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  1. Metabolic syndrome, periodontal infection, and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Timonen, P; Niskanen, M; Suominen-Taipale, L; Jula, A; Knuuttila, M; Ylöstalo, P

    2010-10-01

    Only a few studies have examined the association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal infection and dental caries. The aim in this study was to examine the association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal infection and dental caries using the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) definition and its separate components. This study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic individuals aged 30 to 64 years (N = 2050) who had never smoked. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with Poisson regression models. Metabolic syndrome was associated with teeth with deepened periodontal pockets 4 mm deep or deeper [adjusted RR 1.19 (95% CI 1.01-1.42)], with pockets 6 mm deep or deeper [adjusted RR 1.50 (95% CI 0.96-2.36)], and carious teeth [adjusted RR 1.25 (95% CI 0.93-1.70)]. The results suggest that metabolic syndrome or some of its components are associated weakly with periodontal infection.

  2. Periodontal effects and dental caries associated with smokeless tobacco use.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, J A; Burt, B A

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has been increasing in the United States with concomitant social, medical, legal, and regulatory ramifications. This paper examines the association between the use of smokeless tobacco and the occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries. Existing literature consists primarily of case reports and cross-sectional studies among teenagers. The limited evidence suggests an association between smokeless tobacco use and gingival recession. There is insufficient evidence to support any associations between smokeless tobacco use and gingivitis, periodontitis, or dental caries. Methods to improve future epidemiologic research to examine possible associations between smokeless tobacco use and periodontal effects or dental caries are discussed. PMID:3101120

  3. Dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sano, T; Matsuura, T; Ozaki, K; Narama, I

    2011-03-01

    Diabetic patients are predisposed to periodontal disease as well as dental caries; however, there are contradictory reports about the possible association between dental caries and diabetes. Thus, the authors set out to determine whether diabetes affects onset of dental caries and periodontal disease and to clarify whether dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with each other in diabetic db/db mice. Oral tissue was examined from 68 male mice (diabetic db/db and nondiabetic db/+; aged 20, 30, 40, and 50 weeks) and 20 female mice (db/db and db/+; aged 50 weeks). Macroscopically, caries were seen developing in the diabetic mice by 20 weeks of age. The number of teeth with dental lesions increased with age in the db/db mice at a significantly higher incidence than that of db/+ mice. Histologically, dental caries were detected in 30 of 120 molars in 17 of 20 db/db mice at 50 weeks of age and in 4 of 108 molars in 4 of 18 db/+ mice of the same age. The severity of dental caries in db/db mice was significantly higher than it was in db/+ mice. Dental caries were a primary change that led to bacterial gingivitis and pulpitis. These lesions spread to the dental root and periodontal connective tissue through the apical foramen. Apical periodontitis was more frequent and severe when occurring in close association with dental caries. In conclusion, there is a strong relationship between diabetes and dental caries, but in this model, it is highly probable that the onset of periodontal disease was a secondary change resulting from dental caries.

  4. Xerostomy, dental caries and periodontal disease in HIV+ patients.

    PubMed

    Cavasin Filho, Julio César; Giovani, Elcio Magdalena

    2009-02-01

    We studied xerostomy and its correlation with periodontal and dental cavity diseases in HIV patients, through measurement of salivary flow and through variables such as saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, periodontal index, MDF index, dental carie risk and risk of periodontal disease. One hundred patients were analyzed. They were distributed into two groups: Group I (test) - 50 patients evidently HIV+, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases, levels of T-CD4 lymphocytes, viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); and Group II - (control) 50 HIV- patients, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases. In both groups, measurement of salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity was made. Group I presented high MDF, bacteria plaque and bleeding, with a greater susceptibility to the risks of oral cavities and periodontal disease. The salivary flow and the buffering capacity of the saliva were low, indicating a high level of xerostomy. Two important modifying factors influence these pathologies in an incisive way: one is immunossuppression and the other is HAART therapy. The control exhibited results that are closer to normality; it had better oral-health conditions.

  5. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  6. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Shashikiran, N D; Reddy, V V S; Raju, P Krishnam

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  7. Diabetes, periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Taylor, George W; Manz, Michael C; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2004-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus, is a common chronic disease, and its prevalence in the United States, particularly type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Complications associated with diabetes impose a heavy burden on many people, especially among certain minority populations. Periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss also are common conditions in the United States, but their prevalence is generally decreasing. Nevertheless, among important subgroups of the population, particularly certain minority and economically disadvantaged groups, there is a disproportionately higher burden of periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss. This article reviews the post-1960 English-language literature on the relationship between diabetes and oral health, specifically focusing on periodontal disease, dental caries, and tooth loss. Substantial evidence exists to support the role of diabetes and poorer glycemic control as important risk factors for periodontal disease. Additionally, the evidence provides support for viewing the relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases as bidirectional. However, additional research is necessary to firmly establish that treating periodontal infections can contribute to glycemic control management and possibly to the reduction of type 2 diabetes complications. The literature does not describe a consistent relationship between type 2 diabetes and dental caries. It reports increased, decreased, and similar caries experiences between those with and without diabetes. This review suggests that currently there is insufficient evidence to determine whether a relationship between diabetes and risk for coronal or root caries exists. Most of the reviewed studies reported greater tooth loss in people with diabetes. However, the differences were slight and not significant in several of the reports. Furthermore, this review of the association between diabetes and tooth loss reveals that valid population-based evidence generalizable to the US

  8. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, Howard; Kinney, John H.; Otis, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  9. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  10. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  11. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  12. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2014-12-29

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information.

  13. Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Brazilian Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Andreia M. R.; Gomes, Lays N.; Silva, Clara Regina D.; de S. C. Soares, Renata; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique N. G.; Padilha, Wilton W. N.; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09–1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69–0.97), caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03–1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80–0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76–0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75–0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  14. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  15. The relationship between levels of income inequality and dental caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Fritzell, Johan; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between income inequality at a lagged time of 2 and 11 years with two short latency outcomes (untreated dental caries and gingivitis) and two long latency outcomes (edentulism and periodontal attachment loss > 8mm). We used data from the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 13,405 subjects aged 35-44 years. Different lagged Gini at municipal level were fitted using logistic and negative binomial multilevel analyses. Covariates included municipal per capita income, equivalized income, age, sex, time since last dental visit and place of residence (rural versus urban). Crude estimates showed that only untreated dental caries was associated with current and lagged Gini, but in adjusted models only current Gini remained significant with a ratio of 1.19 (95%CI: 1.09-1.30) for every ten-point increase in the Gini coefficient. We conclude that lagged Gini showed no association with oral health; and current income Gini was associated with current dental caries but not with periodontal disease.

  16. Passive immunization against dental caries and periodontal disease: development of recombinant and human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Y

    2000-01-01

    Indigenous micro-organisms in the oral cavity can cause two major diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases. There is neither agreement nor consensus as to the actual mechanisms of pathogenesis of the specific virulence factors of these micro-organisms. The complexity of the bacterial community in dental plaque has made it difficult for the single bacterial agent of dental caries to be determined. However, there is considerable evidence that Streptococcus mutans is implicated as the primary causative organism of dental caries, and the cell-surface protein antigen (SA I/II) as well as glucosyltransferases (GTFs) produced by S. mutans appear to be major colonization factors. Various forms of periodontal diseases are closely associated with specific subgingival bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an important etiological agent of adult periodontitis. Adherence of bacteria to host tissues is a prerequisite for colonization and one of the important steps in the disease process. Bacterial coaggregation factors and hemagglutinins likely play major roles in colonization in the subgingival area. Emerging evidence suggests that inhibition of these virulence factors may protect the host against caries and periodontal disease. Active and passive immunization approaches have been developed for immunotherapy of these diseases. Recent advances in mucosal immunology and the introduction of novel strategies for inducing mucosal immune responses now raise the possibility that effective and safe vaccines can be constructed. In this regard, some successful results have been reported in animal experimental models. Nevertheless, since the public at large might be skeptical about the seriousness of oral diseases, immunotherapy must be carried out with absolute safety. For this goal to be achieved, the development of safe antibodies for passive immunization is significant and important. In this review, salient advances in passive immunization against caries

  17. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Marta; Podzimek, Stepan; Broukal, Zdenek; Lencova, Erika; Duskova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area.

  18. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  19. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group. PMID:26681848

  20. Investigation of probiotic bacteria as dental caries and periodontal disease biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Tomaro-Duchesneau, C; Rodes, L; Malhotra, M; Tabrizian, M; Prakash, S

    2014-12-01

    Oral diseases, specifically dental caries and periodontal disease, are characterised by increases in pathogenic microorganisms, increased demineralisation and increased inflammation and levels of inflammatory markers. Despite the therapeutic strategies, oral diseases have elevated prevalence rates. Recent work has demonstrated that probiotic bio-therapeutics can decrease oral pathogen counts, including caries-causing Streptococcus mutans and oral inflammation. The aim of this work was to investigate putative probiotic bacteria, selected for S. mutans inhibition and for their oral health-promoting characteristics. The probiotic bacteria were screened for S. mutans inhibition, probiotic bacteriocin activity, salivary pH modulation, probiotic nutrient (sucrose) competition, probiotic co-aggregation with S. mutans, bacterial attachment to oral epithelial keratinocytes, bacterial nitric oxide production and bacterial antioxidant activity. The results indicate that Lactobacillus reuteri strains NCIMB 701359, NCIMB 701089, NCIMB 702655 and NCIMB 702656 inhibited S. mutans to non-detectable levels (<10 cfu/ml). L. reuteri strains also demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity of the tested strains (7.73-13.99 µM Trolox equivalents), suggesting their use as both caries and periodontal disease therapeutics. Although Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 inhibited S. mutans at lower levels, it significantly buffered the pH (4.18) of saliva containing S. mutans, co-aggregated with S. mutans (10.09%), demonstrated high levels of sucrose consumption (138.11 mM) and successfully attached to gingival epithelial cells (11%). This study identified four L. reuteri strains and one L. fermentum strain to be further investigated as oral disease biotherapeutics.

  1. Investigation of probiotic bacteria as dental caries and periodontal disease biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Tomaro-Duchesneau, C; Rodes, L; Malhotra, M; Tabrizian, M; Prakash, S

    2014-12-01

    Oral diseases, specifically dental caries and periodontal disease, are characterised by increases in pathogenic microorganisms, increased demineralisation and increased inflammation and levels of inflammatory markers. Despite the therapeutic strategies, oral diseases have elevated prevalence rates. Recent work has demonstrated that probiotic bio-therapeutics can decrease oral pathogen counts, including caries-causing Streptococcus mutans and oral inflammation. The aim of this work was to investigate putative probiotic bacteria, selected for S. mutans inhibition and for their oral health-promoting characteristics. The probiotic bacteria were screened for S. mutans inhibition, probiotic bacteriocin activity, salivary pH modulation, probiotic nutrient (sucrose) competition, probiotic co-aggregation with S. mutans, bacterial attachment to oral epithelial keratinocytes, bacterial nitric oxide production and bacterial antioxidant activity. The results indicate that Lactobacillus reuteri strains NCIMB 701359, NCIMB 701089, NCIMB 702655 and NCIMB 702656 inhibited S. mutans to non-detectable levels (<10 cfu/ml). L. reuteri strains also demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity of the tested strains (7.73-13.99 µM Trolox equivalents), suggesting their use as both caries and periodontal disease therapeutics. Although Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 inhibited S. mutans at lower levels, it significantly buffered the pH (4.18) of saliva containing S. mutans, co-aggregated with S. mutans (10.09%), demonstrated high levels of sucrose consumption (138.11 mM) and successfully attached to gingival epithelial cells (11%). This study identified four L. reuteri strains and one L. fermentum strain to be further investigated as oral disease biotherapeutics. PMID:25006013

  2. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity.

  3. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity. PMID:27672500

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, R; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chelladurai, K; Padmavathy, S; Saravanan, M; Prakash, P; Ajmal Ali, M; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-11-01

    Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nano-biotechnology. In the present investigation, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing the leaf extract of Justicia glauca. Water-soluble organics present in the leaf extract are mainly responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to AgNPs. The AgNPs are 10-20nm in dimensions as determined by TEM images. The antimicrobial activities of green synthesized AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs have been evaluated against the dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs show a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of AgNPs determined against the selected dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms are noticeable between the range of 25-75μg/mL. PMID:26249603

  5. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  6. Assessment of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Status among Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes of Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Kumar, P Mahesh; Kadhiresan, R; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Suyog

    2015-01-01

    Background: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status of elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 599 elderly people residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India using cluster sampling methodology. The clinical findings were recorded using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) to assess periodontal status as per community periodontal index, loss of attachment, WHO dentition status, and treatment needs. Results: In the present study, the caries prevalence among dentate subjects was found among 41.9% of the dentate subjects and the mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth was found to be 8.28 ± 4.779 with the mean number of decayed being 1.51. In the dentate population, 0% had healthy periodontal tissue, 0.26% had bleeding, and 24.5% had calculus, 52.1% had shallow pockets and 23.1% had deep pockets as their highest score and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the current study, 37.9% inmates were completely edentulous. This study also showed that as age advanced the prevalence increased from 23.1% to 55.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of elderly people was found to be poor. Hence, it is concluded from this study that tooth loss is higher among the geriatric group residing in old age homes and is associated with many demographic and behavioral risk indicators. PMID:26464541

  7. Prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and their association with socio-demographic risk factors among older persons in Delhi, India: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Goswami, Anil; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne

    2013-05-01

    Dental health is often neglected in the older persons, and dental conditions associated with aging are complex, adversely affecting the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among older persons from Delhi, India, and to study their association with selected socio-behavioral risk factors. We conducted a community-based cross sectional study among persons aged > or = 60 years from Delhi during 2009-2010. A questionnaire was used to interview elderly regarding dental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form was used for examining the study participants. A total of 448 participants were examined and included in the study. Of the dentate, 47.1% had active dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score for the study population was 14.4. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets and loss of attachment was 96.6, 89.1, and 80.3%, respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was 47.9%. Age, frequency of teeth cleaning, and method used for teeth cleaning were statistically associated with the DMFT score. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was high in the study population, and warrants intervention.

  8. The prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease from the cradle to the grave: what is the best available evidence?

    PubMed

    Davies, Robin M

    2003-05-01

    Increasing weight is being given to applying an evidence-based approach to clinical practice. There is evidence to support a range of preventive measures which the profession and patients can apply to maximize the control of caries and periodontal disease. This paper examines the strength of evidence to support the advice and procedures that may be used by dental professionals to provide an effective preventive programme of advice and procedures for patients of all ages. A hierarchy of evidence is used ranging from Cochrane Reviews at the top, observational studies in the middle, and opinion at the bottom. Whilst the evidence to support preventive advice and procedures in children and adolescents is relatively strong, few studies have been conducted in adults and the elderly.

  9. Minimal intervention dentistry II: part 2. Management of caries and periodontal risks in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Lallam, C; Decup, F

    2014-02-01

    The long-term clinical management of caries and periodontal diseases requires a double approach, one that is concerned with both treatment and prevention. Dentists should recognise the risk factors and their likely triggers to be able to implement the right strategy as early as the diagnostic phase. This comprehensive assessment can easily be done in general practice. All it takes is to combine the patient's general information with the systemic and behavioural factors, and the clinical observations with the local factors. The resulting patient profile can thus effectively support treatment by providing the necessary explanations, advice or prescriptions in relation with the clinical procedures. The modifiable risk factors need to be monitored and the behaviours changed to stabilise or limit disease progression. The practitioner's active approach is meant to meet the patient's demand for preventive counselling.

  10. [Social stratification in epidemiological studies of dental caries and periodontal diseases: a profile of the scientific literature in the 1990s].

    PubMed

    Boing, Antonio Fernando; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Kovaleski, Douglas Francisco; Zange, Sabrina Elisa; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have analyzed the association between oral health and social development. However, the use of different variables assessing socioeconomic status impairs the comparative analysis of their findings. The present study describes how recent dental studies have classified population segments according to categories of social stratification. We selected 86 papers on social determinants of dental caries or periodontal conditions, and published in MEDLINE-indexed journals from 1990 to 2001. The studies used different strategies to stratify populations, but occupation, schooling, and income were the most frequently assessed variables. Ethnic differentials, characteristics of households and schools, and access to material resources were also frequently appraised. We also observed a large portion of Brazilian studies focusing on socioeconomic differentials in the distribution of caries and periodontal disease. Knowledge of strategies for social stratification can improve the understanding of factors associated with dental diseases, fostering further studies and allowing the comparison of their results.

  11. [Oral findings in severely handicapped patients participating in the periodic dental check-up system for five years--dental caries, gingival recessions and hyperplasias, periodontal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, T; Kasahara, H; Hosaka, K; Itou, A; Nohara, S; Hiraide, Y; Kawashima, S; Watanabe, T

    1990-01-01

    In March 1987, we investigated the quality of oral hygiene, and the incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases in 140 severely handicapped patients who had been hospitalized in two national sanatorium. All of the patients had participated under the Matsumoto Dental College Hospital Periodic Dental Check-up System for five years. The results were as follows: 1. The teeth of all the subjects had been brushed by the sanatorium nursing staff twice per day. The prevailing brushing technique was the horizontal method. 2. 37.5% of the subjects showed complete adaptability to the tooth brushing by the nursing staff. However, 2.1% showed no adaptability whatsoever. 3. The mean value of the OHI-S was 1.53. The labial surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth showed the lowest OHI-S value, while the mandibular left posterior teeth showed the highest. 4. The DMF-T was estimated to be 12.51 (DMFT ratio = 48.2%). The average D-T was 2.07 +/- 4.03, and the average F-T was 8.43 +/- 7.22. 5. 19.3% of the patients were diagnosed with gingival hyperplasia, and 10.7% had local gingival recessions. 1) Of the patients who had taken Phenytoin daily, 35.5% were diagnosed with hyperplasia. 2) Most local gingival recessions were found on the labial gingiva of the mandibular anterior teeth. A relationship was determined to exist the local recession and the horizontal brushing method. 6. 89.2% of the patients suffered from periodontal diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  13. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  14. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  15. Sugars and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, Riva; van Loveren, Cor

    2003-10-01

    A dynamic relation exists between sugars and oral health. Diet affects the integrity of the teeth; quantity, pH, and composition of the saliva; and plaque pH. Sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates, after being hydrolyzed by salivary amylase, provide substrate for the actions of oral bacteria, which in turn lower plaque and salivary pH. The resultant action is the beginning of tooth demineralization. Consumed sugars are naturally occurring or are added. Many factors in addition to sugars affect the caries process, including the form of food or fluid, the duration of exposure, nutrient composition, sequence of eating, salivary flow, presence of buffers, and oral hygiene. Studies have confirmed the direct relation between intake of dietary sugars and dental caries across the life span. Since the introduction of fluoride, the incidence of caries worldwide has decreased, despite increases in sugars consumption. Other dietary factors (eg, the presence of buffers in dairy products; the use of sugarless chewing gum, particularly gum containing xylitol; and the consumption of sugars as part of meals rather than between meals) may reduce the risk of caries. The primary public health measures for reducing caries risk, from a nutrition perspective, are the consumption of a balanced diet and adherence to dietary guidelines and the dietary reference intakes; from a dental perspective, the primary public health measures are the use of topical fluorides and consumption of fluoridated water.

  16. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  17. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  18. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  19. [An in vitro study of the action of kola nitida on bacterial strains implicated in dental caries and periodontal diseases].

    PubMed

    Kamagate, A; Attoli, L; Kone, D; Ly, Bakayoko; Brou, E; Sixou, M

    2002-06-01

    The Nitida Kola is a substance extracted from the kolanut. In West Africa its use by chewing is widespread among the Manding people. It's said to have tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac characteristics and even recent studies have shown that it has antibacterial characteristics. The aim of this study is to make an estimation of the Nitida Kola's effects on different bacterial species involved in the two main oral and dental pathologies (teeth decays and periodontal illnesses). The obtained results indicate that the kola extract is not effectual against the tried-out bacteria at regular dose used by chewing.

  20. Nutrition and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  1. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  2. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  3. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299

  4. Health promotion and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  5. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    PubMed

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  6. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  7. Prevalence of dental caries in dentistry students.

    PubMed

    Pavleova, G; Vesela, S; Stanko, P

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates dental caries prevalence in dentistry students. They represent a sample of individuals with good dental status, socio-economical level and access to dental care. The values of teeth number with decay and filling and values of surfaces of teeth with decay and filling indices in group with lower caries incidence give the information as to what could be achieved by systemic care and prevention of dental caries in whole population (Tab. 4. Ref. 25).

  8. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    PubMed

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  9. The oral microbiome and the immunobiology of periodontal disease and caries.

    PubMed

    Costalonga, Massimo; Herzberg, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis.

  10. Parity & untreated dental caries in US women.

    PubMed

    Russell, S L; Ickovics, J R; Yaffee, R A

    2010-10-01

    While parity (number of children) reportedly is related to tooth loss, the relationship between parity and dental caries has not been extensively investigated. We used path analysis to test a theoretical model that specified that parity influences dental caries levels through dental care, psycho- social factors, and dental health damaging behaviors in 2635 women selected from the NHANES III dataset. We found that while increased parity was not associated with a greater level of total caries (DFS), parity was related to untreated dental caries (DS). The mechanisms by which parity is related to caries, however, remain undefined. Further investigation is warranted to determine if disparities in dental caries among women are due to differences in parity and the likely changes that parallel these reproductive choices.

  11. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  12. Preventing dental caries in children: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Marya, C M; Dahiya, V; Bhatia, H P; Dhingra, S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in developing countries like India is increasing to an alarming level in contrast to developed countries where it has decreased because of variety of preventive measures at the community and individual level. There is no State or Centre funded programs for prevention of dental diseases in India. The present review enlists the targeted prevention of dental caries in permanent teeth of 6 to 16 years old children presenting for dental care.

  13. On the initial propagation of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results. PMID:25232054

  14. Sealants and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Jean A.; Modesto, Adriana; Oakley, Marnie; Polk, Deborah E.; Valappil, Benita; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors conducted a qualitative study of private-practice dentists in their offices by using vignette-based interviews to assess barriers to the use of evidence-based clinical recommendations in the treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. Methods The authors recruited 22 dentists as a convenience sample and presented them with two patient vignettes involving noncavitated carious lesions. Interviewers asked participants to articulate their thought processes as they described treatment recommendations. Participants compared their treatment plans with the American Dental Association’s recommendations for sealing noncavitated carious lesions, and they described barriers to implementing these recommendations in their practices. The authors recorded and transcribed the sessions for accuracy and themes. Results Personal clinical experience emerged as the determining factor in dentists’ treatment decisions regarding noncavitated carious lesions. Additional factors were lack of reimbursement and mistrust of the recommendations. The authors found that knowledge of the recommendations did not lead to their adoption when the recommendation was incongruent with the dentist’s personal experience. Conclusions The authors found that ingrained practice behavior based on personal clinical experience that differed substantially from evidence-based recommendations resulted in a rejection of these recommendations. Practical Implications Attempts to improve the adoption of evidence-based practice must involve more than simple dissemination of information to achieve a balance between personal clinical experience and scientific evidence. PMID:23543700

  15. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  16. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  17. Prevalence of dental caries among 5-13-year-old children of Mangalore city.

    PubMed

    Sudha, P; Bhasin, S; Anegundi, R T

    2005-06-01

    A study of prevalence of dental caries was undertaken in 5-13-year-old children from Mangalore city. A total of 524 children were examined. The sample consisted of 193, 160, and 171 children in the 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years of age group, respectively. Dental caries was examined visually and observations were recorded. Silness and L phie plaque index, L phie and Silness gingival index were used to record the periodontal status. The prevalence of dental caries was highest in 5-7-year-age group compared to 8-10 years and 11-13 years age groups. The increasing prevalence of dental caries needs dental health programmes, which target the specific segments of the population.

  18. Changing patterns of dental caries: a survey of 20 countries.

    PubMed

    Renson, C E

    1986-07-01

    Data on oral health, sugar consumption, fluoride availability and other preventive programmes from twenty selected developed and developing countries were reviewed to identify the changes in oral health in children and causes associated with these changes during the past 20 years. Nine developed (industrialized) countries showed apparent substantial reduction (30-50 per cent) in the prevalence of dental caries in 5 and 12 year old children during the past decade. The countries are: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom and the USA. Caries in Thailand and Nigeria and other developing countries appear to have increased considerably. The most probable reasons for the decrease in dental caries in children in the developed countries were considered to be associated with: the widespread exposure to fluoridated water, fluoride supplements, especially the regular use of fluoridated toothpaste; the provision of preventive oral health services; the increased dental awareness through organised health education programmes; the ready availability of dental resources. The factor common to all countries with a substantial reduction in caries was fluoride, either as fluoridated water or toothpaste. Countries with decreased caries but no fluoridated water supplies all had experienced a rapid increase in the availability and the use of fluoridated toothpaste during the past 10 years. The contribution of improved dental health programmes, other than those involving fluoride, could not be adequately assessed. These changes, which appear to be continuing, have relevance also to similar countries which might just be entering the reduction phase, or for which that phase may already have begun, though it is as yet unnoticed and unreported. They also have relevance to developing countries in indicating how caries and perhaps periodontal disease have been controlled and prevented. It is inevitable that in developed countries with reducing

  19. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  20. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  1. [Influence of tooth crowding on the prevalence of dental caries. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of the mineralized tissues of teeth. It usually has a chronic course and is caused by external factors which can be modified. Current opinions about the contribution of malocclusions to the etiology of dental caries are conflicting. Some researchers believe that malocclusions like crowded teeth cause improper contacts between neighboring teeth and make effective oral hygiene more difficult. The difficulty in cleaning crowded teeth is believed to increase plaque accumulation and consequently predisposes the tooth to the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Others claim that malocclusion has a minimal influence on the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Ideal oral hygiene is of basic importance for plaque elimination which is the harmful factor in caries and in this way is decisive for the health of mineral and soft tissues to a much greater extent than lack of malocclusion. However, if a person with malocclusion is more susceptible to dental caries, oral hygiene cannot be the decisive factor.

  2. [Dental health: relationship between dental caries and food consumption].

    PubMed

    González Sanz, Angel Miguel; González Nieto, Blanca Aurora; González Nieto, Esther

    2013-07-01

    Although the reduction and prevalence of dental caries in many countries has been largely associated with the use of fluorine and improving dental hygiene, eating habits also play a role in the development of caries. Fermentable carbohydrates characteristics of the food, rate of consumption, food protectors, the quality and quantity of saliva indices that determine the remineralization of teeth are factors to be considered. All these elements are analyzed through the sociodemographic, behavioral, physical and biological environment directly or indirectly with diet and caries.

  3. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children.

    PubMed

    Schroth, R J; Rabbani, R; Loewen, G; Moffatt, M E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and dental caries in Canadian school-aged children participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS was a national cross-sectional study involving physical assessments, laboratory analysis, and interviews. Analysis was restricted to data for 1,017 children 6 to 11 y of age. Outcome variables included the presence of caries and overall total caries score (dmft/DMFT index). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured from serum samples obtained from participants. Bivariate analysis, logistic regression for the presence of caries, and multiple linear regression for total caries scores were used. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 56.4% of children experienced caries, and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 2.47 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.84). The unadjusted odds of children with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/L having experienced caries was 0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82), while the odds for caries at the ≥50 nmol/L level was 0.56 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.89). After controlling for other covariates, backward logistic regression revealed that the presence of caries was significantly associated with 25(OH) levels <75 nmol/L and <50 nmol/L, lower household education, not brushing twice daily, and yearly visits to the dentist. Similarly, multiple linear regression revealed that total dmft/DMFT caries scores were also associated with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L, not brushing twice daily, lower household education, and yearly visits to the dentist. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of Canadian children suggest that there is an association between caries and lower serum vitamin D. Improving children's vitamin D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries.

  4. Association between obesity and dental caries in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ligeng; Chang, Rui; Mu, Ying; Deng, Xiuli; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Shasha; Zhou, Dongyan

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to analyze the association between dental caries and obesity in Chinese children, and to investigate the protective and risk factors of dental caries. A total of 280 children aged 7-12 years voluntarily answered the caries examination and questionnaire. Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. According to the Chinese body mass index, the participants were grouped overweight or normal-weight. The logistic regression model showed no correlation between dental caries and obesity. Drinking yogurt and chewing gum are protective factors, whereas oral breathing and genetic predisposition to caries are risk factors.

  5. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  6. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R

    2011-10-01

    A sex difference in oral health has been widely documented through time and across cultures. Women's oral health declines more rapidly than men's with the onset of agriculture and the associated rise in fertility. The magnitude of this disparity in oral health by sex increases during ontogeny: from childhood, to adolescence, and through the reproductive years. Representative studies of sex differences in caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease are critically reviewed. Surveys conducted in Hungary, India, and in an isolated traditional Brazilian sample provide additional support for a significant sex bias in dental caries, especially in mature adults. Compounding hormonal and reproductive factors, the sex difference in oral health in India appears to involve social and religious causes such as son preference, ritual fasting, and dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Like the sex difference in caries, tooth loss in women is greater than in men and has been linked to caries and parity. Results of genome wide association studies have found caries susceptible and caries protective loci that influence variation in taste, saliva, and enamel proteins, affecting the oral environment and the micro-structure of enamel. Genetic variation, some of which is X-linked, may partly explain how sex differences in oral health originate. A primary, but neglected, factor in explaining the sex differential in oral health is the complex and synergistic changes associated with female sex hormones, pregnancy, and women's reproductive life history. Caries etiology is complex and impacts understanding of the sex difference in oral health. Both biological (genetics, hormones, and reproductive history) and anthropological (behavioral) factors such culture-based division of labor and gender-based dietary preferences play a role.

  7. Dental and periodontal status of 12-year-old Bulang children in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bulang is an ethnic minority group living in Yunnan in the southwestern part of China. There is little information pertaining to the oral health of Bulang children. This study aims to examine the dental caries and periodontal status of 12-year-old Bulang children in China and the factors affecting their oral-health status. Methods 12-year-old Bulang school children in Yunnan, China, were recruited through a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Following the recommendation of the World Health Organization, caries experiences were recorded using the DMFT index and periodontal status with the CPI index. A self-completed questionnaire was used to collect information on the background and oral health-related behaviours of the children. Results A total of 900 children in primary schools were invited, and 873 (97%) joined the survey. Their caries prevalence was 35%. Their caries experience in mean DMFT (±SD) score was 0.6 ± 1.1, and 94% of the carious teeth had no treatment. Most children (71%) had bleeding gums, and 58% of them had calculus. Girls and those who had visited a dentist in the previous year had higher caries risk. Conclusions Dental caries was common among the 12-year-old Bulang children in China. Most of the carious teeth were left untreated. Caries prevalence was associated with gender and dental attendance. Their periodontal condition was poor, and more than half of them had calculus. PMID:24708768

  8. Sickle cell disease does not predispose to caries or periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cristina Pinho; Santos, Poliana Ramos Braga; Aguiar, Márcio Cajazeira; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Toralles, Maria Betánia Pereira; da Silva, Maria Christina Bahiana Olympio; Nascimento, Roberto José Meyer; Campos, Maria Isabela Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal condition in a population with sickle cell disease (SCD), analyzing some associations with disease severity. The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were recorded for 99 individuals with SCD and 91 matched controls. Socio-demographic status, oral health behaviors, and history of clinical severity of SCD were assessed. Statistical comparisons were performed between the group with SCD and the control group, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses with DMFT index and CPI as the dependent variables. The mean number of decayed teeth was significantly higher in individuals with HbSS. Older age, female gender, and daily smoking were identified as risk factors for higher DMFT, while older age and absence of daily use of dental floss were risk factors for the development of periodontal disease. In conclusion, risk factors known to cause caries and periodontal disease had more influence on oral health than the direct impact of SCD.

