an adjustable "TMJ" (Denar-Witzig), and Symmetrigraf Posture Chart. This clinical report describes a newer approach in the positioning of maxillary anterior teeth for a patient with hypodontia and nail dysplasia syndrome, and the overall effect of this approach on the face and posture of the patient. Conventionally the precise form of the maxillary wax rim is fabricated with considerable variation from technician to another, based on the technicians training. This variation is evident on the position of the labial aspect of the rim horizontally and vertically. The wax rim is then further adjusted chair side based on subjective evaluation of the face. The maxillary anterior teeth position is established without considering that the lip position is not yet accustomed to the wax rim.

  17. Improving the digital workflow: direct transfer from patient to virtual articulator.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Minguez, Rikardo; Etxaniz, Olatz; Barrenetxea, Lander

    2013-01-01

    When designing a custom-made dental restoration, using a digital workflow represents an important advance over mechanical tools such as facebows or mechanical articulators. When using virtual scanning procedures, there is a direct transfer from the patient to the articulator. This paper presents a novel methodology to design custom-made restorations. This new approach permits the transfer of all data directly from the patient to the virtual articulator, always taking into account the kinematics of the mandible. Rapid further developments can be expected in the near future.

  18. Transforming Articulation Barriers in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Verle

    Barriers to educational mobility for nurses have existed since the mid-1960s. In 1963, the National League for Nursing (NLN) adopted a position that ruled out articulation of any kind between associate degree in nursing (ADN) and bachelors in science in nursing (BSN) programs. In the mid-1970s, a countermovement took shape, supporting open…

  19. Competencies for Articulation: Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Community Coll., Lincoln, NE.

    Competencies for Articulation materials have been developed by public schools, an educational district, and a community college in Nebraska to help vocational education students progress from one level of educational training to another and to employment. Their progress is to be measured by "competencies," each of which has three parts:…

  20. Associate/Bachelor Degree Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, L. Jim, Sr.

    Policies and procedures to promote articulation of associate degree with bachelor degree study are recommended based on the experience of Hawaii Pacific College, Honolulu. Consideration is given to: flexibility versus rigidity, competency versus curriculum specifics, corroboration and substantiation, and contingency versus once-for-all-award. It…

  1. Articulation: Alliances for the Future. Summary of Proceedings (Chicago, Illinois, March 4-6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A summary of proceedings of a conference on articulation by the American Dental Hygienists' Association is presented. Introductions to each paper are made by Cheryl Westphal. Papers are as follows: "Innovate or Rennovate?" (Connie Tussing); "Internal Forces Influencing Innovation" (Arch Lugenbeel); "Regional Linkage Programs" (Steven Jensen);…

  2. Articulation: Alliances for the Future. Summary of Proceedings (Chicago, Illinois, March 4-6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A summary of proceedings of a conference on articulation by the American Dental Hygienists' Association is presented. Introductions to each paper are made by Cheryl Westphal. Papers are as follows: "Innovate or Rennovate?" (Connie Tussing); "Internal Forces Influencing Innovation" (Arch Lugenbeel); "Regional Linkage Programs" (Steven Jensen);…

  3. FCC in Viking articulated boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application requirements and manufacturing techniques for the flat conductor cable used in the Viking Lander Articulated Boom Unit are described. The Viking Boom is a 3-axis device utilized to position a soil sampler and provide digging forces. This application imposed severe restrictions on size, weight, materials, and choice of manufacturing processes. The final cable assembly design resulted in a combination of collated cable and flexible circuits assembled by resistance welding techniques.

  4. Articulation in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defloor, Truus; Van Borsel, John; Curfs, Leopold

    2002-01-01

    This study examined articulation in 13 Dutch individuals (ages 7-29, IQs 38-83) with Prader-Willi syndrome using a picture naming test with transcribed samples subjected to analyses for articulation errors. Results suggest that the impaired articulation found is a function of IQ and that with increasing age, phonological problems gradually resolve…

  5. Articulation in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defloor, Truus; Van Borsel, John; Curfs, Leopold

    2002-01-01

    This study examined articulation in 13 Dutch individuals (ages 7-29, IQs 38-83) with Prader-Willi syndrome using a picture naming test with transcribed samples subjected to analyses for articulation errors. Results suggest that the impaired articulation found is a function of IQ and that with increasing age, phonological problems gradually resolve…

  6. Stimulus Picture Identification in Articulation Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Patricia A.; Whitehead, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Compared with 20 normal speaking and 20 articulation defective Ss (7 and 8 years old) was the percent of correct initial identification of stimulus pictures on the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation with the percent correct identification on the Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale. (Author/IM)

  7. Illinois Articulation Initiative in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    As part of the statewide Illinois Articulation Initiative, a panel was formed in October 1993 to develop a model articulated nursing curriculum and minimum nursing competencies. This report presents the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the panel. Following a brief introduction, the history of articulation efforts and policies in…

  8. The Value of Repetition in Articulation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    1970-01-01

    Exact analysis of an experiment involving children from the ages of 4 to 12 learning three new articulations revealed that most of the articulation learning took place on the second attempt with relatively moderate improvement in subsequent trials, thus placing the value of repetition in articulation learning in question. (FB)

  9. Influence of Articulating Paper Thickness on Occlusal Contacts Registration: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Brizuela-Velasco, Aritza; Álvarez-Arenal, Ángel; Ellakuria-Echevarria, Joseba; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Santamaría-Arrieta, Gorka; Martín-Blanco, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine if the occlusal contact surface registered with an articulating paper during fixed prosthodontic treatment was contained within the area marked on a thicker articulating paper. This information would optimize any necessary occlusal adjustment of a prosthesis' veneering material. A convenience sample of 15 patients who were being treated with an implant-supported fixed singleunit dental prosthesis was selected. Occlusal registrations were obtained from each patient using 12-μm, 40-μm, 80-μm, and 200-μm articulating paper. Photographs of the occlusal registrations were obtained, and pixel measurements of the surfaces were taken and overlapped for comparison. The results showed that the thicker the articulating paper, the larger the occlusal contact area obtained. The differences were statistically significant. In all cases, the occlusal registrations obtained with the thinnest articulating paper were contained within the area marked on the thickest articulating paper. The results suggested that the use of thin articulating papers (12-μm or 40-μm) can avoid unnecessary grinding of veneering material or teeth during occlusal adjustment.

  10. Dental Auxiliary Discipline Advisory Group Final Report. Kentucky Allied Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Education for the dental auxiliary professions in Kentucky and articulation within the field are examined, based on the Kentucky Allied Health Project (KAHP), which designed an articulated statewide system to promote entry and exit of personnel at a variety of educational levels. The KAHP model promotes articulation in learning, planning, and…

  11. Dental Auxiliary Discipline Advisory Group Final Report. Kentucky Allied Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Education for the dental auxiliary professions in Kentucky and articulation within the field are examined, based on the Kentucky Allied Health Project (KAHP), which designed an articulated statewide system to promote entry and exit of personnel at a variety of educational levels. The KAHP model promotes articulation in learning, planning, and…

  12. Ease of articulation: A replication.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Linda I; Cottrill, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Researchers, as well as the lay public and the popular press, have become increasingly concerned about the lack of reproducibility of research findings. Despite this concern, research has shown that replications of previously published work comprise a very small proportion of published studies. Moreover, there are fewer published direct replications of research studies by independent investigators, and this type of replication is much less likely to confirm the results of the original research than are replications by the original investigator or conceptual replications. A search of the communication disorders research literature reveals that direct replications by independent investigators are virtually non-existent. The purpose of this project was to describe the major issues related to research reproducibility and report the results of a direct replication of a study by Locke (1972) regarding ease of articulation. Two methods for rating ease of articulation were employed. We were able to reproduce the results of the original study for the first method, obtaining a moderate positive correlation between our rankings of phoneme difficulty and Locke's rankings. We obtained a very high positive correlation between our phoneme rankings and rankings obtained in the original study for the second method. Moreover, we found a higher correlation between difficulty rankings and order of speech sound acquisition for American English than was found in the original study. Direct replication is not necessary for all studies in communication disorders, but should be considered for high impact studies, treatment studies, and those that provide data to support models and theories. The reader will be able to: (1) describe the major concerns related to the replicability of research findings; (2) describe the status of research replications in communication disorders; (3) describe how ease of articulation may relate to the order of speech sound acquisition in children; (4) list some

  13. Statewide articulation for allied health: a conceptual model in action.

    PubMed

    King, E C; Breegle, G G; Carroll, K A; Geiger, F R; Lang, M J; Morris, F J

    1984-02-01

    Under the auspices of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education, and with the aim of delineating issues in allied health education and making recommendations for alleviating the issues, an indepth, two-year study was completed in 1975. The primary recommendations pertained to the development of a statewide plan for allied health education that would result in an articulated statewide system permitting entry and exit of prepared personnel at a variety of levels and improving inter-institutional efforts to share educational resources. In the following four years a foundation was laid for developing the system. An articulated system of allied health education was developed in six disciplinary clusters to serve as a model for other states: clinical laboratory, dental auxiliaries, dietetics/nutrition, rehabilitation therapies, radiological science, and respiratory therapy programs. All levels of programs within each discipline cluster existing in Kentucky are included in the system. The study includes a design phase and an implementation phase. During the design phase, six discipline advisory groups developed articulation models for the programs in each discipline. Implementation phase accomplishments include signed transfer agreements, development of model and core curricula, design for graduate follow-up, publications, development of manpower models, and increased cooperation among project participants.

  14. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  15. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey; Conley, Gerald; Diaz, Claudine; Dimella, Timothy; Dodson, Pete; Hykin, Jeff; Richards, Byron; Richardson, Kroy; Shetzer, Christie; Vandyke, Melissa

    1990-01-01

    A first generation lunar transportation vehicle was designed for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focussed on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. It's purpose will be for the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 kilometers). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the asronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include: a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat restraints, heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model was built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  16. Translation and articulation in biological motion perception.

    PubMed

    Masselink, Jana; Lappe, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Recent models of biological motion processing focus on the articulational aspect of human walking investigated by point-light figures walking in place. However, in real human walking, the change in the position of the limbs relative to each other (referred to as articulation) results in a change of body location in space over time (referred to as translation). In order to examine the role of this translational component on the perception of biological motion we designed three psychophysical experiments of facing (leftward/rightward) and articulation discrimination (forward/backward and leftward/rightward) of a point-light walker viewed from the side, varying translation direction (relative to articulation direction), the amount of local image motion, and trial duration. In a further set of a forward/backward and a leftward/rightward articulation task, we additionally tested the influence of translational speed, including catch trials without articulation. We found a perceptual bias in translation direction in all three discrimination tasks. In the case of facing discrimination the bias was limited to short stimulus presentation. Our results suggest an interaction of articulation analysis with the processing of translational motion leading to best articulation discrimination when translational direction and speed match articulation. Moreover, we conclude that the global motion of the center-of-mass of the dot pattern is more relevant to processing of translation than the local motion of the dots. Our findings highlight that translation is a relevant cue that should be integrated in models of human motion detection.

  17. The Articulation Committee Companion: 2011 Edition--A Resource for BC's Articulation Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola, Ed.; Orum, Jennifer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Articulation Committee Companion is designed to serve as both an introductory resource for new articulation committee members and as an ongoing reference for committees. The Companion includes a brief overview of the province's articulation committees and their essential role in the post-secondary system. In addition, the Companion outlines…

  18. The Articulation Committee Companion: A Resource for BC's Articulation Committees. 2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has designed "The Articulation Committee Companion" to serve as both an introductory resource for new articulation committee members and as an ongoing reference for committees. The "Companion" includes a brief overview of the province's articulation committees and…

  19. Report of the Transfer Articulation Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This report to the Arizona State Legislature describes a model transfer system developed by the Transfer Articulation Task Force, a cooperative effort among the state's universities and community colleges to improve articulation and transfer. Following an introduction to the Task Force, elements of the proposed transfer model are reviewed,…

  20. Competencies for Articulation: Auto Mechanics. Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Community Coll., Lincoln, NE.

    This booklet of tests is designed to accompany the booklet "Auto Mechanics: Competencies for Articulation"--ED 151 563. The written test questions suggest the knowledge level needed to accomplish the skills necessary to complete the competency. It is suggested that they may be used to assess the development of competencies or they may be…

  1. Towed Articulated Housing For Geophysical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James D.; Cantrell, James

    1992-01-01

    Snakelike articulated string of rigid shells towed by helicopter, boat, kite or balloon, carries scientific instruments over land and sea surfaces. Nested shells connected to internal chain by bolt covered by preceding cone. String articulates readily to negotiate obstacles, but locally stiff to lie across a narrow crevasse.

  2. Synthesis of Articulated All-Para Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    for the articulated polybenzobisoxazoles was found to decrease with increased content of the diphenoxybenzene structure. The articulated... polybenzobisoxazole structure was shown to be less stable than the analoguus polybe.zobisthiazole structure but much more stable than the articu- lated...have been spun into highly oriented fibers from methanesulfonic acid solutions. Fibers from the latter exhibited exceptionally high modulus and

  3. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articulator. 872.3150 Section 872.3150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... patient's teeth and gums are placed in the device to reproduce the occlusion (bite) and articulation...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articulator. 872.3150 Section 872.3150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... patient's teeth and gums are placed in the device to reproduce the occlusion (bite) and articulation...

  5. Articulation effects in melody recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Wee Hun Lim, Stephen; Goh, Winston D

    2013-09-01

    Various surface features-timbre, tempo, and pitch-influence melody recognition memory, but articulation format effects, if any, remain unknown. For the first time, these effects were examined. In Experiment 1, melodies that remained in the same, or appeared in a different but similar, articulation format from study to test were recognized better than were melodies that were presented in a distinct format at test. A similar articulation format adequately induced matching processes to enhance recognition. Experiment 2 revealed that melodies rated as perceptually dissimilar on the basis of the location of the articulation mismatch did not impair recognition performance, suggesting an important boundary condition for articulation format effects on memory recognition-the matching of the memory trace and recognition probe may depend more on the overall proportion, rather than the temporal location, of the mismatch. The present findings are discussed in terms of a global matching advantage hypothesis.

  6. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is used to fill cavities caused by ... tooth structure. Dental amalgam is one type of dental filling material used to repair tooth structure that has been ...

  7. Cast articulation accuracy using rigid cast stabilization.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Ronald Bruce; Siegel, Sharon Crane

    2002-06-01

    This study evaluated the positional accuracy of casts articulated on a semi-adjustable articulator, with and without rigid cast stabilization using either laboratory plaster or mounting plaster. A reference articulation of melamine casts in maximum articulation was established and recorded in the horizontal and vertical dimensions using a verification device. The same casts were subsequently remounted 24 times using either laboratory plaster or mounting plaster. Half of the articulations from each group were stabilized using detachable mounting rods and sticky wax, and half were hand-articulated without stabilization, for a total of 6 articulations in each of 4 test groups. The resulting spatial positions established on the articulator were compared to the initial reference position on the verification device grid. Means and standard deviations of the absolute values of the horizontal and vertical displacement for each group were determined separately and compared using a one-way anaylsis of variance. Significant differences (p <0.05) were identified using Tukey's honestly significant difference multiple comparison test. Mean vertical mandibular cast displacement ranged from 0.26 +/-0.21mm for stabilized casts mounted with laboratory plaster to 1.58 +/-0.32 mm for unstabilized casts mounted with mounting plaster. For each mounting material, significantly less vertical displacement (p <0.001) was observed with the mandibular cast stabilized before mounting. The cast mounted with laboratory plaster exhibited horizontal displacement (0.87 +/-0.29 mm) that was significantly greater than the remaining groups (p <0.001), which did not differ from each other. Rigid stabilization of the mandibular to maxillary cast during mounting with laboratory and mounting plaster improved articulation accuracy. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  9. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  10. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  11. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mechanical device intended to simulate movements of a patient's upper and lower jaws. Plaster casts of the... the patient's jaws. An articulator is intended to fit dentures or provide orthodontic treatment. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mechanical device intended to simulate movements of a patient's upper and lower jaws. Plaster casts of the... the patient's jaws. An articulator is intended to fit dentures or provide orthodontic treatment. (b...

  13. Reaction torque minimization techniques for articulated payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kral, Kevin; Aleman, Roberto M.

    1988-01-01

    Articulated payloads on spacecraft, such as antenna telemetry systems and robotic elements, impart reaction torques back into the vehicle which can significantly affect the performance of other payloads. This paper discusses ways to minimize the reaction torques of articulated payloads through command-shaping algorithms and unique control implementations. The effects of reaction torques encountered on Landsat are presented and compared with simulated and measured data of prototype systems employing these improvements.

  14. Transfer and Articulation: Gaining Institutional Support and Developing Regional Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipres, Elizabeth L.; Parish, Cynthia L.

    At Mount San Antonio College (MSAC) in Walnut, California, a full-time classified position of Articulation Specialist was created in 1989 to help the college's articulation officer establish the necessary articulation agreements for facilitating the transfer of MSAC students to four-year institutions. In addition, articulation officers from the 13…

  15. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  16. Nasalance, nasality, voice, and articulation after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Van Borsel, John; Moerman, Mieke; Van Cauwenberge, Paul

    2002-05-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine the impact of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on nasalance and nasality. It was hypothesized that nasalance would change from the presurgical to the postsurgical condition because the surgical protocol involves removal of palatal tissue. An additional objective of the study was to provide objective and subjective data about changes in voice and articulation after UPPP. Because the surgical procedure of UPPP does not involve laryngeal tissue, it was hypothesized that the voice characteristics remain relatively stable. Because of removal of effective velar length, articulation problems of the uvular /R/ can occur in the Dutch language. Prospective study in which 26 men were studied before (1 week before UPPP) and after (3 weeks after UPPP) surgery. The Nasometer was used to obtain nasalance scores. The mirror-fogging test, a perceptual evaluation of each subject's readings, and the Gutzmann and the Bzoch hypernasality tests were used for the assessment of nasality. For the assessment of articulation, a phonetic analysis was performed. Voice assessment included a perceptual rating of the voice and a determination of fundamental frequency. No significant differences were found between the conditions before and after surgery regarding nasalance (except for the vowel /i/), nasality, and voice. Regarding articulation, only 1 patient showed a derhotacized /R/. The findings of the study indicate that UPPP does not have an impact on nasality, voice, and articulation. Regarding nasalance, no significant nasalance change occurred after UPPP, except for the high vowel /i/.

  17. Articulation in Business Education for Secondary and Postsecondary Levels. Accounting Articulation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Ronnie J.

    Focusing on courses in accounting, this guide is one of a set of four articulation guides designed for articulating between secondary and postsecondary business education courses. (The other three guides focus on courses in typewriting, shorthand, and office procedures.) Each guide presents a general course description, outlines of the major units…

  18. The Articulation Committee Companion: 2009 Edition. A Resource for BC's Articulation Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola, Ed.; Orum, Jennifer, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has designed The Articulation Committee Companion to serve as both an introductory resource for new members and as an ongoing reference for committees. The Companion includes a brief overview of the province's articulation committees and their essential role in the post-secondary…

  19. Articulated Instruction Objectives Guide for Drafting. Final Document for Articulation of Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Wm. Edward, Jr.

    Intended for use in competency-based and criterion-referenced vocational programs, this articulated, performance-based instruction objectives guide for Drafting I is designed for reference use in the articulation of drafting programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels. It consists of a description of the development of the guide, 14…

  20. Gender Issues and Language Articulation; a Brief Look at Pros of Gender Neutral Language Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Pouria

    2009-01-01

    As with the language articulated by learners--in both oral and written form--the supremacy of a masculine language use is witnessed. This brings to light the fact that gender has been excessively an unobserved factor in the process of language teaching. Although learners are apparently used to forming masculine-centered articulation, non-sexist…

  1. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  2. Effects of surround articulation on lightness depend on the spatial arrangement of the articulated region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemach, Iris K.; Rudd, Michael E.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effect of surround articulation on the perceived lightness of a target disk. Surround articulation was manipulated by varying either the number of wedges in a surround consisting of wedges of alternating luminance or the number of checks in a surround consisting of a radial checkerboard pattern. In most conditions, increased articulation caused incremental targets to appear lighter and decremental targets to appear darker. But increasing the surround articulation in a way that did not increase the number of target-coaligned edges in the display did not affect the target lightness. We propose that the effects of surround articulation depend on the relationship between the orientations and contrast polarities of the target edges and those of edges present within the surround.

  3. Articulations of the ribs: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Sutro, C J; Sutro, W H

    1981-01-01

    The joints of the ribs are true articulations and may be involved by local or general affections of the skeleton. Scoliosis, kyphosis, infections, arthritis (local or general types) may result in fibrosis, abnormal configuration, or ankylosis of the joints in question. In certain types of fractures of the dorsal vertebrae, disruption of the contiguous rib articulations may result in fibrosis or bony depositions and secondarily aid in local stabilization of the fracture. Narrowing of the intercostal spaces, as noted in kyphosis, scoliosis, and arthritis of the dorsal region, does not seem to be routinely associated with clinical findings of intercostal neuralgia.

  4. Determining a relationship between applied occlusal load and articulating paper mark area.

    PubMed

    Carey, Jason P; Craig, Mark; Kerstein, Robert B; Radke, John

    2007-01-01

    Articulating paper mark size has been widely accepted in the dental community to be descriptive of occlusal load. The objective of this study is to determine if any direct relationship exists between articulating paper mark area and applied occlusal load. A uniaxial testing machine repeatedly applied a compressive load, beginning at 25N and incrementally continuing up to 450N, to a pair of epoxy dental casts with articulating paper interposed. The resultant paper markings (n = 600) were photographed, and analyzed the mark area using a photographic image analysis and sketching program. A two-tailed Student's t-test for unequal variances compared the measured size of the mark area between twelve different teeth (p < 0.05). Graphical interpretation of the data indicated that the mark area increased non-linearly with increasing load. When the data was grouped to compare consistency of the mark area between teeth, a high variability of mark area was observed between different teeth at the same applied load. The Student's t-test found significant differences in the size of the mark area approximately 80% of the time. No direct relationship between paper mark area and applied load could be found, although the trend showed increasing mark area with elevating load. When selecting teeth to adjust, an operator should not assume the size of paper markings, accurately describing the markings' occlusal contact force content.

  5. Determining a Relationship Between Applied Occlusal Load and Articulating Paper Mark Area

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Jason P; Craig, Mark; Kerstein, Robert B; Radke, John

    2007-01-01

    Articulating paper mark size has been widely accepted in the dental community to be descriptive of occlusal load. The objective of this study is to determine if any direct relationship exists between articulating paper mark area and applied occlusal load. A uniaxial testing machine repeatedly applied a compressive load, beginning at 25N and incrementally continuing up to 450N, to a pair of epoxy dental casts with articulating paper interposed. The resultant paper markings (n = 600) were photographed, and analyzed the mark area using a photographic image analysis and sketching program. A two-tailed Student’s t-test for unequal variances compared the measured size of the mark area between twelve different teeth (p < 0.05). Graphical interpretation of the data indicated that the mark area increased non-linearly with increasing load. When the data was grouped to compare consistency of the mark area between teeth, a high variability of mark area was observed between different teeth at the same applied load. The Student’s t-test found significant differences in the size of the mark area approximately 80% of the time. No direct relationship between paper mark area and applied load could be found, although the trend showed increasing mark area with elevating load. When selecting teeth to adjust, an operator should not assume the size of paper markings, accurately describing the markings’ occlusal contact force content. PMID:19088874

  6. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the direction of a dentist . They may prepare materials for dental impressions or to create temporary crowns. All dental ... Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for patients in hospitals and residents of ... more information about becoming a dental assistant and for a list of accredited dental ...

  7. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  8. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 7, Combining Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the seventh lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to the force combination. The topics are concerned with the definition and units of forces, sliding forces on inclined planes, and the equilibrant of two or more forces. The content is arranged in scrambled…

  9. Articulation in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Defloor, Truus; Van Borsel, John; Curfs, Leopold

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated articulation in 13 individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), chronological age from 7; 0 to 29; 5, total IQ from 38 to 83. To elicit a speech sample a picture-naming test was used. Pictures were chosen so that, when named correctly, they yield a sample containing instances of all Dutch single speech sounds and clusters in all permissible syllable positions. All samples were transcribed phonetically by a stringent transcription procedure, and reliability of the transcription was assessed both by an intra-observer and inter-observer reliability check. The transcribed speech samples were subjected to several analyses as to characterize articulation from different perspectives. It was found that articulation in persons with PWS is usually impaired. Results suggest that the overall error rate is a function of IQ, and that with increasing age, phonological problems gradually resolve while phonetic difficulties become more evident. The reader will learn about (1) clinical characteristics, etiology, incidence, and prevalence of Prader-Willi syndrome; (2) speech and language difficulties in Prader-Willi syndrome; (3) articulation characteristics in Prader-Willi syndrome.

  10. Gleanings from the Articulation Field: An Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Terrence F.

    1981-01-01

    Differing philosophical orientations of special and vocational education are noted, and suggestions are made to bring the disciplines closer together through a continuum of service responsibility, thus facilitating articulation, or transition, for the student. See also EC 133 816-822. (CL)

  11. Annual Report on Transfer and Articulation, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2008's Public Chapter 863, the General Assembly directed the Tennessee Higher Education Commission (THEC) to work with the University of Tennessee and the Tennessee Board of Regents to facilitate "universal articulation" of lower division "transfer paths" to baccalaureate majors. This legislation builds on a 2000 Act…

  12. Single Word versus Connected Speech Articulation Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study compared the productions of 35 articulation impaired children (ages 3 to 10) obtained by picture elicited single word and connected speech sampling methods. Productions were compared on the basis of both the number and type of errors made under the two testing conditions. (Author/PHR)

  13. Field Articulation: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaziar, Umran; Zumberg, Marshall F.

    The paper reviews studies of field articulation, that is, dimensions of field dependence-independence in social as well as perceptual domains. Field independence, one's ability to isolate an item from its surroundings, is contrasted with field dependence, manifested in one's difficulties analyzing and focusing on specific aspects of a task. The…

  14. Downward Articulation: The Bad and the Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berejikian, Harry

    These descriptions of articulation efforts between five community colleges and their feeder high schools were drawn from previous reports and from interviews with community college administrators. Interviews at two Los Angeles (California) community colleges revealed an attitude of unconcern toward maintaining a supply of high school graduates;…

  15. Welding Technology. A Competency Based Articulated Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbalm, Charles; And Others

    This document is a competency-based curriculum guide designed to promote articulation in welding technology programs between and among secondary and postsecondary institutions in the Indian Hills Community College and Merged Area XV high schools in Iowa. The guide is organized in eight sections. The first six sections provide background…

  16. The School and the Articulation of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovin, Robin W.

    1988-01-01

    Value neutrality and values clarification fail to foster critical thinking about values. The values articulation approach identifies the rationality that is applied to value claims. It avoids noncognitivism and moral relativism and suggests ways the discussion of values in the classroom prepares students to deal with broader moral issues. (VM)

  17. Articulation Workshop in Drafting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catonsville Community Coll., MD.

    Drafting students from vocational/technical and high schools frequently repeat the same experiences and courses and work with the same instructional materials when they enroll in college engineering drawing, and architecture programs. In order to minimize needless repetition and address the problem of articulation between such schools and the…

  18. Building Bridges: A K-16 Articulation Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Iain

    This paper paints the overall picture and contextualizes a project on K-16 articulation in southeastern Massachusetts. The paper first describes the project and then addresses three broad areas: the state climate in higher education in Massachusetts; the regional context of such a project within the southeastern area of the state; and the…

  19. Stem sarcopterygians have primitive polybasal fin articulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    Among osteichthyans, basal actinopterygian fishes (e.g. paddlefish and bowfins) have paired fins with three endoskeletal components (pro-, meso- and metapterygia) articulating with polybasal shoulder girdles, while sarcopterygian fishes (lungfish, coelacanths and relatives) have paired fins with one endoskeletal component (metapterygium) articulating with monobasal shoulder girdles. In the fin–limb transition, the origin of the sarcopterygian paired fins triggered new possibilities of fin articulation and movement, and established the proximal segments (stylopod and zeugopod) of the presumptive tetrapod limb. Several authors have stated that the monobasal paired fins in sarcopterygians evolved from a primitive polybasal condition. However, the fossil record has been silent on whether and when the inferred transition took place. Here we describe three-dimensionally preserved shoulder girdles of two stem sarcopterygians (Psarolepis and Achoania) from the Lower Devonian of Yunnan, which demonstrate that stem sarcopterygians have polybasal pectoral fin articulation as in basal actinopterygians. This finding provides a phylogenetic and temporal constraint for studying the origin of the stylopod, which must have originated within the stem sarcopterygian lineage through the loss of the propterygium and mesopterygium. PMID:19324642

  20. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 9, Universal Gravitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the ninth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials relating to universal gravitation are presented in this study guide. The subject is concerned with the quantitative meaning of the law of universal gravitation and its applications in astronomy. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix…

  1. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 10, Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the tenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials relating to circular motion are presented in this study guide. The topics are concerned with instantaneous velocity, centripetal force, centrifugal force, and satellite paths. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is…

  2. Vocational Education Articulation Project. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, E. Lynn

    This project report consists of several parts. The first section describes the project conducted to develop articulation agreements in vocational education between secondary and postsecondary institutions in Virginia. Outlines of the project's phases are provided; these include development of mini-project funding requests, awarding of funding,…

  3. Articulating Babel: An approach to cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, William C

    2013-12-01

    After an initial discussion of the character of interdisciplinary linkages between complex disciplines, I consider an area with confluences of many diverse disciplines-the study of cultural evolution. This must embrace not only the traditional biological sciences, but also the multiple often warring disciplines of the human sciences. This interdisciplinary articulation is in its early stages compared, e.g., to that of evolutionary biology or evolutionary developmental biology, and I try to lay out major axes along which its articulation should plausibly occur, given the relevant causal processes acting at different levels. One cannot have an adequate account of cultural evolution without recognizing a central role for cognitive and social development (since culture is cumulatively acquired by individuals through the life-cycle) and the social and cultural organizations and institutions and artifactual tools and infrastructure that support and structure these developmental processes. These induce a population structure that mediates the transmission, expression, and elaboration of culture, and in particular the different ways in which they scaffold learning and the development and articulation of complex skills. I consider how these elements should articulate the disciplines that tend to focus separately on them. Intentions and the market are not explicitly included in this account, and I consider ways in which these perspectives might enter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Articulation Research 2004: Summary of Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    Most junior syndicate teachers have concerns about the speech clarity of some of the children in their class. It is difficult for teachers to know whether to refer such students for speech assessments by their speech-language therapist. This article outlines a project which gathered New Zealand normative data for a test of articulation. A summary…

  5. Articulation Management for Intelligent Integration of Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Tran, Peter B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When combining data from distinct sources, there is a need to share meta-data and other knowledge about various source domains. Due to semantic inconsistencies and heterogeneity of representations, problems arise in combining multiple domains when the domains are merged. The knowledge that is irrelevant to the task of interoperation will be included, making the result unnecessarily complex. This heterogeneity problem can be eliminated by mediating the conflicts and managing the intersections of the domains. For interoperation and intelligent access to heterogeneous information, the focus is on the intersection of the knowledge, since intersection will define the required articulation rules. An algebra over domain has been proposed to use articulation rules to support disciplined manipulation of domain knowledge resources. The objective of a domain algebra is to provide the capability for interrogating many domain knowledge resources, which are largely semantically disjoint. The algebra supports formally the tasks of selecting, combining, extending, specializing, and modifying Components from a diverse set of domains. This paper presents a domain algebra and demonstrates the use of articulation rules to link declarative interfaces for Internet and enterprise applications. In particular, it discusses the articulation implementation as part of a production system capable of operating over the domain described by the IDL (interface description language) of objects registered in multiple CORBA servers.

