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  1. Dental Caries and Periodontal Status of Mentally Handicapped Institutilized Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632

  2. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries. PMID:21819682

  3. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J.; Twetman, Svante; Holmstrup, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) from 293 stimulated saliva samples was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries. PMID:25854857

  4. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  5. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Shashikiran, N D; Reddy, V V S; Raju, P Krishnam

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  6. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  7. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, Howard; Kinney, John H.; Otis, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  8. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  9. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.

  10. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2014-12-29

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information.

  11. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Novotna, Marta; Podzimek, Stepan; Broukal, Zdenek; Lencova, Erika; Duskova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area. PMID:26347009

  12. Dental caries and periodontal diseases among urban, rural and tribal school children.

    PubMed

    Rao, S P; Bharambe, M S

    1993-06-01

    The oral health status in school children of Wardha was studied to find out the geographical differences in oral health status and to relate it with the teeth cleaning habit and nutritional status. A cluster sample of 778 children studying in 2 urban, 4 rural and 2 tribal primary schools was selected. Majority (60.8%) of children were habituated to clean their teeth with Manjan. The prevalence of periodontal diseases was significantly high in children habituated to ash, Manjan and coal. The tribal children showed a better oral health status than urban counterparts. Nutritional status has played no role in dental decay. The school oral health education campaigns should be addressed to dental caries, periodontal diseases and the harmful teeth cleaning materials.

  13. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  14. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  15. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group. PMID:26681848

  16. The relationship of orthodontic treatment need with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic factors.

    PubMed

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Demirer, Serhat; Ozturk, Firat; Altan, Burcu A; Sokucu, Oral; Bostanci, Vildan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11-14 years). Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) scores, and a questionnaire that surveyed socio-demographic status of students were used. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between variables. TPI scores showed that 36.4% of the students had normal occlusion, while 41.2% had slight, 15.7% had definite, 4% had severe, and 2.7% had very severe malocclusion. TPI values did not show any significant differences between pupils in different age, gender, socioeconomic status groups, and CPITN scores, whereas there was a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores. The orthodontic treatment need was not significantly correlated with CPITN or socio-demographic status; however, the correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores.

  17. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity. PMID:27672500

  18. [Relationships between occlusal anomalies and caries, periodontal diseases, oral hygiene and temporomandibular joint disorders in 401 dental students (Berlin 1974)].

    PubMed

    Richter, W

    1978-04-01

    In 1974, 401 dental students of the Humboldt University in Berlin were examined for caries incidence, periodontal condition, oral hygiene and temporamandibular joint pain. The findings were brought in relation to the extent of extant tooth malalignment and malocclusion (model analysis according to Eismann). Statistical methods were employed to test existing relationship for significance, allowing for age, sex and former orthodontic treatment. The results were evaluated in view of the need for orthodontic treatment.

  19. The prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease. Fédération Dentaire Internationale Technical Report No. 20.

    PubMed

    1984-06-01

    The use of effective preventive methods has produced good results in developed countries, where caries is declining and periodontal disease is probably getting no worse. There are special problems with prevention in developing countries, principally high periodontal disease prevalence, rising caries rates and lack of resources to deal with these problems. With appropriate assistance, much can still be accomplished in these developing countries. Depending on economic resources and disease patterns, the following procedures for oral disease prevention can be recommended. Priority order will vary from country to country, and national and local laws may also determine what procedures can or cannot be employed. Fluoridation of water supplies is the most effective action to prevent caries in communities where piped water supplies are in place. It is relatively cheap and does not depend on individual action. Where water fluoridation is not feasible, community-based alternatives are salt fluoridation, school-water fluoridation or supervised ingestion of fluoride supplements. Supervised mouthrinsing with fluoride solutions, usually in schools, is effective in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. Dentists or auxiliaries can also apply fluoride gels or solutions to the teeth of individual patients. The use of fluoride toothpastes is recommended wherever possible as a routine part of self care. All preventive activities have an educational component. Community leaders and others should be educated regarding the institution and maintenance of community preventive measures which affect them. Individual patients should be educated regarding their oral hygiene, use of fluoride, restriction of sugary snacks between meals and the necessity for regular dental visits when services are available. Dental health education of the public can be concentrated in special target groups such as expectant mothers. Because dental caries is a public health problem in many countries, public

  20. Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, R; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chelladurai, K; Padmavathy, S; Saravanan, M; Prakash, P; Ajmal Ali, M; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-11-01

    Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nano-biotechnology. In the present investigation, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing the leaf extract of Justicia glauca. Water-soluble organics present in the leaf extract are mainly responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to AgNPs. The AgNPs are 10-20nm in dimensions as determined by TEM images. The antimicrobial activities of green synthesized AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs have been evaluated against the dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs show a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of AgNPs determined against the selected dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms are noticeable between the range of 25-75μg/mL.

  1. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  2. Prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and their association with socio-demographic risk factors among older persons in Delhi, India: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Goswami, Anil; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne

    2013-05-01

    Dental health is often neglected in the older persons, and dental conditions associated with aging are complex, adversely affecting the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among older persons from Delhi, India, and to study their association with selected socio-behavioral risk factors. We conducted a community-based cross sectional study among persons aged > or = 60 years from Delhi during 2009-2010. A questionnaire was used to interview elderly regarding dental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form was used for examining the study participants. A total of 448 participants were examined and included in the study. Of the dentate, 47.1% had active dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score for the study population was 14.4. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets and loss of attachment was 96.6, 89.1, and 80.3%, respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was 47.9%. Age, frequency of teeth cleaning, and method used for teeth cleaning were statistically associated with the DMFT score. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was high in the study population, and warrants intervention.

  3. Relationship of Periodontal Status and Dental Caries Status with Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior among Professional Students in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Archana J; Shetty, Srinath

    2009-01-01

    Aim To find the relationship of periodontal status and dental caries status with oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, among professional students in India. Methodology In a cross sectional study, a total of 825 students (males: 577, females: 248) from six professions were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire including 41 multiple choice questions and the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0 to perform the Student's t-test, ANOVA test, Scheffe's test and Chi-square test, linear regression analysis. Results The mean percentage scores of the students for knowledge were 53.25 ± 15.05; for attitude 74.97 ±20.48; and for behavior 59.09 ± 18.77. The percentage of students with calculus score was found to be significantly high (43.8%). The percentage of professional students with DMFT>4 was 14.1% and the percentage of students with decayed teeth was 46.2%. The regression analysis showed that the oral health behavior of the students was dependent on the attitude (P <0.001), but showed no significant linear relation with the knowledge. Also, that the mean DMFT score was dependent on the oral health behavior (P <0.05), but showed no significant relationship with the knowledge and attitude of the students. The periodontal status was independent on the knowledge, but showed a significant relationship with attitude and behavior of the students. Conclusion A positive attitude and adherence to good oral hygiene behaviors is associated with better oral health. PMID:20690423

  4. Interaction of lifestyle, behaviour or systemic diseases with dental caries and periodontal diseases: consensus report of group 2 of the joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Iain L C; Bouchard, Philippe; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Campus, Guglielmo; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Cocco, Fabio; Nibali, Luigi; Hujoel, Philippe; Laine, Marja L; Lingstrom, Peter; Manton, David J; Montero, Eduardo; Pitts, Nigel; Rangé, Hélène; Schlueter, Nadine; Teughels, Wim; Twetman, Svante; Van Loveren, Cor; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Vieira, Alexandre R; Schulte, Andreas G

    2017-03-01

    Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requirement for a pathogenic plaque biofilm, yet they exhibit distinct pathophysiologies. Multiple exposures contribute to their causal pathways, and susceptibility involves risk factors that are inherited (e.g. genetic variants), and those that are acquired (e.g. socio-economic factors, biofilm load or composition, smoking, carbohydrate intake). Identification of these factors is crucial in the prevention of both diseases as well as in their management.

  5. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  6. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  7. Improved drug delivery systems for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Hiorth, Marianne

    2016-10-13

    Dental caries: Dental caries and periodontitis were for many decades considered the most important global oral health burden. During the last 40 years when more focus was put on the prevention of dental caries by using products with fluoride, the problem decreased. However, our new lifestyle with more sugar has given rise to concern, and in US the amount of children being diagnosed with dental caries has increased [1]. In addition the increasing amount of elderly in the population using many different types of medicines giving dry mouth has a negative impact of the status of their teeth [2].

  8. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  9. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  10. Anaerobic culture to detect periodontal and caries pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Anne C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaerobic culture has been critical in our understanding of the oral microbiotas. Highlight Studies in advanced periodontitis in the 1970’s revealed microbial complexes that associated with different clinical presentations. Taxonomy studies identified species newly-observed in periodontitis as Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter (Wolinella) rectus and other Campylobacter species, and Tannerella (Bacteroides) forsythia. Anaerobic culture of initial periodontitis showed overlap in the microbiota with gingivitis, and added Selenomonas noxia and Filifactor alocis as putative periodontal pathogens. Porphyromonas gingivalis and T. forsythia were found to be associated with initial periodontitis in adults. The dominant microbiota of dental caries differs from that of periodontitis. The major cariogenic species are acidogenic and acid tolerant species particularly Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. Anaerobic culture of severe early childhood caries revealed a widely diverse microbiota, comparable to that observed using cloning and sequencing. The PCR-based cloning approach, however, underestimated Actinobacteria compared with culture. Only a subset of the caries-associated microbiota was acid tolerant, with different segments of the microbiota cultured on blood agar compared to a low pH acid agar. While the major caries-associated species was S. mutans, a new species, Scardovia wiggsiae, was significantly associated with early childhood caries. Higher counts of S. wiggsiae were also observed in initial white spot carious lesions in adolescents. Conclusion In periodontitis and dental caries, anaerobic culture studies of advanced disease provided a comprehensive analysis of the microbiota of these infections. Anaerobic culture highlighted the limitation of PCR with standard primers that underestimate detection of Actinobacteria. PMID:25678835

  11. Nutrition and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake.

  12. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  13. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  14. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

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  15. The oral microbiome and the immunobiology of periodontal disease and caries.

    PubMed

    Costalonga, Massimo; Herzberg, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis.

  16. The oral microbiome and the immunobiology of periodontal disease and caries

    PubMed Central

    Costalonga, Massimo; Herzberg, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis. PMID:25447398

  17. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  18. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  19. [Dental health: relationship between dental caries and food consumption].

    PubMed

    González Sanz, Angel Miguel; González Nieto, Blanca Aurora; González Nieto, Esther

    2013-07-01

    Although the reduction and prevalence of dental caries in many countries has been largely associated with the use of fluorine and improving dental hygiene, eating habits also play a role in the development of caries. Fermentable carbohydrates characteristics of the food, rate of consumption, food protectors, the quality and quantity of saliva indices that determine the remineralization of teeth are factors to be considered. All these elements are analyzed through the sociodemographic, behavioral, physical and biological environment directly or indirectly with diet and caries.

  20. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Joel H

    2006-01-01

    The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify the caries process at its earliest stages will soon invade practices everywhere. The most interesting aspect of these changes will be how industry responds to the inexorable, yet slow change in dental professional demand for these new technologies, while trying to be the "first to market" within the various categories of this business opportunity. This paper will take a close look at how businesses with the core competence to be key players in this emerging growth category will assess the marketplace, and match up their business interests with the changing needs of the dental profession. The paper will also address the strategic planning and business processes that the dental industry will undertake to bring new technologies to market, and how these technologies will be positioned to health care professionals and consumers. The results of the key interactions between industry and the dental profession will determine the extent to which dental caries is managed as a disease, in addition to being managed by surgical restorative interventions. PMID:16934123

  1. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    PubMed

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  2. [Influence of tooth crowding on the prevalence of dental caries. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of the mineralized tissues of teeth. It usually has a chronic course and is caused by external factors which can be modified. Current opinions about the contribution of malocclusions to the etiology of dental caries are conflicting. Some researchers believe that malocclusions like crowded teeth cause improper contacts between neighboring teeth and make effective oral hygiene more difficult. The difficulty in cleaning crowded teeth is believed to increase plaque accumulation and consequently predisposes the tooth to the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Others claim that malocclusion has a minimal influence on the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Ideal oral hygiene is of basic importance for plaque elimination which is the harmful factor in caries and in this way is decisive for the health of mineral and soft tissues to a much greater extent than lack of malocclusion. However, if a person with malocclusion is more susceptible to dental caries, oral hygiene cannot be the decisive factor.

  3. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  4. Dental caries patterns in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, D C

    1984-01-01

    Management of dental caries as a disease requires the same level of skill and broad perspective as managing many other diseases. Dental caries has several variations, four of which were presented here. Long-term outlook for children with two of the caries patterns (those secondary to fissure defects or hypoplastic defects) is good if the teeth are restored. Management of children with nursing caries often involves dealing with well-intentioned but overindulgent parents. Prevention of nursing caries goes beyond simply informing the parents of potential dangers from excessive feeding with the bottle. Hypoplastic defects can resemble nursing caries; the differentiation is important in treating the child. The child with extensive proximal molar lesions may be the most difficult to manage on a long-term basis. A successful prevention program will mean a change in life style for the parent and child. The child with a cleft lip and/or palate has the disadvantages of enamel defects and a significant medical condition inviting overindulgence.

  5. [Periodontal reaction versus dental movement].

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Ecaterina; Preoteasa, Elena; Duduca, Ioana

    2005-01-01

    In orthodontics the relation between the force (natural or artificial) and the structures that must be modified or led towards a normal situation is in fact a complex equation would multiple aspects determined by the biological part. The orthodontic forces imply, both in action as in effect, all the elements of the dental system, meaning bones, teeth, periodontal tissue. On the other side, the structures of the dental system may help, limit ate, or even erase the action of the orthodontic forces. Our article brings into discussion the relation between the teeth' sustaining structures and their movements determined by the orthodontic forces both as a reaction to a therapeutical treatment and as their direct implication into the result and the stability of the orthodontic treatment, on a long-term.

  6. Sickle cell disease does not predispose to caries or periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cristina Pinho; Santos, Poliana Ramos Braga; Aguiar, Márcio Cajazeira; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Toralles, Maria Betánia Pereira; da Silva, Maria Christina Bahiana Olympio; Nascimento, Roberto José Meyer; Campos, Maria Isabela Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal condition in a population with sickle cell disease (SCD), analyzing some associations with disease severity. The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were recorded for 99 individuals with SCD and 91 matched controls. Socio-demographic status, oral health behaviors, and history of clinical severity of SCD were assessed. Statistical comparisons were performed between the group with SCD and the control group, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses with DMFT index and CPI as the dependent variables. The mean number of decayed teeth was significantly higher in individuals with HbSS. Older age, female gender, and daily smoking were identified as risk factors for higher DMFT, while older age and absence of daily use of dental floss were risk factors for the development of periodontal disease. In conclusion, risk factors known to cause caries and periodontal disease had more influence on oral health than the direct impact of SCD.

  7. [Dental caries of the developmental age as a civilization disease].

    PubMed

    Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment.

  8. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  9. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  10. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.

  11. Periodontal health and caries prevalence evaluation in patients affected by Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event.

  12. Periodontal Health and Caries Prevalence Evaluation in Patients Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event. PMID:23320249

  13. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Materials and Methods Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Results Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Conclusion Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc. PMID:28209019

  14. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children

    PubMed Central

    Divaris, K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as “precision medicine” and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)—a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and “precision dentistry

  15. Dental caries in adolescents associated with caffeinated carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Majewski, R F

    2001-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease involving all age groups. Adolescence is a period in which the risk for dental caries remains especially high. Many factors, some unique to the teenage years, contribute to the initiation and progression of dental caries in this age group. One factor with the potential for being significant is the adolescent diet, especially the high consumption of sugars. One product that tends to contribute to the amount of sugar ingested is carbonated beverages. Many soft drinks also contain significant amounts of caffeine. Regular caffeine ingestion may lead to increased, even habitual, usage. It is suggested that the combination of the consumption of highly sweetened soft drinks and habitual usage of caffeine may significantly increase a susceptible adolescent's potential for developing dental caries. Cases are presented demonstrating the early initiation and rapid progression of dental caries in three adolescents. A common factor is the ingestion of high amounts of caffeinated-carbonated soft drinks.

  16. Comparison of Dental Explorers and CPI-probes in Diagnosing Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Yoichi; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kagami, Noriaki; Satou, Ryouichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to compare efficiency in detecting suspected caries requiring observation (CO) and decayed teeth (DT) between dental explorers and Community Periodontal Index (CPI)-probes in school dental examinations and evaluate the effect of their respective use on Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index scores. A total of 126 elementary and high school students were examined. All the clinical findings were obtained by a pair of trained dentists examining each student at routine annual school dental examinations. A dental explorer or CPI-probe and dental mirror were used for the examination. One dentist used the dental explorer, while the other used the CPI-probe. The choice of which instrument to use by the first dentist to examine the student was made at random. A comparison of the explorers and CPI-probes revealed that the numbers of patients and permanent teeth classified as CO were greater with the former in 6th-grade elementary and high school students (p<0.05). The Kappa value for CO and DT was 0.560 for 6th-grade elementary school and 0.846 for high school students. All DMFT scores were higher with the explorers than with the CPI-probes in the 6th-grade elementary school students. No significant difference was observed between the explorers and CPI-probes in any of the DMFT scores in any group, however. The present results indicate that as long as the low rate of caries in Japanese school children is maintained, the epidemiological data on this disease should not show any significant change if a CPI-probe is used instead of an explorer in school dental examinations.

  17. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  18. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  19. Effect of different frequencies of preventive maintenance treatment on dental caries: five-year observations in general dentistry patients.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Birgitta; Olavi, Göran; Birkhed, Dowen; Edvardsson, Stig; Egelberg, Jan

    2004-10-01

    A long-term study in adults at a public dental clinic in Sweden was initiated to evaluate the relative effectiveness of prophylactic treatments on the progression of dental caries and periodontal discase. With treatments scheduled every 3rd, 6th, 12th or 18th month, this report presents results on caries for the 3-month, 6-month and 18-month groups, and evaluates the impact of various caries-related risk factors. Caries increment over approximately 5 years was determined by adding clinical and radiographic findings of manifest primary and secondary caries during the study. Overall caries activity among all 105 participating individuals was low to moderate. No significant differences for caries on any of the various tooth surfaces or for total caries were observed among the three groups. Multiple regression analysis with 5-year caries increment as dependent variable showed that the following factors had a statistically significant association with caries increment: percentage filled surfaces at baseline examination, dietary score, plaque score, and number of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva. Non-significant factors included number of preventive treatments provided during the 5-year interval. The results of this long-term trial suggest that preventive treatments as often as every 3 6 months may not be justified in the case of patients with low to moderate caries activity.

  20. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  1. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  2. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  3. Dental caries in rural and urban black preschoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, P; Richardson, B D; Rantsho, J M

    1978-05-01

    The dentitions of 439 rural and 192 urban black children aged 1-5 years were examined with mirror and probe. Dental caries was common and the percentage prevalence and dmft values were similar in children of 1-3 years in both groups. At 4 years of age there was a twofold increase in dental caries in the urban children to reach a dmft score significantly greater than that in the rural children (P less than 0.01). Labial caries was common in rural children but rare in urban children while rampant caries (dmft greater than or equal to 5) exhibited the opposite pattern.

  4. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities.

  5. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  6. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  7. Clinical evaluation of sodium fluoride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Aithal, K S; Udupa, D N; Tandon, S

    1996-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage fluoride content were prepared using two varieties of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low fluoride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  8. Clinical evaluation of sodium flouride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maddi, S S; Tandon, S; Aithal, K S

    1999-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage flouride content were prepared using two varities of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low flouride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  9. Effect of bioactive dental adhesive on periodontal and endodontic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Xie, Xianju; Weir, Michael D; Fouad, Ashraf F; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a new bioactive dental bonding agent with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate for tooth root caries restorations and endodontic applications, and (2) investigate biofilm inhibition by the bioactive bonding agent against eight species of periodontal and endodontic pathogens for the first time. Bonding agent was formulated with 5 % of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate at 30 wt% was mixed into adhesive. Eight species of biofilms were grown on resins: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium. Colony-forming units, live/dead assay, biomass, metabolic activity and polysaccharide of biofilms were determined. The results showed that adding dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate into bonding agent did not decrease dentin bond strength (P > 0.1). Adding dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate reduced the colony-forming units of all eight species of biofilms by nearly three orders of magnitude. The killing efficacy of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate resin was: P. gingivalis > A. actinomycetemcomitans > P. intermedia > P. nigrescens > F. nucleatum > P. micra > E. faecalis > E. faecium. Dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate resin had much less biomass, metabolic activity and polysaccharide of biofilms than those without dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a novel dental adhesive was developed for root caries and endodontic applications, showing potent inhibition of biofilms of eight species of periodontal and endodontic pathogens, and reducing colony-forming units by three orders of magnitude. The bioactive adhesive is promising for tooth root restorations to provide

  10. Determinants of dental status and caries among adults in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Baelum, Vibeke; Pongpaisal, S; Pithpornchaiyakul, W; Pisuithanakan, S; Teanpaisan, Rawee; Papapanou, Panos N; Dahlen, Gunnar; Ole, Fejerskov

    2002-03-01

    This study describes the tooth mortality and the prevalence and severity of dental caries among 30- to 39- and 50- to 59-year-old rural Thais from the Province of Songhkla, Thailand. Three hundred and sixty-three persons were given a clinical examination, including assessment of dental status, dental caries, and periodontal recordings. Information on religious faith, smoking, and betel use was obtained by means of an interview. The prevalence of edentulism was low (<2% among 50- to 59-year-olds). The mean number of teeth present was high, 29.4 among the 30- to 39-year-olds and 24.3 among the 50- to 59-year-olds. The prevalence of caries was high (91% among 30- to 39-year-olds and 84% among 50- to 59-year-olds). The mean DFT values were 5.7 and 5.8, respectively, and a substantial part of the DFT consisted of deep dentin lesions. The results did not corroborate the hypothesis that persons of Muslim faith have worse dental conditions than do Thai Buddhist or that dental disease levels are higher among the Thai population than among other Southeast Asian populations.

  11. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Alm, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  12. Urinary catecholamine levels in children with and without dental caries.

    PubMed

    Vanderas, A P; Manetas, C; Papagiannoulis, L

    1995-10-01

    Urinary catecholamines have been used to measure emotionally stressful states which may affect the development of dental caries. This study investigates the hypothesis that children with and without dental caries do not differ significantly in the mean values of urinary catecholamines such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. As a test of this hypothesis, 314 children, males and females, aged from 6 to 8 years, were included in the study. Dental caries were recorded clinically and radiographically, and oral hygiene was evaluated by the recording of dental plaque. A 24-hour urine sample was collected for each subject, and a representative sample (25 mL) was analyzed by the HPLC technique to assay the catecholamine content. Socioeconomic factors such as parental age, education, and profession were recorded by a questionnaire distributed to the parents. Of the examined children, 38 (14 males and 24 females) were free of dental caries and constituted the case group. Two control groups, A and B, of 38 children each (14 males and 24 females) with dental caries were matched by age and gender. Differences in the quantitative and qualitative data were tested by the paired t test and the X2-test, respectively, while a regression analysis was applied to measure the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine on epinephrine. The logistic multiple-regression analysis was used to test, in the entire population, the impact of catecholamines and other related factors on the probability of subjects' developing dental caries. The 95% probability was used. The results showed statistically significant differences in epinephrine values between the case group and control groups A and B. The data suggest, therefore, that children with emotionally stressful states have higher probability of developing dental caries.

  13. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged <6 years in 2007; the region has approximately 600 births per year. Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  14. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  15. Dental caries amongst Royal Australian Navy recruits, 1988.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M V; Stonnill, A; Laslett, A M

    1992-06-01

    A sample of 1100 Royal Australian recruits were examined for dental caries in 1988. Socio-demographic data were also collected. The mean DMFT scores were 4.33, 6.85, and 8.87 teeth for the 15-19 year-olds, 20-24 year-olds, and 25-29 year-olds, respectively. Caries experience varied between the state of origin of recruitment with Victorian and Queensland subjects having the highest DMFT scores, and Tasmanian subjects, the lowest. Comparison with previous military studies indicated not only a decreased dental caries experience, but also that restoration of teeth rather than extraction is a more likely treatment outcome of dental caries in recent recruits.

  16. Dental caries pathogenicity: a genomic and metagenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this review we address the subject of dental caries pathogenicity from a genomic and metagenomic perspective. The application of genomic technologies is certain to yield novel insights into the relationship between the bacterial flora, dental health and disease. Three primary attributes of bacterial species are thought to have direct impact on caries development, these include: adherence on tooth surfaces (biofilm formation), acid production and acid tolerance. Attempts to define the specific aetiological agents of dental caries have proven to be elusive, supporting the notion that caries aetiology is perhaps complex and multi-faceted. The recently introduced Human Microbiome Project (HMP) that endeavors to characterise the micro-organisms living in and on the human body is likely to shed new light on these questions and improve our understanding of polymicrobial disease, microbial ecology in the oral cavity and provide new avenues for therapeutic and molecular diagnostics developments. PMID:21726221

  17. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    PubMed

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children.

  18. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  19. Caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Patiño Marín, Nuria; Loyola Rodríguez, Juan P; Medina Solis, Carlo E; Pontigo Loyola, América P; Reyes Macías, Juan F; Ortega Rosado, Jenny C; Aradillas García, Celia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients affected by diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. It was a cross-sectional study involving 175 subjects distributed in the following groups: (1) 35 patients with diabetes type 1 (glycosylated hemoglobin values from 6.5%-7%), (2) 35 patients with diabetes type 1 (values of glycosylated hemoglobin higher than 7%), (3) 35 subjects without diabetes mellitus type 1, (4) 35 patients with diabetes type 2 and (5) 35 subjects without diabetes mellitus type 2. The following clinical parameters were evaluated for all the subjects who participated in the study: frequency of caries, filled teeth, missing teeth, prosthetic restoration, bacterial dental plaque, calculus index, probing depth and attachment level. On comparing the groups of patients with diabetes type 1 to the control group, there were no statistically significant differences among any of the study variables. On comparing the group of patients with diabetes type 2 to the control group, there were statistically significant differences in the variables missing teeth (p=0.0134), calculus (p=0.0001), probing depth (p=0.0009) and attachment level (p=0.0093). The variable periodontal disease showed statistically significant dIfferences in the group of patients with diabetes type 2. Prevention, supervision and review of the oral health of patients with diabetes (types 1 and 2) are needed in order to prevent oral alterations.

  20. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Guedes, Sarah F.F.; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established. PMID:23810638

  1. RISK INDICATORS AND RISK PREDICTORS OF DENTAL CARIES IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB) based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI) based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS) and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25) was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17) or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37) presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68) and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87). Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren. PMID:19082400

  2. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without

  3. The implications of the new paradigm of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina

    2011-12-01

    The caries process is the ubiquitous, natural metabolism in the biofilm that causes numerous fluctuations in pH. The interaction of this biofilm with the dental tissues may result in a caries lesion. However, lesion formation and progression can be controlled, particularly by disturbing plaque regularly with a fluoride containing toothpaste. This paradigm implies that everyone with teeth is at risk to lesion development. Treatment of caries is principally non-operative, involving plaque control, fluoride and a sensible diet. Operative dentistry repairs un-cleansable cavities and is part of plaque control. A diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. The relevant diagnostic features with respect to caries are lesion activity (active lesions require active management) and un-cleansable cavities. When teaching undergraduates, it is important that they are credited for the non-operative treatment of caries as well as for operative dentistry. This is equally important in dental practice where an appropriate skills mix of the dental team is required to deliver dental health cost-effectively. Training more dentists may be an expensive mistake as far as disease control is concerned. It is ironic that dentists make most money from operative care and specialist treatment when disease control could be delivered relatively cheaply. The key to dental health is regular and effective plaque control with a fluoride containing toothpaste, from cradle to grave.

  4. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  5. The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Wang, Suping; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Haohao; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:26635932

  6. Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sicca, Claudio; Bobbio, Elena; Quartuccio, Natale; Nicolò, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to review medical and non medical treatments for prevention of caries. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of the most relevant and updated published studies from 01/01/2002 through December 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding the efficacy of strategies and treatments aiming to prevent the development of caries was performed selecting papers on the basis of the Evidence-based Medicine Criteria. Results We identified thirty systematic reviews on prevention of caries. Analyzing the data the retrieved literature, performance of prevention treatments seems to be high. Conclusions Prevention treatments may have a relevant impact on the avoiding the development of caries planning. Key words:Dental caries, prevention, fluoride. PMID:27957278

  7. Dental caries prevalence and treatment levels in Arizona preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J M; Altman, D S; Robertson, D C; O'Sullivan, D M; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in a large group of preschool children, to determine the extent to which the children received dental treatment, to examine the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the prevalence of caries, and to compare these findings with those from previous studies of preschool populations in the United States. METHODS: Dental caries exams were performed on 5171 children ages 5 months through 4 years, and a parent or other caregiver was asked to complete a questionnaire giving information about the child and her or his household. The children were recruited from Head Start programs; Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition programs; health fairs; and day care centers in a representative sample of Arizona communities with populations of more than 1000 people. RESULTS: Of the 994 one-year-old children examined, 6.4% had caries, with a mean dmft (decayed, missing [extracted due to caries], and filled teeth) score of 0.18. Nearly 20% of the 2-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 0.70. Thirty-five percent of the 3-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 1.35, and 49% of the 4-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 2.36. Children whose caregivers fell into the lowest education category had a mean dmft score three times higher than those with caregivers in the highest education category. Children with caregivers in the lowest income category had a mean dmft score four times higher than those with caregivers in the highest category. Children younger than age 3 had little evidence of dental treatment, and most of the children with caries in each age group had no filled or extracted teeth. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that dental caries is highly prevalent in this preschool population, with little of the disease being treated. Timing of diagnostic examinations and prevention strategies for preschool children need to be reconsidered, especially for children identified as having a high risk of

  8. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  9. Reactionary Dentinogenesis and Neuroimmune Response in Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Couve, E; Osorio, R; Schmachtenberg, O

    2014-08-01

    Reactionary dentin formation is an adaptive secretory response mediated by odontoblasts to moderate dentin injury. The implications of this process for neuroimmune interactions operating to contain pathogens have not been fully appreciated. The purpose of the present study was to describe the relationship between reactionary dentinogenesis, the neurogenic changes of dental pulp innervation, and dendritic cell recruitment to caries progression, using a comparative immunohistochemical approach in human teeth from young adult individuals. Reactionary dentin formation during dentin caries progression is associated with changes in the integrity of junctional complexes within the odontoblast layer. Diminished coexpression of Cx43 and zonula occludens 1 implies a reduced level of intercellular connectivity between odontoblasts. Dentin caries also causes overexpression of growth-associated protein 43, a modulator of neural plasticity that promotes extensive sprouting of nerve endings into the reactionary dentin matrix. At the same time, an elevated number of HLA-DR-positive dendritic cells infiltrate the odontoblast layer and subsequently invade reactionary dentin formed underneath the early caries-affected regions. Simultaneous odontoblast layer remodeling, nerve fiber sprouting, and activation of dendritic cells during caries progression suggest a coordinated neuroimmune response to fight caries pathogen invasion and to promote dentin-pulp healing. We propose that reactionary dentin formation hinders pathogen invasion and supports defensive neuroimmune interactions against infection. The eventual understanding of this complex scenario may contribute to the development of novel approaches to dental caries treatment.

  10. Periodontal health in Down syndrome: contributions of mental disability, personal, and professional dental care.

    PubMed

    Khocht, Ahmed; Janal, Malvin; Turner, Bobby

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-five dentate patients with Down syndrome (DS) and 74 with mental disability non-Down (MR) were compared to 88 control subjects. Subjects in the MR and Control groups were matched by gender and ethnicity to subjects with DS. All subjects were nonsmokers. Periodontal evaluation included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical periodontal attachment levels. Caries and missing teeth were recorded. Measures of personal dental hygiene and the frequency of professional dental care were also recorded. Most subjects brushed their teeth at least once per day, but did not floss. Both groups with DS and MR had significantly more missing teeth, more BOP, and higher GI and PI levels than the control group. Patients with DS had more attachment loss (AL) than the other two groups (p < .001). Increased AL in patients with DS was not associated with differences in socioeconomic status, personal/professional dental care, or mental disability.

  11. Bone resorption: an actor of dental and periodontal development?

    PubMed

    Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANK (Tg) and Opg (-∕-) mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development.

  12. Bone resorption: an actor of dental and periodontal development?

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANKTg and Opg−∕− mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development. PMID:26594180

  13. Challenges of Iranian Adolescents for Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720

  14. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  15. [Effect of chewing sugar-free gum on dental caries].

    PubMed

    Szóke, Judit; Proskin, Howard M; Bánóczy, Jolán

    2002-02-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that chewing sugar-free gum after eating reduces the development of dental caries. To investigate the extrapolation of these findings, a two-year clinical study was conducted on 547 schoolchildren in Budapest. Subjects in the "gum" (test) group were instructed to chew one stick of commercially available sorbitol-sweetened chewing gum for 15-20 minutes after meals, three times daily. The "control" group was not provided with chewing gum. After two years, excluding white spots, the "gum" group exhibited a 38.7% caries increment reduction compared to the "control" group. Including white spots, a corresponding 33.1% reduction was indicated. These results clearly suggest that even in a population with moderate caries prevalence and normal oral hygiene habits (including the use of fluoride dentifrices), an after-meal gum chewing regimen can significantly reduce the rate of caries development.