  9. Caries Experience and Periodontal Status during Pregnancy in a Group of Pregnant Women with HIV+ Infections from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    López, Lydia M; Guerra, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the caries rate and periodontal status in a sample of pregnant women with HIV+ infections from Puerto Rico. Methods A pilot study was conducted on a cross sectional convenience sample of 25 pregnant women with HIV+ infections from Puerto Rico who visit the CEMI clinic (Centro de Estudios Materno Infantil) at the University of Puerto Rico. The women subjects were evaluated for caries, DMFT (D: Decay tooth; M: Missing tooth due to caries; F: Filled tooth) index, oral lesions associated with HIV+/AIDS and periodontal disease parameters, with a Florida probe by a calibrated dentist on periodontal indexes such as as bleeding on probing, CEJ (cemento-enamel junction) and pocket depth. Periodontal disease was classified as having 4 sites with pocket depth greater than 4 mm and caries were identified following the Radike criteria. Data was statistically analyzed using the SSPS Program (Statistical Software Program for Social Sciences) and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Mean DT (decayed teeth), MT (missing teeth due to caries), FT (filled teeth) and DMFT (decay, missing and filled teeth) were 4.8, 1.86, 5.3 and 12, respectively; mean sites of bleeding on probing=12.06; mean sites with pocket depth>4 mm=6.95 and mean sites with loss of attachment greater than 4 mm=7.66. [Almost 50% of the patients had generalized chronic periodontitis. A 72% prevalence of periodontal disease was found. No oral lesions related to HIV+/AIDS were reported. CD4 and viral load was statistically associated with bleeding on probing and severe signs of periodontal disease. Conclusions High levels of dental disease were found in pregnant women with HIV+/AIDS infections from Puerto Rico, and these women were in need of substantial dental services.

  10. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs.

  11. Chair-Side Quantitative Oral-Microflora Screening for Assessing Familial Correlation of Periodontal Status and Caries Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yung-Kai; Lee, Wei-Fang; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Chang, Yus-Han Sophie; Tchaou, Wen-Shiun; Chang, Wei-Jen; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to investigate the relationship between clinical status and the presence of carious or periodontal pathogens among parent-child familial pairs. Clinical practices of risk assessment with consideration of familial pathogen interaction might reduce the need for therapy, improve patient outcomes, and ultimately reduce oral disease burden. Materials and Methods: In this study, we enrolled 30 parent-child pairs, with the children exhibiting complete deciduous dentition or mixed dentition with only permanent first molars. Clinical statuses were evaluated using caries and periodontal disease indicators, including the sum of decay and the number of missing or filled teeth (DMFT) for adults, decay, extraction caused by dental disease, and filled teeth (deft), for children, probing depth, and plaque control record (PCR). Supra- and sub-gingival bacteria were determined based on semi-quantitative measurements of microbial infection by using data from the Dentocult® SM test (caries-related organisms) and the PerioCheck® test (periodontal disease-related organisms). Results: No statistically significant relationship was detected between the prevalence of periodontal pathogens and that of cariogenic pathogens in the oral cavity. However, the clinical status of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with the clinical status of periodontal disease (pocket depth) in parents who were infected with dominant periodontal pathogens (r = −0.59, p<0.01). Parents’ DMFT scores were positively correlated with children’s deft and PCR scores. PCR and deft scores of children appeared to decrease significantly with the parent’s pocket depth. Conclusion: The study showed that the quantity of caries pathogens were not significant related to periodontal pathogens, but the caries clinical outcome is negative related with periodontal clinical outcome between familial pairs. PMID:24498022

  12. Periodontal Health and Caries Prevalence Evaluation in Patients Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event. PMID:23320249

  13. Natural products for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Badria, Farid A; Zidan, Omar A

    2004-01-01

    Selected natural compounds were evaluated for their effects on dental caries due to different strains of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Out of 39 tested compounds, four (catechol, emetine, quinine, and flavone) showed potent inhibitory activity on different strains of S. mutans at 6.25 microg/mL or less with inhibition of adherence <50%, two compounds (5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy isoflavone and ellagic acid) exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect at 12.5 microg/mL with inhibition to adherence <50%, and 12 compounds exhibited weak antibacterial activity at 125 microg/mL or more with inhibition of adherence <25%. These compounds represent three major classes of natural products: tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Further study for possible application of these compounds as inhibitors for dental caries is underway. PMID:15383236

  14. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content,...

  15. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  16. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  17. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.

  18. Saliva and dental caries: diagnostic tests for normal dental practice.

    PubMed

    Larmas, M

    1992-08-01

    Salivary diagnostics is now entering the surgery of the modern dentist, although no test yet available is so specific and sensitive that caries can be diagnosed from saliva samples only. The present tests are useful for estimating the caries activity due to bad dietary habits (salivary lactobacilli), establishing the presence of infection (salivary mutans streptococci), and identification of salivary yeasts for the determination of the medical condition of the patient. Buffer capacity reveals the most important host response factor acting against caries, while measures of flow rate form the diagnostic basis for treatment planning. These tests, alone or in combination, are now so easy to perform that they should be used in every dental practice.

  19. [Optimization of dental caries prevention].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Polyakova, M A; Avdeenko, O E; Paramonov, Yu O; Kondrat'ev, S A; Pilyagina, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index). Clinical evaluation of tooth enamel before the procedure and after 3 months of use of toothpaste with nanohydroxyapatite showed the improvement of all indices. Time for complete remineralisation of enamel in both groups did not exceed 3 days. Acid resistance of tooth enamel increased by 1.65 in group I and 1,75 in group II. The Schiff index after 3 months of using «Apadent» toothpaste also decreased in both groups.

  20. [Optimization of dental caries prevention].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Polyakova, M A; Avdeenko, O E; Paramonov, Yu O; Kondrat'ev, S A; Pilyagina, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index). Clinical evaluation of tooth enamel before the procedure and after 3 months of use of toothpaste with nanohydroxyapatite showed the improvement of all indices. Time for complete remineralisation of enamel in both groups did not exceed 3 days. Acid resistance of tooth enamel increased by 1.65 in group I and 1,75 in group II. The Schiff index after 3 months of using «Apadent» toothpaste also decreased in both groups. PMID:27636759

  1. Comparison of Dental Explorers and CPI-probes in Diagnosing Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Yoichi; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kagami, Noriaki; Satou, Ryouichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to compare efficiency in detecting suspected caries requiring observation (CO) and decayed teeth (DT) between dental explorers and Community Periodontal Index (CPI)-probes in school dental examinations and evaluate the effect of their respective use on Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index scores. A total of 126 elementary and high school students were examined. All the clinical findings were obtained by a pair of trained dentists examining each student at routine annual school dental examinations. A dental explorer or CPI-probe and dental mirror were used for the examination. One dentist used the dental explorer, while the other used the CPI-probe. The choice of which instrument to use by the first dentist to examine the student was made at random. A comparison of the explorers and CPI-probes revealed that the numbers of patients and permanent teeth classified as CO were greater with the former in 6th-grade elementary and high school students (p<0.05). The Kappa value for CO and DT was 0.560 for 6th-grade elementary school and 0.846 for high school students. All DMFT scores were higher with the explorers than with the CPI-probes in the 6th-grade elementary school students. No significant difference was observed between the explorers and CPI-probes in any of the DMFT scores in any group, however. The present results indicate that as long as the low rate of caries in Japanese school children is maintained, the epidemiological data on this disease should not show any significant change if a CPI-probe is used instead of an explorer in school dental examinations. PMID:26370573

  2. Caries prevalence and periodontal treatment needs in public and private school pupils in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Taani, D Q

    1997-04-01

    A total of 886 pupils aged 15-16 years selected from 20 public and 10 private schools in northern Jordan were investigated for frequency of toothbrushing and sweet consumption, dental caries and periodontal treatment needs. A questionnaire and clinical examination were used utilising decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) code and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), respectively. Results revealed that 35.5 per cent of public and 57.1 per cent of private school pupils reported to brush their teeth regularly while the majority of them frequently consumed sweets. There were slight differences in caries experience amongst public and private school pupils, as measured by DMFT (4.74: 4.95). While bleeding and calculus scores were prevalent in pupils of both types of schools, they were slightly higher in pupils of public schools than those in private schools. Both shallow and deep pathological pockets were found in fewer numbers (6.09 per cent) in pupils in public schools only. Oral hygiene instruction and scaling were the predominant periodontal treatment needs in both types of schools. However, the treatment needed by pupils in public schools was higher than those in private schools. Complex treatment was rarely needed by public school pupils only.

  3. Association of dental and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A retrospective case controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the association of oral hygiene, dental caries, and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods A retrospective case-control study on 81 patients treated for neoplasms with bone metastases. Twenty-nine patients with bone necrosis and 52 controls treated with bisphosphonates were compared using the Oral Hygiene Index, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, and Residual Periodontal Bone. The null hypothesis stated that there was no difference in parameters of oral health between patients with and without bone necrosis. Differences of means of above-mentioned variables were compared between the groups with Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test and χ2 test. Value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Poorer oral hygiene (OHIs 1.94 vs. 1.32; p = 0.065), more advanced dental caries (DMFT 26.85 vs. 22.87; p = 0.05), and more advanced periodontal disease (CPITN: = 0: 21.05% vs. 42.51%; = 1 13.16% vs. 7.29%; = 2: 0% vs. 15.38%; = 3: 65.79% vs. 28.34%; = 4: 0% vs. 6.48%, Residual periodontal bone 73.1% vs. 80.51%; p = 0,001) were characteristic of patients with bisphosphonate related jaw necrosis when compared with control group. An advanced dental caries or periodontal disease required surgical intervention which directly contributed to the development of the bone necrosis. Conclusions Dental and periodontal disease can lead to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oncologic patients treated with bisphosphonates should be offered preventive care to reduce dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, and periodontal disease. PMID:24701224

  4. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  5. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  6. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  7. [DYNAMICS OF DENTAL CARIES' INDEXES IN CHILDREN WITH DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES].

    PubMed

    Kaskova, L F; Marchenko, K V; Berezhnaja, E E; Amosova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dentition anomalies in children and adolescents according to different authors, ranging from rising 50.8 to 81%. Anomalies of dental systems lead to aesthetic and functional disturbances affecting the child's psyche, and often lead to the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases. So, the purpose of our study was to investigate the dynamics of dental caries' indexes in children with dentoalveolar anomalies under the influence of preventive measures. We observed 50 children aged 12, who were divided into four groups. The most effective prophylactic complex in terms of reduction of growth of caries (59.4%) was the one that involved the use of "Tooth Mousse" (applying to the surface of the teeth 5 minutes after eating one time a day, in the morning after brushing teeth), "Osteovit" (one tablet three times a day), "Pektodent--dentifrice? (dental cleaning powder twice a day--in the morning and evening). This complex creates conditions for increasing the resistance of hard dental tissues, resulting in low levels of intensity of caries in children.

  8. Dental caries and its association with diet and dental erosion in Libyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Huew, Rasmia; Waterhouse, Paula; Moynihan, Paula; Kometa, Simon; Maguire, Anne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The change towards a more Westernised diet in Libya may increase the risk of caries and erosion in children. AIMS. To investigate any association between dental caries, dental erosion, and potential dietary risk factors in Libyan schoolchildren. METHODS. A random sample of 791 schoolchildren aged 12 years underwent dental examination for caries and erosion and completed a questionnaire to provide dietary data. Dental caries was assessed using the WHO (Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods, 1997) criteria. Erosion was assessed using UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, Young People Aged 4-18 years. Volume 2: Report of the Oral Health Survey, 2000) criteria. Associations between caries and dietary variables were investigated through bivariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS. Of the 791 12-year olds, 57.8% (457) had caries experience and 40.8% (323) had experience of erosion. One hundred and ninety-two subjects (42%) of the subjects with caries experience also had erosion, whilst 131 subjects (39.2%) of the 334 without caries had clinical signs of erosion (P = 0.464; OR, 1.123; 95% CI, 0.842, 1.497). There was no statistically significantly relationship between dental caries and dental erosion. Frequency of consumption of fruit-based sugared drinks was statistically significantly positively associated with experience of caries (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS. Dental caries experience was associated with frequency of consumption of sugared dietary items but not with dental erosion.

  9. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  10. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  11. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash. PMID:19570617

  12. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:27305514

  13. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  14. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  15. Relationship between dietary intake and dental caries in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Suh-Woan

    2010-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between intake of nutrients and dental caries in preschool children. One hundred and eighty-two children aged three to six years were recruited from nine day care centers in central Taiwan. These children had an oral health examination, and their parents or guardians answered a questionnaire. Each child's intake of nutrients was estimated using the 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the associations between dental caries and intake of each nutrient or food group, with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of dental caries was 73 % and increased with age. Not being a first-born and having more between-meal snacks were associated with increased caries risk. After controlling for other important factors, vitamin A intake was significantly associated with fewer dental caries (deft, decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary teeth: ≥ 4 vs. < 4), with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95 % confidence interval: 0.94 - 0.99) for an 100-μg increase in vitamin A intake. There was no significant association between dental caries and energy, macronutrient intake, and Ca/P ratio, respectively. Vegetable intake was also significantly associated with lower dental caries score.

  16. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  17. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual.

  18. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries. PMID:26192983

  19. Association between Dental Prosthesis and Periodontal Disease among Patients Visiting a Tertiary Dental Care Centre in Eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, M; Shrestha, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries and Periodontal diseases are the most prevalent oral health problems present globally. The distribution and severity of such oral health problems varies in different parts of the world and even in different regions of the same country. Nepal is one of the country with higher prevalence rate of these problems. These problems arise in association with multiple factors. Objective This study was carried out to describe the periodontal status and to analyse the association of periodontal disease with the wearing of fixed or removable partial dentures in a Nepalese population reporting to the College of Dental Surgery, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Method This study comprised of a sample of 200 adult individuals. All data were collected by performing clinical examinations in accordance with the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods Criteria. It included the Community Periodontal Index and dental prosthesis examination. Result A descriptive analysis was performed and odds ratio (1.048) and 95% confidence interval (1.001; 1.096) was found out. The mean age of the population participated in the study was 41.82 ± 14.80 years. A total of 93 (46.5%) males and 107 (53.5%) females participated in the study. Among these subjects, 100% presented some periodontal problems. The statistical analysis indicated that the probability of periodontal disease with regards to wearing partial dentures was not significant as suggested by the odds ratio (1.048). Conclusion There is no association of the wearing of dental prosthesis (RPD and/or FPD) with the periodontal disease and suggests a need for populations based oral health education programs, plaque control programs to reduce the incidence of periodontal disease. PMID:27180363

  20. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Proximal Caries in Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Kakudate, N.; Sumida, F.; Matsumoto, Y.; Manabe, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Gilbert, G.H.; Gordan, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-square tests, and associations between the decision to intervene and dentist, practice, and patient characteristics were analyzed via logistic regression. The proportion of dentists who indicated surgical intervention into enamel was significantly higher in the high-caries-risk scenario (73.8%, N = 138) than in the low-caries-risk scenario (46.5%, N = 87) (p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses for a high-caries-risk scenario, gender of dentist, city population, type of practice, conducting caries-risk assessment, and administering diet counseling were significant factors associated with surgical enamel intervention. However, for a low-caries-risk scenario, city population, type of practice, and use of a dental explorer were the factors significantly associated with surgical enamel intervention. These findings demonstrate that restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries differ by caries risk. Most participants would restore lesions within the enamel for high-caries-risk individuals (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT01680848). PMID:23053847

  1. Effects of Early Dental Office Visits on Dental Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozier, R. Gary; Preisser, John S.; Stearns, Sally C.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. Methods. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999–2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005–2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n = 11 394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Results. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81, 0.95; IRR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Conclusions. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years. PMID:24134364

  2. Changes in dental fluorosis and dental caries in Newburgh and Kingston, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J V; Swango, P A; Lininger, L L; Leske, G S; Green, E L; Haley, V B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries had changed in a fluoridated community and a nonfluoridated community since an earlier study conducted in 1986. METHODS: Dental fluorosis and dental caries data were collected on 7- to 14-year-old lifelong residents (n = 1493) of Newburgh and Kingston, NY. RESULTS: Estimated dental fluorosis prevalence rates were 19.6% in Newburgh and 11.7% in Kingston. The greatest disparity in caries scores was observed between poor and nonpoor children in nonfluoridated Kingston. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis has not declined in Newburgh and Kingston, whereas the prevalence of dental caries has continued to decline. PMID:9842391

  3. Dental caries pathogenicity: a genomic and metagenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this review we address the subject of dental caries pathogenicity from a genomic and metagenomic perspective. The application of genomic technologies is certain to yield novel insights into the relationship between the bacterial flora, dental health and disease. Three primary attributes of bacterial species are thought to have direct impact on caries development, these include: adherence on tooth surfaces (biofilm formation), acid production and acid tolerance. Attempts to define the specific aetiological agents of dental caries have proven to be elusive, supporting the notion that caries aetiology is perhaps complex and multi-faceted. The recently introduced Human Microbiome Project (HMP) that endeavors to characterise the micro-organisms living in and on the human body is likely to shed new light on these questions and improve our understanding of polymicrobial disease, microbial ecology in the oral cavity and provide new avenues for therapeutic and molecular diagnostics developments. PMID:21726221

  4. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested.

  5. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Guedes, Sarah F.F.; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established. PMID:23810638

  6. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mary A S; Guedes, Sarah F F; Xu, Hockin H K; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established.

  7. Bone resorption: an actor of dental and periodontal development?

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANKTg and Opg−∕− mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development. PMID:26594180

  8. Dental caries and dental registration status in nursery school children in Newry, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M; Kinirons, M J

    1995-04-01

    294 children aged 2-4 yr attending nursery schools in Northern Ireland were examined for dental caries and dental registration status under the capitation system in general dental practice. Their mean age was 3 yr 10 months. Sixty eight per cent were caries free, mean dmft was 1.10 and dt, mt and ft scores were 0.74, 0.28 and 0.09, respectively. With increasing age the prevalence of caries increased, though the very low care index (d/dmft) did improve in the older children. Seventy per cent reported being registered for dental care and their levels of dental caries were significantly higher than those who were not yet enrolled (P < 0.001). For those not enrolled for dental care the main perceived barriers to seeking care related to lack of symptoms (33.6%) and apathy (31.6%) while few reported fear as a barrier (4.5%). PMID:7781302

  9. RISK INDICATORS AND RISK PREDICTORS OF DENTAL CARIES IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB) based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI) based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS) and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25) was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17) or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37) presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68) and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87). Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren. PMID:19082400

  10. The implications of the new paradigm of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina

    2011-12-01

    The caries process is the ubiquitous, natural metabolism in the biofilm that causes numerous fluctuations in pH. The interaction of this biofilm with the dental tissues may result in a caries lesion. However, lesion formation and progression can be controlled, particularly by disturbing plaque regularly with a fluoride containing toothpaste. This paradigm implies that everyone with teeth is at risk to lesion development. Treatment of caries is principally non-operative, involving plaque control, fluoride and a sensible diet. Operative dentistry repairs un-cleansable cavities and is part of plaque control. A diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. The relevant diagnostic features with respect to caries are lesion activity (active lesions require active management) and un-cleansable cavities. When teaching undergraduates, it is important that they are credited for the non-operative treatment of caries as well as for operative dentistry. This is equally important in dental practice where an appropriate skills mix of the dental team is required to deliver dental health cost-effectively. Training more dentists may be an expensive mistake as far as disease control is concerned. It is ironic that dentists make most money from operative care and specialist treatment when disease control could be delivered relatively cheaply. The key to dental health is regular and effective plaque control with a fluoride containing toothpaste, from cradle to grave.

  11. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  12. The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Wang, Suping; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Haohao; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:26635932

  13. A tissue-dependent hypothesis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, A; Belda-Ferre, P; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Alcaraz, L D; Mira, A

    2013-01-01

    Current understanding of dental caries considers this disease a demineralization of the tooth tissues due to the acid produced by sugar-fermenting microorganisms. Thus, caries is considered a diet- and pH-dependent process. We present here the first metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities present at different stages of caries development, with the aim of determining whether the bacterial composition and biochemical profile are specific to the tissue affected. The data show that microbial composition at the initial, enamel-affecting stage of caries is significantly different from that found at subsequent stages, as well as from dental plaque of sound tooth surfaces. Although the relative proportion of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.12% in dental plaque to 0.72% in enamel caries, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis were the dominant streptococci in these lesions. The functional profile of caries-associated bacterial communities indicates that genes involved in acid stress tolerance and dietary sugar fermentation are overrepresented only at the initial stage (enamel caries), whereas other genes coding for osmotic stress tolerance as well as collagenases and other proteases enabling dentin degradation are significantly overrepresented in dentin cavities. The results support a scenario in which pH and diet are determinants of the disease during the degradation of enamel, but in dentin caries lesions not only acidogenic but also proteolytic bacteria are involved. We propose that caries disease is a process of varying etiology, in which acid-producing bacteria are the vehicle to penetrate enamel and allow dentin degrading microorganisms to expand the cavity.

  14. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv

    2014-11-01

    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management.

  15. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv

    2014-11-01

    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management. PMID:25443675

  16. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. PMID:26343264

  17. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  18. Treating dental caries as an infectious disease. Applying the medical model in practice to prevent dental caries.

    PubMed

    Limeback, H

    1996-01-01

    The above diagnostic and treatment principles may be self evident to most dental practitioners. To many, however, this treatment philosophy is a new one. Continuing dental education and quality assurance programs will play a significant role in helping dentists make the philosophical shift from a highly technical restorative approach to one that uses the medical model and treats dental caries as an infectious disease. While a total cure in humans suffering from dental disease may never be attainable, dental practitioners should soon be better able to direct more of their attention to the patients who already demonstrate a high incidence of dental decay and to those who are clearly at risk to develop future dental decay. PMID:9470624

  19. Assignment of Dental School Patients Using Periodontal Treatment Need Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, Ala

    1990-01-01

    The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)

  20. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  1. Dental caries in rats associated with Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Klinke, T; Guggenheim, B; Klimm, W; Thurnheer, T

    2011-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast's potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the modified cariogenic diet 2000a, containing 40% various sugars. Subsequently, maxillary molars were scored for plaque extent. After dissection, the mandibular molars were evaluated for smooth surface and fissure caries. Test animals exposed to C. albicans displayed considerably more advanced fissure lesions (p < 0.001) than non-exposed controls. While S. mutans yielded similar results, a combined association of C. albicans and S. mutans had no effect on occlusal caries incidence. Substituting dietary sucrose by glucose did not modify caries induction by C. albicans. However, animals fed a diet containing 20% of both sugars showed no differences to non-infected controls. Smooth surface caries was not generated by the yeast. This study provides experimental evidence that C. albicans is capable of causing occlusal caries in rats at a high rate.

  2. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  3. Dialister pneumosintes bacteremia caused by dental caries and sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Mariko; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Ishiguro, Shingo; Ueda, Atsuo; Nakahara, Tsuyoshi; Tamai, Kiyoko; Notake, Shigeyuki; Shiotani, Seiji; Umemoto, Takeshi; Morishima, Isamu; Ueno, Ei

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized at the Department of Senology for positive signals on two sets of blood cultures obtained in the Emergency Department. The initial physical examination with enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen did not identify the infectious source. Dialister pneumosintes was identified on 16S rRNA sequencing, and dental caries with sinusitis were subsequently diagnosed based on a dental examination and magnetic resonance imaging. History taking with respect to dental hygiene and oral examinations should be performed in daily clinical practice, especially in immunosuppressed patients.

  4. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  5. Aspartame and dental caries in the rat.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Das, A K; Murphy, R A; Worawongvasu, R

    1991-01-01

    Aspartame (NutraSweet--The NutraSweet Co., Deerfield, IL) an artificial intense sweetener, was tested for its cariogenicity alone and in the presence of sucrose. Sprague-Dawley rat pups (Charles River Laboratories, Bloomington, MA) inoculated with Streptococcus mutans were fed basal diet 2000 with one of the following added: 50% sucrose; 30% sucrose; 30% sucrose + 0.15% aspartame; 0.30% aspartame; 0.15% aspartame and no addition. The animals were sacrificed after eight weeks. Caries was evaluated using Keyes' technique. It was found that the addition of 0.15% aspartame to 30% sucrose diet significantly reduced caries in comparison to rats fed only 30% sucrose diet. In animals fed aspartame only, there was no caries. The S. mutans counts were high in the animals receiving sucrose diets with and without aspartame. The animals receiving only aspartame had very low S. mutans counts.

  6. [Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes].

    PubMed

    Eberle, G

    1984-12-01

    Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented.

  7. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children.

    PubMed

    Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born term (G2), in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95) was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07) p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926). One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries. PMID:20877971

  8. Periodontal conditions in patients requesting dental implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taichi; Yasuda, Masaaki; Norizuki, Yoshie; Sasaki, Hodaka; Honma, Shinya; Furuya, Yoshitaka; Kato, Tetsuo; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is considered a risk factor in dental implant treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the periodontal conditions in patients requesting dental implant therapy. A total of 169 patients visiting Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Implantology at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital were targeted. The following intraoral parameters were measured in each patient: Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Prevalence of patients with periodontal pockets was high: 38% and 28% of patients had a CPI score of code 3 and 4, respectively. Prevalence of teeth with one or more sites with PPD≥4mm was 27%. Moreover, clinical signs suggestive of periodontitis (PPD, CAL≥4mm) were found in 10-15% of tooth sites. Prevalence rates at sites with severe periodontal breakdown (PPD, CAL≥7mm) were 2-5%. These results further emphasize the importance of thorough periodontal assessment in patients prior to dental implant treatment.

  9. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  10. Assessing risk factors for dental caries: a statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Trottini, Mario; Bossù, Maurizio; Corridore, Denise; Ierardo, Gaetano; Luzzi, Valeria; Saccucci, Matteo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The problem of identifying potential determinants and predictors of dental caries is of key importance in caries research and it has received considerable attention in the scientific literature. From the methodological side, a broad range of statistical models is currently available to analyze dental caries indices (DMFT, dmfs, etc.). These models have been applied in several studies to investigate the impact of different risk factors on the cumulative severity of dental caries experience. However, in most of the cases (i) these studies focus on a very specific subset of risk factors; and (ii) in the statistical modeling only few candidate models are considered and model selection is at best only marginally addressed. As a result, our understanding of the robustness of the statistical inferences with respect to the choice of the model is very limited; the richness of the set of statistical models available for analysis in only marginally exploited; and inferences could be biased due the omission of potentially important confounding variables in the model's specification. In this paper we argue that these limitations can be overcome considering a general class of candidate models and carefully exploring the model space using standard model selection criteria and measures of global fit and predictive performance of the candidate models. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are illustrated with a real data set. In our illustration the model space contains more than 2.6 million models, which require inferences to be adjusted for 'optimism'.

  11. Conceptualization of dental caries by undergraduate dental students from the first to the last year.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, still one of the most common diseases affecting people around the world, has a multifactorial nature encompassing necessary (biofilm accumulation), determinant (exposure to sugars and fluoride) and modulating factors (biological and social). The concepts about caries learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the concept that students at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, have about dental caries. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 274 students answered the discursive question "Conceptualize dental caries". Students' answers were analyzed by a content analysis technique that allowed the creation of response categories and classification of the concepts in categories. Frequencies were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Differences between the responses according to the students' class years were tested by the chi-square test. Differences with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The response categories were: biological concept (53.6%), restrictive multifactorial concept (12.1%), comprehensive multifactorial concept (8.1%), transmissibility concept (15.8%), and other (10.4%). Differences in response category frequencies were seen between the class years (p<0.001). There was no consensus on the disease definition, although students predominantly had a biological concept of dental caries.

  12. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I; Sohn, W; Tellez, M; Amaya, A; Sen, A; Hasson, H; Pitts, N B

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes early findings of evaluations of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) conducted by the Detroit Center for Research on Oral Health Disparities (DCR-OHD). The lack of consistency among the contemporary criteria systems limits the comparability of outcomes measured in epidemiological and clinical studies. The ICDAS criteria were developed by an international team of caries researchers to integrate several new criteria systems into one standard system for caries detection and assessment. Using ICDAS in the DCR-OHD cohort study, dental examiners first determined whether a clean and dry tooth surface is sound, sealed, restored, crowned, or missing. Afterwards, the examiners classified the carious status of each tooth surface using a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from sound to extensive cavitation. Histological examination of extracted teeth found increased likelihood of carious demineralization in dentin as the ICDAS codes increased in severity. The criteria were also found to have discriminatory validity in analyses of social, behavioral and dietary factors associated with dental caries. The reliability of six examiners to classify tooth surfaces by their ICDAS carious status ranged between good to excellent (kappa coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.82). While further work is still needed to define caries activity, validate the criteria and their reliability in assessing dental caries on smooth surfaces, and develop a classification system for assessing preventive and restorative treatment needs, this early evaluation of the ICDAS platform has found that the system is practical; has content validity, correlational validity with histological examination of pits and fissures in extracted teeth; and discriminatory validity.

  13. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  14. A mathematical model for the progression of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fabregas, L Rene I; Rubinstein, J

    2014-12-01

    A model for the progression of dental caries is derived. The analysis starts at the microscopic reaction and diffusion process. The local equations are averaged to derive a set of macroscopic equations. The global system includes features such as anisotropic diffusion and local changes in the geometry due to the melting of the enamel. The equations are then solved numerically. The simulations highlight the effect of anisotropy. In addition, we draw conclusions on the progression rate of caries, and discuss them in light of a number of experiments. PMID:23803287

  15. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  16. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  17. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  18. Income, income inequality, dental caries and dental care levels: an ecological study in rich countries.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Sheiham, A; Sabbah, W

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that beyond a certain level of absolute income, there is a weak relationship between income and population health. On the other hand, relative income or income inequality is more strongly related to health than absolute income in rich countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships of income and income inequality with dental caries and dental care levels in 35- to 44-year-old adults among rich countries. Income was assessed by gross domestic product and gross national income, income inequality by Gini coefficient and the ratio between the income of the richest and poorest 20% of the population, dental caries by DMFT and dental care levels by the care, restorative and treatment indices. Pearson and partial correlation were used to examine the relationships between income, income inequality, caries experience and dental care. Income measures were not related to either dental caries or dental care levels. However, income inequality measures were inversely and significantly related to number of filled teeth, DMFT, care index and restorative index, but not to number of decayed or missing teeth. It is concluded that DMFT scores were higher in more equal countries and may be explained by greater levels of restorative care in those countries.

