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Sample records for dental radiographic examination

  1. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations.

    PubMed

    Rovaris, Karla; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  2. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    PubMed Central

    de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Materials and Methods Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). Results A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. Conclusion This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations. PMID:28035301

  3. Utilization of Radiographs for a State Dental Hygiene Board Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Brad G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study documented the number of x-rays acquired during screening and subsequent treatment of patients for a state dental hygiene licensing examination for 109 candidates. Results indicate that patient exposure guidelines attempt to minimize radiographic exposure but that some exposures should be reevaluated for need and effect on patients. (MSE)

  4. Prevalence of dental developmental anomalies: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Ezoddini, Ardakani F; Sheikhha, M H; Ahmadi, H

    2007-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies in patients attending the Dental Faculty of Medical University of Yazd, Iran and the gender differences of these anomalies. A retrospective study based on the panoramic radiographs of 480 patients. Patients referred for panoramic radiographs were clinically examined, a detailed family history of any dental anomalies in their first and second degree relatives was obtained and finally their radiographs were studied in detail for the presence of dental anomalies. 40.8% of the patients had dental anomalies. The more common anomalies were dilaceration (15%), impacted teeth (8.3%) and taurodontism (7.5%) and supernumerary teeth (3.5%). Macrodontia and fusion were detected in a few radiographs (0.2%). 49.1% of male patients had dental anomalies compared to 33.8% of females. Dilaceration, taurodontism and supernumerary teeth were found to be more prevalent in men than women, whereas impacted teeth, microdontia and gemination were more frequent in women. Family history of dental anomalies was positive in 34% of the cases.. Taurodontism, gemination, dens in dente and talon cusp were specifically limited to the patients under 20 year's old, while the prevalence of other anomalies was almost the same in all groups. Dilaceration, impaction and taurodontism were relatively common in the studied populaton. A family history of dental anomalies was positive in a third of cases.

  5. Dental radiographic guidelines: a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Irene H; Mupparapu, Muralidhar

    2009-05-01

    The 2004 American Dental Association (ADA)/US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) radiographic selection criteria and guidelines were reviewed and compared with the prior radiographic selection criteria and guidelines. The authors reviewed the publications from the US FDA, US Department of Health and Human Services, and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. The positions outlined by the Canadian Dental Association and the European Commission were also reviewed and compared to US guidelines. The FDA guidelines were first published in 1987, and several changes have been made to them over the years. Recent literature reveals that the general compliance of these guidelines is very low, especially within dental schools in the United States and Canada. Little is known about the compliance outside of the dental school environment; however, it is expected to be low for various reasons. In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised its estimates of tissue radiosensitivity, which resulted in effective doses of dental radiographs 32% to 422% higher than the 1990 ICRP guidelines. Flow charts summarizing the latest guidelines were developed to facilitate general compliance among practitioners. Based on the literature reviewed and the recent ICRP findings, it would be prudent for dental health care professionals to follow dental radiographic guidelines.

  6. Dental digital radiographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, S M; Platin, E

    2001-01-01

    Radiographs are an important adjunct to providing oral health care for the total patient. Historically, radiographic images have been produced using film-based systems. However, in recent years, with the arrival of new technologies, many practitioners have begun to incorporate digital radiographic imaging into their practices. Since dental hygienists are primarily responsible for exposing and processing radiographs in the provision of dental hygiene care, it is imperative that they become knowledgeable on the use and application of digital imaging in patient care and record keeping. The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive overview of digital radiography in dentistry. Specific components addressed are technological features, diagnostic software, advantages and disadvantages, technique procedures, and legal implications.

  7. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. The patients were in the range of 6-17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05). In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%), giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%), and partial anodontia (1.82%) were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05). We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals.

  8. Survey of dental radiographic services in private dental clinics in Damascus, Syria.

    PubMed

    Salti, L; Whaites, E J

    2002-03-01

    To perform a radiographic survey of private dental clinics in Damascus, Syria using a postal questionnaire to produce recommendations for improving the quality of dental radiographic services and education in Syria. Three hundred private dental clinics in Damascus were surveyed using a postal questionnaire (in English and Arabic) containing 27 questions on demographic information, equipment, techniques, selection criteria, frequency of examinations, and undergraduate/ postgraduate education. Two hundred and two (67%) dentists responded of which 95% graduated in Syria. The results showed a general lack of knowledge and understanding of dental radiography. Sixty four per cent did not know the kVp setting of their equipment, 73% used D-speed film, 57% did not use film holders and beam aiming devices, 25% did not use a viewing box. In addition, 45% of known equipment operated at 50 kVp or less and 16% was over 20 years old. No meaningful selection criteria existed with a wide variation in type and frequency of radiographs used for different clinical conditions. Syrian undergraduate training in dental radiology was minimal and there was no postgraduate education in the speciality. Several areas of the radiographic service in Damascus fall short of current recommendations on good practice. Recommendations are made to improve the service, the quality of undergraduate education and to establish postgraduate education.

  9. Previous radiographic experience of children referred for dental extractions under general anaesthesia in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Young, N L; Rodd, H D; Craig, S A

    2009-03-01

    To determine what proportion of children undergo radiographic assessment prior to referral to a dental hospital for extractions under general anaesthesia. This prospective survey was conducted over a 6-month period. A data sheet was used to record the following information: patient's age; referrer's name and place of work (general dental practice or community dental service); teeth to be extracted (primary dentition and/or permanent dentition) and reported previous radiographic examination. Patients were excluded from the study if, following a clinical examination, radiographs were not actually deemed necessary for diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. Clinical setting A paediatric dentistry clinic within a dental hospital in the North of England. Participants 161 patients with a mean age of six years (SD = 2.2, range = 3-14 years) who were referred to the dental hospital for extractions under general anaesthesia. Overall, 12.4% of children had reportedly undergone a previous radiographic assessment prior to hospital referral. A significantly greater proportion of children referred for permanent tooth extractions had been subject to radiographic examination compared to children referred for primary tooth extractions (46.2% as compared to 6.3%; P = 0.001 chi-squared test). Furthermore, patients referred from the community dental service were significantly more likely to have had previous dental radiographs than children referred from general dental practice (36.9% compared to 9.3%; P = 0.003 chi-squared test). Radiographs do not appear to be routinely employed for caries diagnosis and treatment planning in young children within general dental practice in the U.K.

  10. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Abdolrazagh; Geissbühler, Urs; Schellenberger, Frank; Zanolari, Patrik

    2014-01-06

    Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Using a standardized protocol, radiographs and CT scans of the 20 specimen were performed. The most useful radiographic projections for mandibular and maxillary cheek teeth evaluation turned out to be lateral30°ventral-laterodorsal and lateral30°dorsal-lateroventral with slight separation of the dental arcades respectively. Digital radiographic and CT appearance of the mandibular and maxillary teeth were described from the beginning of mineralization till maturity. In addition the normal range of the CT radio density of different cheek teeth and different dental tissues were measured. Hounsfield units of different dental tissues of SAC turned out to be similar to equids. Deviation, shortening and partial destruction of the distal tooth root of mandibular 09's and 10's and of maxillary 09's was observed and the existence of a common pulp chamber in younger teeth was revealed. The present study provides information about the dental imaging morphology in clinically healthy SAC. This basic information provides fundamental knowledge for evaluating images and planning treatments in clinically affected animals.

  11. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Using a standardized protocol, radiographs and CT scans of the 20 specimen were performed. Results The most useful radiographic projections for mandibular and maxillary cheek teeth evaluation turned out to be lateral30°ventral - laterodorsal and lateral30°dorsal - lateroventral with slight separation of the dental arcades respectively. Digital radiographic and CT appearance of the mandibular and maxillary teeth were described from the beginning of mineralization till maturity. In addition the normal range of the CT radio density of different cheek teeth and different dental tissues were measured. Hounsfield units of different dental tissues of SAC turned out to be similar to equids. Deviation, shortening and partial destruction of the distal tooth root of mandibular 09′s and 10′s and of maxillary 09′s was observed and the existence of a common pulp chamber in younger teeth was revealed. Conclusions The present study provides information about the dental imaging morphology in clinically healthy SAC. This basic information provides fundamental knowledge for evaluating images and planning treatments in clinically affected animals. PMID:24393365

  12. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a disorder linked to the chromosome X long arm (Xq27.3), which is identified by a constriction named fragile site. It determines various changes, such as behavioral or emotional problems, learning difficulties, and intellectual disabilities. Craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated and narrow face, prominent forehead, broad nose, large and prominent ear pavilions, strabismus, and myopia are frequent characteristics. Regarding the oral aspects, deep and high-arched palate, mandibular prognathism, and malocclusion are also observed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: The patients were in the range of 6–17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. Results: The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05). In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%), giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%), and partial anodontia (1.82%) were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals. PMID:27812623

  13. Nonsyndromic tooth agenesis patterns and associated developmental dental anomalies: a literature review with radiographic illustrations.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P; Vinuth, D P; Dube, G; Dube, P

    2013-01-01

    Tooth agenesis is one of the most intriguing phenomena, because it is frequently associated with other oral anomalies, structural variations and malformations of other teeth, late eruption, transposition and crowding. The diagnosis can be quite challenging as radiographic examination is critical for the diagnosis but not always possible and the late developing teeth may be sometimes scored developmentally missing. Accurate diagnosis therefore requires radiographic, clinical, and dental cast examinations. It is an important clinical and public health problem. Patients with missing permanent teeth may suffer from a reduced chewing ability, inarticulate pronunciation, and an unfavorable aesthetic appearance. Clinically, early diagnosis of a dental anomaly can alert the clinician to the possible development of other associated dental anomalies in the same patient or family, and avoid the possible sequelae. Understanding of tooth agenesis patterns and their impact on diagnosis, prevention, and eventually therapeutics are becoming integral parts of comprehensive dental care. Dental examination with radiographic screening of hypodontia in early childhood should be emphasized as part of public oral health policy to allow early diagnosis and timely intervention.

  14. Comparison of radiographic and clinical diagnosis of approximal and occlusal dental caries in a young adult population.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, Matthew S; Morgan, Michael V

    2005-06-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to determine if bitewing radiographs provided additional diagnostic yield for occlusal and approximal dental caries in adults aged between 17 and 30 years of age when compared with a clinical examination only, (2) how this translated into the measurement of dental caries experience, and (3) to determine the influence of water fluoridation on the diagnosis of dental caries in occlusal and approximal surfaces by clinical examination alone and by radiographic examination. Between November 2002 and March 2003 a total of 879 subjects aged 17-30 years had a clinical examination using visual and tactile criteria. Subsequent to this examination, bitewing radiographs were taken and viewed separately and blind. Approximal and occlusal surfaces of molars and premolars were examined on the radiographs. Between 22.9-32.9% of approximal caries and 75.9-82.9% of occlusal caries was detected by clinical examination, while 93.1-97.1% of approximal caries and 33.1-42.6% of occlusal caries was detected by radiographic examination. In addition, while only 0.97% of clinically sound approximal surfaces and 0.83% of clinically sound occlusal surfaces were diagnosed with dentine caries on the radiographs, 67.1-77.1% of approximal caries was detected by radiographs alone, an additional diagnostic yield of 204-336%. The DS score increased 45-46% and the DMFS score increased 6-11% from the clinical examination with the addition of the radiographic information (P<0.001). The prevalence of approximal and occlusal caries was underestimated when clinical means only were employed. There was a significant increase in DS and DMFS scores from the clinical examination only when radiographic information was added across all age groups (P<0.001). This study confirms the value of bitewing radiographs in caries diagnosis.

  15. Invesigation of prevalence of dental anomalies by using digital panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Nebiha Hilal; Yeşiltepe, Selin; Törenek Ağırman, Kübra; Çağlayan, Fatma; Bilge, Osman Murat

    2017-09-21

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 6 to 40 year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing digital panoramic radiographs of 1200 patients admitted to our clinic in 2014. Dental anomalies were examined under 5 types and 16 subtypes. Dental anomalies were divided into five types: (a) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia and hyperdontia); (b) size (including microdontia and macrodontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia); (d) position (including transposition, ectopia, displacement, impaction and inversion); (e) shape (including fusion-gemination, dilaceration and taurodontism); RESULTS: The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 39.2% (men (46%), women (54%)). Anomalies of position (60.8%) and shape (27.8%) were the most common types of abnormalities and anomalies of size (8.2%), structure (0.2%) and number (17%) were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (45.5%), dilacerations (16.3%), hypodontia (13.8%) and taurodontism (11.2%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. Taurodontism was more common in the age groups of 13-19 years. The age range of the most frequent of all other anomalies was 20-29. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies and structure anomalies were the least in this Turkish dental population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies. Digital panoramic radiography is a very useful method for the detection of dental anomalies.

  16. The influence of dental implants in periapical and panoramic radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Felix, Rafael Perdomo; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami Arai; Rockenbach, Maria Ivete Bolzan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of dental implants on the radiographic density of the peri-implant region in tomographic and radiographic examinations. A sample of 21 dental implants from 10 patients with Brånemark-protocol prostheses was evaluated based on postoperative control images, including periapical radiography (paralleling technique), panoramic radiography, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The density means of 6 defined areas near dental implants were calculated and compared considering their locations and the different imaging examinations. The CBCT examinations showed significantly different densities among the measured areas (P < 0.001), while there were no significant differences among the density means of the various areas in periapical radiographs (P = 0.430) and panoramic radiographs (P = 0.149). The highest mean densities were observed in areas closer to the implants in all the examinations: CBCT (127.88 and 120.71), panoramic (106.51 and 106.09), and periapical (120.32). The sagittal CBCT images were measured in 2 different sections, and in both sections those areas closer to implants showed mean densities that were significantly higher than means from more distant areas (P < 0.001). Means from distant areas on CBCT slice imaging were significantly lower than the densities of the same areas on periapical and panoramic examinations. The changes in mean radiographic density values in the peri-implant region confirmed the interference of dental implants in radiographic and tomographic images. CBCT images suffered the greatest interference from dental implants.

  17. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Odisha Population: A Panoramic Radiographic Study.

    PubMed

    Goutham, Balasubramanya; Bhuyan, Lipsa; Chinnannavar, Sangamesh N; Kundu, Madhurima; Jha, Kunal; Behura, Shyam S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies (DAs) in Odisha population using panoramic radiographs. In this study, 1,080 panoramic radiographs were evaluated for DAs. Dental records were reviewed for diagnostic confirmation. Anomalies related to the shape, size, position of teeth, and number of roots (supernumerary roots) were evaluated. The study results showed the prevalence of DAs to be 35.27%. The most prevalent was dilaceration, which was seen in 46.71% cases followed by peg laterals in 20.99%. Dental anomalies were present in more than one-third of the study group, which was mostly related to shape of the teeth. Early diagnosis of these DAs helps in avoiding complications. Identification of DAs requires proper examination and thereby subsequent correct diagnosis. These anomalies can pose complications in normal functioning of orofacial complex. The knowledge of the prevalence of such anomalies aids dental practitioners for a proper treatment plan.

  18. Dental Students' Interpretations of Digital Panoramic Radiographs on Completely Edentate Patients.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Richard J; Nguyen, Caroline T; Walton, Joanne N; MacDonald, David

    2018-03-01

    The ability of dental students to interpret digital panoramic radiographs (PANs) of edentulous patients has not been documented. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the ability of second-year (D2) dental students with that of third- and fourth-year (D3-D4) dental students to interpret and identify positional errors in digital PANs obtained from patients with complete edentulism. A total of 169 digital PANs from edentulous patients were assessed by D2 (n=84) and D3-D4 (n=85) dental students at one Canadian dental school. The correctness of the students' interpretations was determined by comparison to a gold standard established by assessments of the same PANs by two experts (a graduate student in prosthodontics and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist). Data collected were from September 1, 2006, when digital radiography was implemented at the university, to December 31, 2012. Nearly all (95%) of the PANs were acceptable diagnostically despite a high proportion (92%) of positional errors detected. A total of 301 positional errors were identified in the sample. The D2 students identified significantly more (p=0.002) positional errors than the D3-D4 students. There was no significant difference (p=0.059) in the distribution of radiographic interpretation errors between the two student groups when compared to the gold standard. Overall, the category of extragnathic findings had the highest number of false negatives (43) reported. In this study, dental students interpreted digital PANs of edentulous patients satisfactorily, but they were more adept at identifying radiographic findings compared to positional errors. Students should be reminded to examine the entire radiograph thoroughly to ensure extragnathic findings are not missed and to recognize and report patient positional errors.

  19. Correlation between radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around dental implant and resonance frequency of dental implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawoko, S. S.; Nelwan, L. C.; Odang, R. W.; Kusdhany, L. S.