  16. [Clinical factors essential for dental caries intensity in rheumatic patients].

    PubMed

    Simonova, M V; Grinin, V M; Nasonova, V A; Robustova, T G

    2002-01-01

    A total of 349 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 129 with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 92 with systemic scleroderma were examined. A higher incidence of caries (CDL index) in comparison with the norm (p < 0.05) was observed in all patients; the most significant factor promoting caries development was involvement of the salivary glands presenting as Sjogren's syndrome (p < 0.005). The presence and severity of temporomandibular involvement virtually did not affect the intensity of caries (p > 0.1). The highest CDL index was observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic scleroderma with pronounced dysfunction of the hand joints (p < 0.01) and higher activity of disease (a higher percentage of patients with Sjogren's diseases of the second and third degrees of activity) (p < 0.05). These data confirmed the multifactorial nature of dental caries etiology in rheumatic diseases.

  17. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  18. Managing dental caries in children in Turkey - a discussion paper

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper describes the oral healthcare system and disease situation amongst children in Turkey. Considering the high prevalence and severity of dental caries, a proposal for improvement of oral health in this population group is formulated. Discussion A virtual absence of palliative, preventive and restorative care characterises juvenile oral healthcare in Turkey. Consequently, carious cavities remain untreated, which may lead to pain, discomfort and functional limitation and, further, may impact negatively upon general health and cognitive development. As a first step to controlling dental caries, a national health programme including promotional, preventive and minimal intervention approaches for managing dental caries is proposed. The pros and cons of community-oriented caries-preventive measures are discussed. Daily tooth brushing with fluoridated toothpaste at home, in mother- and child-care centres, kindergartens, and schools is highlighted. Summary The dental profession, government, university officials and other stakeholders need to meet and determine how best the oral health of children in Turkey can be improved. The present proposed plan is considered a starting point. PMID:19939240

  19. Factors for determining dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries.

    PubMed

    Abanto, Jenny; Vidigal, Evelyn Alvarez; Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Sá, Stella Núbia Coelho de; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socioeconomic indicators associated with dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries. A total of 100 children between 3 and 5 years of age were selected during a dental screening procedure. The selection criteria were having at least one tooth with dental caries and a visible pulpal involvement, ulceration, fistula, and abscess (PUFA) index of ≥1 in primary teeth. Before the clinical examination or any treatment procedure was performed, we evaluated the children's dental anxiety using the Facial Image Scale (FIS). Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, which included the family structure, number of siblings, parental level of education, and family income. A dentist blinded to FIS and socioeconomic data performed the clinical examination. Poisson regressions associate clinical and socioeconomic conditions with the outcome. Most of the children (53%) experienced extensive dental caries (dmf-t ≥ 6), and all children had severe caries lesions, with a PUFA index of ≥1 in 41% and that of ≥2 in 59%. The multivariate adjusted model showed that older children (4-5-year old) experienced lower dental anxiety levels compared with younger children (3-year old) (RR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.17-0.72 and RR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.04-0.76, respectively), and children with three or more siblings were associated with higher levels of dental anxiety (RR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.06-4.87). Older age is associated with low dental anxiety, and more number of siblings is associated with high dental anxiety in preschool children, whereas the severity or extent of dental caries is not associated with dental anxiety.

  20. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  1. Impact of dental caries on preschool children's quality of life: an update.

    PubMed

    Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Tello, Gustavo; Oliveira, Luciana Butini

    2012-01-01

    The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life.

  2. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    PubMed

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians.

  3. [Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes].

    PubMed

    Eberle, G

    1984-12-01

    Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented.

  4. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  5. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  6. Assessing risk factors for dental caries: a statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Trottini, Mario; Bossù, Maurizio; Corridore, Denise; Ierardo, Gaetano; Luzzi, Valeria; Saccucci, Matteo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The problem of identifying potential determinants and predictors of dental caries is of key importance in caries research and it has received considerable attention in the scientific literature. From the methodological side, a broad range of statistical models is currently available to analyze dental caries indices (DMFT, dmfs, etc.). These models have been applied in several studies to investigate the impact of different risk factors on the cumulative severity of dental caries experience. However, in most of the cases (i) these studies focus on a very specific subset of risk factors; and (ii) in the statistical modeling only few candidate models are considered and model selection is at best only marginally addressed. As a result, our understanding of the robustness of the statistical inferences with respect to the choice of the model is very limited; the richness of the set of statistical models available for analysis in only marginally exploited; and inferences could be biased due the omission of potentially important confounding variables in the model's specification. In this paper we argue that these limitations can be overcome considering a general class of candidate models and carefully exploring the model space using standard model selection criteria and measures of global fit and predictive performance of the candidate models. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are illustrated with a real data set. In our illustration the model space contains more than 2.6 million models, which require inferences to be adjusted for 'optimism'.

  7. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  8. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv

    2014-11-01

    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management.

  9. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  10. Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India.

    PubMed

    Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.

  11. A regression model analysis of longitudinal dental caries data.

    PubMed

    Ringelberg, M L; Tonascia, J A

    1976-03-01

    Longitudinal data on caries experience were derived from the reexamination and interview of a cohort of 306 subjects with an average follow-up period of 33 years after the baseline examination. Analysis of the data was accomplished by the use of contingency tables utilizing enumeration statistics compared with a multiple regression analysis. The analyses indicated a strong association of caries experience at one point in time with the caries experience of that same person earlier in life. The regression model approach offers adjustment of any given independent variable for the effect of all other independent variables, providing a powerful means of bias reduction. The model is also useful in separating out the specific effect of an independent variable over and above the contribution of other variables. The model used explained 35% of the variability in the DMFS scores recorded. Similar models could be useful adjuncts in the analyses of dental epidemiologic data.

  12. Efficacy of Laser Fluorescence in Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    dental caries in a young adult population. Community Dent Oral Epi 2005; 33(2): 212-218. 22. Costa A, de Paula L, Bezerra A...iii     EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS: A META-ANALYSIS by Derek T. Fagen LCDR...not be re-printed without the expressed written permission of the author. vi     ABSTRACT EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES

  13. Rampant dental caries in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, E; Schoonover, S

    1978-02-01

    Dental Caries are an uncommon, but significant side effect of the tricyclic antidepressants and other anticholinergic psychoactive drugs. The authors trace the etiological aspects of this syndrome including the effects of depression and antidepressant medication on salivary properties. A typical clinical presentation of the syndrome is described and the side effect profiles of the various tricyclic antidepressants are compared. With this clinical background guidelines for the management of dry mouth are presented, emphasizing the importance of technical skill, safety and continuity of care.

  14. Assignment of Dental School Patients Using Periodontal Treatment Need Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, Ala

    1990-01-01

    The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)

  15. Topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Faith Y; Campus, Guglielmo; Giuliana, Giovanna; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied fluoride has been widely researched as a means to reduce the risk of dental caries in conjunction with other treatment modalities (mechanical oral hygiene, dietary control, antimicrobial intervention, pit and fissure sealants). There is overwhelming evidence that reports not only the significance and importance of the use of fluoride as a caries-preventive agent, but also how safe fluoride application is when used appropriately, particularly in higher risk individuals and populations. This paper reviews the caries-protective benefits of topical fluoride application in children and adolescents, with an emphasis on the clinical efficacy and safety of the vehicles by which fluoride is topically delivered. Fluoride toothpaste represents today the most cost-effective fluoride-delivery system in the oral cavity and its use should be the centerpiece in all caries-preventive strategies. On the other hand, mouthrinses, gels and varnishes currently represent adjuncts to toothpaste use and should be targeted towards individuals and groups at high risk of caries.

  16. Assessment of dental-caries using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae H.; Choi, Eun S.; Ryu, Seon Y.; Chang, Ju-wan; Lee, Chang S.; Lee, Byeong H.

    2006-02-01

    We employed OCT imaging technique to study the human teeth infected with the caries lesion in fit and fissure. A time domain OCT system using a rapid-scanning optical delay line enabled high speed imaging of extracted teeth. The OCT images presented the morphological feature and caries-involved area of the dental structure with a high resolution of ~14 μm. The OCT images could be utilized to diagnose the disease, while a signal along the axial direction could provide quantitative analysis of the disease based on the reflectivity differences in the specimen. We investigated the influence of caries in human teeth with several imaging tools such as light illuminating exam, digital intra-oral radiography and electron probe micro analyzer, which provided the distributions of chemical compositions, mainly calcium and phosphate in hard tissues. The biochemical changes acquired from EPMA and the morphological features acquired from OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present more objectively practical index for translating the degree of caries.

  17. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD.

    PubMed

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, M; Connelly, J N; Skovhus Thomsen, J; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions had a hypermineralized zone in the dentin at the advancing front of the carious cavities as revealed by micro-computed tomography. This biological dentin reaction combined with the morphology of the cavities might indicate that some temporary topical pain relief and intervention treatment slowed down the rate of lesion progression. This is indirectly supported by examination of cavities of similar size and depth from a contemporary population without access to dental health care. In contrast to the lesions in the Roman teeth, these lesions did not exhibit a hypermineralized dentin reaction. We investigated whether the Pb isotopic composition of enamel and/or dentin of a single tooth matched that of a sample of an ancient Forum water lead pipe. The Pb isotopic composition of the tooth did not match that of the tube, suggesting that the subjects were exposed to different Pb sources during their lifetime other than the lead tubes.

  18. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  19. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  20. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake123

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world’s population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  1. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  2. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice.

  3. The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, Goguladinne Naga Deepthi; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Jyothi, Velagapudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The hormonal fingerprint is the ratio between 2nd and 4th digit lengths. It was evidenced in the medical scenario that it can be used as an indirect marker in many diseases like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and metabolic syndromes. As far as dentistry is concerned very few studies in the literature have been done to evaluate the influence of hormonal fingerprint on oral health, thus provoking us to formulate new method for predicting dental caries and malocclusion and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI). Aim The purpose of this retrospective study was to highlight the role of new biological marker–Hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of malocclusion, caries, the influence of BMI on malocclusion and caries. We also attempted to study the correlation of BMI with hormonal fingerprints. Materials and Methods A total of 300 children were randomly selected from both sexes of age group 10-15 years. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measures (weight in kilograms and height in metres) for the calculation of BMI were recorded. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and Community Periodontal Index probes. DMFT index was followed for assessment of caries according to the WHO assessment form, 1997. Occlusal characteristics of the children evaluated were molar relation, anterior and posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, lower anterior crowding. All the factors were recorded by two investigators. Results The results of the study showed that majority of the children among study population were having 2D:4D <1. The rate of occurrence of malocclusion was increasing with increase in the value of 2D:4D ratio with a statistically significant p-value of <0.001. Higher BMI values were associated with normal occlusal conditions (p= 0.041) and lower 2D:4D ratio (p= 0.037). High caries experience was noticed in children with

  4. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice.

  5. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  6. Variation in periodontal referral by general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Linden, G J

    1998-08-01

    This study investigated the extent of and reasons for variation in the periodontal referral patterns of general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. A questionnaire was circulated to all general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. This questionnaire investigated the management of periodontal disease in the general dental service and referral for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. A usable return was made by 355 (68%) of those surveyed. The mean number of periodontal referrals by each respondent in the past year was 6.5 (SD 7.7), range 0 to 80. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that independent predictors of high referral rate were practice location close to the referral centre (p<0.0001); dissatisfaction with ability to treat periodontal disease under the National Health Service (p=0.001); that previous refusals of referral had not dissuaded a dentist from continuing to offer referral (p=0.002); not offering root planing as a treatment (p=0.005); and perceived inadequate postgraduate education in periodontology (p=0.03). It is concluded that considerable variation exists between general dental practitioners working in Northern Ireland in relation to the referral of patients for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. It is further concluded that in many cases non-disease factors, such as the accessibility of the specialist service, have powerful effects on the decisions made by dentists and patients in relation to periodontal referral.

  7. Dental occlusion and periodontal disease: what is the real relationship?

    PubMed

    Bhola, Monish; Cabanilla, Leyvee; Kolhatkar, Shilpa

    2008-12-01

    ABSTRACT The role of occlusion in periodontal disease has always been a challenging topic. A good understanding of the current status of the relationship of occlusion and periodontitis is of paramount importance in order for dental clinicians to provide adequate and comprehensive periodontal treatment in patients presenting with traumatic occlusion. This article reviews the literature regarding the relationship between occlusion and periodontitis and presents recommendations for clinical practice based on available evidence. Clinical cases illustrating the complexity of this relationship and their management are presented.

  8. Genome-wide association study of dental caries in the Hispanic Communities Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jean; Laurie, Cathy C; Marazita, Mary L; Sanders, Anne E; Offenbacher, Steven; Salazar, Christian R; Conomos, Matthew P; Thornton, Timothy; Jain, Deepti; Laurie, Cecelia A; Kerr, Kathleen F; Papanicolaou, George; Taylor, Kent; Kaste, Linda M; Beck, James D; Shaffer, John R

    2016-02-15

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease worldwide, and exhibits profound disparities in the USA with racial and ethnic minorities experiencing disproportionate disease burden. Though heritable, the specific genes influencing risk of dental caries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide association scans (GWASs) for dental caries in a population-based cohort of 12 000 Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18-74 years from the HCHS/SOL. Intra-oral examinations were used to generate two common indices of dental caries experience which were tested for association with 27.7 M genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms separately in the six ancestry groups. A mixed-models approach was used, which adjusted for age, sex, recruitment site, five principal components of ancestry and additional features of the sampling design. Meta-analyses were used to combine GWAS results across ancestry groups. Heritability estimates ranged from 20-53% in the six ancestry groups. The most significant association observed via meta-analysis for both phenotypes was in the region of the NAMPT gene (rs190395159; P-value = 6 × 10(-10)), which is involved in many biological processes including periodontal healing. Another significant association was observed for rs72626594 (P-value = 3 × 10(-8)) downstream of BMP7, a tooth development gene. Other associations were observed in genes lacking known or plausible roles in dental caries. In conclusion, this was the largest GWAS of dental caries, to date and was the first to target Hispanic/Latino populations. Understanding the factors influencing dental caries susceptibility may lead to improvements in prediction, prevention and disease management, which may ultimately reduce the disparities in oral health across racial, ethnic and socioeconomic strata.

  9. Which is a stronger indicator of dental caries: oral hygiene, food, or beverage? A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Poonam; Gary, Julie J

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with various risk factors. Oral hygiene and dietary factors--specifically, the consumption of snacks and beverages with added sugars--have been shown to be risk indicators for this disease. It is critical for dental professionals to understand the relative roles of each of these food categories in the dental caries process. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 76 people living in a Southern Illinois fluoridated community. The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, snack food consumption, plaque index, and age showed statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable--dental caries (P < 0.05). The results indicated that dietary factors and oral hygiene both contribute equally to dental caries in young adults living in a fluoridated community. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was a much stronger indicator of dental caries than snack food consumption in our study population.

  10. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  11. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis.

  12. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  13. Mechanisms Linking Interparental Aggression to Child Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Lorber, M F; Maisson, D J N; Slep, A M S; Heyman, R E; Wolff, M S

    2017-01-28

    Research has garnered support for a systemic view of factors affecting child dental caries that accounts for the influence of social factors such as the family environment. Our previous work has demonstrated the association between mother-to-father emotional aggression and child caries. The present study builds on these results by evaluating pathways that might explain this relation. Families (n = 135) completed a multimethod assessment of mother-to-father emotional aggression, child caries, and several hypothesized mediators (i.e., child cariogenic snack and drink intake, child internalizing behaviors, child salivary cortisol and α-amylase reactivity, parental laxness, child oral hygiene maintenance, and parental socialization of child oral hygiene maintenance). Mediation analyses partially supported the role of the child's diet as a mechanism linking mother-to-father emotional aggression and child caries. However, children's neglect of oral hygiene, parental laxness, and child emotional and biological disturbances failed to stand as conduits for this association. Future investigations should expand upon these results to better establish the causal links that could only be suggested by the present cross-sectional findings.

  14. Caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults in Australia: a case of limited and non-contemporary data.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Andrea M; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M; McKee, Katherine; Cole, Deborah

    2016-08-29

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify all evidence about the prevalence and severity of clinically measured caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults in Australia published in peer-reviewed journals and to summarise trends over time. In addition, we examined whether the studies investigated associations between putative risk factors and levels of caries and periodontal disease.Methods PubMed was searched in September 2014, with no date limitations, for published peer-reviewed articles reporting the prevalence rates and/or severity of caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults living in Australia. Articles were excluded if measurement was not based on clinical assessment and if oral disease was reported only in a specific or targeted sample, and not the general population.Results The search identified 18 papers (reporting on 10 primary studies) that met the inclusion criteria. The studies published clinical data about dental caries and/or periodontal disease in Australian Indigenous adults. The studies reported on oral health for Indigenous adults living in rural (40%), urban (10%) and both urban and rural (50%) locations. Included studies showed that virtually all Indigenous adults living in rural locations had periodontal disease. The data also showed caries prevalence ranged from 46% to 93%. Although 10 studies were identified, the peer-reviewed literature was extremely limited and no published studies were identified that provided statistics for a significant proportion of Australia (Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland or the Australian Capital Territory). There were also inconsistencies in how the data were reported between studies, making comparisons difficult.Conclusions This review highlights a lack of robust and contemporary data to inform the development of policies and programs to address the disparities in oral health in Indigenous populations living in many parts of Australia.What is known about the topic? Many studies

  15. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  16. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers.

  17. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  18. Prevalence of Dental Caries among School Children in Chennai, Based on ICDAS II

    PubMed Central

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939

  19. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  20. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    PubMed Central

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  1. Salivary IgA versus HIV and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Malay; Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mohanty, Susant; Saha, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inter-relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and dental caries as well as Salivary Immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) level appear to remain under explored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV positive children. Aim The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV positive and negative children and determine the dental caries status in HIV positive and HIV negative children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. Materials and Methods A total of 28 HIV positive children aged between 6-14 years and 28 age matched HIV negative children were included in this study and both samples were randomly selected from the same Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. Only 2cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and CPI probe. Results In HIV +ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean deft was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ± 17.83μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong-ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, p < 0.001) and negative but Not Significant (N.S.) correlation (r = -0.19, t = 0.99, p > 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong –ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4

  2. Dental pain prevalence and association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in schoolchildren, Southern Brazil, 2002.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Lincon Hideo; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relation between dental pain, dental caries and socioeconomic status among 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil in 2002. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 181 schoolchildren. Dental pain experience was the dependend variable analyzed. Socioeconomic data of the children's families were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT index (WHO, 1997). The field workteam consisted of an examiner and a recorder. The statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and the non-conditional multiple logistic regression. The response rate was 93.4%. The intraexaminer agreement measured on a tooth by tooth basis was high (kappa > 0.73). Dental pain prevalence was 33.7% (CI95% 26.0-42.0). The multiple regression analysis, adjusted by sex and other variables, showed that children with DMFT > 1 presented 2.9 (OR CI95% 1.4-6.1, p < 0.01) more chances of having dental pain when compared with those with DMFT < or = 1. Children whose mother's schooling level was equal or less than 4 years presented 2.5 (OR CI95% 1.2-5.6, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with others whose mothers had more than 5 years of schooling and, finally, children whose family income was up to U$ 67.00 showed 3.2 (OR CI95% 1.2-8.4, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with the ones whose families had higher income. High levels of caries attack, low mother schooling level and low family income were associated to dental pain.

  3. Exploring the association of dental caries with social factors and nutritional status in Brazilian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana B; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2008-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess whether dental caries status was related to nutritional status in preschool urban Brazilian children aged 12-59 months. Dental and anthropometric examinations were conducted on 1,018 12-59-month-old children during the National Day of Children Vaccination. Dental caries prevalence and severity were measured using the decayed, missing or filled surfaces (dmfs) index. The World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards Reference was used to evaluate nutritional status. Results on nutritional status were presented as Z-scores. The data collected included socio-economic conditions. Multilevel linear regression was applied to investigate the effect of nutritional, socio-economic, and demographic factors on the status of children's dental caries. Caries was present in 23.4% of children. The final hierarchical logistic model showed a significant association between nutritional status and caries experience. Children with low Z-scores in some indexes had an increased risk of having caries. In addition, children whose mothers had < 8 yr of education and were from lower-income families had an increased risk of high levels of dental caries. There was an association between nutritional and socio-economic factors, and dental caries. In conclusion, underweight children and those with adverse socio-economic conditions were more likely to have caries experience.

  4. The Problem of Occlusal Surface Pit and Fissure Dental Caries in Naval Recruits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    been little attention devoted to oclusal surface pit and fissure dental caries. There is so= evidence that tooth morphology is related to susceptibility...AD-A0CM 755 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/S 6/5 THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES I--ETC(U) JUN 80 M R...THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL RECRUITS M. R. WIRTHLIN 1. L. SHKLAIR R. G. WALTER J. C. CECIL 0 M. E. COHEN

  5. Dental visit patterns and periodontal treatment needs among Saudi students.

    PubMed

    Farsi, J M A

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report on dental visit patterns and their association with periodontal health among young Saudi Arabian students. A representative sample of 3090 students was randomly selected. The students' dental visit patterns were assessed with a questionnaire. Clinical examinations were carried out using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Age, sex and education level were significantly associated with the periodontal health. The prevalence of periodontal disease was significantly lower among subjects who were taught the right way to brush their teeth by the dentist. The highest occurrence of healthy periodontium (23.9%) and the lowest need for complex treatment (0%) were found among students who had annual reminders for check-ups (only 2.8% of the students).

  6. Maternal dental caries and pre-term birth: results from the EPIPAP study.

    PubMed

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between maternal dental caries and pre-term birth (PTB), with a particular focus on the infection-suspected causes of pre-term births. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A secondary analysis was performed on data from the EPIPAP study, a French multi-centre case-control study. Cases were 1107 women giving birth to a singleton live-born infant before 37 weeks of gestation and controls were 1094 women delivering at 37 weeks or more. A sub-group of cases was defined as women with spontaneous labour and/or pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, n = 620). A full-mouth dental examination was performed after delivery. The main factor of interest was the presence of decay on at least one tooth. RESULTS. Crude associations between presence of tooth decay and PTB or spontaneous PTB/PPROM were significant (OR = 1.21 [1.01-1.45] and OR = 1.25 [1.01-1.55], respectively). After adjustment for two sets of potential confounders (four pre-term birth risk factors and four social characteristics), for periodontitis status and for inter-examiner variability, tooth decay was not significantly associated with either PTB or spontaneous PTB/PPROM (aOR = 1.10 [0.91-1.32] and aOR = 1.14 [0.91-1.42], respectively). CONCLUSIONS. This study failed to demonstrate a significant association between tooth decay and pre-term birth. However, future well-designed studies are needed to further assess the link between dental caries and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte; Vasconcelos, Mara; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2013-12-01

    It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis) after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227), 10 to 12 years (n = 153), 13 to 15 years (n = 92), 16 to 22 years (n = 39). For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF), dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0) and severity (TF < 4 and TF > 5). In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p < 0.001). This association was not found among adolescents and adults (p > 0.05). The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  8. [Dental caries resistance under conditions of a space flight].

    PubMed

    Malamuzh, S S; Leont'ev, V K

    2002-01-01

    The maxillodental status of aeronauts attracts special interest of scientists and causes apprehensions of physicians and scientists of countries with aeronautic industry because of long duration of space missions. Some scientists consider that the realization of mission to Mars can lead to development of multiple dental caries in aeronauts. The aim of this study was to study the effects of space mission factors on the resistance of hard dental tissues and remineralizing activity of the saliva in a simulation experiment. The results demonstrated dynamic changes in the studied parameters under the effect of space mission factors; based on these results, we determined the criteria for selection of candidates for prolonged experiments and space missions.

  9. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  10. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  11. Ultrastructural changes in feline dental pulp with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2003-08-01

    A light and transmission electron microscopic study was conducted on dental pulp on cats suffering periodontal disease. After extraction, pulp tissues were fixed and embedded in Epon-Araldite. Thick layers of predentin (50 microm) and odontoblasts (30 microm) were observed. In thin sections, odontoblasts showed many mitochondria and secretary vesicles. Some capillaries with several fenestrations were located within the odontoblastic layer. All the sections of pulp examined displayed a generalized infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts displayed lytic changes in some areas. These findings imply that the pulp is significantly affected by periodontal disease and furcation-involved teeth should be a carefully considered factor when dental treatment is planned.

  12. The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A.; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (under or over nutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods substituting instead, high-energy low cost and nutrient poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for Early Childhood Caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in the Surgeon General's Report, Oral Health in America. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods in order to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  13. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  14. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride.

  15. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

  16. Trends in dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalences in Newburgh and Kingston, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J V; Green, E L; Wallace, W; Carnahan, T

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken in New York State to determine the changes in dental fluorosis prevalence from 1955 to 1986 in fluoridated Newburgh and non-fluoridated Kingston children. The frequency and severity of dental fluorosis among 884 7-14-year-old children were measured by two dentists utilizing Dean's Index. Data regarding residential and fluoride history were obtained from the parents of participants. Among the Newburgh residents, the prevalence of dental fluorosis (very mild to moderate) varied from a low of 5 per cent for the 9-10-year-old group to a high of 9.4 per cent for 11-12-year-olds. Except for the 13-14-year-old group, children in non-fluoridated Kingston had the lowest dental fluorosis prevalence rates. A comparison of Dean's Community Fluorosis Indices to the 1955 baseline data obtained from studies conducted after 10 years of fluoridation in Newburgh revealed no changes of consequence among Newburgh residents. However, the changes are apparent for Kingston residents, indicating the availability of fluorides in non-fluoridated areas. The increased risk for dental fluorosis for Kingston residents appears to be from the use of fluoride tablets. An analysis of dental caries data revealed that caries prevalence declined substantially in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. PMID:2705588

  17. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  18. Referring periodontal patients: clinical decision making by dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen B; Burgardt, Grayson J; Rapley, John W; Bray, Kimberly K; Cobb, Charles M

    2014-03-01

    Referral of periodontal patients requires development of a complex set of decision making skills. This study was conducted to determine criteria used by dental and dental hygiene students regarding the referral of periodontal patients for specialty care. Using mixed methods, a thirteen-item survey was developed to elicit the students' perceptions of their knowledge, confidence regarding managing patients, and clinical reasoning related to periodontal patients. The instrument was administered during the summer prior to (T1) and at the end of the students' final year (T2) of training. Seventy-nine dental students (81 percent of total class) and thirty dental hygiene students (83 percent of total class) completed T1. At T2, forty-two dental (44 percent of total class) and twenty-six dental hygiene students (87 percent of total class) completed the questionnaire. While 90 percent of dental and 96 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported a willingness to refer patients with active disease to specialists, only 40 percent of dental and 36 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported confidence in diagnosing, treating, and appropriately referring such patients. The students' ability to recognize critical disease and risk factors influencing referral was good; however, clinical application of that knowledge indicated a gap between knowledge and applied reasoning. The students' attitudes about the importance of periodontal disease and their perceived competence to identify critical disease risk factors were not significantly related (p>0.05) to correct clinical decisions in the case scenarios. The study concludes that dental and dental hygiene curricula should emphasize both the acquisition and application of knowledge regarding criteria for referral of periodontal patients.

  19. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  20. Dental caries experience and use of dental services among Brazilian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Rodrigues, Iris Sant Anna Araujo; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento

    2014-11-25

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, "decayed" and "missing" components contributed to the high mean DMFT index.

  1. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  2. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S.; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K.; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  3. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  4. An evaluation of periodontal assessment procedures among Indiana dental hygienists.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Using a descriptive correlational design, this study surveyed periodontal assessment procedures currently performed by Indiana dental hygienists in general dentistry practices to reveal if deficiencies in assessment exist. Members (n = 354) of the Indiana Dental Hygienists' Association (IDHA) were invited to participate in the survey. A 22 multiple choice question survey, using Likert scales for responses, was open to participants for three weeks. Descriptive and non-parametric inferential statistics analyzed questions related to demographics and assessment procedures practiced. In addition, an evaluation of the awareness of periodontal assessment procedures recommended by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) was examined. Of the 354 Indiana dental hygienists surveyed, a 31.9% response rate was achieved. Participants were asked to identify the recommended AAP periodontal assessment procedures they perform. The majority of respondents indicated either frequently or always performing the listed assessment procedures. Additionally, significant relationships were found between demographic factors and participants' awareness and performance of recommended AAP assessment procedures. While information gathered from this study is valuable to the body of literature regarding periodontal disease assessment, continued research with larger survey studies should be conducted to obtain a more accurate national representation of what is being practiced by dental hygienists.

  5. Korean version of child perceptions questionnaire and dental caries among Korean children.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ(8-10) overall score (partial r = 0.15, P <0.05). The link was highlighted in the domains of functional limitation and emotional well-being. Filled teeth due to caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14.

  6. Dental caries management at a rural district hospital in northern Rwanda: a neglected disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzabakiriho, B.; Amoroso, C. L.; Mpunga, T.; Odhiambo, J.; Mukashema, P.; Seymour, B. A.; Sindayigaya, J. de D.; Hedt-Gauthier, B. L.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: While some studies have reported the prevalence of dental caries in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about care-seeking behavior or how dental caries are managed, particularly at rural district hospitals. Objective: To describe the management of patients seeking care for dental caries at Butaro District Hospital (BDH) in rural Rwanda. Design: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in BDH, in northern Rwanda. A sample of 287 patient encounters for dental caries between January and December 2013 was randomly selected and stratified by age group (⩽5 years, 6–21 years and >21 years). We estimated the treatment received with 95% confidence intervals in each age group, and differences between age groups were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Nearly all patients (97.6%) underwent tooth extraction, and this did not vary significantly by age group (P = 0.558). In addition to dental caries, most patients also had chronic pulpitis (74.9%). Conclusion: Caries prevention and care should be prioritized through a developed community program on oral health. We recommend introducing advanced training, equipment and materials for dental caries management other than tooth extraction, and increasing the number of qualified dentists. PMID:26399283

  7. Tomographic imaging of incipient dental-caries using optical coherence tomography and comparison with various modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Changsu; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2009-07-01

    We present the optical coherence tomography (OCT) made to investigate the early dental caries in human teeth and compare its results with those taken by conventional imaging modalities including light illuminating examination (LIE), digital intra-oral radiography (DIOR), and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Morphological features and caries-involved areas of the dental structure were mainly investigated by LIE, DIOR, and OCT to study the infection of the caries lesion in pits and fissures. The biochemical information acquired with EPMA and the morphological features taken with OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present an objective and practical index for the degree of caries. The experimental results allow us to conclude that OCT could be used to provide quantitative analysis of caries based on the reflectivity difference in the specimen.

  8. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-01-25

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  9. Dental Caries, and Supragingival Plaque and Calculus among Students, Tanga, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, L. C.; Kabulwa, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries and supragingival plaque and calculus in 785 secondary schools students was assessed. More than half (53.6%) of the students were caries-free, and the majority of those with dental caries experience were aged 14–17 (68.1%) and females (53%). Mean DMFT was 1.26, with mean D-component of 1.05, and molars were most affected. Most students had supragingival plaque (74%) and calculus (56.9%) and more so in males than females (P > 0.05). Less than half of the students had experience of dental caries and those with caries were mostly females and of the younger age group. The low DMFT was contributed to the D-component, and molars were the tooth type most affected.The majority of students had supra-gingival plaque and calculus and more so in males than females. PMID:22461985

  10. Simultaneous measurement of the viability, aggregation, and live and dead adherence of Streptococcus crista, Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human saliva in relation to indices of caries, dental plaque and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Rudney, J D; Staikov, R K

    2002-05-01

    Salivary proteins have multiple functions and many share similar functions, which may be why it has been difficult to relate variations in their concentrations to oral health and ecology. An alternative is to focus on variations in the major functions of saliva. An hydroxyapatite-coated microplate model has been developed that simultaneously measures saliva-promoted bacterial viability, bacterial aggregation, and live and dead bacterial adherence, while simulating oral temperature and shearing forces from swallowing. That model was applied to resting whole and stimulated parotid saliva from 149 individuals, using representative strains of Streptococcus crista, S. mutans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Two major factors were defined by multivariate analysis (this was successful only for whole-saliva). One factor was correlated with aggregation, live adherence and dead adherence for all three strains; the other was correlated with total viability of all three strains. Participants were grouped <25th percentile and >75th percentile for each factor. Those groups were compared for clinical indices of oral health. Caries scores were significantly lower in those with high scores for aggregation-adherence, regardless of whether total viability scores were low or high. Live bacteria always predominated on surfaces when live and dead adherence scores were expressed as ratios. However, participants with high scores for aggregation-adherence showed significantly more dead adherent bacteria than those with low scores (these ratios were uncorrelated with total viability). This finding may indicate that extreme differences in the ability to kill bacteria on surfaces can influence caries risk.