  6. Characterization of articulated vehicles using ladar seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellfare, Michael R.; Norris-Zachery, Karen

    1997-08-01

    Many vehicle targets of interest to military automatic target recognition (ATR) possess articulating components: that is, they have components that change position relative to the main body. Many vehicles also have multiple configurations wherein one or more devices or objects may be added to enhance specific military or logistical capabilities. As the expected target set for military ATR becomes more comprehensive, many additional articulations and optional components must be handled. Mobile air defense units often include moving radar antennae as well as turreted guns and missile launchers. Surface-to-surface missile launchers may be encountered with or without missiles, and with the launch rails raised or lowered. Engineers and countermine vehicles have a tremendous number of possible configurations and even conventional battle tanks may very items such as external reactive armor, long- range tanks, turret azimuth, and gun elevation. These changes pose a significant barrier to the target identification process since they greatly increase the range of possible target signatures. When combined with variations already encountered due to target aspect changes, an extremely large number of possible signatures is formed. Conventional algorithms cannot process so many possibilities effectively, so in response, the matching process is often made less selective. This degrades identification performance, increase false alarm rates, and increases data requirements for algorithm testing and training. By explicitly involving articulation in the detection and identification stages of an ATR algorithm, more precise matching constraints can be applied, and better selectivity can be achieve. Additional benefits include the measurement of the position and orientation of articulated components, which often has tactical significance. In this paper, the result of a study investigating the impact of target articulation in ATR for military vehicles are presented. 3D ladar signature

  7. [Clinical characteristics and speech therapy of lingua-apical articulation disorder].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-hua; Jin, Xing-ming; Zhang, Yi-wen; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2006-03-01

    To explore the clinical characteristics and speech therapy of 62 children with lingua-apical articulation disorder. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Gesell development scales (Gesell), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Preschool Children (WPPSI) and speech test were performed for 62 children at the ages of 3 to 8 years with lingua-apical articulation disorder. PPVT was used to measure receptive vocabulary skills. GESELL and WPPSI were utilized to represent cognitive and non-verbal ability. The speech test was adopted to assess the speech development. The children received speech therapy and auxiliary oral-motor functional training once or twice a week. Firstly the target sound was identified according to the speech development milestone, then the method of speech localization was used to clarify the correct articulation placement and manner. It was needed to change food character and administer oral-motor functional training for children with oral motor dysfunction. The 62 cases with the apical articulation disorder were classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the articulation disorder was the most common (40 cases, 64.5%), the next was apico-dental disorder (15 cases, 24.2%). The third was palatal disorder (4 cases, 6.5%) and the last one was the linguo-alveolar disorder (3 cases, 4.8%). The substitution errors of velar were the most common (95.2%), the next was omission errors (30.6%) and the last was absence of aspiration (12.9%). Oral motor dysfunction was found in some children with problems such as disordered joint movement of tongue and head, unstable jaw, weak tongue strength and poor coordination of tongue movement. Some children had feeding problems such as preference of eating soft food, keeping food in mouths, eating slowly, and poor chewing. After 5 to 18 times of therapy, the effective rate of speech therapy reached 82.3%. The lingua-apical articulation disorders can be classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the

  8. Efficient dynamic constraints for animating articulated figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokkevis, E.; Metaxas, D.; Badler, N. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient dynamics-based computer animation system for simulating and controlling the motion of articulated figures. A non-trivial extension of Featherstone's O(n) recursive forward dynamics algorithm is derived which allows enforcing one or more constraints on the animated figures. We demonstrate how the constraint force evaluation algorithm we have developed makes it possible to simulate collisions between articulated figures, to compute the results of impulsive forces, to enforce joint limits, to model closed kinematic loops, and to robustly control motion at interactive rates. Particular care has been taken to make the algorithm not only fast, but also easy to implement and use. To better illustrate how the constraint force evaluation algorithm works, we provide pseudocode for its major components. Additionally, we analyze its computational complexity and finally we present examples demonstrating how our system has been used to generate interactive, physically correct complex motion with small user effort.

  9. EOS integrated payload articulation and identification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Milman, Mark; Bayard, David S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an autonomous control concept for pointing and articulation of science instruments on the EOS NASA/NOAA platforms intended to be operational by the late 1990s. Key features of this concept include advanced control adaptation and tuning strategies which provide performance robustness over a wide range of system uncertainties and mission time criticality. System identification-control modification paradigms are synthesized to form an adaptation continuum over this extended regime of autonomous operations.

  10. Articulated Deployment System for Antenna Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, M.; Borst, G.; Grimminck, M.; Robroek, M.; Geuskens, F.

    2015-09-01

    An articulated deployment system is developed for the deployment and pointing of antenna reflectors with a larger diameter and extended focal length. The articulated boom can be folded in several configurations to stow on the spacecraft sidewall. The boom, made of carbon fibre that is configured for a low CTE of better than ±0.3μm/m-K, deploys by means of spring-driven hinges interconnected via synchronisation cables and is controlled by an actuator. When fully deployed the hinges are latched, providing a stiff structure essential for disturbance-free pointing of the antenna. For pointing, the existing ADTM Mk2 gimbal by Airbus Defence and Space UK is used. The arm is mounted (repeatably) to the spacecraft with an adjustable range of ±7mm in all axes for coarse adjustment and mounted (repeatably) to the reflector with fine adjustment range of ±2mm and ±1.5°.The reflector boom has a modular design, which allows a wide range of mission configurations by tuning only a few design parameters such as limb length, deployment angles, and the number of articulations required to stow the boom.

  11. Secondary to Post-Secondary Articulation Project Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantano, Diane Garcia

    The articulation model presented in this handbook was developed by Santa Fe Community College as part of an articulation project conducted jointly with the Santa Fe Public School District in 1990-91. The purpose of the model is to provide guidelines for the development of articulation agreements between various secondary and post-secondary…

  12. Articulation in Schoolchildren and Adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosyns, Marjan; Mortier, Geert; Janssens, Sandra; Bogaert, Famke; D'Hondt, Stephanie; Van Borsel, John

    2012-01-01

    Several authors mentioned the occurrence of articulation problems in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population. However, few studies have undertaken a detailed analysis of the articulation skills of NF1 patients, especially in schoolchildren and adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in depth the articulation skills of…

  13. Side slope stability of articulated-frame logging tractors

    Treesearch

    H.G. Gibson; K.C. Elliott; S.P.E. Persson

    1971-01-01

    Many log or pulpwood transporting machines have hinged or articulated frames for steering. The articulated frame offers advantages for these machines, but the design introduces some problems in stability. We formulated and analyzed a mathematical model simulating stability of a 4-wheel-drive, articulated frame logging tractor (wheeled skidder) at static or low constant...

  14. The Perceived Effects of State Governance Decentralization on Baccalaureate Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconetti, Angela M. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Almost all community colleges provide baccalaureate degree access through the implementation of articulated programs of study called 2 + 2 agreements. Articulation agreements are designed to ensure that associate degree courses apply toward upper-level baccalaureate study. Florida has a long-standing statewide articulation policy that was highly…

  15. Articulation in Schoolchildren and Adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosyns, Marjan; Mortier, Geert; Janssens, Sandra; Bogaert, Famke; D'Hondt, Stephanie; Van Borsel, John

    2012-01-01

    Several authors mentioned the occurrence of articulation problems in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population. However, few studies have undertaken a detailed analysis of the articulation skills of NF1 patients, especially in schoolchildren and adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in depth the articulation skills of…

  16. Project MAVE - Model for Articulated Vocational Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Carol

    Based on the need to strengthen articulation activities within the Illinois educational system, this project was designed to provide a formal articulation mechanism utilizing the concept of institutional coordination for the development of comprehensive vocational programs and services. Phase 1 of the project developed an articulation process…

  17. Handbook of California Articulation Policies and Procedures (2001 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Sacramento.

    This handbook was written in order to assist Articulation Officers and others involved in the articulation process in California institutions of higher education. It is intended to be a guideline and comprehensive resource of articulation policies and practices. In California there are four postsecondary educational segments comprised of: (1) Ten…

  18. Dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is the core diagnostic modality of veterinary dentistry. Dental radiographs assist in detecting hidden painful pathology, estimating the severity of dental conditions, assessing treatment options, providing intraoperative guidance, and also serve to monitor success of prior treatments. Unfortunately, most professional veterinary training programs provide little or no training in veterinary dentistry in general or dental radiology in particular. Although a technical learning curve does exist, the techniques required for producing diagnostic films are not difficult to master. Regular use of dental x-rays will increase the amount of pathology detected, leading to healthier patients and happier clients who notice a difference in how their pet feels. This article covers equipment and materials needed to produce diagnostic intraoral dental films. A simplified guide for positioning will be presented, including a positioning "cheat sheet" to be placed next to the dental x-ray machine in the operatory. Additionally, digital dental radiograph systems will be described and trends for their future discussed.

  19. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  20. A secondary mandibular condylar articulation and collateral effects on a Late Neolithic mandible from Bois Madame rockshelter in Arbre, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Polet, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    A Neolithic Belgian mandible from Bois Madame rockshelter in Arbre presents an asymmetrical morphology resulting from a secondary, or false, articulation of the right mandibular condyle. The pathological articulation produced enlarged masseter, medial pterygoid and mylohyoid musculature on the right side as well as a flattening of the right incisal alveolus curvature. The secondary condylar articulation did not lead to pronounced asymmetry of attrition on the antimeres of the dental arcade. This is the most complete mandible from this Late Neolithic collective burial dating to the beginning of the Bronze Age circa 4000 years BP. It is possible that a fall or blow to the mental symphysis during early adolescence could have resulted in the partial intrusion of the mandibular condyle into the articulation disc of the temporomandibular joint capsule. When the affected condyle healed, a secondary, but serviceable articulation developed, producing unique stresses on the involved muscular tissue and ultimately resulted in an asymmetry of mandibular form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  2. Feature classification for tracking articulated surgical tools.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Austin; Allen, Peter K; Zhao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Tool tracking is an accepted capability for computer-aided surgical intervention which has numerous applications, both in robotic and manual minimally-invasive procedures. In this paper, we describe a tracking system which learns visual feature descriptors as class-specific landmarks on an articulated tool. The features are localized in 3D using stereo vision and are fused with the robot kinematics to track all of the joints of the dexterous manipulator. Experiments are performed using previously-collected porcine data from a surgical robot.

  3. Power optimal single-axis articulating strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Power optimal single axis articulating PV array motion for Space Station Freedom is investigated. The motivation is to eliminate one of the articular joints to reduce Station costs. Optimal (maximum power) Beta tracking is addressed for local vertical local horizontal (LVLH) and non-LVLH attitudes. Effects of intra-array shadowing are also presented. Maximum power availability while Beta tracking is compared to full sun tracking and optimal alpha tracking. The results are quantified in orbital and yearly minimum, maximum, and average values of power availability.

  4. The velic traverse: an independent oral articulator?

    PubMed

    Gick, Bryan; Francis, Naomi; Klenin, Anna; Mizrahi, Ezra; Tom, Denise

    2013-03-01

    Two speech functions have traditionally been ascribed to the velum: opening and closing the velopharyngeal port and providing a passive surface against which the tongue can produce oral constrictions. Contrary to this passive oral function, the present x-ray study finds that a substantial portion of the velum moves to constrict the oropharyngeal isthmus for French uvular /ʁ/. This substructure, designated the velic traverse, functions independently of the parts of the velum used for velopharyngeal port closure, thus acting as an oral articulator. An active velic traverse challenges methods for estimating vocal tract shapes based on tongue posture alone.

  5. An articulated-truss space crane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Bush, Harold G.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    An articulated-truss space-crane concept is described, and four articulating-joint (AJ) concepts are evaluated. The space-crane concept uses the same truss structure hardware as Space Station Freedom. The joint concepts are compared according to their actuator stroke ratio, actuator authority, and part count. One AJ concept is selected as a candidate space-crane joint because of its better performance and lower part count. The space-crane reach envelope is determined as a function of the number of AJs and the number of fixed-length booms. A space crane with three booms, three AJs, and one rotary joint provides an adequate reach envelope for an expected work area. The space-crane tip velocity, because of an allowable truss strut compressive load, is limited to approximately 1.0 in./sec for a 300,000-lbm payload. The displacement response is also shown for an emergency stop scenario as a function of the payload mass. The space-crane tip deflection is on the order of 12 in. for a 300,000-lbm payload.

  6. Design of a wheeled articulating land rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Mathew; Yandle, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The WALRUS is a wheeled articulating land rover that will provide Ames Research Center with a reliable, autonomous vehicle for demonstrating and evaluating advanced technologies. The vehicle is one component of the Ames Research Center's on-going Human Exploration Demonstration Project. Ames Research Center requested a system capable of traversing a broad spectrum of surface types and obstacles. In addition, this vehicle must have an autonomous navigation and control system on board and its own source of power. The resulting design is a rover that articulates in two planes of motion to allow for increased mobility and stability. The rover is driven by six conical shaped aluminum wheels, each with an independent, internally coupled motor. Mounted on the rover are two housings and a removable remote control system. In the housings, the motor controller board, tilt sensor, navigation circuitry, and QED board are mounted. Finally, the rover's motors and electronics are powered by thirty C-cell rechargeable batteries, which are located in the rover wheels and recharged by a specially designed battery charger.

  7. Static balancing of planar articulated robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, Giuseppe; Yin, Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Static balancing for a manipulator's weight is necessary in terms of energy saving and performance improvement. This paper proposes a method to design balancing devices for articulated robots in industry, based on robotic dynamics. Full design details for the balancing system using springs are presented from two aspects: One is the optimization for the position of the balancing system; the other is the design of the spring parameters. As examples, two feasible balancing devices are proposed, based on different robotic structures: The first solution consists of linkages and springs; the other consists of pulleys, cross mechanisms and (hydro-) pneumatic springs. Then the two solutions are compared. Pneumatic, hydro-pneumatic and mechanical springs are discussed and their parameters are decided according to the requirements of torque compensation. Numerical results show that with the proper design using the methodology presented in this paper, an articulated robot can be statically balanced perfectly in all configurations. This paper therefore provides a design method of the balancing system for other similar structures.

  8. Human object articulation for CCTV video forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, I.; Fraz, M.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a system which is focused on developing algorithms for automatic annotation/articulation of humans passing through a surveillance camera in a way useful for describing a person/criminal by a crime scene witness. Each human is articulated/annotated based on two appearance features: 1. primary colors of clothes in the head, body and legs region. 2. presence of text/logo on the clothes. The annotation occurs after a robust foreground extraction based on a modified approach to Gaussian Mixture model and detection of human from segmented foreground images. The proposed pipeline consists of a preprocessing stage where we improve color quality of images using a basic color constancy algorithm and further improve the results using a proposed post-processing method. The results show a significant improvement to the illumination of the video frames. In order to annotate color information for human clothes, we apply 3D Histogram analysis (with respect to Hue, Saturation and Value) on HSV converted image regions of human body parts along with extrema detection and thresholding to decide the dominant color of the region. In order to detect text/logo on the clothes as another feature to articulate humans, we begin with the extraction of connected components of enhanced horizontal, vertical and diagonal edges in the frames. These candidate regions are classified as text or non-text on the bases of their Local Energy based Shape Histogram (LESH) features combined with KL divergence as classification criteria. To detect humans, a novel technique has been proposed that uses a combination of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Contourlet transform based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) with Adaboost as classifier. Initial screening of foreground objects is performed by using HOG features. To further eliminate the false positives due to noise form background and improve results, we apply Contourlet-LBP feature extraction on the images. In the proposed method

  9. Dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P O; Lowder, M Q

    1998-08-01

    Dental sepsis or periapical abscess formation constitutes a large percentage of dental conditions that afflict horses. Dental sepsis occurs when the pulp chamber of the tooth is exposed to the oral cavity or external environment, allowing bacterial localization with resulting infection. Although acute, primary, septic pulpitis in horses is rare, dental sepsis often results from colonization of the pulp chamber with pathogenic bacteria secondary to maleruption or impaction of teeth with secondary alveolar bone lysis, primary fractures of the tooth, mandible, or maxilla, periodontal disease, or infundibular necrosis. The sequela to pulpal infection are extensions into the periradicular tissues and mandibular or maxillary periapical abscess formation.

  10. Bayesian distributed articulated object tracking using multiple collaborative trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wei; Schonfeld, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two novel articulated object tracking approaches. The Decentralized Articulated Object Tracking approach avoids the common practice of using a high-dimensional joint state representation for articulated object tracking. Instead, it introduces a decentralized scheme and models the inter-part interaction within an innovative Bayesian framework. To handle severe self-occlusions, we further extend the first approach by modeling high-level inter-unit interactions and develop the Hierarchical Articulated Object Tracking algorithm within a consistent hierarchical framework. Preliminary experimental results have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed approaches for real-world videos sequences.

  11. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  12. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  13. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  14. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  15. Reconstruction of phalangeal articulations of the hand with vascularised phalangeal articulations of foot.

    PubMed

    Pei, Guo-xian; Ren, Gao-hong; Ren, Yi-jun; Wei, Kuan-hai

    2008-09-01

    Since arthroplasty, prosthetic replacement and non-vascularised articulation autografting do not normally produce very satisfactory results for ankylosis of metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints, the authors performed reconstruction of phalangeal articulations of the hand using vascularised phalangeal articulations of the foot in 11 patients with ankylosis of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of hand due by trauma. Procedures included reconstruction of 9 hand metacarpophalangeal joints with vascularised grafting of pedal metatarsophalangeal joints in six patients, reconstruction of the hand metacarpophalangeal joints with grafting of vascularised proximal interphalangeal joints of foot in two patients and reconstruction of the hand proximal interphalangeal joints with grafting of vascularised proximal interphalangeal joints of foot in three patients. Early functional exercise was encouraged in all cases post-operatively. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 10 years and revealed that 9 cases had normal appearance and length of recipient area, 1 had slightly clumsy dorsal skin in the hand and 1 had slight dorsal angulation of a metacarpal bone. Recovery of joint range of motion was satisfactory. Radiographic, gross and sensation examinations also showed good operative outcomes. The authors believe that vascularised pedal metatarsophalangeal joints, with a rich blood supply, can be grafted to effectively reconstruct the finger joints with good function. A low rate of degeneration results because pedal and hand metatarsophalangeal joints are similar in anatomy and physiological function.

  16. Electropalatography in the Treatment of Articulation-Phonological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagenais, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of articulation/phonological disorders with electropalatography (in which speech learners wear a custom-made appliance called a pseudopalate in order to view their tongue-to-palate contacts on a computer monitor) is described. Studies of the treatment's effectiveness with children having articulation or phonological disorders are…

  17. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  18. Perceived Articulation Uniformity between Trumpet and Violin Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shelly C.; Hamann, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Directors strive for a unified sound throughout their wind and orchestra ensembles. Articulation affects sound uniformity among winds and strings. This baseline study examined whether a trumpet player could better match a violin player's articulation, as perceived by participants listening to a recording of two performances, when: (a) performing…

  19. Influences of Tone on Vowel Articulation in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jason A.; Chen, Wei-rong; Proctor, Michael I.; Derrick, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Models of speech production often abstract away from shared physiology in pitch control and lingual articulation, positing independent control of tone and vowel units. We assess the validity of this assumption in Mandarin Chinese by evaluating the stability of lingual articulation for vowels across variation in tone. Method:…

  20. Faculty Articulation with Feeder High Schools and Local Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Marietta

    As a first step in developing an articulation plan with feeder high schools, a College of the Sequoias (COS) task force developed and distributed a survey to all full-time faculty members to determine if individual faculty members were articulating with feeder high schools and local businesses, and if they would be willing to participate in an…

  1. Perceptual Learning of Co-Articulation in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connine, Cynthia M.; Darnieder, Laura M.

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the novel issue of learning to accommodate the co-articulated nature of speech. Experiment 1 established a co-articulatory mismatch effect for a set of vowel-consonant (VC) syllables (reaction times were faster for co-articulation matching than for mismatching stimuli). A rhyme judgment training task on words…

  2. Competency-Based Route to Vertical Curriculum Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Laura; And Others

    What competency-based instruction is and how it can help improve vertical articulation between the curriculum of secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education programs in Minnesota is the focus of this booklet. Explanation consists of responses to the following questions: (1) What is vertical curriculum articulation? (2) What is…

  3. Perception of Synthetic Visual Consonant-Vowel Articulations. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Brian E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Synthetic speech-like articulations were presented to normal hearing adult subjects (N=13) via the visual modality with computer generated animations. Results indicated that most subjects categorically labeled the animations of speech articulations with sharp transitions between phonemic categories. Results have implications for speechreading.…

  4. Acoustic Patterns of an Adolescent with Multiple Articulation Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Linda I.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This case study describes an adolescent with multiple articulation errors. Comparison with previous studies found this individual demonstrated longer phrase durations and more variability than either normally articulating or speech-disordered and language-disordered children. Interaction between syntactic and articulatory performance was also…

  5. Handbook for Articulation Task Forces, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Irene

    Designed to assist Arizona community college and university representatives from specific academic disciplines in their discussions of articulation of degree programs, curricula, transfer of students, and other related topics, this handbook provides information on how to implement statewide postsecondary articulation. Following introductory…

  6. Handbook for Articulation Task Forces, 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Irene

    Designed to assist community college and university representatives from specific academic disciplines in their discussions of articulation of degree programs, curricula, transfer of students and other related topics, this handbook provides information on how to implement statewide postsecondary articulation and outlines the duties and…

  7. 2 + 2 + 2 Articulation: A Partnership for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American River Coll., Sacramento, CA.

    To facilitate articulation agreements with local high schools, the American River College (ARC) created the Articulation Council composed of members of the college administration and the administrations of several local high school districts. From this committee, secondary school/college faculty committees were formed to examine articulation…

  8. Influences of Tone on Vowel Articulation in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jason A.; Chen, Wei-rong; Proctor, Michael I.; Derrick, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Models of speech production often abstract away from shared physiology in pitch control and lingual articulation, positing independent control of tone and vowel units. We assess the validity of this assumption in Mandarin Chinese by evaluating the stability of lingual articulation for vowels across variation in tone. Method:…

  9. Articulation Agreements between High Schools, Community Colleges, and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Designed to assist college officials in developing and revising articulation agreements, this report describes specific program articulation efforts between Illinois high schools, community colleges, and public and private universities. Data presented were drawn from a survey of 102 public and private community colleges, which resulted in 94…

  10. 2 + 2 + 2 Articulation: A Partnership for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American River Coll., Sacramento, CA.

    To facilitate articulation agreements with local high schools, the American River College (ARC) created the Articulation Council composed of members of the college administration and the administrations of several local high school districts. From this committee, secondary school/college faculty committees were formed to examine articulation…

  11. Competency-Based Route to Vertical Curriculum Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Laura; And Others

    What competency-based instruction is and how it can help improve vertical articulation between the curriculum of secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education programs in Minnesota is the focus of this booklet. Explanation consists of responses to the following questions: (1) What is vertical curriculum articulation? (2) What is…

  12. The Dependable Strengths Articulation Process: How It Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldane, Bernard Johnson

    Dependable Strengths Articulation Process (DSAP) is a self-development process designed to facilitate positive self-constructions and improved personal functioning through a systematic intervention that enables participants to recognize, articulate, communicate and use their Dependable Strengths. Because it is a peer-assisted process, each…

  13. Analysis of space crane articulated-truss joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. C.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines three articulated-truss joint concepts of the space crane in order to evaluate their static structural performance over a range of geometric design parameters. Emphasis is placed on maintaining the four-longeron reference truss performance across the joint while still allowing large-angle articulation. A maximum positive articulation angle is computed for each joint concept as the design parameters are varied, along with the actuator length ratio required to reach that angle. The tip rotation and lateral deflections of a truss beam with an articulated-truss joint at the midspan are employed to select a point design for each joint concept. The computed deflections for one point design are up to 30 percent higher than deflections for the other two designs. The two lowest natural frequencies of the three point designs are found to be relatively insensitive to large variations in the joint articulation angle.

  14. Use of articulated catheters in the treatment of biliary strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Soulen, Michael C.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin

    1997-05-15

    We have used a single articulated catheter to obviate the need for multiple catheters in patients with complex biliary strictures or strictures associated with small or immature tracts. Two- and three-arm articulated drains (8-14 Fr) made from segments of biliary catheters were placed in 16 patients. Nine were placed transhepatically, 6 transperitoneally through existing T-tube tracts, and 1 through a cystic duct fistula. Six malignant and 10 benign strictures were stented with various catheter configurations through a single tract. Fifteen patients had two catheter components with one articulation and 1 patient had three catheter components with two articulations. The average duration of catheter drainage was 7.0 {+-} 4.2 months. Routine catheter exchanges were performed; two spontaneous occlusions occurred. In patients where internal stenting may be difficult or undesirable, articulated catheters allow satisfactory external and internal drainage of complex benign and malignant strictures through a single tract, avoiding the need for multiple transhepatic catheters.

  15. Analysis of space crane articulated-truss joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. C.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines three articulated-truss joint concepts of the space crane in order to evaluate their static structural performance over a range of geometric design parameters. Emphasis is placed on maintaining the four-longeron reference truss performance across the joint while still allowing large-angle articulation. A maximum positive articulation angle is computed for each joint concept as the design parameters are varied, along with the actuator length ratio required to reach that angle. The tip rotation and lateral deflections of a truss beam with an articulated-truss joint at the midspan are employed to select a point design for each joint concept. The computed deflections for one point design are up to 30 percent higher than deflections for the other two designs. The two lowest natural frequencies of the three point designs are found to be relatively insensitive to large variations in the joint articulation angle.