  19. Classification and management of dental caries. New concepts.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayanan, R; Carounnanidy, U

    2002-01-01

    There has been a tremendous change in the understanding of carious lesion in all aspects from pathogenesis to prevention. The profession has also seen a revolutionary change in the material science and technology. In spite of these changes, the caries classification provided by Dr. G. V. Black remains unchanged, deterring the radical changes needed in the understanding of caries as a disease process. This article propose a new classification of dental caries to suit the present day changes in the related area. The article opens by highlighting the changes and limitations in the existing classification. The logical and advantageous outcome of the new classification is projected at the end emphasizing the need to change in conservative dentistry and education.

  20. Influence of Different Intellectual Disability Levels on Caries and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Costa, Antônio Augusto Iponema; Della Bona, Álvaro; Trentin, Micheline Sandini

    2016-01-01

    Oral health care is fundamental to preserve the individual integrity and consequently influences the general health. This observational, cross-sectional and analytical study evaluated the oral condition of 129 intellectually disabled individuals from the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) in three southern Brazilian cities. Dental caries (DMFT and dmft indices) and periodontal disease (PSR index) were evaluated considering the intellectual disability level. A questionnaire on socioeconomic status (income and education level) and the last visit to a dentist was answered by the subjects' parents/guardians. The data were statistically evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α=0.05). The mean DMFT values were 2.27, 3.76 and 0.58 (p<0.05), and the mean dmft values were 1.48, 1.55 and 2.75, respectively for subjects with mild, moderate and severe disabilities. Regarding the PSR index, 43% of the subjects presented gingivitis without retention factor (no calculus or defective margins) with no significant differences among the three disability levels. Considering the population and the limitations of this study, the subjects presenting severe disabilities showed significantly lower mean DMFT values compared to other disability levels, probably because the caretakers are responsible for the oral hygiene of such subjects. PMID:27007346

  1. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A; Wiener, Howard W; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S; Ruby, John D; Cutter, Gary R; Childers, Noel K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5- and 6-yr-old children, considered as being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs (primary teeth)/DMFS (secondary teeth)) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity), and 13 genotypes were shared by at least two children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and this was negatively associated with the p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high-caries-risk community, which suggests that fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and higher stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  2. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A.; Wiener, Howard W.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S.; Ruby, John D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Childers, Noel K.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5 and 6 yr-old children, considered being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping with repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs/DMFS) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity) and 13 genotypes were shared by at least 2 children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and was negatively associated with p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high caries risk community, which suggest fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  3. Assessment of dental-caries using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae H.; Choi, Eun S.; Ryu, Seon Y.; Chang, Ju-wan; Lee, Chang S.; Lee, Byeong H.

    2006-02-01

    We employed OCT imaging technique to study the human teeth infected with the caries lesion in fit and fissure. A time domain OCT system using a rapid-scanning optical delay line enabled high speed imaging of extracted teeth. The OCT images presented the morphological feature and caries-involved area of the dental structure with a high resolution of ~14 μm. The OCT images could be utilized to diagnose the disease, while a signal along the axial direction could provide quantitative analysis of the disease based on the reflectivity differences in the specimen. We investigated the influence of caries in human teeth with several imaging tools such as light illuminating exam, digital intra-oral radiography and electron probe micro analyzer, which provided the distributions of chemical compositions, mainly calcium and phosphate in hard tissues. The biochemical changes acquired from EPMA and the morphological features acquired from OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present more objectively practical index for translating the degree of caries.

  4. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  5. Efficacy of Two Caries Detector Dyes in the Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, M.; Maleki-Kambakhsh, S.; Etemad-Moghadam, Sh.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two caries detector dyes in the diagnosis of dental caries. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk. The tooth halves were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Caries Detector (CD) and Caries Check (CC) detector dyes. Access cavities were prepared followed by caries removal and dye application. All cavities were arbitrarily divided into two right and left sections and excavation of the stained areas was performed on the left parts, while the right sections remained untouched. Bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using Gram-stained decalcified sections under light microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of both dyes were calculated. Results: The sensitivity of CD and CC were 74% and 71%, respectively. The specificity obtained for both dyes was 100%. Conclusion: Considering the low sensitivity of the dyes evaluated in the present study, it seems that they may not be reliable when used as the sole diagnostic technique for detection of carious lesions in posterior teeth. PMID:21998778

  6. Increased frequencies of caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Ayumi; Kashihara, Kenichi

    2009-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate oral hygiene in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The incidence of periodontal disease and numbers of caries and remaining teeth were checked in 89 consecutive 60 to 79-year-old patients with PD and compared with two other patient groups: 68 patients with mild neurological disease, and 60 with acute ischemic stroke. Patients with PD had fewer remaining teeth, more caries and a higher incidence of deep periodontal pockets. The frequency of patients with PD with untreated caries was high at Hoehn and Yahr stage II and above, and frequency tended to increase in patients who had low compared to high mini-mental state examination scores. Careful attention should be paid to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, even in the early stages of the disease.

  7. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  8. The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, Goguladinne Naga Deepthi; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Jyothi, Velagapudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The hormonal fingerprint is the ratio between 2nd and 4th digit lengths. It was evidenced in the medical scenario that it can be used as an indirect marker in many diseases like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and metabolic syndromes. As far as dentistry is concerned very few studies in the literature have been done to evaluate the influence of hormonal fingerprint on oral health, thus provoking us to formulate new method for predicting dental caries and malocclusion and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI). Aim The purpose of this retrospective study was to highlight the role of new biological marker–Hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of malocclusion, caries, the influence of BMI on malocclusion and caries. We also attempted to study the correlation of BMI with hormonal fingerprints. Materials and Methods A total of 300 children were randomly selected from both sexes of age group 10-15 years. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measures (weight in kilograms and height in metres) for the calculation of BMI were recorded. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and Community Periodontal Index probes. DMFT index was followed for assessment of caries according to the WHO assessment form, 1997. Occlusal characteristics of the children evaluated were molar relation, anterior and posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, lower anterior crowding. All the factors were recorded by two investigators. Results The results of the study showed that majority of the children among study population were having 2D:4D <1. The rate of occurrence of malocclusion was increasing with increase in the value of 2D:4D ratio with a statistically significant p-value of <0.001. Higher BMI values were associated with normal occlusal conditions (p= 0.041) and lower 2D:4D ratio (p= 0.037). High caries experience was noticed in children with

  9. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice.

  10. Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Tellez, Marisol; Pitts, Nigel B; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ricketts, David; Longbottom, Christopher; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Deery, Christopher; Fisher, Julian; Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B; Evans, Wendell; Zeller, Gregory G; Zero, Domenick; Martignon, Stefania; Fontana, Margherita; Zandona, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    In May 2012, cariologists, dentists, representatives of dental organizations, manufacturers, and third party payers from several countries, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to define a common mission; goals and strategic approaches for caries management in the 21th century. The workshop started with an address by Mr. Stanley Bergman, CEO of Henry Schein Inc. which focused on the imperative for change in academia, clinical practice, and public health. For decades, new scientific evidence on caries and how it should be managed have been discussed among experts in the field. However, there has been some limited change, except in some Scandinavian countries, in the models of caries management and reimbursement which have been heavily skewed toward 'drilling and filling'. There is no overall agreement on a caries' case definition or on when to surgically intervene. The participants in the workshop defined a new mission for all caries management approaches, both conventional and new. The mission of each system should be to preserve the tooth structure, and restore only when necessary. This mission marks a pivotal line for judging when to surgically intervene and when to arrest or remineralize early noncavitated lesions. Even when restorative care is necessary, the removal of hard tissues should be lesion-focused and aim to preserve, as much as possible, sound tooth structure. Continuing management of the etiological factors of caries and the use of science-based preventive regimens also will be required to prevent recurrence and re-restoration. These changes have been debated for over a decade. The Caries Management Pathways includes all systems and philosophies, conventional and new, of caries management that can be used or modified to achieve the new mission. The choice of which system to use to achieve the mission of caries management is left to the users and should be based on the science supporting each approach or philosophy, experience, utility, and ease of use

  11. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021

  12. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, George K. B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries was undertaken using MEDLINE (PubMed) and Scopus. Keywords for the search were: enzymes and odontoblasts, enzymes and different forms of dentinogenesis as well as dental caries. Results Search revealed studies which described odontoblasts harbouring numerous enzymes (hydrolases, including metalloproteinases, transaminases and dehydrogenases) during primary dentinogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase activity sharply decreased when odontoblasts turned into quiescent odontoblasts. Tertiary dentinogenesis was characterized first by reactionary dentine formation when alkaline phosphatase was highly reactivated. Then later some of these odontoblasts may die out and be replaced by other progenitor cells of pulpal origin. This tertiary dentine was called reparative dentine. Pulpal progenitor/stem cells revealed alkaline phosphatase activity in areas encircling inflamed pulp sections. Soft carious dentine revealed high hydrolase, transaminase and dehyrogenase activities that may have originated from invading microbes, saliva or were endogenous. Proteolytic activity was especially demonstrable using histochemical and biochemical means. Specifically, matrix metalloproteases may have originated partly from activated proenzymes of host origin. Conclusions Though dental studies are scanty when compared to bone, the active role of large spectrum of enzymes in healthy and carious dentine was given support. PMID:25635210

  13. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  14. Microanalysis of dental caries using laser-scanned fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Paton, Barry E.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.

    1992-06-01

    It is well known that enamel and dentin fluoresce when illuminated by short-wavelength optical radiation. Fluorescence emission from carious and non-carious regions of teeth have been studied using a new experimental scanning technique for fluorescence analysis of dental sections. Scanning in 2 dimensions will allow surface maps of dental caries to be created. These surface images are then enhanced using the conventional and newer image processing techniques. Carious regions can be readily identified and contour maps can be used to graphically display the degree of damage on both surfaces and transverse sections. Numerous studies have shown that carious fluorescence is significantly different than non-carious regions. The scanning laser fluorescence spectrometer focuses light from a 25 mW He-Cd laser at 442 nm through an objective lens onto a cross-section area as small as 3 micrometers in diameter. Microtome prepared dental samples 100 micrometers thick are laid flat onto an optical bench perpendicular to the incident beam. The sample is moved under computer control in X & Y with an absolute precision of 0.1 micrometers . The backscattered light is both spatial and wavelength filtered before being measured on a long wavelength sensitized photomultiplier tube. High precision analysis of dental samples allow detailed maps of carious regions to be determined. Successive images allow time studies of caries growth and even the potential for remineralization studies of decalcified regions.

  15. Which is a stronger indicator of dental caries: oral hygiene, food, or beverage? A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Poonam; Gary, Julie J

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with various risk factors. Oral hygiene and dietary factors--specifically, the consumption of snacks and beverages with added sugars--have been shown to be risk indicators for this disease. It is critical for dental professionals to understand the relative roles of each of these food categories in the dental caries process. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 76 people living in a Southern Illinois fluoridated community. The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, snack food consumption, plaque index, and age showed statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable--dental caries (P < 0.05). The results indicated that dietary factors and oral hygiene both contribute equally to dental caries in young adults living in a fluoridated community. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was a much stronger indicator of dental caries than snack food consumption in our study population.

  16. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis.

  17. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  18. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. PMID:24860920

  19. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers.

  20. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  1. Current understanding of the cause of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Hanada, N

    2000-02-01

    Dental caries-associated oral streptococci are called the mutans streptococci, with Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus being the most prevalent caries-associated organisms in humans. Strains of the mutans streptococci are highly conserved within not only mothers and their children but also racial groups, suggesting vertical transmission of this organism within human populations. It has been found that the mother-child infection route of the mutans streptococci can be prevented by simply reducing the amount of the mutans streptococci contained in the mothers' saliva. Moreover, a chlorhexidine varnish reduces the salivary mutans streptococci by an average of 3 logs (99.9%), and moved them below detectable levels. We should attempt to eliminate the infection with the mutans streptococci among Japanese people by attempting to break the infectious chain from mothers to children. PMID:10777849

  2. Prevalence of Dental Caries among School Children in Chennai, Based on ICDAS II

    PubMed Central

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939

  3. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  4. Dental caries and chemical warfare within the mouth.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang; Tsang, Phoebe; Shi, Wenyuan; Qi, Fengxia

    2005-12-01

    To date, it appears that the dentists' war against dental caries has no end in sight due to the fact that dentists lack any genuine offensive firepower. Make no mistake, the defense has drastically improved as dentists have shifted the focus more toward the preventive aspects of dental care. But defense by itself cannot defeat the enemy; at best, it can maintain the status quo. In order to defeat the enemy, one must study and understand the enemy, to know its strengths and weaknesses, and to strike at those points of vulnerability. The aim of this research is to identify and characterize genes that are responsible for observed virulence factors in Streptococcus mutans, which is the primary pathogen involved in the development of dental caries. Once there is a more defined understanding of the many virulence factors of S. mutans, there will be a much more valuable insight into its role in the ecology of the oral cavity. Eventually, this knowledge could enable dentists to convert the bacterial "weaponry" into its own arsenal, which could then be innovatively employed as preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to treat oral bacterial-related diseases. PMID:16454237

  5. Salivary IgA versus HIV and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Malay; Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mohanty, Susant; Saha, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inter-relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and dental caries as well as Salivary Immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) level appear to remain under explored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV positive children. Aim The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV positive and negative children and determine the dental caries status in HIV positive and HIV negative children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. Materials and Methods A total of 28 HIV positive children aged between 6-14 years and 28 age matched HIV negative children were included in this study and both samples were randomly selected from the same Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. Only 2cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and CPI probe. Results In HIV +ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean deft was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ± 17.83μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong-ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, p < 0.001) and negative but Not Significant (N.S.) correlation (r = -0.19, t = 0.99, p > 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong –ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4

  6. The scientific and public-health imperative for a vaccine against dental caries.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Martin A; Nash, David A

    2006-07-01

    Dental caries is caused by one of the most ubiquitous bacterial infections of humans. In many countries such as Brazil and China, this disease is reaching epidemic proportions, and it is clear that a more effective public-health measure to combat dental caries is needed, because disadvantaged children are the most severely affected. One of the main groups of oral microorganisms, the mutans streptococci, has been associated with the aetiology of dental caries, and preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown the feasibility of interfering with this disease. Moreover, clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to a crucial antigen(s) of mutans streptococci can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. Evidence that this antigen(s) is appropriate for use in a vaccine against dental caries, as well as evidence for an appropriate target population of individuals and a logical time of administration, has now emerged.

  7. [Helicobacter pylori in the development of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Moseeva, M V; Belova, E V; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2010-01-01

    It is shown, that in patients with erosive and ulcer defects of gastroduodenal zone at settling Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in an oral cavity in 100% of cases caries develops at intensity 13.6 +/- 1.4 teeth. Produced Hp protease and ammonia cause disintegration connected to protein silica acids and reduce activity lysocim, worsening, thus, fluid and protective properties of a saliva. In the subsequent infringement of autopurification of a teeth results in accumulation of a dental strike where protease activity conditionally pathogenic microflora conducts to depolymerization and demineralization enamels of a teeth.

  8. Assessing caries removal by undergraduate dental students using quantitative light-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Adejumoke A; Jarad, Fadi D; Komarov, Gleb N; Pender, Neil; Higham, Susan M

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare detection of enamel and dentinal caries by dental students' and faculty members' visual inspection and by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The overall aim was to determine whether QLF is an appropriate technique for use in clinical skills laboratories as a teaching aid for dental undergraduates to detect and assess the removal of enamel and dentinal caries. Sixty students who had no clinical experience with dental caries were asked to select . suitably decayed teeth and mount them in plaster. After recording baseline QLF images, students removed caries according to instructions given by the clinical tutor. On completion of the exercise, the teeth were visually determined to be caries-free by the student, then confirmed by the clinical tutor. A fluorescein in alcohol solution was injected into the cavity for two minutes, rinsed, and dried before QLF images were captured. The images were visually analyzed by two examiners for the presence or absence of caries. From seventy-four images recorded, seventeen were excluded due to exposure of the pulp chamber. The remaining fifty-seven teeth, which by clinical visual examination were judged to be caries-free, were examined using QLF. Fifty-three percent were found to be caries-free, while 47 percent were carious. In this sample of fifty-seven teeth judged to be caries-free by both dental students and faculty members, QLF thus detected caries in almost half of these teeth. These findings suggest that QLF is a useful, noninvasive, nondestructive technique for the detection of caries and can serve as an adjunct to chair-side diagnosis and management of dental caries, which is typically accomplished by visual inspection. QLF may be useful and appropriate as an objective clinical teaching aid for the assessment of dental caries.

  9. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-01

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties. PMID:2344419

  10. [Dental caries resistance under conditions of a space flight].

    PubMed

    Malamuzh, S S; Leont'ev, V K

    2002-01-01

    The maxillodental status of aeronauts attracts special interest of scientists and causes apprehensions of physicians and scientists of countries with aeronautic industry because of long duration of space missions. Some scientists consider that the realization of mission to Mars can lead to development of multiple dental caries in aeronauts. The aim of this study was to study the effects of space mission factors on the resistance of hard dental tissues and remineralizing activity of the saliva in a simulation experiment. The results demonstrated dynamic changes in the studied parameters under the effect of space mission factors; based on these results, we determined the criteria for selection of candidates for prolonged experiments and space missions.

  11. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-01

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties.

  12. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    PubMed

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  13. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided.

  14. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided. PMID:16276946

  15. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride.

  16. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride. PMID:26758380

  17. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  18. The contribution of dietary factors to dental caries and disparities in caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars, is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (undernutrition or overnutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods, substituting instead high-energy, low-cost, nutrient-poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation, including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for early childhood caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents, and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods, to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  19. Reliability of specific finger dermatoglyphic patterns and their association with dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Pratibha; Sentamilselvi, G; Narayan, Vinod; Premkumar, Priya; Anuja, N; Sherlin, Herald; Abilasha, R

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries is generally agreed to be a complex problem with many indirect factors that may obscure the direct cause or causes. There is substantial evidence that heredity plays an important role in this disease. Dermatoglyphics is a study that can be used to indicate congenital abnormalities. This study sought to determine a correlation between the prevalence of dental caries and dermatoglyphic fingerprint patterns, and thus assess the reliability of such patterns for identifying a susceptibility to dental caries. The results showed that the association between people with dental caries and whorls in their fingerprints was 60.4% . The association between people without caries who had loops in their fingerprints was 55.7%. These associations had a statistical significance of P < 0.001.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of the viability, aggregation, and live and dead adherence of Streptococcus crista, Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human saliva in relation to indices of caries, dental plaque and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Rudney, J D; Staikov, R K

    2002-05-01

    Salivary proteins have multiple functions and many share similar functions, which may be why it has been difficult to relate variations in their concentrations to oral health and ecology. An alternative is to focus on variations in the major functions of saliva. An hydroxyapatite-coated microplate model has been developed that simultaneously measures saliva-promoted bacterial viability, bacterial aggregation, and live and dead bacterial adherence, while simulating oral temperature and shearing forces from swallowing. That model was applied to resting whole and stimulated parotid saliva from 149 individuals, using representative strains of Streptococcus crista, S. mutans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Two major factors were defined by multivariate analysis (this was successful only for whole-saliva). One factor was correlated with aggregation, live adherence and dead adherence for all three strains; the other was correlated with total viability of all three strains. Participants were grouped <25th percentile and >75th percentile for each factor. Those groups were compared for clinical indices of oral health. Caries scores were significantly lower in those with high scores for aggregation-adherence, regardless of whether total viability scores were low or high. Live bacteria always predominated on surfaces when live and dead adherence scores were expressed as ratios. However, participants with high scores for aggregation-adherence showed significantly more dead adherent bacteria than those with low scores (these ratios were uncorrelated with total viability). This finding may indicate that extreme differences in the ability to kill bacteria on surfaces can influence caries risk.

  1. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  2. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  3. Dental caries experience and use of dental services among Brazilian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Rodrigues, Iris Sant Anna Araujo; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento

    2014-11-25

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, "decayed" and "missing" components contributed to the high mean DMFT index.

  4. DENTAL CARIES IN CHILDREN THAT PARTICIPATED IN A DENTAL PROGRAM PROVIDING MOTHER AND CHILD CARE*

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries in children that participate in a dental program attending mothers and children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. A selection was made of 343 children of both genders, from 3 to 6 years of age. The mothers answered questionnaires and children were examined at the Infant Dental Clinic of the Federal University of Piauí. The epidemiological index dmft was applied and active white spot lesions were included. The SPSS for Windows program, version 11.1 was used and non-parametric tests carried out (Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis). An alpha error of 5% (0.05) was considered for the null hypothesis of false rejection, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed that 57.5% (197) of the children were breast-fed for a period longer than 12 months. The mean dmft index and percentages of caries-free children at the age of 3 was 1.86 (58.82%); at 4 years of age 1.94 (57.60%); at 5 years of age 1.98 (56.86%) and at 6 years of age 2.42 (42.55%). The decay component (d) was prevalent at all ages. When active white spot lesions were added to the dmft index, there was an increase of 7.2% for children who had caries activity and/or previous caries experience and 2.61% for those with dmft equal to zero. The daily consumption of fermentable carbohydrates and free demand breast-feeding were factors increasing caries activity. Dental follow-up after the program and the number of daily brushings were shown to be factors providing protection against caries . Based on the results, the authors were able to conclude that the program caused a positive impact on caries disease control, as the number of dental appointments kept influenced the dmft index values in a statistically significant manner. PMID:19089031

  5. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  6. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Haidar; Al-Jawad, Abdulfatah; Al-Shayeb, Mahdi; Al-Ali, Ali; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This is a pilot case-control study conducted to investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease and examine the possible association between oral health deterioration and SCD severity in a sample of Saudi SCD patients residing in the city of Al-Qatif, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods Dental examination to determine the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and plaque index system were recorded for 33 SCD patients and 33 age and sex-matched controls in the Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Self-administered surveys used to assess socio-economic status; oral health behaviors for both SCD patients and controls were recorded. In addition, the disease severity index was established for all patients with SCD. SPSS data analysis software package version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Numerical variables were described as mean with a standard deviation. Results Decayed teeth were significantly more in individuals with ages ranging from 18 to 38 years with SCD compared to the control group (p = 0.036) due to oral hygiene negligence. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in individuals with SCD when compared to the control group (p = 0.015) due to the lack of appropriate and timely treatment reflected in the survey responses of SCD patients as 15.2% only taking oral care during hospitalization. There were differences between the cases and controls in the known caries risk factors such as income level, flossing, and brushing habit. The DMFT, CPI, and plaque index systems did not differ significantly between the SCD patients and the control group. Conclusion Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD. PMID:25544813

  7. Oral microbiome of deep and shallow dental pockets in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiuchun; Rodriguez, Rafael; Trinh, My; Gunsolley, John; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    We examined the subgingival bacterial biodiversity in untreated chronic periodontitis patients by sequencing 16S rRNA genes. The primary purpose of the study was to compare the oral microbiome in deep (diseased) and shallow (healthy) sites. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the influences of smoking, race and dental caries on this relationship. A total of 88 subjects from two clinics were recruited. Paired subgingival plaque samples were taken from each subject, one from a probing site depth >5 mm (deep site) and the other from a probing site depth ≤3mm (shallow site). A universal primer set was designed to amplify the V4-V6 region for oral microbial 16S rRNA sequences. Differences in genera and species attributable to deep and shallow sites were determined by statistical analysis using a two-part model and false discovery rate. Fifty-one of 170 genera and 200 of 746 species were found significantly different in abundances between shallow and deep sites. Besides previously identified periodontal disease-associated bacterial species, additional species were found markedly changed in diseased sites. Cluster analysis revealed that the microbiome difference between deep and shallow sites was influenced by patient-level effects such as clinic location, race and smoking. The differences between clinic locations may be influenced by racial distribution, in that all of the African Americans subjects were seen at the same clinic. Our results suggested that there were influences from the microbiome for caries and periodontal disease and these influences are independent. PMID:23762384

  8. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S.; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K.; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  9. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  10. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  11. Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zifeng; Yu, Dongsheng; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Gao, Shuo; Li, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3), 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0). The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC. PMID:25340906

  12. Korean version of child perceptions questionnaire and dental caries among Korean children.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ(8-10) overall score (partial r = 0.15, P <0.05). The link was highlighted in the domains of functional limitation and emotional well-being. Filled teeth due to caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14.

  13. Genome-wide association Scan of dental caries in the permanent dentition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 90% of adults aged 20 years or older with permanent teeth have suffered from dental caries leading to pain, infection, or even tooth loss. Although caries prevalence has decreased over the past decade, there are still about 23% of dentate adults who have untreated carious lesions in the US. Dental caries is a complex disorder affected by both individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Approximately 35-55% of caries phenotypic variation in the permanent dentition is attributable to genes, though few specific caries genes have been identified. Therefore, we conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes affecting susceptibility to caries in adults. Methods Five independent cohorts were included in this study, totaling more than 7000 participants. For each participant, dental caries was assessed and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were genotyped or imputed across the entire genome. Due to the heterogeneity among the five cohorts regarding age, genotyping platform, quality of dental caries assessment, and study design, we first conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses on each of the five independent cohorts separately. We then performed three meta-analyses to combine results for: (i) the comparatively younger, Appalachian cohorts (N = 1483) with well-assessed caries phenotype, (ii) the comparatively older, non-Appalachian cohorts (N = 5960) with inferior caries phenotypes, and (iii) all five cohorts (N = 7443). Top ranking genetic loci within and across meta-analyses were scrutinized for biologically plausible roles on caries. Results Different sets of genes were nominated across the three meta-analyses, especially between the younger and older age cohorts. In general, we identified several suggestive loci (P-value ≤ 10E-05) within or near genes with plausible biological roles for dental caries, including RPS6KA2 and PTK2B, involved in p38-depenedent MAPK signaling

  14. Characterization of early dental caries by polarized Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Hewko, Mark D.; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-02-01

    The early approximal caries lesion in enamel is observed clinically as a white spot and is difficult to detect and/or monitor with current methods available to dentists. New methods with high sensitivity and specificity are required to enable improved early dental caries diagnosis. Using unpolarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned teeth, peak intensity changes in the phosphate (PO 4 3-) vibrations (ν II, ν 3 and ν 4) were observed between spectra of sound and carious enamel. However, there is little change in the ν I vibration with this approach. In contrast, when tooth sections were examined by unpolarized Raman spectroscopy, marked changes in the ν I peak at 959 cm -1 were noted between healthy and carious enamel. These differences suggest that sampling orientation play a role in understanding the spectral changes. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned samples, cross polarized measurements from sound enamel exhibited significant reduction of the ν I peak compared with parallel polarized measurements. A similar reduction was observed with carious enamel, however, the reduction was not as prominent. By calculating the depolarization ratio of the area under the ν I peak, sound enamel can be clearly distinguished from demineralized regions. The spectral changes observed are attributed to changes in the structure and/or orientation of the apatite crystals as a result of the acid demineralization process.

  15. Considerations on Optimal Fluoride Intake using Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Outcomes – A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kanellis, Michael J.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The “optimal” intake of fluoride has been widely accepted for decades as between 0.05 and 0.07 mg fluoride per kilogram of body weight but is based on limited scientific evidence. The purpose of this paper is to present longitudinal fluoride intake data for children free of dental fluorosis in the early-erupting permanent dentition and free of dental caries in both the primary and early-erupting permanent teeth as an estimate of optimal fluoride intake. Methods Data on fluoride ingestion were obtained from parents of 602 Iowa Fluoride Study children through periodic questionnaires at the ages of 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 months, and then at 6-month intervals thereafter. Estimates of total fluoride intake at each time point were made by summing amounts from water, dentifrice, and supplements as well as other foods and beverages made with or containing water. Caries data were obtained from examinations of children at ages 5 and 9 years, while fluorosis data were obtained from examinations only at age 9. Results The estimated mean daily fluoride intake for those children with no caries history and no fluorosis at age 9 was at or below 0.05 mgF/kg bw for nearly all time points through the first 48 months of life, and this level declined thereafter. Children with caries had generally slightly less intakes, while those with fluorosis generally had slightly higher intakes. Conclusions Given the overlap among caries/fluorosis groups in mean fluoride intake and extreme variability in individual fluoride intakes firmly recommending an “optimal” fluoride intake is problematic. PMID:19054310

  16. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  17. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  18. Occlusal dental caries incidence and implications for sealant programs in a US college student population.

    PubMed

    Stahl, J W; Katz, R V

    1993-01-01

    Given the decline in dental caries incidence in preteens and young teenagers in the United States, a study of the incidence of dental caries in young adults (17-23 years) was conducted to provide a descriptive epidemiologic picture of this "new" natural history of dental caries in the late and post-teenage years. A retrospective study was performed analyzing the detailed dental records of the four-year college experience in the class of 1989, US Coast Guard Academy. Occlusal caries incidence, in the absence of associated proximal caries, was shown to be moderately common in molars (11.9%) and rare in premolars (0.8%). In contrast to previous studies' findings, demographic indicators, socioeconomic status indicators, and prior caries experience were poor predictors of occlusal caries incidence; targeting a universal sealant policy in this population therefore would be done best by tooth type rather than patient type. A preliminary cost-comparison model, projected over a 40-month period, suggests that the cost of initiating a universal molar sealant policy in this population would be 92 cents per year per student greater than the cost of restoring occlusal caries in the presence of sound proximal surfaces. This cost comparison suggests that it would be advantageous to initiate such a policy.

  19. Occlusal dental caries incidence and implications for sealant programs in a US college student population.

    PubMed

    Stahl, J W; Katz, R V

    1993-01-01

    Given the decline in dental caries incidence in preteens and young teenagers in the United States, a study of the incidence of dental caries in young adults (17-23 years) was conducted to provide a descriptive epidemiologic picture of this "new" natural history of dental caries in the late and post-teenage years. A retrospective study was performed analyzing the detailed dental records of the four-year college experience in the class of 1989, US Coast Guard Academy. Occlusal caries incidence, in the absence of associated proximal caries, was shown to be moderately common in molars (11.9%) and rare in premolars (0.8%). In contrast to previous studies' findings, demographic indicators, socioeconomic status indicators, and prior caries experience were poor predictors of occlusal caries incidence; targeting a universal sealant policy in this population therefore would be done best by tooth type rather than patient type. A preliminary cost-comparison model, projected over a 40-month period, suggests that the cost of initiating a universal molar sealant policy in this population would be 92 cents per year per student greater than the cost of restoring occlusal caries in the presence of sound proximal surfaces. This cost comparison suggests that it would be advantageous to initiate such a policy. PMID:8258782

  20. Susceptibility to dental caries and the salivary proline-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Levine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2-6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db) protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described. PMID:22190937

  1. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db) protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described. PMID:22190937

  2. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive.

  3. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  4. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  5. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  6. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  7. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries Differs between the Sexes: A Family-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience has been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although may be partly explained by the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family-based study (N=2,663; 740 families; ages 1–93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:25612913

  8. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  9. Ethical considerations of study participants in dental caries clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1976-03-01

    During the past 30 years there has been increasing concern for ethical considerations that pertain to the conduct of human biomedical research. Consequently, many national and international medical and dental organizations and agencies have developed regulations, policies or ethical guidelines for the protection of human subjects who take part in clinical investigations. In the United States, more than 500 research institutions have established permanent committees to review research in humans conducted by their institutions. Members of these committees must represent a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and concerns. Prospective study subjects must be able to make an informed decision on whether to participate in any study, without any element of force, deceit, duress, or other form of constraint or coercion. Obtaining informed consent for studies of children, the mentally infirm, and persons with restricted civil freedom presents special problems. Ethical considerations also raise questions on appropriate designs for clinical studies, e.g. use of untreated controls. Dental studies, particularly those testing caries-preventive agents, raise special questions of design, informed consent, ethical procedures and the use of diagnostic radiographs. The director of a clinical study is responsible for the conduct of all personnel connected with the investigation.