  11. Genome-wide association Scan of dental caries in the permanent dentition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 90% of adults aged 20 years or older with permanent teeth have suffered from dental caries leading to pain, infection, or even tooth loss. Although caries prevalence has decreased over the past decade, there are still about 23% of dentate adults who have untreated carious lesions in the US. Dental caries is a complex disorder affected by both individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Approximately 35-55% of caries phenotypic variation in the permanent dentition is attributable to genes, though few specific caries genes have been identified. Therefore, we conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes affecting susceptibility to caries in adults. Methods Five independent cohorts were included in this study, totaling more than 7000 participants. For each participant, dental caries was assessed and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were genotyped or imputed across the entire genome. Due to the heterogeneity among the five cohorts regarding age, genotyping platform, quality of dental caries assessment, and study design, we first conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses on each of the five independent cohorts separately. We then performed three meta-analyses to combine results for: (i) the comparatively younger, Appalachian cohorts (N = 1483) with well-assessed caries phenotype, (ii) the comparatively older, non-Appalachian cohorts (N = 5960) with inferior caries phenotypes, and (iii) all five cohorts (N = 7443). Top ranking genetic loci within and across meta-analyses were scrutinized for biologically plausible roles on caries. Results Different sets of genes were nominated across the three meta-analyses, especially between the younger and older age cohorts. In general, we identified several suggestive loci (P-value ≤ 10E-05) within or near genes with plausible biological roles for dental caries, including RPS6KA2 and PTK2B, involved in p38-depenedent MAPK signaling

  12. Assessment of oral self-care in patients with periodontitis: a pilot study in a dental school clinic in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Momomi; Ueshima, Fumie; Matsumoto, Shinya; Hayakawa, Hiroki; Masuda, Hitomi; Makiishi, Takemi

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral hygiene education is central to every stage of periodontal treatment. Successful management of periodontal disease depends on the patient's capacity for oral self-care. In the present study, the oral self-care and perceptions of patients attending a dental school clinic in Japan were assessed using a short questionnaire referring to existing oral health models. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of sixty-five patients (age range 23-77) with chronic periodontitis. The pre-tested 19-item questionnaire comprised 3 domains; 1) oral hygiene, 2) dietary habits and 3) perception of oral condition. The questionnaire was used as a part of the comprehensive assessment. Results Analyses of the assessment data revealed no major problems with the respondents' perceived oral hygiene habits, although their actual plaque control levels were not entirely adequate. Most of the respondents acknowledged the importance of prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, but less than one third of them were regular users of the dental care system. Twenty-five percent of the respondents were considered to be reluctant to change their daily routines, and 29% had doubts about the impact of their own actions on oral health. Analyzing the relationships between patient responses and oral hygiene status, factors like 'frequency of tooth brushing', 'approximal cleaning', 'dental check-up' and 'compliance with self-care advice' showed statistically significant associations (P < 0.05) with the plaque scores. Conclusion The clinical utilization of the present questionnaire facilitates the inclusion of multiple aspects of patient information, before initiation of periodontal treatment. The significant associations that were found between some of the self-care behaviors and oral hygiene levels document the important role of patient-centered oral health assessment in periodontal care. PMID:19874626

  13. Considerations on Optimal Fluoride Intake using Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Outcomes – A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kanellis, Michael J.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The “optimal” intake of fluoride has been widely accepted for decades as between 0.05 and 0.07 mg fluoride per kilogram of body weight but is based on limited scientific evidence. The purpose of this paper is to present longitudinal fluoride intake data for children free of dental fluorosis in the early-erupting permanent dentition and free of dental caries in both the primary and early-erupting permanent teeth as an estimate of optimal fluoride intake. Methods Data on fluoride ingestion were obtained from parents of 602 Iowa Fluoride Study children through periodic questionnaires at the ages of 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 months, and then at 6-month intervals thereafter. Estimates of total fluoride intake at each time point were made by summing amounts from water, dentifrice, and supplements as well as other foods and beverages made with or containing water. Caries data were obtained from examinations of children at ages 5 and 9 years, while fluorosis data were obtained from examinations only at age 9. Results The estimated mean daily fluoride intake for those children with no caries history and no fluorosis at age 9 was at or below 0.05 mgF/kg bw for nearly all time points through the first 48 months of life, and this level declined thereafter. Children with caries had generally slightly less intakes, while those with fluorosis generally had slightly higher intakes. Conclusions Given the overlap among caries/fluorosis groups in mean fluoride intake and extreme variability in individual fluoride intakes firmly recommending an “optimal” fluoride intake is problematic. PMID:19054310

  14. Genetic Association of MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 with Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M. M.; Maher, B. S.; Slayton, R. L.; Willing, M. C.; Reis, S. E.; Crout, R. J.; Weyant, R. J.; Levy, S. M.; Marazita, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular proteins as part of a variety of physiological processes, and their inhibitors have been implicated in the dental caries process. Here we investigated 28 genetic variants spanning the MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 genes to detect association with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified (n = 3,587) samples from 6 parent studies. Analyses were performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples by meta-analysis. Two SNPs (rs2046315 and rs10429371) upstream of MMP16 were significantly associated with caries in an individual sample of white adults and via meta-analysis across 8 adult samples after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons. Noteworthy is SNP rs2046315 (p = 8.14 × 10−8) association with caries in white adults. This SNP was originally nominated in a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) of dental caries in a sample of white adults and yielded associations in a subsequent GWAS of surface level caries in white adults as well. Therefore, in our study, we were able to recapture the association between rs2046315 and dental caries in white adults. Although we did not strengthen evidence that MMPs 10, 14, and 16 influence caries risk, MMP16 is still a likely candidate gene to pursue. PMID:28348596

  15. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  16. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  17. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive.

  18. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  19. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  20. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  1. Development of fibre-optic confocal microscopy for detection and diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, C; Poland, S; Girkin, J M; Hall, A F; Whitters, C J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development of a fibre-optics-based confocal imaging system for the detection and potential diagnosis of early dental caries. A novel optical instrument, capable of recording axial profiles through caries lesions using single-mode optical fibres, has been developed. The practical study illustrates that miniature confocal devices based around single-mode optical fibres may provide additional diagnostic information for the general dental practitioner.

  2. The growing problems of dental caries and obesity: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, M S; Beaumont, S

    2016-10-07

    Preventable diet-related diseases such as dental caries and obesity are a growing global problem, causing a significant burden on public health systems. Although there has been good evidence for the links between sugar consumption and dental caries for many decades, we are now seeing stronger links implicating sugar in obesity. There is a growing worldwide movement to tackle these problems by targeting the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages through a range of public policy measures.

  3. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Haidar; Al-Jawad, Abdulfatah; Al-Shayeb, Mahdi; Al-Ali, Ali; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This is a pilot case-control study conducted to investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease and examine the possible association between oral health deterioration and SCD severity in a sample of Saudi SCD patients residing in the city of Al-Qatif, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods Dental examination to determine the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and plaque index system were recorded for 33 SCD patients and 33 age and sex-matched controls in the Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Self-administered surveys used to assess socio-economic status; oral health behaviors for both SCD patients and controls were recorded. In addition, the disease severity index was established for all patients with SCD. SPSS data analysis software package version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Numerical variables were described as mean with a standard deviation. Results Decayed teeth were significantly more in individuals with ages ranging from 18 to 38 years with SCD compared to the control group (p = 0.036) due to oral hygiene negligence. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in individuals with SCD when compared to the control group (p = 0.015) due to the lack of appropriate and timely treatment reflected in the survey responses of SCD patients as 15.2% only taking oral care during hospitalization. There were differences between the cases and controls in the known caries risk factors such as income level, flossing, and brushing habit. The DMFT, CPI, and plaque index systems did not differ significantly between the SCD patients and the control group. Conclusion Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD. PMID:25544813

  4. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  5. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your dentist if you have signs of gum disease. Prevention Good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent periodontitis. This includes thorough tooth brushing and flossing, and regular professional dental cleaning. Preventing and treating ... References Amsterdam JT. ...

  6. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (<10(5) colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) or high (≥10(5) CFU/mL). Saliva and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 gene polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, one-way ANOVA, posthoc, Fisher's exact, and t tests were used in statistical analysis. Dental caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  7. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  8. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.

  9. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Willing, Marcia C.; Reis, Steven E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of nonamelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N=3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-byfluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p<0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p<0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  10. Dental fluorosis, dental caries and fluoride exposure among 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J

    1993-01-01

    Mild dental fluorosis is frequently linked to fluoridated water, but discretionary fluoride sources may also be important. The aim of this study was to record age of weaning and fluoride exposure from water, toothpaste and supplements, and to relate these to the presence of caries and fluorosis in children born in 1983. In Perth (Western Australia) 14 school classes were selected. The 350 children (mean age 7.5 years) ultimately included gave fluoride exposure data for the period birth to 4 years of age. Caries (DMFT, WHO criteria, no radiographs) and dental fluorosis (TF index, dry permanent incisors) were registered clinically. Most (89%) children had lived at least 2.5 years in a fluoridated area. Supplement use was minimal and unrelated to caries or fluorosis. Mean age of weaning of those who had been breast-fed was 7.7 months; by 9 months, 74% had been weaned. Eighty-five percent liked toothpaste, 60.7% had swallowed it, and the mean age of starting to use it was 1.5 (SD 0.96) years. Caries prevalence was 0.1 and mean DMFT was 0.13. The prevalence of fluorosis was 0.48; 63% of fluorosis was TF score 1. Residence in a fluoridated area for > or = 2.5 of the first 4 years of life had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.9 for fluorosis. Weaning before 9 months of age, swallowing toothpaste and liking toothpaste were also statistically significant risk factors. Major risk factors for more severe fluorosis (TF > or = 2) were early weaning and swallowing toothpaste (ORs 2.77 and 2.64, respectively). Residence in a fluoridated area (OR 2.2) was not a statistically significant risk factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Comparison of relationship between salivary electrolyte levels and dental caries in children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikram; Arora, Ruchi; Bhayya, Deepak; Singh, Deepesh; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Mehta, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to relate the salivary electrolyte levels with dental caries in children with Down syndrome and to compare salivary electrolyte levels and dental caries of these children with their siblings. Materials and Methods: Study population consisted of 30 Down syndrome children (study group) and their 30 healthy siblings (control group). Caries status was determined by dental caries indices in deciduous and permanent dentitions. Un-stimulated saliva from both groups was collected for salivary electrolyte examination. Results: In the study group, mean caries experience in primary dentition was 1.00 ± 0.79 and in the control group it was 2.33 ± 1.42, the difference being statistically significant. Mean caries experience in the permanent dentition of the study group (0. 97 ± 0.76) was significantly lower than the control group (2.47 ± 1.25). Salivary electrolyte levels in the study group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in dental caries in primary as well as permanent dentition of Down syndrome patients with increase in their salivary electrolyte levels. PMID:25810652

  12. The prevalence and treatment of dental caries among Israeli permanent force military personnel.

    PubMed

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Horev, T; Zusman, S P; Katz, J; Eldad, A

    1999-08-01

    A survey was conducted to determine dental caries prevalence and treatment among 1,095 25- to 44-year-old permanent force Israeli military personnel. Caries experience, by decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT), was 11.66, with an average of 1.37 untreated caries, 2.40 extracted teeth, and 7.90 treated teeth. Caries was positively associated with age (p < 0.001). Females demonstrated statistically higher DMFT levels than males (p = 0.009). Negative associations were detected for education levels and untreated and extracted components (p < 0.001), and a positive association was detected for the treated caries component (p < 0.001). Permanent military personnel treated by private dentists exhibited 17.6% untreated caries, compared with 9.4% among personnel treated in the army. Officers had lower levels of untreated caries (8.6%) than others (13.3%). Among the present population, 77% had attended a dental clinic in the preceding 2 years. Permanent force personnel are offered free, comprehensive, and accessible dental treatment. The data emphasize a need for further dental health education.

  13. Concepts in critical thinking applied to caries risk assessment in dental education.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra; Warren, John J; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; von Bergmann, HsingChi; Johnsen, David C

    2014-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the science of caries risk assessment and ways to analyze caries risk, yet dental education has seen little movement toward the development of frameworks to guide learning and assess critical thinking in caries risk assessment. In the absence of previous proactive implementation of a learning framework that takes the knowledge of caries risk and critically applies it to the patient with the succinctness demanded in the clinical setting, the purpose of this study was to develop a model learning framework that combines the science of caries risk assessment with principles of critical thinking from the education literature. This article also describes the implementation of that model at one dental school and presents some preliminary assessment data.

  14. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  15. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Zeng, J; Thomson, W M; Peres, M A; Demarco, F F

    2014-05-01

    Despite improvement, dental caries is still the main public oral health problem worldwide and the major cause of pain, tooth loss and chewing difficulties in children and adolescents; and it impacts negatively on oral health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study of a multistage representative sample of 8-12-year-old Brazilian school children was carried out in order to investigate the association between enamel defects and dental caries. Children's mothers completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics at home. Firth's bias reduced logistic regression models were undertaken to assess the association between the main exposure (enamel defects) and caries experience. The prevalence of any enamel defect was 64.0%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 35.0%, 29.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.4%, with mean DMFT of 0.6 (SD, 1.2). Dental caries experience was more common among children who had enamel hypoplasia in their posterior teeth (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.05, 6.51) than among those with none. In anterior teeth, there was no association. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be an important risk factor for dental caries.

  16. Dental caries and associated factors in Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Maupomé, Gerardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to establish dental caries prevalence (percentage with caries) and experience in the primary and permanent dentition (dmft and DMFT) of 6 to 13-year-old schoolchildren in Campeche, Mexico, and to estimate the contributing roles of the likely risk indicators. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1,644 children aged 6-13 years. Self-administered questionnaires obtained information on social, economic, behavioral, and demographic variables. The primary dentition of 1,309 children and the permanent dentition of 1,640 children were evaluated in the oral examinations. The main outcome measures were DMFT, dmft, and SiC indices. Data were modeled using logistic regression analysis. The overall caries prevalence was 77.4%, 73.6% in the primary dentition (61.6% in 6-year-olds), and 49.4% in the permanent dentition. The dmft and DMFT indices were 2.85+/-2.73 and 1.44+/-2.05, respectively (DMFT = 3.11+/-2.62 in 12-year-olds). The SiC index was 6.05 at 12 years of age. Associated variables to dental caries in both dentitions were presence of enamel defects, presence of dental plaque, low socio-economic status, female sex, and older age. Mother's schooling was negatively associated (OR = 0.95) with caries in primary dentition. Caries experience in the primary dentition (OR = 6.02) was positively associated with caries in the permanent dentition. Dental caries status in these Mexican children was closer to the goals proposed by the WHO/FDI for 2000 than previous studies. This study has identified clinical, socio-economic, and behavioral determinants for dental caries in primary and permanent dentition on Mexican schoolchildren.

  17. Utilization of dental services as a risk factor for periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Brown, L J; Garcia, R

    1994-05-01

    The relation between utilization of dental services from community dentists and the extent and severity of alveolar bone loss is reported for a panel of men followed for over 6 years. Oral health data were collected by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Dental Longitudinal Study, which began in 1969 and still continues. Participants have received regular oral examinations approximately every 3 years. A variety of oral health conditions were assessed, including plaque, calculus, gingival inflammation, probing depth, tooth mobility, clinical attachment level, and alveolar bone loss. Utilization data were abstracted from the dental records of dental offices that participants attended from 1979 through 1988. Multivariate modeling as well as comparisons of high utilizers and non-utilizers indicate that utilization of routine diagnostic and preventive services was not predictive of the extent and severity of periodontitis.

  18. Effective periodontal disease control using dental hygiene chews.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; McGenity, Phil

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed dental hygiene chew for dogs, with and without a natural antimicrobial additive, compared with a reference diet. Efficacy was determined by measuring the severity of gingivitis and the accumulation of dental plaque and calculus in dogs after 4-weeks of being fed the different dietary regimens. Dogs fed a single daily dental chew had significantly less gingivitis (P = 0. 02), plaque (P = 0. 0004), and calculus (P = 0.0001) compared with dogs in the control group that were fed an identical diet but received no chews. The inclusion of the antimicrobial agent did not improve the efficacy of the product. The dental hygiene chews tested in this study have potential to help reduce the incidence of periodontal disease in dogs.

  19. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part I. Caries status].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-04-01

    A misconception exists in the society regarding the caries frequency during pregnancy. The condition of the teeth of the child can be influenced by the state of the teeth and the oral hygiene habits of the mother. An examination was conducted among young women soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The number of the examined patients was 161, with the average age of 27.6 years. The DMFT (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth) index was 12.45, while the DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Filled Surfaces) index was 26.07 in the examined population. The DMFT index significantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, plaque index, probing pocket depth and bleeding on probing, while the DMFT index was not dependent on education level, profession and place of residency. There was no significant correlation between the number of previous pregnancy and the incidence of caries.

  20. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in a Group of American Indian Children at age 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This paper reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Methods Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28 and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary and behavioral factors. Non-parametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Results Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only non-cavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (p<0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. Conclusions By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. PMID:26544674

  1. Dynamics of dental implants and orthodontics in today's periodontal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y M

    2000-03-01

    Periodontal prosthesis refers to multidisciplinary efforts to stop disease progression, correct deformities created by dental diseases, and establish a therapeutic occlusion to restore the form and function of the masticatory system. These efforts are critical for the long-term prognosis and maintenance of the guarded teeth and the overall prosthesis. This article presents a functionally and esthetically challenging case, which illustrates a multidisciplinary approach--specifically implantology and orthodontics--and how they impact on each other during treatment. The role and importance of dental implants and orthodontics in setting up a case is illustrated in this article.

  2. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seok; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Results Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. Conclusion The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future. PMID:21977474

  3. The role of fluoride mouthrinses in the control of dental caries: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Adair, S M

    1998-01-01

    Fluoride mouthrinses have generally proved to be effective in controlling caries in clinical studies. Caries reductions in North American studies have averaged about 30%. Large-scale school-based mouthrinse programs conducted during the 1970s, however, used historical controls at a time when caries rates were now known to be declining. Post-hoc analysis of the absolute (not relative) caries reductions in these studies showed that school-based fluoride mouthrinse programs were of questionable benefit from a cost standpoint. Fluoride mouthrinses have been shown to reduce demineralization and enhance remineralization of enamel adjacent to orthodontic bands and brackets. Benefits in adults have been less well documented. Use of fluoride mouthrinses by young children is discouraged until they have mastery of their swallowing reflexes. This paper recommends the use of fluoride mouthrinses for patients at increased or high risk for dental caries, but cautions that school-based programs be undertaken only in communities with a high population caries rate.

  4. Trends in dental caries among Brazilian schoolchildren: 40 years of monitoring (1971-2011).

    PubMed

    Constante, Helena Mendes; Souza, Marina Leite; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity, and inequality in the distribution of dental caries in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2011, and to compare the results with data from previous studies carried out since 1971. All 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school were eligible. Dental caries were assessed according to the World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces and teeth (DMFS/DMFT) indexes, the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and the Gini coefficient (to assess inequalities in the distribution of dental caries) were estimated. The response rate was 82.3% (n = 130). The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-100.0) in 1971 to 36.9% (95% CI 28.5-45.3) in 2011. The mean DMFT ranged from 9.2 in 1971 to 0.7 in 2011. The mean DMFS index was 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) in 2011. The Gini coefficient was 0.624 in 2002 but increased to 0.725 in 2011; the Lorenz curve showed that 70-75% of dental caries attacks was restricted to 20% of the population in 2011. A reduction of 41.2% in the mean SiC index was observed between 2002 (3.4, 95% CI 3.0-3.8) and 2011 (1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.1). An effective decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in schoolchildren was observed throughout 40 years of monitoring. However, a small proportion of the population has experienced most of the caries burden in the recent years studied.

  5. Correlation between water fluoride levels and dental caries in Davangere District, India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Anuradha, K P

    2003-01-01

    Areas with natural fluoride in the drinking water are natural laboratories where the effect of fluoride on dental caries can be studied in a real life situation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of dental caries and to study its correlation with fluoride in the drinking water in Davangere District. 1128 school children in the age groups of 12 and 15 years from 12 villages with different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water were studied. Ion Selective electrode method (Orion, USA) was used to estimate Fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Dentition Status (WHO, 1997) was used to assess dental caries status. Results showed that there was a significant trend towards reduction in dental caries with increase in water fluoride levels. A negative correlation between fluoride levels and mean DMFT was seen among the subjects with the Karl Pearson's Correlation Co efficient being -0.65 and -0.72 for the 12 and 15 year olds respectively. It was concluded from the study that although dental caries was negatively associated with increasing fluoride levels, the problem of attendant dental fluorosis should also be considered seriously.

  6. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    PubMed Central

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  7. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  8. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  9. Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kojima, Azusa; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku, food education) was enacted in 2005. The comprehensive food education programs, namely Shokuiku, aim to improve dietary practices to reduce lifestyle-related diseases. Dental caries is one of the diseases associated with inappropriate dietary habits. Thus, food education may influence the prevalence of dental caries. However, there are no data regarding the association between public based-food education and dental caries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge about comprehensive food education (Shokuiku) and dental caries experience in Japanese university students. A total of 2,184 students (1,240 men, 944 women), aged 18-20 years, were examined. They had attended the Shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. The numbers of teeth present, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) (dental caries experience) were recorded. Additional information was collected via a questionnaire regarding knowledge about food education, dietary habits and oral health behavior. Of the students, 315 men (20.7%) and 345 women (52.8%) reported that they know and can explain the meaning and content of the word "Shokuiku". After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects who did not have knowledge about Shokuiku had higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for dental caries experience (DMFT >0) than those who had (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; p<0.05). These observations revealed that having knowledge about comprehensive food education in university students correlates with low prevalence of dental caries.

  10. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part II. Periodontal state].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-06-01

    A great number of clinical studies focused on the periodontal health of the pregnant women in the last decades, since an association has been presumed between the pregnant women's periodontal disease and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Altogether 161 healthy women were examined soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The periodontal status of the patients was recorded by the Silness-Löe Plaque index (0.67), frequency of calculus (21.07%), mean probing pocket depth (1.67 mm) and the frequency of bleeding on probing (37.8%). A significant correlation was found between the state of the periodontium and the educational level and the pregnant women's profession. The periodontal state of women with higher education and the intellectuals was much better, than of the less educated patients and the manual workers.

  11. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  12. Dental caries at Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil: An Early Holocene archaeological site.

    PubMed

    DA-Gloria, Pedro; Oliveira, Rodrigo E; Neves, Walter A

    2017-02-06

    The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses. The results show a high prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition (5.50%, n=327 teeth; 69.23%, n=13 individuals) compared to other samples of hunter-gatherers worldwide. In addition, dental caries in deciduous teeth start occurring as early as 3 to 4 years old, suggesting an early start to caries. Compared with other samples from Lagoa Santa, Lapa do Santo shows statistically similar prevalence of overall caries but different caries location pattern. We believe that a subsistence adaptation to a tropical environment rich in sources of carbohydrates, such as fruits, is the best explanation for the overall caries prevalence.

  13. Sugar substitutes, chewing gum and dental caries--a review.

    PubMed

    Edgar, W M

    1998-01-10

    The prevalent use of chewing gum has prompted interest in its dental effects. Important defining aspects are the ability to use sugar substitutes in gum manufacture and the prolonged stimulation of a protective flow of saliva. The main sugar substitutes used are sorbitol and xylitol. Because it is not fermented by oral bacteria, xylitol is considered to be non-cariogenic, and while sorbitol in solution can be fermented slowly by mutants streptococci, chewing sorbitol-sweetened gum does not cause a fall in plaque pH. Effects of chewing sugar-free gum on the ability of plaque to form acid from sucrose are equivocal, although the tendency is for the plaque acidogenicity to be reduced with the use of xylitol gum for 2-3 weeks, due to its inhibitory effects on mutants streptococci. Gum-chewing also stimulates a protective salivary flow when used after an acidogenic stimulus, and may enhance salivary function, especially in subjects with low flow rates. Sorbitol and xylitol gums have similar beneficial effects in promoting enamel remineralisation in short-term in-situ experiments. Clinical trials indicate that xylitol gum has a useful anticaries role, superior to the effects of sorbitol gum. In conclusion, both sorbitol and xylitol chewing gums are non-cariogenic in contrast to sugared gum, and exhibit beneficial anticaries properties through salivary stimulation. In addition, xylitol's antibacterial properties seem likely to lead to caries reductions superior to the more modest reductions with sorbitol gum.

  14. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-Q; Hu, X-P; Zhou, J-Y; Xie, X-D; Zhang, J-M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI gene (rs2274328, rs17032907, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186) and the possible association between these polymorphisms and dental caries susceptibility in a Northwestern Chinese population. We collected samples from 164 high caries experience and 191 very low caries experience and conducted a case-control study according to the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and genotyped the 7 polymorphisms using a 384-well plate format with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Individuals carrying the rs17032907 TT genotype were more likely to have an increased risk of dental caries compared with carriers of the C/C genotype in the co-dominant model, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.144 (1.096-4.195). We also found that the haplotype (ACA) (rs2274328, rs17032907 and rs11576766) was associated with a low number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.635 (0.440-0.918). However, we found no association between dental caries susceptibility and the rs2274328, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186 polymorphisms and other haplotypes. The rs17032907 genetic variant and the haplotype (ACA) of CA VI may be associated with dental caries susceptibility.

  15. Cone Beam Computed Tomography- An Effective Tool in Detecting Caries Under Fixed Dental Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Gondivkar, Shailesh Madhukar; Bhoosreddy, Ajay Ramesh; Shah, Karan Rajendra; Verma, Gaurav Ravishankar; Mehrotra, Gayatri Praveen; Nerkar, Ashwini Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Caries under restorations is the most common reason for re-treatment and replacement in restorative failures. To avoid failures of fixed dental prostheses, it is important to diagnose caries under it earlier. Without image degradation and metal artifacts, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can be the solution to detect caries without removing fixed dental prostheses. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of CBCT in detecting caries under fixed dental prostheses. Materials and Methods Each specimen was scanned with CBCT for evaluation of secondary caries under fixed prostheses. Exposure parameters were 60 kVp and 3mA. Field of View (FOV) used was 8cm X 8cm. According to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria, six Grade 6 carious extracted teeth were selected. All teeth were prepared with four different specimens - full metal, metal-ceramic, full ceramic and metal-acrylic crowns for each tooth. Each specimen was scanned by CBCT. T-test was performed for mean gray value differences between caries and noncaries regions of each material. Gray values were recorded and evaluated for different parameters using two-way analysis of variance. Results Significant differences were found with respect to material (full metal, metal-ceramic, full ceramic and metal-acrylic) and situation (caries/noncaries) (p<0.001). There were no significant differences with respect to location (anterior or posterior). Mean gray values of caries and noncaries regions were found to be different for each material. Conclusion CBCT can be used as a post-treatment diagnostic technique for detecting caries under fixed prostheses without removing it. PMID:27656548

  16. Dental caries and prolonged breast-feeding in 18-month-old Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Hallonsten, A L; Wendt, L K; Mejàre, I; Birkhed, D; Håkansson, C; Lindvall, A M; Edwardsson, S; Koch, G

    1995-09-01

    Three thousand children aged 18 months were screened for dental caries and ongoing breast-feeding at 46 child welfare centres in different parts of Sweden. Of these, 200 children were selected for a more comprehensive examination, involving investigation of dietary, toothbrushing and sucking habits, use of fluoride, and determination of salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The children were divided into four groups: group 1: children with caries not being breast-fed; group 2: children with caries being breast-fed; group 3: caries-free children being breast-fed; group 4: caries-free gender- and age-matched reference children not being breast-fed. The results showed that 63 of the children (2.1%) had caries and 61 (2.0%) were still being breast-fed. Twelve (19.7%) of the 61 children still being breast-fed had caries compared with 51 (1.7%) of the 2939 children not being breast-fed; the difference was statistically significant. Children with caries and still being breast-fed had a mean defs of 5.3, and those with caries not being breast-fed 4.9; the difference was not statistically significant. Children with caries, irrespective of whether they were being breast-fed or not, had significantly higher numbers of cariogenic food intakes per day than caries-free children. Mutans streptococci were detected in 67% of the children and lactobacilli in 13%. Children with detectable mutans streptococci and lactobacilli had significantly more caries than those without. The results indicate that Swedish children with prolonged breast-feeding have a tendency to establish unsuitable dietary habits which constitutes a risk situation for developing caries at an early age.

  17. Korean Version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire and Dental Caries among Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson’s correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ8-10 overall score (partial r = 0.15, P <0.05). The link was highlighted in the domains of functional limitation and emotional well-being. Filled teeth due to caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14. PMID:25675410

  18. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  19. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  20. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  1. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  2. Trehalulose does not induce dental caries in rats infected with mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, T; Izumitani, A; Minami, T; Fujiwara, T; Nakajima, Y; Hamada, S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of trehalulose, a structural isomer of sucrose, and a syrup (TP syrup) rich in trehalulose and palatinose on caries development were examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. Streptococcus mutans MT8148R and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 fermented the syrup which resulted in acid production, while both strains were found not to utilize trehalulose. Furthermore, trehalulose did not serve as a substrate for glucosyltransferases of these mutans streptococci to synthesize water-insoluble glucan, and it inhibited the sucrose-dependent adherence of mutans streptococci to a glass surface. Although trehalulose induced no significant dental caries in specific pathogen-free rats infected with either MT8148R or 6715, TP syrup was found to induce significant but low dental caries. Furthermore, replacement of the dietary sucrose content with trehalulose resulted in a significant reduction of caries development in rats infected with strain 6715.

  3. Therapeutic effect of llama derived VHH fragments against Streptococcus mutans on the development of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Carina; Hultberg, Anna; Marcotte, Harold; Hermans, Pim; Bezemer, Sandra; Frenken, Leon G J; Hammarström, Lennart

    2006-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the main cause of dental caries. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of variable regions of a llama heavy chain antibody fragments directed against S. mutans named S36-VHH (S for Streptococcus) alone or fused with glucose oxidase (GOx) from Aspergillus niger. Western blot analysis and ELISA revealed binding of the S36-VHH to the streptococcal antigen I/II adhesin molecule of S. mutans serotype C. In a rat-desalivated caries model, daily administration of S36-VHH significantly reduced the development of smooth surface caries. No additional therapeutic effect of GOx was observed. Our results suggest that llama VHH antibodies may be a potential benefit as prophylaxis against dental caries.

  4. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan

    2010-03-01

    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  5. PCR-dipstick DNA chromatography for profiling of a subgroup of caries-associated bacterial species in plaque from healthy coronal surfaces and periodontal pockets.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lingyang; Sato, Takuichi; Niwa, Kousuke; Kawase, Mitsuo; Mayanagi, Gen; Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The onset of plaque-mediated disease, including dental caries and periodontal diseases, is highly associated with compositional change of the resident microflora from the ecological perspective. As specific bacterial profiles have been linked to different disease stages, microbial compositional measurements might therefore have great value for clinical diagnosis. Previously we have reported a dry-reagent strip biosensor-PCR-dipstick DNA chromatography, which utilized molecular recognition of oligonucleotides and biotin-streptavidin, and the optical property of colored microspheres, for semiquantifying a five-membered subgroup of caries-associated bacterial species in supragingival plaque from healthy coronal surfaces of teeth. The present study aimed to evaluate this technique's ability to differentiate microflora by comparing the subset profiles. Sixteen subgingival plaque specimens were pooled from periodontal pockets and analyzed for the composition of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Scardovia wiggsiae, Actinomyces sp. and Veillonella parvula. Detection frequencies, relative abundance of each bacterial species, and the five-membered bacterial profiles were compared between supra- and subgingival groups. The supragingival plaque harbored significantly more of the tested species and higher amount of Actinomyces sp. and V. parvula. In subgingival plaque, the predominance was obscured, since several highly overlapped profiles were found at comparable frequencies. Thus, PCR-dipstick DNA chromatography using the same plaque sample enabled simultaneous profiling of multiple species at species level and facilitated discrimination between anticipated different microflora, making this technique a promising chair-side microbiota profiling method.

  6. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05–2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65–3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07–2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother’s schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15–4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother’s schooling. PMID:26900846

  7. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Borges, Heloisa Carvalho; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology) and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84). The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821), and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875). The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05). The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  8. Dental caries in the primary dentition of german children with cleft lip, alveolus, and palate.

    PubMed

    Kirchberg, Anja; Makuch, Almut; Hemprich, Alexander; Hirsch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Objective : The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in children with cleft lip, alveolus, and/or cleft palate living in central Germany between 1996 and 2010. Participants : A total of 295 children 1 to 6 years of age from three birth cohorts (BC) with clefts from central Germany were included in the study. They were compared with 548 1- to 6-year-old cleft-free children from the same region. Setting : Children with clefts underwent a dental examination in an outpatient dental clinic at the University of Leipzig. The first BC was examined between 1996 and 1998, the second between 2002 and 2004, and the third between 2008 and 2010. Controls were examined at day-care centers in Leipzig during the same periods. Main Outcome Measure : The standard dental caries index for the primary dentition (dmf/t3-4) was used for clinical assessment. Results : Over the entire study period, the mean prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth was significantly higher (1.32 dmf/t3-4) in children with clefts compared with cleft-free children. However, a decline in caries (approximately 1 dmf/t3-4) and an increase in the proportion of children with healthy primary dentition were observed in both groups. These results represent a caries decline of 61% in children with clefts. Conclusions : Caries rates for children 1 to 6 years of age with clefts from central Germany showed a considerable decline over the last years. The caries rates for clefts patients in the third BC (2008 to 2010) was similar to that of cleft-free children in the first BC (1996 to 1998).