    2017-08-01

    The histomorphometric test is the gold standard for dental implant stability quantification; however, it is invasive, and therefore, it is inapplicable to clinical patients. Consequently, accurate and objective alternative methods are required. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and digital radiographic analysis are noninvasive methods with excellent objectivity and reproducibility. To analyze the correlation between the radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around a dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant. Digital radiographic images for 35 samples were obtained, and the resonance frequency of the dental implant was acquired using Osstell ISQ immediately after dental implant placement and on third-month follow-up. The alveolar bone density around the dental implant was subsequently analyzed using SIDEXIS-XG software. No significant correlation was reported between the alveolar bone density around the dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant (r = -0.102 at baseline, r = 0.146 at follow-up, p > 0.05). However, the alveolar bone density and resonance frequency showed a significant difference throughout the healing period (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: Digital dental radiographs and Osstell ISQ showed excellent objectivity and reproducibility in quantifying dental implant stability. Nonetheless, no significant correlation was observed between the results obtained using these two methods.

  20. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  1. Radiographic trends of dental offices and dental schools.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, O H; Spelic, D C; Conway, B; Hart, J C; Boyce, P R; Antonsen, R G

    1999-07-01

    A survey of private practice facilities in the United States that perform dental radiography was conducted in 1993 and repeated in dental schools in 1995-1996. Both surveys were conducted as part of the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends, or NEXT, survey program. A representative sample of dental facilities from each participating state were surveyed, and data on patient radiation exposure, radiographic technique, film-image quality, film-processing quality and darkroom fog were collected. The authors found that dental schools use E-speed film more frequently than do private practice facilities. The use of E-speed film and better film processing by dental schools resulted in lower patient radiation exposures without sacrificing image quality. The authors also found that dental school darkrooms had lower ambient fog levels than did those of private practice facilities. The distribution for the 1993 NEXT survey facilities was greater than that observed for dental schools for radiation exposure, film-processing quality and darkroom fog. Dental schools, in general, had better film quality and lower radiation exposures than did private practice facilities. Facilities need to emphasize better quality processing and the use of E-speed film to reduce patient exposure and improve image quality.

  2. Frequency of radiographic caries examinations and development of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lith, A

    2001-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate whether a change in the threshold for surgical intervention in the caries process can be consistent with a stricter attitude towards the use of radiographic caries diagnosis. Bitewing radiographs of 3 groups of patients were retrospectively studied. Two groups comprised 229 patients, 18 years old at the end of the study in 1984. 102 had lived in an area with 1.2 ppm water-fluoride content (F84-group) and 127 in an area with 0.02 ppm fluoride content (O84-group). In the 3rd group 285 patients, 19 years old at the end of the study in 1993, lived in an area with 1.2 ppm water-fluoride content (F93-group). The latter patients were managed according to a restrictive attitude to surgical intervention and radiographic diagnosis of caries. The prevalence of patients and the frequency of tooth surfaces with caries was significantly lower in the fluoride groups than in the non-fluoride group. The correlation between patients' accumulated number of posterior proximal lesions and fillings at the last examination and the mean interval between their bitewing examinations was weak in all groups. The mean interval between examinations was significantly longer in the F93-group than in the other 2 groups. By applying an algorithm for individualisation of examination intervals these could be prolonged depending on the accepted risk for the development of inner dentin lesions. Future development of proximal dentin lesions was rather well predicted by means of past caries experience as demonstrated by ROC-analysis. The proportion of inner dentin lesions that were operatively treated was significantly higher in patients from the F93-group than in those from the other 2 groups in which a less strict attitude towards operative treatment was used. In the F93-group the average survival time of enamel and outer dentin lesions was 8.0 and 3.4 years, respectively, when right censored data were taken into account. In populations with low caries

  3. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of Reasons for Replacement of Metal- Ceramic Fixed Dental Prostheses in Patients Referring to Dental School.

    PubMed

    Al Refai, Roa'a; Saker, Samah

    2018-01-01

    The expected length of service and reasons for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) replacement are a frequent inquiry by patients while the answers were mainly based on studies reports that was conducted outside the middle east region. This clinical and radiographic survey was constructed to assess and survey clinically and radiographically the reasons of replacement of metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses, amongst patients reporting at dental school in Taibah University. Between January and May 2016, 151 patients were recruited for this study. Interview (include questions pertained to the length of service of the prosthesis, the nature of complaint as told by patient in her own words), clinical examination, intra-oral photographs, and periapical radiographs, were done by the researchers. The parameters assessed were secondary caries, open margins, loss of retention, failure of endodontic treatment of the abutment and periodontal diseases. A total number of 249 failed fixed dental prostheses were evaluated. Of which 180 (39.7%) were single crowns, 159 (35.0%) were retainers and 117 (25.8%) were pontics in 69 fixed partial denture. The most common reason for replacement of fixed restorations was periodontal diseases affecting 92.8% of all types' restorations, followed by defective margin in 90.4% of examined restoration, poor aesthetic in 88% of restorations, while periapical involvement was found in 85.5% of fixed dental prosthesis. The survival rates of fixed prostheses were not predictable, and no association was found between number of years in service and the number of restorations. The most common reasons for replacing single unit fixed dental prostheses are periodontal diseases and periapical involvement, while defective margins and poor aesthetic mainly associated with multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. Key words: Failure, Fixed dental prosthesis, Survival, Replacement.

  4. Practice Characteristics Associated with Patient-Specific Receipt of Dental Diagnostic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Weems, Richard A; Litaker, Mark S; Shelton, Brent J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To quantify the role of practice characteristics in patient-specific receipt of dental diagnostic radiographic services. Data Source/Study Setting Florida Dental Care Study (FDCS). Study Design The FDCS was a 48-month prospective observational cohort study of community-dwelling adults. Participants' dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire about their practice characteristics. Data Collection/Extraction Methods In-person interviews and clinical examinations were conducted at baseline, 24, and 48 months, with 6-monthly telephone interviews in between. A single multivariate (four radiographic service outcomes) multivariable (multiple explanatory covariates) logistic regression was used to model service receipts. Principal Findings These practice characteristics were significantly associated with patient-specific receipt of radiographic services: number of different practices attended during follow-up; dentist's rating of how busy the practice was; typical waiting time for a new patient examination; practice size; percentage of patients that the dentist reported as interested in details about the condition of their mouths; percentage of African American patients in the practice; percentage of patients in the practice who do not have dental insurance; and dentist's agreement with a statement regarding whether patients should be dismissed from the practice. Effects had differential magnitudes and directions of effect, depending upon radiograph type. Conclusions Practice characteristics were significantly associated with patient-specific receipt of services. These effects were independent of patient-specific disease level and patient-specific sociodemographic characteristics, suggesting that practitioners do influence receipt of these diagnostic services. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that practitioners act in response to a mix of patients' interests, economic self-interests, and their own treatment preferences. PMID:16987308

  5. Automatic Synthesis of Panoramic Radiographs from Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Shi, Changrong; Zhao, Xing; Zhao, Yunsong; Xu, Jinqiu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic method of synthesizing panoramic radiographs from dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data for directly observing the whole dentition without the superimposition of other structures. This method consists of three major steps. First, the dental arch curve is generated from the maximum intensity projection (MIP) of 3D CBCT data. Then, based on this curve, the long axial curves of the upper and lower teeth are extracted to create a 3D panoramic curved surface describing the whole dentition. Finally, the panoramic radiograph is synthesized by developing this 3D surface. Both open-bite shaped and closed-bite shaped dental CBCT datasets were applied in this study, and the resulting images were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. With the proposed method, a single-slice panoramic radiograph can clearly and completely show the whole dentition without the blur and superimposition of other dental structures. Moreover, thickened panoramic radiographs can also be synthesized with increased slice thickness to show more features, such as the mandibular nerve canal. One feature of the proposed method is that it is automatically performed without human intervention. Another feature of the proposed method is that it requires thinner panoramic radiographs to show the whole dentition than those produced by other existing methods, which contributes to the clarity of the anatomical structures, including the enamel, dentine and pulp. In addition, this method can rapidly process common dental CBCT data. The speed and image quality of this method make it an attractive option for observing the whole dentition in a clinical setting.

  6. Clinically Detectable Dental Identifiers Observed in Intra-oral Photographs and Extra-oral Radiographs, Validated for Human Identification Purposes.

    PubMed

    Angelakopoulos, Nikolaos; Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Screening the prevalence and pattern of dental identifiers contributes toward the process of human identification. This research investigated the uniqueness of clinical dental identifiers in photographs and radiographs. Panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs and five intra-oral photographs of 1727 subjects were used. In a target set, two observers examined different subjects. In a subset, both observers examined the same subjects (source set). The distance between source and target subjects was quantified for each identifier. The percentage of subjects in the target set being at least as close as the correct subject was assessed. The number of molars (34.6%), missing teeth (42%), and displaced teeth (59.9%) were the most unique identifiers in photographs and panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively. The pattern of rotated teeth (14.9%) was the most unique in photographs, while displaced teeth was in panoramic (37.6%) and lateral cephalometric (54.8%) radiographs. Morphological identifiers were the most unique, highlighting their importance for human identifications. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Caries assessment by clinical examination with or without radiographs of young Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Chu, C H; Chung, B T O; Lo, E C M

    2008-10-01

    To compare caries status assessment of posterior teeth of young Chinese adults by using clinical examination alone and with the supplemental use of bitewing radiographs. Two calibrated dentists examined the posterior teeth of 200 Chinese university students (aged 18-24 years) using dental mirrors and probes under optimal lighting. Caries was diagnosed by visual detection of carious cavities. Duplicate examinations were performed to monitor intra- and inter-examiner variations. Bitewing radiographs were taken and examined by an independent dentist. Caries was recorded when a lesion extended into dentine. Among the 3,162 posterior teeth examined, 113 were detected with caries. More than one third (35.4%) of the caries found in the posterior teeth was not detected from reading the radiographs but was detected by clinical examination. About half (51.4%) of the caries was found on the bitewing radiographs only, leaving 13.2% being detected by using either method. With the supplement of bitewing radiographs, there was a 105% increase in the number of carious lesions detected. This leads to a correction factor of 1.13 for adjustment of the mean DMFT score obtained from conducting clinical examinations alone. Due to the significant number of clinically undetected carious cavities in these young Chinese adults who live in a community with water fluoridation, it may be advisable to use a correction factor to adjust the caries experience obtained from epidemiological surveys when bitewing radiographs are not available.

  8. Genotoxic effects of X-rays in buccal mucosal cells in children subjected to dental radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Preethi, Naveena; Chikkanarasaiah, Nagarathna; Bethur, Shakuntala S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Aims: Bitewing and digital dental panoramic radiographs have become important adjuvants for successful dental practice in pediatric dentistry. Both methods lead to genetic changes in the oral buccal epithelium that have not yet been satisfactorily explored. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects induced by X-ray radiation from bitewing and panoramic dental radiography in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of children, using the Buccal Micronucleus Cytome assay. Materials and Methods: Children (n=40) who met the inclusion criteria and provided signed informed consent were included in the study. Children were selected for undergoing bitewing radiographs (group 1; n=20) or digital dental panoramic radiographs (group 2; n=20). Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were obtained by scraping the right/left buccal mucosa with a wooden spatula immediately before the X-ray exposure and 10±2 days after exposure. Results: The frequency of micronuclei increases significantly post exposure to both bitewing and digital dental panoramic radiography in children, but the frequency was higher in bitewing radiographs. Conclusion: It was concluded that the frequency of micronuclei increases post exposure to both bitewing and digital panoramic radiographs. Increased radiation exposure results in an increase in micronuclei frequency. PMID:29607062

  9. The Role of Online Learning in Radiographic Diagnosis in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Ariel; Park, Sang E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the pilot study was to investigate whether an interactive online module improved third-year dental students' radiographic caries diagnosis abilities and conceptual understanding. Third year dental students were given online tutoring modules and assessed afterward to determine whether their diagnostic skills improved, whether they…

  10. Microbiologic contamination during dental radiographic film processing.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, D A; Paunovich, E D; Broome, J C; Fatone, M A

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated microbiologic contamination of an automatic dental radiograph processor and daylight loader during a week of simulated clinical use. Pure cultures of Candida albicans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Klebsiella pneumoniae were used to contaminate 320 vinyl intraoral radiograph packets. Each end of the films was deliberately contaminated during opening. These films and 24 uncontaminated control films were processed. Daylight loader ports, inlet and outlet rollers, fixer and developer samples, and 12 processed films were cultured daily. To simulate a weekend, the processor sites were cultured during 72 hours of inactivity after the contaminated runs. The results showed that contamination of the processor and daylight loader occurred and remained even after 48 hours of inactivity. Films remained contaminated after processing. In addition, cross-contamination of films occurred in the processor.

  11. Reporting of dental status from full-arch radiographs: Descriptive analysis and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Fabian; Axmann, Detlef

    2014-10-16

    To identify standards, how entities of dental status are assessed and reported from full-arch radiographs of adults. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed in November 2011. Literature had to report at least one out of four defined entities using radiographs: number of teeth or implants; caries, fillings or restorations; root-canal fillings and apical health; alveolar bone level. Cohorts included to the study had to be of adult age. Methods of radiographic assessment were noted and checked for the later mode of report in text, tables or diagrams. For comparability, the encountered mode of report was operationalized to a logical expression. Thirty-seven out of 199 articles were evaluated via full-text review. Only one article reported all four entities. Eight articles reported at the maximum 3 comparable entities. However, comparability is impeded because of the usage of absolute or relative frequency, mean or median values as well as grouping. Furthermore the methods of assessment were different or not described sufficiently. Consequently, established sum scores turned out to be highly questionable, too. The amount of missing data within all studies remained unclear. It is even so remissed to mention supernumerary and aplased teeth as well as the count of third molars. Data about dental findings from radiographs is, if at all possible, only comparable with serious limitations. A standardization of both, assessing and reporting entities of dental status from radiographs is missing and has to be established within a report guideline.

  12. Influence of education level and experience on detection of approximal caries in digital dental radiographs. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hellén-Halme, Kristina; Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated whether variations in education level and experience among dental staff influence the diagnostic accuracy of carious lesions on digital radiographs. Three student groups and a fourth group of general practitioners (Dentists) with more than five years of clinical experience participated in this study.The student groups were (i) dental students in their final (tenth) semester (DS-10), (ii) dental students in the sixth semester (DS-6) who just finished dental radiology training, and (iii) dental hygiene students (DHS) in their final (fourth) semester. Seven observers from each group participated. Standard radiographs of 100 extracted teeth (premolars and molars) were taken. The 28 observers evaluated the images for approximal carious lesions on a standard monitor. All evaluations were made in ambient light below 50 lux. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to assess results. The standard criterion for healthy or carious lesions was a histological examination of sliced teeth. Kappa statistics evaluated intra-observer agreement. For carious lesions that had extended into the dentine, significant differences were found between (i) Dentists and all other groups, (ii) Dentists and DS-10 (p < 0.01), and (iii) Dentists and DS-6 and DHS (p < 0.001). Differences between DS-10 and DHS (p < or = 0.05) were also significant. In this study, education level and experience clearly influenced the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions that had extended into the dentine on digital radiographs.

  13. A new screening pathway for identifying asymptomatic patients using dental panoramic radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sawagashira, Tsuyoshi; Tagami, Motoki; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iida, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Masato; Katagi, Kiyoji; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    To identify asymptomatic patients is the challenging task and the essential first step in diagnosis. Findings of dental panoramic radiographs include not only dental conditions but also radiographic signs that are suggestive of possible systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and maxillary sinusitis. Detection of such signs on panoramic radiographs has a potential to provide supplemental benefits for patients. However, it is not easy for general dental practitioners to pay careful attention to such signs. We addressed the development of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that detects radiographic signs of pathology on panoramic images, and the design of the framework of new screening pathway by cooperation of dentists and our CAD system. The performance evaluation of our CAD system showed the sensitivity and specificity in the identification of osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively, and those of the maxillary sinus abnormality were 89.6 % and 73.6 %, respectively. The detection rate of carotid artery calcifications that suggests the need for further medical evaluation was approximately 93.6 % with 4.4 false-positives per image. To validate the utility of the new screening pathway, preliminary clinical trials by using our CAD system were conducted. To date, 223 panoramic images were processed and 4 asymptomatic patients with suspected osteoporosis, 7 asymptomatic patients with suspected calcifications, and 40 asymptomatic patients with suspected maxillary sinusitis were detected in our initial trial. It was suggested that our new screening pathway could be useful to identify asymptomatic patients with systemic diseases.