  16. Parkinson Disease Detection from Speech Articulation Neuromechanics

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Vilda, Pedro; Mekyska, Jiri; Ferrández, José M.; Palacios-Alonso, Daniel; Gómez-Rodellar, Andrés; Rodellar-Biarge, Victoria; Galaz, Zoltan; Smekal, Zdenek; Eliasova, Ilona; Kostalova, Milena; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The research described is intended to give a description of articulation dynamics as a correlate of the kinematic behavior of the jaw-tongue biomechanical system, encoded as a probability distribution of an absolute joint velocity. This distribution may be used in detecting and grading speech from patients affected by neurodegenerative illnesses, as Parkinson Disease. Hypothesis: The work hypothesis is that the probability density function of the absolute joint velocity includes information on the stability of phonation when applied to sustained vowels, as well as on fluency if applied to connected speech. Methods: A dataset of sustained vowels recorded from Parkinson Disease patients is contrasted with similar recordings from normative subjects. The probability distribution of the absolute kinematic velocity of the jaw-tongue system is extracted from each utterance. A Random Least Squares Feed-Forward Network (RLSFN) has been used as a binary classifier working on the pathological and normative datasets in a leave-one-out strategy. Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to estimate the influence of the stochastic nature of the classifier. Two datasets for each gender were tested (males and females) including 26 normative and 53 pathological subjects in the male set, and 25 normative and 38 pathological in the female set. Results: Male and female data subsets were tested in single runs, yielding equal error rates under 0.6% (Accuracy over 99.4%). Due to the stochastic nature of each experiment, Monte Carlo runs were conducted to test the reliability of the methodology. The average detection results after 200 Montecarlo runs of a 200 hyperplane hidden layer RLSFN are given in terms of Sensitivity (males: 0.9946, females: 0.9942), Specificity (males: 0.9944, females: 0.9941) and Accuracy (males: 0.9945, females: 0.9942). The area under the ROC curve is 0.9947 (males) and 0.9945 (females). The equal error rate is 0.0054 (males) and 0.0057 (females

  17. BIOENERGETIC DIFFERENCES DURING WALKING AND RUNNING IN TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTEE RUNNERS USING ARTICULATING AND NON-ARTICULATING KNEE PROSTHESES

    PubMed Central

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Kahle, Jason T.; Miro, Rebecca M.; Mengelkoch, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients require considerably more energy to walk and run than non-amputees. The purpose of this study was to examine potential bioenergetic differences (oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)) for TFA patients utilizing a conventional running prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism versus a running prosthesis with a non-articulating knee joint. Four trained TFA runners (n = 4) were accommodated to and tested with both conditions. VO2 and HR were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in five of eight fixed walking and running speeds for the prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism. TFA demonstrated a trend for lower RPE at six of eight walking speeds using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. A trend was observed for self-selected walking speed, self-selected running speed, and maximal speed to be faster for TFA subjects using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. Finally, all four TFA participants subjectively preferred running with the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. These findings suggest that, for trained TFA runners, a running prosthesis with an articulating knee prosthesis reduces ambulatory energy costs and enhances subjective perceptive measures compared to using a non-articulating knee prosthesis. PMID:28066524

  18. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  19. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  20. Consonant recognition and the articulation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jont B.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into how speech is processed by the auditory system, by quantifying the nature of nonsense speech sound confusions. (1) The Miller and Nicely [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 27(2), 338-352 (1955)] confusion matrix (CM) data are analyzed by plotting the CM elements Si,j(SNR) as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This allows for the robust clustering of perceptual feature (event) groups, not robustly defined by a single CM table, where clusters depend on the sound order. (2) The SNR is then re-expressed as an articulation index (AI), and used as the independent variable. The normalized log scores log(1-Si,i(AI)) and log(Si,j(AI)), j≠i, then become linear functions of AI, on log-error versus AI plots. This linear dependence may be interpreted as an extension of the band-independence model of Fletcher. (3) The model formula for the average score for the finite-alphabet case Pc(AI,H)=∑i=1NSi,i/N is then modified to include the effect of entropy H. Due to the grouping of sounds with increased SNR (and AI), the sound-group entropy Hg plays a key role in this performance measure. (4) A parametric model for the confusions Si,j(AI,Hg) is then described, which characterizes the confusions between competing sounds within a group. .

  1. Articulating nursing in an interprofessional world.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Susan C

    2013-11-01

    It is essential that nurses in practice clearly articulate their role in interprofessional clinical settings. Assumptions, stereotypes, power differentials and miscommunication can complicate the interaction of healthcare professionals when clarity does not exist about nurses' knowledge, skills and roles. Conflicting views among nurse scholars as to the nature of nursing knowledge and its relationship to practice complicate the task of nurses in explaining their performance and role to others in interprofessional environments. Interprofessionality is potentially misunderstood by nurse leaders, practitioners and educators, isolating nurses in an increasingly inter-disciplinary healthcare system. The theorization of contemporary nursing is explored through the views and perspectives of current nurse scholars. The ability to explain nursing knowledge, skills and roles to others in interprofessional interactions is a nursing competency, as well as an interprofessional one. Nurses, nurse leaders and nurse educators are challenged to engage in interprofessionalism so as to have an influence in the evolution of healthcare education and practice environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal Tract Articulation in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Ohms, Verena R.; Snelderwaard, Peter Ch.; ten Cate, Carel; Beckers, Gabriël J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. Methodology/Principal Findings Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC) as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. Conclusion These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation. PMID:20689831

  3. Classification of stop consonant place of articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchato, Atiwong

    2004-05-01

    In this study we develop an experimental procedure for examining the relative importance of knowledge-based cues for identifying place of articulation for stop consonants. A set of acoustic attributes is selected for place classification of stops: amplitude and energy of burst, formant movement of adjacent vowels, spectrum of noise after the release, and some temporal cues. The ability of each attribute to separate the three places is evaluated by the classification error based on the distributions of its values for the three places, and another quantifier based on F ratio. These two quantifiers generally agree and show how well each individual attribute separates the three places. Linear discriminant function analysis is used to address the relative importance of these attributes when combinations are used. Their discriminating abilities and the ranking of their relative importance to the classification in different vowel and voicing contexts are reported. The overall findings are that attributes relating to the burst spectrum in relation to the vowel contribute most effectively, while formant transition is somewhat less effective. The approach used in this study can be applied to different classes of sound, as well as stops in different noise environments. [Work supported by NIH Grant Number DC 02978.

  4. Registered Dental Hygienists as Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Janet; Shugars, Daniel A.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys conducted to (1) investigate why dental hygienists choose to become dentists, (2) evaluate their success in dental school, (3) assess the experience of those who had entered dental school, and (4) gauge the level of interest among dental hygienists in applying to dental school are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  5. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to...

  6. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... few quick steps. There is no drilling or scraping of the molars. Your dentist will: Clean the ... Dental sealants. Updated October 19, 2016. ADA.org Web site. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral- ...

  7. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygienists to be licensed; requirements vary by state. Education Dental hygienists typically need an associate’s degree in ... the skills needed in this occupation. Entry-level Education Typical level of education that most workers need ...

  8. Dental Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when children regularly consume fluoride during the teeth-forming years, age 8 and younger. Most dental fluorosis ... over a long period when the teeth are forming under the gums. Only children aged 8 years ...

  9. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  10. Articulation handicap index: an instrument for quantifying psychosocial consequences of impaired articulation.

    PubMed

    Keilmann, Annerose; Konerding, Uwe; Oberherr, Constantin; Nawka, Tadeus

    2016-12-01

    Structural, neurological and muscular diseases can lead to impairments of articulation. These impairments can severely impact social life. To judge health status comprehensively, this impact must be adequately quantified. For this purpose, the articulation handicap index (AHI) has been developed. Psychometric analyses referring to this index are presented here. The AHI was completed by 113 patients who had undergone treatment of tumours of the head or neck. The patients also gave a general self-assessment of their impairments due to articulation problems. Furthermore, tumour size, tumour location and kind of therapy were recorded. Missing data were analysed and replaced by multiple imputation. Internal structure was investigated using principal component analysis (PCA); reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Validity was investigated by analysing the relationship between AHI and general self-assessment of impairments. Moreover, the relationships with tumour size, tumour location and kind of therapy were analysed. Only 0.12 % of the answers to the AHI were missing. The Scree test performed with the PCA results suggested one-dimensionality with the first component explaining 49.6 % of the item variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.96. Kendall's tau between the AHI sum score and the general self-assessment was 0.69. The intervals of AHI sum scores for the self-assessment categories were determined with 0-13 for no, 14-44 for mild, 46-76 for moderate, and 77-120 for severe impairment. The AHI sum score did not systematically relate to tumour size, tumour location or kind of therapy. The results are evidence for high acceptance, reliability and validity.

  11. Gust Mitigation of Micro Air Vehicles Using Passive Articulated Wings

    PubMed Central

    Slegers, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Birds and insects naturally use passive flexing of their wings to augment their stability in uncertain aerodynamic environments. In a similar manner, micro air vehicle designers have been investigating using wing articulation to take advantage of this phenomenon. The result is a class of articulated micro air vehicles where artificial passive joints are designed into the lifting surfaces. In order to analyze how passive articulation affects performance of micro air vehicles in gusty environments, an efficient 8 degree-of-freedom model is developed. Experimental validation of the proposed mathematical model was accomplished using flight test data of an articulated micro air vehicle obtained from a high resolution indoor tracking facility. Analytical investigation of the gust alleviation properties of the articulated micro air vehicle model was carried out using simulations with varying crosswind gust magnitudes. Simulations show that passive articulation in micro air vehicles can increase their robustness to gusts within a range of joint compliance. It is also shown that if articulation joints are made too compliant that gust mitigation performance is degraded when compared to a rigid system. PMID:24516368

  12. Excitability of hand motor areas during articulation of syllables.

    PubMed

    Komeilipoor, Naeem; Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Vainio, Lari

    2016-05-04

    It is known that articulating different syllables is linked to different grasp actions, e.g. [ti] is linked to precision grip, and [kɑ] to power grip. The aim of the present study was to test whether articulating or hearing these syllables would result in an increased activity in the representation of hand muscles involved in these two actions in a muscle-specific manner. To this end, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate changes in the excitability of the left primary motor cortex (M1) innervating hand muscles while participants articulated or listened to meaningless syllables, listened to a metronome, or observed a fixation cross. The motor-evoked potentials of two hand muscles associated with either a precision or power grip exhibited significantly greater amplitudes during articulation than in passive listening, metronome, and fixation cross conditions. Moreover, these muscles exhibited similar patterns of excitability during articulation regardless of which syllable was articulated. The increased excitability of the left M1 hand area during articulation, but not during perception of the syllables, might be due to the cortico-cortical interaction between the motor representations of oral organs with the hand area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ARTICULATION DISORDERS IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE IN CHILDREN WITH SPEECH PATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Dmitrić, Tanja; Veselinović, Mila; Mitrović, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Articulation is the result of speech organs and it means clean, clear and distinct pronunciation of voices in words. A prospective study included 24 children between 5 and 15 years of age, of both sexes. All children were monolingual, Serbian being their native language. The quality of articulation was tested with Triage articulation test. Neither omission nor distortion of plosives was observed in any of them, whereas substitution of plosives occurred in 12% of patients. Omission of affricates was not observed in any of the subjects, but substitution and distortion occurred in 29%, and 76% of subjects, respectively. Omission of fricatives was found in 29% subjects, substitution in 52%, and distortion in 82% of subjects. Omission and distortion of nasals was not recorded in any of the subjects, and substitution occurred in 6% of children. Omission of laterals was observed in 6%, substitution in 46% and distortion in 52% of subjects with articulation disorders. Discussion and Articulation disorders were observed not only in children diagnosed with dyslalia but in those with dysphasia and stuttering as well. Children with speech disorders articulate vowels best, then nasals and plosives. Articulation of fricatives and laterals was found to be most severely deviated, including all three disorders, i.e. substitution, omission and distortion. Spasms of speech muscles and vegetative reactions were also observed in this study, but only in children with stuttering.

  14. Dental Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249

  15. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  16. Analysis and testing of a space crane articulating joint testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Wu, K. Chauncey

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: space crane concept with mobile base; mechanical versus structural articulating joint; articulating joint test bed and reference truss; static and dynamic characterization completed for space crane reference truss configuration; improved linear actuators reduce articulating joint test bed backlash; 1-DOF space crane slew maneuver; boom 2 tip transient response finite element dynamic model; boom 2 tip transient response shear-corrected component modes torque driver profile; peak root member force vs. slew time torque driver profile; and open loop control of space crane motion.

  17. The Modified Semidirect Onlay Technique With Articulated Elastic Model.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Efstratios; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    The modified semidirect onlay technique with articulated elastic model involves the fabrication of a stone model that is quickly mounted on an articulator and it includes an elastic part that enables the fabrication of a restoration with proper occlusal anatomy. The technique overcomes the disadvantages of the direct technique such as polymerization shrinkage stress and difficulty in achieving proper contours and, compared to the indirect technique, treatment is completed in a single appointment, without laboratory cost. The novelty of the technique is that, since the restoration is fabricated on an articulated model it eliminates time for occlusal adjustments.

  18. A USPL functional system with articulated mirror arm for in-vivo applications in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelle, Florian; Meister, Jörg; Dehn, Claudia; Oehme, Bernd; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Mathias

    Ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) systems for dental application have overcome many of their initial disadvantages. However, a problem that has not yet been addressed and solved is the beam delivery into the oral cavity. The functional system that is introduced in this study includes an articulated mirror arm, a scanning system as well as a handpiece, allowing for freehand preparations with ultra-short laser pulses. As laser source an Nd:YVO4 laser is employed, emitting pulses with a duration of tp < 10 ps at a repetition rate of up to 500 kHz. The centre wavelength is at 1064 nm and the average output power can be tuned up to 9 W. The delivery system consists of an articulated mirror arm, to which a scanning system and a custom made handpiece are connected, including a 75 mm focussing lens. The whole functional system is compact in size and moveable. General characteristics like optical losses and ablation rate are determined and compared to results employing a fixed setup on an optical table. Furthermore classical treatment procedures like cavity preparation are being demonstrated on mammoth ivory. This study indicates that freehand preparation employing an USPL system is possible but challenging, and accompanied by a variety of side-effects. The ablation rate with fixed handpiece is about 10 mm3/min. Factors like defocussing and blinding affect treatment efficiency. Laser sources with higher average output powers might be needed in order to reach sufficient preparation speeds.

  19. Preparedness of dental graduates for foundation training: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ali, K; Tredwin, C; Kay, E J; Slade, A; Pooler, J

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to articulate the concept of preparedness of dental graduates for foundation training programme in the United Kingdom and identify the essential attributes of preparedness. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used to explore the concept of preparedness. The study was carried out in the South West region of England. Participants were recruited from a range of stakeholders in dental education and foundation training using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited using email through appropriate professional channels. Stakeholders included dental students (DS), dental academics (DA), foundation dental practitioners (FDP), foundation trainers (FT), general dental practitioners (GDP) and a postgraduate dental deanery representative (DDR). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were imported into NVivo 9 and analysed thematically. Sixteen interviews were carried out with representation from all stakeholder groups. Participants expressed their views on a range of issues related to the preparedness of dental graduates. This study provides useful insights into the concept of preparedness as perceived by the stakeholders. The findings of this study may offer clarity on the essential attributes required by dental graduates upon entry into foundation training.

  20. Articulating a Hermeneutic Pedagogy: The Philosophy of Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotirou, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Articulates the salient features of a hermeneutic pedagogy as utilized in a composition classroom. Foregrounds the hermeneutical conclusions of Hans-Georg Gadamer as they relate to the teaching of writing. (HB)

  1. Statewide Nursing Articulation Model Design: Politics or Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapson, Mary F.

    2000-01-01

    Statewide nursing articulation models are subject to political pressures. Model designers should build collaboration; establish trust; identify competencies to develop; choose advanced placement mechanisms; develop support services and transfer policies; and address admission, registration, and licensure issues. (SK)

  2. Generalizing articulation training with trainable mentally retarded subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, J Y; Garcia, E E; Hardman, M L

    1977-01-01

    A multiple-baseline technique was used to evaluate generalization effects during articulation training with trainable mentally retarded subjects. Four target words were selected for each subject on the basis of whether the subject could articulate the word correctly when it was modelled but could not articulate the word correctly in response to a picture of it. Five different settings were selected for generalization probing and training for each subject. In Setting 1, Experimenter 1 initiated training sequentially on all four target words for each subject. Other experimenters probed for correct articulation generalization in four other settings. Training was initiated in these four other settings sequentially only if correct responding failed to generalize to a setting. Results indicated that it was necessary to initiate training on at least three of the four selected target words in at least one additional setting with an additional trainer before correct responding generalized to untrained settings. PMID:599115

  3. 5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated fascia walls - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  4. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  5. Articulation in schoolchildren and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Cosyns, Marjan; Mortier, Geert; Janssens, Sandra; Bogaert, Famke; D'Hondt, Stephanie; Van Borsel, John

    2012-01-01

    Several authors mentioned the occurrence of articulation problems in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population. However, few studies have undertaken a detailed analysis of the articulation skills of NF1 patients, especially in schoolchildren and adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in depth the articulation skills of NF1 schoolchildren and adults, both phonetically and phonologically. Speech samples were collected from 43 Flemish NF1 patients (14 children and 29 adults), ranging in age between 7 and 53 years, using a standardized speech test in which all Flemish single speech sounds and most clusters occur in all their permissible syllable positions. Analyses concentrated on consonants only and included a phonetic inventory, a phonetic, and a phonological analysis. It was shown that phonetic inventories were incomplete in 16.28% (7/43) of participants, in which totally correct realizations of the sibilants /ʃ/ and/or /ʒ/ were missing. Phonetic analysis revealed that distortions were the predominant phonetic error type. Sigmatismus stridens, multiple ad- or interdentality, and, in children, rhotacismus non vibrans were frequently observed. From a phonological perspective, the most common error types were substitution and syllable structure errors. Particularly, devoicing, cluster simplification, and, in children, deletion of the final consonant of words were perceived. Further, it was demonstrated that significantly more men than women presented with an incomplete phonetic inventory, and that girls tended to display more articulation errors than boys. Additionally, children exhibited significantly more articulation errors than adults, suggesting that although the articulation skills of NF1 patients evolve positively with age, articulation problems do not resolve completely from childhood to adulthood. As such, the articulation errors made by NF1 adults may be regarded as residual articulation disorders. It can be concluded that the

  6. Kinematics and Path Following Control of an Articulated Drum Roller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BIAN, Yongming; YANG, Meng; FANG, Xiaojun; WANG, Xiahui

    2017-07-01

    Automatic navigation of an articulated drum roller, which is an articulated steering type vehicle widely used in the construction industry, is highly expected for operation cost reduction and improvement of work efficiency. In order to achieve the path following control, considering that its steering system is articulated steering and two frames are articulated by an active revolute joint, a kinematic model and an error dynamic state-space equation of an articulated drum roller are proposed. Besides, a state-feedback control law based on Lyapunov stability theory is also designed, which can be proved to achieve the purpose of control by the analysis of stability. What's more, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation under the MATLAB/Simulink and experiments using positioning algorithm and errors correction at the uneven construction site are performed, with initial displacement error (-1.5 m), heading error (-0.11 rad) and steering angle (-0.19 rad). Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the errors and steering angle can decrease gradually, and converge to zero with time. Meanwhile, the control input is not saturated. An articulated drum roller can lock into a desired path with the proposed method in uneven fields.

  7. [Dental characteristics of patients with temporomandibular disorders].

    PubMed

    Quinteromarmol-Juárez, Myriam; Espinosa-de Santillana, Irene Aurora; Martínez-Torres, Jorge; Vargas-García, Hugo Alberto

    2009-01-01

    to describe the dental characteristics of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). a survey in 130 out patients from a Clinic of Maxilofacial Surgery Service, who fulfilled the selection criteria. The social and demographic data were reported in other paper. It was used a questionnaire to identify factors of risk for TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteries/Temporomandibular Disorders proposed by Dworkin. It was registered the Angle to molar bilaterally and canine, the presence of canine guides and incisal margin, the dental lost organs and previous surgical removal of third molars. Unvaried and bivariate statistical analysis was made. the clinical manifestations in patients with TMD which they appear in the upheavals temporomandibular were: pain to articulate, muscular pain, noises you will articulate with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the variables class to molar and canine of Angle, absence of canine guides and incisal margin, previous retirement of third molars, parafunctions, mandibulars deviations at rest, number of dental absences. the physiomechanical conditions in the oral cavity of the patients of upheavals temporomandibular are considered a risk factor condition.

  8. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  9. Sealants and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Jean A.; Modesto, Adriana; Oakley, Marnie; Polk, Deborah E.; Valappil, Benita; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors conducted a qualitative study of private-practice dentists in their offices by using vignette-based interviews to assess barriers to the use of evidence-based clinical recommendations in the treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. Methods The authors recruited 22 dentists as a convenience sample and presented them with two patient vignettes involving noncavitated carious lesions. Interviewers asked participants to articulate their thought processes as they described treatment recommendations. Participants compared their treatment plans with the American Dental Association’s recommendations for sealing noncavitated carious lesions, and they described barriers to implementing these recommendations in their practices. The authors recorded and transcribed the sessions for accuracy and themes. Results Personal clinical experience emerged as the determining factor in dentists’ treatment decisions regarding noncavitated carious lesions. Additional factors were lack of reimbursement and mistrust of the recommendations. The authors found that knowledge of the recommendations did not lead to their adoption when the recommendation was incongruent with the dentist’s personal experience. Conclusions The authors found that ingrained practice behavior based on personal clinical experience that differed substantially from evidence-based recommendations resulted in a rejection of these recommendations. Practical Implications Attempts to improve the adoption of evidence-based practice must involve more than simple dissemination of information to achieve a balance between personal clinical experience and scientific evidence. PMID:23543700

  10. [Dental biofilms].

    PubMed

    Simain, F; Rompen, E; Heinen, E

    2010-10-01

    Orodental pathologies are generally classified into two main groups: caries and parodontopathies. They result from polymicrobial infections based on the dental plaque's theory which has constantly evolved. Therefore, the concept of acquired biological pellicle or biofilm has been described and largely elaborated.A bacterial biofilm is a unit of bacterial microcolonies embedded within an exopolymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the literature with regard to the formation, and composition of the biofilm, as well as to point out the close link that exists between biofilm and dental medicine.

  11. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  12. Articulation and acoustics of Kannada affricates: A case of geminate /ʧ/.

    PubMed

    Kochetov, Alexei; Sreedevi, N

    2016-01-01

    Affricates have been observed to be problematic in phonological acquisition and disordered speech across languages, due to their relatively complex spatial and temporal articulatory patterns. Remediation of difficulties in the production of affricates requires understanding of how these sounds are typically produced. This study presents the first systematic articulatory and acoustic investigation of voiceless geminate affricate /ʧ/ in Kannada (a Dravidian language), compared to the palatal glide and the voiceless dental stop. Ultrasound data from 10 normal speakers from Mysore, India revealed that /ʧ/ is produced with the tongue shape intermediate between the palatal glide and the dental stop, and with the laminal constriction at the alveolar ridge. The observed articulatory differences are reflected in acoustic formant patterns of vowel transitions and stop/affricate bursts. Altogether, the results show that the Kannada consonant in question is an alveolopalatal affricate, supporting some of the previous descriptive phonetic accounts of the language and raising questions for further research on normal and disordered speech. The results and our survey of literature also suggest that affricates in South Asian languages tend to be phonetically variable and historically unstable compared to other consonant articulations.

  13. Trends in dental and allied dental education.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Laura M

    2004-09-01

    Educational programs play an important role in preparing a qualified dental work force. This article reviews the current status and trends in dental, advanced dental and allied dental education programs in the United States and examines their impact on the dental work force. This analysis focuses on survey data collected by the American Dental Association during the past 10 to 15 years and compares recent patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation with previous trends. The numbers of educational programs, applicants, enrollees and graduates have increased in dentistry, dental hygiene and dental assisting, while dental laboratory technology has declined in all measures. The proportion of women in dentistry has increased, while the ethnic profile of dental and allied personnel has shown little change. Both the cost of dental education and student debt continue to increase. Despite increases in the number of educational programs and overall numbers of graduates from dental and allied dental education programs, the proportion of underrepresented groups still lags behind their representation in the overall population, and the number of allied personnel falls short of practice needs. Patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation are important determinants of the dental and allied dental work force. The cost and funding of education significantly affect the attractiveness of dental careers and the sustainability of educational programs and should be monitored carefully by the profession.

  14. Design and wear testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis articulation.

    PubMed

    van Loon, J P; Verkerke, G J; de Vries, M P; de Bont, L G

    2000-02-01

    As part of the development of a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, a prosthesis articulation was designed. The articulation consists of a spherical head (ball) of the mandibular part, rotating against an enveloping ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc with a flat cranial side, which slides along the opposing skull part. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro wear rate of the articulation, and to predict the in vivo wear rate from the results. Based on a disc thickness of 5 mm and a ball diameter of 8 mm, the stresses within the disc were calculated by means of a finite element computer model. The wear rate of the ball-disc articulation was determined by in vitro wear tests, with a stainless-steel ball rotating against a UHMWPE disc in a serum-based lubricant. Eight discs were tested for seven million cycles each. The in vitro wear rate of the disc-skull part articulation was calculated from the test results of the ball-disc articulation. The maximum Von Mises' stress was less than the yield strength of UHMWPE and, therefore, was sufficiently low. The in vitro wear rate of the ball-disc articulation was 0.47 mm3 per million cycles. The in vivo expected total wear rate is 0.65 mm3 per year, corresponding with a yearly decrease of disc thickness of 0.0094 mm. Although it is difficult to judge whether this wear rate is sufficiently low, because the influence of UHMWPE wear particles in the TMJ region is unknown, both the expected wear rate and the decrease of thickness appear to be acceptable.

  15. Articulation skills in Turkish speaking children with cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, Sebnem; Ozcebe, Esra; Atas, Ahmet; Buyukozturk, Sener

    2009-10-01

    The benefits of using cochlear implant (CI) on speech perception and production have been documented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of age of cochlear implantation performed and length of auditory experience with CI on the development of articulation skills in prelingual children with CI. For this purpose, 14 children with CI were administered through the standardized articulation test named AAT (Ankara Articulation Test). In order to evaluate the development of articulation skills, AAT was applied to each child with CI at the first and the fourth years of CI. The test group was selected among those congenitally hearing impaired children who had used hearing aids bilaterally before the age of one and a half, and received intervention after fitting hearing aids. The test group was divided into two subgroups: Group 1 consisted of the children implanted at and below the age of 3 and Group 2 consisted of the children implanted after the age of 3. Evaluations of articulation skills between groups and within groups were performed in the first and fourth years of implantation. In the study, nonparametric statistics have been used to compare the test scores. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test have been used in the comparisons made between groups and within groups, respectively. While there has not been observed any statistically significant difference between the first year articulation skills of children with CI at and below the age of three and children with CI above the age of 3, for the fourth year this difference has been found to be statistically significant. The results demonstrate the importance of the early application of CI and length of auditory experience with CI in the development of articulation skills.

  16. The acoustic correlates of secondary articulation in Abkhaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Caroline Quigley

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the acoustic correlates of secondary articulation in the Abzhywa dialect of Abkhaz. Data for this study were collected in Sukhum in September of 2014 from four speakers of Abzhywa Abkhaz, two male and two female. Each speaker read a list of 144 words three times, resulting in a total of 1728 words. From these data 151 tokens of word-initial voiceless fricatives were selected for comparison. Tokens belong to one of eight types: retroflex, plain palato-alveolar, labialized palto-alveolar, plain uvular, labialized uvular, palatalized uvular, plain pharyngeal, or labialized pharyngeal. Each token was measured for duration, average intensity, and center of gravity in Praat. Using the 'hclust' clustering function in R, tokens from all eight types were clustered based on the three acoustic measures. Then, fricatives with shared primary places of articulation but different secondary articulations were compared along each of the three acoustic measures. The 'k-means' clustering function was used to cluster tokens sharing a primary place of articulation based on two of the three acoustic measures determined by the function to be the best predictors of token type. This study found that the three acoustic measures used were not sufficient to distinguish the fricatives across places of articulation. For fricatives sharing a primary place of articulation, center of gravity and duration were selected by k-means as the two most relevant components in all three cases. However, the clustering in all cases was not homogenous, indication that further acoustic features are necessary for accurately distinguishing fricatives that share a primary but not a secondary place of articulation.

  17. Foreign Language Program Articulation from High School to the University. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi

    This digest focuses on the articulation of foreign language programs between secondary and higher education. The following questions are addressed: (1) What are urgent reasons for better program articulation?; (2) What forms does articulation take?; (3) What aspects of the educational process does articulation address?; (4) Are there examples of…

  18. A newer technique to program a semi adjustable articulator

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwaran, R.; Karthigeyan, Suma; Manoharan, P. S.; Konchada, Jagadish; Ramaswamy, Manikandan; Bhuminathan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The difficulty in reproducing accurate angle of condylar guidance in semi-adjustable articulators. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the angle of horizontal condylar inclination obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator and the corresponding angle traced on a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiograph in completely edentulous subject. Materials and Methods: The horizontal condylar inclination angle was obtained in a semi-adjustable articulator by means of height tracer (extra oral tracing device) and interocclusal records to program the articulator in 21 subjects. TMJ radiograph were recorded by the same operator with same orthopantomogram (OPG) machine (planmeca). Tracings of inclines of articular eminence on the radiograph were compared with the angle obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator. Each measurement was made using manual methods of measuring angle. The results were subjected to the Pearson correlation statistical analysis (α =0.01). Results: The outline of the articular eminence in a TMJ tomogram radiographic image was identified and traced. A significant correlation was found between the horizontal condylar inclination on a semi-adjustable and the corresponding TMJ tomogram radiographic image for both right (R = 0.789; P = 0.001) and left (i = 0.747; P = 0.004) sides. Conclusion: The articular eminence traced on a TMJ tomogram image represents the horizontal condylar inclination with a mean difference of 5° in 21 subjects evaluated. PMID:25210356

  19. Identification of articulation error patterns using a novel dependence network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeou-Jiunn

    2011-11-01

    Articulation errors seriously reduce speech intelligibility and the ease of spoken communication. Speech-language pathologists manually identify articulation error patterns based on their clinical experience, which is a time-consuming and expensive process. This study proposes an automatic pronunciation error identification system that uses a novel dependence network (DN) approach. In order to derive a subject's articulatory information, a photo naming task is performed to obtain the subject's speech patterns. Based on clinical knowledge about speech evaluation, a DN scheme was used to model the relationships of a test word, a subject, a speech pattern, and an articulation error pattern. To integrate DN into automatic speech recognition (ASR), a pronunciation confusion network is proposed to model the probability of DN and is then used to guide the search space of the ASR. Further, to increase the accuracy of the ASR, an appropriate threshold based on a histogram of pronunciation errors is selected in order to disregard rare pronunciation errors. Finally, the articulation error patterns were well identified by integrating the likelihoods of the DNs of each phoneme. The results of this study indicate that it is feasible to clinically implement this dynamic network approach to achieve satisfactory performance in articulation evaluation.

  20. Chaotic Dynamics of Articulated Cylinders in Confined Axial Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Païdoussis, M. P.; Botez, R. M.