  9. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses.

  10. Genetic Association of MPPED2 and ACTN2 with Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, B.O.C.; Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M.M.; Maher, B.S.; Slayton, R.L.; Willing, M.C.; Reis, S.E.; McNeil, D.W.; Crout, R.J.; Weyant, R.J.; Levy, S.M.; Vieira, A.R.; Marazita, M.L.; Shaffer, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The first genome-wide association study of dental caries focused on primary teeth in children aged 3 to 12 yr and nominated several novel genes: ACTN2, EDARADD, EPHA7, LPO, MPPED2, MTR, and ZMPSTE24. Here we interrogated 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these candidate genes for evidence of association with dental caries experience in 13 race- and age-stratified samples from 6 independent studies (n = 3600). Analysis was performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples via meta-analysis. MPPED2 was significantly associated with caries via meta-analysis across the 5 childhood samples, with 4 SNPs showing significant associations after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < .0026). These results corroborate the previous genome-wide association study, although the functional role of MPPED2 in caries etiology remains unknown. ACTN2 also showed significant association via meta-analysis across childhood samples (p = .0014). Moreover, in adults, genetic association was observed for ACTN2 SNPs in individual samples (p < .0025), but no single SNP was significant via meta-analysis across all 8 adult samples. Given its compelling biological role in organizing ameloblasts during amelogenesis, this study strengthens the hypothesis that ACTN2 influences caries risk. Results for the other candidate genes neither proved nor precluded their associations with dental caries. PMID:24810274

  11. Dental caries development among African-American children: results from a 4-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dental caries development and caries risk factors among preschool African-American children from low-income families in Detroit, Michigan over a four- year window. Methods Data came from a representative sample of 1,021 children (zero to five years) and their caregivers in Detroit. The baseline participants in 2002–03 (W1) were reexamined in 2004–05 (W2) and 2007 (W3). Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate and multivariate analyses for repeated data were conducted to explore associations between caries increment outcomes and demographics, access to dental care, oral health-related behaviors, and social and physical environments. Results The mean number of new NCCL (non-cavitated caries lesions) was 2.8 between W1 and W2 and 2.6 between W2 and W3, while the mean number of new CCL (cavitated caries lesions) was 2.0 and 2.0, respectively, during the same time periods. In younger children (< three years old in W1) higher number of new NCCL than new CCL were observed in both W1–W2 and W2–W3. The risk of new NCCL was associated with child’s soda intake and caregiver’s age. For the risk of new CCL, significant risk factors included baseline NCCL, baseline CCL, as well as child’s age. Baseline caries and child’s soda intake were also associated with the risk of developing new decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces. Conclusions Higher number of new NCCL relative to CCL was developed among low-income Africa-American children during early childhood. New caries development was associated with baseline caries and child’s soda intake. PMID:25441657

  12. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.

  13. Molecular analysis of the microflora associated with dental caries.

    PubMed

    Munson, M A; Banerjee, A; Watson, T F; Wade, W G

    2004-07-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed many novel, presumed unculturable, taxa in oral infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community of the middle and advancing front of carious dental lesions by cultural and molecular analyses. Samples were collected with a hand excavator from five teeth with carious lesions involving dentine. Samples were cultured on blood agar and Rogosa agar incubated in air plus 5% CO(2) and on fastidious anaerobe agar anaerobically. DNA was also extracted directly from the samples and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR with universal primers. PCR products were singularized by cloning, and the cloned inserts and cultured isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We identified 95 taxa among the 496 isolates and 1,577 clones sequenced; 44 taxa were detected by the molecular method alone; 31 taxa were previously undescribed. Only three taxa, Streptococcus mutans, Rothia dentocariosa, and an unnamed Propionibacterium sp., were found in all five samples. The predominant taxa by anaerobic cultivation were the novel Propionibacterium sp. (18%), Olsenella profusa (14%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). The predominant taxa in the molecular analysis were Streptococcus mutans (16%), Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (13%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). There was no significant difference between the compositions of the microflora in the middle and advancing front samples (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon matched pairs, signed ranks test). In conclusion, combined cultural and molecular analyses have shown that a diverse bacterial community is found in dentinal caries and that numerous novel taxa are present.

  14. Poverty, social exclusion and dental caries of 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Hobdell, Martin H; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic differences in oral health have been reported in many countries. Poverty and social exclusion are two commonly used indicators of socioeconomic position in Latin America. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries experience in 12-year-old children. Methods Ninety families, with a child aged 12 years, were selected from 11 underserved communities in Lima (Peru), using a two-stage cluster sampling. Head of households were interviewed with regard to indicators of poverty and social exclusion and their children were clinically examined for dental caries. The associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries prevalence were tested in binary logistic regression models. Results Among children in the sample, 84.5% lived in poor households and 30.0% in socially excluded families. Out of all the children, 83.3% had dental caries. Poverty and social exclusion were significantly associated with dental caries in the unadjusted models (p = 0.013 and 0.047 respectively). In the adjusted model, poverty remained significantly related to dental caries (p = 0.008), but the association between social exclusion and dental caries was no longer significant (p = 0.077). Children living in poor households were 2.25 times more likely to have dental caries (95% confidence interval: 1.24; 4.09), compared to those living in non-poor households. Conclusion There was support for an association between poverty and dental caries, but not for an association between social exclusion and dental caries in these children. Some potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:19583867

  15. Use of fluoride products for young patients at high risk of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H

    2014-09-01

    Extensive education in oral hygiene home care, nutrition counseling, and routine reinforcement of home-care instructions at periodic check-ups lead to better oral health for many young children and teenagers. In addition, resistance to dental caries infection can be increased significantly by intelligent use of bonded resin sealants and systemic and topical fluoride products. This article discusses protocols for use of in-office applied topical fluoride and daily at-home use of topical fluoride products for children and teens at high risk of dental caries.

  16. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.

  17. Barriers encountered using skill-mix to deliver caries prevention in dental practices.

    PubMed

    Hatim, Eman; Kendall, Nick

    2012-04-01

    This opinion paper provides an analysis of the barriers and successes experienced when developing and implementing a pilot scheme to deliver caries prevention using skill-mix in the National Health Service (NHS) General Dental Services. A training programme was initiated to develop the skills of extended duties dental nurses to deliver fluoride varnish to patients in selected dental practices in Croydon, London, UK. In the light of the evaluation of this programme, a recommendation is made that similar preventive schemes should be delivered in the future within the NHS dental contract.

  18. [Prevalence of dental caries among 12-year old schoolchildren in the Dakar region].

    PubMed

    Benoist, F Leye; Bane, K; Aidara, A W; Ndiaye, D; Chouker, Y; Kane, A W

    2014-06-01

    Oral diseases are considered as major public health problem. Dental caries restricts the school activities and are the dominant cause of dental morbidity. The aims of this survey were to determine prevalence of dental caries among pupils of Dakar and to study their food habits and oral hygiene. A descriptive transversal study was conducted from February 15th to May 07th, 2011 with respect of WHO directives (protocol of 1997) readjusted to Senegalese context. Our results showed a prevalence of 41.8%; a mean DMF index of 0.644; a proportion of teeth decayed of 65%, 32.2% for missing teeth and 2.7% of filled teeth. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that snacking, consumption of sweetened drinks far from meals and brushing teeth before the meals were significantly linked to the presence of dental caries. These results showed that the state of oral health and the prevention level of dental caries among these children were not so good. A new orientation of oral health policy based on messages regarding the main etiologic factors is imperative.

  19. Allergic rhinitis, feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing and socioeconomic status. Effects on development of dental caries in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez, R E M; Saldivar, G A H; Beltrán, G F J; Almeida, A V M; Vázquez, R C F

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing, socioeconomic status and allergic rhinitis on the development of dental caries in primary dentition. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire on 1,160 children, 4-5 years old (mean = 4.5 +/- 0.5) and born in 1999, 2000 or 2001. The children also had a physical examination by an allergist and dentists. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Caries experience was measured as number of deft and defs. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between dental caries and independent variables. The dental caries prevalence was 17.9%, 28.8% of the children had allergic rhinitis symptoms, digit sucking was reported by 9.8% and pacifier use by 13.6% of the children. The mean number of deft of the sample was 1.02 (SD = 2.37) and that of defs was 1.33 (SD = 3.54). Analysis showed that breast-feeding for >12 months (p < 0.01), toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.01), sugar consumption (p < 0.01) and pacifier use (p < 0.01) each had a significant association with dental caries occurrence in primary dentition. Children with pacifier use and allergic rhinitis had more than double the risk of dental caries development. Allergic rhinitis alone has no effect on dental caries. Healthcare professionals attempting to limit dental caries should consider the effect of prolonged breast-feeding, sugary product consumption between meals and nonnutritive habits on dental caries.

  20. [Determinants of dental caries in Haitian schoolchildren and implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Bedos, C; Brodeur, J M

    2000-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of a community development project in North-West Haiti. The aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among young Haitians and to identify the principal determinants and risk factors. A total of 322 schoolchildren, all aged 12 years, participated in the study in March and April 1996. Demographic characteristics, hygiene and dietary habits were recorded. In parallel, a dentist assessed the amount of debris present on the teeth and investigated the children's history of caries. Almost two thirds of the children examined were free of caries. The mean number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) was 0.93, which is low. However, a high-risk group was identified with a mean DMFT index of 3.8. This group is a source of some concern, particularly as the region's health services are often inaccessible resulting in dental caries frequently remaining untreated until tooth extraction is required. Logistic regression analysis showed that dental hygiene and, to a lesser extent, sugar intake, were the principal risk factors for dental caries. Adolescents who consume more than three meals per day and who, presumably, have a higher intake of cariogenic food, present more caries than those who consume less. These schoolchildren meet the objectives of the WHO for dental caries for 2000, but two courses of action are nonetheless necessary: caries prevention and improved access to dental health care. To prevent caries, techniques for increasing the resistance of teeth could be recommended, as in industrialized countries. However, such strategies would be difficult to implement in the rural context of a developing country. The addition of fluoride to drinking water, for example, is not practical as most of the inhabitants of rural areas do not have access to running water. The use of sealing agents, which protect against decay affecting the occlusal surfaces of molars, is also impractical, for financial reasons. Thus, basic

  1. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)-Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient. PMID:20543914

  2. Social Inequalities in Childhood Dental Caries: The Convergent Roles of Stress, Bacteria and Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Den Besten, Pamela K; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Zhan, Ling; Jiang, Yebin; Adler, Nancy E; Featherstone, John D

    2010-01-01

    The studies reported here examines stress-related psychobiological processes that might account for the high, disproportionate rates of dental caries, the most common chronic disease of childhood, among children growing up in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. In two 2004 – 2006 studies of kindergarten children from varying socioeconomic backgrounds in the San Francisco Bay Area of California (Ns = 94 and 38), we performed detailed dental examinations to count decayed, missing or filled dental surfaces and microtomography to assess the thickness and density of microanatomic dental compartments in exfoliated, deciduous teeth (i.e., the shed, primary dentition). Cross-sectional, multivariate associations were examined between these measures and SES-related risk factors, including household education, financial stressors, basal and reactive salivary cortisol secretion, and the number of oral cariogenic bacteria. We hypothesized that family stressors and stress-related changes in oral biology might explain, fully or in part, the known socioeconomic disparities in dental health. We found that nearly half of the five-year-old children studied had dental caries. Low SES, higher basal salivary cortisol secretion, and larger numbers of cariogenic bacteria were each significantly and independently associated with caries, and higher salivary cortisol reactivity was associated with thinner, softer enamel surfaces in exfoliated teeth. The highest rates of dental pathology were found among children with the combination of elevated salivary cortisol expression and high counts of cariogenic bacteria. The socioeconomic partitioning of childhood dental caries may thus involve social and psychobiological pathways through which lower SES is associated with higher numbers of cariogenic bacteria and higher levels of stress-associated salivary cortisol. This convergence of psychosocial, infectious and stress-related biological processes appears to be implicated in the production

  3. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  4. Prevalence of Dental Caries Among Primary School Children of India – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Anand; Ankola, Anil V; Hebbal, Mamata; Mohandoss, Suganya; Pastay, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, the trend indicates an increase in oral health problems especially dental caries, which has been consistently increasing both in prevalence and in severity. Children of all age groups are affected by dental caries. It becomes imperative to collect the data on prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs to provide preventive care. Aim To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs of 6-11years old Indian school children. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Sampling frame consisted of 6-11years old primary school children. Study sample consisted of 13,200 children selected from 10 talukas of Belgavi District, Karnataka, India. Clinical examination for dmft and DMFT was carried out in the school premises by five teams, each consisting of one faculty, three postgraduate students and five interns from the KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India. The examiners were trained and calibrated by the principal investigator. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and t-test. Results The overall caries prevalence was 78.9%, mean dmft was 2.97±2.62 and mean DMFT was 0.17±0.53. The decayed teeth component was the principal component in both dmft and DMFT indices. The mean dmft in boys was higher compared to girls and it was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion This study provided us with the baseline data, using which treatment was provided to all the children screened. The children were provided treatment at the camp site/dental hospital/satellite centers and primary health care centers according to the facilities available. PMID:27891457

  5. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  6. Dental caries detection by optical spectroscopy: a polarized Raman approach with fibre-optic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, A. C.-T.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Werner, J.; Hewko, M.; Sowa, M. G.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.

    2006-09-01

    Incipient dental caries lesions appear as white spots on the tooth surface; however, accurate detection of early approximal lesions is difficult due to limited sensitivity of dental radiography and other traditional diagnostic tools. A new fibre-optic coupled spectroscopic method based on polarized Raman spectroscopy (P-RS) with near-IR laser excitation is introduced which provides contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient caries. Changes in polarized Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Demineralization-induced morphological/orientational alteration of enamel crystallites is believed to be responsible for the reduction of Raman polarization anisotropy observed in the polarized Raman spectra of caries lesions. Supporting evidence obtained by polarized Raman spectral imaging is presented. A specially designed fibre-optic coupled setup for simultaneous measurement of parallel- and cross-polarized tooth Raman spectra is demonstrated in this study.

  7. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    PubMed Central

    Dingsdag, Simon; Nelson, Stephen; Coleman, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples) and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples). T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049) than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004), Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes)] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008)] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5) relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3). Conclusion Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes) were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies. PMID:27834171

  8. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Prevention of Dental Caries in Children From Birth Through Age Five Years. ... Children’ s Oral Health ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Tooth Decay — Early Childhood ( MedlinePlus) May 2014 Task Force FINAL ...

  9. Association between Chewing Side Preference and Dental Caries among Deciduous, Mixed and Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reena; Kashyap, Nilotpol; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kappadi, Damodar; Wadhwa, Saakshe; Gandotra, Shina; Yadav, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chewing Side Preference (CSP) is said to occur when mastication is recognized exclusively/consistently or predominantly on the same side of the jaw. It can be assessed by using the direct method - visual observation and indirect methods by electric programs, such as cinematography, kinetography and computerized electromyography. Aim The present study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of CSP in deciduous, mixed and permanent dentitions and relating its association with dental caries. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, 240 school going children aged 3 to 18years were randomly allocated to three experimental groups according to the deciduous dentition, mixed dentition and permanent dentition period. The existence of a CSP was determined using a direct method by asking the children to chew on a piece of gum (trident sugarless). The Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare the CSP and also among the boys and girls. The Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient was used to correlate CSP and dental caries among the three study groups and also among the groups. Results CSP was observed in 69%, 83% and 76% of children with primary, mixed and permanent dentition respectively (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant association between the presence of CSP and dental caries among the three study groups. Conclusion There was a weak or no correlation between gender and distribution of CSP and between presence of CSP and dental caries. PMID:27790569

  10. The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed…

  11. Dental Caries Prevalence among 12–15 Year Old Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Maen; Abu Esaid, Albina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To measure the distribution of dental caries in a group of Palestinian adolescents. Material and Methods. A sample of 677 individuals of both sexes (411 were females and 266 were males) their ages ranged from 12 to 15 year old randomly selected from schools in northern west bank in Palestine. Clinical examination was performed on all the subjects focusing on the index DMFT, representing the number of teeth that were either decayed, missing or with extraction indicated, or restored. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 54.35% and was the highest in 15 age 75.75% in comparison to the other ages (12, 13, and 14) (40.57%, 41.76%, and 60.47%), respectively. The mean DMFT for the sample was 5.39 ± 2.85525 while the mean DMFT for different age groups (12–15) was 5.52 ± 2.766, 5.58 ± 2.745, 5.23 ± 3.304, and 5.23 ± 2.606, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in females with DMFT 5.39 ± 2.854 than males with DMFT 5.26 ± 2.891. Conclusion. High prevalent dental caries was found among Palestinian adolescents and higher in females than males. Strict preventive programs should be implemented. Further research with large samples required to include all adolescents from Palestine. PMID:27437445

  12. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL.

  13. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... starches, and tooth decay is well established. Sucrose, also known as sugar, is one of the most, but not... of teeth to dietary sugars and starches, the greater the risk for tooth decay. (3) Dental caries... between-meal snacks that are high in sugars and starches may be more harmful to teeth than eating...

  14. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... starches, and tooth decay is well established. Sucrose, also known as sugar, is one of the most, but not... of teeth to dietary sugars and starches, the greater the risk for tooth decay. (3) Dental caries... between-meal snacks that are high in sugars and starches may be more harmful to teeth than eating...

  15. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... starches, and tooth decay is well established. Sucrose, also known as sugar, is one of the most, but not... of teeth to dietary sugars and starches, the greater the risk for tooth decay. (3) Dental caries... between-meal snacks that are high in sugars and starches may be more harmful to teeth than eating...

  16. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... starches, and tooth decay is well established. Sucrose, also known as sugar, is one of the most, but not... of teeth to dietary sugars and starches, the greater the risk for tooth decay. (3) Dental caries... between-meal snacks that are high in sugars and starches may be more harmful to teeth than eating...

  17. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... starches, and tooth decay is well established. Sucrose, also known as sugar, is one of the most, but not... of teeth to dietary sugars and starches, the greater the risk for tooth decay. (3) Dental caries... between-meal snacks that are high in sugars and starches may be more harmful to teeth than eating...

  18. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  19. Evaluation of different Diagnostic Modalities for Diagnosis of Dental Caries: An in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Rani; Jaidka, Shipra; Nishad, Muhamad; Singh, Shikha; Tomar, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of different diagnostic aids for diagnosis of dental caries and to compare the validity in terms of sensitivity and specificity of all four diagnostic modalities for diagnosis of caries. Materials and methods Occlusal surfaces of 100 primary and permanent molars were examined using the four diagnostic systems (visual, intraoral camera, DIAGNOdent, and DIAGNOdent with dye). These results were compared with operative intervention gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each diagnostic system for both enamel and dentin caries. Interrater agreement was calculated for each diagnostic system using kappa statistics. Results For both enamel and dentin caries, the highest sensitivity values were provided by DIAGNOdent (0.91 and 0.72) and lowest for visual examination on wet surface (0.60 and 0.50). For both enamel and dentin caries, the specificity was found to be highest for intraoral camera on dry surface and lowest for visual examination. The DIAGNOdent gave the highest value of interrater agreement (kappa), i.e., 0.816 as compared with 0.03 for visual examination. Conclusion The study clearly demonstrated that DIAGNO-dent was the most accurate and valid system tested for the detection of occlusal caries. It has the advantage of quantifying the mineral content, helping to improve the diagnostic efficacy and treatment and accurate assessment of fissures where the visual examination alone is not adequate, thus complementing the traditional dental examination. How to cite this article Zaidi I, Somani R, Jaidka S, Nishad M, Singh S, Tomar D. Evaluation of different Diagnostic Modalities for Diagnosis of Dental Caries: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):320-325. PMID:28127163

  20. Association between Dental Caries and Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence of susceptibility to dental caries in the population with Down Syndrome (DS) is limited and conflicting, making it difficult to establish firm conclusions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to obtain scientific evidence of the possible association between dental caries and individuals with DS, compared to individuals without DS (control). An electronic search of five databases was performed, with no language or publication date restrictions. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers (Kappa = 0.83). The systematic review included 13 studies, while eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies are presumably all at risk of bias given their observational character. Two of these evaluated the presence or absence of caries in permanent and deciduous teeth, and six evaluated the mean DMFT index in permanent teeth. Combined odds ratios (OR), standard difference, standard error and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. The vast majority of the studies found that individuals from control groups had more carious lesions or caries experience than those with DS. The results were statistically significant in seven studies (p<0.05). Meta-analysis of two studies revealed that individuals with DS had a lower dental caries than those in the control group (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.22–0.57). In six studies, individuals with DS had a significantly lower mean DMFT index than individuals from the control group (Sd = -0.18; SE = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.35–-0.02). The quality of the studies varied and in general had a high risk of bias. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals with DS have fewer dental caries than individuals without DS. PMID:26086498

  1. Are Pediatric Antibiotic Formulations Potentials Risk Factors for Dental Caries and Dental Erosion?

    PubMed Central

    Valinoti, Ana Carolina; da Costa Jr., Luiz Carlos; Farah, Adriana; Pereira de Sousa, Valéria; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most frequent parents’ concerns is that oral antibiotic formulations induce dental damage in their children’s. This study aimed to assess the cariogenic and erosive potentials of 29 pediatric antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Replicates of each antibiotic were analyzed for the concentration of sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and sorbitol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pH was determined by digital pHmeter. Titratable acidity was determined in triplicate using the same pHmeter by gradual addition of 0.1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) until pH 7.0. Viscosity measurements were carried out using a viscosimeter. In order to rank the relative performance of each medicine, the DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) methodology was used. Results: Sucrose was present in most samples (n=24) with concentrations ranging from 26 to ≈ 100g% (w/w). Only one antibiotic contained sorbitol (66.9g%). Twenty seven antibiotics presented pH values ranging from 4.1 to 6.9 and most of them (n=15) showed the pH below the critical value for dissolution of hydroxyapatite. The values of titratable acidity and viscosity ranged from 0.26 to 40.48 ml and from 20 to 1780cP, respectively. DEA methodology showed that two medicines were distant from the performance frontier (Klaricid® 50mg and Zinnat® 250mg), which means that these medicines showed the worst performance and, therefore, greater potential for dissolution of dental enamel. Conclusion: Many antibiotics presented high concentration of sugars, high titratable acidity, pH below the critical value and high viscosity which can be considered risk factors for dental caries and erosion, when consumed frequently. PMID:27583053

  2. The Responsiveness of Patients’ Quality of Life to Dental Caries Treatment—A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ding-Yu; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responsiveness of oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) (oral health impact profile [OHIP] and oral impact on daily performance [OIDP]) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (World Health Organization quality of life scale, brief [WHOQOL-BREF]) in dental caries restoration treatment. The study also aimed to assess the influence of treatment on the responsiveness of patients’ quality of life (QoL). A total of 126 patients (aged 16–40 years) received dental caries restoration treatment with a 2-week follow-up and pre- and posttreatment interviews by questionnaire. Patients were assessed for their perceptions of OHRQoL and HRQoL by using the OHIP, OIDP, and WHOQOL-BREF measures. The responsiveness of all outcome measurements was assessed by effect size (ES). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association with the responsiveness of all outcome measurements. Significant differences were found between OIDP (ES = 0.39), OHIP (ES = 0.54), and WHOQOL-BREF (ES = 0.13) with regard to pretreatment and posttreatment (p-values: <0.0001, <0.0001, and 0.0120, respectively). Sex and dental caries status at baseline were significantly associated with responsiveness by all measurements. This study suggests that dental caries treatment moderately improves OHRQoL, but is less related to HRQoL. Furthermore, the number of dental caries and restoration are important factors affecting the improvement of patients’ perceived OHRQoL. PMID:27776148

  3. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  4. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  5. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Baelum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole; Nyvad, Bente

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively; the prevalence of non-fluoride opacities was 8% and 19%, respectively; and the prevalence of hypoplasia was 12% and 16%, respectively, in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups. Higher caries levels were noted in children with no fluorosis compared to those with fluorosis recorded (mean DS difference, 3.43). The results lend support to the hypothesis that the presence of fluoride in the oral environment promotes lesion arrest rather than inhibiting the initiation of new lesions.

  6. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  7. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices.

  8. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining nanoparticles of silver/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry.

  9. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining NAg/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  10. Dental and periodontal complications of labial and tongue piercing.

    PubMed

    Giuca, M R; Pasini, M; Nastasio, S; D' Ercole, S; Tripodi, D

    2012-01-01

    Piercing is the practice of puncturing some parts of the body to apply ornamental objects. The presence of oral and perioral piercings are a risk factor for many acute and chronic complications, such as chipping of the dental enamel, periodontal lesions and infection. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of lip and tongue piercing complications in the dental and periodontal tissues in a sample of young adults. Twenty-five adult patients were examined (test group: 11 males and 14 females with an average age of 23.4+/-3.6 years) who had had a minimum of one labial or tongue piercing for at least 1 year and were compared with 25 subjects (control group: 11 males - 44 percent, and 14 females - 56 percent) without any lingual or labial piercing. A questionnaire was compiled for each patient and a clinical examination was performed. The following parameters were examined by the same operator: abnormal toothwear, tooth chipping or cracking, clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PD) and gingival recession (GR, classified by using Miller s classification). The data were analyzed using X2 or Fisher s exact test for small numbers and non-parametric Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis tests to examine for differences in continuity; the level of significance was p less than 0.05. According to the results found in the present study the prevalence of abnormal tooth wear and tooth chipping was higher in the subjects with labial or lingual piercing. Moreover, patients with tongue or labial piercing exhibited a higher GR in comparison to control subjects without any oral piercing. No differences were observed between the two groups as regards CAL and PD. A significant association between the duration of piercing and dental defects was found in the group of patients with piercings with greater prevalence of tooth and periodontal defects in the group of 13 subjects who had had the piercings for a period less than or equal to 4 years.

  11. An automated dental caries detection and scoring system for optical images of tooth occlusal surface.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Leila; Gottlieb, Riki; Sarrett, David C; Ismail, Amid; Belle, Ashwin; Najarian, Kayvan; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries are one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. The management of dental caries demands detection of carious lesions at early stages. This study aims to design an automated system to detect and score caries lesions based on optical images of the occlusal tooth surface according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) guidelines. The system detects the tooth boundaries and irregular regions, and extracts 77 features from each image. These features include statistical measures of color space, grayscale image, as well as Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform based features. Used in this study were 88 occlusal surface photographs of extracted teeth examined and scored by ICDAS experts. Seven ICDAS codes which show the different stages in caries development were collapsed into three classes: score 0, scores 1 and 2, and scores 3 to 6. The system shows accuracy of 86.3%, specificity of 91.7%, and sensitivity of 83.0% in ten-fold cross validation in classification of the tooth images. While the system needs further improvement and validation using larger datasets, it presents promising potential for clinical diagnostics with high accuracy and minimal cost. This is a notable advantage over existing systems requiring expensive imaging and external hardware.

  12. The tobacco-using periodontal patient: role of the dental practitioner in tobacco cessation and periodontal disease management.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Couch, Elizabeth T; Ryder, Mark I

    2016-06-01

    Although the prevalence of tobacco use has declined in some parts of the world, tobacco use remains a persistent and, in some cases, growing problem that will continue to be a fundamental challenge facing dental practitioners in the decades ahead. Dental practitioners have a unique opportunity and professional obligation to be a positive influence in reducing the economic and social burden inflicted by tobacco use on dental and general health. In this article, the current noninvasive, evidence-based approaches are presented for dental practitioners to help patients avoid initiating tobacco use, to encourage and assist patients in ceasing tobacco use and to address tobacco-induced damage to periodontal supporting tissues.

  13. Ex vivo evaluation of new 2D and 3D dental radiographic technology for detecting caries

    PubMed Central

    Tyndall, Donald; Mol, André; Everett, Eric T; Bangdiwala, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Proximal dental caries remains a prevalent disease with only modest detection rates by current diagnostic systems. Many new systems are available without controlled validation of diagnostic efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three potentially promising new imaging systems. Methods: This study evaluated the caries detection efficacy of Schick 33 (Sirona Dental, Salzburg, Austria) intraoral digital detector images employing an advanced sharpening filter, Planmeca ProMax® (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland) extraoral “panoramic bitewing” images and Sirona Orthophos XG3D (Sirona Dental) CBCT images with advanced artefact reduction. Conventional photostimulable phosphor images served as the control modality. An ex vivo study design using extracted human teeth, ten expert observers and micro-CT ground truth was employed. Results: Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated similar diagnostic efficacy of all systems (ANOVA p > 0.05). The sensitivity of the Schick 33 images (0.48) was significantly lower than the other modalities (0.53–0.62). The specificity of the Planmeca images (0.86) was significantly lower than Schick 33 (0.96) and XG3D (0.97). The XG3D showed significantly better cavitation detection sensitivity (0.62) than the other modalities (0.48–0.57). Conclusions: The Schick 33 images demonstrated reduced caries sensitivity, whereas the Planmeca panoramic bitewing images demonstrated reduced specificity. XG3D with artefact reduction demonstrated elevated sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, improved depth accuracy and substantially improved cavitation detection. Care must be taken to recognize potential false-positive caries lesions with Planmeca panoramic bitewing images. Use of CBCT for caries detection must be carefully balanced with the presence of metal artefacts, time commitment, financial cost and radiation dose. PMID:26670605

  14. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944

  15. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-05-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries.

  16. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  17. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  18. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  19. Dental flossing and interproximal caries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hujoel, P P; Cunha-Cruz, J; Banting, D W; Loesche, W J

    2006-04-01

    Our aim was to assess, systematically, the effect of flossing on interproximal caries risk. Six trials involving 808 subjects, ages 4 to 13 years, were identified. There were significant study-to-study differences and a moderate to large potential for bias. Professional flossing performed on school days for 1.7 years on predominantly primary teeth in children was associated with a 40% caries risk reduction (relative risk, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.76; p-value, < 0.001). Both three-monthly professional flossing for 3 years (relative risk, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.19; p-value, 0.32) and self-performed flossing in young adolescents for 2 years (relative risk, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.20; p-value, 0.93) did not reduce caries risk. No flossing trials in adults or under unsupervised conditions could be identified. Professional flossing in children with low fluoride exposures is highly effective in reducing interproximal caries risk. These findings should be extrapolated to more typical floss-users with care, since self-flossing has failed to show an effect.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children <18 months of age. We calculated the cost-effectiveness ratio of implementing the proposed interventions to reduce the number of carious teeth and full mouth dental reconstructions (FMDRs) over 10 years. Results A total of 322 children received caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  1. Dental rehabilitation of a child with early childhood caries using Groper's appliance

    PubMed Central

    Joybell, C. Chrishantha; Ramesh, K.; Simon, Paul; Mohan, Jayashree; Ramesh, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The mainstay of pediatric dental practice is the successful esthetic rehabilitation of a preschooler with advanced carious lesions. Loss of masticatory efficiency, compromised esthesis, mispronunciation of labiodentals sounds, and development of abnormal oral habits are compromises arising due to the loss of primary anterior teeth at an early age either due to trauma or due to caries. Parental desire is the most decisive factor for the placement of an anterior esthetic appliance. This unique case report highlights the fabrication of simple, Groper's appliance in a 5-year-old child with early childhood caries. PMID:26538948

  2. Effect of CPP-ACP paste on dental caries in primary teeth: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sitthisettapong, T; Phantumvanit, P; Huebner, C; Derouen, T

    2012-09-01

    This clinical trial tested the effect of daily application of 10% w/v calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste for 1 yr when added to regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste to prevent dental caries in pre-school children. High-caries-risk children aged 2½ to 3½ yrs in a suburban area of central Thailand were assigned to receive either CPP-ACP (n = 150) or a placebo control (n = 146) in addition to fluoridated toothpaste. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was recorded at baseline, 6 mos, and 1 yr. At 1 yr, a significant increase in mean numbers of enamel and dentin caries lesions, as well as dmfs, was found in both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between groups on these 3 outcome measures (p = 0.23, 0.84, and 0.91, respectively). The odds of enamel caries lesion transitions to a state of regression or stability, compared with progression from baseline, was also not different between groups [OR = 1.00, 95% CI (0.86, 1.17)]. This trial found that daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP paste on school days for 1 yr, when added to regular toothbrushing with a fluoride toothpaste, had no significant added effect in preventing caries in the primary dentition of these pre-school children (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT01 604109).