  14. Prevalence of Dental Implants and Evaluation of Peri-implant Bone Levels in Patients Presenting to a Dental School: A Radiographic Cross-Sectional 2-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Eylem Ayhan; Mau, Lian Ping; Schoolfield, John; Guest, Gary F; Cochran, David L

    To evaluate the number of patients with dental implants who present to a dental school clinic for screening and to report the prevalence of peri-implant bone level change detected on digital panoramic radiographs of those subjects. Patient screening files for 9,422 patients over a 2-year period were examined to see how many patients presented with dental implants. Those patients with at least one implant were further evaluated by measuring the bone level on the mesial and distal sides of the implant using the screening radiograph. A total of 187 patients (2%) had at least one implant. In regard to implants, 423 were examined and 146 (33%) had no detectable bone loss defined as bone level below the top of the implant. When thresholds of bone loss were evaluated, 109 implants (25%) had ≥ 2 mm of bone loss on either the mesial or distal sides or both. The median bone loss was 1.74 mm for the 277 implants with detectable bone loss and 2.97 mm for the 109 implants that had ≥ 2 mm bone loss. Interestingly, patients who were ≥ 70 years of age had significantly (P = .03) more bone loss in the mandible compared with the maxilla, while patients who were 60 to 69 years of age had significantly greater loss in the maxilla. These data reveal that for patients presenting to the dental school for a screening over a 2-year period, 1.98% had one or more dental implants. Furthermore, those patients with implants had a minimum amount of bone loss as measured from the top of the implant.

  15. Assessing the quality of radiographic processing in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Thornley, P H; Stewardson, D A; Rout, P G J; Burke, F J T

    2006-05-13

    To determine if a commercial device (Vischeck) for monitoring film processing quality was a practical option in general dental practice, and to assess processing quality among a group of GDPs in the West Midlands with this device. Clinical evaluation. General dental practice, UK, 2004. Ten GDP volunteers from a practice based research group processed Vischeck strips (a) when chemicals were changed, (b) one week later, and (c) immediately before the next change of chemicals. These were compared with strips processed under ideal conditions. Additionally, a series of duplicate radiographs were produced and processed together with Vischeck strips in progressively more dilute developer solutions to compare the change in radiograph quality assessed clinically with that derived from the Vischeck. The Vischeck strips suggested that at the time chosen for change of processing chemicals, eight dentists had been processing films well beyond the point indicated for replacement. Solutions were changed after a wide range of time periods and number of films processed. The calibration of the Vischeck strip correlated closely to a clinical assessment of acceptable film quality. Vischeck strips are a useful aid to monitoring processing quality in automatic developers in general dental practice. Most of this group of GDPs were using chemicals beyond the point at which diagnostic yield would be affected.

  16. Assessment of skeletal age using MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs and its correlation with dental and chronological ages in children.

    PubMed

    Bala, M; Pathak, A; Jain, R L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess skeletal age using MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs and to find the correlation amongst the skeletal, dental and chronological ages. One hundred and sixty North-Indian healthy children in the age group 8-14 years, comprising equal number of males and females were included in the study. The children were radiographed for middle phalanx of third finger (MP3) and hand-wrist of the right hand and intra oral periapical X-ray for right permanent maxillary canine. Skeletal age was assessed from MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs according to the standards of Greulich and Pyle. The dental age was assessed from IOPA radiographs of right permanent maxillary canine based on Nolla's calcification stages. Skeletal age from MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs shows high correlation in all the age groups for both sexes. Females were advanced in skeletal maturation than males. Skeletal age showed high correlation with dental age in 12-14 years age group. Chronological age showed inconsistent correlation with dental and skeletal ages.

  17. An automatic early stage alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation method on digital dental panoramic radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a kind of typical dental diseases, which affects many adults. The presence of alveolar bone resorption, which can be observed from dental panoramic radiographs, is one of the most important signs of the progression of periodontal disease. Automatically evaluating alveolar-bone resorption is of important clinic meaning in dental radiology. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel system for automated alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation from digital dental panoramic radiographs for the first time. The proposed system enables visualization and quantitative evaluation of alveolar bone resorption degree surrounding the teeth. It has the following procedures: (1) pre-processing for a test image; (2) detection of tooth root apices with Gabor filter and curve fitting for the root apex line; (3) detection of features related with alveolar bone by using image phase congruency map and template matching and curving fitting for the alveolar line; (4) detection of occlusion line with selected Gabor filter; (5) finally, evaluation of the quantitative alveolar-bone-resorption degree in the area surrounding teeth by simply computing the average ratio of the height of the alveolar bone and the height of the teeth. The proposed scheme was applied to 30 patient cases of digital panoramic radiographs, with alveolar bone resorption of different stages. Our initial trial on these test cases indicates that the quantitative evaluation results are correlated with the alveolar-boneresorption degree, although the performance still needs further improvement. Therefore it has potential clinical practicability.

  18. Radiographic Evaluation of Root Canal Fillings Accomplished by Undergraduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. Methods and Materials: A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson’s chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen’s kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. Conclusion: The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases. PMID:25834598

  19. Radiographic evaluation of root canal fillings accomplished by undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson's chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen's kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases.

  20. Quality assurance in digital dental radiography--justification and dose reduction in dental and maxillofacial radiology.

    PubMed

    Hellstern, F; Geibel, M-A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of quality assurance requirements for digital dental radiography in routine clinical practice. The results should be discussed by radiation protection authorities in the context of the relevant legal requirements and current debates on radiation protection. Two hundred digital dental radiographs were randomly selected from the digital database of the Department of Dentistry's Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Ulm University, and evaluated for various aspects of image quality and compliance with radiographic documentation requirements. The dental films were prepared by different radiology assistants (RAs) using one of two digital intraoral radiographic systems: Sirona Heliodent DS, 60 kV, focal spot size: 0.7 mm (group A) or KaVo Gendex 765 DC, 65 kV, focal spot size: 0.4 mm (group B). Radiographic justification was documented in 70.5% of cases, and the radiographic findings in 76.5%. Both variables were documented in the patient records as well as in the software in 14% of cases. Clinical documentation of the required information (name of the responsible dentist and radiology assistant, date, patient name, department, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, type of radiograph, film size, department and serial number of the dental radiograph) was 100% complete in all cases. Moreover, the department certified according to DIN ISO 9001:2008 specifications demonstrated complete clinical documentation of radiographic justifications and radiographic findings. The entire dentition was visible on 83% of the digital films. The visible area corresponded to the target region on 85.7% of the digital dental radiographs. Seven to 8.5% of the images were classified as "hypometric" or "hypermetric". This study indicates that improvements in radiology training and continuing education fordentists and dental staff performing x-ray examinations are needed to ensure consistent high quality of digital dental radiography. Implementation of

  1. Age estimation by using dental radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Limdiwala, Piyush G.; Shah, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Estimation of age is important in forensic sciences as a way to establish the identity of human remains. Of the various parts of the body used in age estimation, teeth are the least affected by the taphonomic process. Their durability means that they are sometimes the only body part available for study. Several methods of age estimation have been studied using bone and teeth, and among them, tooth wear and apposition of secondary dentine are the currently available non-destructive methods. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine the age of adults by using Kvaal's method as well as to establish the relationship of chronological age and dental age with its reliability and limitations on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: The present study was based on panoramic radiographs that consisted of two groups. One hundred orthopantomographs with Kvaal's criteria (Group A) and 50 orthopantomographs without Kvaal's criteria (Group B) were included. Various parameters were measured and the result was analyzed by means of SPSS-12.0 program statistical data. Result and Conclusion: On the basis of Kvaal's criteria, the difference between chronological age and real age was 8.3 years. This suggests that the accuracy of this method depends on the precision of measurements and quality and number of the orthopantomographs. PMID:24255560

  2. The 'ABC' of examining foot radiographs.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Eyiyemi O; Klass, Benjamin; Bendall, Stephen P

    2005-11-01

    We report a simple systematic method of assessing foot radiographs that improves diagnostic accuracy and can reduce the incidence of inappropriate management of serious forefoot and midfoot injuries, particularly the Lisfranc-type injury. Five recently appointed senior house officers (SHOs), with no casualty or Orthopaedic experience prior to their appointment, were shown a set of 10 foot radiographs and told the history and examination findings recorded in the casualty notes of each patient within 6 weeks of taking up their posts. They were informed that the radiographs might or might not demonstrate an abnormality. They were asked to make a diagnosis and decide on a management plan. The test was repeated after they were taught the 'ABC' method of evaluating foot radiographs. Diagnostic accuracy improved after SHOs were taught a systematic method of assessing foot radiographs. The proportion of correct diagnoses increased from 0.64 to 0.78 and the probability of recognising Lisfranc injuries increased from 0 to 0.6. The use of this simple method of assessing foot radiographs can reduce the incidence of inappropriate management of serious foot injuries by casualty SHOs, in particular the Lisfranc type injury.

  3. Evaluation of developmental dental anomalies in digital panoramic radiographs in Southeast Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Eshagh Ali; Ebrahimipour, Sediqe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental developmental anomalies in digital panoramic radiographs of the patients referred to the Zahedan medical imaging center and to evaluate the frequency of anomalies regarding the disorders in shape, position and number in the Southeast of Iran. A total of 1172 panoramic radiographs from 581 males and 586 females aged over 16 years were obtained from the files of the Zahedan medical imaging center between the years of 2014 and 2015. The selected radiographs were evaluated in terms of the anomalies such as dilacerations, taurodontism, supernumerary teeth, congenitally missing teeth, fusion, gemination, tooth impaction, tooth transposition, dens invagination, and peg lateral. Then, the anomalies were compared to each other regarding the frequency of the anomaly type (morphological, positional and numerical). Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percent, and statistical tests such as X(2) at 0.05 significant level using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.5. The prevalence of dental anomaly was 213 (18.17%), which was higher in females (9.90) than male, (8.28), however, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of dilacerated teeth was 62 (5.29%), taurodontism 63 (5.38%), supernumerary teeth 6 (0.51%), congenitally missing teeth 13 (1.11%), fusion 1 (0.09%), gemination 1 (0.09%), impaction 40 (3.41%), transposition 2 (0.18%), dens invagination 16 (1.37) and peg lateral was 9 (0.77%). The prevalence of morphological anomaly was 152 (71.36%), malposition 42 (19.72%) and numerous anomaly was 19 (8.92%). Dental anomalies are relatively common; although their occurrence is not symptomatic, they can lead to several clinical problems in patients. Detailed clinical and radiographic assessment and counseling during patient visits is a critical factor in assessing the patient's degree of difficulty to help the dentist for

  4. Radiographic assessment of dental anomalies in patients with ectopic maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Helle Budtz; Artmann, Lone; Larsen, Helle Juul; Kjaer, Inger

    2009-03-01

    The aetiology of palatally and labially located ectopic maxillary canines is multifactorial. Accordingly, early prediction of this eruptional disturbance is in most cases not possible. The purpose of this study was to analyse dental deviations in cases with either palatal or labial ectopic canines. Panoramic and intra-oral radiographs from 50 patients with palatally located (38 females and 12 males) and 19 patients with labially located ectopic canines (11 females and 8 males), aged 10 years, 2 months-18 years, 1 month, were analysed. Dental deviations registered were crown and root malformations, agenesis, and eruption deviations. Registrations were performed in the maxillary incisor field and in the dentition in general. The study documented that palatally as well as labially located ectopic canines can occur in dentitions without other dental deviations. Dental deviations occurred in approximately two-thirds of all cases, more often in females and in cases with palatally located canines. More than half of the females with palatally located canines had deviations in the maxillary incisors and in the dentition in general. Dental deviations may be considered a risk factor for maxillary canine ectopia. Early identification of patients at risk and appropriate interceptive treatment may reduce ectopic eruption of maxillary canines.

  5. Implant image quality in dental radiographs recorded using a customized imaging guide or a standard film holder.

    PubMed

    Schropp, Lars; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Wenzel, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To compare a customized imaging guide and a standard film holder for obtaining optimally projected intraoral radiographs of dental implants. Intraoral radiographs of four screw-type implants with different inclination placed in an upper or lower dental phantom model were recorded by 32 groups of examiners after a short instruction in the use of the RB-RB/LB-LB mnemonic rule. Half of the examiners recorded the images using a standard film holder and the other half used a customized imaging guide. Each radiograph was assessed under blinded conditions with regard to rendering of the implant threads and was assigned to one of four quality categories: (1) perfect, (2) not perfect, but clinically acceptable, (3) not acceptable, and (4) hopeless. For the upper jaw, the same number of exposures per implant were made to achieve an acceptable image (P=0.86) by the standard film holder method (median=2) and the imaging guide method (median=2). For the lower jaw, medians for the imaging guide method and the film holder method were 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.004). For the imaging guide method, the first exposure was rated as perfect/acceptable in 62% of the cases and for the film holder method in 41% of the cases (P=0.013). After ≤ 2 exposures, 78% (imaging guide method) and 69% (film holder method) of the implant images were perfect/acceptable (P=0.23). The implant inclination did not have a major influence on the outcomes. Perfect or acceptable images were achieved after two exposures with the same frequency either using a customized imaging guide method or a standard film holder method. However, the use of a customized imaging guide method was overall significantly superior to a standard film holder method in terms of obtaining perfect or acceptable images with only one exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Radiographic bone loss in a Scottish non-smoking Type 1 Diabetes mellitus population; a Bitewing Radiographic Study.

    PubMed

    Plessas, Anastasios; Robertson, Douglas P; Hodge, Penny J

    2018-05-15

    The dental complications of uncontrolled diabetes include reduced salivary flow rate, candidiasis and periodontal manifestations. A recent meta-analysis concluded that diabetes patients have a significantly higher severity, but not extent, of destructive periodontal disease than non-diabetes people. The authors reported that most type-1 diabetes studies using dental radiographic data have not controlled for confounding factors such as smoking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare radiographic alveolar bone loss between type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and non-diabetes (NDM) participants in a Scottish non-smoking population. Digital bitewing radiographs for 174 Scottish adult never or ex-smoker (> 5 years) participants (108 T1DM, 66 NDS), recruited from outpatient clinics throughout Greater Glasgow and Clyde, were included in the analysis. A single blinded, trained and calibrated examiner recorded the radiographic bone loss seen on bitewing radiographs using the digital screen caliper. The bone loss was measured as the distance between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the deepest radiographic alveolar bone margin interproximally of each tooth. T1DM participants had more radiographic alveolar bone loss throughout the all teeth measured (median:1.27 mm vs 1.06 mm, P < 0.001) and more than a two fold increase in the risk of having sites with ≥2 mm periodontal destruction (OR = 2.297, 95%CI 1.058-4.986, P = 0.036) compared with non-diabetes subjects. Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes are at higher risk of periodontitis even when controlling for multiple possible confounding factors and this difference can be detected on routine dental radiographs at an early stage. These data confirm radiographically the previously reported association between T1DM and periodontal bone loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  7. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed ex vivo by dental students at Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Faus-Matoses, Vicente; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Faus-Llácer, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal fillings and compare manual and rotary preparation performed on extracted teeth by undergraduate dental students. Study Design: A total of 561 premolars and molars extracted teeth were prepared using nickel-titanium rotary files or manual instrumentation and filled with gutta-percha using a cold lateral condensation technique, by 4th grade undergraduate students. Periapical radiographs were used to assess the technical quality of the root canal filling, evaluating three variables: length, density and taper. These data were recorded, scored and used to study the “technical success rate” and the “overall score”. The length of each root canal filling was classified as acceptable, short and overfilled, based on their relationship with the radiographic apex. Density and taper of filling were evaluated based on the presence of voids and the uniform tapering of the filling, respectively. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the quality of root canal treatment, considering p < 0.05 as a statistical significant level. Results: The percentage of technical success was 44% and the overall score was 7.8 out of 10. Technical success and overall score were greater with rotary instruments (52% against 28% with a manual one, p < 0.001; 8.3 against 6.7 respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that inexperienced operators perform better root canal treatment (RCT) with the use of rotary instrumentation. Key words:Dental education, endodontics, rotary instrumentation, radiographs, root canal treatment, undergraduate students. PMID:24121911

  8. Automatic Molar Extraction from Dental Panoramic Radiographs for Forensic Personal Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samopa, Febriliyan; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    Measurement of an individual molar provides rich information for forensic personal identification. We propose a computer-based system for extracting an individual molar from dental panoramic radiographs. A molar is obtained by extracting the region-of-interest, separating the maxilla and mandible, and extracting the boundaries between teeth. The proposed system is almost fully automatic; all that the user has to do is clicking three points on the boundary between the maxilla and the mandible.

  9. Evaluation of trabecular bone patterns on dental radiographic images: influence of cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouriq, Yves; Evenou, Pierre; Arlicot, Aurore; Normand, Nicolas; Layrolle, Pierre; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-01

    For some authors trabecular bone is highly visible in intraoral radiographs. For other authors, the observed intrabony trabecular pattern is a representation of only the endosteal surface of cortical bone, not of intermedullary striae. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the true anatomical structures that are visible in routine dental radiographs and classically denoted trabecular bone. This is a major point for bone texture analysis on radiographs. Computed radiography (CR) images of dog mandible section in molar region were compared with simulations calculated from high-resolution micro-CT volumes. Calculated simulations were obtained using the Mojette Transform. By digitally editing the CT volume, the simulations were separated into trabecular and cortical components into a region of interest. Different images were compared and correlated, some bone micro-architecture parameters calculated. A high correlation was found between computed radiographs and calculated simulations from micro-CT. The Mojette transform was successful to obtain high quality images. Cortical bone did not contribute to change in a major way simulated images. These first results imply that intrabony trabecular pattern observed on radiographs can not only be a representation of the cortical bone endosteal surface and that trabecular bone is highly visible in intraoral radiographs.