    1993-10-01

    A study is presented of the dynamics of an articulated system of cylinders in confined axial flow. The Articulated system is composed of rigid cylindrical segments, interconnected by rotational springs; it is cantilevered, hanging vertically in the centre of a cylindrical pipe, with fluid flowing downwards in the narrow annular passage. For sufficiently high flow velocity, the system generally loses stability sequentially by diverge (pitchfork bifurcation) and flutter (Hopf bifurcation). Once this occurs, the articulated system interacts with the outer pipe, which acts a constraint to free motions. In the present study, which is mainly concerned with possible chaotic motions in this system, the analytical model is highly simplified. Thus, motions are considered to be planar, and the equations of the articulated system are taken to be linear, other than the terms associated with interaction with the outer pipe, which is modelled by either a trilinear or a cubic spring. A linear eigenvalue analysis is first undertaken, and then the nonlinear behaviour of the constrained model is explored numerically for systems of two and three articulations. Phase-plane plots, power spectral densities and bifurcation diagrams indicate in some cases a clear period-doubling cascade leading to chaos, while in others chaos arises via the quasiperiodic route. Poincaré maps and Lyapunov exponent calculations confirm the existence of chaos. Some analytical work is also presented, involving centre manifold theory, in which the post-Hopf limit-cycle amplitude is calculated and compared with that obtained numerically.

  1. Finding Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finding Dental Care Where can I find low-cost dental care? Dental schools often have clinics that allow dental ... can I find more information? See Finding Low Cost Dental Care . ​​​​ WWNRightboxRadEditor2 Contact Us 1-866-232-4528 nidcrinfo@ ...

  2. Dental education and dental practice.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper relates recent modes of dental practice to changes that the public and government are likely to ask the health care professions to make in the future. As usual they are asking for the best of all worlds. First, that we maintain the clinical model to the highest standards of personal dental care based and tested against the best research at our disposal, whilst we ensure there is no reduction in the high technical standards for which british dentists have a reputation. Second, that the profession is required to consider ways of providing care on the medicosocial model for the whole community at an economic level the country will afford. The broad changes in dental education have been reviewed, from the technical apprenticeship to the establishment of strong university departments in teaching hospitals. The importance of a sound biomedical foundation and of research both to education and the credibility of dental practice as a primary health care profession is stressed if the profession is to retain its position as a sister to medicine and not slide down to that of a technical ancillary. PMID:6374141

  3. Mechatronic assistant system for dental drill handling.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Simon, Jose Luis; Martinez, Arturo Minor; Espinoza, Daniel Lorias; Romero Velazquez, Jose Guadalupe

    2011-03-01

    Holding a dental tool for many hours of work is reflected in fatigue and manual tremor, which causes bad handling of rotatory instruments and consequently injuries within the buccal cavity. At present there exists no system to help the medical dentist in the support and handling of the dental drill. We propose the use of a mechatronic system to help the odontologist in handling the dental drill. The mechatronic system consists of an articulated arm with force sensors and actuators that are activated electronically. The mechanism was developed so that the handpiece is held simultaneously by the mechatronic arm and the hand of the dentist. Expert dentists and odontology students were asked to execute tasks to assess positioning accuracy and system resolution. Students performed positioning tasks to evaluate adaptation to the system. The subjects drew the contour of a circle with and without the mechatronic assistant to assess positioning accuracy. Similarly, they made cavities on acrylic typodonts to evaluate resolution and accuracy. Adaptation to the system was evaluated by inserting the drill burr into cavities previously made. The mechatronic system provides support and stability while handling the dental drill. The threshold of force required to move the mechanism prevents involuntary movements affecting the quality of work made on cavities. Positioning accuracy was improved by 53% (p < 0.017) using the system. Similarly, resolution of drilling was improved by 76% (p < 0.001). We have developed the first mechatronic system to assist dentists in handling the dental drill. The arm allows the dentist to manipulate the tool with smooth and precise movements during the preparation of dental cavities with the application of force. The mechatronic system minimizes manual tremor due to fatigue and reduces the risk of iatrogenic dental injuries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Activation of right insular cortex during imaginary speech articulation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Taro; Kato, Motoichiro; Shintani, Masuro; Kashima, Haruo

    2007-03-26

    Human speech articulation is a complex process controlled by a form of 'programming' implemented in the brain. Analysis of speech articulation using neuroimaging techniques is difficult, however, because motor noise is time-locked to the articulatory events. The current magnetoencephalography study, in which 12 participants were required to imagine vocalizing a phonogram after a visual cue, was designed to visualize the prearticulatory 'automatic' processes corresponding to the motor initiation. Magnetic activity correlating with the preparation for articulation occurred in the insular cortices at about 160 ms after the visual cue, and had a relative dominance in the right hemisphere. This suggests that motor control of speech proceeds from the insular regions, although the 'automatic' nature of our task might have led to the observed right-sided dominance.

  5. Information Transfer Capacity of Articulators in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Malaia, Evie; Borneman, Joshua D; Wilbur, Ronnie B

    2017-05-01

    The ability to convey information is a fundamental property of communicative signals. For sign languages, which are overtly produced with multiple, completely visible articulators, the question arises as to how the various channels co-ordinate and interact with each other. We analyze motion capture data of American Sign Language (ASL) narratives, and show that the capacity of information throughput, mathematically defined, is highest on the dominant hand (DH). We further demonstrate that information transfer capacity is also significant for the non-dominant hand (NDH), and the head channel too, as compared to control channels (ankles). We discuss both redundancy and independence in articulator motion in sign language, and argue that the NDH and the head articulators contribute to the overall information transfer capacity, indicating that they are neither completely redundant to, nor completely independent of, the DH.

  6. Dental implants in patients with bruxing habits.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Brouwers, J E I G; Cune, M S; Naeije, M

    2006-02-01

    Bruxism (teeth grinding and clenching) is generally considered a contraindication for dental implants, although the evidence for this is usually based on clinical experience only. So far, studies to the possible cause-and-effect relationship between bruxism and implant failure do not yield consistent and specific outcomes. This is partly because of the large variation in the literature in terms of both the technical aspects and the biological aspects of the study material. Although there is still no proof for the suggestion that bruxism causes an overload of dental implants and of their suprastructures, a careful approach is recommended. There are a few practical guidelines as to minimize the chance of implant failure. Besides the recommendation to reduce or eliminate bruxism itself, these guidelines concern the number and dimensions of the implants, the design of the occlusion and articulation patterns, and the protection of the final result with a hard occlusal stabilization splint (night guard).

  7. Second-generation dental laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Michael

    1993-07-01

    The first generation of dental lasers proved limited to soft tissue applications. Due to the thermal properties of these lasers, drilling of enamel and dentin is harmful to the underlying nerve tissue. As a solution to this problem, more sophisticated solidstate lasers are under commercial development for hard tissue applications. The first of these second generation lasers to emerge is the erbium:YAG now marketed in Europe by KaVo. This system relies on a cumbersome articulated arm delivery device. Other manufacturers have overcome this delivery problem with the introduction of flexible delivery methods. Another hard tissue laser that has been introduced is the short-pulsed Nd:YAG. This laser uses shaped pulses to drill teeth without thermal damage. An overview of these and other second generation dental lasers is presented.

  8. Design of a singularity-free articulated arm subassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Remis, S.J.; Stanisic, M.M. . Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    Adding a redundant degree of freedom to the shoulder pointing system complex of an articulated arm subassembly makes it possible to achieve a maximal workspace that is free of singularities. This paper derives a functional constraint between three of the four joints of this new type of arm, achieving a singularity-free workspace encompassing the entire reachable volume between the maximal- and minimal-reach surfaces. The large volume of dexterous workspace is verified by animation of the resulting arm design. Graphical results from the animation are presented comparing the dexterous workspace of this new arm to that of the standard nonredundant articulated arm subassembly such as found in the Puma manipulator.

  9. Dental Implant Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Dental implant surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots ... that look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures ...

  10. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dental caries.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  12. Dental Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  13. Language, articulation, voice and resonance characteristics in 4 children with Goldenhar syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Van Cauwenberge, Paul; Stevens, Ines; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the language, articulation, voice and resonance characteristics in children with Goldenhar syndrome. The 4 Dutch-speaking subjects were 2 boys (age 4.5 and 10.2 years) and 2 girls (aged 5.0 and 5.4 years) with normal cognitive functioning. Language testing showed a delay in the development of morphosyntactic abilities. Speech analysis showed that these four children were capable of producing all the sounds of their mother tongue. One type of distortion error, namely dentalization, was found in 2 children. Phonological process analysis revealed the persistence of processes such as final consonant deletion, unstressed syllable deletion and cluster reduction, which are normal in young children but are suppressed with maturation. Also the substitution process of devoicing was observed in these 4 children. It is not clear how the speech and language problems demonstrated in these 4 children are to be explained. It must be taken into consideration that the Goldenhar syndrome has a variable expression. It is possible that the presence of a mandibular defect, hearing impairment, the type and severity of palatal abnormality and decreased linguistic processing skills influence articulation in an individual child. The voices of 2 children were characterized by the presence of slight roughness, corresponding with a higher jitter percentage. How the occurrence of the hoarse voices is to be explained is not quite clear. Laryngoscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed no organic or functional voice disorder. Regarding resonance, only the child with a cleft palate showed hypernasality and nasal emission. The ENT specialist and the speech-language pathologist must be aware of these communication disorders in order to start preventive and early 'tailor-made' speech and language intervention as soon as possible.

  14. Articulation for Allied Health. Final Report. Omnibus Dissemination Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Cheryl C.

    There exists in health occupations education, two types of educational institutions. One type prepares students for a certificate, and the other for a degree. The objective of the Articulation Project for Allied Health was to establish and document a procedure by which students with technical certificates could receive college credit, recommending…

  15. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 5, Graphs of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fifth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide. The subject matter is concerned with graphical presentations, mathematical expressions, and relationships between speed, position, and time. The content is arranged in the scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies…

  16. ARTICULATOR-RELATED REGISTRATION AND ANALYSIS OF SAGITTAL CONDYLAR INCLINATION.

    PubMed

    Cimić, Samir; Simunković, Sonja Kraljević; Suncana Simonić Kocijan; Matijević, Jurica; Dulcić, Niksa; Catić, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study sagittal condylar inclination values within a uniform sample (Angle class I occlusion) using 'articulator-related registration' and Camper's plane as a reference plane. The study was performed on a sample of 58 Angle class I subjects (mean age 25.1, SD 3.1). Measurements were performed with an ultrasonic jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. After a paraocclusal tray was fixed in the mouth, each subject had to make three protrusive movements and three right and left laterotrusive movements. From protrusive movements the software of the device automatically calculated the left and the right sagittal condylar inclination values used for setting of the articulator. The mean sagittal condylar inclinationvalue was 41.0° (SD 10.5) for the right joint and 40.7° (SD 9.8) for the left joint. The maximum value was 65.0° for the right and 68.6° for the left joint, and the minimum value was 13.7° for the right and 21.7° for the left joint. The results of this study suggested the average articulator setting for sagittal condylar inclination for fully dentate adult subjects to be 40° in relation to Camper's plane. This is especially important for the articulators that are set up in relation to Camper's plane.

  17. Family History in Patients Who Present with Functional Articulation Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Kamal, Sana Mohammed; Qa'dan, Wa'el Nafith; Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine family history of functional articulation disorders (FAD) among Jordanian patients who present with FAD, as well as to investigate the relation of other factors related to the disorder (age, gender, genetic connection between parents, sounds affected, and type of disorder). A convenience sample of 45 patients (ages…

  18. Forest Technician. 2+2 Articulated Curriculum in Agricultural Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Walter

    This 2+2 articulated curriculum for the occupation of forest technician includes the following: program results and benefits; job description--forest technician; curriculum objective; duty and task listings for forest technician; recommended secondary and postsecondary course options flowchart; recommended student prerequisites; basic outlines for…

  19. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 11, Impulse and Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the eleventh lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to impulse and momentum. The topics are concerned with "quantity of motion," unit conversion, and related conservation laws. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is…

  20. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 12, Work, Energy, and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the twelfth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to work, energy, and power. The topics are concerned with kinetic and potential energy, energy transfer in free falling bodies, and conservation laws. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of…

  1. The Pump-Valve Model of Speech Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Donald

    The traditional respiration-phonation-articulation-resonation model of speech production which permeates introductory literature is not the only suitable model of this process. The pump-valve model, which derives from the acoustic theory of speech production, is a viable alternative. This newer model is also consistent with modern theories. It…

  2. The Relationship of Intonation to First Vowel Articulation in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Walburga von Raffler

    Assuming that an infant's first stage of verbal communication is melodic and the result of controlling the motion of the vocal cords, a question arises concerning the second stage in development. Is it the shaping of the oral cavity of the direction of the articulators? The author's observation of an infant through his first year of development…

  3. Articulation for Elementary School Foreign Language Programs: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    While foreign language instruction for elementary school children is gaining attention, poor articulation is a problem that has become more complex because of the variety of foreign language program models being developed. Five main types are in use: total immersion, partial immersion, foreign languages in the elementary school (FLES),…

  4. Influences of Tone on Vowel Articulation in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jason A; Chen, Wei-Rong; Proctor, Michael I; Derrick, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Models of speech production often abstract away from shared physiology in pitch control and lingual articulation, positing independent control of tone and vowel units. We assess the validity of this assumption in Mandarin Chinese by evaluating the stability of lingual articulation for vowels across variation in tone. Electromagnetic articulography was used to track flesh points on the tongue (tip, body, dorsum), lips, and jaw while native Mandarin speakers (n = 6) produced 3 vowels, /pa/, /pi/, /pu/, combined with 4 Mandarin tones: T1 "high," T2 "rising," T3 "low," and T4 "falling." Consistent with physiological expectations, tones that begin low, T2 and T3, conditioned a lower position of the tongue body for the vowel /a/. For the vowel /i/, we found the opposite effect, whereby tones that begin low, T2 and T3, conditioned a higher tongue body position. The physiology of pitch control exerts systematic variation on the lingual articulation of /a/ across tones. The effects of tone on /i/ articulation are in the opposite direction predicted by physiological considerations. Physiologically arbitrary variation of the type observed for /i/ challenges the assumption that phonetic patterns can be determined by independent control of tone (source) and vowel (filter) production units.

  5. FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARTICULATION IN CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANTON, ROGER C.; AND OTHERS

    THE PROGRESS MADE IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS SHOWS UP THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF ARTICULATION AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS, AND COLLEGES, AND IT IS THIS PROBLEM THAT IS EXPLORED BY THE CALIFORNIA LIAISON COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN LANGUAGES. THE ADOPTION OF COMMON OBJECTIVES AND PROVISION FOR CONTINUITY OF LANGUAGE STUDY…

  6. Articulating the International Curriculum. Part II, Continuity through Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The three programs now offered by the International Baccalaureate Organization for children 5 to 18 could benefit from greater articulation. The programs share common goals aimed at developing in students sense of responsibility, spirit of open-mindedness, critical thinking ability, multilanguage proficiency, and active interest in other cultures.…

  7. Stuart Hall and the Theory and Practice of Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the idea of articulation links three different dimensions of Stuart Hall's work: it is central to the work of cultural politics, to the work of hegemony and to his practice of embodied pedagogy. I claim that his approach to pedagogy entails the art of listening combined with the practice of theorising in the service…

  8. Articulating Domestic and Global University Descriptors and Indices of Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    At the 2010 American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual conference, a featured invited session focused on "How professors think: inside the curious world of academic judgment." Harvard University professor and author, Michele Lamont, articulated a thoughtful precis of her book. Her material concentrates on the "curious" world of…

  9. Visual Word Recognition during Reading Is Followed by Subvocal Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiter, Brianna M.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was…

  10. The Effect of Articulation Style on Perception of Modulated Tempo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Kevin Droe

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of legato and staccato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Ninety music majors served as participants. Listeners heard music examples that had been selected from two pieces, each of which included staccato and legato passages. Excerpts were presented to listeners in three conditions of tempo…

  11. Family History in Patients Who Present with Functional Articulation Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Kamal, Sana Mohammed; Qa'dan, Wa'el Nafith; Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine family history of functional articulation disorders (FAD) among Jordanian patients who present with FAD, as well as to investigate the relation of other factors related to the disorder (age, gender, genetic connection between parents, sounds affected, and type of disorder). A convenience sample of 45 patients (ages…

  12. High Schools Performance Indicators Profile, 1999-2000: Articulated Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Div. of Assessment and Accountability.

    This report presents data on high school performance indicators for the 1999-00 school year regarding the articulated alternative in New York City high schools. Data are provided on: background; students (numbers and ethnicity); state accountability indicators in English language arts (full cohort and seniors in the cohort); state accountability…

  13. Active cells for redundant and configurable articulated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swensen, John P.; Nawroj, Ahsan I.; Pounds, Paul E. I.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2014-10-01

    The proposed research effort explores the development of active cells—simple contractile electro-mechanical units that can be used as the material basis for larger articulable structures. Each cell, which might be considered a ‘muscle unit,’ consists of a contractile Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) core with conductive terminals. Large numbers of these cells might be combined and externally powered to change phase, contracting to either articulate with a large strain or increase the stiffness of the ensemble, depending on the cell design. Unlike traditional work in modular robotics, the approach presented here focuses on cells that have a simplistic design and function, are inexpensive to fabricate, and are eventually scalable to sub-millimeter sizes, working toward our vision of articulated and robotic structures that can be custom-fabricated from large numbers of general cell units, similar to biological structures. In this paper, we present the design of the active cells and demonstrate their usage with three articulated structures built with them.

  14. Articulating Domestic and Global University Descriptors and Indices of Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    At the 2010 American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual conference, a featured invited session focused on "How professors think: inside the curious world of academic judgment." Harvard University professor and author, Michele Lamont, articulated a thoughtful precis of her book. Her material concentrates on the "curious" world of…

  15. Articulating and Contextualizing Multiple Literacies in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voithofer, Rick; Winterwood, Fawn

    2010-01-01

    This study uses articulation theory to frame how social actors and institutions in an urban community in Columbus, Ohio, form linkages and understandings about computer and information literacies. Using interviews with 33 key educators (e.g., principals, computer literacy teachers, library media specialists, district integration specialists),…

  16. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 3, The Arithmetic of Scientific Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the third lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide. An introductory description is given for scientific notation methods. The subject content is provided in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is required for students to control their learning process.…

  17. Massachusetts' Occupational and Educational Trends: The Need for Program Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Irvine

    Articulation has the potential to improve educational quality, enhance the efficient use of resources, respond effectively to diverse reform proposals, and sustain student interest in school. Technology is changing the nature of work and requires both better schooled and more highly trained workers. Partnerships between high schools and community…

  18. Stuart Hall and the Theory and Practice of Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the idea of articulation links three different dimensions of Stuart Hall's work: it is central to the work of cultural politics, to the work of hegemony and to his practice of embodied pedagogy. I claim that his approach to pedagogy entails the art of listening combined with the practice of theorising in the service…

  19. Articulation Theory and Public Controversy: Taking Sides over "NYPD Blue."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczor, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests a new academic perspective for investigating the nature of mass-mediated public controversies based on Stuart Hall's theory of articulation. This theory is appropriated to help identify the empowering associations made between the individuals and groups participating in the 1993 controversy over the embattled television program "NYPD…

  20. The "ACA Code of Ethics": Articulating Counseling's Professional Covenant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Richard F.; Duba, Jill D.

    2009-01-01

    The "ACA Code of Ethics" (American Counseling Association, 2005) is an articulation of the ever-changing relationship between counseling professionals and society. It provides clear parameters of behaviors to meet the changing needs of the people counselors are called to serve. This article reviews the 2005 "Code" as both a statement of counselor…

  1. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  2. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  3. Articulation in Secondary and Postsecondary Occupational Education: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, LaVerna M.; And Others

    A study was conducted of formal occupational education articulation agreements between secondary and postsecondary institutions in New York State. Specifically, the study investigated the administration of agreements; the characteristics, goals, and length of time of agreements; benefits; problems and barriers; costs; and characteristics…

  4. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  5. School-College Articulation Practices in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Norman C.

    There is much evidence that supports the assertion that the problems involved in school-college articulation are both significant and serious enough to warrant immediate attention and action. Data was collected from various sources by using a questionnaire designed: (1) to gather programs within the state; and (2) to serve the educative function…

  6. Student Assessment System. Admissions Guide. Georgia Vocational Education Program Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul; And Others

    Designed for use by student personnel workers in Georgia's postsecondary vocational schools, this guide describes the recommended activities, standards, and procedures that can be used to grant advanced placement to entering students. It begins with brief overview of articulation. The next section describes the Student Assessment System, steps in…

  7. The Effect of Articulation Style on Perception of Modulated Tempo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Kevin Droe

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of legato and staccato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Ninety music majors served as participants. Listeners heard music examples that had been selected from two pieces, each of which included staccato and legato passages. Excerpts were presented to listeners in three conditions of tempo…

  8. A Model for Community College/High School Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellsfry, Norval; Rosen, M. Frances

    By initiating formal structures for cooperation and coordination of programming between themselves and local high schools, community colleges can reduce the amount of unnecessary duplication of efforts and programs and can benefit many students who, without such a program of articulation, would be unprepared for community college course work.…

  9. An Application of the Articulation Index to Hearing Aid Fitting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankovic, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    The application of the Articulation Index (AI) model to the fitting of linear amplification was evaluated for 12 subjects with sensorineural hearing loss. For all subjects, the relationship between percent-correct scores on a nonsense syllable test and AIs was monotonic, indicating that AI was effective for comparing conditions typical of those…

  10. Articulating and Contextualizing Multiple Literacies in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voithofer, Rick; Winterwood, Fawn

    2010-01-01

    This study uses articulation theory to frame how social actors and institutions in an urban community in Columbus, Ohio, form linkages and understandings about computer and information literacies. Using interviews with 33 key educators (e.g., principals, computer literacy teachers, library media specialists, district integration specialists),…

  11. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 13, Internal Energy, Heat, and Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the thirteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to internal energy, heat, and temperature. The topics are concerned with collisions, thermometers, friction forces, degrees Centigrade and Fahrenheit, calories, Brownian motion, and state changes. The…

  12. Articulation Rate in Childhood and Adolescence: Hebrew Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Grinfeld, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify articulation rate among Hebrew speaking children and adolescents across a wide age range, and to assess whether age-related differences vary according to metric. One hundred and forty children, in seven age groups, participated in this cross-sectional study. All children were recorded during conversation and a picture…

  13. Explaining Behavior Through Observational Investigation and Theory Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian K.; Reiser, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    Conducting observational investigations of behaviors and processes is an important method for generating scientific knowledge. This article describes a methodology for assisting students in the processes of observational inquiry and theory articulation and its instantiation in a set of digital video tools. We describe a high school biology…

  14. Explaining Behavior through Observational Investigation and Theory Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian K.; Reiser, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    Conducting observational investigations of behaviors and processes is an important method for generating scientific knowledge. This article describes a methodology for assisting students in the processes of observational inquiry and theory articulation and its instantiation in a set of digital video tools. We describe a high school biology…

  15. Articulation effects in lightness: historical background and theoretical implications.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Alan L; Annan, Vidal

    2002-01-01

    The concept of articulation was first introduced by Katz [1935 The World of Colour (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co)] to refer to the degree of complexity within a field. Katz, who created the basic research methods for studying lightness constancy, found that the greater the degree of articulation within a field of illumination, the greater the degree of constancy. Even though this concept has been largely forgotten, there is much empirical evidence for Katz's principle, and the effects on lightness are very strong. However, when articulation is increased within a framework that does not coincide with a region of illumination, constancy is weakened. Kardos (1934 Zeitschrift für Psychologie Ergänzungband 23) advanced the concept of co-determination, according to which the lightness of a surface is determined relative to more than one field of illumination. Gilchrist et al (1999 Psychological Review 106 795-834) argue that the fields concept should be replaced by the more operational frameworks concept and that a wide variety of lightness errors can be explained by a modification of the Katz principle: the greater the articulation within a perceptual framework, the stronger the anchoring of lightness values within that framework.

  16. Survey of Speech Articulation Disorders Among Military Dependent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Don E.

    Reported was a study involving 20,000 (army) military dependent children (MDC) attending 75 schools in seven school systems throughout the continental United States during 1971. Testing of 412 randomly selected MDC using the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation revealed a significant correlation and associative factor between MDC speech…

  17. College Student Access: How Articulation Agreements Support Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Dixon, Karrie Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Students from rural areas face additional burdens, such as affordability, academic preparation, and lack of college-going resources that make seeking, enrolling, and attending college more difficult. Community colleges offer hope to achieve a college degree for many rural students, and well-developed articulation agreements can be one way of…

  18. Assessment of information processing in children with functional articulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Ozcebe, Esra; Belgin, Erol

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the information processing skills in children who have functional articulation disorder by using a cognitive-linguistic test battery. Thirty-three children with functional articulation disorder were enrolled in this study. They ranged in age from 6 to 10 years. A control group without articulation disorders was composed of 160 children with similar properties. In the first stage of this study, both groups were administered the Ross Information Processing Assessment Test-Primary. In this test, the scores obtained from eight subtests; namely immediate memory, recent memory, recall of general information, spatial orientation, temporal orientation, organization, problem solving and abstract reasoning, was calculated for both groups. The scores of the eight subtests are combined to form the four composites. These composites are memory quotient, orientation quotient, thinking and reasoning quotient and information processing quotient. Information processing quotient is the best and the most comprehensive estimate of a child's overall information processing ability. In the second stage of the study the articulation-disordered group was divided into two subgroups according the number of the mistakes, which was done at the level of the phoneme. The scores obtained from both subgroups were compared with the scores of the control group. The overall statistical analysis of the scores revealed that; the study group had significantly lower scores than the control group from memory quotient, thinking and reasoning quotient and information processing quotient. When compared to control group, the subgroup who cannot pronounce one phoneme had similar scores from all four composites. Moreover, the children who cannot pronounce multiple phonemes had significantly lower scores from memory quotient, thinking and reasoning quotient and information processing quotient. The results obtained from this study seem to be suggesting that information

  19. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    PubMed

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  20. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet

    PubMed Central

    Ohms, Verena R.; Beckers, Gabriël J. L.; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator. PMID:22162856

  1. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  2. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  3. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  4. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  5. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  6. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition. PMID:24977203

  7. Design and Construction of Passively Articulated Ornithopter Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastro, Alexander Timothy

    Birds, bats, and insects are able to fly efficiently and execute impressive in-flight, landing, and takeoff maneuvers with apparent ease through actuation of their highly articulated wings. This contrasts the approach used to enable the flight of comparatively simple man-made rotary and fixed wing aircraft. The complex aerodynamics underlying flapping-based flight pose an everpresent challenge to scientists hoping to reveal the secrets of animal flight. Despite this, interest in engineering aircraft on the bird and insect scale is higher than ever. Herein, I present my attempt to design and construct bioinspired passively articulated ornithopter wings. Two different hinge-based joint design concepts are investigated across several design iterations. The advantages and disadvantages of each implementation are discussed. Finally, the necessary instrumentation to analyze the performance of the wings is designed and fabricated, followed by testing of the wings.

  8. Attitude Dynamics and Control of Solar Sails with Articulated Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Ploen, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we develop a robust nonlinear algorithm for the attitude control of a solar sailcraft with M single degree-of-freedom articulated control vanes. A general attitude controller that tracks an admissible trajectory while rejecting disturbances such as torques due to center-of-mass to center-of-pressure offsets is applied to this problem. We then describe a methodology based on nonlinear programming to allocate the required control torques among the control vanes. A simplified allocation strategy is then applied to a solar sail with four articulated control vanes, and simulation results are given. The performance of the control algorithm and possible limitations of vane-only control are then discussed.

  9. The influence of cochlear implantation on vowel articulation.

    PubMed

    Hocevar-Boltezar, Irena; Boltezar, Miha; Zargi, Miha

    2008-01-01

    Speech of deaf persons differs considerably from that of speakers with normal hearing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acoustic changes in articulation of corner vowels in deaf children and adults after cochlear implantation. Thirteen prelingually deaf children and 12 postlingually deaf adults were included in the study. Voice samples of the isolated corner vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ were analyzed before and 6-12 months after the implantation. The frequencies of the first (F1) and second (F2) formants, the F1/F2 ratio of all three corner vowels, and the area of the vowel triangle were calculated and compared before and 6-12 months after the implantation. In the adults, no significant differences were detected in the formant frequencies, the F1/F2 ratio or the area of the vowel triangle. However, significant change in formant frequencies was detected in the group of 13 prelingually deaf children. After the implantation the F1 of /u/ decreased significantly, and favorable decreases of the F1 of /i/ and the F1/F2 ratio in /i/ and /u/ were close to being statistically significant. All changes caused better phonological difference between the two vowels. The significant change in the F1 of /u/ and the change of F1 of /i/ resulted in the expansion of the vowel space, which was expressed as an increase in the area of the vowel triangle. We suggest that in children the acquired hearing ability and further development of neuromuscular control of articulation are the reasons for the significant improvement after cochlear implantation. The results also suggest that the area of the vowel triangle is a useful and sensitive indicator of the more precise articulation after implantation. In order to achieve better and faster improvement of articulation, regular speech therapy should be included in the rehabilitation of deaf persons after cochlear implantation.

  10. Efficient Reorientation Maneuvers for Spacecraft with Multiple Articulated Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    A final report is provided which describes the research program during the period 3 Mar. 1992 to 3 Jun. 1993. A summary of the technical research questions that were studied and of the main results that were obtained is given. The specific outcomes of the research program, including both educational impacts as well as research publications, are listed. The research is concerned with efficient reorientation maneuvers for spacecraft with multiple articulated payloads.