  10. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  11. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.

  12. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Willing, Marcia C.; Reis, Steven E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of nonamelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N=3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-byfluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p<0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p<0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  13. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 5. Preventive and treatment planning for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-09-01

    The practice of operative dentistry continues to evolve, to reflect the many changes occurring in society and in dental diseases and conditions. However, the belief that all questionable and early carious lesions should be restored still persists. This belief is largely based upon the concept that the removal of all carious tissue followed by meticulous restoration of the tooth is the treatment of choice for dental caries. Yet restorations are not permanent and do not cure caries, as the causes remain. On the other hand, preventive measures can remove or partially remove the causes, thereby reducing the risks for future caries recurrence at the same site or elsewhere in the mouth.

  14. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Pondicherry, India.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Anuradha, K P; Bhaskar, D J

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries is an important Dental public Health problem. Its high morbidity potential has brought this disease into the focus of dental health professionals. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among 5 and 12 years old school children of urban Pondicherry. The study population consisted of 2022 school children of both the sexes, (1009, 5-year-old children) and (1013, 12-year-old children). A simple random sampling method was used to select the schools. Dental caries was assessed by Dentition Status and Treatment Needs described by WHO (1997). The prevalence of dental caries was 44.4% in 5 years age group with 47.4% for males (mean dmft = 1.91 +/- 2.64 S.D.) and 41.1% for females (mean dmft = 1.45 +/- 2.18 S.D.). In 12 years age group the prevalence of dental caries was 22.3% with 20.6% for males (mean DMFT = 0.40 +/- 0.94 S.D.) and 24.1% for females (mean DMFT = 0.55 +/- 1.15 S.D). Evaluation of treatment needs revealed that the greatest need was for one surface restorations followed by two or more surface restorations. It may be concluded that FDI/WHO Oral Health Goals for the year 2000 have been achieved for the ages 5-6 and 12 years in Pondicherry.

  15. Social deprivation, income inequality, social cohesion and dental caries in Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Pattussi, M P; Marcenes, W; Croucher, R; Sheiham, A

    2001-10-01

    This ecological study investigated the associations between social deprivation, income inequality and social cohesion and dental caries levels in school children of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. Three sources of data were used: (1) area-based data from a 1997 social survey carried out on 13,000 families, (2) 1995 census data collected for the Government of the Distrito Federal (GDF), and (3) dental caries data from a 1997 oral health survey on 7296 6-12-year-old school children. Results of simple linear regression showed that percent with less than eight years of education (P = 0.03) and percent who did not have a maid (P = 0.009), were negatively statistically significantly associated with the percent of children free of caries. None of the deprivation measures were statistically significantly associated with mean DMF-T scores (P > 0.05). GINI coefficient, an indicator of social inequalities, was negatively statistically significantly associated with both measures of dental caries experience, percent of caries free (P = 0.003) and mean DMF-T scores (P = 0.01). Per thousand number of homicides or attempted homicides, an indicator of social cohesion was of marginal statistical significance associated with caries experience. Results of multiple linear regression analyses showed that only the Gini coefficient remained statistically significantly associated with both dental clinical measures used, after adjusting for potential confounding. In conclusion, relative rather than absolute levels of income were stronger determinants of the onset of caries in this study.

  16. Comparison of relationship between salivary electrolyte levels and dental caries in children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikram; Arora, Ruchi; Bhayya, Deepak; Singh, Deepesh; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Mehta, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to relate the salivary electrolyte levels with dental caries in children with Down syndrome and to compare salivary electrolyte levels and dental caries of these children with their siblings. Materials and Methods: Study population consisted of 30 Down syndrome children (study group) and their 30 healthy siblings (control group). Caries status was determined by dental caries indices in deciduous and permanent dentitions. Un-stimulated saliva from both groups was collected for salivary electrolyte examination. Results: In the study group, mean caries experience in primary dentition was 1.00 ± 0.79 and in the control group it was 2.33 ± 1.42, the difference being statistically significant. Mean caries experience in the permanent dentition of the study group (0. 97 ± 0.76) was significantly lower than the control group (2.47 ± 1.25). Salivary electrolyte levels in the study group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in dental caries in primary as well as permanent dentition of Down syndrome patients with increase in their salivary electrolyte levels. PMID:25810652

  17. Dental fluorosis, dental caries and fluoride exposure among 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J

    1993-01-01

    Mild dental fluorosis is frequently linked to fluoridated water, but discretionary fluoride sources may also be important. The aim of this study was to record age of weaning and fluoride exposure from water, toothpaste and supplements, and to relate these to the presence of caries and fluorosis in children born in 1983. In Perth (Western Australia) 14 school classes were selected. The 350 children (mean age 7.5 years) ultimately included gave fluoride exposure data for the period birth to 4 years of age. Caries (DMFT, WHO criteria, no radiographs) and dental fluorosis (TF index, dry permanent incisors) were registered clinically. Most (89%) children had lived at least 2.5 years in a fluoridated area. Supplement use was minimal and unrelated to caries or fluorosis. Mean age of weaning of those who had been breast-fed was 7.7 months; by 9 months, 74% had been weaned. Eighty-five percent liked toothpaste, 60.7% had swallowed it, and the mean age of starting to use it was 1.5 (SD 0.96) years. Caries prevalence was 0.1 and mean DMFT was 0.13. The prevalence of fluorosis was 0.48; 63% of fluorosis was TF score 1. Residence in a fluoridated area for > or = 2.5 of the first 4 years of life had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.9 for fluorosis. Weaning before 9 months of age, swallowing toothpaste and liking toothpaste were also statistically significant risk factors. Major risk factors for more severe fluorosis (TF > or = 2) were early weaning and swallowing toothpaste (ORs 2.77 and 2.64, respectively). Residence in a fluoridated area (OR 2.2) was not a statistically significant risk factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Experience of dental caries and its effects on early dental occlusion: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Valeria; Fabbrizi, Miriam; Coloni, Camilla; Mastrantoni, Cristina; Mirra, Carla; Bossù, Maurizio; Vestri, Annarita; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aim Describe the occurrence of dental caries in a sample of pre-school children and school children, aged 3 and 12, and study the possible association between caries and malocclusion. Methods We selected and analyzed the medical records of a sample of 588 patients who had their first dental examination at the Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences of Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome. Results In the sample, 55.4% of the children had no decayed deciduous elements, while 44.6% had at least one decayed deciduous element. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 10.2%, while 89.8% had no decayed permanent teeth. In the sample, 9.4% of the children showed advanced carious lesions, that needed tooth extraction and 6.6% needed a space maintainer for post-extractive interceptive treatment. In the sample, 26.7% of the examined patients had increased overjet, while 3.7% had decreased overjet and 25.4% of the sample had an increased overbite, 11, 2% had reduced over-bite values. A percentage over 10% of the sample had an anterior openbite in centric occlusion. The prevalence of posterior crossbite among entire samples was 19.8%. Conclusions Although the incidence of caries disease was high in the selected samples, the study did not show a statistically significant association between caries and clinical orthodontic abnormalities, except for the association between the midline deviation and the severe carious diseases, necessitating extraction. PMID:22238717

  19. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  20. Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M M; Liu, Y; Kalra, R; Perry, S; Adewumi, A; Xu, X; Primosch, R E; Burne, R A

    2013-07-01

    Arginine metabolism by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the local pH, which can neutralize the effects of acidification from sugar metabolism and reduce the cariogenicity of oral biofilms. To explore the relationship between oral arginine metabolism and dental caries experience in children, we measured ADS activity in oral samples from 100 children and correlated it with their caries status and type of dentition. Supragingival dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces that were caries-lesion-free (PF) and from dentinal (PD) and enamel (PE) caries lesions. Regardless of children's caries status or type of dentition, PF (378.6) had significantly higher ADS activity compared with PD (208.4; p < .001) and PE (194.8; p = .005). There was no significant difference in the salivary arginolytic activity among children with different caries status. Mixed-model analysis showed that plaque caries status is significantly associated with ADS activity despite children's age, caries status, and dentition (p < .001), with healthy plaque predicting higher ADS activity compared with diseased plaque. Plaque arginine metabolism varies greatly among children and tooth sites, which may affect their susceptibility to caries.

  1. Protective effects of salivary factors in dental caries in diabetic patients of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N; Shahid, Syed M; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  2. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Zeng, J; Thomson, W M; Peres, M A; Demarco, F F

    2014-05-01

    Despite improvement, dental caries is still the main public oral health problem worldwide and the major cause of pain, tooth loss and chewing difficulties in children and adolescents; and it impacts negatively on oral health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study of a multistage representative sample of 8-12-year-old Brazilian school children was carried out in order to investigate the association between enamel defects and dental caries. Children's mothers completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics at home. Firth's bias reduced logistic regression models were undertaken to assess the association between the main exposure (enamel defects) and caries experience. The prevalence of any enamel defect was 64.0%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 35.0%, 29.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.4%, with mean DMFT of 0.6 (SD, 1.2). Dental caries experience was more common among children who had enamel hypoplasia in their posterior teeth (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.05, 6.51) than among those with none. In anterior teeth, there was no association. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be an important risk factor for dental caries.

  3. Trends in dental caries among Brazilian schoolchildren: 40 years of monitoring (1971-2011).

    PubMed

    Constante, Helena Mendes; Souza, Marina Leite; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity, and inequality in the distribution of dental caries in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2011, and to compare the results with data from previous studies carried out since 1971. All 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school were eligible. Dental caries were assessed according to the World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces and teeth (DMFS/DMFT) indexes, the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and the Gini coefficient (to assess inequalities in the distribution of dental caries) were estimated. The response rate was 82.3% (n = 130). The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-100.0) in 1971 to 36.9% (95% CI 28.5-45.3) in 2011. The mean DMFT ranged from 9.2 in 1971 to 0.7 in 2011. The mean DMFS index was 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) in 2011. The Gini coefficient was 0.624 in 2002 but increased to 0.725 in 2011; the Lorenz curve showed that 70-75% of dental caries attacks was restricted to 20% of the population in 2011. A reduction of 41.2% in the mean SiC index was observed between 2002 (3.4, 95% CI 3.0-3.8) and 2011 (1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.1). An effective decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in schoolchildren was observed throughout 40 years of monitoring. However, a small proportion of the population has experienced most of the caries burden in the recent years studied.

  4. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seok; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Results Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. Conclusion The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future. PMID:21977474

  5. The aetiology of dental caries--an outline of current thought.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    1977-12-01

    Nearly 90 years after being put forward by W.D. Miller, the acidogenic theory of dental caries aetiology is supported by a wealth of experimental evidence. However, while explaining the basic mechanism of caries, it does not indicate how the effect of the mechanism is modified to give the observable pattern of caries attack. This explanation is attempted on the basis of the interaction of two groups of variable factors. Firstly, those which affect the tooth's resistance to caries attack, which include the chemical, microstructural and morphological nature of the enamel surface. Secondly the factors which determine the cariogenicity of the tooth's environment. These include the nature of the diet, plaque and saliva. Finally the caries initiation is considered at an atomic level in terms of the dynamic ionic exchange between enamel and plaque. This brief review highlights the need for considerably more research to shed more light on the nature of the variable aetiological factors of caries.

  6. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  7. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  8. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    PubMed Central

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  9. Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kojima, Azusa; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku, food education) was enacted in 2005. The comprehensive food education programs, namely Shokuiku, aim to improve dietary practices to reduce lifestyle-related diseases. Dental caries is one of the diseases associated with inappropriate dietary habits. Thus, food education may influence the prevalence of dental caries. However, there are no data regarding the association between public based-food education and dental caries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge about comprehensive food education (Shokuiku) and dental caries experience in Japanese university students. A total of 2,184 students (1,240 men, 944 women), aged 18-20 years, were examined. They had attended the Shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. The numbers of teeth present, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) (dental caries experience) were recorded. Additional information was collected via a questionnaire regarding knowledge about food education, dietary habits and oral health behavior. Of the students, 315 men (20.7%) and 345 women (52.8%) reported that they know and can explain the meaning and content of the word "Shokuiku". After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects who did not have knowledge about Shokuiku had higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for dental caries experience (DMFT >0) than those who had (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; p<0.05). These observations revealed that having knowledge about comprehensive food education in university students correlates with low prevalence of dental caries.

  10. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilization in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T.; Billings, R J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilization in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative-effectiveness study. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomized into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a Teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Results Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0 to 34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of Teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. Statistics The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. Conclusions The data show that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilization by inner-city preschool children. PMID:21640057

  11. DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCE IN 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOLCHILDREN IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hoffmann, Rosana H. S.; de Sousa, Maria da Luz R.; Wada, Ronaldo S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC) indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0), with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62). There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention. PMID:19089262

  12. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and "life-history" etiologies.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R; Largaespada, Leah L

    2006-01-01

    When dental caries rates are reported by sex, females are typically found to exhibit higher prevalence rates than males. This finding is generally true for diverse cultures with different subsistence systems and for a wide range of chronological periods. Exceptions exist, but are not common. In this paper, we present new data for sex differences in dental caries rates among the Guanches (Tenerife, Canary Islands), summarize results of meta-analyses of dental caries prevalence, and emphasize new research that stresses the critical role of female hormones and life-history events in the etiology of dental caries. Among the Guanches, corrected tooth-count caries rates for females (8.8%, 158/1,790) are approximately twice the frequency of caries among males (4.5%, 68/1,498). Higher caries prevalence among females is often explained by one of three factors: 1) earlier eruption of teeth in girls, hence longer exposure of girls' teeth to the cariogenic oral environment, 2) easier access to food supplies by women and frequent snacking during food preparation, and 3) pregnancy. Anthropologists tend to favor explanations involving behavior, including sexual division of labor and women's domestic role in food production. By contrast, the causal pathways through which pregnancy contributes to poorer oral health and higher caries rates are deemphasized or discounted. This paper presents recent research on physiological changes associated with fluctuating hormone levels during individual life histories, and the impact these changes have on the oral health of women. The biochemical composition of saliva and overall saliva flow rate are modified in several important ways by hormonal fluctuations during events such as puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy, making the oral environment significantly more cariogenic for women than for men. These results suggest that hormonal fluctuations can have a dramatic effect on the oral health of women, and constitute an important causal factor in

  13. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  14. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  15. Nisin inhibits dental caries-associated microorganism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Dong, Liping; Zhou, Lin; Tao, Rui; Ni, Longxing

    2010-11-01

    Nisin, produced by Lactococcus lactis, is an antibiotic peptide to effectively antagonize a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, and is widely used as a safe food antimicrobial agent. In the present study, we investigated whether nisin could be used as an effective antibiotic peptide against the nine common cariogenic microorganisms, and its antimicrobial activity could be affected by the ingredients of saliva in oral cavity. In the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC) and spot-on-lawn assay, nisin displayed different MIC, MBC and antimicrobial activity against the nine tested strains. There was statistical difference between the inhibitory zone diameters of nisin against the different tested bacteria (p<0.05), but no statistical difference between the inhibitory zone diameters of nisin dissolved in PBS and saliva (p>0.05). Furthermore, morphology and membranes of Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus fermenti and Lactobacillus acidophilus with nisin treatment were observed and showed different degrees of variation by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). Our findings suggested that nisin has considerable potential for prevention and treatment of dental caries. PMID:20688123

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-Q; Hu, X-P; Zhou, J-Y; Xie, X-D; Zhang, J-M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI gene (rs2274328, rs17032907, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186) and the possible association between these polymorphisms and dental caries susceptibility in a Northwestern Chinese population. We collected samples from 164 high caries experience and 191 very low caries experience and conducted a case-control study according to the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and genotyped the 7 polymorphisms using a 384-well plate format with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Individuals carrying the rs17032907 TT genotype were more likely to have an increased risk of dental caries compared with carriers of the C/C genotype in the co-dominant model, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.144 (1.096-4.195). We also found that the haplotype (ACA) (rs2274328, rs17032907 and rs11576766) was associated with a low number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.635 (0.440-0.918). However, we found no association between dental caries susceptibility and the rs2274328, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186 polymorphisms and other haplotypes. The rs17032907 genetic variant and the haplotype (ACA) of CA VI may be associated with dental caries susceptibility.

  17. Cone Beam Computed Tomography- An Effective Tool in Detecting Caries Under Fixed Dental Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Gondivkar, Shailesh Madhukar; Bhoosreddy, Ajay Ramesh; Shah, Karan Rajendra; Verma, Gaurav Ravishankar; Mehrotra, Gayatri Praveen; Nerkar, Ashwini Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Caries under restorations is the most common reason for re-treatment and replacement in restorative failures. To avoid failures of fixed dental prostheses, it is important to diagnose caries under it earlier. Without image degradation and metal artifacts, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can be the solution to detect caries without removing fixed dental prostheses. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of CBCT in detecting caries under fixed dental prostheses. Materials and Methods Each specimen was scanned with CBCT for evaluation of secondary caries under fixed prostheses. Exposure parameters were 60 kVp and 3mA. Field of View (FOV) used was 8cm X 8cm. According to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria, six Grade 6 carious extracted teeth were selected. All teeth were prepared with four different specimens - full metal, metal-ceramic, full ceramic and metal-acrylic crowns for each tooth. Each specimen was scanned by CBCT. T-test was performed for mean gray value differences between caries and noncaries regions of each material. Gray values were recorded and evaluated for different parameters using two-way analysis of variance. Results Significant differences were found with respect to material (full metal, metal-ceramic, full ceramic and metal-acrylic) and situation (caries/noncaries) (p<0.001). There were no significant differences with respect to location (anterior or posterior). Mean gray values of caries and noncaries regions were found to be different for each material. Conclusion CBCT can be used as a post-treatment diagnostic technique for detecting caries under fixed prostheses without removing it. PMID:27656548

  18. [Complete dental care of patients suffering from localized aggressive periodontitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt; Nemes, Júlia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2015-12-01

    A 34 years old male patient was referred to our clinic for restorative dental treatment. During detailed consultation and dental examination a relatively rare form of periodontal disease had been diagnosed. Intraoral examination included recording of dental and periodontal status. Based on patient's dental history, measurements of probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and also the X-ray findings, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP) unknown by the patient was diagnosed. After patient's consent the comprehensive treatment plan covered the dental prevention, periodontal non-surgical and surgical therapy and rehabilitation. The treatment started with oral hygienic instruction, motivation then supra- and subgingival scaling and rootplaning. Later extraction and elective root canal treatment were performed, followed by open flap periodontal surgery combined with hemisection of two molars. After a full mouth conservative restorative therapy, function and esthetics were restored by fix dental prostheses. This case is a good example to underline the importance of periodontal examination during the dental screening and dental status recording for each patients showing up at dental clinics. Otherwise in many cases this asympthomatic disease can remain undetected. PMID:26863818

  19. The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Bagramian, Robert A; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Volpe, Anthony R

    2009-02-01

    A current review of the available epidemiological data from many countries clearly indicates that there is a marked increase in the prevalence of dental caries. This global increase in dental caries prevalence affects children as well as adults, primary as well as permanent teeth, and coronal as well as root surfaces. This increase in dental caries signals a pending public health crisis. Although there are differences of opinion regarding the cause of this global dental caries increase, the remedy is well known: a return to the public health strategies that were so successful in the past, a renewed campaign for water fluoridation, topical fluoride application, the use of fluoride rinses, a return to school oral health educational programs, an emphasis on proper tooth brushing with a fluoride dentifrice, as well as flossing, a proper diet and regular dental office visits. If these remedies are not initiated, there could be a serious negative impact upon the future oral health (and systemic health) of the global community, as well as a strain on the dental profession along with a major increase in the cost of dental services.

  20. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Risk of Dental Caries among Children Living in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Taeko; Imai, Hiroki; Sakurai, Atsuo; Dong, Hongwei; Shi, Sizhen; Yakushiji, Masashi; Shintani, Seikou

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries has been decreasing among kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, over recent years, although it still remains at an unacceptably high level. The purpose of this study was to identify which factors were important in providing oral health guidance and achieving further improvement in the oral health status of kindergarten children in urban China. A survey was conducted on dental caries in 128 Japanese and 368 Chinese kindergarten children and a questionnaire given to their parents/guardians on each child's lifestyle and dietary habits from birth to the present. Correlations between responses to each questionnaire item and the status of dental caries were statistically analyzed. The dft index score (p=0.0016), prevalence of dental caries (p=0.0002), and percentages of children with decayed (untreated caries-affected) teeth (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in the Chinese than in the Japanese children. Many differences were observed in lifestyle factors between the two groups. The percentage of parents failing to control the child's snacking habits between meals was higher in China, and weaning was significantly delayed in China compared with in Japan. These lifestyle factors were considered to be associated closely with the high risk of dental caries in Chinese kindergarten children. These findings indicate that oral health guidance for kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, should focus on control of dietary habits, including control of inter-meal snacking, and breastfeeding practices. The results of this study may help improve the status of dental caries among Chinese children. PMID:27665692

  1. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  2. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  3. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  4. Dental demineralization and caries in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Jackson, Leanne; Epstein, Joel B; Migliorati, Cesar A; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) therapy is a standard treatment for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It is well documented that CCR causes profound acute and late toxicities. Xerostomia (the symptom of dry mouth) and hyposalivation (decreased salivary flow) are among the most common treatment side effects in this cohort of patients during and following treatment. They are the result of radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands. Patients with chronic hyposalivation are at risk for demineralization and dental cavitation (dental caries), often presenting as a severe form of rapidly developing decay that results in loss of dentition. Usual post-radiation oral care which includes the use of fluoride, may decrease, but does not eliminate dental caries associated with radiation-induced hyposalivation. The authors conducted a narrative literature review regarding dental caries in HNC population based on MEDLINE, PubMed, CLNAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1985 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, dental caries, dental decay, risk factor, physical symptom, physical sequellea, body image, quality of life, measurement, assessment, cost, prevention, and treatment. The authors also reviewed information from National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), American Dental Association (ADA), and other related healthcare professional association web sites. This literature review focuses on critical issues related to dental caries in patients with HNC: potential mechanisms and contributing factors, clinical assessment, physical sequellea, negative impact on body image and quality of life, potential preventative strategies, and recommendations for practice and research in this area. PMID:26198979

  5. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  6. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan

    2010-03-01

    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  7. DENTAL CARIES AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH FACTORS AMONG 9 TO 18 MONTH OLD THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries can occur as soon as the first tooth erupts. We studied the caries prevalence and related risk factors among children aged 9-18 months in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. A total of 151 children, whose primary caregivers were willing to participate in this study, were evaluated for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Questionnaires were given to the primary caregivers of the study subjects to ascertain their socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and child-feeding habits. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate bivariate outcome data. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables predictive of dental caries in the studied children. The prevalence of dental caries among the 151 subjects was 32.5%; 15.9% had at least one cavity (cavitated caries) and 16.6% had white lesions (non-cavitated caries). The mean dmfs score was 2.83 ± 6.48. Significant associations were seen between the dmfs score and the number of erupted teeth (p < 0.001) and toothpaste usage (p < 0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed four factors significantly associated with caries: number of erupted teeth, which had the highest Beta value (P = 0.35, p < 0.01), nighttime bottle feeding (P = 0.17, p < 0.05), frequency of drinking sweetened milk (P = 0.17-0.18, p < 0.05) and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth (P = 0.18, p < 0.05). Nighttime bottle feeding, frequency of drinking sweetened milk and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth were important caries risk factors and the number of erupted teeth was a strong caries risk predictor. Dentists should educate caregivers about these risk factors.

  8. Child externalizing behavior problems linked to genetic and non-genetic variation in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Michael F; Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    The association of environmental and genetic variation in caries with child externalizing behavior problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance) was studied in a sample of 239 pairs of 3- to 8-year-old impoverished Brazilian twins. It was hypothesized that externalizing problems would show a stronger positive association with environmental than genetic variation in caries. Univariate twin models were estimated to parse variation in caries into three components: additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and non-shared environment/error (E). Age-adjusted associations between externalizing problems and each variance component were tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, modest but very consistent negative associations were found between externalizing problems and both genetic and environmental variation in caries. Mutans streptococci and sweetness preference did not explain the negative associations of caries and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems in non-medicated children were associated with less dental decay that could be explained by both genetic and environmental factors.

  9. Child externalizing behavior problems linked to genetic and non-genetic variation in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Michael F; Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    The association of environmental and genetic variation in caries with child externalizing behavior problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance) was studied in a sample of 239 pairs of 3- to 8-year-old impoverished Brazilian twins. It was hypothesized that externalizing problems would show a stronger positive association with environmental than genetic variation in caries. Univariate twin models were estimated to parse variation in caries into three components: additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and non-shared environment/error (E). Age-adjusted associations between externalizing problems and each variance component were tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, modest but very consistent negative associations were found between externalizing problems and both genetic and environmental variation in caries. Mutans streptococci and sweetness preference did not explain the negative associations of caries and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems in non-medicated children were associated with less dental decay that could be explained by both genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24852763

  10. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05–2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65–3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07–2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother’s schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15–4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother’s schooling. PMID:26900846

  11. Use of laser fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stookey, George K.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1998-04-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent oral disease in spite of remarkable progress made during the past half- century to reduce its prevalence. Conventional procedures for caries detection are unable to detect the lesions until they are well advanced and involve about one-third of the thickness of enamel. Laboratory research on alternative caries detection methods based upon alterations in the conductance and optical properties associated with enamel demineralization has shown significant promise in recent years. Of these alternative measures, quantitative laser/light fluorescence appears to show the greatest promise for the detection of dental caries at a much earlier stage of development than is currently possible. A clinical trial was initiated in 150 children to evaluate, compare and validate several caries detection methods; in addition to the conventional diagnostic procedure, these detection methods involved quantitative light fluorescence, electrical conductivity, and direct digital radiography. Although the clinical trial is not yet complete, early results suggest the possibility for the earlier detection of dental caries with these alternative methods.

  12. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  13. Genetic Association of MPPED2 and ACTN2 with Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B O C; Feingold, E; Cooper, M; Vanyukov, M M; Maher, B S; Slayton, R L; Willing, M C; Reis, S E; McNeil, D W; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Levy, S M; Vieira, A R; Marazita, M L; Shaffer, J R

    2014-07-01

    The first genome-wide association study of dental caries focused on primary teeth in children aged 3 to 12 yr and nominated several novel genes: ACTN2, EDARADD, EPHA7, LPO, MPPED2, MTR, and ZMPSTE24. Here we interrogated 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these candidate genes for evidence of association with dental caries experience in 13 race- and age-stratified samples from 6 independent studies (n = 3600). Analysis was performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples via meta-analysis. MPPED2 was significantly associated with caries via meta-analysis across the 5 childhood samples, with 4 SNPs showing significant associations after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < .0026). These results corroborate the previous genome-wide association study, although the functional role of MPPED2 in caries etiology remains unknown. ACTN2 also showed significant association via meta-analysis across childhood samples (p = .0014). Moreover, in adults, genetic association was observed for ACTN2 SNPs in individual samples (p < .0025), but no single SNP was significant via meta-analysis across all 8 adult samples. Given its compelling biological role in organizing ameloblasts during amelogenesis, this study strengthens the hypothesis that ACTN2 influences caries risk. Results for the other candidate genes neither proved nor precluded their associations with dental caries. PMID:24810274

  14. [Optimization of initial dental caries diagnostics and treatment in patients infected with herpes virus].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Iu V; Bulgakova, A I

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of examination and treatment of patients with initial caries (K02.0), infected with herpes virus. Technologies and methods used by most dentists are not sensitive enough to detect caries at early stages, while the remineralizing therapy can be very effective. The method of laser fluorescence spectroscopy with DIAGNOdent pen device (KaVo) was used for diagnostic of dental caries at early stages. Treatment was carried out with HealOzon device (KaVo), which is used in oral medicine to produce ozone.

  15. [Sugar substitutes in the prevention of dental caries: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Borges Yáñez, S A

    1991-08-01

    The prevention of dental caries is not only limited to the use of fluorides or sealants which, in combination with health education programmes and an appropriate oral hygiene, decrease the prevalence of the disease. The partial substitution of sucrose with nonfermentable sweeteners in the diet have shown to have a caries-inhibitory effect. A literature review regarding sugar substitutes is presented. The objective is to identify and describe the different kinds of sweeteners, with special emphasis in sugar alcohols like xylitol and sorbitol, which have shown to have such caries inhibitory-effect.

  16. Dental caries development among African-American children: results from a 4-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dental caries development and caries risk factors among preschool African-American children from low-income families in Detroit, Michigan over a four- year window. Methods Data came from a representative sample of 1,021 children (zero to five years) and their caregivers in Detroit. The baseline participants in 2002–03 (W1) were reexamined in 2004–05 (W2) and 2007 (W3). Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate and multivariate analyses for repeated data were conducted to explore associations between caries increment outcomes and demographics, access to dental care, oral health-related behaviors, and social and physical environments. Results The mean number of new NCCL (non-cavitated caries lesions) was 2.8 between W1 and W2 and 2.6 between W2 and W3, while the mean number of new CCL (cavitated caries lesions) was 2.0 and 2.0, respectively, during the same time periods. In younger children (< three years old in W1) higher number of new NCCL than new CCL were observed in both W1–W2 and W2–W3. The risk of new NCCL was associated with child’s soda intake and caregiver’s age. For the risk of new CCL, significant risk factors included baseline NCCL, baseline CCL, as well as child’s age. Baseline caries and child’s soda intake were also associated with the risk of developing new decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces. Conclusions Higher number of new NCCL relative to CCL was developed among low-income Africa-American children during early childhood. New caries development was associated with baseline caries and child’s soda intake. PMID:25441657

  17. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.

  18. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development.

  19. Association between Black Stains and Dental Caries in Primary Teeth: Findings from a Brazilian Population-Based Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    França-Pinto, C.C.; Cenci, M.S.; Correa, M.B.; Romano, A.R.; Peres, M.A.; Peres, K.G.; Matijasevich, A.; Santos, I.S.; Barros, A.J.D.; Demarco, F.F.