  10. Comparative study of dental anomalies assessed with panoramic radiographs of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Mayoral-Trias, M A; Llopis-Perez, J; Puigdollers Pérez, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of dental anomalies from panoramic radiographs of age-matched individuals with and without Down Syndrome (DS). This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. A group of 41 patients (19 female and 22 male) with Down Syndrome (DS), mean age 10.6 ± 1.4 and a control group of 42 non- DS patients (26 female and 16 male), mean age 11.1 ± 1.3 were studied. This study examined the medical history and a panoramic radiograph of each patient. The dental anomalies studied were agenesis of permanent teeth (except third molars), size and shape maxillary lateral anomalies and maxillary canine eruption path anomalies. The groups were compared using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests (p<0.05). Rho Spearman correlation coefficient was applied for associations. Results Agenesis of one permanent tooth was found in 73.17% of DS subjects and two or more permanent teeth in more than 50% (p<0.001). Maxillary lateral incisor was the most frequently absent tooth followed by mandibular second premolar, mandibular lateral incisor, maxillary second premolar and mandibular central incisor. No significant differences were detected between maxilla and mandible on either side. No differences in gender were observed. Significant differences were found for size and shape anomalies of maxillary lateral incisors, as well as for canine eruption anomalies (p<0.05). No gender differences were observed for either variable. No association was found between these two variables in the DS group. More dental anomalies were present in the DS group than in the control group, which implied that DS patients need periodical dental and orthodontic supervision so as to prevent or control subsequent oral problems.

  11. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    PubMed

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-09-01

    Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico-legal requirements by the professional registration body, the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA), identify justification as an advocated and obligatory practice for radiographers. Yet, justification remains an inconsistent practice implemented amongst Australian radiographers. This review aims to identify associated barriers inhibiting the consistent practice of justification and the hesitance by radiographers in practicing justification responsibilities. It also recommends a change in workplace culture which encourages radiographers to accept a more autonomous role that cultivates critical thinking, reflection and research-informed decision making as justification will ultimately benefit patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  12. Dual-modal photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghyun; Park, Sungjo; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Dental implants are common method to replace decayed or broken tooth. As the implant treatment procedures varies according to the patients' jawbone, bone ridge, and sinus structure, appropriate examinations are necessary for successful treatment. Currently, radiographic examinations including periapical radiology, panoramic X-ray, and computed tomography are commonly used for diagnosing and monitoring. However, these radiographic examinations have limitations in that patients and operators are exposed to radioactivity and multiple examinations are performed during the treatment. In this study, we demonstrated photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) combined imaging of dental implant that can lower the total amount of absorbed radiation dose in dental implant treatment. An acoustic resolution PA macroscopy and a clinical PA/US system was used for dental implant imaging. The acquired dual modal PA/US imaging results support that the proposed photoacoustic imaging strategy can reduce the radiation dose rate during dental implant treatment.

  13. Infraocclusion: Dental development and associated dental variations in singletons and twins.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Ruba; Townsend, Grant; Mihailidis, Suzanna; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Hughes, Toby; Brook, Alan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of selected dental variations in association with infraocclusion, as well as determining the effects of infraocclusion on dental development and tooth size, in singletons and twins. Two samples were analysed. The first sample comprised 1454 panoramic radiographs of singleton boys and girls aged 8-11 years. The second sample comprised dental models of 202 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins aged 8-11 years. Adobe Photoshop CS5 was used to construct reference lines and measure the extent of infraocclusion (in mm) of primary molars on the panoramic radiographs and on 2D images obtained from the dental models. The panoramic radiographs were examined for the presence of selected dental variations and to assess dental development following the Demirjian and Willems systems. The twins' dental models were measured to assess mesiodistal crown widths. In the singleton sample there was a significant association of canines in an altered position during eruption and the lateral incisor complex (agenesis and/or small tooth size) with infraocclusion (P<0.001), but there was no significant association between infraocclusion and agenesis of premolars. Dental age assessment revealed that dental development was delayed in individuals with infraocclusion compared to controls. The primary mandibular canines were significantly smaller in size in the infraoccluded group (P<0.05). The presence of other dental variations in association with infraocclusion, as well as delayed dental development and reduced tooth size, suggests the presence of a pleiotropic effect. The underlying aetiological factors may be genetic and/or epigenetic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 38 CFR 17.160 - Authorization of dental examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorization of dental... MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.160 Authorization of dental examinations. When a detailed report of dental examination is essential for a determination of eligibility for benefits, dental examinations may be...

  15. 38 CFR 17.160 - Authorization of dental examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorization of dental... MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.160 Authorization of dental examinations. When a detailed report of dental examination is essential for a determination of eligibility for benefits, dental examinations may be...

  16. 38 CFR 17.160 - Authorization of dental examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorization of dental... MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.160 Authorization of dental examinations. When a detailed report of dental examination is essential for a determination of eligibility for benefits, dental examinations may be...

  17. 38 CFR 17.160 - Authorization of dental examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorization of dental... MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.160 Authorization of dental examinations. When a detailed report of dental examination is essential for a determination of eligibility for benefits, dental examinations may be...

  18. 38 CFR 17.160 - Authorization of dental examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of dental... MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.160 Authorization of dental examinations. When a detailed report of dental examination is essential for a determination of eligibility for benefits, dental examinations may be...

  19. Skylab Dental Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Commander Charles Conrad is seen undergoing a dental examination by the Medical Officer, Joseph Kerwin in the Skylab Medical Facility. In the absence of an examination chair, Conrad simply rotated his body to an upside down position to facilitate the procedure.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of an Educational Outcomes Assessment Process for Dental Interpretive Radiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Richard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for testing the ability of dental students to detect presence and depth of dental caries was evaluated. Students (n=40) from four experience groups examined radiographs obtained from a model. Results indicated that this method of assessing student competence in radiographic interpretation is valid. (MSE)

  1. Comprehensive dental management in a Hallermann-Streiff syndrome patient with unusual radiographic appearance of teeth.

    PubMed

    Gungor, O Erken; Nur, B Guzel; Yalcin, H; Karayilmaz, H; Mihci, E

    2015-01-01

    Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (HSS) is a genetic disorder characterized by proportionate dwarfism, birdlike facies, hypotrichosis, skin atrophy, dyscephaly, bilateral microphthalmia, congenital cataracts, a narrow, weak, beaked nose, a hypoplastic mandible, and orodental anomalies. Occurrence is sporadic and distinct patterns of inheritance have not been found. This case report describes the dental management of a 3-year-old girl patient with HSS, who had unusual radiographic appearance of teeth. Furthermore, dental treatments and a 30-month follow-up period of the patient with this rare tooth structure malformation have been presented.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of radiographic methods for predicting insertion torque of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez; Eimar, Hazem; Barbosa, Jorge de Sá; Costa, Claudio; Arita, Emiko Saito; Tamimi, Faleh

    2015-05-01

    Subjective radiographic classifications of alveolar bone have been proposed and correlated with implant insertion torque (IT). The present diagnostic study aims to identify quantitative bone features influencing IT and to use these findings to develop an objective radiographic classification for predicting IT. Demographics, panoramic radiographs (taken at the beginning of dental treatment), and cone-beam computed tomographic scans (taken for implant surgical planning) of 25 patients receiving 31 implants were analyzed. Bone samples retrieved from implant sites were assessed with dual x-ray absorptiometry, microcomputed tomography, and histology. Odds ratio, sensitivity, and specificity of all variables to predict high peak IT were assessed. A ridge cortical thickness >0.75 mm and a normal appearance of the inferior mandibular cortex were the most sensitive variables for predicting high peak IT (87.5% and 75%, respectively). A classification based on the combination of both variables presented high sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%) for predicting IT. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that it is possible to predict IT accurately based on radiographic findings of the patient. This could be useful in the treatment plan of immediate loading cases.

  3. Effect of varying displays and room illuminance on caries diagnostic accuracy in digital dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, T; Kuusela, L; Ekholm, M; Wenzel, A; Haiter-Neto, F; Kortesniemi, M

    2012-01-01

    In clinical practice, digital radiographs taken for caries diagnostics are viewed on varying types of displays and usually in relatively high ambient lighting (room illuminance) conditions. Our purpose was to assess the effect of room illuminance and varying display types on caries diagnostic accuracy in digital dental radiographs. Previous studies have shown that the diagnostic accuracy of caries detection is significantly better in reduced lighting conditions. Our hypothesis was that higher display luminance could compensate for this in higher ambient lighting conditions. Extracted human teeth with approximal surfaces clinically ranging from sound to demineralized were radiographed and evaluated by 3 observers who detected carious lesions on 3 different types of displays in 3 different room illuminance settings ranging from low illumination, i.e. what is recommended for diagnostic viewing, to higher illumination levels corresponding to those found in an average dental office. Sectioning and microscopy of the teeth validated the presence or absence of a carious lesion. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated for each modality and observer. Differences were estimated by analyzing the binary data assuming the added effects of observer and modality in a generalized linear model. The observers obtained higher sensitivities in lower illuminance settings than in higher illuminance settings. However, this was related to a reduction in specificity, which meant that there was no significant difference in overall accuracy. Contrary to our hypothesis, there were no significant differences between the accuracy of different display types. Therefore, different displays and room illuminance levels did not affect the overall accuracy of radiographic caries detection. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Intraoral radiographs texture analysis for dental implant planning.

    PubMed

    Mundim, Mayara B V; Dias, Danilo R; Costa, Ronaldo M; Leles, Cláudio R; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M; Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane F

    2016-11-01

    Computer vision extracts features or attributes from images improving diagnosis accuracy and aiding in clinical decisions. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using texture analysis of periapical radiograph images as a tool for dental implant treatment planning. Periapical radiograph images of 127 jawbone sites were obtained before and after implant placement. From the superimposition of the pre- and post-implant images, four regions of interest (ROI) were delineated on the pre-implant images for each implant site: mesial, distal and apical peri-implant areas and a central area. Each ROI was analysed using Matlab® software and seven image attributes were extracted: mean grey level (MGL), standard deviation of grey levels (SDGL), coefficient of variation (CV), entropy (En), contrast, correlation (Cor) and angular second moment (ASM). Images were grouped by bone types-Lekholm and Zarb classification (1,2,3,4). Peak insertion torque (PIT) and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) were recorded during implant placement. Differences among groups were tested for each image attribute. Agreement between measurements of the peri-implant ROIs and overall ROI (peri-implant + central area) was tested, as well as the association between primary stability measures (PIT and RFA) and texture attributes. Differences among bone type groups were found for MGL (p = 0.035), SDGL (p = 0.024), CV (p < 0.001) and En (p < 0.001). The apical ROI showed a significant difference from the other regions for all attributes, except Cor. Concordance correlation coefficients were all almost perfect (ρ > 0.93), except for ASM (ρ = 0.62). Texture attributes were significantly associated with the implant stability measures. Texture analysis of periapical radiographs may be a reliable non-invasive quantitative method for the assessment of jawbone and prediction of implant stability, with potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  5. Dental radiographic indicators, a key to age estimation

    PubMed Central

    Panchbhai, AS

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present review article is aimed at describing the radiological methods utilized for human age identification. Methods The application and importance of radiological methods in human age assessment was discussed through the literature survey. Results Following a literature search, 46 articles were included in the study and the relevant information is depicted in the article. Dental tissue is often preserved indefinitely after death. Implementation of radiography is based on the assessment of the extent of calcification of teeth and in turn the degree of formation of crown and root structures, along with the sequence and the stages of eruption. Several radiological techniques can be used to assist in both individual and general identification, including determination of gender, ethnic group and age. The radiographic method is a simpler and cheaper method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry, particularly with the refinement of techniques and the incorporation of information technology resources. Conclusion Based on an appropriate knowledge of the available methods, forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate since the validity of age estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. The multifactorial approach will lead to optimum age assessment. The legal requirements also have to be considered. PMID:21493876

  6. Association and comparison between visual inspection and bitewing radiography for the detection of recurrent dental caries under restorations.

    PubMed

    Lino, José R; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Coelho, Valéria Silveira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Moysés, Marcos R; Ribeiro, José C R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, in posterior teeth, the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration visually inspected and the presence, under restorations, of recurrent or residual dental caries detected by radiographic examination. Furthermore, the agreement between visual inspection and radiographs to detect dental caries was assessed. Eighty-five permanent molars and premolars with resin restorations on the interproximal and/or occlusal faces, from 18 patients, were submitted for visual inspection and radiographic examination. The visual inspection involved the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Bitewing radiographs were used for the radiographic examination. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration assessed by visual inspection (absence of dental caries, or early, established, inactive and active lesions) and the presence of recurrent caries detected by radiographs. Kappa coefficients were calculated for determining agreement between the two methods. The Kappa coefficient for agreement between visual inspection and radiographic examination was 0.19. Established lesions [odds ratio (OR) = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.94-33.25; P < 0.05] and lesion activity (OR = 2.57; 95% CI: 0.91-7.27; P < 0.05) detected by visual inspection, were associated with recurrent or residual dental caries detected by radiographs. Restorations with established and active lesions at the margins had a greater chance of exhibiting recurrent or residual lesions in the radiographic examination. The present findings demonstrate that restorations with established and active lesions at the margins when visually inspected often require removal and retreatment. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Guttal, Kruthika S; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Bhargava, Puneet; Bathi, Renuka J

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population. This prospective study was conducted over a period of 1 year and comprised both clinical and radiographic examinations in oral medicine and radiology outpatient department. Adult patients were screened for the presence of dental anomalies with appropriate radiographs. A comprehensive clinical examination was performed to detect hyperdontia, talon cusp, fused teeth, gemination, concrescence, hypodontia, dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, macro- and microdontia and taurodontism. Patients with syndromes were not included in the study. Of the 20,182 patients screened, 350 had dental anomalies. Of these, 57.43% of anomalies occurred in male patients and 42.57% occurred in females. Hyperdontia, root dilaceration, peg-shaped laterals (microdontia), and hypodontia were more frequent compared to other dental anomalies of size and shape. Dental anomalies are clinically evident abnormalities. They may be the cause of various dental problems. Careful observation and appropriate investigations are required to diagnose the condition and institute treatment.

  8. Sliding window adaptive histogram equalization of intraoral radiographs: effect on image quality.

    PubMed

    Sund, T; Møystad, A

    2006-05-01

    To investigate whether contrast enhancement by non-interactive, sliding window adaptive histogram equalization (SWAHE) can enhance the image quality of intraoral radiographs in the dental clinic. Three dentists read 22 periapical and 12 bitewing storage phosphor (SP) radiographs. For the periapical readings they graded the quality of the examination with regard to visually locating the root apex. For the bitewing readings they registered all occurrences of approximal caries on a confidence scale. Each reading was first done on an unprocessed radiograph ("single-view"), and then re-done with the image processed with SWAHE displayed beside the unprocessed version ("twin-view"). The processing parameters for SWAHE were the same for all the images. For the periapical examinations, twin-view was judged to raise the image quality for 52% of those cases where the single-view quality was below the maximum. For the bitewing radiographs, there was a change of caries classification (both positive and negative) with twin-view in 19% of the cases, but with only a 3% net increase in the total number of caries registrations. For both examinations interobserver variance was unaffected. Non-interactive SWAHE applied to dental SP radiographs produces a supplemental contrast enhanced image which in twin-view reading improves the image quality of periapical examinations. SWAHE also affects caries diagnosis of bitewing images, and further study using a gold standard is warranted.

  9. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Prevalence of dental anomalies on panoramic radiographs in a population of the state of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Goncalves-Filho, Antonio Jg; Moda, Larissa B; Oliveira, Roberta P; Ribeiro, Andre Luis Ribeiro; Pinheiro, João Jv; Alver-Junior, S Rgio M

    2014-01-01

    Dental anomalies (DAs) are the result of disorders that are able to modify the shape, number, size, and structure of teeth. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of DAs using panoramic radiographs in a population of the City of Belém, northern Brazil. In this study, 487 panoramic radiographs were evaluated searching for DAs. Dental records were reviewed for diagnostic confirmation. DAs related to the shape, number, size, and structure of teeth were investigated. Our results showed a DA prevalence of 56.9%. The most prevalent DA was taurodontism, which was present in 27.19% of cases. Root dilaceration was the second most prevalent DA in adults, whereas hypodontia was the second most prevalent DA in children. A total of 13 DAs were found. Dental anomalies were present in over half of the sample, and most of them were related to the shape of the teeth. Although there was a high prevalence of shape-related DAs, these alterations are generally of lower severity, and most do not require specific treatment. However, in 19.25% of cases, DAs were found involving the number, size and structure of the teeth. These DAs should be diagnosed and treated early, avoiding thus more serious complications.