  3. Dental caries profile in Monte Negro, Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, in 2008

    PubMed Central

    BASTOS, Roosevelt Silva; SILVA, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues; MAIA-JUNIOR, Adelson Francisco; CARVALHO, Fábio Silva; MERLINI, Sabrina; CALDANA, Magali Lourdes; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    Objective This epidemiological survey assessed the dental caries profile in Monte Negro, a small town in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, and its relationship with the northern region, national and global goals for oral health in the years 2000 and 2020. Material and Methods The groups randomly examined were composed of individuals aged 5, 12, 15 to 19, 35 to 44, 65 to 74 years, living in both rural and urban areas. Results The means dft (standard deviation) and DMFT (standard deviation) for the groups were, respectively, 3.15 (3.12), 3.41 (2.69), 5.96 (4.19), 16.00 (7.30) and 25.96 (9.82). Caries-free individuals were 34.42%, 14.81% and 8.16% in the preschoolchildren, schoolchildren and adolescent groups, respectively. The Significant Caries Index percentages applied to the two younger groups were 6.65 and 6.70, and they increased to 32.00 in the individuals aged 65 to 74 years. Care Index percentages for adolescents, adults and elderly groups were, respectively, 29.40, 25.00 and 1.41. The dental caries profile in Monte Negro in 2008 shows that, 8 years after the year 2000, no FDI/WHO goal for any age settled in 1982 has been achieved. Dental caries increased with age and the main dental problem of adult and elderly groups was tooth loss. Conclusion Oral health promotion and prevention of oral disease policies are urgent needs. Setting of oral health goals and targets to people living in Monte Negro or Amazonia to be pursuit and achieved in a near future is an important action to do because of the culture, sanitary conditions and socioeconomic aspects of this particular population. PMID:21085797

  4. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries.

  5. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral health habits. The children were examined for caries status with WHO criteria by 3 calibrated examiners. Detection of dental erosion followed Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) criteria. Results A total of 704 children were recruited and 600 (316 boys, 53%) participated in the survey. There were 124 children (21%) with caries experience (DMFT > 0) and their DMFT was 0.34 ± 0.76. About half of their decay was unfilled (DT = 0.16 ± 0.52) The DMFT of girls and boys were 0.45 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.61, respectively (p = 0.001). Girls also had a higher DT (0.21 ± 0.62 compared with 0.11 ± 0.41, p = 0.013) and FT than boys (0.23 ± 0.63 compared with 0.12 ± 0.44, p = 0.016). Most children (75%) had at least some sign of erosion (BEWE > 0), but no severe erosion (BEWE = 3). Logistic regression showed girls who consumed soft drinks and took vitamin C supplements had higher caries risk. Dental erosion was more severe among the children who had caries experience and consumed fruit juice. Conclusions The 12-year-old Hong Kong children had low caries experience, and almost half of the decay was left untreated. Although severe erosion was not found, many children had early signs of erosion. PMID:24397565

  6. Association of body mass index with dental caries among malnourished tribal children of Indore division

    PubMed Central

    CHAUHAN, ASTHA; NAGARAJAPPA, SANDESH; DASAR, PRALHAD L; MISHRA, PRASHANT

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Nutrition is an essential component in human growth, development and maintenance of healthy life. Tribal communities are highly disease prone and do not have the required access to basic health facilities, also having a high degree of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to determine the association of body mass index with dental caries among malnourished tribal children of Indore division (M.P.) Methods A cross-sectional house to house survey was carried out among 275 study subjects, 6–15 years old tribal children in two major tribal districts of Indore division. Permissions and consent was obtained from local administrative authorities, ethical committee and parents respectively. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight, mid-arm and head circumference were recorded. Children with confirmed malnourishment on basis of BMI index were considered for data collection. Oral examination for caries was conducted according to WHO 1997 survey methods. Descriptive tables and analytical tests such as ANOVA and chi-square test were employed. Independent effects of age, gender, BMI, oral hygiene status and daily intake sugar on caries status were tested using logistic regression analysis. Results The mean age was 9.75 (±2.43) years. The caries prevalence among permanent dentition of malnourished children was 61.4% with a mean of 1.61 (±0.48). Among tribes, malnourished children of Bhilala tribe showed significantly higher caries prevalence (1.82±0.46, p<0.01). Increase in caries prevalence was seen with increase in severity of malnourishment (p<0.05). Logistic regression indicated gender (males OR=1.19), age (5–10years OR=1.11) and high sugar intake (OR=1.49) were significantly associated with caries occurrence (p=0.001). Conclusion Caries was more prevalent in malnourished tribal children and was seen to increase with severity of malnourishment. PMID:27857525

  7. Maturation of Oral Microbiota in Children with or without Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Rönnlund, Agneta; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the oral microbiota in children from age 3 months to 3 years, and to determine the association of the presence of caries at 3 years of age. Methods and findings Oral biofilms and saliva were sampled from children at 3 months (n = 207) and 3 years (n = 155) of age, and dental caries was scored at 3 years of age. Oral microbiota was assessed by culturing of total lactobacilli and mutans streptococci, PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, 454 pyrosequencing and HOMIM (Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray) microarray detection of more then 300 species/ phylotypes. Species richness and taxa diversity significantly increased from 3 months to 3 years. Three bacterial genera, present in all the 3-month-old infants, persisted at 3 years of age, whereas three other genera had disappeared by this age. A large number of new taxa were also observed in the 3-year-olds. The microbiota at 3 months of age, except for lactobacilli, was unrelated to caries development at a later age. In contrast, several taxa in the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds were linked with the presence or absence of caries. The main species/phylotypes associated with caries in 3-year-olds belonged to the Actinobaculum, Atopobium, Aggregatibacter, and Streptococcus genera, whereas those influencing the absence of caries belonged to the Actinomyces, Bergeyella, Campylobacter, Granulicatella, Kingella, Leptotrichia, and Streptococcus genera. Conclusions Thus, during the first years of life, species richness and taxa diversity in the mouth increase significantly. Besides the more prevalent colonization of lactobacilli, the composition of the overall microbiota at 3 months of age was unrelated to caries development at a later age. Several taxa within the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds could be linked to the presence or absence of caries. PMID:26020247

  8. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  9. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Christopher; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-24

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  10. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children.

  11. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats. PMID:23762876

  12. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-02-25

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  13. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  14. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-12-05

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.

  15. Occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a dental school in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Chirley Roberta; Baumhardt, Simone Glesse; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a rare, severe and rapidly progressing periodontal disease. Early diagnosis is of utmost importance for establishing treatment in order to stop periodontal destruction and prevent tooth loss. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a Dental School in Brazil by means of a cross-sectional study. First, records from patients aged 15-36 years were consecutively scrutinized. Patients should not have systemic diseases. The search went up to 383 valid records. By means of periapical radiographs, the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the bone crest was measured. Records in which there was severe bone loss or periodontal destruction incompatible with the age of the patient were selected. Patients with bone loss > or = 3mm were called to answer a questionnaire and undergo periodontal examination, in order to confirm or dismiss the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. From a total 383 records, 55.1% (211) were female and 44.9% (172) were male. In 3.9% (15) of the records, presumed diagnosis was aggressive periodontitis, and 12 out of those 15 eligible patients (80%) came in for clinical examination and confirmation or dismissal of the diagnosis. Aggressive periodontitis was diagnosed in 7 patients, corresponding to 1.8% of the total. Of these, 4 (1% of the total) presented generalized aggressive periodontitis and 3 (0.8% of the total) presented localized aggressive periodontitis. In 5 patients (1.3%) chronic periodontitis was diagnosed. It may be concluded, within the limits of the study, that aggressive periodontitis at this Dental School is compatible with world prevalence values, suggesting the need for periodontal diagnosis as from adolescence, considering the possible damage caused by this disease.

  16. Rampant Caries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  17. Dental caries status of Dai preschool children in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status. Methods An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the “dmft” index, and severe caries was assessed using the “pa” index, which is modified from the “pufa” index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children’s socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children’s parents. Results A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year. Conclusions The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status. PMID:24279504

  18. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Materials and methods: The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3-6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Results: Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.001). Following therapeutic intervention, the test group children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Conclusion: Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20. PMID:27274149

  19. Xylitol in preventing dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Deepan Kumar, C. V.; Joseph, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Xylitol is a sugar alcohol having the properties that reduce levels of mutans streptococci (MS) in the plaque and saliva. To assess the role of xylitol in preventing dental caries. Systematic review and meta-analysis developed by Cochrane cooperation were adapted. Electronic search was carried out in PubMed through the period up to 2014. Included clinical studies were done on (1) humans (2) participants include both individuals and as pairs (mother-child) (3) participants using orthodontic appliances (4) xylitol dispensed in any form (5) compare the effect of xylitol on dental caries and on other phenotype that determines the preventive effect on dental caries, such as decayed, missing, and filled (DMF/dmf) and salivary or plaque MS level. Twenty articles of the 477 articles initially identified. Among 20 studies indexed, 16 articles were accessed, systematically reviewed, and the meta-analysis was carried out. The evaluation of quality of the studies was done using risk of bias assessment tool. The quality of the studies was high risk and unclear risk for six and five trials. The meta-analysis shows a reduction in DMF/dmf with the standard mean (SM) of −1.09 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], −1.34, −0.83) comparing xylitol to all controls. The effect of DMF/dmf reduction by xylitol to fluoride varnish was with the SM of −1.87 (95% CI, −2.89, −0.84). The subgroup analysis, there was a reduction in MS count with SM of 0.30 (95% CI, 0.05, 0.56) when compared with all other caries preventive strategies; however, it was insignificant. Xylitol was found to be an effective strategy as self-applied caries preventive agent. PMID:28250669

  20. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofibre mats for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Sukma, Monrudee; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-03-06

    The mucoadhesive electrospun nanofibre mats were developed using chitosan (CS) and thiolated chitosan (CS-SH) as mucoadhesive polymers. Garcinia mangostana (GM) extract was incorporated into nanofibre mats. The antibacterial activity in the single and combined agents was evaluated against dental caries pathogens. The morphology of mats was observed using SEM. The mats were evaluated for GM extract amount, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. The mucoadhesion and antibacterial activity were determined in healthy human volunteers. The prepared mats were in nanoscale with good physical and mucoadhesive properties. The CS-SH caused the higher mucoadhesion. All mats rapidly released active substances, which had the synergistic antibacterial activity. In addition, the reduction of bacteria and good mucoadhesion in the oral cavity occurred without cytotoxicity. The results suggest that mats have the potential to be mucoadhesive dosage forms to maintain oral hygiene by reducing the bacterial growth that causes the dental caries.

  1. OCT of early dental caries: a comparative study with histology and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael G.

    2005-03-01

    Early dental caries result from destruction of the tooth's outer mineral matrix by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaques. Early caries begin as surface disruptions where minerals are leached from the teeth resulting in regions of decreased mineral matrix integrity. Visually, these early carious regions appear as white spots due to the higher backscattering of incident light. With age these areas may become stained by organic compounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of human teeth demonstrates a difference in penetration depth of the OCT signal into the carious region in comparison with sound enamel. However, while OCT demonstrates a structural difference in the enamel in the region of the caries, this technique provides little insight into the source of this difference. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical measures derived from hydroxyapatite within the enamel as well as information on the crystallinity of the enamel matrix. The differences in the biochemical and morphological features of early caries and intact sound enamel are compared. Histological thin sections confirm the observations by OCT morphological imaging while Raman spectroscopy allows for biochemical identification of carious regions by a non-destructive method. Visual examination and conventional radiographic imaging of the intact tooth are used in clinical assessment prior to optical measurements. The combination of OCT, Raman spectroscopy and thin section histology aid in determining the changes that give rise to the visual white spot lesions.

  2. Mia-assisted orthodontic treatment for dental malocclusion secondary to periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi-miao; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun hui; Shu, Rong; Hans, Mark Guenther

    2009-01-01

    In contemporary dental care, an increasing number of adult patients with periodontal disease are seeking orthodontic treatment. Achieving optimal results in such adult patients is difficult because decreased posterior tooth anchorage is risky. This case report demonstrates the use of miniscrew implant anchorage (MIA) in a Chinese male 21 years 5 months of age with maxillary and mandibular anterior dental spacing, bimaxillary protrusion, and severe bone loss caused by periodontal disease. Prior to orthodontic treatment, the patient underwent treatment to control his periodontitis. The patient was treated with 0.022-in straight-wire orthodontic appliances. After 17 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had healthier periodontal tissue with increased bone support, as well as improved facial esthetics and a functional occlusion. The results demonstrate that MIA is useful in enhancing anchorage in patients with bone loss associated with severe periodontal disease.

  3. A histological study of peripheral dental caries of equine cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Erridge, Mey E; Cox, Alistair L; Dixon, Padraic M

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral caries of equine cheek teeth is a poorly described disorder and, in particular little is known of its histopathology. Histological examinations of decalcified sections of 21 equine peripheral caries-affected cheek teeth showed two different patterns of cemental lesions; including progressive enlargement of focal, flask-like lesions leading to breakdown of the adjacent cementum, and secondly; a more generalized flaking-off of thin layers of under-run, surface cementum. A thick layer of plaque and food material usually lay on the surface of affected cementum and also within cemental defects. Gram-stained sections showed large numbers of bacteria within the lacunae and canaliculi of affected peripheral cementum and within associated plaque. Pioneer bacteria were also seen within dentinal tubules of adjacent, normal-appearing dentin. Subgingival extension of peripheral caries lesions with localized periodontal destruction was rare. Grading of peripheral caries lesions by gross examination was found to underestimate the severity of the disorder as compared to histological grading.

  4. Prevalence and Association of Developmental Defects of Enamel with, Dental- Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622

  5. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  6. “Dentists’ and dietitians’ recommendations of snacks and dental caries experience among kindergarteners”

    PubMed Central

    Ranginwala, Tanya; Teich, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Background Parents receive diet recommendations for their children from dentists and dietitians, but a conflict of diet suggestions has been reported. This research was conducted to investigate dental caries experiences in children consuming snacks that were recommended by dentists and/or dietitians. Material and Methods A total of 442 kindergarteners under went dental examinations, and their caregivers filled out questionnaires. Snacks were sorted by name. Three dentists and three dietitians determined whether they would recommend these snacks. The snacks were divided into four categories: snacks recommended by both groups, snacks recommended by neither, snacks recommended only by dentists, and snacks recommend only by dieticians. Children were assigned to particular groups based on their primary snack consumption. The children’s caries experiences (dft) were compared among the four groups. Results The agreement level on the recommended snacks between dietitians and dentists was moderate (Kappa=0.43). Thirty-nine snacks were identified; 13 recommended by neither, 4 recommended by dietitians, 7 were recommended only by dentists, and 15 were recommended by both. The mean (standard deviation) of dft amongthe children was 4.66 (3.81), 2.66 (3.17), 3.21 (3.37), and 4.02 (4.02), and respectively. The ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests indicated that children who consumed snacks recommended only by one professional, dietitian or dentist, have significantly fewer dental caries than children who consumed snacks recommended by neither professional. (ANOVA: F=4.494, p=0.004, Tukey post-hoc test: p=0.007 and p=0.046, respectively). Conclusions Dentists can recommend snacks that are nutrient dense, even though it contains sucrose. Key words:Child, dental caries, snacks, dentist, nutritionists. PMID:27957270

  7. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

  8. Non-cariogenicity of the disaccharide palatinose in experimental dental caries of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ooshima, T; Izumitani, A; Sobue, S; Okahashi, N; Hamada, S

    1983-01-01

    The caries-inducing activity of palatinose (isomaltulose, alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-1,6-fructose) was examined in in vitro and in vivo experiments, comparing it with other carbohydrates. When Streptococcus mutans was successively subcultured in a broth medium containing 1% palatinose, the strains belonging to serotype a, d, or g did not ferment palatinose, whereas the strains belonging to serotype b, c, e, or f did ferment palatinose. Furthermore, palatinose significantly inhibited the synthesis of insoluble glucan from sucrose by S. mutans. Specific-pathogen-free rats which had been infected with S. mutans 6715 and fed a diet containing 56% palatinose did not develop significant dental caries. However, rats infected similarly, but fed a diet containing sucrose, glucose, fructose, or a glucose-fructose mixture manifested significant caries when compared with the noninfected, sucrose-fed control rats. Furthermore, it was found that replacement of half of the sucrose content with palatinose resulted in decreased caries development compared with caries development in rats fed the sucrose diet. PMID:6822422

  9. Prevention policies in the light of the changed distribution of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Burt, B A

    1998-06-01

    Changes in the distribution of caries in economically developed nations over the last 15-20 years include 1) an overall decline in prevalence and severity in child populations; 2) an increasingly skewed distribution, with most disease now found in a small number of children; and 3) concentration of caries in pit and fissure lesions. Exposure to fluoride is usually seen as the principal reason for the caries decline, with little change in intraoral levels of cariogenic organisms or the annual consumption of sugars. Prevention activities are still most often conducted under policies that were established at a time when caries was a more widespread public health problem, so these policies should be critically examined in the light of modern conditions. While prevention should remain the prime activity of public health agencies, despite the reduced severity of caries, the relative economic efficiency of various procedures should be constantly evaluated. Despite the attractions of targeting, cost-effective prevention should be aimed first at the whole population, with more expensive activities targeted to all children in a chosen geographic area rather than to individually selected children. In the Scandinavian countries the prime population strategies are the regular use of fluoride toothpaste and public education that emphasizes oral hygiene. In selected areas where caries levels are still relatively high (that is, targeted geographic areas), fluoride rinse and tablet programs, provided for a whole classroom at a time, can enhance intraoral fluoride levels where necessary. Fluoride varnish and sealants, though effective, are expensive and need careful selection of locality and teeth to be efficient. Individual children with a persistent caries problem, now relatively small in number, can receive individualized preventive treatment in the clinics of the school dental service.

  10. Influence of Nonenzymatic Glycation in Dentinal Collagen on Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Y; Miura, J; Shimizu, M; Aoki, T; Kubo, M; Fukushima, S; Hashimoto, M; Takeshige, F; Araki, T

    2016-12-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are generated via nonenzymatic glycation of dentinal collagen, resulting in accumulation of AGEs in dentin tissue. Since accumulated AGEs cause crosslinking between amino acid polypeptides in the collagen molecule and modify mechanical properties of dentinal collagen, the authors assumed that there would be a significant interaction between the generation of AGEs and progression of caries in dentin. To confirm such an interaction, spectroscopic imaging analyses (i.e., nanosecond fluorescence lifetime imaging and second harmonic generation light imaging) were performed in addition to biochemical and electron microscopic analyses in the present study. Seven carious human teeth were fixed in paraformaldehyde and cut longitudinally into 1-mm sections using a low-speed diamond saw for the following analyses. In transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, nondecalcified specimens were embedded in epoxy resin and sliced into thin sections for observation. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the specimens were paraffin embedded after decalcification for 2 wk and sectioned with a microtome. Resultant sections were stained with anti-AGE and anticollagen antibodies. The demineralized specimens were used for spectroscopic analyses without additional treatment. For Western blotting analysis, specimens were separated into carious and sound dentin. Each specimen was homogenized with a bead crusher and an ultrasonic homogenizer and then treated with hydrochloric acid. In carious dentin, the collagen fibers showed an amorphous structure in the TEM image, and the AGEs were localized in the areas of bacterial invasion in the immunostaining image. The total amount of AGEs in carious dentin was higher than in sound dentin in Western blotting. The ultrastructure of type I collagen and total amount of AGEs varied markedly in the dentinal caries region. The fluorescence lifetime was shorter in the carious area than that in the sound areas

  11. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D W; Ismail, A I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations, based on current evidence, for practising physicians and dentists on interventions for the prevention of dental caries in their patients. OPTIONS: Systemic fluoride administration, professionally administered fluoride, use of fluoride mouth rinses, fissure sealants, oral-hygiene practices, dietary practices, identification of groups at a high risk of dental caries, and early diagnosis and treatment. OUTCOMES: Reduced prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis, longer retention of teeth and lower treatment costs. EVIDENCE: Several MEDLINE searches were conducted for articles published from January 1980 to December 1992, including relevant review articles. VALUES: Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized with the use of the evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations were developed for each method of caries prevention, with reduced incidence of dental caries and improved prevalence of caries-free teeth given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The potential benefits of these measures in the long-term are a lower incidence of tooth decay, longer retention of teeth and prevention of fluorosis. The cost saving can be considerable for patients and insurers; however, implementation of some recommendations will be difficult, since the traditional preventive practices of dentists and dental hygienists are not easily changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is good evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: use of dentifrices containing fluoride, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride supplements for patients in areas where there is a low level (0.3 ppm or less) of fluoride in the drinking water, professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with very active decay or at a high risk of dental caries and selective use of professionally applied fissure sealants on permanent molar

  12. [Enamel resistance to acid dissolution and its correlation with dental caries].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, T L; Sáenz-Martínez, L P; Gómez-López, M E; Pérez-Quiroz, J

    1995-01-01

    Enamel resistance to acid dissolution is a factor which has an influence upon dental caries susceptibility. The objectives of this study were to determine enamel resistance to acid dissolution by applying the RM technique, and to correlate data obtained to the prevalence of dental caries. Two hundred and seventy one children between seven and nine years of age were chosen by non probabilistic sampling in two city districts, (six public schools in Mexico City). These children's central permanent incisives had already erupted. The DMF-T and dmf-t indexes were recorded, and the RM enamel resistance test was performed on them. A total of 56.4% of the subjects in the sample had very resistant enamel and 27.3%, less resistant enamel. A proportion of 57.9% was free of dental caries on the permanent dentition and 10% in the temporary dentition. The average obtained for the DMF-T index was 0.93 +/- 1.34 and that for dmf-t was 4.7 +/- 3.1. Data suggest that enamel resistance distribution is not homogeneous and this increases proportionally in relation to the eruption third (p < 0.05.) Spearman's correlation coefficient was found to be negative and statistically significant at p < 0.05. The RM technique showed the presence of individuals with different enamel resistance to acid dissolution.

  13. PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-22

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  14. Saliva-promoted adhesion of Streptococcus mutans MT8148 associates with dental plaque and caries experience.

    PubMed

    Shimotoyodome, A; Kobayashi, H; Tokimitsu, I; Hase, T; Inoue, T; Matsukubo, T; Takaesu, Y

    2007-01-01

    Colonization of enamel surfaces by Streptococcus mutans is thought to be initiated by the attachment of bacteria to a saliva-derived conditioning film (acquired pellicle). However, the clinical relevance of the contribution of saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion in biofilm formation has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to correlate saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion with biofilm formation in humans. We correlated all measurements of salivary factors and dental plaque formation in 70 healthy subjects. Dental plaque development after thorough professional teeth cleaning correlated positively with S. mutans adhesion onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite pellets and the glycoprotein content of either parotid or whole saliva. Saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion and glycoprotein content were also positively correlated with each other in parotid and whole saliva. By contrast, neither salivary mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus nor Candida correlated with biofilm formation. Parotid saliva-mediated S. mutans adhesion was significantly higher in 12 caries-experienced (CE) subjects than in 9 caries-inexperienced (CI) subjects. Salivary S. mutans adhesion was significantly less (p < 0.01) in the CI group than in the CE group. In conclusion, the present findings suggest the initial S. mutans adhesion, modulated by salivary protein adsorption onto the enamel surface, as a possible correlate of susceptibility to dental plaque and caries.

  15. Epidemiology of fluorosis and dental caries according to different types of water supplies.

    PubMed

    Franzolin, Solange de Oliveira Braga; Gonçalves, Aguinaldo; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Francischone, Leda Aparecida; Marta, Sara Nader

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between fluorosis/dental caries in schools, according to the level of fluoride in public water supply. The sample comprised of twelve-year-old daytime students (360) of both genders, attending schools close to the region where they were born. The schools were classified into three groups according to the presence of fluoride in the water supply: 1) fluoridation in the Water Treatment Station-WTS; 2) Direct Fluoridation in Wells-DFW; and 3) Non Fluoridated Areas-NFA. The chi2 and Goodman tests (significance=5%) were used to evaluate the association between the origin of water and degree of fluorosis; percentage of distribution and descriptive measures were used for investigation of the degree of fluorosis. The following outcomes were predominant: presence of dental caries in the entire sample (P<0.05); absence of fluorosis in both genders, for white individuals and subjects living in areas supplied by both DFW and NFA (P<0.05). There was no difference in the severity of fluorosis between the sources of water supply (P>0.05). Dental caries is still an important problem in this population, despite the establishment of preventive measured. The observation of fluorosis in students living in non-fluoridated areas confirms the presence of other sources of fluoride.

  16. Photoacoustic Non-Destructive Evaluation and Imaging of Caries in Dental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 °C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  17. Comparative study of human dental follicle cell sheets and periodontal ligament cell sheets for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shujuan; Guo, Weihua; Ding, Yi; Gong, Jian; Zou, Qing; Xie, Dan; Chen, Yali; Wu, Yafei; Tian, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal ligament cell (PDLC) sheets have been shown to contribute to periodontal tissue regeneration. Dental follicle cells (DFCs), acknowledged as the precursor cells of PDLCs, have demonstrated stemness, embryonic features, heterogeneity, and pluripotency. Therefore, we hypothesized that DFC sheets might be more effective and suitable for periodontal tissue regeneration than PDLC sheets. In this study, we compared the biological characteristics of DFC sheets and PDLC sheets in vitro. To investigate the potential for periodontal tissue regeneration in vivo, complexes composed of two types of cell sheets combined with dentin matrix were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 6 weeks. Our results showed that, when forming cell sheets, DFCs secreted richer extracellular matrix than PDLCs. And compared to DFCs, DFC sheets expressed high levels of calcification-related genes, including alkaline phosphatase (alp), bone sialoprotein (bsp), osteopontin (opn), runt-related transcription factor (runx2), as well as the periodontal ligament-specific genes collagen III (col III) and periostin, while the gene expression of bsp, osteocalcin (ocn), and opn were greatly increased in PDLC sheets, when compared to PDLCs. col I expression did not change significantly. However, cementum protein 23 (cp-23) expression increased several fold in PDLC sheets compared to PDLCs but decreased in DFC sheets compared to DFCs. DFC and PDLC sheets were both positive for Collagen I (Col I), cementum attachment protein (CAP), ALP, BSP, OCN, and OPN protein expression, and Col I, ALP, BSP, and OPN expression were increased after cell sheets were formed. Furthermore, the levels of laminin and fibronectin were higher in DFCs and DFC sheets than that of PDLCs and PDLC sheets, respectively. In vivo, DFC and PDLC sheets could both regenerate periodontal tissue-like structures, but DFC sheets demonstrated stronger periodontal regeneration potential than PDLC sheets. Therefore, DFC sheets derived

  18. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  19. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M

    1996-02-01

    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  20. Dental Caries Status of Institutionalized Orphan Children from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar, TL; Tirth, Amit; Pal, Sumit; Batra, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been well documented that the absence of family support influences the general and oral health of the children. Factors that lead to the development of disease at a given point in time are likely to have their roots in a complex chain of environmental events that may have begun years before. A number of studies have examined the relationship between dental caries and material deprivation and found a positive association between them. Though orphans contribute to 2% of world’s population, literature regarding their oral health status is very scarce. This study was carried out with the aim to assess the dental caries status of institutionalized orphan children from Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and methods A total of 1,664 children that included 1,201 boys and 463 girls from registered orphanages in the state of Jammu and Kashmir were included in the study. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the start of the study; decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft)/ decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, and filled surface (DMFS) indices were used to assess the caries status of primary and permanent dentition. Multiple choice, close-ended questionnaires were administered to assess the oral hygiene habits, knowledge, and dietary behavior of orphan children prior to examination. The study subjects were divided into three groups according to the age of ≤ 6, 7 to 11, and ≥12 years. Results Results showed that caries prevalence in primary dentition was higher in subjects’ ≤6 years of age where the prevalence was 50.9%; in subjects 7 to 11 years of age, the prevalence was 25.2%. Caries prevalence in permanent dentition within the age group 7 to 11 was 69.1%, while in subjects’ ≥12 years, the prevalence was 66.2%. Use of toothbrush was the most prevalent method of cleaning the teeth in both the genders, while toothpaste was reported to be the most prevalent material to be

  1. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in

  2. Analysis of the association between polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and dental caries in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hu, X P; Li, Z Q; Zhou, J Y; Yu, Z H; Zhang, J M; Guo, M L

    2015-09-28

    Environmental influences on the development and progression of dental caries are well known; however, there is little evidence of a genetic component imparting susceptibility to dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor TaqI locus and dental caries susceptibility in a Chinese population. This case-control study was conducted with a case group (264 patients with dental caries from northwestern China) and a control group (219 individuals without dental caries or systemic disease from the same area). DNA was extracted from the peripheral venous blood of the study participants; the distribution of TaqI locus genotypes and allele frequencies was determined via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Chi-square test. The frequency of the Tt genotype in the case group (14.0%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%), as determined using the genotype TT as the reference. The risk of dental caries was increased 3.8-fold in individuals with the heterozygous Tt genotype compared to that in the individuals with the TT genotype. The proportion of the 't' allele in the case group (7.0%) and the control group (2.1%) was observed to be significantly different [P = 0.0003; OR = 3.592, confidence interval 95% (1.790-7.208)]. Our results therefore suggested that the allele 't' might be a genetic factor determining dental caries susceptibility in individuals from the northwest of China.

  3. Periodontal Status and Quality of Life: Impact of Fear of Pain and Dental Fear

    PubMed Central

    Crout, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is impacted by periodontal disease and orofacial pain. There is a limited research examining the impact of avoidance of care or physiological arousal related to the fear of pain response on periodontal-related OHRQoL. Methods. Data are from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia family-based study focusing on 1,339 adults. Measures included a modified Periodontal Screening and Recording Index across sextants of dentition, dental fear survey, Fear of Pain Questionnaire-9, and Oral Health Impact Profile-14. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effects of periodontal disease screening indicators on OHRQoL including the mediating role of dental fear while accounting for fear of pain. Results. A significant total effect was found for the mandibular anterior sextant, components of dental anxiety/fear, and indicators of OHRQoL (pain and discomfort, β = .165, p = .001; psychosocial impact, β = .199, p < .001). The maxillary anterior region was significantly associated with pain discomfort (β = .116, p = .017) and functionality (β = .130, p = .011). Conclusions. Findings provide a granular perspective of periodontal disease indicators and OHRQoL. Dental avoidance/anticipatory fear and physiological arousal mediate OHRQoL in individuals who have indicators of periodontal disease in sextants that may be visible and susceptible to higher pain and psychosocial impact. PMID:28377670

  4. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODEL FOR DENTAL CARIES ASSESSMENT USING NON-GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Yuan, Ying; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Research in dental caries generates data with two levels of hierarchy: that of a tooth overall and that of the different surfaces of the tooth. The outcomes often exhibit spatial referencing among neighboring teeth and surfaces, i.e., the disease status of a tooth or surface might be influenced by the status of a set of proximal teeth/surfaces. Assessments of dental caries (tooth decay) at the tooth level yield binary outcomes indicating the presence/absence of teeth, and trinary outcomes at the surface level indicating healthy, decayed, or filled surfaces. The presence of these mixed discrete responses complicates the data analysis under a unified framework. To mitigate complications, we develop a Bayesian two-level hierarchical model under suitable (spatial) Markov random field assumptions that accommodates the natural hierarchy within the mixed responses. At the first level, we utilize an autologistic model to accommodate the spatial dependence for the tooth-level binary outcomes. For the second level and conditioned on a tooth being non-missing, we utilize a Potts model to accommodate the spatial referencing for the surface-level trinary outcomes. The regression models at both levels were controlled for plausible covariates (risk factors) of caries, and remain connected through shared parameters. To tackle the computational challenges in our Bayesian estimation scheme caused due to the doubly-intractable normalizing constant, we employ a double Metropolis-Hastings sampler. We compare and contrast our model performances to the standard non-spatial (naive) model using a small simulation study, and illustrate via an application to a clinical dataset on dental caries. PMID:27807470

  5. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic

    PubMed Central

    Oxilia, Gregorio; Peresani, Marco; Romandini, Matteo; Matteucci, Chiara; Spiteri, Cynthianne Debono; Henry, Amanda G.; Schulz, Dieter; Archer, Will; Crezzini, Jacopo; Boschin, Francesco; Boscato, Paolo; Jaouen, Klervia; Dogandzic, Tamara; Broglio, Alberto; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Fiorenza, Luca; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kullmer, Ottmar; Benazzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Prehistoric dental treatments were extremely rare, and the few documented cases are known from the Neolithic, when the adoption of early farming culture caused an increase of carious lesions. Here we report the earliest evidence of dental caries intervention on a Late Upper Palaeolithic modern human specimen (Villabruna) from a burial in Northern Italy. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we show the presence of striations deriving from the manipulation of a large occlusal carious cavity of the lower right third molar. The striations have a “V”-shaped transverse section and several parallel micro-scratches at their base, as typically displayed by cutmarks on teeth. Based on in vitro experimental replication and a complete functional reconstruction of the Villabruna dental arches, we confirm that the identified striations and the associated extensive enamel chipping on the mesial wall of the cavity were produced ante-mortem by pointed flint tools during scratching and levering activities. The Villabruna specimen is therefore the oldest known evidence of dental caries intervention, suggesting at least some knowledge of disease treatment well before the Neolithic. This study suggests that primitive forms of carious treatment in human evolution entail an adaptation of the well-known toothpicking for levering and scratching rather than drilling practices. PMID:26179739

  6. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  7. Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. Method A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3–5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5–16 –year-olds attending grade 1–5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Results Caries prevalence for 5–6 –year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5–6 –year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft

  8. Dental caries and treatment needs of Yemeni children with down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq; Al-Sufyani, Ghadah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health in Down syndrome (DS) children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among children with DS in Yemen and also to investigate the association between these outcomes with various socio-demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 96 children with DS aged between 6 and 15 years. Data were gathered through the use of a questionnaire and clinical observation. The dentition status and the treatment needs were recorded according to World Health Organization recommendations. ANOVA, Chi-square test, t-test and multiple regression analyses were applied using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) version 20.0 software, with P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that 93.8% of the subjects had dental caries; overall, decayed missing filled surfaces (dmfs), decayed missing filled teeth (dmft), DMFS, DMFT were 10.35, 4.44, 4.32 and 2.45, respectively. Stepwise linear regression analysis has revealed that age was the most important predictor for DMFT and DMFS, while early age and less frequent teeth brushing were the most predictors for dmft and dmfs. Restorative care and extractions were the most needed specific treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that children with DS in Yemen have a high prevalence of dental caries and extensive unmet needs of dental treatment. They would benefit from frequent oral health assessment. PMID:25540656

  9. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  10. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  11. Chronic Disease Management Strategies of Early Childhood Caries: Support from the Medical and Dental Literature.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine report places chronic disease management (CDM) as an intervention on a treatment spectrum between prevention and acute care. CDM commonly focuses on conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant. Framing early childhood caries (ECC) as such a chronic condition invites dentistry to reconsider its approach to caries management and shift gears from a strictly surgical approach to one that also incorporates a medical approach. This paper's purpose was to explore the definition of and concepts inherent in CDM. An explanatory model is introduced to describe the multiple factors that influence ECC-CDM strategies. Reviewed literature suggests that early evidence from ECC-CDM interventions, along with results of pediatric asthma and diabetes CDM, supports CDM of ECC as a valid approach that is independent of both prevention and repair. Early results of ECC-CDM endeavors have demonstrated a reduction in rates of new cavitation, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared to baseline rates. ECC-CDM strategies hold strong promise to curtail caries activity while complementing dental repair when needed, thereby reducing disease progression and cavity recurrence. Institutionalizing ECC-CDM will both require and benefit from evolving health care delivery and financing systems that reward positive health outcomes.