  11. Articulated joint for a high-mobility modular vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesar, Joseph S.; Cohen, Charles J.; Obermark, Jay

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes the development of an articulated link for two mobile, articulated vehicles. The goal of the project is to show enhanced mobility of coupled platforms in an environment with barriers and obstacles. To achieve enhanced mobility, actuated linkages are used to couple the vehicles. The actuated linkages are high strength, hydraulically coupled, two degree-of-freedom devices with a universal coupler mounted on the end. When one platform is mated to a companion platform, the couplers lock, and the pair of vehicles can operate as a single unit. The robotic platform is based on a modified All Terrain Vehicle (ATV), which affords a robust platform with a minimum of cost. The vehicles are controlled using a wireless controller, and can be operated individually in a teleoperative mode, or can be joined and operated as a single unit. The method for link-up is semi-autonomous, meaning that within a certain distance, the two robots can align themselves and move together, locking the couplers on the end of the articulated link. Vehicle position is determined using standard cameras mounted on the platform that use machine vision algorithms to find volumetric position of the couplers quickly.

  12. Oral approach-avoidance: affective consequences of muscular articulation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Maschmann, Ira Theresa; Pecher, Diane; Winkielman, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Can mouth movements shape attitudes? When people articulate different consonants (e.g., B or K) they press the tongue and the lips against various spots in the mouth. This allows for construction of words that feature systematic wanderings of consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear (inward; e.g., BENOKA) or from the rear to the front (outward; e.g., KENOBA) of the mouth. These wanderings of muscular strictures resemble the oral kinematics during either deglution (swallowing-like, inward movement) or expectoration (spitting-like, outward movement). Thus, we predicted that the articulation of inward and outward words induces motivational states associated with deglutition and expectoration--namely, approach and avoidance--which was tested in 9 experiments (total N = 822). Inward words were preferred over outward words, being labeled as nonsense words (Experiments 1, 4, 5, 6, and 9), company names (Experiment 2), or person names (Experiments 3, 7, and 8), with control words falling in between (Experiment 5). As a social-behavioral consequence, ostensible chat partners were more often chosen to interact with when having inward compared to outward names (Experiment 7). The effect was found in German-speaking (Experiments 1-5) and English-speaking (Experiment 6) samples, and it occurred even under silent reading (all experiments) and for negatively labeled targets (names of villains; Experiment 8). Showing articulation simulations as being the causal undercurrent, this effect was absent in aphasia patients who lacked covert subvocalizations (Experiment 9).

  13. Special Education School Articulation Program. Phase I: Program Implementation 1990-91. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    New York City's Special Education School Articulation Program, which fosters informed student and parent choice about available high school program options, is described. Initial program objectives for the 1990-91 school year included hiring of school articulation coordinators and development of specific articulation plans by middle and high…

  14. Student Assessment System. Competency Verification Guide. Georgia Vocational Education Program Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Mike; And Others

    This guide is designed to aid instructional personnel in all areas of vocational education in the articulation of secondary and postsecondary programs through verification of student competencies. It presents general information on what program articulation is and why it is important, how articulation may be achieved in the least constraining…

  15. Trends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian R.

    Trends in articulation arrangements for technical and vocational education (TVE) in the South East Asia region were studied. A key feature of articulation is the existence of pathways that allow graduates of one course of study to progress to other courses. Effective articulation opens up advancement for individuals and helps to create a flexible…

  16. Building Better Bridges: Middle School to High School Articulation in Foreign Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieken, Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveys factors easing foreign language students' transition from middle to high school, including the type of program, degree of success in transition, problems in achieving effective articulation, and effective articulation strategies. Findings indicate that the greater the number of articulation strategies practiced, the greater likelihood…

  17. 76 FR 16747 - Applications for New Awards; Hispanic-Serving Institutions STEM and Articulation Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Applications for New Awards; Hispanic-Serving Institutions STEM and Articulation Programs AGENCY: Office of... Institutions STEM and Articulation Programs Notice inviting applications for new awards using fiscal year (FY... Programs: The Hispanic-Serving Institutions STEM and Articulation programs authorized under section 371 of...

  18. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  19. DENTAL CARIES

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, George O.

    1951-01-01

    The most generally accepted theory as to the cause of dental caries is that certain bacteria in the mouth, in the presence of fermentable sugars, cause the formation of acids which in turn decalcify teeth. Physicians may help reduce the incidence of caries by recommending elimination of refined sugars from the diet, or at least control of the amount consumed. Cleaning the teeth with a well designed tooth brush after each meal will to a certain extent mechanically remove the fermentable sugar and debris from the teeth. One step further in oral hygiene that may be beneficial is to use a dentifrice with 5 per cent dibasic ammonium phosphate and 3 per cent urea to reduce the formation of acid. Anything that will increase salivation will aid in buffering any acids that may be present. A 2 per cent solution of sodium fluoride applied to the thoroughly dried “intact” enamel surface may prevent caries. Sodium fluoride added to drinking water to a concentration of 1 part per million is utilized by the body in formation of an enamel that is particularly resistant to caries. PMID:14801729

  20. Dental Exam for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and thumb sucking Toddlers, school-age children and adolescents During each regular checkup, the dentist or hygienist ... dental hygienist about proper oral health care for adolescents. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/ ...

  1. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powdered alloy composed of silver, tin, and copper. Approximately 50% of dental amalgam is elemental mercury ... to react with and bind together the silver/copper/tin alloy particles to form an amalgam. Dental ...

  2. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  3. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... centers, and dental providers in the community to foster more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at highest risk of cavities, including those covered ...

  4. AUTHORITARIANISM AND DENTAL CARIES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in particular. If so, dental decay among nonauthoritarians might well progress further than among authoritarians. To determine whether or not there...is any relationship between dental decay and authoritarianism is the purpose of the present study. (Author)

  5. Dental Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview and documents for Dental Office Category regulation (40 CFR Part 441); comprising pretreatment standards for discharges of dental amalgam pollutants, including mercury, into publicly owned treatment works (POTWs).

  6. Dental education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Bird, William F

    2007-12-01

    There was only one dental school in Malaysia until 1997 but five new schools have been established since 1998. This review provides information about dental education in Malaysia including; the history of dental education, the current dental school system and curriculum, and dental licensure. There are four public and two private dental schools in Malaysia. High school graduates are required to take the nationwide matriculation entrance examination or the Higher School Certificate (HSC) to apply for a dental degree programme. A five-year dental programme leads to the BDS or the DDS degree. National or state examinations are not required to practise dentistry. Currently, there are approximately 2,500 dentists, with a ratio of 1 dentist for every 10,000 people.

  7. Articulating What Infants Attune to in Native Speech

    PubMed Central

    Best, Catherine T.; Goldstein, Louis M.; Nam, Hosung; Tyler, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To become language users, infants must embrace the integrality of speech perception and production. That they do so, and quite rapidly, is implied by the native-language attunement they achieve in each domain by 6–12 months. Yet research has most often addressed one or the other domain, rarely how they interrelate. Moreover, mainstream assumptions that perception relies on acoustic patterns whereas production involves motor patterns entail that the infant would have to translate incommensurable information to grasp the perception–production relationship. We posit the more parsimonious view that both domains depend on commensurate articulatory information. Our proposed framework combines principles of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and Articulatory Phonology (AP). According to PAM, infants attune to articulatory information in native speech and detect similarities of nonnative phones to native articulatory patterns. The AP premise that gestures of the speech organs are the basic elements of phonology offers articulatory similarity metrics while satisfying the requirement that phonological information be discrete and contrastive: (a) distinct articulatory organs produce vocal tract constrictions and (b) phonological contrasts recruit different articulators and/or constrictions of a given articulator that differ in degree or location. Various lines of research suggest young children perceive articulatory information, which guides their productions: discrimination of between- versus within-organ contrasts, simulations of attunement to language-specific articulatory distributions, multimodal speech perception, oral/vocal imitation, and perceptual effects of articulator activation or suppression. We conclude that articulatory gesture information serves as the foundation for developmental integrality of speech perception and production. PMID:28367052

  8. From intricate to integrated: Biofabrication of articulating joints.

    PubMed

    Groen, Wilhelmina Margaretha; Diloksumpan, Paweena; van Weeren, Paul René; Levato, Riccardo; Malda, Jos

    2017-10-01

    Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self-healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology. Herein, we address the current challenges to recapitulate the complexity of articulating joints and how biofabrication could overcome them. The combination of multiple materials, biological cues and cells in a layer-by-layer fashion, can assist in reproducing both the zonal organization of cartilage and the gradual transition from resilient cartilage toward the subchondral bone in biofabricated osteochondral grafts. In this way, optimal integration of engineered constructs with the natural surrounding tissues can be obtained. Mechanical characteristics, including the smoothness and low friction that are hallmarks of the articular surface, can be tuned with multi-head or hybrid printers by controlling the spatial patterning of printed structures. Moreover, biofabrication can use digital medical images as blueprints for printing patient-specific implants. Finally, the current rapid advances in biofabrication hold significant potential for developing joint-on-a-chip models for personalized medicine and drug testing or even for the creation of implants that may be used to treat larger parts of the articulating joint. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 35:2089-2097, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic

  9. Dental laser technology.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2008-10-01

    Dental technology is rapidly affecting the treatment options available to patients. Dental lasers are an innovative technology for both hard- and soft-tissue treatment applications. The ability to recontour soft tissues efficiently and predictably with immediate hemostatsis and minimal postoperative sequelae is of value to both the dentist and the patient. This article reviews the principles of dental lasers, criteria to consider when selecting a dental laser, and some of their clinical applications.

  10. Instabilities of a spatial system of articulated pipes conveying fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, M. P.; Herrmann, G.

    1974-01-01

    A spatial system of two articulated pipes conveying fluid is examined analytically and experimentally. As the flow rate is increased, stable equilibrium may be lost by either divergence (static buckling) or by flutter (oscillations with increasing amplitude), depending upon the value of an angle beta which measures the 'out-of-planeness' of the system. It is found that in the range O less than beta less than 90 deg there exists a transition value below which stability is lost by flutter and above which stability is lost by divergence.

  11. Speech Articulation Disorders Among Military Dependent School Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    of Speech and Hearing; Disorders, 17 (June, 1952), p. 130. 5. Wendell Johnson et al., Spech Handica~ped School Children (New York: Harper & Row, 1...6739 P. 15. 6. As opposed to articulation tisorders, the incidence rates of stuttering and voice disorders are normal. 7. The slight disprders, normally...rate. 8. Johnson , op. cit., p. 111. 9. Johnson , op. cit., p. 1ll. 10. Jo,:rnal of S7eech .I e•rlngDisorders, Monograph Supplement 8 anville, -ll-nis

  12. Articulated limiter blade for a tokamak fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Doll, D.W.

    1982-10-21

    A limiter blade for a large tokomak fusion reactor includes three articulated blade sections for enabling the limiter blade to be adjusted for plasmas of different sizes. Each blade section is formed of a rigid backing plate carrying graphite tiles coated with titanium carbide, and the limiter blade forms a generally elliptic contour in both the poloidal and toroidal directions to uniformly distribute the heat flow to the blade. The limiter blade includes a central blade section movable along the major radius of the vacuum vessel, and upper and lower pivotal blade sections which may be pivoted by linear actuators having rollers held to the back surface of the pivotal blade sections.

  13. Articulated limiter blade for a tokamak fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Doll, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A limiter blade for a large tokomak fusion reactor includes three articulated blade sections for enabling the limiter blade to be adjusted for plasmas of different sizes. Each blade section is formed of a rigid backing plate carrying graphite tiles coated with titanium carbide, and the limiter blade forms a generally elliptic contour in both the poloidal and toroidal directions to uniformly distribute the heat flow to the blade. The limiter blade includes a central blade section movable along the major radius of the vacuum vessel, and upper and lower pivotal blade sections which may be pivoted by linear actuators having rollers held to the back surface of the pivotal blade sections.

  14. Evolution of Autonomous Self-Righting Behaviors for Articulated Nanorovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Miniature rovers with articulated mobility mechanisms are being developed for planetary surface exploration on Mars and small solar system bodies. These vehicles are designed to be capable of autonomous recovery from overturning during surface operations. This paper describes a computational means of developing motion behaviors that achieve the autonomous recovery function. It proposes a control software design approach aimed at reducing the effort involved in developing self-righting behaviors. The approach is based on the integration of evolutionary computing with a dynamics simulation environment for evolving and evaluating motion behaviors. The automated behavior design approach is outlined and its underlying genetic programming infrastructure is described.

  15. The effects of receptive language training on articulation1

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ronald A.; Baer, Donald M.

    1971-01-01

    The present study attempted to assess one condition of language exposure that might be operative in a normal environment, and experimentally determine its relevance to the acquisition of productive speech. The results demonstrated that the development of receptive language skills can be functionally related to productive speech. Specifically, the data indicated that exposure to words that have stimulus control over a subject's nonverbal pointing behavior can facilitate later articulation of those same words. Thus, this study draws attention to the fact that at least some classes of operants, in this case verbal, can be affected not only by their consequences, but by not obviously related antecedent events as well. PMID:16795305

  16. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, John E

    2009-01-01

    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  17. Dental Manpower Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…

  18. Dental Assisting Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Sandra J.

    Compiled to introduce the dental assisting student to various techniques used in the dental office and to present theoretical information essential for the student's professional development, this laboratory guide consists of three units of instruction. The first unit is an introduction to dental assisting and contains five topics of study. The…

  19. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  20. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  1. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  2. Dental transfigurements in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    2001-07-28

    Dental transfigurement, formerly termed dental mutilation, has been practised by many societies worldwide. This article gives many of the forms that have been attributed to the indigenes of the island of Borneo. The method has been performed by review of anthropological books, sparse dental references, Borneo research literature, and popular writing.

  3. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  4. Perspectives from Dental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the Institute of Medicine's 1995 report concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It examines whether real reform is occurring at the National Institute of Dental Research, within the academic dental community, and within the practicing profession. It concludes that very little…

  5. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  6. Audiovisual materials are effective for enhancing the correction of articulation disorders in children with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, María Del Carmen; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Morales, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    Children with cleft palate frequently show speech disorders known as compensatory articulation. Compensatory articulation requires a prolonged period of speech intervention that should include reinforcement at home. However, frequently relatives do not know how to work with their children at home. To study whether the use of audiovisual materials especially designed for complementing speech pathology treatment in children with compensatory articulation can be effective for stimulating articulation practice at home and consequently enhancing speech normalization in children with cleft palate. Eighty-two patients with compensatory articulation were studied. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received speech pathology treatment aimed to correct articulation placement. In addition, patients from the active group received a set of audiovisual materials to be used at home. Parents were instructed about strategies and ideas about how to use the materials with their children. Severity of compensatory articulation was compared at the onset and at the end of the speech intervention. After the speech therapy period, the group of patients using audiovisual materials at home demonstrated significantly greater improvement in articulation, as compared with the patients receiving speech pathology treatment on - site without audiovisual supporting materials. The results of this study suggest that audiovisual materials especially designed for practicing adequate articulation placement at home can be effective for reinforcing and enhancing speech pathology treatment of patients with cleft palate and compensatory articulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A kinematic study of critical and non-critical articulators in emotional speech production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jangwon; Toutios, Asterios; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2015-03-01

    This study explores one aspect of the articulatory mechanism that underlies emotional speech production, namely, the behavior of linguistically critical and non-critical articulators in the encoding of emotional information. The hypothesis is that the possible larger kinematic variability in the behavior of non-critical articulators enables revealing underlying emotional expression goal more explicitly than that of the critical articulators; the critical articulators are strictly controlled in service of achieving linguistic goals and exhibit smaller kinematic variability. This hypothesis is examined by kinematic analysis of the movements of critical and non-critical speech articulators gathered using eletromagnetic articulography during spoken expressions of five categorical emotions. Analysis results at the level of consonant-vowel-consonant segments reveal that critical articulators for the consonants show more (less) peripheral articulations during production of the consonant-vowel-consonant syllables for high (low) arousal emotions, while non-critical articulators show less sensitive emotional variation of articulatory position to the linguistic gestures. Analysis results at the individual phonetic targets show that overall, between- and within-emotion variability in articulatory positions is larger for non-critical cases than for critical cases. Finally, the results of simulation experiments suggest that the postural variation of non-critical articulators depending on emotion is significantly associated with the controls of critical articulators.

  8. Variability in English vowels is comparable in articulation and acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Noiray, Aude; Iskarous, Khalil; Whalen, D. H.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the links between speech production and perception has been the subject of longstanding debate. The present study investigated the articulatory parameter of tongue height and the acoustic F1-F0 difference for the phonological distinction of vowel height in American English front vowels. Multiple repetitions of /i, ɪ, e, ε, æ/ in [(h)Vd] sequences were recorded in seven adult speakers. Articulatory (ultrasound) and acoustic data were collected simultaneously to provide a direct comparison of variability in vowel production in both domains. Results showed idiosyncratic patterns of articulation for contrasting the three front vowel pairs /i-ɪ/, /e-ε/ and /ε-æ/ across subjects, with the degree of variability in vowel articulation comparable to that observed in the acoustics for all seven participants. However, contrary to what was expected, some speakers showed reversals for tongue height for /ɪ/-/e/ that was also reflected in acoustics with F1 higher for /ɪ/ than for /e/. The data suggest the phonological distinction of height is conveyed via speaker-specific articulatory-acoustic patterns that do not strictly match features descriptions. However, the acoustic signal is faithful to the articulatory configuration that generated it, carrying the crucial information for perceptual contrast. PMID:25101144

  9. Hybrid markerless tracking of complex articulated motion in golf swings.

    PubMed

    Fung, Sim Kwoh; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Kiang, Lam Chee; Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sahayadhas, Arun; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul; Palaniappan, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Sports video tracking is a research topic that has attained increasing attention due to its high commercial potential. A number of sports, including tennis, soccer, gymnastics, running, golf, badminton and cricket have been utilised to display the novel ideas in sports motion tracking. The main challenge associated with this research concerns the extraction of a highly complex articulated motion from a video scene. Our research focuses on the development of a markerless human motion tracking system that tracks the major body parts of an athlete straight from a sports broadcast video. We proposed a hybrid tracking method, which consists of a combination of three algorithms (pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow (LK), normalised correlation-based template matching and background subtraction), to track the golfer's head, body, hands, shoulders, knees and feet during a full swing. We then match, track and map the results onto a 2D articulated human stick model to represent the pose of the golfer over time. Our work was tested using two video broadcasts of a golfer, and we obtained satisfactory results. The current outcomes of this research can play an important role in enhancing the performance of a golfer, provide vital information to sports medicine practitioners by providing technically sound guidance on movements and should assist to diminish the risk of golfing injuries.

  10. Vowel formant dispersion as a measure of articulation proficiency.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Fredrik; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The articulatory range of a speaker has previously been estimated by the shape formed by first and second formant measurements of produced vowels. In a majority of the currently available metrics, formant frequency measurements are reduced to a single estimate for a condition, which has adverse consequences for subsequent statistical testing. Other metrics provide estimates of size of vowel articulation changes only, and do not provide a method for studying the direction of the change. This paper proposes an alternative approach. Vowel formant frequencies are redefined as vectors originating from a defined center point of the vowel space fixed to a basic three-vowel frame. The Euclidean length of the vectors, the vowel formant dispersion (VFD), can be compared across conditions for evidence of articulatory expansions or reductions across conditions or speaker groups. Further, the angle component of the vowel vectors allows for analyses of direction of the reduction or expansion. Based on the range of investigations afforded by the VFD metric, and simulation experiments that compare its statistical properties with those of other proposed metrics, it is argued that the VFD procedure offers an enhanced view of vowel articulation change over rival metrics.

  11. Rethinking care through social reproduction: articulating circuits of migration.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Eleonore

    2012-01-01

    Care has come to dominate much feminist research on globalized migrations and the transfer of labor from the South to the North, while the older concept of reproduction had been pushed into the background but is now becoming the subject of debates on the commodification of care in the household and changes in welfare state policies. This article argues that we could achieve a better understanding of the different modalities and trajectories of care in the reproduction of individuals, families, and communities, both of migrant and nonmigrant populations by articulating the diverse circuits of migration, in particular that of labor and the family. In doing this, I go back to the earlier North American writing on racialized minorities and migrants and stratified social reproduction. I also explore insights from current Asian studies of gendered circuits of migration connecting labor and marriage migrations as well as the notion of global householding that highlights the gender politics of social reproduction operating within and beyond households in institutional and welfare architectures. In contrast to Asia, there has relatively been little exploration in European studies of the articulation of labor and family migrations through the lens of social reproduction. However, connecting the different types of migration enables us to achieve a more complex understanding of care trajectories and their contribution to social reproduction.

  12. Evaluation of articulation simulation system using artificial maxillectomy models.

    PubMed

    Elbashti, M E; Hattori, M; Sumita, Y I; Taniguchi, H

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic evaluation is valuable for guiding the treatment of maxillofacial defects and determining the effectiveness of rehabilitation with an obturator prosthesis. Model simulations are important in terms of pre-surgical planning and pre- and post-operative speech function. This study aimed to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of voice generated by an articulation simulation system using a vocal tract model with or without artificial maxillectomy defects. More specifically, we aimed to establish a speech simulation system for maxillectomy defect models that both surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists can use in guiding treatment planning. Artificially simulated maxillectomy defects were prepared according to Aramany's classification (Classes I-VI) in a three-dimensional vocal tract plaster model of a subject uttering the vowel /a/. Formant and nasalance acoustic data were analysed using Computerized Speech Lab and the Nasometer, respectively. Formants and nasalance of simulated /a/ sounds were successfully detected and analysed. Values of Formants 1 and 2 for the non-defect model were 675.43 and 976.64 Hz, respectively. Median values of Formants 1 and 2 for the defect models were 634.36 and 1026.84 Hz, respectively. Nasalance was 11% in the non-defect model, whereas median nasalance was 28% in the defect models. The results suggest that an articulation simulation system can be used to help surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists to plan post-surgical defects that will be facilitate maxillofacial rehabilitation.

  13. Articulated registration: elastic registration based on a wire-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Fernandez, Miguel A.; Munyoz-Moreno, Emma; Martin-Fernandez, Marcos; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of elastic registration of anatomical structures that bears an inner skeleton, such as the knee, hand or spine. Such a method has to deal with great degrees of variability, specially for the case of inter-subject registration; but even for the intra-subject case the degree of variability of images will be large since the structures we bear in mind are articulated. Rigid registration methods are clearly inappropriate for this problem, and well-known elastic methods do not usually incorporate the restriction of maintaining long skeletal structures straight. A new method is therefore needed to deal with such a situation; we call this new method "articulated registration". The inner bone skeleton is modeled with a wire model, where wires are drawn by connecting landmarks located in the main joints of the skeletal structure to be registered (long bones). The main feature of our registration method is that within the bone axis (specifically, where the wires are) an exact registration is guaranteed, while for the remaining image points an elastic registration is carried out based on a distance transform (with respect to the model wires); this causes the registration on long bones to be affine to all practical purposes, while the registration of soft tissue -- far from the bones -- is elastic. As a proof-of-concept of this method we describe the registration of hands on radiographs.

  14. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

    2004-05-01

    We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

  15. Variability in English vowels is comparable in articulation and acoustics.

    PubMed

    Noiray, Aude; Iskarous, Khalil; Whalen, D H

    2014-05-01

    The nature of the links between speech production and perception has been the subject of longstanding debate. The present study investigated the articulatory parameter of tongue height and the acoustic F1-F0 difference for the phonological distinction of vowel height in American English front vowels. Multiple repetitions of /i, ɪ, e, ε, æ/ in [(h)Vd] sequences were recorded in seven adult speakers. Articulatory (ultrasound) and acoustic data were collected simultaneously to provide a direct comparison of variability in vowel production in both domains. Results showed idiosyncratic patterns of articulation for contrasting the three front vowel pairs /i-ɪ/, /e-ε/ and /ε-æ/ across subjects, with the degree of variability in vowel articulation comparable to that observed in the acoustics for all seven participants. However, contrary to what was expected, some speakers showed reversals for tongue height for /ɪ/-/e/ that was also reflected in acoustics with F1 higher for /ɪ/ than for /e/. The data suggest the phonological distinction of height is conveyed via speaker-specific articulatory-acoustic patterns that do not strictly match features descriptions. However, the acoustic signal is faithful to the articulatory configuration that generated it, carrying the crucial information for perceptual contrast.

  16. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Miller, Randall F; Cloutier, Richard; Turner, Susan

    2003-10-02

    Chondrichthyans (including living sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) have a fossil record of scales and dermal denticles perhaps dating back to the Late Ordovician period, about 455 million years ago. Their fossil tooth record extends to the earliest Devonian period, almost 418 million years ago, whereas the oldest known articulated shark remains date from the Early Devonian period, about 394 million years ago. Here we report the discovery of an articulated shark that is almost 409 million years old from the Early Devonian (early Emsian) period of New Brunswick, Canada. The specimen, identified as Doliodus problematicus (Woodward), sheds light on the earliest chondrichthyans and their interrelationships with basal jawed vertebrates. This species has been truly problematic. Previously known only from isolated teeth, it has been identified as an acanthodian and a chondrichthyan. This specimen is the oldest shark showing the tooth families in situ, and preserves one of the oldest chondrichthyan braincases. More notably, it shows the presence of paired pectoral fin-spines, previously unknown in cartilaginous fishes.

  17. A survey of degree completion programs in dental hygiene education.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Karen M; Rogo, Ellen J; Calley, Kristin H; Cellucci, Leigh W

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify specific information related to U.S. dental hygiene baccalaureate degree completion programs. Learning experiences, assessment methods, and baccalaureate institutional partnerships were assessed. Of the sixty dental hygiene programs that offer a degree completion program, the forty-two that met the inclusion criteria (including having operated for at least three years) were invited to participate in a thirty-eight item online survey. A 62 percent (n=26) response rate was obtained. Learning experiences in responding programs included core dental hygiene courses, general education courses, and elective dental hygiene courses. Emphasis areas offered by various programs were in the specialty areas of education, public or community health, and research. Respondents reported that their graduates were employed in multiple settings (65 percent; n=17), with 19 percent (n=5) reporting employment in the combined grouping of private practice, education, and public health. Institutional partnerships included articulation agreements (88 percent; n=21), community college baccalaureate (8 percent; n=2), and university extension (4 percent; n=1) models. The findings of this study provide a baseline for assessing the educational composition and design of U.S. dental hygiene degree completion programs. However, results of this study showed inconsistencies among learning experiences that might raise concerns when considering students' level of preparation for graduate education and future leadership roles in the profession.

  18. Dental education in Peru.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Sato, Manuel; Rodiguez, Lyly; Sato, Doris; Bird, William F

    2008-09-01

    This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000.

  19. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  20. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  1. High-Performance 3D Articulated Robot Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    In the domain of telerobotic operations, the primary challenge facing the operator is to understand the state of the robotic platform. One key aspect of understanding the state is to visualize the physical location and configuration of the platform. As there is a wide variety of mobile robots, the requirements for visualizing their configurations vary diversely across different platforms. There can also be diversity in the mechanical mobility, such as wheeled, tracked, or legged mobility over surfaces. Adaptable 3D articulated robot visualization software can accommodate a wide variety of robotic platforms and environments. The visualization has been used for surface, aerial, space, and water robotic vehicle visualization during field testing. It has been used to enable operations of wheeled and legged surface vehicles, and can be readily adapted to facilitate other mechanical mobility solutions. The 3D visualization can render an articulated 3D model of a robotic platform for any environment. Given the model, the software receives real-time telemetry from the avionics system onboard the vehicle and animates the robot visualization to reflect the telemetered physical state. This is used to track the position and attitude in real time to monitor the progress of the vehicle as it traverses its environment. It is also used to monitor the state of any or all articulated elements of the vehicle, such as arms, legs, or control surfaces. The visualization can also render other sorts of telemetered states visually, such as stress or strains that are measured by the avionics. Such data can be used to color or annotate the virtual vehicle to indicate nominal or off-nominal states during operation. The visualization is also able to render the simulated environment where the vehicle is operating. For surface and aerial vehicles, it can render the terrain under the vehicle as the avionics sends it location information (GPS, odometry, or star tracking), and locate the vehicle

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    ARL-TR-7871 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade...ARL-TR-7871 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade by Luis...COVERED (From - To) 1 June–31 August 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade 5a

  3. A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1996-09-23

    This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the sound-pressure waveform of speech. MALCOM differs from other techniques for recovering articulator positions from speech in three critical respects: it does not require training on measured or modeled articulator positions, it does not rely on any particular model of sound propagation through the vocal tract, and it recovers a mapping from acoustics to articulator positions that is linearly, not topographically, related to the actual mapping from acoustics to articulation. The approach categorizes short-time windows of speech into a finite number of sound types, and assumes the probability of using any articulator position to produce a given sound type can be described by a parameterized probability density function. MALCOM then uses maximum likelihood estimation techniques to: (1) find the most likely smooth articulator path given a speech sample and a set of distribution functions (one distribution function for each sound type), and (2) change the parameters of the distribution functions to better account for the data. Using this technique improves the accuracy of articulator position estimates compared to continuity mapping -- the only other technique that learns the relationship between acoustics and articulation solely from acoustics. The technique has potential application to computer speech recognition, speech synthesis and coding, teaching the hearing impaired to speak, improving foreign language instruction, and teaching dyslexics to read. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Biocompatibility of dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words "dental amalgam" and "toxicity" were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials.