  11. Ability Of Optical Coherence Tomography To Detect Caries Beneath Commonly Used Dental Sealants

    PubMed Central

    Osann, Kathryn; Pharar, Jessica; Lee, Kenneth; Ahn, Yeh-chan; Tucker, Travis; Sabet, Sharareh; Chen, Zhongping; Gukasyan, Ripsik; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective The onset and progression of early tooth decay is often preventable with dental sealants. However, occasionally decay progresses underneath the sealant. Current technology does not permit monitoring of potential lesion progression or arrest. Dental sealants themselves mask the visual cues that identify early tooth decay, and radiographs are not sufficiently sensitive. Therefore clinicians can be reluctant to use dental sealant. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of dentists to detect decay beneath commonly used dental sealants using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. Study Designs/Materials/Methods Forty extracted teeth were divided into equal groups of carious and non-carious teeth, as determined by visual inspection. After radiographs and OCT imaging, teeth were randomly assigned for sealant placement with one of four commonly purchased dental sealants: Clinpro™, Fuji Triage™, Embrace Wet Bond™, and Delton™. Following sealant placement, teeth were radiographed, imaged with OCT, sectioned, examined histologically, and scored as healthy/not healthy. OCT and radiographic images were scored separately. The gold standard was histopathological diagnosis from the serial sections. Cohen’s Kappa, sensitivity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value were computed for all measures. Results After 90 mins training, pre-standardized dentists were able to detect tooth decay more accurately using OCT than with visual or radiographic examination. Detection using OCT was somewhat better prior to sealant placement than afterwards. This effect varied in size depending on the type of sealant used. Radiographic diagnosis was also less accurate after sealant placement. Of the four dental sealants, Delton provided excellent positive predictive value and the best post-sealant negative predictive values. Conclusion In this ex vivo study, dentists were able to detect tooth decay beneath four commonly

  12. Dental Care Utilization for Examination and Regional Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Sin; Han, Sun-Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Receiving proper dental care plays a significant role in maintaining good oral health. We investigated the relationship between regional deprivation and dental care utilization. Methods: Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between the regional deprivation level and dental care utilization purpose, adjusting for individual-level variables, in adults aged 19+ in the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey (n=220 258). Results: Among Korean adults, 12.8% used dental care to undergo examination and 21.0% visited a dentist for other reasons. In the final model, regional deprivation level was associated with significant variations in dental care utilization for examination (p<0.001). However, this relationship was not shown with dental care utilization for other reasons in the final model. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that policy interventions should be considered to reduce regional variations in rates of dental care utilization for examination. PMID:26265665

  13. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, taurodontism, and dens invagination); (b) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia, and hyperdontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and dentin dysplasia); and (d) position (including displacement, impaction, and dilacerations). The reliability between the two observers was 79.56% according to the Kappa statistics. The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 29%. Anomalies of position and number were the most common types of abnormalities, and anomalies of shape and structure were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (44.76%), dilacerations (21.11%), hypodontia (15.88%), taurodontism (9.29%), and hyperdontia (6.76%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. The anomalies of shape and number were more common in the age groups of 7-12 years and 13-15 years, respectively, while the anomalies of structure and position were more common among the other age groups. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies, and structure anomalies were the least in this Iranian population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies.

  14. [Evaluation method with radiographic image quality indicator for internal defects of dental casting metallic restoration].

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zheng, G; Lin, H

    2014-12-18

    To develop a new kind of dental radiographic image quality indicator (IQI) for internal quality of casting metallic restoration to influence on its usage life. Radiographic image quality indicator method was used to evaluate the depth of the defects region and internal quality of 127 casting metallic restoration and the accuracy was compared with that of conventional callipers method. In the 127 cases of casting metallic restoration, 9 were found the thickness less than 0.7 mm and the thinnest thickness only 0.2 mm in 26 casting metallic crowns or bridges' occlusal defects region. The data measured by image quality indicator were consistent with those measured by conventional gauging. Two metal inner crowns were found the thickness less than 0.3 mm in 56 porcelain crowns or bridges. The thickness of casting removable partial denture was more than 1.0 mm, but thinner regions were not found. It was found that in a titanium partial denture, the X-ray image of clasp was not uniform and there were internal porosity defects in the clasp. Special dental image quality indicator can solve the visual error problems caused by different observing backgrounds and estimate the depth of the defects region in the casting.

  15. Dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is the core diagnostic modality of veterinary dentistry. Dental radiographs assist in detecting hidden painful pathology, estimating the severity of dental conditions, assessing treatment options, providing intraoperative guidance, and also serve to monitor success of prior treatments. Unfortunately, most professional veterinary training programs provide little or no training in veterinary dentistry in general or dental radiology in particular. Although a technical learning curve does exist, the techniques required for producing diagnostic films are not difficult to master. Regular use of dental x-rays will increase the amount of pathology detected, leading to healthier patients and happier clients who notice a difference in how their pet feels. This article covers equipment and materials needed to produce diagnostic intraoral dental films. A simplified guide for positioning will be presented, including a positioning "cheat sheet" to be placed next to the dental x-ray machine in the operatory. Additionally, digital dental radiograph systems will be described and trends for their future discussed.

  16. Cleft palate with/without cleft lip in French children: radiographic evaluation of prevalence, location and coexistence of dental anomalies inside and outside cleft region.

    PubMed

    Mangione, Francesca; Nguyen, Laure; Foumou, Nathalie; Bocquet, Emmanuelle; Dursun, Elisabeth

    2018-03-01

    Prevalence of dental anomalies in cleft patients is higher than that in general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental anomalies and their coexistence in French children with cleft and, then, to investigate the relation between the dental anomalies and the cleft type. Seventy-four non-syndromic cleft patients (6-16 years old) from Lille Regional University and Mondor-Chenevier Hospitals (France) were included. Clefts were classified as right/left unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and cleft palate (CP). Dental anomalies were investigated on panoramic radiographs and categorized as agenesis, supernumerary teeth, incisor rotations, impacted canines and shape anomalies. Prevalence and gender distribution of dental anomalies, mean number of affected teeth per patient, agenesis occurrence and location, and coexistence of dental anomalies were analysed by cleft type. 96.0% of patients presented at least one dental anomaly (agenesis 83.8%, incisor rotations 25.7%, shape anomalies 21.6%, impacted canines 18.9%, supernumerary teeth 8.1%). BCLP patients had a higher number of affected teeth, and left UCLP patients had a higher one compared to right UCLP patients. Distribution of inside (45.3%) and outside (54.7%) cleft region agenesis was similar. Adjacent (31.8%) and not adjacent (33.3%) combined dental anomalies were often encountered. Dental anomalies were localized inside as well as outside cleft region and were often associated with each other. BCLP patients were more affected. Early radiographic evaluation allows a comprehensive diagnosis of inside and outside cleft region anomalies, required for the multidisciplinary dental treatment.

  17. Dental anomalies in pediatric patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Septer, Seth; Bohaty, Brenda; Onikul, Robin; Kumar, Vandana; Williams, Karen B; Attard, Thomas M; Friesen, Craig A; Friesen, Lynn Roosa

    2018-04-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis patients often present with non-malignant extra-intestinal manifestations which include dental anomalies that may be evident prior to the appearance of the colonic adenomas. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence and type of dental anomalies and the relationships between gene mutations and dental anomalies in these patients. Twenty-two pediatric familial adenomatous polyposis patients and 46 controls, who were age and gender matched participated. Familial adenomatous polyposis patient's had a dental examination with panoramic radiograph and medical record review for age at diagnosis, the presence of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutation, and determination of other extra-intestinal manifestations on the body. The control group was identified from a retrospective chart review and selected if there was a current panoramic radiograph. The only significant difference between familial adenomatous polyposis patients and controls were the presence of jaw osteomas and sclerosis (p = .0001). Patients with a mutation in, or upstream of codon 1309 had a higher frequency of osteomas (77.8%) and jaw-bone sclerosis (44.4%), and 77% of these had at least one dental anomaly. This preliminary study showed an association between a genetic variant at, or upstream of codon 1309, and radiographic dental anomalies.

  18. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method.

    PubMed

    Muto, Hiroshi; Tani, Yuji; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Yokooka, Yuki; Abe, Tamotsu; Sase, Yuji; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-09-30

    Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  19. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. Methods We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. Results The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. Conclusions The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients. PMID:21961846

  20. Current status on the application of image processing of digital intraoral radiographs amongst general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Tohidast, Parisa; Shi, Xie-Qi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to present the subjective knowledge level and the use of image processing on digital intraoral radiographs amongst general dental practitioners at Distriktståndvrden AB, Stockholm. A questionnaire, consisting of12 questions, was sent to 12 dental prac- tices in Stockholm. Additionally, 2000 radiographs were randomly selected from these clinics for evaluation of applied image processing and its effect on image quality. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were applied to present the current status of the use of image proces- sing alternatives for the dentists' daily clinical work. 50 out of 53 dentists participated in the survey.The survey showed that most of dentists in.this study had received education on image processing at some stage of their career. No correlations were found between application of image processing on one side and educa- tion received with regards to image processing, previous working experience, age and gender on the other. Image processing in terms of adjusting brightness and contrast was frequently used. Overall, in this study 24.5% of the 200 images were actually image processed in practice, in which 90% of the images were improved or maintained in image quality. According to our survey, image processing is experienced to be frequently used by the dentists at Distriktstandvåden AB for diagnosing anatomical and pathological changes using intraoral radiographs. 24.5% of the 200 images were actually image processed in terms of adjusting brightness and/or contrast. In the present study we did not found that the dentists' age, gender, previous working experience and education in image processing influence their viewpoint towards the application of image processing.

  1. Comparative analysis of intraoral radiographs with variation of tube angulation to detect insufficient crown margins.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Benjamin F; Geibel, Margrit-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Variations in angulation of the x-ray tube affect the appearance of insufficient approximal crown margins on intraoral radiographs. This study examines the impact of such angular variation on the assessment of digital radiographs using three different X-ray tubes--Heliodent DS (Sirona), Gendex Expert DC (KaVo Dental) and Focus (KaVo Dental)--as well as the Gendex Visualix eHD CCD sensor (KaVo Dental). The test specimens, crowned teeth 46 from two mandibles provided by the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, were examined with each tube. The results indicate great differences in the angles indicative of insufficient crown margins on X-ray images. Because of beam divergence and the crown marginal gap, the length and width of which frequently varies, it is difficult to infer any optimum angle from the data. This leads to the conclusion that at present, it is not possible to establish ideal angles for visualization of insufficient approximal crown margins.

  2. Feline dental radiography and radiology: A primer.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2014-11-01

    Information crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of feline oral diseases can be ascertained using dental radiography and the inclusion of this technology has been shown to be the best way to improve a dental practice. Becoming familar with the techniques required for dental radiology and radiography can, therefore, be greatly beneficial. Novices to dental radiography may need some time to adjust and become comfortable with the techniques. If using dental radiographic film, the generally recommended 'E' or 'F' speeds may be frustrating at first, due to their more specific exposure and image development requirements. Although interpreting dental radiographs is similar to interpreting a standard bony radiograph, there are pathologic states that are unique to the oral cavity and several normal anatomic structures that may mimic pathologic changes. Determining which teeth have been imaged also requires a firm knowledge of oral anatomy as well as the architecture of dental films/digital systems. This article draws on a range of dental radiography and radiology resources, and the benefit of the author's own experience, to review the basics of taking and interpreting intraoral dental radiographs. A simplified method for positioning the tubehead is explained and classic examples of some common oral pathologies are provided. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  3. Evaluation of dental therapists undertaking dental examinations in a school setting in Scotland.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Emma J; McMahon, Alex D; Jones, Colwyn M; Curnow, Morag M; Macpherson, Lorna M D

    2016-12-01

    To measure agreement between dental therapists and the Scottish gold-standard dentist undertaking National Dental Inspection Programme (NDIP) examinations. A study of interexaminer agreement between 19 dental therapists and the national gold-standard dentist was carried out. Pre-calibration training used the caries diagnostic criteria and examination techniques agreed by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD). Twenty-three 5-year-old children (Primary 1) and 17 11-year-old children (Primary 7) children were examined. Agreement was assessed using kappa statistics on d 3 mft and D 3 MFT for P1 and P7 children, sensitivity and specificity values, and kappa statistics on d 3 t/D 3 T and ft/FT. Calibration data on P1 and P7 children from 2009-2012 involving dentists as examiners were used for comparison. Economic evaluation was undertaken using a cost minimization analysis approach. The mean kappa score was 0.84 (SD 0.07) ranging from 0.69 to 0.94. All dental therapists scored good or very good agreement with the gold-standard dentist. This compares with historic NDIP calibration data with dentists, against the same gold-standard dentist, where the mean kappa value was 0.68 (SD 0.22) with a range of 0.35-1.00. The mean sensitivity score was 0.98 (SD 0.04) (range 0.88-1.0) and mean specificity score was 0.90 (SD 0.06) (range 0.78-0.96). Health economic analysis estimated that salary costs would be 33.6% lower if dental therapists were substituted for dentists in the year 2013, with an estimated saving of approximately £103 646 per annum on the national budget. We conclude that dental therapists show a high level of interexaminer agreement, and with the appropriate annual training and calibration, they could undertake dental examinations as part of the NDIP programme. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Diagnostic Yield of Recommendations for Chest CT Examination Prompted by Outpatient Chest Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, H. Benjamin; Gilman, Matthew D.; Wu, Carol C.; Cushing, Matthew S.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Zhao, Jing; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic yield of recommended chest computed tomography (CT) prompted by abnormalities detected on outpatient chest radiographic images. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. Reports of all outpatient chest radiographic examinations performed at a large academic center during 2008 (n = 29 138) were queried to identify studies that included a recommendation for a chest CT imaging. The radiology information system was queried for these patients to determine if a chest CT examination was obtained within 1 year of the index radiographic examination that contained the recommendation. For chest CT examinations obtained within 1 year of the index chest radiographic examination and that met inclusion criteria, chest CT images were reviewed to determine if there was an abnormality that corresponded to the chest radiographic finding that prompted the recommendation. All corresponding abnormalities were categorized as clinically relevant or not clinically relevant, based on whether further work-up or treatment was warranted. Groups were compared by using t test and Fisher exact test with a Bonferroni correction applied for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4.5% (1316 of 29138 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 4.3%, 4.8%]) of outpatient chest radiographic examinations that contained a recommendation for chest CT examination, and increasing patient age (P < .001) and positive smoking history (P = .001) were associated with increased likelihood of a recommendation for chest CT examination. Of patients within this subset who met inclusion criteria, 65.4% (691 of 1057 [95% CI: 62.4%, 68.2%) underwent a chest CT examination within the year after the index chest radiographic examination. Clinically relevant corresponding abnormalities were present on chest CT images in 41.4% (286 of 691 [95% CI: 37.7%, 45.2%]) of cases, nonclinically relevant corresponding abnormalities in

  5. Survey of Radiographic Requirements and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Shawkat, Abdul H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of dental schools revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. There was a high degree of variability as to what constituted a full radiographic survey, which has implications concerning the maximum limits to patient exposure to radiation. (Author/MLW)

  6. Basic concepts and techniques of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tagliareni, Jonathan M; Clarkson, Earl

    2015-04-01

    Dental implants provide completely edentulous and partial edentulous patients the function and esthetics they had with natural dentition. It is critical to understand and apply predictable surgical principles when treatment planning and surgically restoring edentulous spaces with implants. This article defines basic implant concepts that should be meticulously followed for predictable results when treating patients and restoring dental implants. Topics include biological and functional considerations, biomechanical considerations, preoperative assessments, medical history and risk assessments, oral examinations, radiographic examinations, contraindications, and general treatment planning options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue Engineering of Necrotic Dental Pulp of Immature Teeth with Apical Periodontitis in Dogs: Radiographic and Histological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; El Ashiry, Mahmoud K; Bastawy, Hagar A; El Derwi, Douaa A; Atta, Hazem M

    2018-05-15

    To evaluate tissue engineering technology to regenerate pulp-dentin like tissues in pulp canals of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs. The study was performed on 36 teeth in 12 dogs. The experiment was carried out using split mouth design. In each dog 3 teeth were selected for implementing the study procedure. Apical periodontitis was induced in Group A and B teeth. Group (A): immature upper left 2 nd permanent incisors that were transplanted with a construct of autologous dental pulp stem cells with growth factors seeded in a chitosn hydrogel scaffold. Group (B): immature upper right 2 nd permanent incisor that received only growth factors with scaffold. A third tooth in each dog was selected randomly for isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Both groups were closed with a double coronal seal of white MTA (Mineral trioxide aggregate) and glass ionomer cement. Both groups were monitored radiographically for 4 months and histologically after sacrificing the animals. There was no statistically significant difference in radiographic findings between group (A) and group (B) for healing of radiolucencies, while there was statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) regarding radicular thickening, root lengthening and apical closure. Histologically, group (A) teeth showed regeneration of pulp-dentin like tissue while group (B) teeth did not show any tissue regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells and growth factors incorporated in chitosan hydrogel are able to regenerate pulp-dentine like tissue and help in complete root maturation of non-vital immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs.