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers’ questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5–4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4–51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26–0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. PMID:22488298

  20. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. PMID:22488298

  1. Antibacterial Peptides: Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed. PMID:26781572

  2. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhog, Raghavendra; Godhi, Brinda S; Nandlal, Bhojraj; Kumar, Shruti S; Raju, Veena; Rashmi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and severity of oral condition related to untreated dental caries with PUFA index and to relate period of institutional stay, oral hygiene practice and diet of orphan children to caries experience ratio. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional survey conducted among 488 children of 12-14 years living in 5 different orphanages of Mysore district, India. Data regarding oral hygiene practices and oral health status (PUFA, DMFT, OH I-S and GI) were collected through structured questionnaire and by type III clinical oral examinations. The collected data were processed statistically. Results: The PUFA ratio indicates 21% of decayed component had progressed to pulp involvement and abscess formation. The overall prevalence of PUFA was 37.7%. 31.1% children showed one or more pulpally involved tooth in their oral cavity. Correlation between periods for being the child in the institute to DMFT showed negative value indicting decrease in DMFT as the duration of stay in orphanage increases. Conclusion: The result show oral health condition in orphan children was neglected. Children from this disadvantaged background have shown a high prevalence of dental caries with low dental care utilization. PUFA index is an effective index in evaluating clinical consequences of un-treated caries. How to cite this article: Shanbhog R, Godhi BS, Nandlal B, Kumar SS, Raju V, Rashmi S. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):1-9. PMID:24324297

  3. Comment: low dental caries rate in Neandertals: the result of diet or the oral flora composition?

    PubMed

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2012-04-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease caused by oral acidophilic bacteria feeding on fermentable sugars, e.g. Streptococcus mutans. The frequency of dental caries in Neandertals was very low. This was usually explained as the result of a low-sugar diet. Recent research, however, revealed some regional differences between European and Near Eastern Neandertals, with the latter consuming considerable amounts of plants including highly cariogenic dates. This discovery, compared with the results of research on genetic diversity of S. mutans, may suggest that this species, and perhaps other most virulent species, were absent in the oral flora of Neandertals.

  4. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.

  5. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  6. What Maryland Adults With Young Children Know and Do About Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Dushanka V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine Maryland adults’ knowledge, understanding, opinions, and practices with respect to prevention and early detection of dental caries. Methods. We conducted a statewide random-digit-dialing, computer-assisted telephone survey in 2010 among 770 adults who had a child aged 6 years or younger living in their home. A traditional random-digit sample and a targeted low-income sample were included. Analyses included frequencies, percentages, the χ2 test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents’ overall level of knowledge about preventing dental caries was low. Those with higher levels of education were more likely to have correct information regarding prevention and early detection of dental caries. Nearly all respondents (97.9%) reported that they were aware of fluoride, but only 57.8% knew its purpose. More than one third (35.1%) of the respondents were not aware of dental sealants. Those with lower levels of education were significantly less likely to drink tap water, as were their children, and significantly less likely to have had a dental appointment in the preceding past 12 months. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the need to increase oral health literacy regarding caries prevention and early detection. PMID:23597372

  7. The relation between family socioeconomic trajectories from childhood to adolescence and dental caries and associated oral behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer; de Barros, Aluísio Jardim Dornellas; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the influence of family socioeconomic trajectories from childhood to adolescence on dental caries and associated behaviours. Design Population‐based birth cohort. Setting Representative sample of the population of subjects born in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Participants Adolescents (n = 888) aged 15 years old were dentally examined and interviewed. Main outcome measures Dental caries index (DMFT), care index (F/DMFT), tooth brushing, flossing and pattern of dental services use. Main results Adolescents who were always poor showed, in general, a worse pattern of dental caries, whereas adolescents who never were poor had a better pattern of dental caries. Adolescents who had moved from poverty in childhood to non‐poverty in adolescence and those who had moved from non‐poverty in childhood to poverty in adolescence had similar dental pattern to those who were always poor except for the pattern of dental services use, which was higher in the first group. In all groups girls had fewer carious teeth, better oral hygiene habits and higher dental services use than boys. Conclusion Poverty in at least one stage of the lifespan has a harmful effect on dental caries, oral behaviours and dental services use. Belonging to upwardly mobile families between childhood and adolescence only contributed to improved dental care. PMID:17234873

  8. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  9. Allergic rhinitis, feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing and socioeconomic status. Effects on development of dental caries in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez, R E M; Saldivar, G A H; Beltrán, G F J; Almeida, A V M; Vázquez, R C F

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing, socioeconomic status and allergic rhinitis on the development of dental caries in primary dentition. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire on 1,160 children, 4-5 years old (mean = 4.5 +/- 0.5) and born in 1999, 2000 or 2001. The children also had a physical examination by an allergist and dentists. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Caries experience was measured as number of deft and defs. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between dental caries and independent variables. The dental caries prevalence was 17.9%, 28.8% of the children had allergic rhinitis symptoms, digit sucking was reported by 9.8% and pacifier use by 13.6% of the children. The mean number of deft of the sample was 1.02 (SD = 2.37) and that of defs was 1.33 (SD = 3.54). Analysis showed that breast-feeding for >12 months (p < 0.01), toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.01), sugar consumption (p < 0.01) and pacifier use (p < 0.01) each had a significant association with dental caries occurrence in primary dentition. Children with pacifier use and allergic rhinitis had more than double the risk of dental caries development. Allergic rhinitis alone has no effect on dental caries. Healthcare professionals attempting to limit dental caries should consider the effect of prolonged breast-feeding, sugary product consumption between meals and nonnutritive habits on dental caries.

  10. Genetic and environmental factors associated with dental caries in children: the Iowa Fluoride Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Willing, M C; Marazita, M L; Wendell, S; Warren, J J; Broffitt, B; Smith, B; Busch, T; Lidral, A C; Levy, S M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common chronic childhood disease. Despite strong evidence of genetic components, there have been few studies of candidate genes and caries. In this analysis we tried to assess genetic and environmental factors contributing to childhood caries in the Iowa Fluoride Study. Environmental factors (age, sex, race, tooth-brushing frequencies and water fluoride level) and three dental caries scores (d(2)fs-total, d(2)fs-pit/fissure, and d(2)fs-smooth surface) were assessed in 575 unrelated children (mean age 5.2 years). Regression analyses were applied to assess environmental correlates. The Family-Based Association Test was used to test genetic associations for 23 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 7 caries candidate genes on 333 Caucasian parent-child trios. We evaluated the associations between caries status and the level of both single and multiple SNPs (haplotype) respectively. Permutation procedure was performed for correction of inflated type I errors due to multiple testing. Age, tooth-brushing frequency and water fluoride level were significantly correlated to at least one carious score. Caries on pit and fissure surfaces was substantially higher than on smooth surfaces (61 vs. 39%). SNPs in three genes (DSPP, KLK4 and AQP5) showed consistent associations with protection against caries. Of note, KLK4 and AQP5 were also highlighted by subsequent haplotype analysis. Our results support the concept that genes can modify the susceptibility of caries in children. Replication analysis in independent cohorts is highly needed in order to verify the validity of our findings. PMID:22508493

  11. Dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren: A comparison of 1988–1989 and 1998–2001 surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-González, Adriana; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco A.; Betancourt-Linares, Armando; Lezana-Fernández, Miguel Á.; Álvarez-Lucas, Carlos H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare two surveys across seven states for the prevalence of dental caries among Mexican schoolchildren. Study Design: Analysis of two cross-sectional surveys: Schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years of age were examined in the 1988–1989 survey and 6- to 10-year-old and 12-year-old students were included in the 1998–2001 survey. The baseline data of seven states were available for analysis. Representative probability samples were conducted statewide in both surveys. The World Health Organization (WHO) method was used to obtain the dental caries index (dmft, DMFT). At present, additional and more recent epidemiological data representative statewide in Mexico are unavailable. Results: The participants were 9798 schoolchildren in the 1988–1989 survey and 16882 schoolchildren in the 1998–2001 survey. The prevalence of caries in children ages 6 to 10 years was 86,6% in the first survey and 65,5% in the second survey, showing a 24,4% reduction. The primary teeth index in the first survey was dmft = 3,86 (IC95% 3,68 4,04) and in permanent teeth, it was DMFT = 1,03 (IC95% 0,95 1,11). In the second survey, the comparable values were dmft = 2,36 (IC95% 2,20 2,52) and DMFT = 0,35 (IC95% 0,29 0,40), corresponding to a reduction of 38,89% and 66,02% in the primary and permanent dentition, respectively. Treatment needs remain high: In the second survey, as 92,75% of the index DMFT was conformed as decayed teeth. Conclusion: Overall, we detected a downward trend in the dental caries indices, particularly in the permanent dentition. The increase in the availability of fluoride likely contributed to the observed decline in dental caries. Key words:Schoolchildren, dental caries, treatment needs, salt fluoridation, Mexico. PMID:22549683

  12. Comments on Soltysiak's paper: "Comment: low dental caries rate in Neandertals: the result of diet or the oral flora compositions?".

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    A low frequency of dental caries in Neandertal population is still puzzling. Many authors stress that the lower frequency of dental caries was related to a meat diet. However, a recent publication in HOMO - Journal Comparative Human Biology presented a new interpretation of dental caries in Neandertals. In this article, Soltysiak supports the thesis that the lower frequency of caries in the Neandertal population from the Near East could not be related to the low-sugar diet, but rather to the absence of cariogenic bacteria species (S. mutans). Although this hypothesis is interesting, I suspect it to be based on several erroneous assumptions, and a misunderstanding of caries as a disease. Although he stressed that the caries lesion is related to many different factors, in his argument he considers one of two alternatives "a low-sugar diet or a lack of cariogenic bacterial species".

  13. Dermatoglyphic patterns and salivary pH in subjects with and without dental caries: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Banu, Safeena; Fathima, Nilofar; Ganapathy; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Ilayaraja, Vadivel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphic patterns, which are regularly used in judicial and legal investigations, can be valuable in the diagnosis of many diseases associated with genetic disorders. Dental caries although of infectious origin, may have a genetic predisposition. Hence, we evaluated the correlation between dental caries and dermatoglyphic patterns among subjects with and without dental caries and evaluated its association with environmental factors such as salivary pH. Materials and Methods: Totally, 76 female students within the age group of 18-23 years were clinically examined, and their decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) score and oral hygiene index-simplified were recorded. Based on their DMFT score, they were divided into following three groups; group I (n = 16, DMFT score = 0), group II (n = 30, DMFT score <5), and group III (n = 30, DMFT score ≥5). Their fingerprint patterns and salivary pH were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Dermatoglyphic pattern distribution in caries-free group showed more ulnar loops than high caries group (group III) while high caries group showed more whorl patterns. Presence of whorl with double loop, whorl within a loop was associated with high DMFT score. The total finger ridge count was lower in caries group. The mean salivary pH was higher in caries-free group than high caries group. Thus, we conclude that dermatoglyphic patterns may be potential diagnostic tool for detecting patients prone to develop dental caries. PMID:26283816

  14. The effects of selected dietary bioflavonoid supplementation on dental caries in young rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that certain bioflavonoids reduce dental caries and cariogenic bacteria incidence. The present study evaluates two separate, but related, dietary trials -- trial 1, 0.09%, 0.18%, 0.36%, and 0.72% dietary naringenin (NAR) supplementation; and trial 2, 0.57% dietary rutin (R), quercetin (Q), and naringin (N) supplementation-on dental caries formation in 40 different male albino rats, at the expense of dextrose, for periods of 42 days. All rats were fed 40% sucrose. In dietary trial 1, rats were evaluated for dental caries, dental plaque accumulation, and saliva flow rates using oneway analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlations. In dietary trial 2, rats were evaluated for occlusal dental caries only using a Kruskal-Wallis H test and analysis of variance. A 5% level of statistical significance was adopted throughout. In dietary trial 1, NAR showed a statistically significant effect on dental caries, plaque, and saliva flow rate reduction compared with the control group (P < .05-.01). An inverse dose-dependent relationship was established among the NAR experimental groups and control group. Dietary NAR supplementation significantly reduced dental caries formation, possibly because of reduced dental plaque accumulation. In dietary trial 2, statistically significant reductions in occlusal caries were observed for R, Q, and N in the maxillary molars and for Q and N in the mandibular molars compared with the control group (P < .05). Significant associations were observed among the experimental groups and maxillary (P < .05) and mandibular (P < .01) occlusal dental caries. Hence, selected bioflavonoids may show promise as an alternative means of reducing dental caries.

  15. Social Inequalities in Childhood Dental Caries: The Convergent Roles of Stress, Bacteria and Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Den Besten, Pamela K; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Zhan, Ling; Jiang, Yebin; Adler, Nancy E; Featherstone, John D

    2010-01-01

    The studies reported here examines stress-related psychobiological processes that might account for the high, disproportionate rates of dental caries, the most common chronic disease of childhood, among children growing up in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. In two 2004 – 2006 studies of kindergarten children from varying socioeconomic backgrounds in the San Francisco Bay Area of California (Ns = 94 and 38), we performed detailed dental examinations to count decayed, missing or filled dental surfaces and microtomography to assess the thickness and density of microanatomic dental compartments in exfoliated, deciduous teeth (i.e., the shed, primary dentition). Cross-sectional, multivariate associations were examined between these measures and SES-related risk factors, including household education, financial stressors, basal and reactive salivary cortisol secretion, and the number of oral cariogenic bacteria. We hypothesized that family stressors and stress-related changes in oral biology might explain, fully or in part, the known socioeconomic disparities in dental health. We found that nearly half of the five-year-old children studied had dental caries. Low SES, higher basal salivary cortisol secretion, and larger numbers of cariogenic bacteria were each significantly and independently associated with caries, and higher salivary cortisol reactivity was associated with thinner, softer enamel surfaces in exfoliated teeth. The highest rates of dental pathology were found among children with the combination of elevated salivary cortisol expression and high counts of cariogenic bacteria. The socioeconomic partitioning of childhood dental caries may thus involve social and psychobiological pathways through which lower SES is associated with higher numbers of cariogenic bacteria and higher levels of stress-associated salivary cortisol. This convergence of psychosocial, infectious and stress-related biological processes appears to be implicated in the production

  16. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)-Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient. PMID:20543914

  17. Use of laser fluorescence in dental caries diagnosis: a fluorescence x biomolecular vibrational spectroscopic comparative study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos de; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Zanin, Fátima Antonia Aparecida; Brugnera Júnior, Aldo; Silveira Júnior, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the existence of correlation between Raman spectroscopy readings of phosphate apatite (~960 cm-1), fluoridated apatite (~575 cm-1) and organic matrix (~1450 cm-1) levels and Diagnodent® readings at different stages of dental caries in extracted human teeth. The mean peak value of fluorescence in the carious area was recorded and teeth were divided in enamel caries, dentin caries and sound dental structure. After fluorescence readings, Raman spectroscopy was carried out on the same sites. The results showed significant difference (ANOVA, p<0.05) between the fluorescence readings for enamel (16.4 ± 2.3) and dentin (57.6 ± 23.7) on carious teeth. Raman peaks of enamel and dentin revealed that ~575 and ~960 cm-1 peaks were more intense in enamel caries. There was significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the ~575 and ~960 cm-1 peaks and dentin caries. It may be concluded that the higher the fluorescence detected by Diagnodent the lower the peaks of phosphate apatite and fluoridated apatite. As the early diagnosis of caries is directly related to the identification of changes in the inorganic tooth components, Raman spectroscopy was more sensitive to variations of these components than Diagnodent.

  18. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  19. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  20. Factors associated with prevalence of dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren residing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Lina Naomi; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2011-09-01

    Brazilian immigrants comprise the third largest ethnic group within the Japanese population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren living in Japan. A total of 378 schoolchildren, aged between 6 and 14 years, attending Brazilian schools in Japan were included. Clinical data were collected according to World Health Organization criteria. Socioeconomic data, oral health behavior and diet information were collected through questionnaires. The correlation between associated factors and dental caries prevalence was analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. The percentage of caries-free schoolchildren was 61.90% and the mean DMFT was 1.28 ± 2.22 (mean ± SD). The mother's educational level and previous access to dental care services in Brazil were strongly associated with caries experience (P < 0.05). This study indicated that these variables are risk factors associated with caries experience in a community of Brazilian schoolchildren residing in Japan.

  1. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended additional method available for daily clinical practice.

  2. Dental caries detection by optical spectroscopy: a polarized Raman approach with fibre-optic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, A. C.-T.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Werner, J.; Hewko, M.; Sowa, M. G.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.

    2006-09-01

    Incipient dental caries lesions appear as white spots on the tooth surface; however, accurate detection of early approximal lesions is difficult due to limited sensitivity of dental radiography and other traditional diagnostic tools. A new fibre-optic coupled spectroscopic method based on polarized Raman spectroscopy (P-RS) with near-IR laser excitation is introduced which provides contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient caries. Changes in polarized Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Demineralization-induced morphological/orientational alteration of enamel crystallites is believed to be responsible for the reduction of Raman polarization anisotropy observed in the polarized Raman spectra of caries lesions. Supporting evidence obtained by polarized Raman spectral imaging is presented. A specially designed fibre-optic coupled setup for simultaneous measurement of parallel- and cross-polarized tooth Raman spectra is demonstrated in this study.

  3. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 2. Dental caries and assessment of risk.

    PubMed

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-07-27

    Dental caries or tooth decay may be defined as a dynamic process causing progressive destruction of hard tooth substance (enamel, dentine and cementum) involving demineralisation of the inorganic portion of the tooth, and dissolution of the organic portion. The onset and progression of carious lesions involves multiple host, micro-organism and substrate factors interacting in a continuous flux. The diagnosis of initial lesions remains a challenge for practitioners and, despite numerous studies, the assessment of future caries risk is still based largely on a patient's past caries experience. If caries is allowed to progress then pulpitis will occur, which may result in subsequent pulpal necrosis and lead to a local periapical and perhaps a systemic infection.

  4. The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed…

  5. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL. PMID:26892354

  6. Association between Chewing Side Preference and Dental Caries among Deciduous, Mixed and Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reena; Kashyap, Nilotpol; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kappadi, Damodar; Wadhwa, Saakshe; Gandotra, Shina; Yadav, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chewing Side Preference (CSP) is said to occur when mastication is recognized exclusively/consistently or predominantly on the same side of the jaw. It can be assessed by using the direct method - visual observation and indirect methods by electric programs, such as cinematography, kinetography and computerized electromyography. Aim The present study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of CSP in deciduous, mixed and permanent dentitions and relating its association with dental caries. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, 240 school going children aged 3 to 18years were randomly allocated to three experimental groups according to the deciduous dentition, mixed dentition and permanent dentition period. The existence of a CSP was determined using a direct method by asking the children to chew on a piece of gum (trident sugarless). The Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare the CSP and also among the boys and girls. The Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient was used to correlate CSP and dental caries among the three study groups and also among the groups. Results CSP was observed in 69%, 83% and 76% of children with primary, mixed and permanent dentition respectively (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant association between the presence of CSP and dental caries among the three study groups. Conclusion There was a weak or no correlation between gender and distribution of CSP and between presence of CSP and dental caries. PMID:27790569

  7. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL.

  8. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental caries and their determinants in adolescents in New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Tsakos, Georgios; Millett, Christopher; Arora, Monika; Watt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether socioeconomic inequalities are correlated to dental caries experience and decayed teeth of Indian adolescents, and assess whether behavioural and psychosocial factors mediate this association. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1386 adolescents living in three diverse areas of New Delhi. Caries experience and number of decayed teeth were assessed clinically and a questionnaire was used to gather sociodemographic and psychosocial data. Zero Inflated Negative Binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between the outcomes (caries experience and decayed teeth) and area of residence, adjusting for covariates. Results Significant inequalities in caries experience and number of decayed teeth were observed. Odds of an adolescent being caries free decreased by 66% (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.49) and 70% (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.43) in adolescents living in resettlement communities or urban slums, respectively, when compared with the middle class group. No difference was observed among those with caries experience/decayed teeth. Adjusting for covariates did not affect the inequalities. Conclusions Area of residence appears to be a very strong and significant determinant for an adolescent to be caries/decay free in India. Psychosocial and behavioural factors do not mediate the association between area of residence and oral health. PMID:25500618

  10. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries: A Model for Niche Adaptation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Caufield, P W; Schön, C N; Saraithong, P; Li, Y; Argimón, S

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity.

  11. Association between Dental Caries and Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence of susceptibility to dental caries in the population with Down Syndrome (DS) is limited and conflicting, making it difficult to establish firm conclusions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to obtain scientific evidence of the possible association between dental caries and individuals with DS, compared to individuals without DS (control). An electronic search of five databases was performed, with no language or publication date restrictions. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers (Kappa = 0.83). The systematic review included 13 studies, while eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies are presumably all at risk of bias given their observational character. Two of these evaluated the presence or absence of caries in permanent and deciduous teeth, and six evaluated the mean DMFT index in permanent teeth. Combined odds ratios (OR), standard difference, standard error and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. The vast majority of the studies found that individuals from control groups had more carious lesions or caries experience than those with DS. The results were statistically significant in seven studies (p<0.05). Meta-analysis of two studies revealed that individuals with DS had a lower dental caries than those in the control group (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.22–0.57). In six studies, individuals with DS had a significantly lower mean DMFT index than individuals from the control group (Sd = -0.18; SE = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.35–-0.02). The quality of the studies varied and in general had a high risk of bias. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals with DS have fewer dental caries than individuals without DS. PMID:26086498

  12. Association of sweet taste receptor gene polymorphisms with dental caries experience in school children.

    PubMed

    Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Koldemir-Gündüz, Meliha; Bakır-Coşkun, Nur; Bozkuş, Hasan M; Çağatay, Penbe; Süsleyici-Duman, Belgin; Menteş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. The peripheral taste response to sugar is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptors. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TAS1R2 (rs35874116 or rs9701796) and/or TAS1R3 (rs307355) single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries experience in schoolchildren. A total of 184 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years (101 girls, 83 boys) were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the genotypes were identified by qPCR. The genotype frequencies were as follows: 6.6% for homozygous wild type, 41.8% for heterozygous and 51.6% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs35874116; 27.8% for heterozygous and 72.2% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs9701796, and 83.1% for homozygous wild type and 16.9% for heterozygous genotype carriers of TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism. A significant association was observed between total caries experience (dft + DMFT - decayed filled primary teeth + decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth) and TAS1R2 rs35874116 (p = 0.008) and TAS1R3 rs307355 (p = 0.04) gene polymorphisms but not for TAS1R2 gene rs9701796 polymorphism. TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism has been found to be an independent risk factor for dental caries experience by logistic regression analysis and to have increased the risk of caries. Moderate caries experience (4-7 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R3 rs307355 heterozygous genotype, whereas high-risk caries experience (>8 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R2 rs35874116 homozygous polymorphic genotype. PMID:25924601

  13. Association of sweet taste receptor gene polymorphisms with dental caries experience in school children.

    PubMed

    Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Koldemir-Gündüz, Meliha; Bakır-Coşkun, Nur; Bozkuş, Hasan M; Çağatay, Penbe; Süsleyici-Duman, Belgin; Menteş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. The peripheral taste response to sugar is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptors. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TAS1R2 (rs35874116 or rs9701796) and/or TAS1R3 (rs307355) single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries experience in schoolchildren. A total of 184 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years (101 girls, 83 boys) were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the genotypes were identified by qPCR. The genotype frequencies were as follows: 6.6% for homozygous wild type, 41.8% for heterozygous and 51.6% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs35874116; 27.8% for heterozygous and 72.2% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs9701796, and 83.1% for homozygous wild type and 16.9% for heterozygous genotype carriers of TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism. A significant association was observed between total caries experience (dft + DMFT - decayed filled primary teeth + decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth) and TAS1R2 rs35874116 (p = 0.008) and TAS1R3 rs307355 (p = 0.04) gene polymorphisms but not for TAS1R2 gene rs9701796 polymorphism. TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism has been found to be an independent risk factor for dental caries experience by logistic regression analysis and to have increased the risk of caries. Moderate caries experience (4-7 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R3 rs307355 heterozygous genotype, whereas high-risk caries experience (>8 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R2 rs35874116 homozygous polymorphic genotype.

  14. Are Pediatric Antibiotic Formulations Potentials Risk Factors for Dental Caries and Dental Erosion?

    PubMed Central

    Valinoti, Ana Carolina; da Costa Jr., Luiz Carlos; Farah, Adriana; Pereira de Sousa, Valéria; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most frequent parents’ concerns is that oral antibiotic formulations induce dental damage in their children’s. This study aimed to assess the cariogenic and erosive potentials of 29 pediatric antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Replicates of each antibiotic were analyzed for the concentration of sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and sorbitol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pH was determined by digital pHmeter. Titratable acidity was determined in triplicate using the same pHmeter by gradual addition of 0.1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) until pH 7.0. Viscosity measurements were carried out using a viscosimeter. In order to rank the relative performance of each medicine, the DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) methodology was used. Results: Sucrose was present in most samples (n=24) with concentrations ranging from 26 to ≈ 100g% (w/w). Only one antibiotic contained sorbitol (66.9g%). Twenty seven antibiotics presented pH values ranging from 4.1 to 6.9 and most of them (n=15) showed the pH below the critical value for dissolution of hydroxyapatite. The values of titratable acidity and viscosity ranged from 0.26 to 40.48 ml and from 20 to 1780cP, respectively. DEA methodology showed that two medicines were distant from the performance frontier (Klaricid® 50mg and Zinnat® 250mg), which means that these medicines showed the worst performance and, therefore, greater potential for dissolution of dental enamel. Conclusion: Many antibiotics presented high concentration of sugars, high titratable acidity, pH below the critical value and high viscosity which can be considered risk factors for dental caries and erosion, when consumed frequently. PMID:27583053

  15. The Responsiveness of Patients’ Quality of Life to Dental Caries Treatment—A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ding-Yu; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responsiveness of oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) (oral health impact profile [OHIP] and oral impact on daily performance [OIDP]) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (World Health Organization quality of life scale, brief [WHOQOL-BREF]) in dental caries restoration treatment. The study also aimed to assess the influence of treatment on the responsiveness of patients’ quality of life (QoL). A total of 126 patients (aged 16–40 years) received dental caries restoration treatment with a 2-week follow-up and pre- and posttreatment interviews by questionnaire. Patients were assessed for their perceptions of OHRQoL and HRQoL by using the OHIP, OIDP, and WHOQOL-BREF measures. The responsiveness of all outcome measurements was assessed by effect size (ES). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association with the responsiveness of all outcome measurements. Significant differences were found between OIDP (ES = 0.39), OHIP (ES = 0.54), and WHOQOL-BREF (ES = 0.13) with regard to pretreatment and posttreatment (p-values: <0.0001, <0.0001, and 0.0120, respectively). Sex and dental caries status at baseline were significantly associated with responsiveness by all measurements. This study suggests that dental caries treatment moderately improves OHRQoL, but is less related to HRQoL. Furthermore, the number of dental caries and restoration are important factors affecting the improvement of patients’ perceived OHRQoL. PMID:27776148

  16. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  17. The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja; Lakhanpal, Manav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it's important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997) format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0. Results: The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72) as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21) which was followed by underweight (2.31) and obese children (2.23). Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES) is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions

  18. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  19. The Dynamic Behavior of the Early Dental Caries Lesion in Caries-active Adults and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J P; Amaechi, B T; Bader, J D; Shugars, D; Vollmer, W M; Chen, C; Gilbert, G H; Esterberg, E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the full range of behavior of the visible, non-cavitated, early caries lesion in caries-active adults with substantial fluoride exposure, and to consider implications. Methods The data were from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), collected annually for 33 months using condensed ICDAS caries threshold criteria. Individual tooth surfaces having a non-cavitated caries lesion were included and the Patterns of transition to each subsequent annual clinical examination to sound, non-cavitated or cavitated, filled or crowned were determined. The resulting sets of Patterns for an individual tooth surface, looking forward from its first appearance as a non-cavitated lesion, were combined into one of four behavior Profiles classified as Reversing, Stable, Oscillating or continuously Progressing, or were excluded if not part of the caries continuum. The distributions of Profile types were assessed using the Rao-Scott Chi square test, which adjusts for clustering of tooth surfaces within teeth. Results Inter-and intra-examiner Kappa scores demonstrated acceptable calibration at baseline and annually. 8084 tooth surfaces from 543 subjects were included. The distribution of Profile types differed significantly between coronal and root surfaces. Overall two-thirds of all coronal non-cavitated lesions were first seen at baseline, half Reversed, over a fifth were Stable, 15% Oscillated and only 8.3% progressed to cavitation, filled or crowned in 33 months or less. (6.3% consistently Progressed plus 2.0% inconsistently, a subset of Oscillating, which oscillated before progressing to cavitation). Approximal, smooth and occlusal coronal surfaces each were significantly different in their individual distributions of Profile types. Xylitol showed no significant and consistent effect on this distribution by tooth surface type. This was in keeping with the X-ACT Trial’s lack of effect of xylitol at the non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion thresholds combined

  20. Microbiology of dental plaque biofilms and their role in oral health and caries.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Dental plaque is the biofilm found naturally on teeth. Dental plaque is also implicated in dental caries, which is associated with shifts in the microbial balance of the biofilm resulting in increased proportions of acid producing and acid tolerating bacteria, especially (but not exclusively) mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The regular intake of fermentable dietary sugars, or impaired saliva flow, produces persistent conditions of low pH within the biofilm, which selects for these cariogenic bacteria. Clinicians should prevent this disruption to the natural microbial balance of the biofilm (relevant approaches are described) rather than merely treating its consequences by restoring cavities.

  1. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Baelum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole; Nyvad, Bente

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively; the prevalence of non-fluoride opacities was 8% and 19%, respectively; and the prevalence of hypoplasia was 12% and 16%, respectively, in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups. Higher caries levels were noted in children with no fluorosis compared to those with fluorosis recorded (mean DS difference, 3.43). The results lend support to the hypothesis that the presence of fluoride in the oral environment promotes lesion arrest rather than inhibiting the initiation of new lesions.

  2. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  3. Research on optical properties of dental enamel for early caries diagnostics using a He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan

    2008-12-01

    A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.

  4. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining nanoparticles of silver/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  5. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining nanoparticles of silver/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry.

  6. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining NAg/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  7. The natural history of dental caries lesions: a 4-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Zandoná, A; Santiago, E; Eckert, G J; Katz, B P; Pereira de Oliveira, S; Capin, O R; Mau, M; Zero, D T

    2012-09-01

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous disease affecting all age groups and segments of the population. It is known that not all caries lesions progress to cavitation, but little is known regarding the progression pattern of caries lesions. This study's purpose was to evaluate the natural history of dental caries using a standardized, visually based system, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The study population consisted of 565 consenting children, who were enrolled and examined at baseline and at regular intervals over 48 months with ICDAS and yearly bitewing radiographs. Of these, 338 children completed all examinations. Not all lesions cavitated at the same rate, differing by surface type and baseline ICDAS severity score and activity status. With increasing severity, the percentage of lesions progressing to cavitation increased: 19%, 32%, 68%, and 66% for ICDAS scores 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Lesions on occlusal surfaces were more likely to cavitate, followed by buccal pits, lingual grooves, proximal surfaces, and buccal and lingual surfaces. Cavitation was more likely on molars, followed by pre-molars and anterior teeth. Predictors of cavitation included age, gender, surfaces and tooth types, and ICDAS severity/activity at baseline. In conclusion, characterization of lesion severity with ICDAS can be a strong predictor of lesion progression to cavitation.