  5. Biocompatibility of Dental Amalgams

    PubMed Central

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words “dental amalgam” and “toxicity” were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials. PMID:22145006

  6. Functional Segregation of Cortical Regions Underlying Speech Timing and Articulation.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael A; Katlowitz, Kalman A; Svirsky, Mario A; Clary, Rachel C; Byun, Tara McAllister; Majaj, Najib; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2016-03-16

    Spoken language is a central part of our everyday lives, but the precise roles that individual cortical regions play in the production of speech are often poorly understood. To address this issue, we focally lowered the temperature of distinct cortical regions in awake neurosurgical patients, and we relate this perturbation to changes in produced speech sequences. Using this method, we confirm that speech is highly lateralized, with the vast majority of behavioral effects seen on the left hemisphere. We then use this approach to demonstrate a clear functional dissociation between nearby cortical speech sites. Focal cooling of pars triangularis/pars opercularis (Broca's region) and the ventral portion of the precentral gyrus (speech motor cortex) resulted in the manipulation of speech timing and articulation, respectively. Our results support a class of models that have proposed distinct processing centers underlying motor sequencing and execution for speech. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao; Lu, Jing; Qiao, Tuo; Qu, Qingming

    2009-03-26

    The evolutionary history of osteichthyans (bony fishes plus tetrapods) extends back to the Ludlow epoch of the Silurian period. However, these Silurian forms have been documented exclusively by fragmentary fossils. Here we report the discovery of an exceptionally preserved primitive fish from the Ludlow of Yunnan, China, that represents the oldest near-complete gnathostome (jawed vertebrate). The postcranial skeleton of this fish includes a primitive pectoral girdle and median fin spine as in non-osteichthyan gnathostomes, but a derived macromeric squamation as in crown osteichthyans, and substantiates the unexpected mix of postcranial features in basal sarcopterygians, previously restored from the disarticulated remains of Psarolepis. As the oldest articulated sarcopterygian, the new taxon offers insights into the origin and early divergence of osteichthyans, and indicates that the minimum date for the actinopterygian-sarcopterygian split was no later than 419 million years ago.

  8. Language and the (im)possibilities of articulating spirituality.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Anne; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Despite growing interest in spiritual matters throughout society, definitions and descriptions of spirituality seem incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory. In this article, the authors consider the possibility that such incompleteness is perhaps necessary and welcomed in addressing spirituality. In particular, they investigate the challenges of using metaphor and metonymic approaches to "languaging" spirituality. By exploring these figures of speech they hope to diversify how nurses articulate deeply personal and perhaps enigmatic human phenomena such as spirituality. Metaphoric language uses everyday structures to help make sense of complex, emotional, and abstract experience. Whereas metaphor creates substitutive relationships between things and provides insights into conceptualizing spirituality, metonymy and metonymic writing establish relationships of contiguity. Whereas metaphor functions to represent and facilitates understanding and feelings about spirituality, metonymy disrupts while opening possibilities of moving beyond binary thinking. Attending to language and its various ontological assumptions opens diverse and potentially more inclusive possibilities.

  9. Adaptive filter design using recurrent cerebellar model articulation controller.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Min; Chen, Li-Yang; Yeung, Daniel S

    2010-07-01

    A novel adaptive filter is proposed using a recurrent cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC). The proposed locally recurrent globally feedforward recurrent CMAC (RCMAC) has favorable properties of small size, good generalization, rapid learning, and dynamic response, thus it is more suitable for high-speed signal processing. To provide fast training, an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on the normalized gradient descent method is presented, in which the learning rates are on-line adapted. Then the Lyapunov function is utilized to derive the conditions of the adaptive learning rates, so the stability of the filtering error can be guaranteed. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive RCMAC filter, it is applied to a nonlinear channel equalization system and an adaptive noise cancelation system. The advantages of the proposed filter over other adaptive filters are verified through simulations.

  10. Accurate positioning of long, flexible ARM's (Articulated Robotic Manipulator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malachowski, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    An articulated robotic manipulator (ARM) system is being designed for space applications. Work being done on a concept utilizing an infinitely stiff laser beam for position reference is summarized. The laser beam is projected along the segments of the ARM, and the position is sensed by the beam rider modules (BRM) mounted on the distal ends of the segments. The BRM concept is the heart of the system. It utilizes a combination of lateral displacements and rotational and distance measurement sensors. These determine the relative position of the two ends of the segments with respect to each other in six degrees of freedom. The BRM measurement devices contain microprocessor controlled data acquisition and active positioning components. An indirect adaptive controller is used to accurately control the position of the ARM.

  11. Articulations of Health and Poverty Among Women on WIC.

    PubMed

    Yehya, Nadine A; Dutta, Mohan J

    2015-01-01

    With the global financial meltdown, the crisis of poverty has deepened in communities across the United States. This essay reports results from a culture-centered project on fostering spaces for listening to the voices of the poor in CrossRoads County, Indiana. It highlights the intersections of health and poverty as they emerge from the narratives of mothers utilizing the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Depression, humiliation, and inaccessibility to health care and healthy living outline the struggles of women as they negotiate their access to health. The articulations of agency are situated around competing cultural narratives that, on the one hand, draw on the threads of individual responsibility which resonate through mainstream discourses of poverty in the United States and, on the other hand, interrogate the structural erasure of the basic capacities of health.

  12. Forensic reference data on articulation rate in German.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Articulation rate (AR) is one of the parameters used in forensic voice comparisons for the purpose of providing evidence for or against speaker identity, yet at present multi-speaker studies on this parameter are very rare. In order to alleviate this situation AR was measured in the speech of 100 German-speaking male subjects. Histograms were provided from which the forensic expert can infer the percentages of different AR values in the population. Separate histograms were provided for mean AR and standard deviation of AR. It was also found that mean AR is significantly higher in read than spontaneous speech and that AR standard deviation is significantly smaller in read than spontaneous speech, although many individual speakers deviate from this general pattern.

  13. Genetic-based motion planning for articulated robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwong K.; Zalzala, Ali M. S.

    1993-05-01

    A genetic based algorithm for the minimum time trajectory planning of articulated robotic manipulators is proposed. The planning procedure is performed in the configuration space and respects all physical constraints imposed on the manipulator design, including the limits on the torque values applied to the motor of each joint of the arm. The complete nonlinear dynamic robot model is incorporated in the formulation. The purpose of the algorithm is to tessellate joint space into a grid of possible motion nodes, where at each option node, given the position and velocity at the previous node, possible velocity values are constrained by the time optimality together with the dynamics of the arm. The algorithm is proven to be more efficient than conventional heuristic search technique with a reduction of the execution time.

  14. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C.; Lea, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  15. Articulated figure positioning by multiple constraints. [in computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, Norman I.; Manoochehri, Kamran H.; Walters, Graham

    1987-01-01

    A problem that arises in positioning an articulated figure is the solution of three-dimensional joint positions (kinematics) when goal positions, rather than joint angles, are given. If more than one such goal is to be achieved, the problem is often solved interactively by positioning or solving one component of the linkage, then adjusting another, then redoing the first, and so on. This iterative process is slow and tedious. The paper presents a method that automatically solves multiple simultaneous joint position goals. The user interface offers a six-degree-of-freedom input device to specify joint angles and goal positions interactively. Examples are used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of this method for key-position animation.

  16. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  17. Articulation of extreme formant patterns for emphasized vowels.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Donna

    2002-01-01

    This study examined formant, jaw and tongue dorsum measurements from X-ray microbeam recordings of American English speakers producing emphasized vs. unemphasized words containing high-front, mid-front and low vowels. For emphasized vowels, the jaw position, regardless of vowel height, was lower, while the tongue dorsum had a more extreme articulation in the direction of the phonological specification of the vowel. For emphasized low vowels, the tongue dorsum position was lower with the acoustic consequence of F1 and F2 bunched closer together. For emphasized high and mid-front vowels, the tongue was more forward with the acoustic consequence of F1 and F2 spread more apart. These findings are interpreted within acoustic models of speech production. They also provide empirical data which have application to the C/D model hypothesis that both increased lowering of jaw and enhanced tongue gesture are consequences of a magnitude increase in the syllable pulse due to emphasis.

  18. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa.

    PubMed

    Helfenbein, K G; Brown, W M; Boore, J L

    2001-09-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared with other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of noncoding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1%) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) species L. rubellus but is the opposite of that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usages being observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid noncoding regions to the reverse complement of the noncoding region of the cancellothyridid, suggests that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one noncoding region in T. transversa that is comparable with those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  20. Optimal visual-haptic integration with articulated tools.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Chie; Watt, Simon J

    2017-02-18

    When we feel and see an object, the nervous system integrates visual and haptic information optimally, exploiting the redundancy in multiple signals to estimate properties more precisely than is possible from either signal alone. We examined whether optimal integration is similarly achieved when using articulated tools. Such tools (tongs, pliers, etc) are a defining characteristic of human hand function, but complicate the classical sensory 'correspondence problem' underlying multisensory integration. Optimal integration requires establishing the relationship between signals acquired by different sensors (hand and eye) and, therefore, in fundamentally unrelated units. The system must also determine when signals refer to the same property of the world-seeing and feeling the same thing-and only integrate those that do. This could be achieved by comparing the pattern of current visual and haptic input to known statistics of their normal relationship. Articulated tools disrupt this relationship, however, by altering the geometrical relationship between object properties and hand posture (the haptic signal). We examined whether different tool configurations are taken into account in visual-haptic integration. We indexed integration by measuring the precision of size estimates, and compared our results to optimal predictions from a maximum-likelihood integrator. Integration was near optimal, independent of tool configuration/hand posture, provided that visual and haptic signals referred to the same object in the world. Thus, sensory correspondence was determined correctly (trial-by-trial), taking tool configuration into account. This reveals highly flexible multisensory integration underlying tool use, consistent with the brain constructing internal models of tools' properties.

  1. Tribological evaluation of hydrogel articulations for joint arthroplasty applications.

    PubMed

    Baykal, D; Day, J S; Jaekel, D J; Katta, J; Mansmann, K; Kurtz, S M

    2012-10-01

    Characterizing the wear behavior of hydrogel articulations is problematic and a standardized method has not yet been developed. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wear resistance of hydrogel-on-hydrogel articulations and to assess the suitability of a submerged measurement technique as a practical and non-destructive method in quantifying their wear rates. Five hydrogel bearings were tested for 5 million cycles using a pin-on-disk tester. As the test progressed, the coefficient of friction increased (Spearman's rho=0.76; p<0.001) while the surfaces of the pins were burnished (Spearman's rho=-0.31; p<0.001) and those of the disks got rougher (Spearman's rho=0.19; p<0.01). Environmental scanning electron microscopy analysis showed no evidence of gross wear and revealed similar surface morphology between contacting and non-contacting regions of specimens. These results support the finding of low wear, which were -1.4±8.3 and 6.6±35.3mm(3)/MC based on submerged and wet weights, respectively. Pins displayed higher wear than disks based on submerged weights. This was anticipated since surfaces of pins were constantly under load and cross-shear while only a portion of the disk in contact with the pin was loaded at a given time. Wet weights, on the other hand, indicated higher wear for disks than pins. In addition, submerged weights yielded a lower standard error of the mean in wear rates than wet weights, 3.7 and 14.6mm(3)/MC, respectively. These results indicated that submerged weights were more suitable than wet weights in quantifying wear of hydrogels in spite of unwanted effects of swelling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    SciTech Connect

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-07-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  3. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  4. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  5. Method for analyzing articulated torques of heavy-duty six-legged robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Hongchao; Gao, Haibo; Ding, Liang; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan

    2013-07-01

    The accuracy of an articulated torque analysis influences the comprehensive performances of heavy-duty multi-legged robots. Currently, the extremal estimation method and some complex methods are employed to calculate the articulated torques, which results in a large safety margin or a large number of calculations. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, an analysis method for the articulated torque is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot. First, the rearmost leg that experiences the maximum normal contact force is confirmed when the robot transits a slope. Based on the ant-type and crab-type tripod gaits, the formulas of classical mechanics and MATLAB software are employed to theoretically analyze the relevant static torques of the joints. With the changes in the joint angles for the abductor joint, hip joint, and knee joint, variable tendency charts and extreme curves are obtained for the static articulated torques. Meanwhile, the maximum static articulated torques and the corresponding poses of the robot are also obtained. According to the poses of the robot under the maximum static articulated torques, ADAMS software is used to carry out a static simulation analysis. Based on the relevant simulation curves of the articulated torques, the maximum static articulated torques are acquired. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are higher than the static simulation values, and the maximum error value is approximately 10%. The proposed method lays a foundation for quickly determining accurate articulated torques to develop heavy-duty six-legged robots.

  6. Pathways in dental public health.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven J

    2005-07-01

    Dental public health is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation. Dental public health has been defined as the "science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than as an individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis." This article will describe the many career and educational pathways dentists may follow to become irvolved in the practice of dental public health.

  7. Dental radiology for children

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation.

  8. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  9. Dental conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-30

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule the proposal to amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes. This amendment clarifies that principles governing determinations by VA's Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility for dental treatment by VA's Veterans Health Administration (VHA), apply only when VHA requests information or a rating from VBA for those purposes. This amendment also clarifies existing regulatory provisions and reflects the respective responsibilities of VHA and VBA in determinations concerning eligibility for dental treatment.

  10. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  11. Dental erosion, summary.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Imfeld, T

    1996-04-01

    Although reports on dental erosion have always appeared in the dental literature, there is currently a growing interest among researchers and clinicians. Potential risk factors for dental erosion are changed lifestyle and eating patterns, with increased consumption of acidic foods and beverages. Various gastrointestinal and eating disorders expose the dentition to frequent contacts with very acidic gastric content, which may lead to erosion. Whether these factors indeed lead, on a population scale, to a higher prevalence and incidence of erosion is yet to be established. This article summarizes the different aspects of the prevalence, pathology, etiology, assessment, prevention and treatment of dental erosion, and concludes with recommendations for future research.

  12. Direct Magnitude Estimation of Articulation Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Martin, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the perceived articulation rate of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with that of chronologically age-matched (CA) boys and to determine segmental and/or prosodic factors that account for perceived rate. Method: Ten listeners used direct magnitude estimation procedures to judge the articulation rates of 7 boys with FXS only, 5…

  13. Children with Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia: Changes in Articulation and Perceived Resilience with Intensive Multimodal Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Maureen K; Wright, Lindsay Elizabeth; Perry, Susan; Cornett, Daphne; Schraeder, Missy; Johnson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Research into intervention strategies for developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) clearly demonstrates the need to identify effective interventions. The goals of this study were to examine changes in articulation skills following the use of phonetic, multimodal intervention and to consider the relationship between these improved articulation skills…

  14. Relationships between Speech Intelligibility and Word Articulation Scores in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation sought to determine whether scores from a commonly used word-based articulation test are closely associated with speech intelligibility in children with hearing loss. If the scores are closely related, articulation testing results might be used to estimate intelligibility. If not, the importance of direct assessment of…

  15. The Development and Implementation of an Articulation Model Between the Intermediate School and Feeder Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, John W.

    This practicum developed a model of vertical articulation between elementary feeder schools and an intermediate school. The program and model were developed after a formal needs assessment was carried out to determine articulation problems. After problems were determined, objectives were formulated and strategies developed. Objectives that…

  16. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  17. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  18. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  19. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  20. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  1. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  2. Articulation: Enhancing Special Needs Students' Transitions from Secondary to Postsecondary Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.; Kayser, Terrence F.

    1981-01-01

    The authors define articulation as the process designed to guide students into and through postsecondary educational programs and consider the lack of information regarding articulation of special needs students. They introduce seven papers and reactions from a symposium on the topic. See also EC 133 817-823. (CL)

  3. Articulation Rate and Its Relationship to Disfluency Type, Duration, and Temperament in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M.; Throneburg, Rebecca N.; Kayikci, Mavis E. Kulak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between articulation rate, frequency and duration of disfluencies of different types, and temperament in preschool children who stutter (CWS). In spontaneous speech samples from 19 CWS (mean age = 3:9; years:months), we measured articulation rate, the frequency and duration of (a) sound…

  4. Articulation Rate and Its Relationship to Disfluency Type, Duration, and Temperament in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M.; Throneburg, Rebecca N.; Kayikci, Mavis E. Kulak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between articulation rate, frequency and duration of disfluencies of different types, and temperament in preschool children who stutter (CWS). In spontaneous speech samples from 19 CWS (mean age = 3:9; years:months), we measured articulation rate, the frequency and duration of (a) sound…

  5. 2 (Secondary) + 2 (Postsecondary) Articulated Curriculum for Health Occupations: A How-To-Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Bill E.; And Others

    This manual addresses specific aspects of the development and implementation of articulated vocational programs between high schools and colleges. The approach presented in the manual was derived from research and the experiences of the Paris Junior College (Texas) project staff who developed a "2 + 2" articulated career ladder curriculum for…

  6. Effects of Articulation Styles on Perception of Modulated Tempos in Violin Excerpts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Macleod, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of legato, staccato and pizzicato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Seventy-two music majors served as participants. Two solo violin excerpts were chosen with contrasting rhythmic rates and were recorded in all three articulation styles. Examples were presented to listeners in three conditions of…

  7. Articulation and Noncomprehension Signaling in Adolescent and Adult Males with Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedak, Larissa Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not decreased articulation of speech played a role in the ability of an individual with Down syndrome or Fragile X syndrome to signal noncomprehension and whether the two groups differed in their levels of articulation of speech and noncomprehension signaling ability. The research was conducted…

  8. Articulation Error Migration: A Comparison of Single Word and Connected Speech Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Timothy J.; Madison, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    The study compared frequency and type of articulation error, including error migration, between single word production and connected speech samples when vocabulary was held constant with 20 articulation disordered children (ages 5-12 years). There were significantly more errors in connected speech samples than in single word utterances. (Author/DB)

  9. The Articulation of Korean Coronal Obstruents: Data from Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Insung

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated where the consonantal constrictions take place when Korean coronal obstruents are articulated since there is disagreement over the place of articulation of these consonants. Unlike other studies in Korean phonetics, which focus on various acoustic features, the current study used static palatography (SPG) in the form of…

  10. How to Articulate: Requesting and Assessing Credit in the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide a resource for institutions, departments, faculty members, and articulation committees who are engaged in articulating courses and programs for credit within the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. The handbook is based on best practices as observed and recorded by the British Columbia Council on…

  11. Vowel and Consonant Lessening: A Study of Articulating Reductions and Their Relations to Genders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2011-01-01

    Using English as a global communicating tool makes Taiwanese people have to speak in English in diverse international situations. However, consonants and vowels in English are not all effortless for them to articulate. This phonological reduction study explores concepts about phonological (articulating system) approximation. From Taiwanese folks'…

  12. Children with Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia: Changes in Articulation and Perceived Resilience with Intensive Multimodal Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Maureen K; Wright, Lindsay Elizabeth; Perry, Susan; Cornett, Daphne; Schraeder, Missy; Johnson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Research into intervention strategies for developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) clearly demonstrates the need to identify effective interventions. The goals of this study were to examine changes in articulation skills following the use of phonetic, multimodal intervention and to consider the relationship between these improved articulation skills…

  13. An Ultrasonographic Investigation of Cleft-Type Compensatory Articulations of Voiceless Velar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Radovanovic, Bojana; Kulkarni, Gajanan V.; Klaiman, Paula; Fisher, David

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to investigate the articulation of the voiceless velar stop [k] in five speakers with compensatory articulation related to cleft palate. The perceptual evaluation of the acoustic realization and the visual assessment of the tongue movement for the target sound were made by three examiners. The analysis revealed a…

  14. Articulator Movement Associated with the Development of Prosodic Control in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.; Patel, Rupal

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between articulator movement and prosody in children at different developmental ages. Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip kinematics were examined in 4-, 7-, and 11-year-old children as they produced the declarative and interrogative forms of utterances "Show Bob a bot" and "Show Pop a pot." Articulator movement…

  15. Articulation at shoulder level--a pilot experimental study on car seat comfort.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Denis Alves; Dahlman, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot experimental study aimed at a first evaluation of the introduction of an articulation in the upper part of the seat backrest. The idea of introducing this articulation sprang from prevention of whiplash injuries and this study tentatively assesses its potential for improvement in comfort. This was done considering a pre-defined articulation height. A height for the articulation of 43.5 cm above the H-point of a reference seat was theoretically deduced based on a population with an average sitting height of 88 cm. Participants evaluated the articulated seat in comparison with the reference seat. Twelve participants were divided into three groups of sitting height. In a laboratory environment subjective comfort evaluations and preferred values of deployment of the articulation and of counter-tilting of the headrest were registered. Driving on the roads completed and validated the laboratory assessments. The reference seat was deemed less comfortable for the participants with short and medium sitting height than for the tall ones. There was a notable improvement in comfort for most of the medium and short sitting height participants when using the articulated seat. The articulation was fully deployed by most participants.

  16. An Ultrasonographic Investigation of Cleft-Type Compensatory Articulations of Voiceless Velar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Radovanovic, Bojana; Kulkarni, Gajanan V.; Klaiman, Paula; Fisher, David

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to investigate the articulation of the voiceless velar stop [k] in five speakers with compensatory articulation related to cleft palate. The perceptual evaluation of the acoustic realization and the visual assessment of the tongue movement for the target sound were made by three examiners. The analysis revealed a…

  17. New York State Transfer and Articulation Association Standards and Guidelines Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Transfer and Articulation Association, Rensselaer.

    Addressing policies and concerns related to transfer and articulation, this manual provides guidelines developed by the New York State Transfer and Articulation Association to assist college personnel in serving transfer students. An introduction describes the purpose, goals, and objectives of the Association; identifies the intended audience; and…

  18. Transfer and Articulation. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 10, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "The Progress of Education Reform" will look at recent research on transfer and articulation in light of the new movement to increase degree attainment by addressing the following three questions: (1) Do articulation agreements ease the transfer process and lead to degree attainment; (2) what are the factors that facilitate…

  19. The Support of Student Articulation of Reasoning, Student Reflection and Tutor Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Learning theory suggests that student learning can be improved if students are required to articulate and reflect about work that they have done. This process helps students think more clearly about their work and such articulation also enables tutors to better assess student knowledge and mental models. There are various electronic tools…

  20. A factorization-based approach for articulated nonrigid shape, motion and kinematic chain recovery from video.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingyu; Pollefeys, Marc

    2008-05-01

    Recovering articulated shape and motion, especially human body motion, from video is a challenging problem with a wide range of applications in medical study, sport analysis and animation, etc. Previous work on articulated motion recovery generally requires prior knowledge of the kinematic chain and usually does not concern the recovery of the articulated shape. The non-rigidity of some articulated part, e.g. human body motion with nonrigid facial motion, is completely ignored. We propose a factorization-based approach to recover the shape, motion and kinematic chain of an articulated object with nonrigid parts altogether directly from video sequences under a unified framework. The proposed approach is based on our modeling of the articulated non-rigid motion as a set of intersecting motion subspaces. A motion subspace is the linear subspace of the trajectories of an object. It can model a rigid or non-rigid motion. The intersection of two motion subspaces of linked parts models the motion of an articulated joint or axis. Our approach consists of algorithms for motion segmentation, kinematic chain building, and shape recovery. It handles outliers and can be automated. We test our approach through synthetic and real experiments and demonstrate how to recover articulated structure with non-rigid parts via a single-view camera without prior knowledge of its kinematic chain.

  1. Effects of Articulation Styles on Perception of Modulated Tempos in Violin Excerpts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Macleod, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of legato, staccato and pizzicato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Seventy-two music majors served as participants. Two solo violin excerpts were chosen with contrasting rhythmic rates and were recorded in all three articulation styles. Examples were presented to listeners in three conditions of…

  2. Articulation Models and Systems: High School to Community Colleges and Community Colleges to Four Year Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ughetto, Richard; Hoerner, James L.

    This paper examines models of community college articulation with high schools and four-year institutions as examples of the facilitation of student transfer at the different levels. The first sections of the paper describe four programs to enhance high school to community college articulation: (1) Sacramento City College (California) and the…

  3. The Articulation of Korean Coronal Obstruents: Data from Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Insung

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated where the consonantal constrictions take place when Korean coronal obstruents are articulated since there is disagreement over the place of articulation of these consonants. Unlike other studies in Korean phonetics, which focus on various acoustic features, the current study used static palatography (SPG) in the form of…

  4. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  5. Relationships between Speech Intelligibility and Word Articulation Scores in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation sought to determine whether scores from a commonly used word-based articulation test are closely associated with speech intelligibility in children with hearing loss. If the scores are closely related, articulation testing results might be used to estimate intelligibility. If not, the importance of direct assessment of…

  6. Education and Articulation: Laclau and Mouffe's Radical Democracy in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snir, Itay

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a theory of radical democratic education by addressing a key concept in Laclau and Mouffe's Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: articulation. Through their concept of articulation, Laclau and Mouffe attempt to liberate Gramsci's theory of hegemony from Marxist economism, and adapt it to a political sphere inhabited by a plurality…

  7. Articulation and Noncomprehension Signaling in Adolescent and Adult Males with Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedak, Larissa Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not decreased articulation of speech played a role in the ability of an individual with Down syndrome or Fragile X syndrome to signal noncomprehension and whether the two groups differed in their levels of articulation of speech and noncomprehension signaling ability. The research was conducted…

  8. Articulator Movement Associated with the Development of Prosodic Control in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.; Patel, Rupal

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between articulator movement and prosody in children at different developmental ages. Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip kinematics were examined in 4-, 7-, and 11-year-old children as they produced the declarative and interrogative forms of utterances "Show Bob a bot" and "Show Pop a pot." Articulator movement…

  9. Articulation and Transfer: How Successful Is It in Missouri and Maryland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Donald Gary

    This report examines the articulation and transfer policies of Maryland and Missouri and reviews the extent to which these guidelines provide for a seamless transition between community colleges and state universities. The author begins by defining the key concepts relevant to this study (e.g., transfer, articulation, native student, transfer…

  10. The (in)dependence of articulation and lexical planning during isolated word production

    PubMed Central

    Buz, Esteban; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2016-01-01

    The number of phonological neighbors to a word (PND) can affect its lexical planning and pronunciation. Similar parallel effects on planning and articulation have been observed for other lexical variables, such as a word’s contextual predictability. Such parallelism is frequently taken to indicate that effects on articulation are mediated by effects on the time course of lexical planning. We test this mediation assumption for PND and find it unsupported. In a picture naming experiment, we measure speech onset latencies (planning), word durations, and vowel dispersion (articulation). We find that PND predicts both latencies and durations. Further, latencies predict durations. However, the effects of PND and latency on duration are independent: parallel effects do not imply mediation. We discuss the consequences for accounts of lexical planning, articulation, and the link between them. In particular, our results suggest that ease of planning does not explain effects of PND on articulation. PMID:27376094

  11. Speech Articulation of Low-Dose Oral Contraceptive Users.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Eliséa Maria; Fontoura, Giana Valeria Fagundez; Corleta, Helena von Eye; Capp, Edison

    2015-11-01

    In the female life cycle, hormonal fluctuations may result in impaired verbal efficiency and vocal worsening during the premenstrual phase. Oral contraceptives may interfere with vocal range. Voice, resonance, and articulation variations clarify speech content. To investigate the phonoarticulatory sounds produced by oral contraceptive users aged between 20 and 30 years. This is a cross-sectional study. Our study included four groups of women (n = 66): two groups used low-dose oral contraceptives and two groups did not use any oral contraceptives. Questionnaires and sound records were used. Acoustic analysis was performed using the Computerized Speech Laboratory program, Model 4341 (Kay Elemetrics Corp, Lincoln Park, New Jersey). The statistical analysis of the SPPS database, version 13.0, was performed by means of generalized estimating equation. In the groups that did not use oral contraceptives, sustained vowel tones were more acute in the two phases and cycles of women older than 25 years (w/oOC1, 175 ± 74 to 190 ± 55 Hz; w/oOC2, 194 ± 56 to 210 ± 32 Hz). At the midfollicular phase (Fph) and midluteal phase (Lph) of the two cycles, the speed of the speech was slower in this group (w/oOC1: Fph, 5.3 ± 1.6/s and Lph, 5.4 ± 1.4/s; w/oOC2: Fph, 4.5 ± 1.7/s and Lph, 4.8 ± 1.1/s). In both groups that used oral contraceptives, there was a higher modulation frequency in the sentences when compared with nonusers (OC1, 33 ± 10 Hz; w/oOC1, 28 ± 10 Hz; OC2, 34 ± 10 Hz; w/oOC2, 27 ± 10 Hz). Vocal intensity was closer between the OC1 (62 ± 4 dB), w/oOC1 (61 ± 3 dB), and OC2 (63 ± 4 dB) groups when compared with the w/oOC2 (67 ± 6 dB) group. We demonstrated hormonal influences on speech articulation of contraceptive users and nonusers. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.

  13. Individual tooth macrowear pattern guides the reconstruction of Sts 52 (Australopithecus africanus) dental arches.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schulz, Dieter; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Weber, Gerhard W

    2013-02-01

    The functional restoration of the occlusal relationship between maxillary and mandibular tooth rows is a major challenge in modern dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Similar technical challenges are present in paleoanthropology when considering fragmented and deformed mandibular and maxillary fossils. Sts 52, an Australopithecus africanus specimen from Sterkfontein Member 4, represents a typical case where the original shape of the dental arches is no longer preserved. It includes a partial lower face (Sts 52a) and a fragmented mandible (Sts 52b), both incomplete and damaged to such an extent to thwart attempts at matching upper and lower dentitions. We show how the preserved macro wear pattern of the tooth crowns can be used to functionally reconstruct Sts 52's dental arches. High-resolution dental stone casts of Sts 52 maxillary and mandibular dentition were mounted and repositioned in a dental articulator. The occlusal relationship between antagonists was restored based on the analysis of the occlusal wear pattern of each preserved tooth, considering all dental contact movements represented in the occlusal compass. The reconstructed dental arches were three-dimensional surface scanned and their occlusal kinematics tested in a simulation. The outcome of this contribution is the first functional restoration of A. africanus dental arches providing new morphometric data for specimen Sts 52. It is noteworthy that the method described in this case study might be applied to several other fossil specimens.