  12. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures.

  13. Biological factors in dental caries enamel structure and the caries process in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 2).

    PubMed

    Hicks, John; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Flaitz, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Dental caries is a complex disease process that afflicts a large proportion of the world's population, regardless of gender, age and ethnicity, although it does tend to affect more indivduals with a low socioeconomic status to a greater extent. The physicochemical properties of the mineral comprising the tooth surface and subsurface modulate the development, arrestment and remineralization of dental caries. Post-eruption maturation of enamel surfaces and exposed root surfaces is important in order for more susceptible mineral phases to be modified by incorporation of soluble fluoride from the plaque into dental hydroxyapatite. The chemical reactions that occur during acidic conditions when tooth mineral dissolves (critical pH) are determined by the supersaturation of calcium and phosphate within plaque and saliva, as well as if fluoride is present.

  14. Social and environmental inequities in dental caries among indigenous population in Brazil: evidence from 2000 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Pedro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2013-09-01

    This ecological study investigated the association between social and environmental inequities and dental caries among indigenous people in Brazil. Dental caries data were gathered from articles identified from electronic databases for the period between 2000 and 2007. Independent variables were obtained from the census of Health Information System for Sanitation Indigenous Populations. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the association between social and environmental characteristics and dental caries (DMFT index) according to the age group. Results were analyzed for 48 indigenous peoples from 19 selected studies. The occurrence of dental caries in particular age groups was inversely associated with the location of villages outside the Amazon region (12, 15 - 19, and 20 - 34 years), availability of electricity (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years) and proportion of households covered with straw/thatch (20 - 34 years). The presence of schools was statistically associated with higher DMFT averages (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years). It can be concluded that aspects of location and existing infrastructure in indigenous communities, which are linked to the availability of oral health services, are associated with the occurrence of dental caries in indigenous populations in Brazil.

  15. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  16. Mechanical benefits of conservative restoration for dental fissure caries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Zheng, Keke; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Swain, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    The principle of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is to limit removal of carious tooth tissue while maximizing its repair and survival potential. The objective of this study is to explore the fracture resistance of a permanent molar tooth with a fissure carious lesion along with three clinical restoration procedures, namely one traditional and two conservative approaches, based upon MID. The traditional restoration employs extensive surgical removal of enamel and dentine about the cavity to eliminate potential risk of further caries development, while conservative method #1 removes significantly less enamel and infected dentine, and conservative method #2 only restores the overhanging enamel above the cavity and leaves the infected and affected dentine as it was. An extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted here to analyze the fracture behaviors of both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of these four different scenarios. It was found that the two conservative methods exhibited better fracture resistance than the traditional restorative method. Although conservative method #2 has less fracture resistance than method #1, it had significantly superior fracture resistance compared to other restorations. More important, after cavity sealing it may potentially enhance the opportunity for remineralization and improved loading bearing capacity and fracture resistance.

  17. Assessment of the calibration of periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among dental students at three dental schools.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brittany A; Luepke, Paul; Chaves, Eros; Maupome, Gerardo; Eckert, George J; Blanchard, Steven; John, Vanchit

    2015-01-01

    Calibration in diagnosis and treatment planning is difficult to achieve due to variations that exist in clinical interpretation. To determine if dental faculty members are consistent in teaching how to diagnose and treat periodontal disease, variations among dental students can be evaluated. A previous study reported high variability in diagnoses and treatment plans of periodontal cases at Indiana University School of Dentistry. This study aimed to build on that one by extending the research to two additional schools: Marquette University School of Dentistry and West Virginia University School of Dentistry. Diagnosis and treatment planning by 40 third- and fourth-year dental students were assessed at each of the schools. Students were asked to select the diagnosis and treatment plans on a questionnaire pertaining to 11 cases. Their responses were compared using chi-square tests, and multirater kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between classes and between schools. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the effects of school, class year, prior experience, and GPA/class rank on correct responses. One case had a statistically significant difference in responses between third- and fourth-year dental students. Kappas for school agreement and class agreement were low. The students from Indiana University had higher diagnosis and treatment agreements than the Marquette University students, and the Marquette students fared better than the West Virginia University students. This study can help restructure future periodontal courses for a better understanding of periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning.

  18. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-che; Lin, Kun-Feng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed. PMID:23857261

  19. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals’ and society’s health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. Methods We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds’ decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. Results High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient −0.011; 95% confidence interval, −0.018 to −0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. Conclusions S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism. PMID:27108752

  20. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  1. Application of NIR Raman spectroscopy for detecting and characterizing early dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, A. C.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Zhu, R.; Hewko, M.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.; Sowa, M. G.

    2006-02-01

    Early dental caries detection facilitates implementation of non-surgical methods for arresting caries progression and promoting tooth remineralization. We present a method based on Raman spectroscopy with near-IR laser excitation to provide biochemical contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient carious lesions found in extracted human teeth. Changes in Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Examination of various intensities of the PO 4 3- ν2, ν3, ν4 vibrations showed consistent increased intensities in spectra of carious lesions compared to sound enamel. The spectral changes are attributed to demineralization-induced alterations of enamel crystallite morphology and/or orientation. This hypothesis is supported by reduced Raman polarization anisotropy derived from polarized Raman spectra of carious lesions. Polarized Raman spectral imaging of carious lesions found on whole (i.e. un-sectioned) tooth samples will also be presented.

  2. Early dental caries detection using a fibre-optic coupled polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopic system.

    PubMed

    Ko, Alex C-T; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael G; Dong, Cecilia C S; Cleghorn, Blaine; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing

    2008-04-28

    A new fibre-optic coupled polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopic system was developed for simultaneous collection of orthogonally polarized Raman spectra in a single measurement. An application of detecting incipient dental caries based on changes observed in Raman polarization anisotropy was also demonstrated using the developed fibre-optic Raman spectroscopic system. The predicted reduction of polarization anisotropy in the Raman spectra of caries lesions was observed and the results were consistent with those reported previously with Raman microspectroscopy. The capability of simultaneous collection of parallel- and cross-polarized Raman spectra of tooth enamel in a single measurement and the improved laser excitation delivery through fibre-optics demonstrated in this new design illustrates its future clinical potential.

  3. Early dental caries detection using a fibre-optic coupled polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopic system

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Alex C.-T.; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael G.; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Choo-Smith, Lin-P’ing

    2008-01-01

    A new fibre-optic coupled polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopic system was developed for simultaneous collection of orthogonally polarized Raman spectra in a single measurement. An application of detecting incipient dental caries based on changes observed in Raman polarization anisotropy was also demonstrated using the developed fibre-optic Raman spectroscopic system. The predicted reduction of polarization anisotropy in the Raman spectra of caries lesions was observed and the results were consistent with those reported previously with Raman microspectroscopy. The capability of simultaneous collection of parallel-and cross-polarized Raman spectra of tooth enamel in a single measurement and the improved laser excitation delivery through fibre-optics demonstrated in this new design illustrates its future clinical potential. PMID:18545331

  4. [Dental caries in the carceral middle of Dakar].

    PubMed

    Diouf, M; Lo, C M M; Cisse, D; Faye, D; Faye, B; Leye Benoist, F; Niang, C M

    2010-12-01

    Oral diseases, mainly tooth decay and periodontal disease, are among the most common conditions in the world. The tooth decay is very prevalent in developing countries and particularly in disadvantaged backgrounds where insecurity and its corollaries prevail. Thus, our study focused on one of these places: the prisons, characterized by deprivation of liberty, monotony, boredom, and the difficult conditions of detention, brief by a total dependence of the detainee. The aim of this study was to determine the DMFT (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth) in detainees dwelling in prisons in Dakar. This cross sectional study included 754 detainees aged 18 years and more with a stay exceeding more than a year, in one of the four main prisons of the capital city, Dakar. The majority of detainees was males (90%), aged between 18 and 35 years (63%) and was staying at "Camp penal" (65%). The proportion of inmates with at least one tooth cavity was 81.3%, those with teeth sealed was 26.1% and the prisoners with missing teeth reached 70.6%. The highest average DMFT was noted at "Camp penal" (7.3) among men (6.5) and among inmates aged 36 to 45 years (6.1) with a significant difference. The tooth decay is particularly worrying in the prison population, hence the urgency to establish a programme of prevention and care of oral diseases in this environment.

  5. Photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction in dental caries: in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Alessandra; Araujo Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    The reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in supragingival plaque is one of the principal factors in caries prevention and control. A large number of microorganisms have been reported to be inactivated in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model to investigate the effects of PDT on bacterial reduction in induced dental caries. Twenty four rats were orally inoculated with Streptococcus mutans cells (ATCC 25175) for three consecutive days. The animals were fed with a cariogenic diet and water with 10% of sucrose ad libitum, during all experimental period. Caries lesion formation was confirmed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. Then, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: Control Group: twelve animals were untreated by either light or photosensitizer; and PDT Group: twelve animals were treated with 100μM of methylene blue for 5min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED) at λ = 640+/-30nm, fluence of 172J/cm2, output power of 240mW, and exposure time of 3min. Microbiological samples were collected before, immediately after, 3, 7 and 10 days after treatment and the number of total microaerophiles was counted. OCT images showed areas of enamel demineralization on rat molars. Microbiological analysis showed a significant bacterial reduction after PDT. Furthermore, the number of total microaerophiles in PDT group remained lower than control group until 10 days posttreatment. These findings suggest that PDT could be an alternative approach to reduce bacteria in dental caries.

  6. Diabetes an inducing factor for dental caries: A case control analysis in Jammu

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Iqbal; Singh, Paramjeet; Singh, Amarpreet; Singh, Tara; Kour, Robindera

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic disease and it has emerged as a major health-care problem. There are more chances of dentinal caries among diabetics than nondiabetics. DM is responsible for causing ascendancy in the proportion and activity of saliva that impacts the oral health. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the impact of various factors present in saliva on tooth decay amid type-II DM in Jammu. Materials and Methods: The subjects in our analysis comprises of 50 patients with type-II DM and 50 controls within the age group of 30–60 years. Diabetic status was assessed by estimating random blood glucose levels. Dental findings were recorded using modified World Health Organization (WHO) Oral health survey-basic method 2013. Salivary samples from all the subjects were collected and sent to the laboratory for interpretation of pH, flow rate, and salivary calcium. The analysis of salivary components decayed tooth was carried using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's correlation test. All the parameters were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: The results have shown a significantly lower values of salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels in diabetics than in nondiabetics. Conclusion: Within the limits of the present study, the results indicated that patients with type-II DM have high rate of dental caries and are at high risk of caries development. The decline in the salivary components will reduce capability of supporting the mineral compartment of tooth structure to resist the demineralization process by cariogenic potentials thereby creating a favorable environment for caries progression. PMID:27114951

  7. Dental caries and associated factors in a group of Swedish snus users.

    PubMed

    Hellqvist, Lena; Rolandsson, Margot; Hugoson, Anders; Lingström, Peter; Birkhed, Dowen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Swedish moist powder tobacco product known as "snus" on dental caries and to measure the pH fall in dental plaque. The subjects comprised male and female adults between 26 and 62 years of age (n = 102), all habitual snus users for ≥ 10 years. The control group (n = 101) consisted of similar individuals in terms of gender, age and educational level but with no tobacco use for ≥ 10 years. A clinical and radiographic examination and a questionnaire were completed. The pH fall after a sucrose rinse was estimated in situ in 10 randomly selected subjects per group. The salivary secretion rate was higher in snus users than non-users (2.5 vs 2.2 ml/min, p = 0.005).There was no statistically significant difference regarding salivary buffer capacity. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of the plaque index, primary or secondary enamel and dentine caries, DFS and salivary counts of mutans streptococci or lactobacilli. The pH fall was somewhat more pronounced among non-users compared with snus users (NS). Snus users had a lower intake of snacks between meals and a less frequent intake of cookies (p = 0.000). Furthermore, snus users had a mean gingival index (± SD) for the whole dentition of 20.4 ± 18.2, while the index for non-users was 14.4 ± 13.9 (p = 0.09); the corresponding values for teeth 13-23 were 14.9 ± 20.6 and 7.7 ± 11.9 respectively (p = 0.003). To conclude, this clinical study revealed no statistically significant differences in caries prevalence between snus users and non-users and only minor differences regarding different caries associated factors.

  8. Tooth loss and dental caries in community-dwelling older adults in northern Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Ue, Frances V.; Borrell, Luisa N.; De La Cruz, Leydis D.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Bodnar, Stephanie; Marshall, Stephen; Lamster, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan. Background The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City. Materials and Methods Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%). Results The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism. Conclusion Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults. PMID:21718349

  9. Clinical validation of the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stookey, George K.; Isaacs, Roger L.; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea G.; Ando, Masatoshi; Gonzalez, Carlos; Mau, Melissa S.; Kelly, Sue A.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1999-05-01

    A clinical investigation was conducted in children to validate the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries. A total of 150 children were examined for the presence of dental caries at baseline and at 4-month intervals for one year using conventional visual-tactile with and without a dental explorer, electrical conductivity and light fluorescence methods on the occlusal, buccal and lingual tooth surfaces. Interproximal tooth surfaces were examined using conventional film and direct digital radiography at baseline and 12 months. Validation of the clinical methods was performed by the histologic examination of exfoliated primary teeth. The results indicate that visual-tactile examinations with an explorer detected more carious lesions than similar examinations without an explorer. The use of quantitative light fluorescence permitted the detection of a substantially greater number of enamel lesions or demineralized areas than the conventional visual-tactile-radiographic diagnostic procedure. Further, the use of the quantitative light fluorescence permitted the monitoring of both the progression of regression of early carious lesions.

  10. Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Somasundaram, Sujatha; Gawthaman, Murugesan; Vinodh, Selvaraj; Manikandan, Sundaram; Gokulnathan, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88%) children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6%) than in girls (61.5%). The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended. PMID:25210362

  11. Dental Caries Scenario Among 5, 12 and 15-Year-old Children in India- A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Jankiram, Chandrashekar; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease and children are one of the most affected groups. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the average dental caries prevalence across different WHO index age groups (5, 12 & 15 years) for the past fifteen years. Materials and Methods Literature search was performed electronically in various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, etc. using Dental caries and India as MeSH terms. Articles from the past 15 years reporting on dental caries prevalence and experience in India were searched and this online searching strategy collected and listed 781 articles. After evaluating their titles and abstracts, only 30 articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria & were finally selected for complete review and data collection. Five articles which were hand searched were also included. Pooled estimates were calculated for different index age groups and different regions (Northern and Southern) separately with a confidence interval of 95% both for prevalence and experience of dental caries. Results The pooled prevalence of dental caries was found to be highest in 15 year olds followed by 5 and 12 years (62.02%, 48.11% & 43.34% respectively). Weighted mean was also found to be highest for 15 years, followed by 5 and 12 years (2.56±6.508, 2.49±7.78, 1.48±3.292 respectively). Pooled prevalence and weighted mean for the Northernern India region was found to be more in all the index age groups as compared to the Southernern India region. Conclusion More than 40% of the children in India have shown dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth in the past 15 years. Also, Northernern region was found to be more affected by dental caries than Southern region. Since children are seen as the future of the nation, this data could be helpful in the planning of oral health care services by the concerned authorities in the community. PMID:26393229

  12. Development and evaluation of a new dental model at Tokyo Medical and Dental University for the practice of periodontal pocket probing.

    PubMed

    Sunaga, Masayo; Kondo, Keiko; Adachi, Toshiko; Miura, Yoshiko; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro

    2013-09-01

    Dental and dental hygiene students must acquire the skill of measuring periodontal pockets and learn to identify the bottom of a pocket, especially of deep periodontal pockets. A new dental model that would enable students to practice measuring deep periodontal pockets was developed at the Tokyo Medical and Dental University. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this model. Twenty dental hygiene students in their third year at the school and twenty-four instructors or dental hygienists of the University Hospital measured periodontal pockets on the newly designed dental model. Feasibility and effectiveness of the model were evaluated based on periodontal probing by the students and instructors, as well as results of a questionnaire. The results demonstrated an intraexaminer agreement (within ±1 mm) averaging 91 percent. The mean percentages of correct answers of the students and instructors were 82 percent and 80 percent, respectively. More than 90 percent of the instructors and students reported that the new model would be suitable for pocket probing training. In the questionnaire, they responded that this practice using the new model would contribute to students' future and that they wanted to try other dental models with various probing depths. The new dental model designed for periodontal pocket probing training was reported to be feasible and effective for student practice.

  13. [Systematic review about dental caries in children and adolescents with obesity and/or overweight].

    PubMed

    González Muñoz, María; Adobes Martín, Milagros; González de Dios, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Obesidad y el sobrepeso (O/SP) infantil han alcanzado caracteres de epidemia y son un factor de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas graves para la salud. El objetivo es realizar una revisión sistemática (RS) sobre la relación de O/SP con caries en pediatría. Material y métodos: RS de la literatura 2007-2011 en fuentes de información terciaria (Trip, Cochrane y NGC), secundaria (PubMed, IME, IBECS y MEDES) y primarias (revisión de referencias). Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes (niños de 0-18 años), factor de riesgo (O/SP) y variable de interés (primaria: caries; secundarias: resto patología bucodental). Datos recogidos: Autor, año, país, tipo de estudio, edad pacientes, casos (con O/SP) y controles (con índice de masa corporal -IMC- normal o bajo), estado socioeconómico, prevalencia de caries y otros resultados en salud bucodental. Resultados: Se localizaron un total de 48 documentos, de los que 37 cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda de la RS, distribuidos temporalmente: 6 artículos del año 2007, 6 del 2008, 5 del 2009, 11 del 2010 y 9 del 2011. Presentaron un grado de heterogeneidad muy amplio (en pacientes, intervención, variable principal de interés y tipo de diseño), lo que no permite aplicar síntesis cuantitativa (metanálisis) de los datos, pero si cualitativa. Los estudios son discordantes respecto a la relación entre IMC y frecuencia de caries (CAOD, caod). Conclusiones: La RS permite al odontólogo y pediatra conocer la potencial relación entre O/SP y caries dental.

  14. The dental caries experience, oral hygiene and dietary practices of preschool children of factory workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Todd, R V; Durward, C S; Chot, C; So, P K; Im, P

    1994-09-01

    Two hundred and thirty-seven children attending four Ministry of Industry nursery schools in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, were examined. Dental caries experience, oral cleanliness and soft tissue abnormalities were determined. 149 mothers of these children were interviewed and information was gathered about infant-feeding practices, weaning age, diet after weaning, toothbrushing and dental attendance. Dental caries experience was high, and only 36% of children aged 1-4 years and 4% of those aged 5-6 years were caries free. Only 15% of mothers reported bottle-feeding, but 70% of these used sweetened canned milk in the bottle. Oral hygiene was rated as poor in 80% of children and only 10% were reported to use a toothbrush. 43% of children were reported to have experienced toothache, but only 5% had been to a dentist.

  15. [Evaluation of the incidence of dental caries in patients with Down syndrome after their insertion in a preventive program].

    PubMed

    Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire de; Marta, Sara Nader

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of dental caries by means of the CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes in patients with Down syndrome regularly enrolled in a preventive program. Twenty four Down syndrome patients of both sexes age range of one to 48 years were examined. The prevalence (initial experimental situation) and incidence (final experimental situation) of dental caries were verified using of the initial and final CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes of the participants. From 24 individual examined, 10 (42.0%) were free of caries. The prevalence of dental caries showed values of CPO-D= 2.33; CPO-S= 3.60; ceo-d= 1.75 e ceo-s= 2.80; while the incidence of caries showed values of 2.33; 3.80; 1.10 e 1.90, respectively. Down syndrome individuals evaluated in this study presented low level of caries and small incidence of new lesions, emphasizing the importance of the maintenance of these patients at preventive programs.

  16. Validation of Self-Reported Information on Dental Caries in a Birth Cohort at 18 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Method Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041). Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014) by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor. Results The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1) was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%–69.3%) and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%–61.8%), respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%–84.7%) and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%–82.4%) in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation). Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency. Conclusions Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents. PMID:25202969

  17. Analysis of health behaviour change interventions for preventing dental caries delivered in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes.

  18. Dental Caries and Enamel Defects in Very Low Birth Weight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S.; Albert, J.M.; Lombardi, G.; Wishnek, S.; Asaad, G.; Kirchner, H.L.; Singer, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine developmental enamel defects and dental caries in very low birth weight adolescents with high risk (HR-VLBW) and low risk (LR-VLBW) compared to full-term (term) adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 224 subjects (80 HR-VLBW, 59 LR-VLBW, 85 term adolescents) recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. Sociodemographic and medical information was available from birth. Dental examination of the adolescent at the 14-year visit included: enamel defects (opacity and hypoplasia); decayed, missing, filled teeth of incisors and molars (DMFT-IM) and of overall permanent teeth (DMFT); Simplified Oral Hygiene Index for debris/calculus on teeth, and sealant presence. A caregiver questionnaire completed simultaneously assessed dental behavior, access, insurance status and prevention factors. Hierarchical analysis utilized the zero-inflated negative binomial model and zero-inflated Poisson model. Results The zero-inflated negative binomial model controlling for sociodemographic variables indicated that the LR-VLBW group had an estimated 75% increase (p < 0.05) in number of demarcated opacities in the incisors and first molar teeth compared to the term group. Hierarchical modeling indicated that demarcated opacities were a significant predictor of DMFT-IM after control for relevant covariates. The term adolescents had significantly increased DMFT-IM and DMFT scores compared to the LR-VLBW adolescents. Conclusion LR-VLBW was a significant risk factor for increased enamel defects in the permanent incisors and first molars. Term children had increased caries compared to the LR-VLBW group. The effect of birth group and enamel defects on caries has to be investigated longitudinally from birth. PMID:20975268

  19. Antenatal Health Care and Postnatal Dental Check-Ups Prevent Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yukie; Mori, Yukako; Tamaoka, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    The first stage of early childhood caries (ECC) is infection by mutans streptococci, of which the primary infection source is the child's mother. Early intervention programs including antenatal and postnatal phases are effective for reducing ECC. This study was conducted to assess the respective effects of antenatal health care and postnatal care such as regular dental check-ups on reducing ECC among 3-year-old Japanese children. This nested case-control study of 155 three-year-old children (49.0% boys) was conducted at a dental clinic that provides collaborative health services with the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Okayama. Child characteristics and the mothers' antenatal data were collected retrospectively from the dental charts. They were divided into two groups: caries-free children (n = 77) and children without ECC (n = 78). Most of the children (81.9%) received regular check-ups with topical fluoride application. Most of the mothers reported morning sickness during pregnancy (81.3%), normal delivery (72.9%), and used antenatal health care (80.6%). Over half (55.5%) were primigravida. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidential interval (95% CI) were computed to assess the strength of association using logistic regression analysis. Receiving antenatal health care (AOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.30-8.24) and child's having regular check-ups (AOR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.35-8.69) were significantly associated with caries-free status among three-year old children. For ECC prevention, antenatal health care is as effective as regular check-ups up to three years of age. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate that maternal health education during pregnancy is effective for ECC prevention.

  20. Longitudinal evaluation of the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Janice S; Sarracini, Karin L M; Meneghim, Marcelo C; Pereira, Antônio C; Ortega, Edwin M M; Martins, Natália S; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren and the responsiveness of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 ) instrument. Brazilian schoolchildren, 8-10 yr of age, were randomly selected and assigned to two groups--dental caries treatment (DCT) and caries-free (CF)--according to their caries experience [decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing or filled secondary teeth (DMFT) values of ≥ 0]. The CPQ8-10 instrument was administered at baseline and at 4 wk of follow-up (i.e. 4 wk after completion of dental treatment). In the DCT group, increases in CPQ8-10 scores were observed between the baseline and follow-up results. However, longitudinal evaluation of the CF group demonstrated no statistically significant difference in CPQ8-10 scores. Responsiveness of the CPQ8-10 instrument (magnitude of change in CPQ8-10 scores) in the DCT group was greater (effect size >0.7) than in the CF group. The findings of this study show that dental caries treatment has an important impact on OHRQoL of children. The CPQ8-10 was considered an acceptable instrument for longitudinal measurement of changes in OHRQoL.

  1. Dental management of early childhood caries in spastic quadriparesis: a case report and clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of CP are often accompanied by epilepsy, secondary musculoskeletal problems, and disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Spastic quadriparesis is the most severe form of spastic cerebral palsy. The present report describes the management of a 5-year-old patient with early childhood caries and spastic quadriparesis. The oral manifestations and clinical guidelines are discussed considering the special health care needs in these patients so as to provide comprehensive dental care.

  2. Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2001-04-01

    Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

  3. General dental practitioners' views on early childhood caries and timing of the first dental visit in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Alaa S; Schroth, Robert J; Abu-Hassan, Mohamed I

    2015-03-01

    This survey evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Selangor regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention and the recommended timing of a child's first dental visit. A questionnaire was mailed to 521 licensed GDPs. Descriptive statistics were used, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 52.6%. Although 89.8% mentioned counseling parents and caregivers, only 44.2% were familiar with anticipatory guidance. Whereas 98.2% agreed that early examinations are important to prevent ECC, only 51.8% were aware of the recommendation for a first visit by 12 months of age. GDPs who recommended early dental visits were significantly more likely to be recent graduates, more familiar with professional guidelines, and less likely to be deterred by a child's crying or behavior. In conclusion, GDPs in Selangor are aware about the importance of early dental visits in ECC prevention. However, a considerable number of them are still not aware of the recommendation that children must first visit the dentist by 12 months of age. Furthermore, some of their current practices in ECC management and prevention do not match professional recommendations.

  4. Effects of Enamel Fluorosis and Dental Caries on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Onoriobe, U.; Rozier, R.G.; Cantrell, J.; King, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean’s index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p < .001), ECOHIS (B = 0.252, p ≤ .001), and FIS (B = 0.096, p ≤ .01) scores in ordinary least squares regression models. A child’s caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact. PMID:25154834

  5. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p < .001), ECOHIS (B = 0.252, p ≤ .001), and FIS (B = 0.096, p ≤ .01) scores in ordinary least squares regression models. A child's caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact.

  6. Surgical periodontal therapy at Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital: a statistical profile in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hiroki; Ota, Kei; Ida, Atsushi; Fujinami, Koushu; Furusawa, Masahiro; Makiishi, Takemi; Nikaido, Masahiko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Saito, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the profile of surgical periodontal therapy performed at the Suidobashi Hospital of Tokyo Dental College, during the period of April 2010 through March 2011. A total of 112 periodontal surgeries in 69 patients (mean age: 51.4 years; 28 men and 41 women) were registered for the data analysis. The surgical interventions performed by 17 dentists comprised 79 cases of open flap debridement, 27 cases of periodontal regenerative therapy with enamel matrix derivative and 6 cases of periodontal plastic surgery. Eighty percent of the surgical sites were in the molar region and 41 cases had furcation involvement. In these patients, an improvement in oral hygiene status was observed prior to surgery: the mean plaque score of 45% at initial visit was significantly reduced to 31% after initial periodontal therapy (p<0.01). At sites that subsequently received open flap debridement or periodontal regenerative therapy, the mean probing depth and clinical attachment level after initial therapy was 6.4 mm and 7.6 mm, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those at initial visit (p<0.01). Lower prevalence of sites with positive bleeding on probing was observed after initial therapy. The initial periodontal therapy performed was considered to be effective in improving the periodontal condition of the sites prior to surgery. More effort, however, is indicated in improvement of patient oral hygiene status.

  7. Cognitive Impairment, Oral Self-care Function and Dental Caries Severity in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer JJ; Chen, Hong; Naorungroj, Supawadee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether oral self-care function mediates the associations between cognitive impairment and caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. Background Cognitive impairment significantly affects activities of daily living and compromises oral health, systemic health and quality of life in older adults. However, the associations among cognitive impairment, oral self-care capacity and caries severity remain unclear. This increases difficulty in developing effective interventions for cognitively impaired patients. Materials and methods Medical, dental, cognitive and functional assessments were abstracted from the dental records of 600 community-dwelling elderly. 230 participants were selected using propensity score matching and categorised into normal, cognitive impairment but no dementia (CIND) and dementia groups based on their cognitive status and a diagnosis of dementia. Multivariable regressions were developed to examine the mediating effect of oral self-care function on the association between cognitive status and number of caries or retained roots. Results Cognitive impairment, oral self-care function and dental caries severity were intercorrelated. Multivariable analysis showed that without adjusting for oral self-care capacity, cognition was significantly associated with the number of caries or retained roots (p = 0.003). However, the association was not significant when oral self-care capacity was adjusted (p = 0.125). In contrast, individuals with impaired oral self-care capacity had a greater risk of having a caries or retained root (RR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.15, 2.44). Conclusion Oral care capacity mediates the association between cognition and dental caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23758583

  8. Distinct signatures of dental plaque metabolic byproducts dictated by periodontal inflammatory status

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Akito; Kuboniwa, Masae; Hashino, Ei; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Amano, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Onset of chronic periodontitis is associated with an aberrant polymicrobial community, termed dysbiosis. Findings regarding its etiology obtained using high-throughput sequencing technique suggested that dysbiosis holds a conserved metabolic signature as an emergent property. The purpose of this study was to identify robust biomarkers for periodontal inflammation severity. Furthermore, we investigated disease-associated metabolic signatures of periodontal microbiota using a salivary metabolomics approach. Whole saliva samples were obtained from adult subjects before and after removal of supragingival plaque (debridement). Periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) was employed as an indicator of periodontal inflammatory status. Based on multivariate analyses using pre-debridement salivary metabolomics data, we found that metabolites associated with higher PISA included cadaverine and hydrocinnamate, while uric acid and ethanolamine were associated with lower PISA. Next, we focused on dental plaque metabolic byproducts by selecting salivary metabolites significantly decreased following debridement. Metabolite set enrichment analysis revealed that polyamine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, butyric acid metabolism, and lysine degradation were distinctive metabolic signatures of dental plaque in the high PISA group, which may be related to the metabolic signatures of disease-associated communities. Collectively, our findings identified potential biomarkers of periodontal inflammatory status and also provide insight into metabolic signatures of dysbiotic communities. PMID:28220901

  9. Association between untreated dental caries and household food insecurity in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Santin, Gabriela Cristina; Pintarelli, Tatiana Pegoretti; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association between untreated dental caries (UDC) and household food insecurity (HFI) among schoolchildren in different income strata. A population-based study was carried out with a sample of 584 12-y-old schoolchildren. Oral examinations were performed and HFI was determined using a validated scale. Other independent variables were analyzed for being of interest to the stratification of the results (per capita household income) or for acting as potential confounding variables. The prevalence of UDC and HFI was 45% and 39%, respectively. The multivariate models demonstrated that the UDC was significantly more prevalent among children in food-insecure households with per capita income of up to US$ 70.71 than among those in the same income stratum that were free of HFI [PR = 1.52 (95%CI = 1.01-2.29)]. HFI was associated with a greater frequency of UDC among low-income schoolchildren, but had no significant impact on this variable among children from other income strata. Thus, ensuring access to quality food may be a good strategy for minimizing inequities in oral health and reducing dental caries experience among schoolchildren from low-income families.