  8. An automated dental caries detection and scoring system for optical images of tooth occlusal surface.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Leila; Gottlieb, Riki; Sarrett, David C; Ismail, Amid; Belle, Ashwin; Najarian, Kayvan; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries are one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. The management of dental caries demands detection of carious lesions at early stages. This study aims to design an automated system to detect and score caries lesions based on optical images of the occlusal tooth surface according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) guidelines. The system detects the tooth boundaries and irregular regions, and extracts 77 features from each image. These features include statistical measures of color space, grayscale image, as well as Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform based features. Used in this study were 88 occlusal surface photographs of extracted teeth examined and scored by ICDAS experts. Seven ICDAS codes which show the different stages in caries development were collapsed into three classes: score 0, scores 1 and 2, and scores 3 to 6. The system shows accuracy of 86.3%, specificity of 91.7%, and sensitivity of 83.0% in ten-fold cross validation in classification of the tooth images. While the system needs further improvement and validation using larger datasets, it presents promising potential for clinical diagnostics with high accuracy and minimal cost. This is a notable advantage over existing systems requiring expensive imaging and external hardware.

  9. Assessment of dental caries with optical coherence tomography: effect of ambient factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Higham, Susan M.; Jackson, David A.

    2002-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to produce longitudinal images of dental tissues. We investigated the influence on OCT system, of factors that could limit detection and quantitative monitoring of incipient caries. The effect of such factors as saliva, dental plaque, lesion staining, ambient lighting, and Dacron gauze (used to encourage plaque growth in in situ caries studies) on OCT imaging and analysis were determined during demineralization to produce early caries. The system can collect A-scans, B- scans (longitudinal images) and C-scans (en-face images). Caries lesions were shown as volumes of reduced reflectivity. A-scan, which showed the levels of reflectivity versus the depth of penetration into the tooth tissue, was used for the quantitative analysis of the reflectivity loss. The reflectivity of the tooth tissue decreased with demineralization. The percentage change in reflectivity of the tissue was quantified as a measure of the change in mineral status of the tissue following demineralization. Neither the presence of saliva, plaque, Dacron gauze, plaque/Dacron gauze, nor lesion staining nor the level of ambient lighting significantly affected OCT detection and analysis of an incipient caries.

  10. Diet and Dental Caries: The Pivotal Role of Free Sugars Reemphasized.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A; James, W P T

    2015-10-01

    The importance of sugars as a cause of caries is underemphasized and not prominent in preventive strategies. This is despite overwhelming evidence of its unique role in causing a worldwide caries epidemic. Why this neglect? One reason is that researchers mistakenly consider caries to be a multifactorial disease; they also concentrate mainly on mitigating factors, particularly fluoride. However, this is to misunderstand that the only cause of caries is dietary sugars. These provide a substrate for cariogenic oral bacteria to flourish and to generate enamel-demineralizing acids. Modifying factors such as fluoride and dental hygiene would not be needed if we tackled the single cause--sugars. In this article, we demonstrate the sensitivity of cariogenesis to even very low sugars intakes. Quantitative analyses show a log-linear dose-response relationship between the sucrose or its monosaccharide intakes and the progressive lifelong development of caries. This results in a substantial dental health burden throughout life. Processed starches have cariogenic potential when accompanying sucrose, but human studies do not provide unequivocal data of their cariogenicity. The long-standing failure to identify the need for drastic national reductions in sugars intakes reflects scientific confusion partly induced by pressure from major industrial sugar interests.

  11. Access to Fluoridated Water and Adult Dental Caries: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Barbato, P R; Höfelmann, D A

    2016-07-01

    Systematic reviews have found no evidence to support a benefit of water fluoridation (WF) to prevent dental caries in adult populations. The aim of this natural experiment was to investigate whether lifetime access to fluoridated water is associated with dental caries experience among adults from Florianópolis, Brazil. The data originated from a population-based cohort study (EpiFloripa Adult) initiated in 2009 (n = 1,720) when participants were aged 20 to 59 years. The second wave was carried out in 2012 (n = 1,140) and included a dental examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants residing at the same address since the age of 7 y or before were included in the primary analyses. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. WF was implemented in the city in 2 different periods of time: 1982 (60% of the population) and 1996. Dental caries was assessed by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. A combination of residential status, participant's age, and year of implementation of WF permitted the creation of participants' lifetime access to fluoridated water: >75%, 50% to 75%, and <50% of a participant's lifetime. Covariates included sex, age, socioeconomic mobility, educational attainment, income, pattern of dental attendance, and smoking. Participants who accessed fluoridate water <50% of their lifetime presented a higher mean rate ratio of DMFT (1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84) compared with those living >75% of their lifetime with residential access to fluoridated water. Participants living between 50% and 75% and <50% of their lives in fluoridated areas presented a decayed and filled teeth mean ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.75) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.05-2.04) higher than those with residential access to fluoridated water >75% of their lifetime, respectively. Longer residential lifetime access to fluoridated water was associated with less dental caries even in a context of multiple exposures to fluoride. PMID:27053119

  12. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944

  13. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-05-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries.

  14. Long-term adoption of caries management by risk assessment among dental students in a university clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. The authors extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries risk category. Additionally, patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy were identified. Results showed that the percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-08 to 92.8% in 2013-14. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year DDS program or in the final year of training. These results demonstrate that extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines at this dental school clinic. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. The eventual success of this program suggests that, in dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children <18 months of age. We calculated the cost-effectiveness ratio of implementing the proposed interventions to reduce the number of carious teeth and full mouth dental reconstructions (FMDRs) over 10 years. Results A total of 322 children received caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  16. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  17. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  18. The dental management of troublesome twos: renal tubular acidosis and rampant caries

    PubMed Central

    B, Sandhyarani; Huddar, Dayanand; Patil, Anil; Sankeshwari, Banashree

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis is a group of disorders in which there is metabolic acidosis due to defect in renal tubular acidification mechanism to maintain normal plasma bicarbonate and blood pH. Irrespective of organ system involved, oral cavity often reflects the disease occurring anywhere in the body. Thus congenital chronic renal diseases, causing acid–base disturbances affects development and structure of the teeth. Chronic renal tubular acidosis causes enamel defects, dental caries, oral candidiasis, angular cheilitis, etc. We hereby present an unusual case report of a 4-year-old boy suffering from renal tubular acidosis associated with rampant caries, whose full mouth rehabilitation has been done. PMID:23667245

  19. Dental rehabilitation of a child with early childhood caries using Groper's appliance

    PubMed Central

    Joybell, C. Chrishantha; Ramesh, K.; Simon, Paul; Mohan, Jayashree; Ramesh, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The mainstay of pediatric dental practice is the successful esthetic rehabilitation of a preschooler with advanced carious lesions. Loss of masticatory efficiency, compromised esthesis, mispronunciation of labiodentals sounds, and development of abnormal oral habits are compromises arising due to the loss of primary anterior teeth at an early age either due to trauma or due to caries. Parental desire is the most decisive factor for the placement of an anterior esthetic appliance. This unique case report highlights the fabrication of simple, Groper's appliance in a 5-year-old child with early childhood caries. PMID:26538948

  20. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Lactotransferrin Gene Promoter and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Brancher, João Armando; Pecharki, Giovana Daniela; Doetzer, Andrea Duarte; Medeiros, Kamilla Gabriella dos Santos; Cordeiro Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Sotomaior, Vanessa Santos; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Regarding host aspects, there has been strong evidence for a genetic component in the etiology of caries. The salivary protein lactotransferrin (LTF) exhibits antibacterial activity, but there is no study investigating the association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of LTF gene with caries. The objective of this study was firstly to search the promoter region of the human LTF gene for variations and, if existent, to investigate the association of the identified polymorphisms with dental caries in 12-year-old students. From 687 unrelated, 12-year-old, both sex students, 50 individuals were selected and divided into two groups of extreme phenotypes according to caries experience: 25 students without (DMFT = 0) and 25 with caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4). The selection of individuals with extreme phenotypes augments the chances to find gene variations which could be associated with such phenotypes. LTF gene-putative promoter region (+39 to −1143) of the selected 50 individuals was analyzed by high-resolution melting technique. Fifteen students, 8 without (DMFT = 0) and 7 with caries experience (mean DMFT = 6.28), presented deviations of the pattern curve suggestive of gene variations and were sequenced. However, no polymorphisms were identified in the putative promoter region of the LTF gene. PMID:22190933

  1. Dental caries prevalence and bilateral occurrence in premolars and molars of adolescent school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Denloye, O O; Ajayi, D M; Popoola, B O

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries in premolars and molars of adolescent school children in Ibadan, Nigeria with a view of comparing findings from this study with previous African studies. A cross section of 12-19 year-old school children from the five local government areas in Ibadan were examined over a period of three months by two examiners (OD and DA), using the WHO criteria for diagnosing dental caries. Only premolars and molars were examined but the third molars were excluded because they were not fully erupted in most children. The mean age of the children under study was 16.2 ± 0.83 years. Dental caries was detected in 10.8% of the children. Overall, 225 teeth had dental caries, out of which 13.3% were premolars while 86.67% were molars. Among the molars, first molars were mostly affected by caries (68.72%) while 31.28% second molars were affected. Second premolars were more affected by caries among the premolars. Also bilateral caries occurrence was highest in the mandibular first molars. In conclusion since the first molars were the most vulnerable teeth to decay, caries preventive programs on them need to be drawn up.

  2. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral health habits. The children were examined for caries status with WHO criteria by 3 calibrated examiners. Detection of dental erosion followed Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) criteria. Results A total of 704 children were recruited and 600 (316 boys, 53%) participated in the survey. There were 124 children (21%) with caries experience (DMFT > 0) and their DMFT was 0.34 ± 0.76. About half of their decay was unfilled (DT = 0.16 ± 0.52) The DMFT of girls and boys were 0.45 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.61, respectively (p = 0.001). Girls also had a higher DT (0.21 ± 0.62 compared with 0.11 ± 0.41, p = 0.013) and FT than boys (0.23 ± 0.63 compared with 0.12 ± 0.44, p = 0.016). Most children (75%) had at least some sign of erosion (BEWE > 0), but no severe erosion (BEWE = 3). Logistic regression showed girls who consumed soft drinks and took vitamin C supplements had higher caries risk. Dental erosion was more severe among the children who had caries experience and consumed fruit juice. Conclusions The 12-year-old Hong Kong children had low caries experience, and almost half of the decay was left untreated. Although severe erosion was not found, many children had early signs of erosion. PMID:24397565

  3. Office-Based Preventive Dental Program and Statewide Trends in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Ashley M.; Rozier, R. Gary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. METHODS: An ecologic study using panel data of 920 505 kindergarten students with 11 694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. RESULTS: Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, −0.40 to −0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, −0.55 to −0.09) decrease in dmft. CONCLUSIONS: IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina. PMID:24685954

  4. Dental caries in 14- and 15-year-olds in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases of adolescents. In Australia there have been few epidemiological studies of the caries experience of adolescents with most surveys focusing on children. The New South Wales (NSW) Teen Dental Survey 2010 is the second major survey undertaken by the Centre for Oral Health Strategy. The survey is part of a more systematic and efficient approach to support State and Local Health District dental service planning and will also be used for National reporting purposes. Methods Data for the NSW Teen Dental Survey were collected in 2010 from a random sample of Year 9 secondary school students aged 14 to 15 years from metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools under the jurisdiction of the NSW Department of Education and Training, the Catholic Education Commission and Independent Schools in New South Wales. Nineteen calibrated examiners performed 1269 clinical examinations at a total of 84 secondary schools across NSW. The survey was accompanied by a questionnaire looking at oral health related behaviours, risk factors and the usage of the Medicare Teen Dental Plan. Results 175 schools were contacted, with 84 (48%) accepting the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 5,357 student consent forms and parent information packages were sent out and 1,256 students were examined; leading to a student participation rate of 23%. The survey reported a mean DMFT for 14 and 15 year olds of 1.2 and it was identified that 45.4% of students had an experience of dental caries. Major variations in caries experience reported occurred by remoteness, water fluoridation status, socio-economic status and household income levels. Conclusions The NSW Teen Dental Survey provided state-wide data that will contribute to the national picture on adolescent oral health. The mean DMFT score of 1.2 is similar to the national caries experience data for this age group from the Australian Child Dental Health Survey in 2009

  5. From the mouths of babes: dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculture in mainland Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Halcrow, S E; Harris, N J; Tayles, N; Ikehara-Quebral, R; Pietrusewsky, M

    2013-03-01

    Many bioarchaeological studies have established a link between increased dental caries prevalence and the intensification of agriculture. However, research in Southeast Asia challenges the global application of this theory. Although often overlooked, dental health of infants and children can provide a sensitive source of information concerning health and subsistence change. This article investigates the prevalence and location of caries in the dentition of infants and children (less than 15 years of age) from eight prehistoric mainland Southeast Asian sites collectively spanning the Neolithic to late Iron Age, during which time rice agriculture became an increasingly important subsistence mode. Caries prevalence varied among the sites but there was no correlation with chronological change. The absence of evidence of a decline in dental health over time can be attributed to the relative noncariogenicity of rice and retention of broad-spectrum subsistence strategies. No differences in caries type indicating differences in dental health were found between the sites, apart from the Iron Age site of Muang Sema. There was a higher prevalence of caries in the deciduous dentition than the permanent dentition, likely due to a cariogenic weaning diet and the higher sensitivity of deciduous teeth to decay. The level of caries in the permanent dentition suggests an increased reliance on less cariogenic foods during childhood, including rice. The absence of a temporal decline in dental health of infants and children strengthens the argument that the relationship between caries and agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia was more complex than the general model suggests.

  6. Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children.

    PubMed

    Näse, L; Hatakka, K; Savilahti, E; Saxelin, M; Pönkä, A; Poussa, T; Korpela, R; Meurman, J H

    2001-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC (LGG), has shown antagonism to many bacteria including mutans streptococci. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was designed to examine whether milk containing LGG has an effect on caries and the risk of caries in children when compared with normal milk. 594 children, 1-6 years old, from 18 municipal day-care centres were included. The children received the milk with meals from coded containers 5 days a week in the day-care centres for 7 months. The children's oral health was recorded at baseline and at the end, using WHO criteria. The caries risk was calculated based on clinical and microbiological data, comprising mutans streptococcus levels from dental plaque and saliva. The risk was classified as high if the child had a dmft/DMFT or initial caries score >0, and a mutans streptococcus count > or = 10(5) CFU/ml. The results showed less dental caries in the LGG group and lower mutans streptococcus counts at the end of the study. LGG was found to reduce the risk of caries significantly (OR = 0.56, p = 0.01; controlled for age and gender, OR = 0.51, p = 0.004). The effect was particularly clear in the 3- to 4-year-olds. Thus, milk containing the probiotic LGG bacteria may have beneficial effects on children's dental health.

  7. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Christopher; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-24

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  8. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  9. Dental Caries Status and Oral Hygiene Practices of Lock Factory Workers in Aligarh City

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dental caries status of lock factory workers in Aligarh city. Materials and Methods: WHO Oral Health Assessment form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. A total of 850 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Descriptive analysis was done and the data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 46.5%. Almost half of the workers i.e., 456 (53.6%) used brush to clean their teeth. Majority of the subjects i.e., 784 (92.2%) cleaned their teeth once a day. It was found that 466 (54.8%) used toothpaste for maintaining oral hygiene. Almost half of the subjects consumed tobacco in form of gutkha, cigarette, and in multiple forms. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that dental caries and poor oral hygiene are major public health problems among the factory workers. Primary oral health-care programs like dental screening and oral health education at regular intervals should be made mandatory, which will help to prevent accumulation of health-care demands of the factory employees. PMID:26124601

  10. Clarifying the Impact of Untreated and Treated Dental Caries on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Hernandez, Pedro Antonio González; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dental caries experience and the components of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled at public schools in the municipality of Osório (southern Brazil). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination for caries (World Health Organization: DMFT index), malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index) and traumatic dental injuries [Andreasen et al., 2007]. The participants answered the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form, and their parents/guardians answered a structured questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data analysis involved Poisson regression with robust variance, with the calculation of rate ratios adjusted for potential confounding variables. High severity of dental caries experience exerted a significant impact on OHRQoL, even after controlling for socioeconomic and clinical factors (rate ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.12-1.51). All OHRQoL domains were affected by untreated dental caries. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CPQ11-14 scores were 33% higher among adolescents with untreated caries (rate ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.17-1.50) and 24% higher among those with missing teeth (rate ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.06-1.47). No difference in OHRQoL was found between adolescents with filled teeth and those without dental caries. In conclusion, dental caries experience, untreated dental caries and missing teeth exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL among the adolescents. PMID:27458722

  11. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children.

  12. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  13. The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in 4- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children in Northern Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine the prevalence of dental caries among a representative sample of preschool children (4-5 years old) who were accompanied by their parents to the dental centre of the Arab American University in Jenin whether they come seeking dental treatment or as visitors with adult patients. Materials and Methods. 1376 children of both sexes were investigated by three calibrated and trained examiners for dental caries using the dmft index according to the WHO method. Results. 76% of the studied children have already experienced dental caries at the age of 4-5 years (1046 children). The mean dmft score was found to be 2.46 while the other 24% of children were caries-free. There was no significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls (77.2% versus 74.6%). Children of highly educated and college graduated mothers were found to have more fillings (restored teeth) in comparison to those who belong to mothers who did not finish their secondary (high school) education. Conclusion. The number of caries-free children in northern Palestine is still far from numbers found in developed countries. There is a real need to make improvements at the level of parents dental health education, application of preventive measures, and dietary habits among preschool children. PMID:25328526

  14. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries.

  15. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-12-05

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.

  16. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  17. The Influence of Lifestyle on the Incidence of Dental Caries among 3-Year-Old Japanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-01-01

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child’s late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake. PMID:25489996

  18. The effect of food hardness on the development of dental caries in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats.

  19. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  20. Rampant Caries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  1. How effective is ART in the management of dental caries?

    PubMed

    Frencken, J E; Holmgren, C J

    1999-12-01

    The ART approach involves excavating cavitated dentine caries with hand instruments, then restoring the cavity and sealing any associated fissures and pits with an adhesive restorative material, resulting in a sealant restoration. Until recently, ART has mainly been used under field conditions, and thus the adhesive restorative material used has been glass ionomer which does not require mixing machines and curing lights. Since the inception of ART, a growing number of studies world-wide have taken place. A total of four studies have reported 3-year survival percentages for one-surface ART restorations. The highest 3-year survival percentage in permanent teeth was 88%, which is comparable to the 85% survival of one-surface amalgam restorations placed under the same field conditions after 3 years. The outcomes depend to some extent on the material used, operator experience and presence of caries. The presence of caries as a reason for failure was higher in the early than in the most recent studies. Only one study has reported on the use of ART restorations in the deciduous dentition. It is concluded that: a very large proportion of dentine lesions in the permanent teeth can be treated using the ART approach; the 3-year survival rate of the more recently placed one-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth was higher than that of ART restorations placed in the beginning; the survival of one-surface ART restorations in the permanent dentition with newer glass ionomers is comparable to that of one-surface conventional restorations placed using amalgam in a comparable setting after 3 years; more studies of longer duration are needed to confirm these findings; ART should be considered a caries treatment modality that benefits people; and educational courses need to be organised before the approach is applied in the clinic. PMID:10600076

  2. Long-Term Adoption of Caries Management by Risk Assessment Among Dental Students in a University Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. Methods We extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic, from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and by the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries-risk category. Additionally, we identified patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy. Results The percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-2008 to 92.8% in 2013-2014. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year doctoral program or in the final year of training. Conclusions Extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. In dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment. PMID:25941147

  3. Dental caries status of Dai preschool children in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status. Methods An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the “dmft” index, and severe caries was assessed using the “pa” index, which is modified from the “pufa” index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children’s socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children’s parents. Results A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year. Conclusions The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status. PMID:24279504

  4. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofibre mats for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Sukma, Monrudee; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-03-01

    The mucoadhesive electrospun nanofibre mats were developed using chitosan (CS) and thiolated chitosan (CS-SH) as mucoadhesive polymers. Garcinia mangostana (GM) extract was incorporated into nanofibre mats. The antibacterial activity in the single and combined agents was evaluated against dental caries pathogens. The morphology of mats was observed using SEM. The mats were evaluated for GM extract amount, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. The mucoadhesion and antibacterial activity were determined in healthy human volunteers. The prepared mats were in nanoscale with good physical and mucoadhesive properties. The CS-SH caused the higher mucoadhesion. All mats rapidly released active substances, which had the synergistic antibacterial activity. In addition, the reduction of bacteria and good mucoadhesion in the oral cavity occurred without cytotoxicity. The results suggest that mats have the potential to be mucoadhesive dosage forms to maintain oral hygiene by reducing the bacterial growth that causes the dental caries.

  5. OCT of early dental caries: a comparative study with histology and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael G.

    2005-03-01

    Early dental caries result from destruction of the tooth's outer mineral matrix by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaques. Early caries begin as surface disruptions where minerals are leached from the teeth resulting in regions of decreased mineral matrix integrity. Visually, these early carious regions appear as white spots due to the higher backscattering of incident light. With age these areas may become stained by organic compounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of human teeth demonstrates a difference in penetration depth of the OCT signal into the carious region in comparison with sound enamel. However, while OCT demonstrates a structural difference in the enamel in the region of the caries, this technique provides little insight into the source of this difference. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical measures derived from hydroxyapatite within the enamel as well as information on the crystallinity of the enamel matrix. The differences in the biochemical and morphological features of early caries and intact sound enamel are compared. Histological thin sections confirm the observations by OCT morphological imaging while Raman spectroscopy allows for biochemical identification of carious regions by a non-destructive method. Visual examination and conventional radiographic imaging of the intact tooth are used in clinical assessment prior to optical measurements. The combination of OCT, Raman spectroscopy and thin section histology aid in determining the changes that give rise to the visual white spot lesions.

  6. Prevalence and Association of Developmental Defects of Enamel with, Dental- Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622

  7. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  8. Assessment of the calibration of periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among dental students at three dental schools.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brittany A; Luepke, Paul; Chaves, Eros; Maupome, Gerardo; Eckert, George J; Blanchard, Steven; John, Vanchit

    2015-01-01

    Calibration in diagnosis and treatment planning is difficult to achieve due to variations that exist in clinical interpretation. To determine if dental faculty members are consistent in teaching how to diagnose and treat periodontal disease, variations among dental students can be evaluated. A previous study reported high variability in diagnoses and treatment plans of periodontal cases at Indiana University School of Dentistry. This study aimed to build on that one by extending the research to two additional schools: Marquette University School of Dentistry and West Virginia University School of Dentistry. Diagnosis and treatment planning by 40 third- and fourth-year dental students were assessed at each of the schools. Students were asked to select the diagnosis and treatment plans on a questionnaire pertaining to 11 cases. Their responses were compared using chi-square tests, and multirater kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between classes and between schools. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the effects of school, class year, prior experience, and GPA/class rank on correct responses. One case had a statistically significant difference in responses between third- and fourth-year dental students. Kappas for school agreement and class agreement were low. The students from Indiana University had higher diagnosis and treatment agreements than the Marquette University students, and the Marquette students fared better than the West Virginia University students. This study can help restructure future periodontal courses for a better understanding of periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25576548

  9. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

  10. Use of the generalized linear models in data related to dental caries index.

    PubMed

    Javali, S B; Pandit, Parameshwar V

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to encourage and initiate the application of generalized linear models (GLMs) in the analysis of the covariates of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index data, which is not necessarily normally distributed. GLMs can be performed assuming underlying many distributions; in fact Poisson distribution with log built-in link function and binomial distribution with Logit and Probit built-in link functions are considered. The Poisson model is used for modeling the DMFT index data and the Logit and Probit models are employed to model the dichotomous outcome of DMFT = 0 and DMFT not equal to 0 (caries free/caries present). The data comprised 7188 subjects aged 18-30 years from the study on the oral health status of Karnataka state conducted by SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. The Poisson model and binomial models (Logit and Probit) displayed dissimilarity in the outcome of results at 5% level of significance ( P <0.05). The binomial models were a poor fit, whereas the Poisson model showed a good fit for the DMFT index data. Therefore, a suitable modeling approach for DMFT index data is to use a Poisson model for the DMFT response and a binomial model for the caries free and caries present (DMFT = 0 and DMFT not equal to 0). These GLMs allow separate estimation of those covariates which influence the magnitude of caries. PMID:17938491

  11. Utility and effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Kyle D; Dykstra, Bradley A; Gakenheimer, David C; Scheetz, James P; Lacina, Stephani; Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has created a growing opportunity for computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD), with upgraded CAD software based on user feedback, was re-evaluated for its effectiveness via a retrospective clinical study. Using the upgraded LCD software, 12 dentists (evaluators) blindly assessed 17 radiographs taken by another (attending) dentist, who restored 28 proximal surfaces. The attending dentist confirmed the presence of early dentinal caries, as well as identifying 48 surfaces as caries-free or with enamel caries only subject to noninvasive treatment. The radiographs, imported into the software using a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) reader, were visually assessed under typical operatory lighting conditions, then with the aid of the software's density analysis tool. The effectiveness of the evaluators was gauged by calculating two measures of performance, sensitivity and specificity, for the detection and classification of dentinal caries. Sensitivity among all evaluator dentists was 30% with the initial image; 34% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 39% when the image was sharpened; and 69% when the density analysis tool was utilized. Specificity was found to be 97% with the initial image; 95% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 93% with the sharpened image; and 94% when the density analysis tool was used. Compared to the unaided eye, the LCD can significantly improve dentists' ability to detect and classify caries. Dentists may be able to find twice as much early dentinal caries requiring restoration (or at least aggressive noninvasive treatment) than previously, while not unnecessarily restoring additional healthy teeth. The LCD enables dentists to obtain more information from dental digital radiography than is possible with the unaided eye, leading to improved patient care.

  12. PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-22

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  13. Family relationships as an explanatory variable in childhood dental caries: a systematic review of measures.

    PubMed

    Duijster, D; O'Malley, L; Elison, S; Van Loveren, C; Marcenes, W; Adair, P M; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that parental beliefs (self-efficacy) about oral health and parental oral health-related behaviours play a fundamental role in the establishment of preventative behaviours that will mitigate against the development of childhood dental caries. However, little attention has been given to the wider perspective of family functioning and family relationships on child oral health. For oral health researchers, exploration of this association requires the use of reliable, valid and appropriate assessment tools to measure family relationships. In order to promote methodologically sound research in oral health, this systematic review aims to provide a guide on self-report psychometric measures of family functioning that may be suitable to utilize when exploring childhood dental caries. This systematic review has identified 29 self-report measures of family functioning and evaluated them in terms of their psychometric support, constructs measured and potential utility for oral health research. The majority of the measures reported adequate levels of reliability and construct validity. Construct evaluation of the measures identified five core domains of family functioning, namely 'communication', 'cohesion/engagement', 'control', 'involvement' and 'authoritative/rigid parenting style'. The constructs were subsequently evaluated with respect to their potential relevance to child oral health. Herewith this review provides a framework to guide future research to explore family functioning in furthering our understanding of the development of childhood dental caries. PMID:24107605

  14. Photoacoustic Non-Destructive Evaluation and Imaging of Caries in Dental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 °C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  15. Epidemiology of fluorosis and dental caries according to different types of water supplies.

    PubMed

    Franzolin, Solange de Oliveira Braga; Gonçalves, Aguinaldo; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Francischone, Leda Aparecida; Marta, Sara Nader

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between fluorosis/dental caries in schools, according to the level of fluoride in public water supply. The sample comprised of twelve-year-old daytime students (360) of both genders, attending schools close to the region where they were born. The schools were classified into three groups according to the presence of fluoride in the water supply: 1) fluoridation in the Water Treatment Station-WTS; 2) Direct Fluoridation in Wells-DFW; and 3) Non Fluoridated Areas-NFA. The chi2 and Goodman tests (significance=5%) were used to evaluate the association between the origin of water and degree of fluorosis; percentage of distribution and descriptive measures were used for investigation of the degree of fluorosis. The following outcomes were predominant: presence of dental caries in the entire sample (P<0.05); absence of fluorosis in both genders, for white individuals and subjects living in areas supplied by both DFW and NFA (P<0.05). There was no difference in the severity of fluorosis between the sources of water supply (P>0.05). Dental caries is still an important problem in this population, despite the establishment of preventive measured. The observation of fluorosis in students living in non-fluoridated areas confirms the presence of other sources of fluoride.

  16. Dental caries in children from two Libyan cities with different levels of fluoride in their drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hawew, R M; Ellwood, R P; Hawley, G M; Worthington, H V; Blinkhorn, A S

    1996-09-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of collecting dental epidemiological data suitable for planning purposes in Libya and (2) record the caries prevalence in Benghazi so that, following an increase in the fluoride concentration of the drinking water, potential changes in dental caries prevalence could be assessed. Random sampling resulted in the examination of 833 six-year-old and 704 twelve-year-old children from Benghazi (0.8 mg/t F-) and Jardinah (1.8 mg/t F-). For both six- and twelve-year-old children the caries prevalence in Jardinah was significantly lower than in Benghazi. Within Benghazi the caries prevalence was lower in state than private schools for the six-year-old children. Little evidence of dental treatment was found for the six or twelve-year-old pupils at either examination site.

  17. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  18. Clinical diagnosis of dental caries: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a broad international perspective on aspects of the RTI/UNC systematic review, to introduce relevant literature not cited, and to make recommendations for clinical practice education and research suggested by the evidence. Clinical caries diagnosis represents the foundation on which the answers to most of the consensus questions will be based. This paper highlights needs for being clear about definitions and nomenclature; understanding the importance of the concepts underlying the D1 and D3 diagnostic thresholds used widely within the RTI/UNC Review; and appreciating that the diagnostic challenge now faced by clinicians is significant and is becoming more complex as the presentation and distribution of the disease changes over time and the range of preventive and operative treatment options expands. A series of recommendations informed by the evidence are made, including a rather contentious issue for many clinicians concerning the lack of evidence supporting the continued use of a sharp explorer as a diagnostic tool for primary caries diagnosis. This practice should be discontinued as it may cause some harm to the patient and yet fails to provide a significant balancing diagnostic benefit. Finally, it is suggested that dentistry should learn from the developing evidence base in medicine on how best to disseminate the findings of reviews and promote appropriate changes in clinical practice.

  19. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in

  20. Analysis of the association between polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and dental caries in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hu, X P; Li, Z Q; Zhou, J Y; Yu, Z H; Zhang, J M; Guo, M L

    2015-09-28

    Environmental influences on the development and progression of dental caries are well known; however, there is little evidence of a genetic component imparting susceptibility to dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor TaqI locus and dental caries susceptibility in a Chinese population. This case-control study was conducted with a case group (264 patients with dental caries from northwestern China) and a control group (219 individuals without dental caries or systemic disease from the same area). DNA was extracted from the peripheral venous blood of the study participants; the distribution of TaqI locus genotypes and allele frequencies was determined via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Chi-square test. The frequency of the Tt genotype in the case group (14.0%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%), as determined using the genotype TT as the reference. The risk of dental caries was increased 3.8-fold in individuals with the heterozygous Tt genotype compared to that in the individuals with the TT genotype. The proportion of the 't' allele in the case group (7.0%) and the control group (2.1%) was observed to be significantly different [P = 0.0003; OR = 3.592, confidence interval 95% (1.790-7.208)]. Our results therefore suggested that the allele 't' might be a genetic factor determining dental caries susceptibility in individuals from the northwest of China.