  14. Prototyping artificial jaws for the robotic dental testing simulator.

    PubMed

    Alemzadeh, K; Raabe, D

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a robot periphery prototyped for the six-degrees-of-freedom robotic dental testing simulator, simulating the wear of materials on dental components, such as individual teeth, crowns, bridges, or a full set of teeth. The robot periphery consists of the artificial jaws and compliance module. The jaws have been reverse engineered and represent a human-like mandible and maxilla with artificial teeth. Each clinically fabricated tooth consists of a crown and glass ceramic roots which are connected using resin cement. Normal clinical occlusion of the artificial jaws assembly was emulated by a dental articulator based on 'Andrew's six keys to occlusion'. The radii of the von Spee curve, the Monson curve, and the Wilson curve were also measured as important jaw characteristic indicators to aid normal occlusion. A compliance module had to be built between the lower jaw and the robot platform to sustain the fluctuating forces that occur during normal chewing in the occlusal contact areas, where these high bite forces are major causes of dental component failure. A strain gauge force transducer has been integrated into the machined lower jaw, underneath the second molars, to measure axial biting forces applied to the posterior teeth. The experiments conducted have shown that the sensor is able to sense small changes in the compression force satisfactorily, when applied perpendicular to the occlusal surfaces of the teeth.

  15. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  16. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  17. Clinical feline dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Lemmons, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Dental radiography is a necessary diagnostic modality in small animal practice. It is not possible to accurately assess and diagnose tooth resorption, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, neoplasia and injury without it. Dental radiography is also necessary for treatment and assessment of the patient postoperatively.

  18. Dental and related infections.

    PubMed

    Hodgdon, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Emergency physicians should be comfortable treating most dental and related infections. In this article, we outline recommended techniques to perform a dental examination, explore common pathologies, recommend pain and antibiotic management strategies and review common pitfalls. How to avoid overprescribing opioid analgesics is discussed in depth, along with recent studies to support this strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  20. Dental fraud: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Max H

    2003-01-01

    A manager of a dental benefits program defines fraud and abuse in the dental context. Such practices may cost as much as four billion dollars annually and have a damaging effect on the trust the profession places in the profession and on the way dentists relate to each other.

  1. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  2. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  3. Workbook for Dental Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Corinne K.; Volpe, Margaret E.

    This workbook contains l8 units of instruction for dental assistant students, each designed to give students practical experience in completing forms that simulate realistic situations in a dental office. Units are: (1) The Appointment Record, (2) The Recall System, (3) Clinical Records, (4) Estimates, (5) Daily Record Sheet, (6) Patient's…

  4. Haptic perception with an articulated, sensate robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present a series of haptic exploratory procedures, or EPs, implemented for a multi-fingered, articulated, sensate robot hand. These EPs are designed to extract specific tactile and kinesthetic information form an object via their purposive invocation by an intelligent robotic system. Taken together, they form and active robotic touch perception system to be used both in extracting information about the environment for internal representation and in acquiring grasps for manipulation. The haptic system presented utilizes and integrated robotic system consisting of PUMA 560 robot arm, a JPL/Stanford robot hand, with joint torque sensing in the fingers, a wrist force/torque sensor, and 256 element, spatially-resolved fingertip tactile array. We describe the EPs implemented for this system and provide experimental results which illustrate how they function and how the information which they extract may be used. In addition to the sensate hand and arm, the robot also contains structured-lighting vision and a Prolog-based reasoning system capable of grasp generation and object categorization. We present a set of simple tasks which show how both grasping and recognition may be enhanced by the addition of active touch perception. 34 refs., 23 figs.

  5. Biocompatibility testing of simulated total joint arthoplasty articulation debris.

    PubMed

    Anabtawi, Mona; Beck, Preston; Lemons, Jack

    2008-02-01

    Surface characterization was performed to evaluate the surface condition of an uncoated cobalt alloy disc (control), and discs with medium and thick boron coatings for total joint articulating surfaces. Discs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy before and after dissolution studies. Chemical analyses of elemental transfer to the solution were assessed to evaluate the surface stability of the new coating. An in vivo biocompatibility study for particulates [of boron (B), titanium alloy (Ti), cobalt alloy (Co), and combinations of B + Ti and B + Co] was performed using a rat air pouch model. The inflammatory reactions to particulates were evaluated histologically and histochemically. No physical alteration was seen in the discs after the dissolution studies, and the elemental transfer to the dissolution solution was minimal. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha), and histology results from these simulated debris showed similar and moderate level responses magnitudes for the boron and mixtures and the primary alloy particulates. The conclusion from this initial study was that assessments of the coated discs showed physical properties similar to control. Also results from the in vivo studies of simulated wear debris from boron coatings on titanium and cobalt alloys demonstrated biocompatibility profiles that were mild to moderate and similar to prior analyses of wear debris products in synovial pouch models. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Design and fabrication of an articulated four axes microrobot arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruoshi; Yang, Zhong; Wei, Danming; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    In order to carry out nanomanufacturing tasks, a microrobot requires both high precision and high reliability over prolonged periods of time. Articulated Four-Axis Microrobots (AFAM) have been introduced a decade ago as millimetric microrobots capable of carrying out nanoscale tasks. The original robot design relied on a Micro Electro Mechanical (MEMS) actuator bank positioned onto a Silicon substrate, and an assembled arm mechanically coupled to the actuators through a cable. Movement of two thermal actuator banks positions the AFAM's end effector in 3-Dimensional space with approximately 75 microns workspace and 50 nm repeatability. However, failure of the AFAM's cable mechanism was observed after less than 1 million cycles. In this paper, we propose a novel arm mechanism for AFAM that improve its performance. The design presented in this article substitutes the "wire-gluing" cable with an anchored electrostatic actuator, and therefore it simplifies assembly requirements, reduces overall footprint of the microrobot, and achieves higher operating frequency. Simulation results are presented for a rotary electrostatic comb drive as basis for the microrobot arm with overall dimensions of 2 mm × 2 mm. The AFAM arm cantilever is 1 mm long to achieve a workspace of dimension of 75 microns along the vertical axis. Experimental evaluation of the design was accomplished using a prototype fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer processed with the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process.

  7. Component modes damping assignment methodology for articulated, multiflexible body structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.

    1993-01-01

    To simulate the dynamical motion of articulated, multiflexible body structures, one can use multibody simulation packages such as DISCOS. To this end, one must supply appropriate reduced-order models for all of the flexible components involved. The component modes projection and assembly model reduction (COMPARE) methodology is one way to construct these reduced-order component models, which when reassembled capture important system input-to-output mapping of the full-order model at multiple system configurations of interest. In conjunction, we must also supply component damping matrices which when reassembled generate a system damping matrix that has certain desirable properties. The problem of determining the damping factors of components' modes to achieve a given system damping matrix is addressed here. To this end, we must establish from first principles a matrix-algebraic relation between the system's modal damping matrix and the components' modal damping matrices. An unconstrained/constrained optimization problem can then be formulated to determine the component modes' damping factors that best satisfy that matrix-algebraic relation. The effectiveness of the developed methodology, called ModeDamp, has been successfully demonstrated on a high-order, finite element model of the Galileo spacecraft.

  8. Decoding of Covert Vowel Articulation Using Electroencephalography Cortical Currents

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Natsue; Nishimoto, Atsushi; Belkacem, Abdelkader Nasreddine; Shin, Duk; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Hanakawa, Takashi; Koike, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of providing assistive technology for the communication impaired, we proposed electroencephalography (EEG) cortical currents as a new approach for EEG-based brain-computer interface spellers. EEG cortical currents were estimated with a variational Bayesian method that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data as a hierarchical prior. EEG and fMRI data were recorded from ten healthy participants during covert articulation of Japanese vowels /a/ and /i/, as well as during a no-imagery control task. Applying a sparse logistic regression (SLR) method to classify the three tasks, mean classification accuracy using EEG cortical currents was significantly higher than that using EEG sensor signals and was also comparable to accuracies in previous studies using electrocorticography. SLR weight analysis revealed vertices of EEG cortical currents that were highly contributive to classification for each participant, and the vertices showed discriminative time series signals according to the three tasks. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis focusing on the highly contributive vertices revealed positive and negative correlations among areas related to speech processing. As the same findings were not observed using EEG sensor signals, our results demonstrate the potential utility of EEG cortical currents not only for engineering purposes such as brain-computer interfaces but also for neuroscientific purposes such as the identification of neural signaling related to language processing. PMID:27199638

  9. The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults' productions of vowels in real words. In Experiment 1, 10 normal speakers produced words that covaried in phonological neighborhood density and word frequency. Infrequent words with many phonological neighbors were produced with shorter durations and more expanded vowel spaces than frequent words with few phonological neighbors. Results of this experiment confirmed that this effect was not related to the duration of the vowels constituting the high- and low-density words. In Experiment 2, 15 adults produced words that varied in both word frequency and neighborhood density. Neighborhood density affected vowel articulation in both high- and low-frequency words. Moreover, frequent words were produced with more contracted vowel spaces than infrequent words. There was no interaction between these factors, and the vowel duration did not vary as a function of neighborhood density. Taken together, the results suggest that neighborhood density affects vowel production independent of word frequency and vowel duration. PMID:15605431

  10. Concepts first, jargon second improves student articulation of understanding.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Lisa; Barker, Megan K; Wieman, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, students in a large undergraduate biology course were first exposed to the concepts without new technical vocabulary ("jargon") in a pre-class reading assignment. Their learning of the concepts and jargon was compared with that of an equivalent group of students in another section of the same course, whose pre-class reading presented both the jargon and concepts together in the traditional manner. Both groups had the same active-learning classes with the same instructor, and then completed the same post-test. Although the two groups performed the same on the multiple choice questions of the post-test, the group exposed to concepts first and jargon second included 1.5 times and 2.5 times more correct arguments on two free-response questions about the concepts. The correct use of jargon between the two groups was similar, with the exception of one jargon term that the control group used more often. These results suggest that modest instructional changes whereby new concepts are introduced in a concepts-first, jargon-second manner can increase student learning, as demonstrated by their ability to articulate their understanding of new concepts.

  11. The effect of phonological neighborhood density on vowel articulation.

    PubMed

    Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2004-10-01

    Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults' productions of vowels in real words. In Experiment 1, 10 normal speakers produced words that covaried in phonological neighborhood density and word frequency. Infrequent words with many phonological neighbors were produced with shorter durations and more expanded vowel spaces than frequent words with few phonological neighbors. Results of this experiment confirmed that this effect was not related to the duration of the vowels constituting the high- and low-density words. In Experiment 2, 15 adults produced words that varied in both word frequency and neighborhood density. Neighborhood density affected vowel articulation in both high- and low-frequency words. Moreover, frequent words were produced with more contracted vowel spaces than infrequent words. There was no interaction between these factors, and the vowel duration did not vary as a function of neighborhood density. Taken together, the results suggest that neighborhood density affects vowel production independent of word frequency and vowel duration.

  12. Decoding of Covert Vowel Articulation Using Electroencephalography Cortical Currents.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Natsue; Nishimoto, Atsushi; Belkacem, Abdelkader Nasreddine; Shin, Duk; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Hanakawa, Takashi; Koike, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of providing assistive technology for the communication impaired, we proposed electroencephalography (EEG) cortical currents as a new approach for EEG-based brain-computer interface spellers. EEG cortical currents were estimated with a variational Bayesian method that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data as a hierarchical prior. EEG and fMRI data were recorded from ten healthy participants during covert articulation of Japanese vowels /a/ and /i/, as well as during a no-imagery control task. Applying a sparse logistic regression (SLR) method to classify the three tasks, mean classification accuracy using EEG cortical currents was significantly higher than that using EEG sensor signals and was also comparable to accuracies in previous studies using electrocorticography. SLR weight analysis revealed vertices of EEG cortical currents that were highly contributive to classification for each participant, and the vertices showed discriminative time series signals according to the three tasks. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis focusing on the highly contributive vertices revealed positive and negative correlations among areas related to speech processing. As the same findings were not observed using EEG sensor signals, our results demonstrate the potential utility of EEG cortical currents not only for engineering purposes such as brain-computer interfaces but also for neuroscientific purposes such as the identification of neural signaling related to language processing.

  13. Attitude and articulation control for CRAF/Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. E.; Bernard, D. E.; Rasmussen, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini planetary missions provide exciting pointing and control challenges. The mission and science objectives, and an attitude and articulation control concept designed to meet these challenges, are described. CRAF/Cassini mission characteristics which drive pointing and control include: close range flybys of asteroids and icy satellites; Huygens probe guidance and communication; Saturn orbit insertion; comet rendezvous and orbit insertion; closed loop target tracking from a comet orbit perturbed by gas and dust pressure; fine spacecraft pointing for Titan radar mapping and Earth communications; requirements for autonomous failure detection; isolation; recovery; and 13.5 year lifetime. The philosophy and approach chosen to meet these challenges and the overall control architecture are addressed, including operational and autonomous safe modes. Critical functions are highlighted, such as charge coupled device imaging of stars and extended bodies which provide references for inertial and target referenced pointing respectively. Tradeoffs and rationale for the selection and location of sensors and actuators are reviewed.

  14. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  15. Neural decoding of single vowels during covert articulation using electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Shibata, Tomohiro; Nakano, Naoki; Okada, Rieko; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ikeda, Kazushi; Kato, Amami

    2014-01-01

    The human brain has important abilities for manipulating phonemes, the basic building blocks of speech; these abilities represent phonological processing. Previous studies have shown change in the activation levels of broad cortical areas such as the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus during phonological processing. However, whether these areas actually convey signals to representations related to individual phonemes remains unclear. This study focused on single vowels and investigated cortical areas important for representing single vowels using electrocorticography (ECoG) during covert articulation. To identify such cortical areas, we used a neural decoding approach in which machine learning models identify vowels. A decoding model was trained on the ECoG signals from individual electrodes placed on the subjects' cortices. We then statistically evaluated whether each decoding model showed accurate identification of vowels, and we found cortical areas such as the premotor cortex and the superior temporal gyrus. These cortical areas were consistent with previous findings. On the other hand, no electrodes over Broca's area showed significant decoding accuracies. This was inconsistent with findings from a previous study showing that vowels within the phonemic sequence of words can be decoded using ECoG signals from Broca's area. Our results therefore suggest that Broca's area is involved in the processing of vowels within phonemic sequences, but not in the processing of single vowels. PMID:24639642

  16. Dental Fear Among University Employees: Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…

  17. Dental Fear Among University Employees: Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…

  18. Contaminated dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Dickson, M; Aitken, J; Bagg, J

    2002-07-01

    There is current concern in the UK over the possible transmission of prions via contaminated surgical instruments. Some dental instruments (endodontic files) raise particular concerns by virtue of their intimate contact with terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve. A visual assessment using a dissecting light microscope and scanning electron microscopy of endodontic files after clinical use and subsequent decontamination was performed. The instruments examined were collected from general dental practices and from a dental hospital. Seventy-six per cent (22/29) of the files retrieved from general dental practices remained visibly contaminated, compared with 14% (5/37) from the dental hospital. Current methods for decontaminating endodontic instruments used in dentistry may be of an insufficient standard to completely remove biological material. Improved cleaning methods and the feasibility of single use endodontic instruments require further investigation.

  19. [Dental practice and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Rojanawatsirivej, S

    1991-01-01

    In Thailand nowadays AIDS is not completely under control. This is evident from reports which show an increasing number of HIV-positive patients. Since an unknown number of HIV-infected persons who are either undiagnosed or asymptomatic come to get dental service, fears of getting infected with HIV have been developed among dental professionals. This article summarizes a number of past studies and reports on HIV transmission in dental work and discusses the possibility of AIDS infection and dental occupational risk. It also urges dental professionals to take effective safety precaution against the infection. This is for their own and their patients' well-being and hopefully for Thailand's success in controlling AIDS.

  20. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Designing dental manpower index to evaluate dental manpower resources].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Ni, Zong-zan

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to find out a method to evaluate dental manpower resources. We selected population, GDP, number of dentist and number of different oral health professionals from certain internet stations, published books and journals from 1996 to 2000 as our investigating data. Data was collected from 100 countries. Our investigation found that the design of dental manpower index to evaluate dental manpower resources was effective and convenient. Dental manpower index is a good method to evaluate dental manpower resources.

  2. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth"…

  3. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth"…

  4. The perceived clarity of children's speech varies as a function of their default articulation rate

    PubMed Central

    Redford, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether variation in children's default articulation rate might reflect individual differences in the development of articulatory timing control, which predicts a positive correlation between rate and perceived clarity (motor skills hypothesis), or whether such variation is better attributed to speech external factors, which predicts that faster rates result in poorer target attainment (undershoot hypothesis). Two different speech samples were obtained from 54 typically developing children (5;2 – 7;11). Six utterances were extracted from each sample and measured for articulation rate and segmental duration. Fourteen adult listeners rated the utterances for clarity (enunciation). Acoustic correlates of perceived clarity, pitch, and vowel quality were also measured. The findings were that age-dependent and individual differences in children's default articulation rates were due to segmental articulation and not to suprasegmental changes. The rating data indicated that utterances produced at faster rates were perceived as more clearly articulated than those produced at slower rates, regardless of a child's age. Vowel quality measures predicted perceived clarity independently of articulation rate. Overall, the results support the motor skills hypothesis: Faster default articulation rates emerge from better articulatory timing control. PMID:24815275

  5. Imprecise vowel articulation as a potential early marker of Parkinson's disease: effect of speaking task.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Cmejla, Roman; Tykalova, Tereza; Ruzickova, Hana; Klempir, Jiri; Majerova, Veronika; Picmausova, Jana; Roth, Jan; Ruzicka, Evzen

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze vowel articulation across various speaking tasks in a group of 20 early Parkinson's disease (PD) individuals prior to pharmacotherapy. Vowels were extracted from sustained phonation, sentence repetition, reading passage, and monologue. Acoustic analysis was based upon measures of the first (F1) and second (F2) formant of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/, vowel space area (VSA), F2i/F2u and vowel articulation index (VAI). Parkinsonian speakers manifested abnormalities in vowel articulation across F2u, VSA, F2i/F2u, and VAI in all speaking tasks except sustained phonation, compared to 15 age-matched healthy control participants. Findings suggest that sustained phonation is an inappropriate task to investigate vowel articulation in early PD. In contrast, monologue was the most sensitive in differentiating between controls and PD patients, with classification accuracy up to 80%. Measurements of vowel articulation were able to capture even minor abnormalities in speech of PD patients with no perceptible dysarthria. In conclusion, impaired vowel articulation may be considered as a possible early marker of PD. A certain type of speaking task can exert significant influence on vowel articulation. Specifically, complex tasks such as monologue are more likely to elicit articulatory deficits in parkinsonian speech, compared to other speaking tasks.

  6. Structural analysis of three space crane articulated-truss joint concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Three space crane articulated truss joint concepts are studied to evaluate their static structural performance over a range of geometric design parameters. Emphasis is placed on maintaining the four longeron reference truss performance across the joint while allowing large angle articulation. A maximum positive articulation angle and the actuator length ratio required to reach the angle are computed for each concept as the design parameters are varied. Configurations with a maximum articulation angle less than 120 degrees or actuators requiring a length ratio over two are not considered. Tip rotation and lateral deflection of a truss beam with an articulated truss joint at the midspan are used to select a point design for each concept. Deflections for one point design are up to 40 percent higher than for the other two designs. Dynamic performance of the three point design is computed as a function of joint articulation angle. The two lowest frequencies of each point design are relatively insensitive to large variations in joint articulation angle. One point design has a higher maximum tip velocity for the emergency stop than the other designs.

  7. Cross-language differences of articulation rate and its transfer into Japanese as a second language.

    PubMed

    Amino, Kanae; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech. When we compared the articulation rate of the native languages, Japanese was the fastest, then Korean, Chinese, and Thai in that order. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the articulation rate of the native language and that of the second language. A gender difference was found in the articulation rate of some languages, with males speaking faster than females. The effect of age was limited to Thai speakers only. Accent discrimination and identification experiments were conducted and the results revealed that native and non-native accents could be correctly discriminated just by the articulation rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accurate recovery of articulator positions from acoustics: New conclusions based on human data

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Lofqvist, A.; Gracco, V.; Zlokarnik, I.; Rubin, P.; Saltzman, E.

    1996-09-01

    Vocal tract models are often used to study the problem of mapping from the acoustic transfer function to the vocal tract area function (inverse mapping). Unfortunately, results based on vocal tract models are strongly affected by the assumptions underlying the models. In this study, the mapping from acoustics (digitized speech samples) to articulation (measurements of the positions of receiver coils placed on the tongue, jaw, and lips) is examined using human data from a single speaker: Simultaneous acoustic and articulator measurements made for vowel-to-vowel transitions, /g/ closures, and transitions into and out of /g/ closures. Articulator positions were measured using an EMMA system to track coils placed on the lips, jaw, and tongue. Using these data, look-up tables were created that allow articulator positions to be estimated from acoustic signals. On a data set not used for making look-up tables, correlations between estimated and actual coil positions of around 94{percent} and root-mean-squared errors around 2 mm are common for coils on the tongue. An error source evaluation shows that estimating articulator positions from quantized acoustics gives root-mean-squared errors that are typically less than 1 mm greater than the errors that would be obtained from quantizing the articulator positions themselves. This study agrees with and extends previous studies of human data by showing that for the data studied, speech acoustics can be used to accurately recover articulator positions. {copyright} {ital 1996 Acoustical Society of America.}

  9. ARTICULATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS OF SERBIAN LANGUAGE IN CHILDREN AGED SIX TO EIGHT.

    PubMed

    Mihajlović, Biljana; Cvjetićanin, Bojana; Veselinović, Mila; Škrbić, Renata; Mitrović, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Phonetic and phonological system of the healthy members of one linguistic community is fully formed around 8 yedrs of age. The auditory and articulatory habits are established with age and tend to be more difficult to be upgraded and completed later. The research was done as a cross-sectional study, conducted at the preschool institution "Radosno detinjstvo" and primary school "Branko Radičević" in Novi Sad. It included 66 children of both genders, aged 6 to 8. The quality of articulation was determined according to the Global Articulation Test by working with each child individually. In each individual vowel, plosive, nasal, lateral and fricative, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders compared to the preschool children (p<0.01). In each affricate, except for the sound /ć/, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01). The quality of articulation of all speech sounds was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01). The most common disorder of articulation is distortion, while only substitution and substitution associated with distortion are less common. Omission does not occur in children from 6 to 8 years of age. Girls have slightly better quality of articulation. The articulatory disorders are more common in preschool children than in children who are in the first grade of primary school. The most commonly mispronounced sounds belong to the group of affricates and fricatives.

  10. Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Bona, Alvaro Della; Pecho, Oscar E; Alessandretti, Rodrigo

    2015-08-04

    Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different substrates, which has offered a great challenge to dental zirconia research and development. This study characterizes zirconia as a dental biomaterial, presenting the current consensus and challenges to its dental applications.

  11. [Semi-adjustable articulator for computer aided design of complete denture].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Chun; L V, Pei-Jun; Wang, Yong

    2008-02-18

    To explore virtual semi-adjustable articulator for complete denture computer aided design (CAD) system, and to simulate biting motion and virtual occlusal adjustment for a complete denture CAD digital model. The edentulous jaw casts, rims and bite records of forward protrusion were made in clinic. The casts were fixed to the articulator and inclination of protrusive condylar guidance was set up with bite records of forward protrusion. Inclination of lateral condylar guidance was calculated and set up with Hanus formula. Inclination of protrusive incisal guidance inclination was calculated and set up with ratios of over bite and overjet of complete denture CAD digital model which have been designed with Complete Denture CAD System. The 3D locus data of semi-adjustable articulator was obtained by scanning three points on articulator with contact head of FARO ScanArm (FARO Technologies Inc., American). In the same scanning coordinate system, the laser scanner was used to get labial/buccal surface data of rims at centric relation position. Based on rims, the coordinate system was set up and the complete denture CAD model was aligned to the locus data. The virtual articulator program was explored with Scoll language offered by Imageware (EDS corp., American). The 3D biting motion simulating, automatic occluding relation detection and automatic occlusal adjustment functions were supported by the program. A virtual semi-adjustable articulator program for Complete Denture CAD System was explored and applied to a complete denture CAD digital model. With the program, 3D biting motion simulating, automatic occluding relation detection and automatic occlusal adjustment can be realized. A technical route of virtual articulator is set up based on semi-adjustable articulator and initial approach is carried out for application of the virtual articulator in CAD progress of complete denture.

  12. Very fast motion planning for highly dexterous-articulated robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challou, Daniel J.; Gini, Maria; Kumar, Vipin

    1994-01-01

    Due to the inherent danger of space exploration, the need for greater use of teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems in space-based applications has long been apparent. Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic devices have been proposed for carrying out routine functions associated with scientific experiments aboard the shuttle and space station. Finally, research into the use of such devices for planetary exploration continues. To accomplish their assigned tasks, all such autonomous and semi-autonomous devices will require the ability to move themselves through space without hitting themselves or the objects which surround them. In space it is important to execute the necessary motions correctly when they are first attempted because repositioning is expensive in terms of both time and resources (e.g., fuel). Finally, such devices will have to function in a variety of different environments. Given these constraints, a means for fast motion planning to insure the correct movement of robotic devices would be ideal. Unfortunately, motion planning algorithms are rarely used in practice because of their computational complexity. Fast methods have been developed for detecting imminent collisions, but the more general problem of motion planning remains computationally intractable. However, in this paper we show how the use of multicomputers and appropriate parallel algorithms can substantially reduce the time required to synthesize paths for dexterous articulated robots with a large number of joints. We have developed a parallel formulation of the Randomized Path Planner proposed by Barraquand and Latombe. We have shown that our parallel formulation is capable of formulating plans in a few seconds or less on various parallel architectures including: the nCUBE2 multicomputer with up to 1024 processors (nCUBE2 is a registered trademark of the nCUBE corporation), and a network of workstations.

  13. Visibility of speech articulation enhances auditory phonetic convergence.

    PubMed

    Dias, James W; Rosenblum, Lawrence D

    2016-01-01

    Talkers automatically imitate aspects of perceived speech, a phenomenon known as phonetic convergence. Talkers have previously been found to converge to auditory and visual speech information. Furthermore, talkers converge more to the speech of a conversational partner who is seen and heard, relative to one who is just heard (Dias & Rosenblum Perception, 40, 1457-1466, 2011). A question raised by this finding is what visual information facilitates the enhancement effect. In the following experiments, we investigated the possible contributions of visible speech articulation to visual enhancement of phonetic convergence within the noninteractive context of a shadowing task. In Experiment 1, we examined the influence of the visibility of a talker on phonetic convergence when shadowing auditory speech either in the clear or in low-level auditory noise. The results suggest that visual speech can compensate for convergence that is reduced by auditory noise masking. Experiment 2 further established the visibility of articulatory mouth movements as being important to the visual enhancement of phonetic convergence. Furthermore, the word frequency and phonological neighborhood density characteristics of the words shadowed were found to significantly predict phonetic convergence in both experiments. Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Goldinger Psychological Review, 105, 251-279, 1998), phonetic convergence was greater when shadowing low-frequency words. Convergence was also found to be greater for low-density words, contrasting with previous predictions of the effect of phonological neighborhood density on auditory phonetic convergence (e.g., Pardo, Jordan, Mallari, Scanlon, & Lewandowski Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 183-195, 2013). Implications of the results for a gestural account of phonetic convergence are discussed.

  14. [Dental foreign body sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Thévoz, F; Arza, A; Jaques, B

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis is frequently attributed to dental origin. The goal of this retrospective study is to determine the frequency of maxillary sinusitis due to a foreign body of dental origin and its characteristics. Review of 197 sinusitis cases with maxillary sinus involvement operated in our department from 1991 to 1999. Selection of the 17 cases preoperatively suspect to be due to a foreign body of dental origin. 9% of the 197 maxillary sinusitis were classified "odontogenic". Intra-sinusal foreign bodies were identified in 5%: 2% of dental origin, 1% dental or radicular remnants, 2% of "pseudo" foreign bodies of mycotic origin. Chronic maxillary sinusitis attributable to a dental foreign body is rare and overestimated. There exists an important disproportion between the number of intra-sinusal dental foreign bodies and the number of patients who are symptomatic. Treatment is surgical by oral antrotomy and/or endonasal meatotomy. Only a prospective study could give a real estimation of the proportion of symptomatic cases and determine the predisposing factors.

  15. Deep water drilling and production Articulated Column - Water depth 350m

    SciTech Connect

    Baduel, F.; Figenschou, A.

    1985-01-01

    An Articulated Tower for drilling and production in the Norwegian Sea for 350m water depth is presented. Main features are: Christmas trees at the deck-level, 17,000 tonnes deck payload, limited motions, steel structure including main float and lattice, low stressed mechanical articulation with anti-torque device and controlled bending risers. The extensive study has considered in detail the behaviour in extreme conditions, the fatigue of main structural parts and risers, operating procedures, fabrication and installation. General results are given concerning behaviour, structural design, articulation, bending riser, fabrication and installation. A fabrication and installation schedule is also given.