  10. Effects of fluoridated drinking water on dental caries in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E; Do, L; Roberts-Thomson, K; Spencer, A J

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews produce conflicting conclusions regarding dental caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation in adults. The authors investigated the relationship using data from the nationally representative 2004-2006 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Effects were compared between the pre-fluoridation cohort born before 1960 (n = 2,270) and the cohort born between 1960 and 1990 (n = 1,509), when widespread implementation of fluoridation increased population coverage from < 1% to 67%. Residential history questionnaires determined the percentage of each person's lifetime exposed to fluoridated water. Examiners recorded decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF-Teeth) and decayed and filled tooth surfaces (DF-Surfaces). Socio-demographic and preventive dental behaviors were included in multivariable least-squares regression models adjusted for potential confounding. In fully adjusted models, > 75% of lifetime exposure to fluoridation relative to < 25% of lifetime exposure was associated with 11% and 10% fewer DMF-Teeth in the pre-1960 (p < .0001) and 1960-1990 cohorts (p = .018), respectively. Corresponding reductions in DF-Surfaces were 30% (p < .001) and 21% (p < .001). Findings for intermediate fluoridation exposure suggested a dose-response relationship. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses accounting for missing data. In this nationally representative sample of Australian adults, caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation were at least as great in adults born before widespread implementation of fluoridation as after widespread implementation of fluoridation.

  11. Oral and dental health care of oral cancer patients: hyposalivation, caries and infections.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H; Grönroos, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Oral cancer and its treatment can cause a variety of problems to patients, also as regards maintaining their daily oral hygiene. Surgery mutilates tissues which may hamper cleaning the teeth and mucosal surfaces. The patient may have complicated reconstructive structures that also need continuous attention. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation further complicates the situation and decreases the quality of life. Consequently, dental caries, mucosal diseases such as candidosis and sialadenitis become problematic to treat. Hence every effort should be focused on prevention. In caries prevention intensified fluoride therapy together with dietary counseling is needed. Oral cancer patients also need to be frequently referred to dental hygienists for professional cleaning. Drinking enough daily and moisturizing mucosal surfaces with commercial dry-mouth products, vegetable oils, milk products and respective topical agents need to be individually recommended. In addition, patients with severe dry mouth cases may also benefit from the prescription of pilocarpine tablets. In oral candidosis, the microbiological diagnosis must be confirmed before administration of antifungal drugs in order to avoid the selection pressure to resistant strains.

  12. Scientific knowledge and clinical authority in dentistry: James Sim Wallace and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, M; Taylor, G S

    2009-03-01

    Once the germ theory had become generally accepted within medicine, the importance of experimental science to the improvement of medical practice could no longer be reasonably doubted. However, clinicians still sought to retain control of how knowledge that had originated in the laboratory was interpreted and applied within practical diagnostics and therapeutics. Thus how practitioners incorporated new scientific knowledge into their medical discourse and practice is a matter for careful empirical inquiry. James Sim Wallace, born in Renfrewshire in 1869 and a graduate in medicine from the University of Glasgow, was a leading figure in British dentistry throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Through an examination of his voluminous writings, we explore how the new 'chemico-parasitical' theory of dental caries was accommodated within dentists' understanding of oral hygiene. The paper also looks at the controversies that surrounded the application of the vitamin theory to the problems of rickets and dental caries, focusing on the contentious interaction between Sim Wallace and his colleagues, on the one hand, and the eminent physiologists May and Edward Mellanby, on the other.

  13. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  14. Age estimation from dental cementum incremental lines and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Dias, P E M; Beaini, T L; Melani, R F H

    2010-12-01

    Age estimation by counting incremental lines in cementum added to the average age of tooth eruption is considered an accurate method by some authors, while others reject it stating weak correlation between estimated and actual age. The aim of this study was to evaluate this technique and check the influence of periodontal disease on age estimates by analyzing both the number of cementum lines and the correlation between cementum thickness and actual age on freshly extracted teeth. Thirty one undecalcified ground cross sections of approximately 30 µm, from 25 teeth were prepared, observed, photographed and measured. Images were enhanced by software and counts were made by one observer, and the results compared with two control-observers. There was moderate correlation ((r)=0.58) for the entire sample, with mean error of 9.7 years. For teeth with periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.03 with a mean error of 22.6 years. For teeth without periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.74 with mean error of 1.6 years. There was correlation of 0.69 between cementum thickness and known age for the entire sample, 0.25 for teeth with periodontal problems and 0.75 for teeth without periodontal pathologies. The technique was reliable for periodontally sound teeth, but not for periodontally diseased teeth.

  15. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P < 0.05), the decreases were not consistent with the degree of periodontitis. Furthermore, the cells did not necessarily show significantly diminished in vitro multi-differentiation potential. Only DPSCs from Group A and the Control group formed dentin-like matrix in vivo when cell-seeded biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the

  16. [Polarization of dental caries in teen-agers in the southwest of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales; de Carvalho, Fábio Silva; de Carvalho, Cristiane Paz; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2008-12-01

    In most Brazilian cities, oral health is still a challenge for the Brazilian Health System (SUS). The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index), the differences with regard to gender and geographic localization, Significant Caries Index and the percentages of caries-free adolescents in Itaí-SP - Brazil, in 2006. The methodology used was in agreement with the criteria established by the WHO. The sample was composed of 178 teen-agers, corresponding to 46% of the 12-years-old registered in the schools of the city. One single examiner performed the examination. The Kappa test method was used with an agreement rater of 0.95. The DMTF index was of 2.45, SiC of 5.08 and 30% of the adolescents were caries-free. It was observed that 70% of caries cases were concentrated in 34% of the adolescents. The data obtained showed a polarization of dental caries in 12-years-old adolescents, but this polarization was not uniform. The problems are concentrated in a small portion of the population.

  17. Diagnoses and treatment proposals in periodontal treatment. A comparison between dentists, dental hygienists and undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Leisnert, Leif; Axtelius, Björn; Johansson, Veronica; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out how professionals in Swedish dental care perform diagnostic procedures in general. Is there a common ground between dentists and dental hygienists concerning sharing different job assignments in an effective way? Are the methods of treatment used in accordance with degree of severity of the disease and to what extent is proposed treatment in accordance with the National Guidelines? A questionnaire consisting of three different patient cases with periodontal disease was sent to 804 private practitioners, 809 dentists in Dental Public Service, 802 dental hygienists and 40 dental students on their final semester at the Dental School in Malmö. The questionnaire was completed by 1,103 respondents (47%). A majority of all practitioner groups (94%) found that a relatively healthy patient had disease, the risk for developing further disease was deemed none too low by 97%, but 91% wanted to give preventive care. A vast majority suggested more dental care to healthy patients as compared to patients with severe periodontal disease. In Conclusion the two groups, i.e. dentists and dental hygienists, did not to a sufficiently high degree share views on diagnosis and treatment, in order to optimize the resources in dentistry. The delivery of dental care was not in line with the severity of disease and too much attention was paid to the needs of relatively healthy persons. To change this pattern, the incentives in and structure of the national assurance system could be adapted. Furthermore, the knowledge basis for periodontal diagnosis and treatment needs, with special reference to the National Guidelines, should to a higher degree be shared by all caregivers.

  18. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings. PMID:22825606

  19. Impacts on quality of life related to dental caries in a national representative sample of Thai 12- and 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Krisdapong, S; Prasertsom, P; Rattanarangsima, K; Sheiham, A

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is generally given the highest priority in national oral health services for school-aged populations. Yet, there is no study exploring the impacts on quality of life specifically related to dental caries in national samples of school-aged children. This study assessed prevalence and characteristics of oral impacts attributed to dental caries on quality of life and compared them with overall oral health impacts. In addition, associations of oral impacts attributed to dental caries and dental caries status were investigated. A national representative sample of 1,063 12- and 811 15-year-olds completed a sociodemographic and behavioural questionnaire, and were orally examined and interviewed about oral health-related quality of life using the Child-OIDP or OIDP indexes, respectively. Associations of condition-specific impacts (CS impacts) attributed to dental caries with components of DMF were investigated using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regressions. CS impacts attributed to dental caries were reported by nearly half the children and such impacts accounted for half of overall oral impacts from all oral conditions. The majority of impacts were of little intensity and affected only 1-2 daily performances, particularly performances on Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth. CS impacts were significantly positively associated with number of decayed teeth, and strongly associated with severe decay.

  20. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H; Amaechi, Bennet T

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  1. The use of in vitro model systems to study dental biofilms associated with caries: a short review

    PubMed Central

    Salli, Krista M.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    A dental biofilm forms a distinct environment where microorganisms live in a matrix of extracellular polysaccharides. The biofilm favors certain bacteria and creates a habitat that functions differently compared to planktonic bacteria. Reproducible model systems which help to address various questions related to biofilm formation, the process of caries development, and its prevention are needed and are continuously developed. Recent research using both batch culture, continuous culture and flow cells in caries biofilm formation is presented. The development of new techniques and equipment has led to a deeper understanding of how caries biofilms function. Biofilm models have also been used in the development of materials inhibiting secondary caries. This short review summarizes available models to study these questions. PMID:25740099

  2. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Amaechi, Bennet T.

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  3. Bacteriocins in S. mutans strains isolated from children with and without dental caries: biotypes and sensitivity to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Fredy; Chaves, Margarita; Estupiñan, Mabel; Galindo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the production of bacteriocins in the Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from children with and without dental caries. With this purpose the dmft index was determined and non-stimulated saliva was collected from 53 3- to 5-year-old children. The samples were cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and incubated anaerobically for two days at 37 degrees C. The isolates were biotyped using the Api-ZYM enzymatic system (bioMérieux; Marcy-lE'toile, France). Bacteriocin was detected using the double layer onto brain heart infusion agar technique and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the isolates were evaluated against penicillin, amoxycillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin using an agar dilution method. The dental caries experience in these children was 66% (35/53) and dmft index average was 3.2 (range 2-6). S. mutans was found in the saliva of 33 children (62%). In the 33 strains of S. mutans, 10 biotypes were found. Eight (24%) of the 33 strains evaluated produced bacteriocins, 6 of these strains came from patients with dental caries and the other two from patients without dental caries. All isolates were highly sensitive to the antibiotics tested.

  4. The Impact of Dietary and Tooth-Brushing Habits to Dental Caries of Special School Children with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te

    2010-01-01

    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males,…

  5. Impact of a dental care program on the quality of life of children with and without caries.

    PubMed

    Paula, Janice Simpson de; Sarracini, Karin Luciana Migliato; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Pereira, Antônio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of the caries treatment provided by a dental care program on changes in schoolchildren's OHRQoL. A one-year follow-up was conducted with a sample of 372 children aged 8 to 10 years which were clinically examined and divided into two matched groups according to their caries experience: dental treatment group (DTG) and group without caries (GWC). Both groups were assessed three times (at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 1 year) using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10). The normality test was performed for the statistical analyses; the Friedman test was used for the dependent variables (longitudinal assessment repeated three times for the same group); and the Mann-Whitney test was used for the independent variables (test and control groups in each time period). There was improvement in all domains and in overall CPQ8-10 (p < 0.0001) in the DTG over time, but no significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed at baseline for overall CPQ8-10 and for the emotional well-being domain in the GWC. The comparison between groups demonstrated that OHRQoL was persistently better for the GWC (p < 0.05) over time. In conclusion, dental caries treatment has a long-term positive impact on schoolchildren's OHRQoL, highlighting the importance of health policies that promote access to dental care for this population.

  6. Presence of Streptococcus mutans strains harbouring the cnm gene correlates with dental caries status and IgA nephropathy conditions

    PubMed Central

    Misaki, Taro; Naka, Shuhei; Hatakeyama, Rina; Fukunaga, Akiko; Nomura, Ryota; Isozaki, Taisuke; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of human dental caries. Strains harbouring the cnm gene, which encodes Cnm, a collagen-binding protein, contribute to the development of several systemic diseases. In this study, we analysed S. mutans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) patients to determine potential relationships between cnm and caries status as well as IgAN conditions. Saliva specimens were collected from 109 IgAN patients and the cnm status of isolated S. mutans strains was determined using PCR. In addition, the dental caries status (decayed, missing or filled teeth [DMFT] index) in patients who agreed to dental consultation (n = 49) was evaluated. The DMFT index and urinary protein levels in the cnm-positive group were significantly higher than those in the cnm-negative group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the urinary protein levels in the high DMFT (≥15) group were significantly higher than those in the low DMFT (<15) group (p < 0.05). Our results show that isolation of cnm-positive S. mutans strains from the oral cavity may be associated with urinary protein levels in IgAN patients, especially those with a high dental caries status. PMID:27811984

  7. Prediction of Future High Caries Increments for Children in a School Dental Service and in Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imfeld, Thomas N.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting high dental caries increments for children, based on previous research, is presented. Three clinical findings were identified as predictors: number of sound primary molars, number of discolored pits/fissures on first permanent molars, and number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of first permanent molars with white…

  8. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group. Study in rats.

    PubMed

    Kantorski, Karla Zanini; de Souza, Daniela Martins; Yujra, Verônica Quispe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG), 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG), and water (Control Group, CG). After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10(3)) were: 8.17 (AG), 9.78 (IG), and 5.63 (CG). There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58) was similar to that in the AG (2.06) and in the CG (1.14), and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14), IG (2.00) and CG (0.43). The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.

  9. Relationship between Frequency of Sugary Food and Drink Consumption with Occurrence of Dental Caries among Preschool Children in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Zahara, A M; Fashihah, M H; Nurul, A Y

    2010-04-01

    Dental caries are attributed to various factors including diet. The present crosssectional study determined the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption and defined its relationship to dental caries among preschool children. A total of 50 preschoolers (aged 5-6 years) in three kindergartens of the Department of Community Development (KEMAS) in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur participated in this study. A set of structured questionnaires was used to assess the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption. Dental check ups were performed by a dentist. The dft index (decayed, filled teeth) was used to describe incidence of caries in subjects. Results showed that 62% of the subjects had dental caries. with the mean dft score being 3.72. The frequency of sugary food consumption by the majority of subjects was 2 times a day, while the frequency of sugary drink consumption was more than 3 times a day. There was no significant relationship between frequency of sugary food and drink consumption with incidence of caries. Subjects with high dft scores were more likely to report dental pain. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers in this study was high, indicating a need for effective dental health promotion to improve dental health status of this age group.

  10. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Avila, Walesca M; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

  11. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  12. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Walesca M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Paiva, Saul M.; Martins, Carolina C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23–0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence. PMID:26579710

  13. Occurrence of dental caries in primary and permanent dentition, oral health status and treatment needs among 12-15 year old school children of Jorpati VDC, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S

    2014-12-01

    Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.

  14. Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Walker, Mary P; Kisling, Rebecca E; Liu, Ying; Williams, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ≥6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient.

  15. [Dental status in children and adolescents diagnosed with obesity].

    PubMed

    Galkina, Iu V; Gavrilova, O A; Piekalnits, I Ia; Dianov, O A

    2015-01-01

    Dental status was studied in 168 obese teenagers aged from 12 to 17 years. The study revealed high prevalence in this group of teenagers of oral pathology like caries and fluorosis, inflammatory periodontal disease in 75% of children and poor oral hygiene level. One should consider high need for development of treatment-and-prophylactic measures for improvement of dental status in obese teenagers.

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans a major periodontal pathogen using polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kush, Anil; Thakur, Rachna; Patil, Sandya Devi S.; Paul, Santhosh T.; Kakanur, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the present scenario, we are made available with chemomechanical caries removal system containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for the ease in the excavation of infected dentine. The additive action for these agents is providing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: This study was undertaken for assessing the action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected for cultivation of the periodontal pathogen from the clinical periodontal pockets using sterile paper points. The samples cultured under suitable conditions were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting 16s r-DNA. The samples were divided into three groups namely, Group A: Control, Group B: With Papacarie Duo, Group C: With Carie Care. The pathogen inoculums plugs were inserted in the petri dishes containing chemically defined medium and the experimental gels at different concentrations and were incubated under optimal conditions. The inhibition of growth of the pathogen was studied visually. Results: There was visual inhibition of growth for Group B and C and also exhibited a dose-dependent effect also. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, Carie Care™ gel demonstrated better antimicrobial action against A. actinomycetemcomitans which is a major periodontal disease causing pathogen. PMID:26681861

  17. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:…

  18. A comparison of methods of ranking the provision of periodontal services by dental practices in south Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, L F

    1995-03-01

    Wide variations documented in the provision of periodontal services have raised concerns about possible under- and over-servicing. The aim of this study was to compare various methods used to measure the provision of periodontal services. The methods compared were procedure logs to measure service mix, audits of patients' records and patients' recall of treatment received at their last series of dental visits. The study was conducted among private general dental practices in Adelaide, South Australia. The first aspect of the study compared 2,290 patients' recall of receiving periodontal information, including oral hygiene instruction, or periodontal treatment at their last dental visit(s) with notations of their dental records. Discordance was high, with disagreement occurring in 71.5 per cent of cases for patient education, and 42.2 per cent of cases for periodontal treatment. Comparison of the ranking of the provision of periodontally-related services by 24 dental practices according to the three data collection methods showed that the ranking of a practice was significantly related to the data collection method used (Friedman's two-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). It was concluded that methods used to measure the provision of periodontal care are fallible, and that more than one method may be needed to record the full range of preventive and treatment services.

  19. Consensus training: an effective tool to minimize variations in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among dental faculty and students.

    PubMed

    John, Vanchit; Lee, Seung-Jun; Prakasam, Sivaraman; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    Considerable disagreements and variations exist in diagnosis and treatment planning of periodontal disease. Achieving high interrater periodontal diagnosis can prove challenging. The objectives of this study were to measure variations in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among predoctoral periodontics faculty members after consensus training and to compare such variation with those identified in third- and fourth-year dental students. Nine electronically stored case vignettes and survey instruments were made available to eighteen faculty members and twenty dental students under standardized conditions. A chi-square test was used to compare responses between groups, and multirater kappa tests were used to evaluate interrater agreement/reliability. Of the nine cases, only one differed between groups significantly in terms of treatment. Also, third-year students differed from fourth-year students on the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis versus chronic periodontitis. Most respondents were able to distinguish clearly among diagnoses of chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and gingivitis. This study established a baseline assessment of the current status of consensus after training. We will reassess variations after addressing the specific challenges identified. Programs designed and implemented to help decrease the variation in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among faculty members may ultimately translate into better agreement and better standardization of dental instruction.

  20. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is called gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease. Ongoing inflammation eventually causes pockets to develop between ... you to a specialist in the treatment of periodontal disease (periodontist). Diagnosis of periodontitis is generally simple. Diagnosis ...

  1. Dental Caries in American Indian Toddlers after a Community-Based Beverage Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Karanja, Njeri; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Lutz, Tam; Aickin, Mikel; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Setting The Toddler Overweight and Tooth decay prevention Study (TOTS) was an overweight and early childhood caries (ECC) project in the Pacific Northwest USA. It targeted American Indian (AI) toddlers from birth, to effect changes in breastfeeding and sweetened beverage consumption. Design/Intervention/Participants The intervention cohort was children born in three communities during 12 months; expectant mothers were identified through prenatal visits, and recruited by tribal coordinators. The local comparison cohorts were children in those communities who were 18–30 months at study start. A control longitudinal cohort consisted of annual samples of children aged 18–30 months in a fourth community, supplying secular trends. Outcome measures d1–2mfs was used to identify incident caries in intervention, comparison, and control cohorts after 18-to-30 months of follow-up in 2006. Results No missing or filled teeth were found. For d1t, all three intervention cohorts showed statistically significant downward intervention effects, decreases of between 0.300 and 0.631 in terms of the fraction of affected mouths. The results for d2t were similar but of smaller magnitudes, decreases of between 0.342 and 0.449; these results met the 0.05 level for significance in two of three cases. In light of an estimated secular increase in dental caries in the control site, all three intervention cohorts showed improvements in both d1t and d2t. Conclusions Simple interventions targeting sweetened beverage availability (in combination with related measures) reduced high tooth decay trends, and were both feasible and acceptable to the AI communities we studied. PMID:21305835

  2. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children.

  3. A Cross-sectional Study for Assessment of Untreated Dental Caries and Its Consequences among Slum-dwelling Children

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Sakshi; Nagpal, Ruchi; Oberoi, Sukhvinder S; Dhingra, Chandan; Arora, Dimple

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries affects humans of all ages throughout the world and remains the major dental public health problem among children globally. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the cluster sampling technique to obtain the required sample size of 400 children from urban slum population of Faridabad, Haryana, India. Data were collected using World Health Organization dentition status 1997 criteria and PUFA/pufa index. Type of study Cross-sectional study. Results Among 6- to 12-year-age group, 68.5% subjects had one or more decayed deciduous teeth, of which 65.3% subjects had one or more pufa score, and 26.4% subjects were having one or more decayed permanent teeth, of which 16.7% subjects were having one or more PUFA score. The overall caries prevalence was 79.64% and overall prevalence of one or more than one PUFA+pufa was reported in 69.2% subjects. Conclusion The findings of the study showed the relevance of PUFA/pufa index to address the neglected problem of untreated caries and its consequences. The study also suggests the importance for implementation of the primary oral care programs for this deprived population. How to cite this article Marya C, Kataria S, Nagpal R, Oberoi SS, Dhingra C, Arora D. A Cross-sectional Study for Assessment of Untreated Dental Caries and Its Consequences among Slum-dwelling Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):29-33. PMID:28377651

  4. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006

  5. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…

  6. Optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries with polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Stephen Chin-Ying; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We report the utility of a rapid polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique developed for optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries in the tooth. Hyperspectral SRS images (512 × 512 pixels) of the tooth covering both the fingerprint (800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (2800-3600 cm−1) regions can be acquired within 15 minutes, which is at least 103 faster in imaging speed than confocal Raman mapping. Hyperspectral SRS imaging uncovers the biochemical distributions and variations across the carious enamel in the tooth. SRS imaging shows that compared to the sound enamel, the mineral content in the body of lesion decreases by 55%; while increasing up to 110% in the surface zone, indicating the formation of a hyper-mineralized layer due to the remineralization process. Further polarized SRS imaging shows that the depolarization ratios of hydroxyapatite crystals (ν1-PO43- of SRS at 959 cm−1) of the tooth in the sound enamel, translucent zone, body of lesion and the surface zone are 0.035 ± 0.01, 0.052 ± 0.02, 0.314 ± 0.1, 0.038 ± 0.02, respectively, providing a new diagnostic criterion for discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in the teeth. This work demonstrates for the first time that the polarization-resolved hyperspectral SRS imaging technique can be used for quantitatively determining tooth mineralization levels and discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in a rapid fashion, proving its promising potential of early detection and diagnosis of dental caries without labeling. PMID:27446654

  7. Dental rehabilitation of the patient with severe caries after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fattore, L; Rosenstein, H E; Fine, L

    1986-01-01

    Dental management of the patient with severe caries after radiation therapy can be accomplished by the general practitioner in an office setting. Because of the decrease in vascularity that results from radiotherapy, the general practitioner must keep the following points in mind when treating these patients: Extraction of teeth that were in the field of radiotherapy is contraindicated. If there is a question about a possible extraction, consultation should be made with the patient's radiotherapist and a hospital-trained dentist (preferably, an oral surgeon). Endodontic treatment is the only treatment indicated for pulpally damaged teeth in the field of radiotherapy. When endodontic treatment is done, the following precautions are necessary: all teeth that are an immediate source of infection must be treated first; prophylactic antibiotics should be administered for the duration of treatment'; all endodontic procedures must be administered in an aseptic field of treatment--if a tooth is badly deteriorated as a result of severe caries, a copper band should be used with a rubber dam and no tooth should ever be left "open for drainage" in these patients; temporary fillings should be of sufficient strength to prevent contamination between appointments; tooth-length determination should be done with precision--instrumentation beyond the apex should be avoided; caustic irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite should be avoided--sterile water or sterile saline solution is preferable. For fabrication of prostheses, the general practitioner should be aware that: metallic-oxide impression materials such as zinc-oxide and eugenol should be avoided because of their irritating properties; trismus is common when the masticatory muscles are bilaterally in the field of radiotherapy-therefore, to prevent encroachment on the freeway space for these patients, the vertical dimension of occlusion should be decreased accordingly; monoplane teeth are preferable to cusped teeth

  8. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar Hussain; Suhail, Agha Mohammad; Malik, Abdul Razzaq; Imran, Mian Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2]) was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. Results: One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis), while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis). Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037) associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. Conclusion: This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis. PMID:26941520

  9. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney. PMID:21223601

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Binita; Bhatia, Hind Pal; Aggarwal, Archana; Kumar Singh, Ashish; Gupta, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Candida albicans in extensive carious lesions before and after treatment of the carious lesions and to evaluate the carriage of Candida albicans in children with and without caries. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 60 childrens who were divided into two groups: Experimental group (group 1) and controlled group (group 2). Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups according to the dentition as: Group A (Deciduous), group B (Mixed) and group C (Permanent). Swab samples for mycological studies were collected from the dorsum of the tongue, vestibular sulcus and peak of the palatal vault. All samples were cultured directly on SDA plate (Sabouraud's dextrose agar). Number of Candida colonies was determined by counting colony forming unit on SDA plates. Further identification of Candida albicans was done by germ-tube test and corn-meal agar. Result: Overall prevalence of Candida albicans carriage was significantly higher and mean value of Candida albicans CFU (colony forming unit) was remarkably higher in group 1 (experimental group) as compare to group 2 (control group). Significant reduction in the frequency and mean value of Candida albicans CFU/plate was seen in children after treatment of carious lesions. Conclusion: This study supports the active role of Candida species in dental caries. Hence, Candida albicans may play an important role as a risk factor for dental caries. It was also seen that the oral environment stabilization procedures were able to reduce Candida albicans counts. Thus, these procedures can be considered efficient in the reduction of caries risk. How to cite this article: Srivastava B, Bhatia HP, Chaudhary V, Aggarwal A, Singh AK, Gupta N. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):108-112. PMID:25206148

  11. Demineralizing potential of dental biofilm added with Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis isolated from preschool children with and without caries.

    PubMed

    Caroline de Abreu Brandi, Thayse; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima, Paula Moraes; Castro, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the demineralizing potential of dental biofilm added of Candida albicans (CA) and Candida parapsilosis (CP), isolated from preschoolers with and without caries. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 48), with initial hardness = 341.50 ± 21,83 kg/mm(2) were fixed in 24 well plates containing culture media. A pool of children saliva (PHS) was the inoculum for biofilm formation in the presence or absence of isolated CA or CP in accordance with each group (G n = 8): G1 - PHS; G2 - PHS + CA isolated from children with caries; G3 - PHS + CP isolated from children with caries; G4 - PHS + CA isolated from children without caries; G5 - PHS + CP isolated from children without caries; and G6 - blank control. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days, with daily changes of culture media. The microhardness loss percentage (MHL%) of the blocks was calculated, taking in account the hardness values before and after the experiment. Dental biofilm became more cariogenic, independently of the isolated Candida species. The highest MHL% was observed in G4 (85.90 ± 8.72%) and G5 (86.13 ± 6.74%) compared to the others (p < 0.001): G1 (34.30 ± 14,30%) < G2 (59.40 ± 10.56%) and G3 (65.80 ± 6.36%) < G6 (13.68 ± 4.86%) (p < 0.001). C. albicans and C. parapsilosis isolates induced the demineralization of the dental enamel.

  12. Effect of Neovestitol-vestitol containing Brazilian red propolis on biofilm accumulation in vitro and dental caries development in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Silva, B; Koo, H; Falsetta, ML; Alencar, SM; Ikegaki, M; Rosalen, PL

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of the neovestitol-vestitol (NV) containing fraction isolated from Brazilian red propolis on biofilm development and expression of virulence factors by Streptococcus mutans using saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surfaces. In addition, NV was tested in a rodent model of dental caries to assess its potential effectiveness in vivo. Topical applications of NV (800μg/ml) significantly impaired the accumulation of S. mutans biofilms by largely disrupting the synthesis of glucosyltransferase-derived exopolysaccharides and the expression of genes associated with the adaptive stress response, such as copYAZ and sloA. Of even greater impact, NV was as effective as fluoride (positive control) in reducing the development of carious lesions in vivo. NV is a promising natural anti-biofilm agent that targets essential virulence traits in S. mutans, which are associated with cariogenic biofilm formation and the subsequent onset of dental caries disease. PMID:24099330

  13. Impact of sociodemographic attributes and dental caries on quality of life of intellectual disabled children using ECOHIS

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vikram Pal; Mathur, Anmol; Dileep, C.L; Batra, Manu; Makkar, Diljot Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of oral health outcomes on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) among intellectual disabled children and their families. Methodology OHRQoL based study was conducted among 150 intellectual disabled children students in the North West part of the country, Rajasthan, India. Guardians were asked to complete questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) on their perception of the children’s OHRQoL. Clinical assessment included dental caries and OHI-S INDEX. Univariate regression analysis was fitted to assess covariates for the prevalence of impacts on OHRQoL. Results 54% of the caregivers reported that their child had an impact on at least one ECOHIS item. Negative impacts were more prevalent on items related to difficulty in eating some foods, difficulty in pronouncing any words and missed preschool, day-care or school. The univariate Poisson regression analysis showed that dental caries was significantly associated with the outcome. The prevalence of any impact on OHRQoL was approximately 1.32 and 2.84 times higher for children with low and higher severity of dental caries respectively when compared with those who were free of caries. Conclusion Patient-oriented outcomes like OHRQoL will enhance our understanding of the relationship between oral health and general health and demonstrate to clinical researchers and practitioners that improving the quality of patient’s well-being go beyond simply treating dental disease and disorders. PMID:27833512

  14. Dental caries prevalence in 5-year-old children in Mallow (a non-fluoridated area), Cork, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mageean, J F; Holland, T J; Gleeson, P

    1979-04-01

    295 5-year-old children were examined in Mallow, a non-fluoridated town in North Cork to ascertain the dental status of children commencing first level education. The results were compared with those found in Baja, Hungary and in Barnsley, England. The def in Mallow was found to be 5.15 and the Met Need Index 14%. The authors suggest that the programmes of dental care should be re-examined in the light of these findings and more emphasis placed on the prevention and treatment of caries at an earlier age.

  15. Dental students’ and lecturers’ perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. Methods: A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers) participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative) were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants’ perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject’s final perception. Associations between the subjects’ degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Results: Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion) as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; P<0.001 and 8.40, 3.31, and 0.01 respectively). Conclusion: Topics as histopathology and detection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations. PMID:26708573

  16. [Biologico-periodontal considerations in restoration of teeth partially destroyed by caries or traumatism].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Martínez, J J; Zermeño Ibarra, J A; Mercado Martínez, E G; Villanueva Neuman, Y; Castellanos Olmedo, R

    1990-01-01

    Since a great number of teeth could be rehabilitated and not extracted, in this paper we analyze the relation Perio-protesis by the point of the biology of marginal periodontal ligament, and the different options to establish this relations when are lost by decay or traumatism. We discuss the contraindications to avoid greater problems than benefits when intend to rehabilitate lost teeth.

  17. Predictors of Dental caries among children 7–14 years old in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Results Four hundred sixty three (55%) children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%).The educational status of children’s father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80), monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45), regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20) and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80) were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusions Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem. PMID:23331467

  18. Nanocatalysts promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm matrix degradation and enhance bacterial killing to suppress dental caries in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lizeng; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Li, Yong; Hwang, Geelsu; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Dental biofilms (known as plaque) are notoriously difficult to remove or treat because the bacteria can be enmeshed in a protective extracellular matrix. It can also create highly acidic microenvironments that cause acid-dissolution of enamel-apatite on teeth, leading to the onset of dental caries. Current antimicrobial agents are incapable of disrupting the matrix and thereby fail to efficiently kill the microbes within plaque-biofilms. Here, we report a novel strategy to control plaque-biofilms using catalytic nanoparticles (CAT-NP) with peroxidase-like activity that trigger extracellular matrix degradation and cause bacterial death within acidic niches of caries-causing biofilm. CAT-NP containing biocompatible Fe3O4 were developed to catalyze H2O2 to generate free-radicals in situ that simultaneously degrade the biofilm matrix and rapidly kill the embedded bacteria with exceptional efficacy (>5-log reduction of cell-viability). Moreover, it displays an additional property of reducing apatite demineralization in acidic conditions. Using 1-min topical daily treatments akin to a clinical situation, we demonstrate that CAT-NP in combination with H2O2 effectively suppress the onset and severity of dental caries while sparing normal tissues in vivo. Our results reveal the potential to exploit nanocatalysts with enzyme-like activity as a potent alternative approach for treatment of a prevalent biofilm-associated oral disease.