  1. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODEL FOR DENTAL CARIES ASSESSMENT USING NON-GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Yuan, Ying; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Research in dental caries generates data with two levels of hierarchy: that of a tooth overall and that of the different surfaces of the tooth. The outcomes often exhibit spatial referencing among neighboring teeth and surfaces, i.e., the disease status of a tooth or surface might be influenced by the status of a set of proximal teeth/surfaces. Assessments of dental caries (tooth decay) at the tooth level yield binary outcomes indicating the presence/absence of teeth, and trinary outcomes at the surface level indicating healthy, decayed, or filled surfaces. The presence of these mixed discrete responses complicates the data analysis under a unified framework. To mitigate complications, we develop a Bayesian two-level hierarchical model under suitable (spatial) Markov random field assumptions that accommodates the natural hierarchy within the mixed responses. At the first level, we utilize an autologistic model to accommodate the spatial dependence for the tooth-level binary outcomes. For the second level and conditioned on a tooth being non-missing, we utilize a Potts model to accommodate the spatial referencing for the surface-level trinary outcomes. The regression models at both levels were controlled for plausible covariates (risk factors) of caries, and remain connected through shared parameters. To tackle the computational challenges in our Bayesian estimation scheme caused due to the doubly-intractable normalizing constant, we employ a double Metropolis-Hastings sampler. We compare and contrast our model performances to the standard non-spatial (naive) model using a small simulation study, and illustrate via an application to a clinical dataset on dental caries. PMID:27807470

  2. Periodontal Health, Perceived Oral Health and Dental Care Utilization of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Inglehart, Marita R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This population-based analysis examined the prevalence of periodontal diseases along with the self-perceived oral health and patterns of dental care utilization of breast cancer survivors in the U.S. METHODS Data from the 1999–2004 NHANES were utilized, examining information from 3,354 women between 50–85 years of age. Primary outcomes were gingivitis and periodontitis, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of breast cancer diagnosis and primary outcomes, while controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS Breast cancer survivors were more likely to be older than 55 years, white, non-smokers, have higher levels of education and income and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Breast cancer survivors were significantly less likely to have dental insurance (p=0.04). Utilization of dental services and reason for last dental visit did not significantly differ between groups. A history of a breast cancer diagnosis did not increase the odds of gingivitis (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.53–3.63), periodontitis (OR=1.82; 95% CI = 0.89–4.01) or poor self-perceived oral health (OR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.61–1.33) after adjusting for age, race, education, dental care utilization, and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS In this sample, a history of breast cancer does not significantly impact periodontal health, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. However, efforts should be made to assure that breast cancer survivors have dental insurance. PMID:25648337

  3. ART: a minimal intervention approach to manage dental caries.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Holmgren, Christopher J

    2004-06-01

    The number of studies investigating aspects of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach has increased in recent years. This tissue preservative treatment approach appears to be less painful and is, therefore, more patient-friendly than conventional caries treatments. The investigations so far have shown that the ART approach is effective for the management of single-surface cavities in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. There appears to be no difference in survival results between single-surface ART restorations and comparable amalgam restorations in the permanent dentition after three years. The surface wear of ART restorations using high-viscosity glass-ionomers after two years is low. ART sealants using high-viscosity glass-ionomers are retained longer than ART sealants using low-viscosity glass-ionomers after three years. It is concluded that the ART approach is beneficial in improving the oral health of many, not only in developing but also in more advanced countries.

  4. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-che; Lin, Kun-Feng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed. PMID:23857261

  5. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic

    PubMed Central

    Oxilia, Gregorio; Peresani, Marco; Romandini, Matteo; Matteucci, Chiara; Spiteri, Cynthianne Debono; Henry, Amanda G.; Schulz, Dieter; Archer, Will; Crezzini, Jacopo; Boschin, Francesco; Boscato, Paolo; Jaouen, Klervia; Dogandzic, Tamara; Broglio, Alberto; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Fiorenza, Luca; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kullmer, Ottmar; Benazzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Prehistoric dental treatments were extremely rare, and the few documented cases are known from the Neolithic, when the adoption of early farming culture caused an increase of carious lesions. Here we report the earliest evidence of dental caries intervention on a Late Upper Palaeolithic modern human specimen (Villabruna) from a burial in Northern Italy. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we show the presence of striations deriving from the manipulation of a large occlusal carious cavity of the lower right third molar. The striations have a “V”-shaped transverse section and several parallel micro-scratches at their base, as typically displayed by cutmarks on teeth. Based on in vitro experimental replication and a complete functional reconstruction of the Villabruna dental arches, we confirm that the identified striations and the associated extensive enamel chipping on the mesial wall of the cavity were produced ante-mortem by pointed flint tools during scratching and levering activities. The Villabruna specimen is therefore the oldest known evidence of dental caries intervention, suggesting at least some knowledge of disease treatment well before the Neolithic. This study suggests that primitive forms of carious treatment in human evolution entail an adaptation of the well-known toothpicking for levering and scratching rather than drilling practices. PMID:26179739

  6. Preferences for caries prevention agents in adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level. PMID:20560997

  7. Do interleukin-1 polymorphisms predict the development of periodontitis or the success of dental implants?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Marina A; Figliomeni, Lisa; Baluchova, Katarina; Tan, Albert E S; Davies, Gareth; Henry, Patrick J; Price, Patricia

    2002-02-01

    Factors which increase the risk of severe adult periodontitis (AP) may also contribute to the success of dental implants. To determine which cytokines may be relevant, levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA were quantitated in gingival tissue from periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Periodontitis significantly increased levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IFN-gamma mRNA relative to healthy tissues. IL-1 was selected for further study, as it has inflammatory and bone resorbing properties. We examined IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3953) alleles in Caucasian patients with AP and early-onset periodontitis (EOP), patients with dental implants and healthy individuals. The IL-1B(+3953) polymorphism was associated with AP. This was evident from an increased homozygosity for allele 2 in patients with AP and a decreased heterozygosity in advanced AP patients. IL-1A(-889) and a composite genotype [IL-1A(-889)2 plus IL-1B(+3953)2] showed no association with the incidence of periodontitis, disease onset or disease severity. IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(+3953) and the composite genotype also showed no association with failure of dental implants. PMID:11858158

  8. Do interleukin-1 polymorphisms predict the development of periodontitis or the success of dental implants?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Marina A; Figliomeni, Lisa; Baluchova, Katarina; Tan, Albert E S; Davies, Gareth; Henry, Patrick J; Price, Patricia

    2002-02-01

    Factors which increase the risk of severe adult periodontitis (AP) may also contribute to the success of dental implants. To determine which cytokines may be relevant, levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA were quantitated in gingival tissue from periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Periodontitis significantly increased levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IFN-gamma mRNA relative to healthy tissues. IL-1 was selected for further study, as it has inflammatory and bone resorbing properties. We examined IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3953) alleles in Caucasian patients with AP and early-onset periodontitis (EOP), patients with dental implants and healthy individuals. The IL-1B(+3953) polymorphism was associated with AP. This was evident from an increased homozygosity for allele 2 in patients with AP and a decreased heterozygosity in advanced AP patients. IL-1A(-889) and a composite genotype [IL-1A(-889)2 plus IL-1B(+3953)2] showed no association with the incidence of periodontitis, disease onset or disease severity. IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(+3953) and the composite genotype also showed no association with failure of dental implants.

  9. Emergency Dental Treatment for the Family Physician

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The family physician is often expected, and should be able, competently to provide emergency dental treatment. With the knowledge of relatively few techniques and materials, this care can often be simply provided. Treatment discussed includes: odontogenic infections, avulsions, fractured teeth, post-operative bleeding and pain, dentures, dental caries, periodontal problems, analgesics, and allergy to local anesthetic. PMID:21263889

  10. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  11. Detection of early stages of dental caries by optical PNC diagnostics: comparison with visual inspection, dental probe, and x-ray methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby

    2000-11-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC-method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: probing radiation, stimulated backscattering and autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC-methods with visual inspection, dental probe and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage of the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage white lesion.

  12. In vivo evaluation of DIAGNOdent for the quantification of occlusal dental caries.

    PubMed

    Khalife, Moufida A; Boynton, James R; Dennison, Joseph B; Yaman, Peter; Hamilton, James C

    2009-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of non-cavitated occlusal caries is generally considered problematic. Induced fluorescence quantified by the DIAGNOdent device (KaVo) gives a reading from 0-99, which may help in the caries diagnostic process. There is some controversy around the implication of increased severity of decay with increased DIAGNOdent readings. This in vivo study assessed the correlation of depth and volume of decay as it was removed by traditional rotary handpieces with DIAGNOdent readings and determined sensitivities/specificities of the device at different cut-off points. Included in the current study were 31 patients providing 60 permanent molar and premolar occlusal surfaces suspected of dentinal decay. DIAGNOdent readings were recorded, along with lesion depth (as measured by periodontal probe) and volume measurements (as calculated from measuring the mass of a polyvinyl siloxane impression of the cavity, divided by the material's calculated density). Clinical detection of decay at the DEJ was used as the gold-standard to calculate an appropriate cut-off. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that DIAGNOdent readings were weakly correlated with lesion depth (r = 0.47) and lesion volume (also r = 0.47). An appropriate cut-off point for the sample in the current study was calculated between 35 and 40; a more specific cut-off point could not be determined due to the sample size distribution. It was concluded that the DIAGNOdent device should be used as an adjunct in the caries diagnosis and treatment planning process.

  13. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  14. Dental caries and treatment needs of Yemeni children with down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq; Al-Sufyani, Ghadah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health in Down syndrome (DS) children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among children with DS in Yemen and also to investigate the association between these outcomes with various socio-demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 96 children with DS aged between 6 and 15 years. Data were gathered through the use of a questionnaire and clinical observation. The dentition status and the treatment needs were recorded according to World Health Organization recommendations. ANOVA, Chi-square test, t-test and multiple regression analyses were applied using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) version 20.0 software, with P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that 93.8% of the subjects had dental caries; overall, decayed missing filled surfaces (dmfs), decayed missing filled teeth (dmft), DMFS, DMFT were 10.35, 4.44, 4.32 and 2.45, respectively. Stepwise linear regression analysis has revealed that age was the most important predictor for DMFT and DMFS, while early age and less frequent teeth brushing were the most predictors for dmft and dmfs. Restorative care and extractions were the most needed specific treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that children with DS in Yemen have a high prevalence of dental caries and extensive unmet needs of dental treatment. They would benefit from frequent oral health assessment. PMID:25540656

  15. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  16. A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy.

  17. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures. PMID:25765291

  18. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures.

  19. Chronic Disease Management Strategies of Early Childhood Caries: Support from the Medical and Dental Literature.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine report places chronic disease management (CDM) as an intervention on a treatment spectrum between prevention and acute care. CDM commonly focuses on conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant. Framing early childhood caries (ECC) as such a chronic condition invites dentistry to reconsider its approach to caries management and shift gears from a strictly surgical approach to one that also incorporates a medical approach. This paper's purpose was to explore the definition of and concepts inherent in CDM. An explanatory model is introduced to describe the multiple factors that influence ECC-CDM strategies. Reviewed literature suggests that early evidence from ECC-CDM interventions, along with results of pediatric asthma and diabetes CDM, supports CDM of ECC as a valid approach that is independent of both prevention and repair. Early results of ECC-CDM endeavors have demonstrated a reduction in rates of new cavitation, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared to baseline rates. ECC-CDM strategies hold strong promise to curtail caries activity while complementing dental repair when needed, thereby reducing disease progression and cavity recurrence. Institutionalizing ECC-CDM will both require and benefit from evolving health care delivery and financing systems that reward positive health outcomes.

  20. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science.

  1. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  2. Periodontal Specific Differentiation of Dental Follicle Stem Cells into Osteoblast, Fibroblast, and Cementoblast.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, S; Chennazhi, K P; Arzate, Higinio; Jayachandran, P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-10-01

    The dental follicle is a source of dental follicle stem cells (DFCs), which have the potential to differentiate into the periodontal lineage. DFCs therefore are of value in dental tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth factor type and concentration on DFC differentiation into periodontal specific lineages. DFCs were isolated from the human dental follicle and characterized for the expression of mesenchymal markers. The cells were positive for CD-73, CD-44, and CD-90; and negative for CD-33, CD-34, and CD-45. The expression of CD-29 and CD-31 was almost negligible. The cells also expressed periodontal ligament and cementum markers such as periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and cementum protein-1 (CEMP-1), however, the expression of osteoblast markers was absent. Further, the DFCs were cultured in three different induction medium to analyze the osteoblastic, fibroblastic, and cementoblastic differentiation. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin staining, calcium quantification, collagen type-1 (Col-1), and osteopontin (OPN) expression confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of DFCs. DFCs cultured in recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) containing medium showed enhanced PLAP-1, FGF-2, and COL-1 expression with increasing concentration of rhFGF-2 which thereby confirmed periodontal ligament fibroblastic differentiation. Similarly, DFCs cultured in recombinant human cementum protein-1 (rhCEMP-1) containing medium showed enhanced bone sialoprotein-2 (BSP-2), CEMP-1, and COL-1 expression with respect to rhCEMP-1 which confirmed cementoblastic differentiation. The expression of osteoblast, fibroblast, and cementoblast-related genes of DFCs cultured in induction medium was enhanced in comparison to DFCs cultured in noninduction medium. Thus, growth factor-dependent differentiation of DFCs into periodontal specific lineages

  3. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  4. Diagnoses and treatment proposals in periodontal treatment. A comparison between dentists, dental hygienists and undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Leisnert, Leif; Axtelius, Björn; Johansson, Veronica; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out how professionals in Swedish dental care perform diagnostic procedures in general. Is there a common ground between dentists and dental hygienists concerning sharing different job assignments in an effective way? Are the methods of treatment used in accordance with degree of severity of the disease and to what extent is proposed treatment in accordance with the National Guidelines? A questionnaire consisting of three different patient cases with periodontal disease was sent to 804 private practitioners, 809 dentists in Dental Public Service, 802 dental hygienists and 40 dental students on their final semester at the Dental School in Malmö. The questionnaire was completed by 1,103 respondents (47%). A majority of all practitioner groups (94%) found that a relatively healthy patient had disease, the risk for developing further disease was deemed none too low by 97%, but 91% wanted to give preventive care. A vast majority suggested more dental care to healthy patients as compared to patients with severe periodontal disease. In Conclusion the two groups, i.e. dentists and dental hygienists, did not to a sufficiently high degree share views on diagnosis and treatment, in order to optimize the resources in dentistry. The delivery of dental care was not in line with the severity of disease and too much attention was paid to the needs of relatively healthy persons. To change this pattern, the incentives in and structure of the national assurance system could be adapted. Furthermore, the knowledge basis for periodontal diagnosis and treatment needs, with special reference to the National Guidelines, should to a higher degree be shared by all caregivers. PMID:26529834

  5. The diagnostic reliability of clinical dental auxiliaries in caries prevalence surveys--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kwan, S Y; Prendergast, M J; Williams, S A

    1996-09-01

    The Nuffield Report recommended the development of further education and training for dental auxiliary personnel. The extent to which clinical dental auxiliaries might carry out oral assessments is under consideration currently. While other countries have employed clinical dental auxiliaries as examiners in national surveys, there is no evidence to suggest that they are able to perform oral assessments effectively in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using dental hygienists or therapists as examiners in epidemiological surveys. Five dentists and three clinical dental auxiliaries were trained and calibrated together using standardised BASCD training procedures. Forty 5-year-old children in Leeds were recruited to the training and calibration exercise. Data were analysed according to BASCD recommendations. There were no differences in performance between dentists and auxiliaries. All examiners fell within 95 percent confidence limits of the group mean dt, mt, ft and dmft. Mean grouped dmft scores for the benchmark examiner, dentists and auxiliaries were 1.92, 1.84 and 1.92 respectively. Sensitivity values for dentists and auxiliaries ranged from 0.54 to 1.00 and 0.80 to 0.94 respectively. Kappa scores were 0.70 to 0.90 for dentists; and 0.82 to 0.87 for the auxiliaries. It was concluded that the dental hygienists and therapist recruited to this study could be used in epidemiological surveys of caries in 5-year-old children.

  6. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals’ and society’s health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. Methods We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds’ decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. Results High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient −0.011; 95% confidence interval, −0.018 to −0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. Conclusions S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism. PMID:27108752

  7. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  8. Periodontal Disease, Dental Implants, Extractions and Medications Related to Osteonecrosis of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neha P; Katsarelis, Helen; Pazianas, Michael; Dhariwal, Daljit K

    2015-11-01

    Patients taking bisphosphonates and other anti-resorptive drugs are likely to attend general dental practice. The term 'bisphosphonate'is often immediately associated with osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). Risk assessment and subsequent management of these patients should be carried out taking into account all the risk factors associated with ONJ. The introduction of newer drugs, also shown to be associated with ONJ, demands increased awareness of general dental practitioners about these medications. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper provides an update on medication-related ONJ and considers the effects of anti-resorptive drugs on the management of patients needing exodontia, treatment for periodontal disease and dental implant placement.

  9. Evaluation of dental enamel caries assessment using Quantitative Light Induced Fluorescence and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Marly Araújo; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; de L Campello, Sergio; Gomes, Anderson Stevens Leônidas; Karlsson, Lena

    2016-06-01

    An in vitro study of morphological alterations between sound dental structure and artificially induced white spot lesions in human teeth, was performed through the loss of fluorescence by Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) and the alterations of the light attenuation coefficient by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). To analyze the OCT images using a commercially available system, a special algorithm was applied, whereas the QLF images were analyzed using the software available in the commercial system employed. When analyzing the sound region against white spot lesions region by QLF, a reduction in the fluorescence intensity was observed, whilst an increase of light attenuation by the OCT system occurred. Comparison of the percentage of alteration between optical properties of sound and artificial enamel caries regions showed that OCT processed images through the attenuation of light enhanced the tooth optical alterations more than fluorescence detected by QLF System. QLF versus OCT imaging of enamel caries: a photonics assessment.

  10. The use of topical fluoride to prevent or reverse dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Peter; Young, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Topical fluoride has been the main stay of caries prevention for many decades. There are several mechanisms which make it beneficial including inhibiting demineralization, enhancing remineralization, and inhibiting bacterial growth. Topical fluoride is available in many different forms. The concentrations of various fluoride preparations range from 225 parts per million (ppm) fluoride in over-the-counter oral rinses to 22,600 ppm in the fluoride varnishes. The clinician must decide which type of topical preparation is best suited for their patient. Patients with high caries risk may benefit from prescription strength fluorides (along with the other chemical and dietary therapies described in this issue of Special Care in Dentistry). The application of fluoride varnish is an excellent topical form for those patients who have access to dental care and for whom it is difficult to comply with the use of other topical forms.

  11. Prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis in a population of Mexican schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    González, M; Cabrera, R; Grossi, S G; Franco, F; Aguirre, A

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis was assessed in schoolchildren of the Tlalpan region in Mexico City. A total of 700 children (age range: 11-17 yr) of both sexes were examined. The sample population included children attending the Middle-School System, where two shifts are run (A.M. and P.M.). Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), and Gingival Index (GI) were recorded for all existing teeth. Analysis of the data showed that mean DMFS scores increased with chronological age in both genders, were higher in the P.M. session, and more elevated in females. Similarly the mean GI scores also increased with age, and were higher in the P.M. session. In contrast to the DMFS scores, males presented higher GI scores than females at all age intervals. The results of our study indicated a distinctively high prevalence of caries and gingivitis in Mexican schoolchildren.

  12. The prevalence of dental caries in Missouri and its relation to systemic disease: opportunities for Missouri to improve the health of its citizens.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Joshua; Wyatt, Christopher; Wiles, R Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that poor oral health conditions, especially periodontitis, have been a contributing factor to several systemic diseases. Evidence shows that Missouri should be concerned about the current state of caries and its prevention. The prevalence of caries and lack of preventative care in Missouri warrants an examination of the current efforts in place to reduce caries and the creation of novel approaches that bridge the gap between oral and medical care. This paper discusses this problem in depth.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1) and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2). The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests) showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup, and 1.7 for G1 and 1.1 for G2 in the 4-6 age subgroup. Differences were significant between G1 and G2 only in the 0-3 age subgroup (p = 0.047). Caries evaluation showed that, of the 96 children in G1, 75 were caries free, while in G2, 84 did not have the disease. These differences were not significant (p = 0.088). The lower mean dmft found in the 0-3 age subgroup in G2 may be attributed to routines established by the hospital's neonatology staff, such as frequent dental visits and preventive instructions about oral habits, oral hygiene and diet. After this age, with the completion of the primary dentition, values increased and became similar between the G1 and G2 groups. Results also suggested a highly skewed distribution since most caries were found in only a small number of children. PMID:17242798

  14. Effect of varying displays and room illuminance on caries diagnostic accuracy in digital dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, T; Kuusela, L; Ekholm, M; Wenzel, A; Haiter-Neto, F; Kortesniemi, M

    2012-01-01

    In clinical practice, digital radiographs taken for caries diagnostics are viewed on varying types of displays and usually in relatively high ambient lighting (room illuminance) conditions. Our purpose was to assess the effect of room illuminance and varying display types on caries diagnostic accuracy in digital dental radiographs. Previous studies have shown that the diagnostic accuracy of caries detection is significantly better in reduced lighting conditions. Our hypothesis was that higher display luminance could compensate for this in higher ambient lighting conditions. Extracted human teeth with approximal surfaces clinically ranging from sound to demineralized were radiographed and evaluated by 3 observers who detected carious lesions on 3 different types of displays in 3 different room illuminance settings ranging from low illumination, i.e. what is recommended for diagnostic viewing, to higher illumination levels corresponding to those found in an average dental office. Sectioning and microscopy of the teeth validated the presence or absence of a carious lesion. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated for each modality and observer. Differences were estimated by analyzing the binary data assuming the added effects of observer and modality in a generalized linear model. The observers obtained higher sensitivities in lower illuminance settings than in higher illuminance settings. However, this was related to a reduction in specificity, which meant that there was no significant difference in overall accuracy. Contrary to our hypothesis, there were no significant differences between the accuracy of different display types. Therefore, different displays and room illuminance levels did not affect the overall accuracy of radiographic caries detection.

  15. Photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction in dental caries: in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Alessandra; Araujo Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    The reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in supragingival plaque is one of the principal factors in caries prevention and control. A large number of microorganisms have been reported to be inactivated in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model to investigate the effects of PDT on bacterial reduction in induced dental caries. Twenty four rats were orally inoculated with Streptococcus mutans cells (ATCC 25175) for three consecutive days. The animals were fed with a cariogenic diet and water with 10% of sucrose ad libitum, during all experimental period. Caries lesion formation was confirmed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. Then, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: Control Group: twelve animals were untreated by either light or photosensitizer; and PDT Group: twelve animals were treated with 100μM of methylene blue for 5min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED) at λ = 640+/-30nm, fluence of 172J/cm2, output power of 240mW, and exposure time of 3min. Microbiological samples were collected before, immediately after, 3, 7 and 10 days after treatment and the number of total microaerophiles was counted. OCT images showed areas of enamel demineralization on rat molars. Microbiological analysis showed a significant bacterial reduction after PDT. Furthermore, the number of total microaerophiles in PDT group remained lower than control group until 10 days posttreatment. These findings suggest that PDT could be an alternative approach to reduce bacteria in dental caries.

  16. Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Somasundaram, Sujatha; Gawthaman, Murugesan; Vinodh, Selvaraj; Manikandan, Sundaram; Gokulnathan, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88%) children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6%) than in girls (61.5%). The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended. PMID:25210362

  17. Clinical validation of the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stookey, George K.; Isaacs, Roger L.; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea G.; Ando, Masatoshi; Gonzalez, Carlos; Mau, Melissa S.; Kelly, Sue A.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1999-05-01

    A clinical investigation was conducted in children to validate the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries. A total of 150 children were examined for the presence of dental caries at baseline and at 4-month intervals for one year using conventional visual-tactile with and without a dental explorer, electrical conductivity and light fluorescence methods on the occlusal, buccal and lingual tooth surfaces. Interproximal tooth surfaces were examined using conventional film and direct digital radiography at baseline and 12 months. Validation of the clinical methods was performed by the histologic examination of exfoliated primary teeth. The results indicate that visual-tactile examinations with an explorer detected more carious lesions than similar examinations without an explorer. The use of quantitative light fluorescence permitted the detection of a substantially greater number of enamel lesions or demineralized areas than the conventional visual-tactile-radiographic diagnostic procedure. Further, the use of the quantitative light fluorescence permitted the monitoring of both the progression of regression of early carious lesions.

  18. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of Spondias mombin and Baphia nittida on dental caries organism.

    PubMed

    Amadi, E S; Oyeka, A; Onyeagba, R A; Okoli, I; Ugbogu, O C

    2007-02-01

    The antimicrobial effect of cold water, hot water and ethanolic extracts of Spondias mombin and Baphia nittida on cariogenic streptococci isolated from dental caries patients attending the Ebonyi State University Teaching hospital dental clinic Abakaliki was investigated using the agar well diffusion technique. The cold water and ethanolic extracts of Baphia nittida showed inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of 10 and 12 mm respectively at 400 mg mL(-1), while the hot water showed no inhibitory effect. All extracts of Spondias mombin did not inhibit the test organism. The cold water and ethanolic extracts of Baphia nittida showed Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 100 and 50 mg mL(-1) respectively. The combination of the cold water extracts of the two herbs showed enhanced activity of 13 mm. Phytochemical analysis of Baphia nittida revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, proteins saponins, tannins, carbohydrate and steroidal aglycone. Acute toxicity testing of Baphia nittida at a range of 250-5000 mg kg(-1) bw using mice showed no clinical signs of acute toxicity. No chemical toxicity was observed amongst rats given Baphia nittida extracts 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1) bw after 30 days. Baphia nittida may be a potential source of an antimicrobial agent for the treatment and management of dental caries. PMID:19069507

  19. Early dental caries detection by method of PNC-diagnostics: comparison with visual and x-ray methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-03-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC- method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: backscattering and probing radiation, stimulated (endogenous) autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC- method with visual and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage 'white lesion.'

  20. Bacteria of Dental Caries in Primary and Permanent Teeth in Children and Young Adults▿

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Jørn A.; Griffen, Ann L.; Dardis, Sara R.; Lee, Alice M.; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Leys, Eugene J.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Although Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a major etiological agent of dental caries, our cross-sectional preliminary study indicated that 10% of subjects with rampant caries in permanent teeth do not have detectable levels of S. mutans. Our aims were to use molecular methods to detect all bacterial species associated with caries in primary and permanent teeth and to determine the bacterial profiles associated with different disease states. Plaque was collected from 39 healthy controls and from intact enamel and white-spot lesions, dentin lesions, and deep-dentin lesions in each of 51 subjects with severe caries. 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced to determine species identities. In a reverse-capture checkerboard assay, 243 samples were analyzed for 110 prevalent bacterial species. A sequencing analysis of 1,285 16S rRNA clones detected 197 bacterial species/phylotypes, of which 50% were not cultivable. Twenty-two new phylotypes were identified. PROC MIXED tests revealed health- and disease-associated species. In subjects with S. mutans, additional species, e.g., species of the genera Atopobium, Propionibacterium, and Lactobacillus, were present at significantly higher levels than those of S. mutans. Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium dentium, and low-pH non-S. mutans streptococci were predominant in subjects with no detectable S. mutans. Actinomyces spp. and non-S. mutans streptococci were predominant in white-spot lesions, while known acid producers were found at their highest levels later in disease. Bacterial profiles change with disease states and differ between primary and secondary dentitions. Bacterial species other than S. mutans, e.g., species of the genera Veillonella, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Propionibacterium, low-pH non-S. mutans streptococci, Actinomyces spp., and Atopobium spp., likely play important roles in caries progression. PMID:18216213

  1. [Systematic review about dental caries in children and adolescents with obesity and/or overweight].

    PubMed

    González Muñoz, María; Adobes Martín, Milagros; González de Dios, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Obesidad y el sobrepeso (O/SP) infantil han alcanzado caracteres de epidemia y son un factor de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas graves para la salud. El objetivo es realizar una revisión sistemática (RS) sobre la relación de O/SP con caries en pediatría. Material y métodos: RS de la literatura 2007-2011 en fuentes de información terciaria (Trip, Cochrane y NGC), secundaria (PubMed, IME, IBECS y MEDES) y primarias (revisión de referencias). Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes (niños de 0-18 años), factor de riesgo (O/SP) y variable de interés (primaria: caries; secundarias: resto patología bucodental). Datos recogidos: Autor, año, país, tipo de estudio, edad pacientes, casos (con O/SP) y controles (con índice de masa corporal -IMC- normal o bajo), estado socioeconómico, prevalencia de caries y otros resultados en salud bucodental. Resultados: Se localizaron un total de 48 documentos, de los que 37 cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda de la RS, distribuidos temporalmente: 6 artículos del año 2007, 6 del 2008, 5 del 2009, 11 del 2010 y 9 del 2011. Presentaron un grado de heterogeneidad muy amplio (en pacientes, intervención, variable principal de interés y tipo de diseño), lo que no permite aplicar síntesis cuantitativa (metanálisis) de los datos, pero si cualitativa. Los estudios son discordantes respecto a la relación entre IMC y frecuencia de caries (CAOD, caod). Conclusiones: La RS permite al odontólogo y pediatra conocer la potencial relación entre O/SP y caries dental.

  2. Intranasal immunization against dental caries with a Streptococcus mutans-enriched fimbrial preparation.

    PubMed

    Fontana, M; Dunipace, A J; Stookey, G K; Gregory, R L

    1999-05-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been identified as the major etiological agent of human dental caries. The first step in the initiation of infection by this pathogenic bacterium is its attachment (i.e., through bacterial surface proteins such as glucosyltransferases, P1, glucan-binding proteins, and fimbriae) to a suitable receptor. It is hypothesized that a mucosal vaccine against a combination of S. mutans surface proteins would protect against dental caries by inducing specific salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies which may reduce bacterial pathogenesis and adhesion to the tooth surface by affecting several adhesins simultaneously. Conventional Sprague-Dawley rats, infected with S. mutans at 18 to 20 days of age, were intranasally immunized with a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched for fimbriae and conjugated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) plus free cholera toxin (CT) at 13, 15, 22, 29, and 36 days of age (group A). Control rats were either not immunized (group B) or immunized with adjuvant alone (CTB and CT [group C]). At the termination of the study (when rats were 46 days of age), immunized animals (group A) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to the mixture of surface proteins and to whole bacterial cells than did the other two groups (B and C). No significant differences were found in the average numbers of recovered S. mutans cells among groups. However, statistically fewer smooth-surface enamel lesions (buccal and lingual) were detected in the immunized group than in the two other groups. Therefore, a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched with fimbria components, appears to be a promising immunogen candidate for a mucosal vaccine against dental caries.

  3. Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2001-04-01

    Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

  4. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p < .001), ECOHIS (B = 0.252, p ≤ .001), and FIS (B = 0.096, p ≤ .01) scores in ordinary least squares regression models. A child's caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact. PMID:25154834

  5. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p < .001), ECOHIS (B = 0.252, p ≤ .001), and FIS (B = 0.096, p ≤ .01) scores in ordinary least squares regression models. A child's caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact.