  16. Standing equine dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert A; Easley, Jack

    2014-04-01

    Dental surgeries refer to procedures that affect the dental tissues or their supporting structures. With the development of specific, efficacious, and conservative treatments, morbidity risks have been lowered and chances of benefiting the health of equids improved. Advances in quality of sedation, analgesia, and locoregional anesthesia allow a majority of dental surgeries to be performed in the standing patient. This update focuses on an orthograde endodontic technique, a minimally invasive buccotomy technique, with the potential to combine it with a transbuccal screw extraction technique, and revisits the AO pinless external fixator for fractures of the body of the mandible.

  17. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  18. Feline dental disease.

    PubMed

    Frost, P; Williams, C A

    1986-09-01

    Periodontal disease and chronic gingivitis/stomatitis are the most common feline dental diseases. With routine dental care and increased emphasis on home oral hygiene, these diseases can be controlled. Cats can be seen with a number of other dental disorders, and improved treatment methods such as restorations of early subgingival resorptive lesions, endodontic therapy, and orthodontic therapy can be performed successfully. More study and research are necessary about the gingivitis/stomatitis syndrome and subgingival resorptive lesions so that improved prevention and treatment recommendations can be made.

  19. Optimization of dental implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  20. Dental care during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Tanya; Einarson, Adrienne

    2009-06-01

    Many of my patients have asked me if they should defer dental treatment until after they have given birth. Is there any risk associated with performing dental treatments during pregnancy? Appropriate and timely dental care can lead to improved pregnancy outcomes as well as greater comfort for the woman. The treatment of periodontitis, as well as the use of local anesthetics, amalgams, and x-ray scans, does not pose an increased risk to the developing fetus and is, in fact, important in contributing to maintaining optimal health for mother and baby.

  1. New Dental Accreditation Standard on Critical Thinking: A Call for Learning Models, Outcomes, Assessments.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, David C; Williams, John N; Baughman, Pauletta Gay; Roesch, Darren M; Feldman, Cecile A

    2015-10-01

    This opinion article applauds the recent introduction of a new dental accreditation standard addressing critical thinking and problem-solving, but expresses a need for additional means for dental schools to demonstrate they are meeting the new standard because articulated outcomes, learning models, and assessments of competence are still being developed. Validated, research-based learning models are needed to define reference points against which schools can design and assess the education they provide to their students. This article presents one possible learning model for this purpose and calls for national experts from within and outside dental education to develop models that will help schools define outcomes and assess performance in educating their students to become practitioners who are effective critical thinkers and problem-solvers.

  2. Economic impact of dental hygienists on solo dental practices.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J

    2012-08-01

    The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental practices that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from practices that do not? This article explores differences among dental practices that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental Practice, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in practice characteristics--such as hours spent in the practice and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized.

  3. Perceptual, durational and tongue displacement measures following articulation therapy for rhotic sound errors.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Harper, Susan; Zhylich, Irina; Kulkarni, Gajanan V

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of articulation therapy for rhotic errors are usually assessed perceptually. However, our understanding of associated changes of tongue movement is limited. This study described perceptual, durational and tongue displacement changes over 10 sessions of articulation therapy for /ɹ/ in six children. Four of the participants also received ultrasound biofeedback of their tongue shape. Speech and tongue movement were recorded pre-therapy, after 5 sessions, in the final session and at a one month follow-up. Perceptually, listeners perceived improvement and classified more productions as /ɹ/ in the final and follow-up assessments. The durations of VɹV syllables at the midway point of the therapy were longer. Cumulative tongue displacement increased in the final session. The average standard deviation was significantly higher in the middle and final assessments. The duration and tongue displacement measures illustrated how articulation therapy affected tongue movement and may be useful for outcomes research about articulation therapy.

  4. Performance of Children with Good and Poor Articulation on Tasks of Tongue Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Linda Smith; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The study determined whether first grade children (nine with good and nine with poor articulation skills) could learn to replicate four positions of lingual-palatal contact with and without topical anesthesia that eliminated touch-pressure sensations. (Author)

  5. The cognitive ergonomics and the articulation of the functions of industrial products.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sabrina Talita; Heemann, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development is a challenge to all areas of knowledge. In the field of design, it motivates an enhanced discussion about the functions of systems, products and services. Accordingly, this paper presents a theoretical contribution to the sustainable articulation of the functions of industrial products from principles of cognitive ergonomics. This paper is based on an exploratory literature about the functions of industrial products and further study of the relationship between man and object of Cognitive Ergonomics, specifically linked the aesthetic perception and symbolic. Presents qualitative results of this correlation, which indicates the feasibility of a better articulation in product development. The paper argues that in the practical field of design, the best articulation of the functions may influence the effectiveness of product performance in its relationship with the user. Already, on theoretical grounds, this new articulation can help designers to understand the nature of the transdisciplinary functions and the insights into product design.

  6. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  7. Modification of Hanau H-2 articulator to accept the earpiece face-bow.

    PubMed

    Kastner, C U

    1985-01-01

    A time-saving and economic method of fitting the centric lock with an auditory pin for older Hanau H-2 articulators was described. The entire process takes approximately 10 minutes when done by an experienced machinist.

  8. Performance of Children with Good and Poor Articulation on Tasks of Tongue Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Linda Smith; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The study determined whether first grade children (nine with good and nine with poor articulation skills) could learn to replicate four positions of lingual-palatal contact with and without topical anesthesia that eliminated touch-pressure sensations. (Author)

  9. The exaptation of manual dexterity for articulate speech: an electromyogram investigation.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, David R; Isaak, Matthew I; Domingue, James N

    2008-04-01

    Electromyogram recordings revealed a concurrent contraction of the orbicularis oris, the primary articulator for bilabial stops, when participants executed a precision grip contracting the abductor pollicis brevis, a point motor act contracting the extensor indicis proprius or a curl motor act contracting the flexor sublimis digitorum (FDS). In contrast, the concurrent contraction of several facial muscles not directly involved in labial articulation was not observed during these acts. The results converge both with observations of sympathetic hand and mouth activity among nonhuman primates and prelinguistic human infants and with demonstrations of the influence of grasping on labial articulation in adult humans (e.g., Gentilucci et al., J Neurophysiol 86, 1685-1699, 2001). The findings are also consistent with theories suggesting the transition from gestural to verbal, articulate communication systems may be subserved by the properties of the human equivalent of monkey F5 mirror and canonical neurons located in Broca's area.

  10. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zakher B, Mitchell JP, Pappas M. Preventing dental caries in children <5 years: systematic review updating USPSTF ... chap 7. Ng MW, Chase I. Early childhood caries: risk-based disease prevention and management. Dent Clin ...

  11. American Dental Education Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADEA Application Services ADEA AADSAS® ADEA CAAPID® ADEA PASS® ADEA DHCAS® Career Resources DentEd Jobs Placing Ads ... Students & Residents Prospective Students Application Services AADSAS CAAPID PASS DHCAS ADEA AADSAS Applicants Prospective applicants to dental ...

  12. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  13. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Working Column Journal of Dental Hygiene Author Guidelines Advertising Subscribe Resources Resources About ADHA About Promo (DO ... Member Benefits Footer Copy Legal Inquiries | Contact Us | Advertising | Media Inquiries | Staff / Board Login ©2012-2017 ADHA. ...

  14. Genes and dental disorders

    PubMed Central

    GHERGIE, MIRCEA; COCÎRLA, ELVIRA; LUPAN, IULIA; KELEMEN, BEATRICE S.; POPESCU, OCTAVIAN

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades with the advancement of molecular research, information regarding specific molecular mechanisms has exploded. In the present review we present the molecular basis of dental pathologies that are of particular interest to clinicians. PMID:26527946

  15. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  16. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  17. Parents' online discussions about children's dental caries: A critical content analysis.

    PubMed

    Milne, Avery; Weijs, Cynthia A; Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-09-14

    Through an analysis of postings to an online parenting forum, we aimed to explore the many ways in which parents orient to (i.e., take up, challenge, re-articulate) information about child dental health in the context of their online interactions. Our analysis is anchored in Nettleton's theoretical work on dental authority and power, which we apply in a digital context. We examined discussion threads from the public online forums on BabyCenter Canada. We identified relevant threads using the site search function and keywords related to dental health, with a focus on dental caries (tooth decay), related care behaviours (e.g., toothbrushing), and the controversial issue of fluoride. Following descriptive content coding, we applied a critical lens to unpack themes related to expert knowledge, gender and parenting online cultures. We analyzed 479 relevant threads. Our findings focus on two central themes: the tension between parents' views and those of dental health professionals; and, the gendered, cultural roles and expectations that position mothers as primarily responsible for the care of children's dental health. Though these themes are not new, our findings show that they persist in the digital context where social divisions (e.g., expert/non-expert) may be blurred. Our analysis of online discussions provides an opportunity to think critically about ways in which parents engage with public health, in digital contexts. Although some mothers express disconnect when communicating with dental professionals, they are very engaged and concerned with dental health issues for their children. A challenge for dental public health is to find ways to shift perspective towards recognizing that the target population is empowered and already engaged in discussions of research evidence and clinical encounters on their own terms, facilitated by an online context.

  18. Conjugated Polymer Actuators for Articulating Neural Probes and Electrode Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Eugene Dariush

    This thesis investigated the potential use of polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) to controllably articulate (bend or guide) flexible neural probes and electrodes. PPy(DBS) actuation performance was characterized in the ionic mixture and temperature found in the brain. Nearly all the ions in aCSF were exchanged into the PPy---the cations Na +, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, as well as the anion PO43-; Cl- was not present. Nevertheless, deflections in aCSF were comparable to those in NaDBS and they were monotonic with oxidation level: strain increased upon reduction, with no reversal of motion despite the mixture of ionic charges and valences being exchanged. Actuation depended on temperature. Upon warming, the cyclic voltammograms showed additional peaks and an increase of 70% in the consumed charge. Actuation strain was monotonic under these conditions, demonstrating that conducting polymer actuators can indeed be used for neural interface and neural probe applications. In addition, a novel microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) was developed to measure previously disregarded residual stress in a bilayer actuator. Residual stresses are a major concern for MEMS devices as that they can dramatically influence their yield and functionality. This device introduced a new technique to measure micro-scaled actuation forces that may be useful for characterization of other MEMS actuators. Finally, a functional movable parylene-based neural electrode prototype was developed. Employing PPy(DBS) actuators, electrode projections were successfully controlled to either remain flat or actuate out-of-plane and into a brain phantom during insertion. An electrode projection 800 microm long and 50 microm wide was able to deflect almost 800 microm away from the probe substrate. Applications that do not require insertion into tissue may also benefit from the electrode projections described here. Implantable neural interface devices are a critical component to a broad class of

  19. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  20. Dental physical examination.

    PubMed

    Baker, G J

    1998-08-01

    The objectives of the equine dental physical examination are to detect and quantify oral and dental disorders, to propose and carry out their treatment, and to implement management programs. The veterinarian should be able to offer a prognosis and to detail any future treatment or management plans that may be required. These objectives should take into account the cost of these procedures, and the veterinarian should be prepared to offer a cost-benefit analysis of the problem and the proposed cures.

  1. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  2. TRICARE Dental Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    enrollee – $1,500 lifetime maximum for orthodontics – Contractor: Delta Dental of California 2011 MHS Conference TRICARE Retiree Dental Program...Benefits Comprehensive benefits 12-month waiting period for crowns, prosthetics and orthodontics No waiting period if enroll within 120 days of...retiring from active duty or transfer to Retired Reserve status from National Guard or Reserve  Orthodontics for children and adults Accident coverage

  3. Dental considerations in anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dental trauma as a result of anaesthesia practice is a relevant issue concerning morbidity and litigation. The investigator aimed to consolidate pertinent information on this issue to aid in the redressal of such an occurrence. A review of this relevant literature alongwith the author’s suggestions towards the management of the various kinds of dental trauma sustained as a result of anaesthesia practice is presented. PMID:27974970

  4. Dental (Odontogenic) Pain

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a simple overview of acute trigeminal pain for the non dentist. This article does not cover oral mucosal diseases (vesiculobullous disorders) that may cause acute pain. Dental pain is the most common in this group and it can present in several different ways. Of particular interest for is that dental pain can mimic both trigeminal neuralgia and other chronic trigeminal pain disorders. It is crucial to exclude these disorders whilst managing patients with chronic trigeminal pain. PMID:26527224

  5. Production and perception of legato, portato, and staccato articulation in saxophone playing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the production and perception of different articulation techniques on the saxophone. In a production experiment, two melodies were recorded that required different effectors to play the tones (tongue-only actions, finger-only actions, combined tongue and finger actions) at three different tempi. A sensor saxophone reed was developed to monitor tongue-reed interactions during performance. In the slow tempo condition, combined tongue-finger actions showed improved timing, compared to the timing of the tongue alone. This observation supports the multiple timer hypothesis where the tongue's timekeeper benefits from a coupling to the timekeeper of the fingers. In the fast tempo condition, finger-only actions were less precise than tongue-only actions and timing precision of combined tongue-finger actions showed the higher timing variability, close to the level of finger-only actions. This suggests that the finger actions have a dominant influence on the overall timing of saxophone performance. In a listening experiment we investigated whether motor expertise in music performance influences the perception of articulation techniques in saxophone performance. Participants with different backgrounds in music making (saxophonists, musicians not playing the saxophone, and non-musicians) attended an AB-X listening test. They had to discriminate between saxophone phrases played with different articulation techniques (legato, portato, staccato). Participants across all three groups discriminated the sound of staccato articulation well from the sound of portato articulation and legato articulation. Errors occurred across all groups of listeners when legato articulation (no tonguing) and portato articulation (soft tonguing) had to be discriminated. Saxophonists' results were superior compared to the results of the other two groups, suggesting that expertise in saxophone playing facilitated the discrimination task. PMID:25076918

  6. Role of Bed Design and Head-of-Bed Articulation on Patient Migration.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kermit G; Kotowski, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The ramifications of patient migration toward the foot of the bed in intensive care units are not well understood. Migration may cause shear and friction between the patient and the mattress, reduce elevation of the patient's torso, and require frequent repositioning of the patient. This study assesses how bed design impacts both the amount of migration that patients undergo during head section articulation to 30° and 45° and the extent of torso compression following the articulation.

  7. Role of Bed Design and Head-of-Bed Articulation on Patient Migration

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kermit G.; Kotowski, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The ramifications of patient migration toward the foot of the bed in intensive care units are not well understood. Migration may cause shear and friction between the patient and the mattress, reduce elevation of the patient's torso, and require frequent repositioning of the patient. This study assesses how bed design impacts both the amount of migration that patients undergo during head section articulation to 30° and 45° and the extent of torso compression following the articulation. PMID:25723914

  8. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  9. Dental arch analysis system.

    PubMed

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Cozzani, Mauro; Manfredi, Mario; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to describe a computerized method, which enables orthodontists and researchers to analyze variation of dental arch form and dimension. The analysis system is composed of two independent parts: the database, where the images of scanned dental casts are stored, and the software. The operator uses the software to identify some landmarks on dental cast images. Corresponding distances are calculated (interincisive, intercanine and intermolar widths and the curve axis). Then the software algorithms calculate and draw the curves passing trough the selected landmarks (conics, catenary, cubic spline and polynomial curves). In the chosen curves the arch length is measured. The dental cast data, recorded at different times of the subject's life or in different steps of orthodontic treatment, are compared in order to evaluate the change in dimension (arch length and width) and form (shape). The statistical analysis of the data evaluates the variation in form and in dimension separately. The shape change is defined by Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) and Bootstrap analysis. The computerized method allows orthodontists and researches to evaluate the variation in dimension and form of the dental arch in un-treated subjects and-or orthodontic patients over time. After the analysis of a large sample of patients or subjects, information concerning changes in dental arch dimension and form can be added to previous studies of other authors, distinguishing variation during and after orthodontic treatment, during growth or aging.

  10. Changes in Vowel Articulation with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Dysarthric Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Mélanie; Prud'Homme, Michel; Cantin, Léo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate changes in vowel articulation with the electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Eight Quebec-French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who had undergone STN DBS were evaluated ON-stimulation and OFF-stimulation (1 hour after DBS was turned off). Vowel articulation was compared ON-simulation versus OFF-stimulation using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio, calculated with the first (F1) and second formant (F2) of the vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/. The impact of the preceding consonant context on articulation, which represents a measure of coarticulation, was also analyzed as a function of the stimulation state. Results. Maximum vowel articulation increased during ON-stimulation. Analyses also indicate that vowel articulation was modulated by the consonant context but this relationship did not change with STN DBS. Conclusions. Results suggest that STN DBS may improve articulation in dysarthric speakers with PD, in terms of range of movement. Optimization of the electrical parameters for each patient is important and may lead to improvement in speech fine motor control. However, the impact on overall speech intelligibility may still be small. Clinical considerations are discussed and new research avenues are suggested. PMID:25400977

  11. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  12. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  13. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  14. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  15. Articulation Committee Handbook: A Guide to the Mandate and Operations of Provincial Post-Secondary Articulation Committees in British Columbia. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This handbook, created by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT), serves as a guide to individuals who serve on postsecondary articulation committees in British Columbia. The handbook is divided into four parts. Part A includes a chart detailing the major activities of BCCAT and a description of the membership, purpose,…

  16. Influence of dental materials on dental MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, O; Vaegler, S; Rottner, K; Boldt, J; Hopfgartner, AJ; Proff, PC; Richter, E-J; Jakob, PM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of standard dental materials on dental MRI (dMRI) by estimating the magnetic susceptibility with the help of the MRI-based geometric distortion method and to classify the materials from the standpoint of dMRI. Methods: A series of standard dental materials was studied on a 1.5 T MRI system using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences and their magnetic susceptibility was estimated using the geometric method. Measurements on samples of dental materials were supported by in vivo examples obtained in dedicated dMRI procedures. Results: The tested materials showed a range of distortion degrees. The following materials were classified as fully compatible materials that can be present even in the tooth of interest: the resin-based sealer AH Plus® (Dentsply, Maillefer, Germany), glass ionomer cement, gutta-percha, zirconium dioxide and composites from one of the tested manufacturers. Interestingly, composites provided by the other manufacturer caused relatively strong distortions and were therefore classified as compatible I, along with amalgam, gold alloy, gold–ceramic crowns, titanium alloy and NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials, the magnetic susceptibility of which differed from that of water by more than 200 ppm, were classified as non-compatible materials that should not be present in the patient’s mouth for any dMRI applications. They included stainless steel orthodontic appliances and CoCr. Conclusions: A classification of the materials that complies with the standard grouping of materials according to their magnetic susceptibility was proposed and adopted for the purposes of dMRI. The proposed classification can serve as a guideline in future dMRI research. PMID:23610088

  17. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  18. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  19. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  20. Dental Implantology in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavitz, J. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The results of a survey of 44 dental schools corroborate the belief that dental implantology is gaining widespread acceptance in U.S. dental schools. Currently, predoctoral students have limited clinical participation. Most programs have taken the position that clinical techniques are best taught within the existing specialties at a graduate…

  1. Dental Implantology in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavitz, J. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The results of a survey of 44 dental schools corroborate the belief that dental implantology is gaining widespread acceptance in U.S. dental schools. Currently, predoctoral students have limited clinical participation. Most programs have taken the position that clinical techniques are best taught within the existing specialties at a graduate…

  2. Modeling and analysis of an articulated winged micro air vehicle for gust mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduyela, Adetunji Y.

    Articulated micro air vehicles are a class of micro air vehicles comprised of a main center body attached to outer wings on both sides. As in the case of a single rigid micro air vehicle, the center body and the attached bodies in the articulated case are all responsible for the generation of aerodynamic forces and moments during flight resulting in a multibody system. While many approaches have been taken in the literature to model the system of equations resulting from such a complicated multibody system, this dissertation presents an approach based on a Newton-Euler multibody dynamics formulation where the multiple bodies are attached together with suitable joints. The number and type of joints determines the level of articulation and total degree of freedom for the entire system. Unlike most articulated air vehicle model formulations available in the literature, the final model formulation presented in this work provides joint force and moment data acting on the articulated MAV during flight. This feature allows such information to be available during the vehicle design and development stage where appropriate spring and dampers for the system are selected based on mission requirements. Experimental validation of the proposed mathematical model using experimental flight test data obtained from UAHuntsville's Autonomous Tracking and Optical Measurements laboratory allowed the comparison of the flight test results and model simulations. Analytical investigation of the gust alleviation properties of the articulated 8 degree-of-freedom micro air vehicle model was carried out using simulations with varying crosswind gust magnitudes and shows that the passive articulation in micro air vehicles increases their robustness to gusts when suitable joint parameters are selected.

  3. Sparse appearance model-based algorithm for automatic segmentation and identification of articulated hand bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Fitsum A.; Peng, Zhigang; Liao, Shu; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Zhan, Yiqiang; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and precise segmentation of hand bones is important for many medical imaging applications. Although several previous studies address bone segmentation, automatically segmenting articulated hand bones remains a challenging task. The highly articulated nature of hand bones limits the effectiveness of atlas-based segmentation methods. The use of low-level information derived from the image-of-interest alone is insufficient for detecting bones and distinguishing boundaries of different bones that are in close proximity to each other. In this study, we propose a method that combines an articulated statistical shape model and a local exemplar-based appearance model for automatically segmenting hand bones in CT. Our approach is to perform a hierarchical articulated shape deformation that is driven by a set of local exemplar-based appearance models. Specifically, for each point in the shape model, the local appearance model is described by a set of profiles of low-level image features along the normal of the shape. During segmentation, each point in the shape model is deformed to a new point whose image features are closest to the appearance model. The shape model is also constrained by an articulation model described by a set of pre-determined landmarks on the finger joints. In this way, the deformation is robust to sporadic false bony edges and is able to fit fingers with large articulations. We validated our method on 23 CT scans and we have a segmentation success rate of ~89.70 %. This result indicates that our method is viable for automatic segmentation of articulated hand bones in conventional CT.

  4. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. Information entered here ...

  5. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  6. Degradability of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J

    1992-09-01

    The degradation of dental ceramics generally occurs because of mechanical forces or chemical attack. The possible physiological side-effects of ceramics are their tendency to abrade opposing dental structures, the emission of radiation from radioactive components, the roughening of their surfaces by chemical attack with a corresponding increase in plaque retention, and the release of potentially unsafe concentrations of elements as a result of abrasion and dissolution. The chemical durability of dental ceramics is excellent. With the exception of the excessive exposure to acidulated fluoride, ammonium bifluoride, or hydrofluoric acid, there is little risk of surface degradation of virtually all current dental ceramics. Extensive exposure to acidulated fluoride is a possible problem for individuals with head and/or neck cancer who have received large doses of radiation. Such fluoride treatment is necessary to minimize tooth demineralization when saliva flow rates have been reduced because of radiation exposure to salivary glands. Porcelain surface stains are also lost occasionally when abraded by prophylaxis pastes and/or acidulated fluoride. In each case, the solutes are usually not ingested. Further research that uses standardized testing procedures is needed on the chemical durability of dental ceramics. Accelerated durability tests are desirable to minimize the time required for such measurements. The influence of chemical durability on surface roughness and the subsequent effect of roughness on wear of the ceramic restorations as well as of opposing structures should also be explored on a standardized basis.

  7. Comparative study of dental caries and dental fluorosis in populations of different dental fluorosis prevalence.

    PubMed

    Kukleva, Maria P; Kondeva, Veselina K; Isheva, Alexandra V; Rimalovska, Sevda I

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in many countries has increased over the last three decades along with a noted decrease of dental caries. To date no comparative studies of dental caries and dental fluorosis have been conducted in Bulgaria reflecting the present-day conditions of life. To study comparatively the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries and to establish what relationship, if any, there is between them. We performed a comparative analysis of three epidemiological studies carried out in Plovdiv and Dimitrovgrad in 2004, 2005 and 2008. The hypothesis tested was that dental caries was less frequent in populations with higher prevalence of dental fluorosis (with predominance of mild fluorosis cases). Dental fluorosis was diagnosed using Dean's criteria, and dental caries was scored using the WHO criteria. The results were analysed using the alternative analysis and analysis of variance at a level of significance P < 0.05. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the studied populations in Dimitrovgrad in 2004 was 56.99%, in Plovdiv in 2005--7.80%, and in 2008--23.18%. The comparison of the studies in Dimitrovgrad and Plovdiv in 2005 showed lower prevalence of dental caries and lower DMFT values in all age groups (P < 0.001) in Dimitrovgrad, where the prevalence of dental fluorosis was greater than that in Plovdiv (P < 0.001). The comparison between the studies in Plovdiv alone in 2005 and 2008 showed an increase in dental fluorosis in 2008 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of dental caries was higher in almost all groups, but the differences failed to reach statistical significance (P < 0.001). The DMFT index was higher in 2008 (P < 0.001) with the exception of some age groups. The higher prevalence of dental fluorosis does not necessarily lead to low prevalence of dental caries and low DMFT values in the specific population.

  8. Dental lasers: safe or sorry?

    PubMed

    Bahn, S L

    1994-06-01

    The promise of laser dentistry has not yet been fully realized because too little science exists to support so much hyperbole. Each of the available dental laser systems has unique considerations regarding efficacy, safety, advantages, and disadvantages that may differ with any proposed dental procedure. Well-controlled clinical studies with multipotential improved systems may facilitate the introduction of lasers into general dental use.

  9. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  10. The Primary Dental Care Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…

  11. Dental therapists: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Nash, David A; Friedman, Jay W; Kardos, Thomas B; Kardos, Rosemary L; Schwarz, Eli; Satur, Julie; Berg, Darren G; Nasruddin, Jaafar; Mumghamba, Elifuraha G; Davenport, Elizabeth S; Nagel, Ron

    2008-04-01

    In 1921, New Zealand began training school dental nurses, subsequently deploying them throughout the country in school-based clinics providing basic dental care for children. The concept of training dental nurses, later to be designated dental therapists, was adopted by other countries as a means of improving access to care, particularly for children. This paper profiles six countries that utilise dental therapists, with a description of the training that therapists receive in these countries, and the context in which they practice. Based on available demographic information, it also updates the number of dental therapists practising globally, as well as the countries in which they practice. In several countries, dental therapy is now being integrated with dental hygiene in training and practice to create a new type of professional complementary to a dentist. Increasingly, dental therapists are permitted to treat adults as well as children. The paper also describes the status of a current initiative to introduce dental therapy to the United States. It concludes by suggesting that dental therapists can become valued members of the dental team throughout the world, helping to improve access to care and reducing existing disparities in oral health.

  12. The Future Dental Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorting-Hansen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Directions for dental education are examined, with reference made to a number of recent background papers and an Institute of Medicine report on dental education in the United States. Greater integration with other health sciences, development of dental faculty teaching skills, and greater use of apprenticeships and continuing education are…

  13. Dental Laboratory Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide contains 45 program standards for the dental laboratory technology program conducted in technical institutes in Georgia. The dental laboratory technology program, either diploma or associate degree, is designed to ensure that students gain basic competence in the job skills needed for an entry-level employee in dental laboratory…

  14. Dental Assistant Specialist. (AFSC 98150).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eling, David R.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for dental assistant specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are an introduction to dental services (the mission and organization of medical/dental service, career ladder progressions, medical readiness/wartime training, and…

  15. 77 FR 4469 - Dental Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN28 Dental Conditions AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment... Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility...

  16. 76 FR 14600 - Dental Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN28 Dental Conditions AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes. The regulations...) of service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility for...

  17. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  18. Dental obturation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Elizabeth; Chudej, Lauren; Bilyeu, Brian; Brostow, Witold

    2006-10-01

    During the last decades, people have tried to develop a better material for use in dental obturation materials. This new material should meet the following requirements: durability, wear resistance, biocompatibility and chemical adhesion to dentin enamel. Wear resistance is very important and it is related with the service life of dental replacements. We have obtained aesthetically promising novel nano composites that can be used as dental replacements. The main objective of this work is to study the scratch and wear resistance of these nano composites. To meet this goal, scratch tests are performed using a micro scratch tester machine (CSEM), where a diamond indenter is used to make the scratch and the penetration of this indenter is measured with high resolution (7nm). We will be looking at the penetration depth (Rp) and the residual (or healing) depth (Rh) to calculate the percent recovery. These measurements represent the scratch resistance of the material.

  19. Dental implants: A review.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, B

    2016-12-01

    A high number of patients have one or more missing tooth and it is estimated that one in four American subjects over the age of 74 have lost all their natural teeth. Many options exist to replace missing teeth but dental implants have become one of the most used biomaterial to replace one (or more) missing tooth over the last decades. Contemporary dental implants made with titanium have been proven safe and effective in large series of patients. This review considers the main historical facts concerned with dental implants and present the different critical factors that will ensure a good osseo-integration that will ensure a stable prosthesis anchorage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Dental amalgam: An update

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, Kulvinder Kaur; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Chandra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Dental amalgam has served as an excellent and versatile restorative material for many years, despite periods of controversy. The authors review its history, summarize the evidence with regard to its performance and offer predictions for the future of this material. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for dental amalgam featured 8641 articles and 13 publications dealing with recent advances in dental amalgam. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. For the present, amalgam should remain the material of choice for economic direct restoration of posterior teeth. When esthetic concerns are paramount, tooth-colored materials, placed meticulously, can provide an acceptable alternative. All alternative restorative materials and procedures, however, have certain limitations. PMID:21217947