  19. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-02-26

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  20. The effect of tongue scraper on mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in patients with caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Almas, Khalid; Al-Sanawi, Essam; Al-Shahrani, Bander

    2005-03-01

    Tongue cleaning is an ancient habit. Recent literature has shown that tongue cleaning leads to healthy oral environment. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of tongue scraper among male adult patients with caries and periodontal disease, on Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (Lb) bacteria and secondly to assess the effect on self perceived oral malodour. Sixty male patients completed the study. The age ranged from 20-55 years (32 +/- 9.53). Fifty percent of the subjects were with university education level. Mean DMFT score was 9.17 (+/-5.46), while 88% of the subjects were with early to moderate periodontitis assessed by CPITN. Thirty one percent of the subjects were smoker, while 86.7% had tea/coffee drinking habit and tooth brushing. Only 28% claimed of using miswak (chewing stick). All patients were advised to use a tongue scraper twice daily for at least 2 minutes per day for 7 days. No effort was made to change tooth brushing or dietary habits of patients. Self perceived oral malodour was reported by 41.7% at baseline and 30% after use of tongue scraper. Salivary count of Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli had significant decrease 3.37 (+/- 0.71) to 2.27 (+/- 0.80) and 3.22 (+/- 0.85) to 2.32 (+/- 0.87) respectively (P = 0.000). It was concluded that tongue scraping twice daily for 7 days had significant effect on MS and Lb bacteria and also decreased oral malodour

  1. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  2. Early Respiratory Infections and Dental Caries in the First 27 Years of Life: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Näyhä, Simo; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0–1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9–1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0–1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth. PMID:27936203

  3. Dental Caries, Prevalence and Risk Factors in Patients with Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szymanska, Sara; Lördal, Mikael; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gustafsson, Anders; Johannsen, Annsofi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) have a higher prevalence and risk for caries compared to people without CD. Material and Methods Patients with CD were divided into groups; 71 patients (50.7±13.9 years) who had gone through resective intestinal surgery and 79 patients (42.0±14.4 years) who had not. The patients were compared to 75 controls (48.6±13.4 years) regarding DMF-T and DMF-S, Lactobacilli (LB), Streptococcus mutans (SM), salivary flow and dental plaque. Statistical methods including ANOVA or Chi-square test for calculation of demographic differences between groups, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare the clinical variable and Post hoc analyses were done with Fischers Least Significant Difference test or Chi-square. Non-parametric Spearman’s correlation matrix coefficient was estimated between clinical variables and disease duration. Results CD patients who had been subjected to resective surgery had a higher DMF-S score (50.7 versus 36.5; p = 0.01) compared to the control group after adjusting for age, gender and smoking. These patients had higher counts of SM (1.5 versus 0.9; p = 0.04) and LB (10000.0 versus 1000.0; p = 0.01), and more dental plaque (53.7 versus 22.6; p = 0.001). CD patients reported a more frequent consumption of sweetened drinks between meals compared to controls (p = 0.001). Conclusions The present study shows that patients with CD who had undergone resective surgery had a higher DMFs score, and higher salivary counts of Lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans compared to the control group. PMID:24608416

  4. Biochemical indicators of dental caries in saliva: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Hegde, M N; Hegde, N D; Ashok, A; Shetty, S

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, copper and zinc levels in saliva of caries-active and caries-free individuals. Eighty healthy adults were divided according to WHO criteria: caries-free (DMFT = 0) and caries-active (DMFT >10). Saliva collected was estimated for SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels using the atomic nitro blue tetrazolium chloride reduction method and absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The Student t test was applied. In conclusion, SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels increased in the caries-active group and showed statistically significant results.

  5. Marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial regression with application to dental caries.

    PubMed

    Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Long, D Leann; Divaris, Kimon

    2016-05-10

    The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB) is often employed in diverse fields such as dentistry, health care utilization, highway safety, and medicine to examine relationships between exposures of interest and overdispersed count outcomes exhibiting many zeros. The regression coefficients of ZINB have latent class interpretations for a susceptible subpopulation at risk for the disease/condition under study with counts generated from a negative binomial distribution and for a non-susceptible subpopulation that provides only zero counts. The ZINB parameters, however, are not well-suited for estimating overall exposure effects, specifically, in quantifying the effect of an explanatory variable in the overall mixture population. In this paper, a marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial regression (MZINB) model for independent responses is proposed to model the population marginal mean count directly, providing straightforward inference for overall exposure effects based on maximum likelihood estimation. Through simulation studies, the finite sample performance of MZINB is compared with marginalized zero-inflated Poisson, Poisson, and negative binomial regression. The MZINB model is applied in the evaluation of a school-based fluoride mouthrinse program on dental caries in 677 children.

  6. Salivary alpha-amylase: role in dental plaque and caries formation.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, F A; Torres, G; Levine, M J

    1993-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase, one of the most plentiful components in human saliva, has at least three distinct biological functions. The enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase undoubtedly plays a role in carbohydrate digestion. Amylase in solution binds with high affinity to a selected group of oral streptococci, a function that may contribute to bacterial clearance and nutrition. The fact that alpha-amylase is also found in acquired enamel pellicle suggests a role in the adhesion of alpha-amylase-binding bacteria. All of these biological activities seem to depend on an intact enzyme conformation. Binding of alpha-amylase to bacteria and teeth may have important implications for dental plaque and caries formation. alpha-Amylase bound to bacteria in plaque may facilitate dietary starch hydrolysis to provide additional glucose for metabolism by plaque microorganisms in close proximity to the tooth surface. The resulting lactic acid produced may be added to the pool of acid in plaque to contribute to tooth demineralization.

  7. Another update for Canadian dentists regarding chlorhexidine varnish therapy for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D W

    1994-08-01

    Some of the reasons for my belief that CVT has been marketed prematurely have been described. They include the belief that the only really important outcome from the patients' and dentists' perspectives is proven reductions in dental caries. Associated with this is the need to recognize that, using such a criterion, the numbers of patients who may truly benefit from CVT in Canada are small--much smaller than those who promote the testing for and use of CVT appear to infer. Once proven clinically effective, the cost effectiveness of CVT for different patient groups must be demonstrated. I also think that studies to determine Cariescreen's accuracy in terms of predictive values for the "gold standard" plate counts of mutans streptococci should be undertaken. These results should then be given to dentists to help them in their decisions about using CVT in their practices, and if this decision is affirmative, in their discussions with patients for whom they decide CVT will be beneficial. Similarly, the effectiveness of the single application of CVT must be proven by a properly-designed study, since the current justification is inadequate for so important an issue. Finally, dentists should have been provided with all of this basic information before CVT was marketed in Canada.

  8. Antimicrobial potential of extracts from Stevia rebaudiana leaves against bacteria of importance in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Fredy; Chaves, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf extracts against a large number of microorganisms has been evaluated, but not its activity against microorganisms of importance in dental caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf extracts against cariogenic bacteria. Extracts were obtained from the dried Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves in hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The antimicrobial activity of the 5 extracts against 16 bacterial strains of the genera Streptococcus (n= 12) and Lactobacillus (n= 4) was evaluated by the well diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts in hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform on the 16 bacterial strains were respectively 30 mg/ml, 120 mg/ml, 120 mg/ml, 60 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml. The zones of inhibition present at the MIC were variable, ranging from 9 mm to 17.3 mm. Our results suggest that inhibition zones with a hexane extract are similar to those obtained with ethanol and methanol, but the minimal inhibitory concentration (30 mg/ml) is lower. For the four Lactobacillus species, the inhibition zones obtained between 12.3 and 17.3 mm were somewhat larger with ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts, suggesting they were the most susceptible microorganisms.

  9. Screening the Drug Resistance Property Among Aerobic Pathogenic Microorganisms of Dental Caries in North-Western Indian Population: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Priya; Singhvi, Abhishek; Hans, Manoj Kumar; Ahluwalia, Amrit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To evaluate the emerging drug resistance among the caries pathogens isolated from carious dentine microbiologically. Materials and Methods Specimens from dental caries were collected from 75 patients referred to Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Vyas Dental College. Microbiological processing of all the samples was done within three hours to isolate the caries pathogens. The samples were inoculated on agar medium (Nutrient agar, Mac-conkey’s agar) at 370C for 48 hours aerobically. The identification of strains was done by observing colony morphology and gram’s staining. The predominant isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test (Kirby Bauer’s method). Statistical analysis of the isolates was done using paired t-test. Results Out of 75 patients more common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yeast. The predominant were Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species. Newer antibiotics were proved to be effective against these predominant strains after evaluating antibiotic sensitivity tests. Conclusion Although Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the most prevalent microorganism seen in dental caries, the role of other microorganisms like Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas in initiation and progression of caries is evident from this study. Further extensive and large scale studies need to be conducted for better understanding the role of these microorganisms in dental caries. PMID:26393195

  10. Utilizing Dental Electronic Health Records Data to Predict Risk for Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Padman, Rema; Vyawahare, Karnali; Darade, Pratiksha; Paranjape, Rhucha

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a major cause for tooth loss and adversely affects individuals' oral health and quality of life. Research shows its potential association with systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and social habits such as smoking. This study explores mining potential risk factors from dental electronic health records to predict and display patients' contextualized risk for periodontal disease. We retrieved relevant risk factors from structured and unstructured data on 2,370 patients who underwent comprehensive oral examinations at the Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Predicting overall risk and displaying relationships between risk factors and their influence on the patient's oral and general health can be a powerful educational and disease management tool for patients and clinicians at the point of care.

  11. Establishment of immortalized dental follicle cells for generating periodontal ligament in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, T; Saito, M; Kiyono, T; Iseki, S; Kosaka, K; Nishida, E; Tsubakimoto, T; Harada, H; Eto, K; Noguchi, T; Teranaka, T

    2007-02-01

    The dental follicle is a mesenchymal tissue that surrounds the developing tooth germ. During tooth root formation, periodontal components, viz., cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone, are created by dental follicle progenitors. Here, we report the presence of PDL progenitors in mouse dental follicle (MDF) cells. MDF cells were obtained from mouse incisor tooth germs and immortalized by the expression of a mutant human papilloma virus type 16 E6 gene lacking the PDZ-domain-binding motif. MDF cells expressing the mutant E6 gene (MDF( E6-EGFP ) cells) had an extended life span, beyond 150 population doublings (PD). In contrast, normal MDF cells failed to proliferate beyond 10 PD. MDF( E6-EGFP ) cells expressed tendon/ligament phenotype-related genes such as Scleraxis (Scx), growth and differentiation factor-5, EphA4, Six-1, and type I collagen. In addition, the expression of periostin was observed. To elucidate the differentiation capacity of MDF( E6-EGFP ) cells in vivo, the cells were transplanted into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. At 4 weeks, MDF( E6-EGFP ) cell transplants had the capacity to generate a PDL-like tissue that expressed periostin, Scx, and type XII collagen and the fibrillar assembly of type I collagen. Our findings suggest that MDF( E6-EGFP ) cells can act as PDL progenitors, and that these cells may be a useful research tool for studying PDL formation and for developing regeneration therapies.

  12. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. OBJECTIVE To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. DESIGN The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. SETTING The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. PARTICIPANTS The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. INTERVENTIONS The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. RESULTS A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared

  13. Unsupervised clustering analyses of features extraction for a caries computer-assisted diagnosis using dental fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessani, Michel; da Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Maciel, Carlos D.

    2014-02-01

    Computer-assisted diagnoses (CAD) are performed by systems with embedded knowledge. These systems work as a second opinion to the physician and use patient data to infer diagnoses for health problems. Caries is the most common oral disease and directly affects both individuals and the society. Here we propose the use of dental fluorescence images as input of a caries computer-assisted diagnosis. We use texture descriptors together with statistical pattern recognition techniques to measure the descriptors performance for the caries classification task. The data set consists of 64 fluorescence images of in vitro healthy and carious teeth including different surfaces and lesions already diagnosed by an expert. The texture feature extraction was performed on fluorescence images using RGB and YCbCr color spaces, which generated 35 different descriptors for each sample. Principal components analysis was performed for the data interpretation and dimensionality reduction. Finally, unsupervised clustering was employed for the analysis of the relation between the output labeling and the diagnosis of the expert. The PCA result showed a high correlation between the extracted features; seven components were sufficient to represent 91.9% of the original feature vectors information. The unsupervised clustering output was compared with the expert classification resulting in an accuracy of 96.88%. The results show the high accuracy of the proposed approach in identifying carious and non-carious teeth. Therefore, the development of a CAD system for caries using such an approach appears to be promising.

  14. Periodontal and dental effects of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, assessed by using digital study models

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Fernandes, Mariana dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the maxillary dental arch changes produced by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). METHODS: Dental casts from 18 patients (mean age of 23.3 years) were obtained at treatment onset (T1), three months after SARME (T2) and 6 months after expansion (T3). The casts were scanned in a 3D scanner (D-250, 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Maxillary dental arch width, dental crown tipping and height were measured and assessed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Increased transversal widths from T1 and T2 and the maintenance of these values from T2 and T3 were observed. Buccal teeth tipping also showed statistically significant differences, with an increase in all teeth from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3. No statistically significant difference was found for dental crown height, except for left first and second molars, although clinically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: SARME proved to be an effective and stable procedure, with minimum periodontal hazards. PMID:26154457

  15. The state of periodontal and tooth tissues after the introduction of preventive measures among the children of Tavoush region, Republic of Armenia.

    PubMed

    Manrikian, M E; Markarian, M M; Vardanian, I F

    2012-03-01

    The stomatological survey of Tavoush region schoolchildren showed, that the caries intensity formed on average 90.8-96.8%. The dental caries intensity of schoolchildren corresponded to the average and high levels of caries intensity according to WHO gradation and didn't differ depending on the habitation environment. The state value of periodontal tissues showed a tendency increase of periodontal tissue lesions' indices: there has been diagnosed a periodontal pocket with the depth of 4-5mm among the juveniles in 2.04% cases. The introduction of preventive measures in RA had the aim to reduce the indices of dental caries prevalence and intensity among 6- and 12-year-old children in the Republic, but the analysis of obtained data showed that the prophylaxis program turned out to be inefficient, as worsening of indices of stomatological status has taken place.

  16. Dental disease patterns in methamphetamine users: Findings in a large urban sample

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Vivek; Harrell, Lauren; Murphy, Debra A.; Vitero, Steven; Gutierrez, Alexis; Belin, Thomas R.; Dye, Bruce A.; Spolsky, Vladimir W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The authors used a large community sample of methamphetamine users to verify the patterns and severity of dental disease and establish a hierarchy of caries susceptibility by tooth type and tooth surface. Methods Using a stratified sampling approach, 571 MA users received comprehensive oral examinations and psychosocial assessments. Three calibrated dentists characterized the dental and periodontal disease using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols. Data were also collected on substance-use history and other attributes linked to dental disease Results On all dental outcome measures, MA users evidenced very high dental and periodontal disease, with older (> 30 years) and moderate/heavy MA users disproportionately affected. Women had higher rates of tooth loss and caries as well as a greater prevalence of anterior caries. Current smokers were more likely to manifest 5 or more anterior surfaces with untreated caries and 3 or more teeth involved with root caries. Nearly 7% were edentulous and a significant percentage (40%) indicated embarrassment with their dental appearance. Conclusions MA users have very high rates of dental and periodontal disease, and manifest a dose-response relationship with greater levels of MA use associated with higher rates of dental disease. Women and current cigarette smokers are disproportionally impacted. The intraoral patterns and hierarchy of caries susceptibility in MA users are distinctive. Practical Implications The prevalence and patterns of dental and periodontal disease could be used to alert dentists to possible covert MA use as well as to plan treatment. Concerns about dental appearance have potential as triggers for behavioral interventions. PMID:26610832

  17. FDI Global Caries Initiative; implementing a paradigm shift in dental practice and the global policy context.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Johnston, S; Hewson, N; van Dijk, W; Reich, E; Eiselé, J-L; Bourgeois, D

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of a new paradigm for caries management is necessary for the profession to respond effectively to changing population health needs. The FDI Global Caries Initiative (GCI) is a 10 year programme aimed at developing and implementing a new paradigm for caries management, one that would contribute to a common vision of health. The article reviews the global health policy landscape and examines how it might influence and shape the implementation of the GCI.

  18. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  19. Possibilities and potential roles of the functional peptides based on enamel matrix proteins in promoting the remineralization of initial enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Ji Yao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral diseases, and it gives a serious threat to oral and general health. Fluoride, a classic anti-caries agent, has a profound effect on caries prevention and treatment. However, fluorosis and fluoride-resistant strains limit the further application of fluoride treatment. Therefore, it is still of significant benefit to seek alternatives, bringing more effective anti-caries agents. The potential role of enamel matrix proteins(EMPs) in promoting the regeneration of periodontal tissue and inducing bone have been proved. EMPs have been successfully applied in the field of periodontal disease and dental implants in recent years. Previous researches revealed that enamel matrix proteins had an important role in the synthesis of hydroxyapatite in vitro. Some experiments about the degeneration or removal of EMP suggest that enamel matrix proteins are related to the occurrence and development of caries. Based on evidences illustrated by these experiments, this paper hypothesizes that functional peptides based on the function and structure of EMPs could promote remineralization of enamel caries, which could perform as a suitable treatment to enamel caries. The hypothesis may lead a new direction in the study on the prevention and treatment of enamel caries, and further study of the anti-caries mechanisms of EMP will enable researchers to find out the most effective anti-caries peptides, which could be developed into a bionics anti-cariogenic agent.

  20. Bio-Photonic Detection and Quantitative Evaluation Method for the Progression of Dental Caries Using Optical Frequency-Domain Imaging Method

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-01-01

    The initial detection of dental caries is an essential biomedical requirement to barricade the progression of caries and tooth demineralization. The objective of this study is to introduce an optical frequency-domain imaging technique based quantitative evaluation method to calculate the volume and thickness of enamel residual, and a quantification method was developed to evaluate the total intensity fluctuation in depth direction owing to carious lesions, which can be favorable to identify the progression of dental caries in advance. The cross-sectional images of the ex vivo tooth samples were acquired using 1.3 μm spectral domain optical coherence tomography system (SD-OCT). Moreover, the advantages of the proposed method over the conventional dental inspection methods were compared to highlight the potential capability of OCT. As a consequence, the threshold parameters obtained through the developed method can be used as an efficient investigating technique for the initial detection of demineralization. PMID:27929440

  1. [A PhD completed 7. Just add positivity? Dental caries, obesity and problem behaviour in children: the role of parents and family -relations].

    PubMed

    de Jong-Lenters, M

    2016-11-01

    In this doctoral research project the relationship between, on the one hand, parenting and the functioning of families, and, on the other, child dental health were measured on the basis of interviews, questionnaires and observations of parent-child interaction. The groups studied consisted of children with and without caries and a variety of socio-economic backgrounds. The analyses revealed a distinct and significant difference between children with and children without caries with respect to parenting style and parent-child interaction. Positive parenting skills, such as positive involvement, positive reinforcement and problem-solving ability, correlate less often with children with caries. The study also revealed that children of parents with a parenting style that involved coercion and strict type of discipline, combined with the expression of little warmth, had a greater likelihood of developing caries. No relationship was found between an unhealthy high Body Mass Index (BMI) and the presence of dental caries. There was a significant relationship between behavioural problems and the presence of dental caries, which may be explained by an underlying influence of the family factors that were measured.

  2. Animal analogues for the study of dental and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Levy, B M

    1980-01-01

    The usual laboratory animals, such as rats and hamsters, may not fit the criteria for an analogue of human periodontal disease, although they may be useful in the study of dental caries. Rats, hamsters, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits have been the animals of choice in studies relating nutritional deficiencies and excesses to the dental and oral tissues. Gerbils, dogs, cats, horses, cows and fowl are useful in the study of mineralized tissues of teeth and bones. Recently, primate analogues have been developed for the study of periodontal diseaes and dental caries, the two most important dental diseases afflicting man. The use of a wide variety of laboratory animals in basic dental research makes it timely to review some of the guidelines for the selection of specific animals for particular diseases.

  3. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6–7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8–27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  4. Urban-rural differences in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Davies, Carolyn A; Douglas, Gail V A; Pitts, Nigel B

    2010-12-01

    Previous research suggests there are significant differences between urban and rural areas in Scotland for health outcomes including heart disease, cancer and self reported health. The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary urban/rural variation in obvious decay experience amongst 5-year-olds in Scotland. Scotland was split into 6 geographies, ranging from 'The 4 Cities' (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) to 'Remote Rural' areas. Data derived from the 2007/08 National Dental Inspection Programme, representative of the whole of Scotland, were modelled using Bayesian multilevel zero-inflated Negative Binomial and multilevel Poisson modelling, adjusting for age, sex and deprivation. The outcome variables modelled were d(3)mft (carious, extracted or filled deciduous teeth), d(3)t (carious teeth), mt (missing teeth, extracted due to caries) and ft (filled teeth). The proportion of 5-year old children in Scotland with d(3)mft = 0 was 58% in 2008. Adjusting for age and sex, the odds of a child in a Remote Rural area having d(3)mft>0 was 0.52 that of a city dweller. However, when deprivation was included in the model, the odds of having d(3)mft >0 rose to 0.74. The odds of d(3)mft>0 in 'Accessible Rural' areas also remained significantly lower than in the 4 Cities after adjustment for deprivation. For those with d(3)mft>0, the relative risk of additional d(3)mft was also significantly lower in Remote Rural areas, however this was explained by deprivation, while in Accessible Rural areas this remained significant even after adjustment for deprivation. The odds of having any extractions was lower in Rural areas, even after adjustment for deprivation, while the Care Index (ft/d(3)mft) was higher in Remote Towns. Deprivation, therefore, accounted for much but not all of the geographical difference in d(3)mft which exist in Scotland. Children in Remote and Rural areas appear to have better dental health and a higher proportion of filled teeth when compared

  5. Enamel Protein Regulation and Dental and Periodontal Physiopathology in Msx2 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Muriel; Descroix, Vianney; Aïoub, Muhanad; Simon, Stéphane; Castañeda, Beatriz; Hotton, Dominique; Bolaños, Alba; Simon, Yohann; Lezot, Frédéric; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Signaling pathways that underlie postnatal dental and periodontal physiopathology are less studied than those of early tooth development. Members of the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msx) family encode homeoproteins that show functional redundancy during development and are known to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to crown morphogenesis and ameloblast cell differentiation. This study analyzed the MSX2 protein during mouse postnatal growth as well as in the adult. The analysis focused on enamel and periodontal defects and enamel proteins in Msx2-null mutant mice. In the epithelial lifecycle, the levels of MSX2 expression and enamel protein secretion were inversely related. Msx2+/− mice showed increased amelogenin expression, enamel thickness, and rod size. Msx2−/− mice displayed compound phenotypic characteristics of enamel defects, related to both enamel-specific gene mutations (amelogenin and enamelin) in isolated amelogenesis imperfecta, and cell-cell junction elements (laminin 5 and cytokeratin 5) in other syndromes. These effects were also related to ameloblast disappearance, which differed between incisors and molars. In Msx2−/− roots, Malassez cells formed giant islands that overexpressed amelogenin and ameloblastin that grew over months. Aberrant expression of enamel proteins is proposed to underlie the regional osteopetrosis and hyperproduction of cellular cementum. These enamel and periodontal phenotypes of Msx2 mutants constitute the first case report of structural and signaling defects associated with enamel protein overexpression in a postnatal context. PMID:20934968

  6. Effect of repeated orthodontic treatment on the dental and periodontal tissues of the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Katzhendler, E; Steigman, S

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluated the response of treated teeth to renewed orthodontic force. Thirty female rats (201 +/- 2.7 g) were divided into groups A and B. Linguointrusive loads (20.58 +/- 1.88 g) generated by springs were applied to the lower left incisor for 2 weeks and then removed to allow recovery during 27 weeks (group A). Identical loading was then repeated in group A and applied as primary treatment in group B. Five animals from each group were killed with the springs in situ (A-1 and B-1), while the remaining 20 animals were killed after a 3-month recovery (A-2, B-2). The decalcified incisors were cross-sectioned serially (2 microm), and the distance of each section from the apex was computed. Dental and periodontal injuries were evaluated by light microscopy and plotted according to their location on the tooth axis. The intrusion of the teeth in group A-1 was significantly greater, whereas recovery of the normal eruption rate in group A-2 was significantly slower compared with groups B-1 and B-2. The histopathologic lesions in groups A-1 and B-1 did not differ. However, group A-2 showed a higher frequency of injured enamel organ, tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells, necrotic areas, and dentin resorption than group B-2. Initial orthodontic loading had a detrimental effect on the ability of the periodontal and dental tissues to cope with, and to recover from, repeated stress, probably because of a decrease in the number of periodontal fibroblasts and damage to the dentin-protecting cementoblastic layer.

  7. Socioeconomic Status, Food Security, and Dental Caries in US Children: Mediation Analyses of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children’s oral health outcomes. Methods. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES–caries relationship. Results. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141

  8. [110th volume of the Dutch Journal of Dentistry 1. Aspects of the pathogenesis, etiology and prevention of dental caries placed against the concepts of the 1950].

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    2003-03-01

    This paper discusses three articles on cariology from the 1950's in view of the current consensus of the pathogenesis, aetiology and prevention of dental caries. While 50 years ago the battle between researchers favouring the chemo parasitary versus those in support of the proteolytic theory of caries was at its peak, bacteria and acids formed in plaque have since been generally accepted as the cause of dental caries. Attention has shifted to the inhibiting role of fluoride in the initiation and progression of tooth decay, and the possible, additive action of antimicrobial therapy. As tooth decay is now a disease less common and progressing more slowly, there is scope for a more directed intervention and a preventive rather than a restorative therapeutic approach. In spite of the successes obtained a sizeable proportion of the population still suffers from dental caries and care should be taken not to diminish the attention for tooth decay both in the general dental practice and in dental research.

  9. Relationship between quantitative measurement of Porphyromonas gingivalis on dental plaque with periodontal status of patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiyanti, Stephani; Soeroso, Yuniarti; Sunarto, Hari; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of coronary artery due to plaque build-up. [1] Chronic periodontitis increases risk of cardiovascular disease. P.gingivalis is linked to both diseases. Objective: to analyse quantitative difference of P.gingivalis on dental plaque and its relationship with periodontal status of CHD patient and control. Methods: Periodontal status of 66 CHD patient and 40 control was checked. Subgingival plaque was isolated and P.gingivalis was measured using real-time PCR. Result: P.gingivalis of CHD patient differs from control. P.gingivalis is linked to pocket depth of CHD patient. Conclusion: P.gingivalis count of CHD patient is higher than control. P.gingivalis count is not linked to any periodontal status, except for pocket depth of CHD patient.

  10. In Vitro Acid-Mediated Initial Dental Enamel Loss Is Associated with Genetic Variants Previously Linked to Caries Experience.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Bayram, Merve; Seymen, Figen; Sencak, Regina C; Lippert, Frank; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variation and expression in whole saliva are associated with caries experience suggesting that these genes may have a functional role in protecting against caries. To further explore these results, we tested ex vivo if variants in these genes are associated with subclinical dental enamel mineral loss. DNA and enamel samples were obtained from 53 individuals. Enamel samples were analyzed for Knoop hardness of sound enamel, integrated mineral loss after subclinical carious lesion creation, and change in integrated mineral loss after remineralization. DNA samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare individuals above and below the mean sound enamel microhardness of the cohort with alpha of 0.05. The A allele of BTF3 rs6862039 appears to be associated with harder enamel at baseline (p = 0.09), enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.01), and enamel that more efficiently regain mineral and remineralize (p = 0.04). Similarly, the G allele of AQP5 marker rs3759129 and A allele of AQP5 marker rs296763 are associated with enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variations influence the initial subclinical stages of caries lesion formation in the subsurface of enamel.

  11. In Vitro Acid-Mediated Initial Dental Enamel Loss Is Associated with Genetic Variants Previously Linked to Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Bayram, Merve; Seymen, Figen; Sencak, Regina C.; Lippert, Frank; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variation and expression in whole saliva are associated with caries experience suggesting that these genes may have a functional role in protecting against caries. To further explore these results, we tested ex vivo if variants in these genes are associated with subclinical dental enamel mineral loss. DNA and enamel samples were obtained from 53 individuals. Enamel samples were analyzed for Knoop hardness of sound enamel, integrated mineral loss after subclinical carious lesion creation, and change in integrated mineral loss after remineralization. DNA samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare individuals above and below the mean sound enamel microhardness of the cohort with alpha of 0.05. The A allele of BTF3 rs6862039 appears to be associated with harder enamel at baseline (p = 0.09), enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.01), and enamel that more efficiently regain mineral and remineralize (p = 0.04). Similarly, the G allele of AQP5 marker rs3759129 and A allele of AQP5 marker rs296763 are associated with enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variations influence the initial subclinical stages of caries lesion formation in the subsurface of enamel. PMID:28275354

  12. [Comparative study of immunocompetent cells of dental pulp of intact teeth, teeth with carious lesion and its complications combined with parodontitis].

    PubMed

    Moskovskiĭ, A V

    2007-01-01

    Results of the comparative immunohistochemical study of dental pulp by means of monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD20, capital ES, CD68 are described. Pulp from the patients with caries, acute and chronic pulpitis in combination with periodontitis on different stages was studied, the qualitative and quantitative feature of dental pulp immune cells--T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages was determined.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of dental pulp and periodontal ligament stem cells after in vivo transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Li, Kun; Li, Bei; Gao, Li-Na; Chen, Fa-Ming; Jin, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human postnatal dental pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues can give rise to multilineage differentiation in vitro and generate related dental tissues in vivo. However, the cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and PDL stem cells (PDLSCs) after in vivo implantation remain largely unidentified. In this study, cells were re-isolated from in vivo-generated dental pulp-like and PDL-like tissues (termed re-DPCs and re-PDLCs, respectively) as a result of ectopic transplantation of human DPSC and PDLSC sheets. The cell characteristics in terms of colony-forming ability, cell surface antigens and multi-differentiation potentials were all evaluated before and after implantation. It was found that re-DPCs and re-PDLCs were of human and mesenchymal origin and positive for MSC markers such as STRO-1, CD146, CD29, CD90 and CD105; and, to some extent, re-DPCs could maintain their colony forming abilities. Moreover, both cell types were able to form mineral deposits and differentiate into adipocytes and chondrocytes; however, quantitative analysis and related gene expression determination showed that the osteo-/chondro-differentiation capabilities of re-DPCs and re-PDLCs were significantly reduced compared to those of DPSCs and PDLSCs, respectively (P < 0.05); re-PDLCs showed a greater reduction potential than re-DPCs. We conclude that DPSCs and PDLSCs may maintain their MSC characteristics after in vivo implantation and, compared to PDLSCs, DPSCs appear much more stable under in vivo conditions. These findings provide additional cellular and molecular evidence that supports expanding the use of dental tissue-derived stem cells in cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  14. Nonnutritive, low caloric substitutes for food sugars: clinical implications for addressing the incidence of dental caries and overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W; Wright, J Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate.

  15. Association of parental attitudes at mealtime and snack limits with the prevalence of untreated dental caries among preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Danielle Veiga; Montes, Gisele Ristow; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2017-01-01

    Eating behavior of parents exerts an influence on eating practices among their children, including the consumption of cariogenic products. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the snack limits established by parents/caregivers and the prevalence of untreated dental caries (UDC) among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 686 children aged four and five years enrolled at public schools in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, and their parents/caregivers. The children were examined for dental caries and visible plaque. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS). Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests and Poison regression analysis. The prevalence of UDC was 45.6%. The Snack Limits subscale of the PMAS was associated with a lower prevalence rate of UDC (PR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.72-0.96), independently of the other variables. UDC was also associated with a greater prevalence of visible plaque (PR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.08-1.54), a lower tooth brushing frequency (PR: 1.46; 95%CI: 1.22-1.77) and greater age of the child (PR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.08-1.59). Snack limits established by parents/caregivers were associated to a lower prevalence rate of UDC among preschool children.

  16. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael W.; Wright, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  17. Design and Characterization of a Novel p1025 Peptide-Loaded Liquid Crystalline System for the Treatment of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Garcia, Matheus Henrique; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Chiavacci, Leila Aparecida; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-01-28

    Dental caries, mainly caused by the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to pellicle-coated tooth surfaces, is an important public health problem worldwide. A synthetic peptide (p1025) corresponding to residues 1025-1044 of the adhesin can inhibit this binding. Peptides are particularly susceptible to the biological environment; therefore, a p1025 peptide-loaded liquid crystalline system (LCS) consisting of tea tree oil as the oil phase, polyoxypropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol as the surfactant, and water or 0.5% polycarbophil polymer dispersions as the aqueous phase was employed as a drug delivery platform. This system exhibited anticaries and bioadhesive properties and provided a protective environment to p1025 at the site of action, thereby modulating its action, prolonging its contact with the teeth, and decreasing the frequency of administration. LCSs were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological, texture, and bioadhesive tests. PLM and SAXS revealed the presence of hexagonal liquid crystalline phases and microemulsions. Rheological analyses demonstrated that the addition of polymer dispersions favored characteristics such as shear thinning and thixotropy, hence improving buccal application. Bioadhesion tests showed that polymer dispersions contributed to the adhesion onto the teeth. Taken together, LCS could provide a novel pharmaceutical nanotechnology platform for dental caries treatment.

  18. A clinical study on Krimidanta with reference to dental caries and its management with Jatipatradi Gutika and Yavanadi Churna

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Makbul; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Bavalatti, Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is progressive destruction of enamel, dentine and cementum, initiated by microbial activity at the tooth surface. It is one of the major problems in dentistry. On the basis of clinical features, it can be compared with Krimidanta which is one among the eight diseases of tooth. In the management of Krimidanta, Krimighna, Vataghna and Ushna Veerya dravyas are to be used which can relieve the toothach