  6. Effects of Enamel Fluorosis and Dental Caries on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Onoriobe, U.; Rozier, R.G.; Cantrell, J.; King, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean’s index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p < .001), ECOHIS (B = 0.252, p ≤ .001), and FIS (B = 0.096, p ≤ .01) scores in ordinary least squares regression models. A child’s caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact. PMID:25154834

  7. Regenerative potential of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells harvested from high caries patient's teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ramesh; Gopal, Sushruth; Masood, Huda; Vivek, Purushottam; Deb, Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp are known to contains stem cells or dentinogenic progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. Dental pulp Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential or multilineage differentiations. This potential for tissue regeneration has become the current basis for dental pulp stem cell banking. Here, we have attempted to develop a protocol for harvesting stem cells from patients with High Caries tooth, which are most often electively discarded. We have characterized the stem cells with mesenchymal stem cell markers and have compared their potential to grow in culture, doubling times, and differentiate into different lineages, with normal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We observed that the MSCs from dental pulp grew faster, with lower doubling time, and had equal efficiency in differentiating to various lineages, when subjected to standard directed differentiation protocols. This paper establishes that discarded High Carries Tooth can be a good source for regenerative medicine and also could be a potential source for MSCs and dental pulp MSC banking.

  8. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:…

  9. A review of the role of solar ultraviolet-B irradiance and vitamin D in reducing risk of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Large geographical variations in dental health and tooth loss among US adolescents and young adults have been reported since the mid-1800s. Studies in the 1920s and 1930s noted that vitamin D and ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance reduced caries formation, the proposed mechanism being improved calcium absorption and metabolism. This paper reviews the history of studies of dental caries with respect to vitamin D, geographical location and available solar UVB doses. In addition, data on mean dental health rank by state for US servicemen from three periods, 1918, 1934 and 1943, were used in regression analyses with respect to summertime solar UVB doses and an index for mottled enamel, a proxy for natural fluoridation of drinking water, for 1935. There was a significant inverse correlation for dental health rank with respect to solar UVB from doses of 4.0 to 6.5 kJ/m2 with little change thereafter. Adding data for mottled enamel rates for the states with UvB doses <6.6 kJ/m2 improved the adjusted R2 from 0.45 to 0.52. The mechanism whereby UVB reduces risk of dental caries is likely through production of vitamin D, followed by induction of cathelicidin and defensins, which have antimicrobial properties. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at or above 30–40 ng/ml should significantly reduce the formation of dental caries. It is unfortunate that the UVB and vitamin D findings were not given more consideration in the 1950s as a way to reduce the risk of dental caries when water fluoridation was being proposed. PMID:22110779

  10. Dental caries prevalence as a product of agriculture and subsistence pattern at the Yean-ri site, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Fujita, H; Hashimoto, H; Shoda, S; Suzuki, T

    2011-01-01

    Yean-ri human skeletal remains from South Korea have been dated to the fourth to seventh century AD. They have morphological similarities to immigrants of the Yayoi period excavated in northern Kyushu and Yamaguchi prefecture in Japan. The overall dental caries prevalence was 8.1% in the Yean-ri skeletal remains, indicating a much lower prevalence than that of most Yayoi immigrant skeletal remains from Japan, although similar to that of the Kofun people (8.3%) in Japan. There was no significant difference in the dental caries prevalence between the males and females of the same age group, but there were differences in the prevalence by age. The late middle age and elderly males and females had significantly higher dental caries prevalence than the early middle age males and females, indicating increased prevalence with age. Root caries prevalence tended to increase in old age. The percentage of root caries increased, accounting for 80% of all caries in Yean-ri human skeletal remains. Agriculture is believed to have arisen approximately 3,000 years ago in Korea. Therefore, agriculture was practiced during this period, but since the Yean-ri tumuli are from coastal areas, their diet may have retained a significant marine component. Additionally, caries prevalence was not very high in Nukdo human remains (ca. 2100-2000 BC) in Korea. We speculate that they maintained subsistence activities suitable for their environment despite their knowledge of agriculture. This hypothesis is supported by differences in the caries prevalence between excavation sites of the Yayoi and Kofun periods in Japan.

  11. Pattern of dental caries in the historical human population of Kujawy in the Polish lowland (north-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Mazurkiewicz, Julia; Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Joanna; Zadzińska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries rates in the skeletal human population who lived in north-central Poland in modern times (16th-18th century). The material consisted of 297 skeletons (4,783 permanent teeth) from the archeological site of K. Compared material was coming from two different sites located in the same region: early mediaeval Kolonia--39 skeletons and Swiety Duch (dating to the same historical period as K population)--417 skeletons. All three series are part of the osteological collection of the Department of Anthropology. For each skeletal sample, caries rates were calculated by individual (frequency index) and by tooth count (intensity index). Dental caries was scored also according to a procedure in which the initiation sites are recorded. The highest frequency of dental caries was observed in Swiety Duch (70%) and the lowest in the early mediaeval sample (almost 59%). The intensity of caries fluctuated from above 8% observed in Kolonia to 22% observed in the sample from Swiety Duch. However, in all three samples the caries initiation site was most often noticed on fissure and pits (type 1) the K population was characterised by a different caries pattern (chi2=17.88, p<0.05 when compared with that of Kolonia; chi2=218.73, p<0.01 when compared with that of Swiety Duch), which could be the effect of diet (high frequency of CEJ caries probably means starch-rich plant food diet), oral hygiene, fluoride level, economic status or genetic factors (resistance/sensitivity to cariogenic bacteria).

  12. Morphological study on dental caries induced in WBN/KobSlc rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a standard laboratory diet.

    PubMed

    Fukuzato, Yoko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Kodama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Akihito; Okamura, Sumie; Suido, Hirohisa; Torii, Kayo; Makino, Taketoshi; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    In our previous studies, WBN/KobSlc was characterized as a rat strain in which only males began to develop pancreatitis, and then presented with diabetic symptoms. In the course of studying their pancreatic inflammation, we detected molar caries in prediabetic males feeding on a standard diet (CRF-1) widely used for experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the WBN/KobSlc strain is caries-susceptible to the diet reported to be non-cariogenic, and to examine the effect of a prediabetic condition on their dental caries. For a morphological study, 25 male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 3.2-7.8 months and 24 females of the same strain aged 3.3-6.6 months were used, along with 10 males and 10 females of 8.2-month-old F344 rats. Marked dental caries were detected in the mandibular molars of male and female WBN/KobSlc rats regardless of pancreatitis, although no similar changes were observed in any teeth of the F344 strain fed the same diet. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the caries began in the crown and progressed horizontally and vertically, and that a severe radiolucent lesion extensively expanded to the entire crown, corresponding to a macroscopically deleted molar. The caries had gradually developed mainly in the second mandibular molar from more than 3.5 months of age, while none were seen in any rats before that time. The WBN/KobSlc rats were caries-susceptible even to the standard laboratory diet, and pancreatitis was not directly associated with the onset of dental caries in this strain.

  13. A hypothetical role for vitamin K2 in the endocrine and exocrine aspects of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Southward, Ken

    2015-03-01

    The growing interest in oral/systemic links demand new paradigms to understand disease processes. New opportunities for dental research, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology will emerge. The role of the hypothalamus portion of the brain cannot be underestimated. Under the influence of nutrition, it plays a significant role in the systemic model of dental caries. Currently, the traditional theory of dental caries considers only the oral environment and does not recognize any significant role for the brain. The healthy tooth, however, has a centrifugal fluid flow to nourish and cleanse it. This is moderated by the hypothalamus/parotid axis which signals the endocrine portion of the parotid glands. High sugar intake creates an increase in reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. When this signaling mechanism halts or reverses the dentinal fluid flow, it renders the tooth vulnerable to oral bacteria, which can now attach to the tooth's surface. Acid produced by oral bacteria such as Strep Mutans and lactobacillus can now de-mineralize the enamel and irritate the dentin. The acid attack stimulates an inflammatory response which results in dentin breakdown from the body's own matrix metalloproteinases. Vitamin K2 (K2) has been shown to have an antioxidant potential in the brain and may prove to be a potent way to preserve the endocrine controlled centrifugal dentinal fluid flow. Stress, including oxidative stress, magnifies the body's inflammatory response. Sugar can not only increase oral bacterial acid production but it can concurrently reduce the tooth's defenses through endocrine signaling. Saliva production is the exocrine function of the salivary glands. The buffering capacity of saliva is critical to neutralizing the oral environment. This minimizes the de-mineralization of enamel and enhances its re-mineralization. K2, such as that found in fermented cheese, improves salivary buffering through its influence on

  14. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans a major periodontal pathogen using polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kush, Anil; Thakur, Rachna; Patil, Sandya Devi S.; Paul, Santhosh T.; Kakanur, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the present scenario, we are made available with chemomechanical caries removal system containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for the ease in the excavation of infected dentine. The additive action for these agents is providing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: This study was undertaken for assessing the action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected for cultivation of the periodontal pathogen from the clinical periodontal pockets using sterile paper points. The samples cultured under suitable conditions were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting 16s r-DNA. The samples were divided into three groups namely, Group A: Control, Group B: With Papacarie Duo, Group C: With Carie Care. The pathogen inoculums plugs were inserted in the petri dishes containing chemically defined medium and the experimental gels at different concentrations and were incubated under optimal conditions. The inhibition of growth of the pathogen was studied visually. Results: There was visual inhibition of growth for Group B and C and also exhibited a dose-dependent effect also. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, Carie Care™ gel demonstrated better antimicrobial action against A. actinomycetemcomitans which is a major periodontal disease causing pathogen. PMID:26681861

  16. Protein-repellent and antibacterial dental composite to inhibit biofilms and caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Ma, Jianfeng; Melo, Mary A. S.; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Biofilm acids contribute to secondary caries, which is a main reason for dental restoration failures. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a protein-repellent and antibacterial composite, and (2) investigate the effects of combining 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with quaternary ammonium dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) on composite mechanical properties and biofilm response for the first time. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and glass particles were mixed into a dental resin composite. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. Protein adsorption onto the composites was measured by a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, live/dead assay, metabolic activity, and lactic acid production of biofilms were determined. Results Incorporation of 3% MPC and 1.5% DMAHDM into composite achieved protein-repellent and antibacterial capabilities without compromising the mechanical properties. Composite with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM had protein adsorption that was 1/10 that of a commercial composite (p < 0.05). The composite with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM had much greater reduction in biofilm growth than using MPC or DMAHDM alone (p < 0.05). Biofilm CFU counts on composite with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM were more than three orders of magnitude lower than that of commercial control. Conclusions Dental composite with a combination of strong protein-repellent and antibacterial capabilities was developed for the first time. Composite with MPC and DMAHDM greatly reduced biofilm activity and is promising to inhibit secondary caries. The dual agents of MPC plus DMAHDM may have wide applicability to other dental materials. PMID:25478889

  17. Frequency of Dental Caries in Four Historical Populations from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages

    PubMed Central

    Grimoud, A.-M.; Lucas, S.; Sevin, A.; Georges, P.; Passarrius, O.; Duranthon, F.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of dental carie studies over the course of historical period underline mainly the prevalence evolution, the role of carbohydrates consumption and the impact of access to dietary resources. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare population samples from two archaeological periods the Chacolithic and Middle Age taking into account the geographical and socio economical situation. The study concerned four archaelogical sites in south west France and population samples an inlander for the Chalcolithic Age, an inlander, an costal and urban for the Middle Age. The materials studied included a total of 127 maxillaries, 103 mandibles and 3316 teeth. Data recorded allowed us to display that the Chalcolithic population sample had the lowest carie percentage and the rural inlander population samples of Middle Age the highest; in all cases molars were teeth most often affected. These ones differences could be explained according to time period, carious lesions were usually less recorded in the Chalcolithic Age than the Middle because of a lesser cultivation of cereals like in les Treilles Chacolithic population sample. In the Middle Age population samples, the rural inland sample Marsan showed the highest frequency of caries and ate more cereal than the coastal Vilarnau and the poor urban St Michel population samples, the first one ate fish and Mediterranean vegetal and fruits and the second one met difficulties to food access, in both cases the consumption of carbohydrates was lesser than Marsan population sample who lived in a geographical land convice to cereals cultivation. PMID:22145000

  18. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…

  19. Association between untreated dental caries and household food insecurity in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Santin, Gabriela Cristina; Pintarelli, Tatiana Pegoretti; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association between untreated dental caries (UDC) and household food insecurity (HFI) among schoolchildren in different income strata. A population-based study was carried out with a sample of 584 12-y-old schoolchildren. Oral examinations were performed and HFI was determined using a validated scale. Other independent variables were analyzed for being of interest to the stratification of the results (per capita household income) or for acting as potential confounding variables. The prevalence of UDC and HFI was 45% and 39%, respectively. The multivariate models demonstrated that the UDC was significantly more prevalent among children in food-insecure households with per capita income of up to US$ 70.71 than among those in the same income stratum that were free of HFI [PR = 1.52 (95%CI = 1.01-2.29)]. HFI was associated with a greater frequency of UDC among low-income schoolchildren, but had no significant impact on this variable among children from other income strata. Thus, ensuring access to quality food may be a good strategy for minimizing inequities in oral health and reducing dental caries experience among schoolchildren from low-income families. PMID:26910164

  20. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  1. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    PubMed Central

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500–1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths. PMID:24791129

  2. Association between untreated dental caries and household food insecurity in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Santin, Gabriela Cristina; Pintarelli, Tatiana Pegoretti; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association between untreated dental caries (UDC) and household food insecurity (HFI) among schoolchildren in different income strata. A population-based study was carried out with a sample of 584 12-y-old schoolchildren. Oral examinations were performed and HFI was determined using a validated scale. Other independent variables were analyzed for being of interest to the stratification of the results (per capita household income) or for acting as potential confounding variables. The prevalence of UDC and HFI was 45% and 39%, respectively. The multivariate models demonstrated that the UDC was significantly more prevalent among children in food-insecure households with per capita income of up to US$ 70.71 than among those in the same income stratum that were free of HFI [PR = 1.52 (95%CI = 1.01-2.29)]. HFI was associated with a greater frequency of UDC among low-income schoolchildren, but had no significant impact on this variable among children from other income strata. Thus, ensuring access to quality food may be a good strategy for minimizing inequities in oral health and reducing dental caries experience among schoolchildren from low-income families.

  3. Oral and dental health care of oral cancer patients: hyposalivation, caries and infections.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H; Grönroos, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Oral cancer and its treatment can cause a variety of problems to patients, also as regards maintaining their daily oral hygiene. Surgery mutilates tissues which may hamper cleaning the teeth and mucosal surfaces. The patient may have complicated reconstructive structures that also need continuous attention. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation further complicates the situation and decreases the quality of life. Consequently, dental caries, mucosal diseases such as candidosis and sialadenitis become problematic to treat. Hence every effort should be focused on prevention. In caries prevention intensified fluoride therapy together with dietary counseling is needed. Oral cancer patients also need to be frequently referred to dental hygienists for professional cleaning. Drinking enough daily and moisturizing mucosal surfaces with commercial dry-mouth products, vegetable oils, milk products and respective topical agents need to be individually recommended. In addition, patients with severe dry mouth cases may also benefit from the prescription of pilocarpine tablets. In oral candidosis, the microbiological diagnosis must be confirmed before administration of antifungal drugs in order to avoid the selection pressure to resistant strains.

  4. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist’s armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  5. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  6. Management of traumatic dental injury after periodontal surgery in patient with hereditary gingival fibromatosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Koji; Kamei, Hidehiko; Mitani, Akio; Noguchi, Toshihide

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic Dental Injury (TDI) is often caused by a bruise from a sports-related incident or fall. In individuals with maxillary protrusion, the risk for TDI may be higher. We treated a patient with Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF), a rare genetic disorder characterized by proliferative fibrous overgrowth of gingival tissue, who subsequently received a TDI after periodontal surgery. A 13-year-old Japanese boy was referred to the Division of Periodontics at Aichi Gakuin University Dental Hospital in March 2005 with the chief complaint of generalized severe gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches covering nearly all teeth. Prior to orthodontic treatment, periodontal surgery was performed under general anesthesia in consideration of mastication, dental esthetics, and development. However, soon thereafter in August 2007, the protruded maxillary anterior teeth received an injury while he was playing basketball and the maxillary central incisors showed extrusive luxation. Two weeks after being reset, the maxillary anterior teeth were splinted with wire and adhesive resin cement, and then the splint was removed following evaluations of clinical and radiographic showing signs of normal periodontium. The marginal bone height corresponded to that seen in radiographic findings after the reset and orthodontic treatment was started 1 year later. At the 6-year follow-up examination, the teeth remained asymptomatic, pulpal response to sensitivity tests was normal, and healing was shown in radiographic images. In the present HGF case, we speculated that removal of thick gingiva around the teeth, which might have functioned as a mouth guard, increased the risk for TDI while playing sports. TDI is more likely to occur in patients with exposed protruded misaligned teeth after periodontal surgery. Therefore, it is important for HGF patients with such protruded maxillary anterior teeth to use a mouth guard when participating in sports following

  7. [Dental status in children and adolescents diagnosed with obesity].

    PubMed

    Galkina, Iu V; Gavrilova, O A; Piekalnits, I Ia; Dianov, O A

    2015-01-01

    Dental status was studied in 168 obese teenagers aged from 12 to 17 years. The study revealed high prevalence in this group of teenagers of oral pathology like caries and fluorosis, inflammatory periodontal disease in 75% of children and poor oral hygiene level. One should consider high need for development of treatment-and-prophylactic measures for improvement of dental status in obese teenagers.

  8. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings. PMID:22825606

  9. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H; Amaechi, Bennet T

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  10. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Amaechi, Bennet T.

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  11. The use of in vitro model systems to study dental biofilms associated with caries: a short review

    PubMed Central

    Salli, Krista M.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    A dental biofilm forms a distinct environment where microorganisms live in a matrix of extracellular polysaccharides. The biofilm favors certain bacteria and creates a habitat that functions differently compared to planktonic bacteria. Reproducible model systems which help to address various questions related to biofilm formation, the process of caries development, and its prevention are needed and are continuously developed. Recent research using both batch culture, continuous culture and flow cells in caries biofilm formation is presented. The development of new techniques and equipment has led to a deeper understanding of how caries biofilms function. Biofilm models have also been used in the development of materials inhibiting secondary caries. This short review summarizes available models to study these questions. PMID:25740099

  12. Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Bardow, Allan; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    Background the classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) include a number of oral components. In this study we evaluated if salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries are oral markers of disease severity in pSS. Methods in 20 patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus criteria for pSS and 20 age-matched healthy controls whole and parotid saliva flow rates and composition, measures of oral dryness, scores of decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS), periodontal indices, oral hygiene, and dietary habits were examined. Results in pSS, salivary flow rates, pH, and buffer capacities were lower, and DMFS, salivary sodium and chloride concentrations higher than in the healthy controls. DMFS also correlated inversely to salivary flow rates and positively to oral dryness. Apart from slightly increased gingival index, and more frequent dental visits in pSS, the periodontal condition, oral hygiene or sugar intake did not differ between these two groups. In pSS, findings were correlated to labial salivary gland focus score (FS) and presence of serum-autoantibodies to SSA/SSB (AB). The patients having both presence of AB and the highest FS (>2) also had the highest salivary sodium and chloride concentrations, the lowest salivary phosphate concentrations, lowest salivary flow rates, and highest DMFS compared to those with normal salivary concentrations of sodium and chloride at a given flow rate. Conclusion the salivary changes observed in some pSS patients reflect impaired ductal salt reabsorption, but unaffected acinar transport mechanisms, despite low salivary secretion. Our results suggest that changes in salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries may serve as potential markers of the extent of autoimmune-mediated salivary gland dysfunction in pSS. The study also indicates that the ductal epithelium is functionally affected in some pSS patients, which calls for future pathophysiological studies on the mechanisms

  13. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar Hussain; Suhail, Agha Mohammad; Malik, Abdul Razzaq; Imran, Mian Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2]) was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. Results: One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis), while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis). Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037) associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. Conclusion: This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis. PMID:26941520

  14. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed. PMID:27056513

  15. Prediction of Future High Caries Increments for Children in a School Dental Service and in Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imfeld, Thomas N.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting high dental caries increments for children, based on previous research, is presented. Three clinical findings were identified as predictors: number of sound primary molars, number of discolored pits/fissures on first permanent molars, and number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of first permanent molars with white…

  16. The Impact of Dietary and Tooth-Brushing Habits to Dental Caries of Special School Children with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te

    2010-01-01

    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males,…

  17. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group. Study in rats.

    PubMed

    Kantorski, Karla Zanini; de Souza, Daniela Martins; Yujra, Verônica Quispe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG), 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG), and water (Control Group, CG). After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10(3)) were: 8.17 (AG), 9.78 (IG), and 5.63 (CG). There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58) was similar to that in the AG (2.06) and in the CG (1.14), and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14), IG (2.00) and CG (0.43). The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.

  18. Common dental infections in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Huu; Martin, James T

    2008-03-15

    Family physicians commonly encounter patients with dental infections, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Dental caries is caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin; it can be detected by an oral examination that shows stained pits or fissures on the tooth surface. Use of fluoride is the most effective prevention measure for dental caries. Untreated caries may progress to pulpitis and, eventually, to necrosis of the pulp. In irreversible pulpitis, the tooth dies and the patient may have a localized abscess that can spread to surrounding tissue. Periodontal infections are caused by bacteria in the subgingival dental plaque. In gingivitis, the inflamed gums bleed easily with brushing or flossing; the condition can be controlled with good oral hygiene. Periodontitis is characterized by a loss of supportive bone structure caused by chronic gingivitis; it is also associated with some systemic diseases. Localized periodontitis is treated with mechanical debridement and good oral hygiene, whereas generalized periodontitis requires adjunct antibiotic therapy. Pericoronitis results when food particles become trapped under the gum of an impacted tooth. This condition can be controlled by removal of food debris and good oral hygiene. For patients in whom dental infections are disseminated and have invaded the deeper oral spaces, antibiotic treatment should be initiated at the time of referral.

  19. The Efficacy of Screening for Common Dental Diseases by Hygiene-Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Macey, R.; Glenny, A.; Walsh, T.; Tickle, M.; Worthington, H.; Ashley, J.; Brocklehurst, P.

    2015-01-01

    Regularly attending adult patients are increasingly asymptomatic and not in need of treatment when attending for their routine dental examinations. As oral health improves further, using the general dental practitioner to undertake the “checkup” on regular “low-risk” patients represents a substantial and potentially unnecessary cost for state-funded systems. Given recent regulatory changes in the United Kingdom, it is now theoretically possible to delegate a range of tasks to hygiene-therapists. This has the potential to release the general dental practitioner’s time and increase the capacity to care. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic test accuracy of hygiene-therapists when screening for dental caries and periodontal disease in regularly attending asymptomatic adults who attend for their checkup. A visual screen by hygiene-therapists acted as the index test, and the general dental practitioner acted as the reference standard. Consenting asymptomatic adult patients, who were regularly attending patients at 10 practices across the Northwest of England, entered the study. Both sets of clinicians made an assessment of dental caries and periodontal disease. The primary outcomes measured were the sensitivity and specificity values for dental caries and periodontal disease. In total, 1899 patients were screened. The summary point for sensitivity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87) and 0.89 (0.86 to 0.92), respectively. The summary point for specificity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92) and 0.75 (0.66 to 0.82), respectively. The results suggest that hygiene-therapists could be used to screen for dental caries and periodontal disease. This has important ramifications for service design in public-funded health systems. PMID:25604256

  20. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  1. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Avila, Walesca M; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

  2. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Walesca M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Paiva, Saul M.; Martins, Carolina C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23–0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence. PMID:26579710

  3. Occurrence of dental caries in primary and permanent dentition, oral health status and treatment needs among 12-15 year old school children of Jorpati VDC, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S

    2014-12-01

    Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.

  4. [Biologico-periodontal considerations in restoration of teeth partially destroyed by caries or traumatism].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Martínez, J J; Zermeño Ibarra, J A; Mercado Martínez, E G; Villanueva Neuman, Y; Castellanos Olmedo, R

    1990-01-01

    Since a great number of teeth could be rehabilitated and not extracted, in this paper we analyze the relation Perio-protesis by the point of the biology of marginal periodontal ligament, and the different options to establish this relations when are lost by decay or traumatism. We discuss the contraindications to avoid greater problems than benefits when intend to rehabilitate lost teeth.

  5. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children. PMID:18181475

  6. A clinical study on the effectiveness of implant supported dental restoration in patients with chronic periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B Q; Lan, J; Huang, H Y; Liang, J; Ma, X N; Huo, L D; Xu, X

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of implant supported dental restorations in patients with chronic periodontal diseases at various stages within 2 years of completing treatment. 30 patients with periodontal diseases and 30 patients without periodontal diseases were studied. Total counts of 276 implant bodies were divided into group A (patients with periodontal diseases; a total of 149 implants) and group B (patients with healthy periodontium; a total of 127 implants). In group A subjects, periodontitis was treated prior to implant placement. The study focused on patients' modified sulcus bleeding index, modified plaque index, implant mobility index, periodontal probing depth and implant success rate 12 and 24 months after the completion of the treatment. The result show: there were no significant differences in implant success rate between groups A and B; modified sulcus bleeding index scores showed differences between the groups 24 months after treatment; there were no significant differences in other clinical indexes during the study between the groups; there were no significant differences in periodontal probing depth between the groups; modified plaque index and modified sulcus bleeding index were positively correlated in implant supported dental restoration patients with chronic periodontal diseases.

  7. Dental management of early childhood caries in spastic quadriparesis: a case report and clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of CP are often accompanied by epilepsy, secondary musculoskeletal problems, and disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Spastic quadriparesis is the most severe form of spastic cerebral palsy. The present report describes the management of a 5-year-old patient with early childhood caries and spastic quadriparesis. The oral manifestations and clinical guidelines are discussed considering the special health care needs in these patients so as to provide comprehensive dental care. PMID:24705660

  8. Optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries with polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Stephen Chin-Ying; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    We report the utility of a rapid polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique developed for optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries in the tooth. Hyperspectral SRS images (512 × 512 pixels) of the tooth covering both the fingerprint (800-1800 cm(-1)) and high-wavenumber (2800-3600 cm(-1)) regions can be acquired within 15 minutes, which is at least 10(3) faster in imaging speed than confocal Raman mapping. Hyperspectral SRS imaging uncovers the biochemical distributions and variations across the carious enamel in the tooth. SRS imaging shows that compared to the sound enamel, the mineral content in the body of lesion decreases by 55%; while increasing up to 110% in the surface zone, indicating the formation of a hyper-mineralized layer due to the remineralization process. Further polarized SRS imaging shows that the depolarization ratios of hydroxyapatite crystals (ν 1-PO4 (3-) of SRS at 959 cm(-1)) of the tooth in the sound enamel, translucent zone, body of lesion and the surface zone are 0.035 ± 0.01, 0.052 ± 0.02, 0.314 ± 0.1, 0.038 ± 0.02, respectively, providing a new diagnostic criterion for discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in the teeth. This work demonstrates for the first time that the polarization-resolved hyperspectral SRS imaging technique can be used for quantitatively determining tooth mineralization levels and discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in a rapid fashion, proving its promising potential of early detection and diagnosis of dental caries without labeling. PMID:27446654

  9. Optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries with polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Stephen Chin-Ying; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We report the utility of a rapid polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique developed for optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries in the tooth. Hyperspectral SRS images (512 × 512 pixels) of the tooth covering both the fingerprint (800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (2800-3600 cm−1) regions can be acquired within 15 minutes, which is at least 103 faster in imaging speed than confocal Raman mapping. Hyperspectral SRS imaging uncovers the biochemical distributions and variations across the carious enamel in the tooth. SRS imaging shows that compared to the sound enamel, the mineral content in the body of lesion decreases by 55%; while increasing up to 110% in the surface zone, indicating the formation of a hyper-mineralized layer due to the remineralization process. Further polarized SRS imaging shows that the depolarization ratios of hydroxyapatite crystals (ν1-PO43- of SRS at 959 cm−1) of the tooth in the sound enamel, translucent zone, body of lesion and the surface zone are 0.035 ± 0.01, 0.052 ± 0.02, 0.314 ± 0.1, 0.038 ± 0.02, respectively, providing a new diagnostic criterion for discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in the teeth. This work demonstrates for the first time that the polarization-resolved hyperspectral SRS imaging technique can be used for quantitatively determining tooth mineralization levels and discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in a rapid fashion, proving its promising potential of early detection and diagnosis of dental caries without labeling. PMID:27446654

  10. Use of caries preventive agents on adult patients compared to pediatric patients by general practitioners: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Williams, O. Dale; Ritchie, Lloyd K.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that caries prevention reduces caries in adults. This study tested the frequency of recommended caries prevention agents for children compared to adult patients. Methods This study surveyed 467 Dental Practice-Based Research Network general dentists who practice within the United States and treat both pediatric and adult patients. Dentists were asked the percentage of their patients who are administered or recommended dental sealants, in-office and at-home fluoride, chlorhexidine rinse, and xylitol gum. Results Adults were less likely to receive in-office caries preventive agents compared to pediatric patients. However, the rate of recommendation for at-home preventive regimens was very similar. Dentists with a conservative approach to caries treatment were the most likely to use caries prevention at similar rates in adults as in children. In addition, practices with a greater number of patients with dental insurance were significantly less likely to provide in-office fluoride or sealants to adult patients than to their pediatric patients. Conclusion In-office caries prevention agents are more commonly used by general dentists for their pediatric patients compared to their adult patients. Practice Implications Some general dentists should consider providing additional in-office prevention agents for their adult patients who are at increased risk for dental caries. PMID:20516100

  11. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  12. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  13. [Study on availability of dental health services for children in health center--correlation between attendance of 3-year-old children at dental health services and caries prevalence].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental health services for children in a health center. The samples were 316 children who had 3-year-old dental examination at a health center in Tokyo. The analysis was carried out by a computer using the results of the children's oral status and of their mothers', questionnaires and past records showing when and how many times they had attended such activities. The results were as follows: 1. Attendance of children at dental services showed the effectiveness in preventing dental caries, and it was suggested that attendance at least 3 times before the age of 18 months should be the most effective way to decrease the dental caries in the 3-year-olds. 2. According to the questionnaires, time of going to bed, snacks time, and the habit of thumb-sucking at the age of 3 years, and stopping the habit of bottle-feeding and of night breast-feeding at 18 months of age showed a great correlation concerning the number of dental caries in the 3-year-olds. 3. The more often the children had attended the dental services, the more often their behavior for eating snacks and toothbrushing changed for the better. 4. The more the mothers had dental caries, the more was the number of dental caries in their children and moreover their attendance at the dental services was less.

  14. The efficacy of screening for common dental diseases by hygiene-therapists: a diagnostic test accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Macey, R; Glenny, A; Walsh, T; Tickle, M; Worthington, H; Ashley, J; Brocklehurst, P

    2015-03-01

    Regularly attending adult patients are increasingly asymptomatic and not in need of treatment when attending for their routine dental examinations. As oral health improves further, using the general dental practitioner to undertake the "checkup" on regular "low-risk" patients represents a substantial and potentially unnecessary cost for state-funded systems. Given recent regulatory changes in the United Kingdom, it is now theoretically possible to delegate a