  8. Correlation of the Radiographic and Morphological Features of the Dental Follicle of Third Molars with Incomplete Root Formation

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, David Moraes; de Souza ANDRADE, Emanuel Sávio; da SILVEIRA, Márcia Maria Fonseca; CAMARGO, Igor Batista

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the radiographic and morphological features of the dental follicle of unerupted third molars with incomplete root formation. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 56 patients (105 teeth) aged 13 to 24 years. Panoramic radiography was used to determine the stage of root formation to locate and measure pericoronal radiolucency. The width of the dental follicle ranged from 0.0 to 4.0 mm, the distal face being the one most frequently involved, and stage 7 of root formation showing the highest incidence. An inactive enamel reduced epithelium and inactive epithelium remnant also showed a high incidence. Dense connective tissue showed a high incidence, chronic inflammation was infrequent and calcification was a common finding. There was a significant association between the progression of the rhizogenesis and the transformation of the enamel reduced epithelium into a stratified squamous epithelium. No significant association was found between rhizogenesis and the other morphological findings or between the latter and the width of the pericoronal space. It was concluded that there was no clinically significant correlation between the radiographic and morphological features. Every asymptomatic unerupted third molar should be followed up and the follicular tissue analyzed. PMID:18311329

  9. Radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries-influence of experience and gender of the dental staff.

    PubMed

    Geibel, Margrit-Ann; Carstens, S; Braisch, U; Rahman, A; Herz, M; Jablonski-Momeni, A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experience and gender on the radiographic detection of proximal caries lesions and on therapeutic decisions. A survey of 220 examiners (students and employees at three universities and dentists in the field) was taken using a standardized written questionnaire concerning radiographic diagnosis and therapy planning. An expert opinion of four dentists was determined as radiographic reference. A mixed effect logistic regression model was used for statistical evaluation and the odds ratio and p values were calculated (α = 0.05). Examiners with experience had an almost four times greater chance of a correct assessment, if proximal caries lesion was present or not, than examiners with low experience (OR 3.7 (95% CI 2.4-5.8)). No gender-specific differences were discovered (OR women vs. men 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.4)). There was a relationship between the severity of the burnout effect on the x-ray and false positive caries diagnosis. Overall, 43% of respondents would plan invasive treatment in the enamel on a patient at low risk of caries and 78% on a high-risk patient. The results showed that the more experienced practitioners would be more likely to postpone restorative therapy on proximal caries until the lesion reached a later stage. The results of this study suggest that examiner's experience influences the radiographic diagnosis of proximal lesions. No gender-specific differences could be found. Examiner's professional experience is an important factor when radiography is included for detection and treatment planning of proximal lesions.

  10. Use of a Self-Instructional Radiographic Anatomy Module for Dental Hygiene Faculty Calibration.

    PubMed

    Brame, Jennifer L; AlGheithy, Demah Salem; Platin, Enrique; Mitchell, Shannon H

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Dental hygiene educators often provide inconsistent instruction in clinical settings and various attempts to address the lack of consistency have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if the use of a use of a self-instructional, radiographic anatomy (SIRA) module improved DH faculty calibration regarding the identifica-tion of normal intraoral and extraoral radiographic anatomy and whether its effect could be sustained over a period of four months. Methods: A convenience sample consisting of all dental hygiene faculty members involved in clinical instruction (N=23) at the University of North Carolina (UNC) was invited to complete the four parts of this online pilot study: a pre-test, review of the SIRA module, an immediate post-test, and a four-month follow-up post-test. Descriptive analyses, the Friedman's ANOVA, and the exact form of the Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank test were used to an-alyze the data. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Participants who did not complete all parts of the study were omitted from data analysis comparing the pre to post-test performance. Results: The pre-test response rate was 73.9% (N=17), and 88.2% (N=15) of those initial participants completed both the immediate and follow-up post-tests. Faculty completing all parts of the study consisted of: 5 full-time faculty, 5 part-time faculty, and 5 graduate teaching assistants. The Friedman's ANOVA revealed no statistically significant difference (P=0.179) in percentages of correct responses between the three tests (pre, post and follow-up). The exact form of the Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank test revealed marginal significance when comparing percent of correct responses at pre-test and immediate post-test (P=0.054), and no statistically significant difference when comparing percent of correct responses at immediate post-test and the follow-up post-test four months later (P=0.106). Conclusions: Use of a SIRA module did not significantly affect DH

  11. Comparison of clinical and radiographic status around dental implants placed in patients with and without prediabetes: 1-year follow-up outcomes.

    PubMed

    Al Amri, Mohammad D; Abduljabbar, Tariq S; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Romanos, Georgios E; Javed, Fawad

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that peri-implant soft tissue inflammation is worse and peri-implant marginal bone loss (MBL) is higher around dental implants placed in patients with prediabetes compared to healthy subjects. The aim of the present 12-month follow-up study was to compare the clinical and radiographic status around dental implants placed in patients with and without prediabetes. Twelve patients with medically diagnosed prediabetes (Group-1) and 12 controls (Group-2) were included. All patients were indicated for single tooth maxillary or mandibular premolar replacement with the adjacent teeth intact. Success of the restored implants was assessed by comparing clinical (peri-implant bleeding on probing [BOP], and probing pocket depth [PPD]) and radiographic (peri-implant MBL) parameters at baseline and at 12-months follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, and P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. At 12 months of follow-up, there was no clinical evidence for the presence of plaque, BOP and peri-implant pockets with PPD ≥ 4 mm in both groups. At 12-month follow-up, the mean MBL among implants placed in groups 1 and 2 were 0.2 ± 0.1 mm and 0.1 ± 0.01 mm, respectively. Overall, the periodontal status (PI, BOP and PPD ≥ 4 mm) at 12-month follow-up was comparable among patients in both groups. Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that dental implants inserted in prediabetic and healthy patients have similar success rates and remain clinically and radiographically stable after 1-year follow-up. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields.

    PubMed

    Kelaranta, Anna; Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Dental radiography may involve situations where the patient is known to be pregnant or the pregnancy is noticed after the X-ray procedure. In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary. Upper estimates of radiation doses to the foetus and breasts of the pregnant patient were estimated with an anthropomorphic female phantom in intraoral, panoramic, cephalometric and CBCT dental modalities with and without lead shields. The upper estimates of foetal doses varied from 0.009 to 6.9 μGy, and doses at the breast level varied from 0.602 to 75.4 μGy. With lead shields, the foetal doses varied from 0.005 to 2.1 μGy, and breast doses varied from 0.002 to 10.4 μGy. The foetal dose levels without lead shielding were <1% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv for a member of the public. Albeit the relative shielding effect, the exposure-induced increase in the risk of breast cancer death for the pregnant patient (based on the breast dose only) and the exposure-induced increase in the risk of childhood cancer death for the unborn child are minimal, and therefore, need for foetal and breast lead shielding was considered irrelevant. Most important is that pregnancy is never a reason to avoid or to postpone a clinically justified dental radiographic examination.

  13. Perceived Dentist and Dental Hygienist Task Distribution After Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' Team Intervention.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Jan J; Krijnen, Wim P; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-04-01

    Attitudes of dental students regarding the provision of treatment tend to be dentist-centered; however, facilitating mixed student group formation could change such perceptions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived scope of practice of dental and dental hygiene students and whether their perceptions of task distribution between dentists and dental hygienists would change following an educational intervention consisting of feedback, intergroup comparison, and competition between mixed-group teams. The study employed a pretest-posttest single group design. Third-year dental students and second-year dental hygiene students at a university in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to intraprofessional teams (four or five members) and received team-based performance feedback and comparison. The intervention was finalized with an award ceremony for the best intraprofessional team. Before and after the intervention, students completed a questionnaire measuring their perceived distribution of ten tasks between dentists and dental hygienists. A total of 38 dental students and 32 dental hygiene students participated in the intervention-all 70 of those eligible. Questionnaires were completed by a total 88.4% (n=61) of the participants: 34 dental (89.5%) and 27 dental hygiene students (84.4%). Dental and dental hygiene students had similar perceptions regarding teeth cleaning (prophylaxis) (p=0.372, p=0.404) and, after the intervention, preventive tasks (p=0.078). Following the intervention, dental students considered four out of ten tasks as less dentist-centered: radiograph for periodontal diagnosis (p=0.003), local anesthesia (p=0.037), teeth cleaning (p=0.037), and periodontal treatment (p=0.045). Dental hygiene students perceived one task as being less dentist-centered after the intervention: radiograph for cariologic diagnosis (p=0.041). This study found that these dental and dental hygiene students had different opinions regarding the scope of practice

  14. The prevalence of specific dental anomalies in a group of Saudi cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Al-Balkhi, Khalid M; Al-Moammar, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.

  15. A comparison of Kodak Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed plus dental X-ray films for the detection of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Wong, A; Monsour, P A; Moule, A J; Basford, K E

    2002-03-01

    Using the fastest dental X-ray film available is an easy way of reducing exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the diagnostic ability of fast films for the detection of proximal surface caries must be demonstrated before these films will become universally accepted. Extracted premolar and molar teeth were arranged to simulate a bitewing examination and radiographed using Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray films. Three different exposure times were used for each film type. Six general dentists were used to determine the presence and depth of the decay in the proximal surfaces of the teeth radiographed. The actual extent of the decay in the teeth was determined by sectioning the teeth and examining them under a microscope. There was no significant difference between the two films for the mean correct diagnosis. However, there was a significant difference between the means for the three exposure times used for Ultraspeed film. The practitioners used were not consistent in their ability to make a correct diagnosis, or for the film for which they got the highest correct diagnosis. Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray film is just as reliable as Ultraspeed dental X-ray film for the detection of proximal surface decay. The effect of underexposure was significant for Ultraspeed, but not for Ektaspeed Plus. Patient exposure can be reduced significantly with no loss of diagnostic ability by changing from Ultraspeed X-ray film to Ektaspeed Plus X-ray film.

  16. Digital radiographic imaging: is the dental practice ready?

    PubMed

    Parks, Edwin T

    2008-04-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is slowly, but surely, replacing film-based imaging. It has many advantages over traditional imaging, but the technology also has some drawbacks. The author presents an overview of the types of digital image receptors available, image enhancement software and the range of costs for the new technology. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The expenses associated with converting to digital radiographic imaging are considerable. The purpose of this article is to provide the clinician with an overview of digital radiographic imaging technology so that he or she can be an informed consumer when evaluating the numerous digital systems in the marketplace.

  17. Evaluation of two imaging techniques: near-infrared transillumination and dental radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Maia, A M A; Karlsson, L; Margulis, W; Gomes, A S L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate a transillumination (TI) system using near-infrared (NIR) light and bitewing radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries lesions. Mesiodistal sections of teeth (n = 14) were cut with various thicknesses from 1.5 mm to 4.75 mm. Both sides of each section were included, 17 approximal surfaces with natural enamel caries and 11 surfaces considered intact. The approximal surfaces were illuminated by NIR light and X-ray. Captured images were analysed by two calibrated specialists in radiology, and re-analysed after 6 months using stereomicroscope images as a gold standard. The interexaminer reliability (Kappa test statistic) for the NIR TI technique showed moderate agreement on first (0.55) and second (0.48) evaluation, and low agreement for bitewing radiographs on first (0.26) and second (0.32) evaluation. In terms of accuracy, the sensitivity for the NIR TI system was 0.88 and the specificity was 0.72. For the bitewing radiographs the sensitivity ranged from 0.35 to 0.53 and the specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. In the same samples and conditions tested, NIR TI images showed reliability and the enamel caries surfaces were better identified than on dental radiographs.

  18. Evaluation of two imaging techniques: near-infrared transillumination and dental radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Maia, A M A; Karlsson, L; Margulis, W; Gomes, A S L

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper was to evaluate a transillumination (TI) system using near-infrared (NIR) light and bitewing radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries lesions. Methods Mesiodistal sections of teeth (n = 14) were cut with various thicknesses from 1.5 mm to 4.75 mm. Both sides of each section were included, 17 approximal surfaces with natural enamel caries and 11 surfaces considered intact. The approximal surfaces were illuminated by NIR light and X-ray. Captured images were analysed by two calibrated specialists in radiology, and re-analysed after 6 months using stereomicroscope images as a gold standard. Results The interexaminer reliability (Kappa test statistic) for the NIR TI technique showed moderate agreement on first (0.55) and second (0.48) evaluation, and low agreement for bitewing radiographs on first (0.26) and second (0.32) evaluation. In terms of accuracy, the sensitivity for the NIR TI system was 0.88 and the specificity was 0.72. For the bitewing radiographs the sensitivity ranged from 0.35 to 0.53 and the specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. Conclusion In the same samples and conditions tested, NIR TI images showed reliability and the enamel caries surfaces were better identified than on dental radiographs. PMID:21960400

  19. 21 CFR 1000.60 - Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recommendation on administratively required dental... Recommendations § 1000.60 Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. (a) The Food and Drug Administration recommends that dental x-ray examinations be performed only after careful...

  20. 21 CFR 1000.60 - Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recommendation on administratively required dental... Recommendations § 1000.60 Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. (a) The Food and Drug Administration recommends that dental x-ray examinations be performed only after careful...

  1. 21 CFR 1000.60 - Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recommendation on administratively required dental... Recommendations § 1000.60 Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. (a) The Food and Drug Administration recommends that dental x-ray examinations be performed only after careful...

  2. 21 CFR 1000.60 - Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recommendation on administratively required dental... Recommendations § 1000.60 Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. (a) The Food and Drug Administration recommends that dental x-ray examinations be performed only after careful...

  3. 21 CFR 1000.60 - Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recommendation on administratively required dental... Recommendations § 1000.60 Recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. (a) The Food and Drug Administration recommends that dental x-ray examinations be performed only after careful...

  4. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields

    PubMed Central

    Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dental radiography may involve situations where the patient is known to be pregnant or the pregnancy is noticed after the X-ray procedure. In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary. Methods: Upper estimates of radiation doses to the foetus and breasts of the pregnant patient were estimated with an anthropomorphic female phantom in intraoral, panoramic, cephalometric and CBCT dental modalities with and without lead shields. Results: The upper estimates of foetal doses varied from 0.009 to 6.9 μGy, and doses at the breast level varied from 0.602 to 75.4 μGy. With lead shields, the foetal doses varied from 0.005 to 2.1 μGy, and breast doses varied from 0.002 to 10.4 μGy. Conclusions: The foetal dose levels without lead shielding were <1% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv for a member of the public. Albeit the relative shielding effect, the exposure-induced increase in the risk of breast cancer death for the pregnant patient (based on the breast dose only) and the exposure-induced increase in the risk of childhood cancer death for the unborn child are minimal, and therefore, need for foetal and breast lead shielding was considered irrelevant. Most important is that pregnancy is never a reason to avoid or to postpone a clinically justified dental radiographic examination. PMID:26313308

  5. Comparison of conventional and digital radiography for radiometric differentiation of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Baksi, B Güniz; Ermis, R Banu

    2007-10-01

    To test the efficacy of conventional radiometry with indirect digital image analysis in the assessment of the relative radiopacity of dental cements used as liners or bases compared to human enamel and dentin. Disks of 15 different dental cements, 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were exposed to radiation together with 2-mm-thick disks of enamel and dentin and an aluminum step wedge. Density was evaluated by digital transmission densitometry and with the histogram function of an image analysis program following digitization of the radiographs with a flatbed scanner. A higher number of dental cements were discriminated from both dentin and enamel with conventional radiographic densitometer. All the cements examined, except Ionoseal (Voco) and Ionobond (Voco), were more radiopaque than dentin. With both methods, Chelon-Silver (3M ESPE) had the highest radiopacity and glass-ionomer cements the lowest. Radiodensity of dental cements can be differentiated with a high probability with the conventional radiometric method.

  6. Extra-oral dental radiography for disaster victims using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, M; Oshima, T; Mimasaka, S

    2017-12-01

    Forensic odontologists commonly incise the skin for post-mortem dental examinations when it is difficult to open the victim's mouth. However, it is prohibited by law to incise dead bodies without permission in Japan. Therefore, we attempted using extra-oral dental radiography, using a digital X-ray equipment with rechargeable batteries, to overcome this restriction. A phantom was placed in the prone position on a table, and three plain dental radiographs were used per case: "lateral oblique radiographs" for left and right posterior teeth and a "contact radiograph" for anterior teeth were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator. The resolving power of the images was measured by a resolution test chart, and the scattered X-ray dose was measured using an ionization chamber-type survey meter. The resolving power of the flat panel X-ray detector was 3.0 lp/mm, which was less than that of intra-oral dental methods, but the three extra-oral plain dental radiographs provided the overall dental information from outside of the mouth, and this approach was less time-consuming. In addition, the higher dose of scattered X-rays was laterally distributed, but the dose per case was much less than that of intra-oral dental radiographs. Extra-oral plain dental radiography can be used for disaster victim identification by dental methods even when it is difficult to open the mouth. Portable and rechargeable devices, such as a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator, are convenient to bring and use anywhere, even at a disaster scene lacking electricity and water.

  7. Determination of the mental foramen position in dental radiographs in 18-30 year olds.

    PubMed

    Currie, Charlotte C; Meechan, John G; Whitworth, John M; Carr, Andrew; Corbett, Ian P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the radiographic position and reliability of assessing mental foramen (MF) position in relation to premolar crowns in an 18- to 30-year-old UK-based population. Following ethical approval and a power calculation, the position of the MF was recorded in relation to premolar crowns and apices in 100 dental panoramic tomographs. Positions were assessed by three senior clinicians independently, then by consensus. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) and Fleiss' and Cohen's kappa. Reliability data showed only fair to moderate agreement on independent scoring. Substantial to almost perfect agreement was achieved by consensus, demonstrating the most common position for the MF to be between the first and second premolar teeth when using both premolar crowns (51%) and apices (76%) as reference points. There was a significant difference in the position of the foramen between the left and right sides (p < 0.05), with only 62% of cases showing symmetry. The most common position for the MF is between the first and second premolar teeth; however, anatomical variation is seen. Use of pre-operative radiographs to relate the position of the MF to premolar crowns may not be reliable.

  8. Continuous measurements of mandibular cortical width on dental panoramic radiographs for computer-aided diagnosis of osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, M. S.; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided osteoporosis diagnosis system that automatically determines the inferior cortical width of the mandible continuously on dental panoramic radiographs to realize statistically more robust measurements than the conventional one-point measurements. The cortical width was continuously measured on dental panoramic radiographs by enhancing the original image, determining cortical boundaries, and finally evaluating the distance between boundaries continuously throughout the region of interest. The diagnostic performance using the average width calculated from the continuous measurement was compared with BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women of whom 50 to the development of the tool and 50 to its validation with no history of osteoporosis was evaluated. We experimentally showed the superiority of our method with improved sensitivity and specificity of identifying the development subjects were 90.0% and 75.0% in women with low spinal BMD and 81.8% and 69.2% in those with low femoral BMD, respectively. The corresponding values in the validation subjects were 93.3% and 82.9% at the lumbar spine and 92.3% and 75.7% at the femoral neck, respectively in terms of efficacy for diagnosing osteoporosis. We also assessed the diagnosis and classification of women with osteoporosis using support vector machine employing the average and variance of the continuous measurements gave excellent discrimination ability. It yields sensitivity and specificity of 90.9% and 83.8%, respectively with lumbar spine and 90.0% and 69.1%, respectively with femoral neck BMD. Performance comparison and simplicity of this method indicate that our computeraided system is readily applicable to clinical practice.

  9. Prevalence of TMJ Disorders among the Patients Attending the Dental Clinic of Ajman University of Science and Technology-Fujairah Campus, UAE.

    PubMed

    AlShaban, Kashef K; Gul Abdul Waheed, Zainab

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (if any) among the patients attending the dental clinic (for routine dental treatment) of Ajman University of Science and Technology (AUST)-Fujairah campus, UAE, and its possible causes. A sample of 100 adult patients attending the dental clinic of AUST for different types of dental treatment were collected; the routine examination of the TMJ and possible disorders such as clicking, crepitation, limitation or deviation during mouth opening, or tenderness reveals that 41% of the sample experience varying degrees of disorders in the TMJ. Radiographs were taken if needed (panoramic radiograph). The information was collected and recorded for each patient through questionnaires.

  10. Automated classification of mandibular cortical bone on dental panoramic radiographs for early detection of osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiba, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Fukui, Tatsumasa; Hara, Takeshi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Findings on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) have shown that mandibular cortical index (MCI) based on the morphology of mandibular inferior cortex was significantly correlated with osteoporosis. MCI on DPRs can be categorized into one of three groups and has the high potential for identifying patients with osteoporosis. However, most DPRs are used only for diagnosing dental conditions by dentists in their routine clinical work. Moreover, MCI is not generally quantified but assessed subjectively. In this study, we investigated a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that automatically classifies mandibular cortical bone for detection of osteoporotic patients at early stage. First, an inferior border of mandibular bone was detected by use of an active contour method. Second, regions of interest including the cortical bone are extracted and analyzed for its thickness and roughness. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) differentiate cases into three MCI categories by features including the thickness and roughness. Ninety eight DPRs were used to evaluate our proposed scheme. The number of cases classified to Class I, II, and III by a dental radiologist are 56, 25 and 17 cases, respectively. Experimental result based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluation showed that the sensitivities for the classes I, II, and III were 94.6%, 57.7% and 94.1%, respectively. Distribution of the groups in the feature space indicates a possibility of MCI quantification by the proposed method. Therefore, our scheme has a potential in identifying osteoporotic patients at an early stage.

  11. Examiner Training and Reliability in Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Adult Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Banting, David W.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Bader, James D.; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gullion, Christina M.; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K.; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V.; Singh, Mabi L.; Vollmer, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra- examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Methods Study examiners were trained to use a modified ICDAS-II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2) and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. Results The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4% to 13.5% of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23– 0.35) but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42– 0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 vs. D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90.Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classification systems employed. Conclusion The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. PMID:22320292

  12. Examiner training and reliability in two randomized clinical trials of adult dental caries.

    PubMed

    Banting, David W; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gullion, Christina M; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V; Singh, Mabi L; Vollmer, William M

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra-examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Study examiners were trained to use a modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2), and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3,604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4 percent to 13.5 percent of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23-0.35), but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42-0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 versus D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90. Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classifications employed. The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Predicting successful dental examinations for children with autism spectrum disorder in the context of a dental desensitization program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Travis; Chim, Amelia; Sheller, Barbara L; McKinney, Christy M; Scott, JoAnna M

    2017-07-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of a dental desensitization program for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and determined characteristics associated with a successful dental examination. The authors performed a retrospective review of clinical behavioral data and previsit questionnaires for 168 children with ASD who attended a university-based dental desensitization program. Data elements included demographic, treatment, and behavioral characteristics. The primary outcome was receiving a minimal threshold examination (MTE) while seated in a dental chair. An MTE was achieved for 77.4% of all children within 1 to 2 visits and 87.5% in 5 visits or less. Several factors predicted a successful dental examination: ability to be involved in group activities (relative risk [RR], 1.18; P = .02), ability to communicate verbally (RR, 1.17; P < .01), understanding of most language (RR, 1.14; P = .02), moderate versus severe caregiver-rated ASD severity (RR, 1.24; P = .04), and ability to dress self (RR, 1.27; P = .04). Desensitization was effective in achieving an MTE for most children. Those with characteristics consistent of a milder presentation of ASD were more likely to be successful. Desensitization can be a successful approach to providing dental care for children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Full-Mouth Intraoral Radiographic Survey in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Adriana; Legendre, Loïc

    2017-09-01

    Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique. As new imaging technologies are becoming widely available and affordable for veterinarians, intraoral radiography offers the ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat oral pathologies in lagomorphs. This article describes a step-by-step procedure to obtain a full-mouth radiographic survey in rabbits. For this technique, a standard dental X-ray generator and intraoral storage phosphor plates are used while applying the bisecting angle technique. Among the advantages of this technique are detailed visualization of internal and external dental structures, identification of early lesions, and detection of occult pathologies. Furthermore, intraoral images offer superior resolution and higher diagnostic quality with minimal radiation exposure, making this method safer for the veterinarian, staff members, and their patients.

  15. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India

    PubMed Central

    Satheeshkumar, PS; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. Materials and Methods: A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Results: Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Conclusion: Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease. PMID:23349577

  16. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease.

  17. Radiographic assessment of third molars development and it's relation to dental and chronological age in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Monirifard, Mohamad; Yaraghi, Navid; Vali, Ava; Vali, Asana; Vali, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate chronological age based on third molar development and to determine the association between dental age and third molar calcification stages. In this cross-sectional study, 505 digital panoramic radiographs of 223 males (44.2%) and 282 females (55.8%) between the age of 6 and 17 were selected from patients who were treated in Departments of Pediatrics and Orthodontics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences between the years of 2009 and 2013. Correlation between chronological age and third molar development was analyzed with SPSS 21 using Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient, Chi-square test and multiple regression statistical tests (P < 0.05). All third molars demonstrated a highly significant correlation with dental age (P < 0.001). The teeth showing the highest relationship with dental age were mandibular left third molar in males and mandibular right third molar in females (r s = 0.072). When multiple regression was used to predict dental age based on molar calcification stage, the only significant correlation was between maxillary left third molar in males (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation for any of third molars in females. Relationship between chronological age and molars development stage was significant in all age subgroups and in both gender (P < 0.001). Strong correlation was observed between left third molars and dental age in males. Results showed that third molar calcification stage can be used as an age predictor and in general mandibular teeth seems to be more reliable for this purpose in both genders and in all ages.

  18. The prevalence of dental anomalies in an Australian population.

    PubMed

    Dang, H Q; Constantine, S; Anderson, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies within an Australian paediatric population using panoramic radiographs. This was a prospective review of 1050 panoramic radiographs obtained as part of a school dental screening program in suburban and rural New South Wales, Australia. Fifty-four (5.14%) patients had a dental anomaly present. Agenesis was noted to have occurred 69 times across 45 patients (4.28%), along with seven cases of impaction (0.6%) and three cases of supernumerary teeth (0.28%). Dental anomalies rarely occur in the Australian population, which possesses a wide-ranging multiethnic cohort. Despite their rarity, they can be incidentally discovered so identification and management by dental practitioners are important. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Use of a non-volatile agent to stabilize severely incinerated dental remains.

    PubMed

    Berketa, John; James, Helen; Langlois, Neil; Richards, Lindsay; Pigou, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify volatile-free products that would be suitable for stabilizing incinerated dental remains at the scene of an incident, and that would not compromise any postmortem examination. The anterior mandibles of sheep were incinerated, sprayed unilaterally with stabilizing agents, vibrated for 30 s, and assessed. The effect of the stabilizing solutions on radiographic examination was also recorded. Tests for volatility and the effect on human mandibles were also conducted. A flour/water mixture of one part flour to two parts water, and a paste mixture of one part Clag™ glue to one part water both produced significant stabilization results. The flour mixture left an opaque layer on the samples that it was applied to, which still allowed dental examination, but the glue paste mixture resulted in a clearer layer. Both solutions allowed radiographic examination and were free of volatiles. Diluted Clag™ paste, when sprayed on to incinerated remains, assists in their stabilization for transportation. When Clag™ paste is unavailable a mixture of two parts water to one part plain flour could be utilized for stabilization.

  20. Digital transillumination in caries detection versus radiographic and clinical methods: an in-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Capi, Cynthia; Lingström, Peter; Lai, Gianfranco; Cocco, Fabio; Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte; Campus, Guglielmo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This article aimed to evaluate: (a) the agreement between a near-infrared light transillumination device and clinical and radiographic examinations in caries lesion detection and (b) the reliability of images captured by the transillumination device. Methods: Two calibrated examiners evaluated the caries status in premolars and molars on 52 randomly selected subjects by comparing the transillumination device with a clinical examination for the occlusal surfaces and by comparing the transillumination device with a radiographic examination (bitewing radiographs) for the approximal surfaces. Forty-eight trained dental hygienists evaluated and reevaluated 30 randomly selected images 1-month later. Results: A high concordance between transillumination method and clinical examination (kappa = 0.99) was detected for occlusal caries lesions, while for approximal surfaces, the transillumination device identified a higher number of lesions with respect to bitewing (kappa = 0.91). At the dentinal level, the two methods identified the same number of caries lesions (kappa = 1), whereas more approximal lesions were recorded using the transillumination device in the enamel (kappa = 0.24). The intraexaminer reliability was substantial/almost perfect in 59.4% of the participants. Conclusions: The transillumination method showed a high concordance compared with traditional methods (clinical examination and bitewing radiographs). Caries detection reliability using the transillumination device images showed a high intraexaminer agreement. Transillumination showed to be a reliable method and as effective as traditional methods in caries detection. PMID:28191797

  1. Examining the implications of dental treatment costs for low-income families.

    PubMed

    Snow, Patrick; McNally, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Dental disease is concentrated among those with low socioeconomic status. Dental care is not publicly funded, and many Canadians must therefore make difficult financial choices when accessing dental care. Families who live in poverty have difficulty meeting even their most basic household needs, so dental treatment may not be affordable. The objective of this study was to understand how the cost of dental treatment affects the monthly budgets of families with low incomes. A chart review was conducted for a sample of 213 new patients examined at the Dalhousie University dental clinic over a 1-year period. Costs for proposed treatment plans were averaged. The patients" ability to pay for proposed treatment was examined in the context of various income scenarios. Two hundred and one patients were included in the final analysis. Dental treatment costs per patient averaged approximately $1600 for the year, with 42% of the planned treatment completed within the first year. The estimated monthly cost of completed treatment was $55. When the cost of a healthy diet was included in the monthly budget, it was determined that families in Nova Scotia with parents working for minimum wage and those receiving income assistance would experience a 100% shortfall for dental expenses. Low-income families in Nova Scotia were unable to afford both a nutritious diet and dental care. This is disturbing, given the links between a healthy diet and both overall health and dental health. An understanding of the significance of income shortfalls for those with low incomes, especially as they affect even basic nutritional needs, will help dental professionals to appreciate the seriousness of this issue and the difficulties that many Canadians face when trying to access basic dental care.

  2. Association Between National Board Dental Examination Part II Scores and Comprehensive Examinations at Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyeong; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2011-01-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based approach to teaching in the predoctoral program. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a formative examination designed to assess the performance of students in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At HSDM three comprehensive examinations with OSCE components are administered during the third and fourth years of clinical training. The National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part II is taken in the final year of the predoctoral program. This study examines the association between the NBDE Part II and the comprehensive exams held at HSDM. Predoctoral students from the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. The outcome variable of interest was the scores obtained by students in the NBDE Part II, and the main independent variable of interest was the performance of students in the comprehensive exams (honors, pass, make-up exam to pass). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to examine the association between the grades obtained in the each of the three comprehensive exams and the NBDE Part II scores. Multivariable linear regression analysis was also used to examine the association between the NBDE Part II scores and the comprehensive exam grades. The effect of potential confounding factors including age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted. The results suggest that students who performed well in the comprehensive exams performed better on the NBDE Part II, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Future studies will examine the long-term impact of PBL on postdoctoral plans and career choices.

  3. Performance of Dental Hygiene Students in Mass Fatality Training and Radiographic Imaging of Dental Remains.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Ulmer, Loreta H; Diawara, Norou

    2015-10-01

    Mass fatality incidents can overwhelm local, state and national resources quickly. Dental hygienists are widely distributed and have the potential to increase response teams' capacity. However, appropriate training is required. The literature is void of addressing this type of training for dental hygienists and scant in dentistry. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess one facet of such training: Whether the use of multimedia is likely to enhance educational outcomes related to mass fatality training. A randomized, double-blind, pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of comparable educational modules for 2 groups: a control group (n=19) that received low media training and a treatment group (n=20) that received multimedia training. Participants were second-year, baccalaureate dental hygiene students. Study instruments included a multiple-choice examination, a clinical competency-based radiology lab scored via a standardized rubric, and an assessment of interest in mass fatality education as a specialty. ANOVA was used to analyze results. Participants' pre- and post-test scores and clinical competency-based radiology lab scores increased following both educational approaches. Interest in mass fatality training also increased significantly for all participants (p=0.45). There was no significant difference in pre- and post-test multiple choice scores (p=0.6455), interest (p=0.9133) or overall competency-based radiology lab scores (p=0.997) between groups. Various educational technique may be effective for mass fatality training. However, mass fatality training that incorporates multimedia is an appropriate avenue for training instruction. Continued research about multimedia's role in this specialty area is encouraged. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  4. Dosimetric considerations in dental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goble, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The integration of the Lixiscope into dental procedures was studied and compared with conventional dental radiographic techniques. It was found that through the use of intraoral sealed sources in conjunction with microchannel plate technology, the Lixiscope gives increased diagnostic information with decreased radiation dosage.

  5. Radiographic assessment of third molars development and it's relation to dental and chronological age in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Monirifard, Mohamad; Yaraghi, Navid; Vali, Ava; Vali, Asana; Vali, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to estimate chronological age based on third molar development and to determine the association between dental age and third molar calcification stages. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 505 digital panoramic radiographs of 223 males (44.2%) and 282 females (55.8%) between the age of 6 and 17 were selected from patients who were treated in Departments of Pediatrics and Orthodontics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences between the years of 2009 and 2013. Correlation between chronological age and third molar development was analyzed with SPSS 21 using Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient, Chi-square test and multiple regression statistical tests (P < 0.05). Results: All third molars demonstrated a highly significant correlation with dental age (P < 0.001). The teeth showing the highest relationship with dental age were mandibular left third molar in males and mandibular right third molar in females (rs = 0.072). When multiple regression was used to predict dental age based on molar calcification stage, the only significant correlation was between maxillary left third molar in males (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation for any of third molars in females. Relationship between chronological age and molars development stage was significant in all age subgroups and in both gender (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Strong correlation was observed between left third molars and dental age in males. Results showed that third molar calcification stage can be used as an age predictor and in general mandibular teeth seems to be more reliable for this purpose in both genders and in all ages. PMID:25709677

  6. Evaluating postdoctoral dental candidates: assessing the need and recommendations for a national qualifying examination.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Abby J; Crow, Heidi C; Eber, Robert M; Handysides, Robert; Holexa, Roy; Kiat-amnuay, Sudarat; Spallek, Heiko

    2011-06-01

    Increasingly, U.S. dental schools report pass/fail grades and do not rank students. In addition, the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations will report National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) scores as pass/fail after January 1, 2012. This article discusses how these changes will force postdoctoral dental program directors to modify how they assess candidates and how noncognitive evaluations might enhance those assessments. The authors propose developing a national qualifying examination for postdoctoral dental programs that will measure knowledge, decision making, and noncognitive traits including empathy, self-confidence, integrity, and emotional intelligence. Without NBDE scores, class rank, and GPA as a basis for decision making, a single national qualifying examination would assist postdoctoral programs in selecting high-quality candidates based on knowledge, critical thinking skills, and noncognitive traits.

  7. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers.

    PubMed

    Paolicchi, F; Miniati, F; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A; Creonti, I; Sottocornola, C; Dionisi, C; Caramella, D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated the radiation dose of almost all radiological procedures. About 5 % and 4 % of the participants, respectively, claimed that pelvis magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal ultrasound exposed patients to radiation. On the contrary, 7.0 % of the radiographers stated that mammography does not use ionising radiation. About half of participants believed that radiation-induced cancer is not dependent on age or gender and were not able to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic effects. Young radiographers (with less than 3 years of experience) showed a higher level of knowledge compared with the more experienced radiographers. There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. • Specific actions must be considered in order to increase knowledge and awareness.

  8. Accuracy and consistency of radiographic interpretation among clinical instructors using two viewing systems.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Sharon K; Best, Al M; Temple, Henry J; Richards, Philip S; Carey, Allison; McCauley, Laurie K

    2006-02-01

    Accurate and consistent radiographic interpretation among clinical instructors is needed for assessment of teaching, student performance, and patient care. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the method of radiographic viewing affects accuracy and consistency of instructors' determinations of bone loss. Forty-one clinicians who provide instruction in a dental school clinical teaching program (including periodontists, general dentists, periodontal graduate students, and dental hygienists) quantified bone loss for up to twenty-five teeth into four descriptive categories using a view box for plain film viewing or a projection system for digitized image viewing. Ratings were compared to the correct category as determined by direct measurement using the Schei ruler. Agreement with the correct choice for the view box and projection system was 70.2 percent and 64.5 percent, respectively. The mean difference was better for a projection system due to small rater error by graduate students. Projection system ratings were slightly less consistent than view box ratings. Dental hygiene faculty ratings were the most consistent but least accurate. Although the projection system resulted in slightly reduced accuracy and consistency among instructors, training sessions utilizing a single method for projecting digitized radiographic images have their advantages and may positively influence dental education and patient care by enhancing accuracy and consistency of radiographic interpretation among instructors.

  9. Dental anomalies: prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Laganà, G; Venza, N; Borzabadi-Farahani, A; Fabi, F; Danesi, C; Cozza, P

    2017-03-11

    To analyze the prevalence and associations between dental anomalies detectable on panoramic radiographs in a sample of non-orthodontic growing subjects. For this cross-sectional study, digital panoramic radiographs of 5005 subjects were initially screened from a single radiographic center in Rome. Inclusion criteria were: subjects who were aged 8-12 years, Caucasian, and had good diagnostic quality radiographs. Syndromic subjects, those with craniofacial malformation, or orthodontic patients were excluded and this led to a sample of 4706 subjects [mean (SD) age = 9.6 (1.2) years, 2366 males and 2340 females]. Sample was subsequently divided into four subgroups (8, 9, 10, and 11-12 year-old groups). Two operators examined panoramic radiographs to observe the presence of common dental anomalies. The prevalence and associations between dental anomalies were also investigated. The overall prevalence of dental anomalies was 20.9%. Approximately, 17.9% showed only one anomaly, 2.7% two anomalies, while only 0.3% had more than two anomalies. The most frequent anomalies were the displacement of maxillary canine (7.5%), hypodontia (7.1%), impacted teeth (3.9%), tooth ankylosis (2.8%), and tooth transposition (1.4%). The lower right second premolar was the most frequent missing teeth; 3.7% had only one tooth agenesis, and 0.08% had six or more missing tooth (Oligodontia). Mesiodens was the most common type of supernumerary tooth (0.66%). Two subjects had taurodontic tooth (0.04%). Tooth transpositions and displacement of maxillary canine were seen in 1.4 and 7.5%, retrospectively (approximately 69 and 58% were in the 8 and 9 year-old groups, retrospectively). Significant associations were detected between the different dental anomalies (P < .05). The results of our study revealed significant associations among different dental anomalies and provide further evidences to support common etiological factors.

  10. Using the Monte Carlo method for assessing the tissue and organ doses of patients in dental radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, K. O.; Minenko, V. F.; Verenich, K. A.; Kuten, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    This work is dedicated to modeling dental radiographic examinations to assess the absorbed doses of patients and effective doses. For simulating X-ray spectra, the TASMIP empirical model is used. Doses are assessed on the basis of the Monte Carlo method by using MCNP code for voxel phantoms of ICRP. The results of the assessment of doses to individual organs and effective doses for different types of dental examinations and features of X-ray tube are presented.

  11. Prediction of low bone mass using a combinational approach of cortical and trabecular bone measures from dental panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kathirvelu, D; Anburajan, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to extract cortical and trabecular features of the mandible and to develop a novel combinational model of mandibular cortical thickness, trabecular bone area and age in order to predict low bone mineral density or osteoporosis from a dental panoramic radiograph. The study involved 64 south Indian women (age = 52.5 ± 12.7 years) categorised into two groups (normal and low bone mineral density) based on total femur bone mineral density. The dental panoramic radiographs were obtained by a digital scanner, and measurement of total bone mineral density at the right femur was performed by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. The mandibular cortical thickness and panoramic mandibular index were measured bilaterally, and the mean values were considered. The region of interest of 128 × 128 pixels around the mental foramen region was manually cropped and subjected to pre-processing, normalisation and average threshold-based segmentation to determine trabecular bone area. Multiple linear regression analyses of cortical and trabecular measures along with age were performed to develop a combinational model to classify subjects as normal and low bone mineral density. The proposed approach demonstrated strong correlation (r = 0.76; p < 0.01) against the total bone mineral density and resulted in accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values of 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85, respectively; the receiver operating characteristic outcomes disclosed that the area under the curve was 0.89.Our results suggest that the proposed combinational model could be useful to diagnose subjects with low bone mineral density. © IMechE 2014.

  12. Tooth coronal index and pulp/tooth ratio in dental age estimation on digital panoramic radiographs-A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Supreet; Nagi, Ravleen; Daga, Minal; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Shukla, Aastha; Parakh, Abhinav; Laheji, Afshan; Singh, Rahul

    2017-08-01

    Assessment of an age of an individual whether living or dead through teeth is one of the most reliable and simple method to calculate age than skeletal remains especially when they are in poor conditions. The study was carried out with aim of (i) to evaluate reliability of dental age assessment through two different methods for adults i.e. tooth coronal index and pulp/tooth ratio using digital panoramic radiographs and (ii) to compare these methods for their accuracy in age determination. The digital panoramic radiographs of 180 subjects of Chhattisgarh aged 15-70 years were selected for the study. The measurements were performed on the JPEG images of selected panoramic radiographs by using Adobe Acrobat 7.0 professional software. For tooth coronal index (TCI), height of the crown i.e. coronal height (CH) and the height of the coronal pulp cavity i.e. coronal pulp cavity height (CPCH) of mandibular second premolars and first molars was measured in millimeter (mm) and then TCI was calculated for each tooth and calculated age was compared with chronological age. For pulp/tooth ratio, the measurements of pulp chamber height (PCH) and crown root trunk height (CRTH) were performed on the mandibular first and second molar teeth, the pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratios (PCTHR) of selected tooth were calculated. The acquired data were subjected to Pearson correlation test, unpaired t test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analysis. Results suggested that TCI (mandibular first molar r=-0.178), second premolar (r=-0.187) and PCTHR(mandibular first molar r=-0.921, second molar r=-0.901) correlated negatively with chronological age suggesting decrease in size of pulp cavity. Mandibular first molar was found to be most reliable tooth to estimate dental age. The study showed that both PCTHR and TCI have negative association with chronological age. PCTHR showed slightly higher negative correlation and proved as a better tool for age estimation than TCI. Statistically

  13. Macro design morphology of endosseous dental implants.

    PubMed

    Sahiwal, Indira G; Woody, Ronald D; Benson, Byron W; Guillen, Guillermo E

    2002-05-01

    The identification of dental implant bodies in patients without available records is a considerable problem due to increased patient mobility and to the large number of implant systems with different designs. The purpose of this study was to document the designs of selected implants to help clinicians identify these implants from their radiographic images. More than 50 implant manufacturers were contacted and asked to provide implants with dimensions as close as possible to 3.75 mm (diameter) x 10 mm (length). Forty-four implants were donated, separated into threaded and non-threaded categories, and further sorted into tapered and non-tapered categories. The implants were examined visually, and features on the entire circumference and length of each implant were recorded and categorized as coronal, midbody, or apical. A series of tables describe the 44 implants according to coronal, midbody, and apical features. The results of this project offer dentists basic knowledge of the design of selected dental implants. Such knowledge can aid the radiographic identification of these implants.

  14. An in vitro radiographic analysis of the density of dental luting cements as measured by CCD-based digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Jevremovic, Danimir; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Obradovic-Djuricic, Kosovka

    2012-05-01

    According to the ISO, the radiopacity of luting cements should be equal to or greater than that of aluminum. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the radiopacity of 13 commercially available dental luting cements and compare them with human enamel and dentin. Five classes of luting cements were evaluated: zinc phosphate (Cegal N and Harvard Zinc Phosphate), zinc polycarboxylate (Harvard Polycarboxylate and Hoffmann's Carboxylate), glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easymix, Ketac Cem Radiopaque, and Fuji I), resin-modified glass ionomer (Rely X Luting), and resin cements (Multilink Automix, Variolink II, Speed CEM, Rely X Unicem Automix, and three shades of Variolink Veneer). Tooth slices served as controls. Five specimens of each material measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick were prepared and radiographed alongside tooth slices and an aluminum stepwedge using a Trophy RVG sensor. The radiopacity values were expressed in mm Al and analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey tests (P < .05). All the cements examined except Variolink Veneer had significantly higher radiopacities than that of dentin. Rely X Unicem Automix, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements demonstrated radiopacities that were not significantly different with respect to enamel. Zinc phosphate, zinc polycarboxylate, and three of the resin cements presented radiopacity values that were significantly greater than that of enamel. Almost all the investigated materials presented an acceptable radiopacity. Radiopacity of dental cements seems to depend more on the presence of elements with high atomic numbers than on the type of the material.

  15. Endodontic radiography: who is reading the digital radiograph?

    PubMed

    Tewary, Shalini; Luzzo, Joseph; Hartwell, Gary

    2011-07-01

    Digital radiographic imaging systems have undergone tremendous improvements since their introduction. Advantages of digital radiographs over conventional films include lower radiation doses compared with conventional films, instantaneous images, archiving and sharing images easily, and manipulation of several radiographic properties that might help in diagnosis. A total of 6 observers including 2 endodontic residents, 3 endodontists, and 1 oral radiologist evaluated 150 molar digital periapical radiographs to determine which of the following conditions existed: normal periapical tissue, widened periodontal ligament, or presence of periapical radiolucency. The evaluators had full control over the radiograph's parameters of the Planmeca Dimaxis software program. All images were viewed on the same computer monitor with ideal vie-wing conditions. The same 6 observers evaluated the same 150 digital images 3 months later. The data were analyzed to determine how well the evaluators agreed with each other (interobserver agreement) for 2 rounds of observations and with themselves (intraobserver agreement). Fleiss kappa statistical analysis was used to measure the level of agreement among multiple raters. The overall Fleiss kappa value for interobserver agreement for the first round of interpretation was 0.34 (P < .001). The overall Fleiss kappa value for interobserver agreement for the second round of interpretation was 0.35 (P < .001). This resulted in fair (0.2-0.4) agreement among the 6 raters at both observation periods. A weighted kappa analysis was used to determine intraobserver agreement, which showed on average a moderate agreement. The results indicate that the interpretation of a dental radiograph is subjective, irrespective of whether conventional or digital radiographs are used. The factors that appeared to have the most impact were the years of experience of the examiner and familiarity of the operator with a given digital system. Copyright © 2011 American

  16. Prevalence of calcified carotid artery on panoramic radiographs in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Moshfeghi, Mahkameh

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients for early diagnosis of individuals at risk of stroke. This is a descriptive study of 200 panoramic radiographs. These radiographs included post-menopausal women referring to the Department of Oral Medicine at Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry during 2006-2007. The x-ray machine, developer and film type were the same for all the radiographs. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. We found 22 calcified carotid arteries. The left and right carotid arteries were involved in 7 and 9 cases, respec-tively. In 6 cases both carotid arteries were calcified. Four individuals had no vascular risk factor excluding age and others had at least one risk factor. We found significant statistical correlation between hypertension, past history of myocardial infarction, and hypercholesterolemia with calcified carotid artery on panoramic radiographs. Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of calcified carotid arteries is 11.0 % in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients.

  17. The Relationship of Performance on the Dental Admission Test and Performance on Part I of the National Board Dental Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ball, Suzanne; Sullivan, Kathleen; Horine, Julie; Duncan, William K.; Replogle, William

    2002-01-01

    Comapred University of Mississippi dental student scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT) and Part I of the National Board Dental Examinations (NBDE) and found that DAT reading comprehension was a statistically significant predictor of all four subtests of the NBDE. Also found that DAT biology and organic chemistry scores were predictors of NBDE…

  18. U.S. Dental Schools' Preparation for the Integrated National Board Dental Examination.

    PubMed

    Duong, Mai-Ly T; Cothron, Annaliese E; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Doherty, Eileen H

    2018-03-01

    An Integrated National Board Dental Examination (INBDE) combining basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences will be implemented in 2020 to replace the current two-part National Board Dental Examination required for all candidates who seek to practice dentistry in the U.S. The aims of this study were to determine how U.S. dental schools are preparing for implementation of the INBDE and to assess their top administrators' attitudes about the new exam. A total of 150 deans, academic deans, and other administrators at all 64 U.S. dental schools with graduating classes in 2016 were emailed a 19-question electronic survey. The survey questions addressed the respondents' level of support, perceived benefits and challenges, and planned preparation strategies for the INBDE. The individual response rate was 59%, representing 57 of the 64 schools. Approximately 60% of the respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that they support the integrated exam, while roughly 25% either somewhat or strongly disagreed. While most respondents (72%) reported that their institutions would be prepared for the INBDE, 74% reported that the merged exam created additional strain for their institutions. Respondents reported viewing content integration and clinical applicability as benefits of the INBDE, while required curriculum changes and student preparedness and stress were seen as challenges. Most of the respondents reported their schools were currently employing strategies to prepare for the INBDE including meetings with faculty and students and changes to curricula and course content. The beginning of the fourth year and the end of the third year were the most frequently reported times when schools planned to require students to take the INBDE, although almost half of the respondents did not yet know what it would be required at their school. Several schools were reconsidering using the boards as a passing requirement. This study found that support for the INBDE was not universal, but

  19. The teeth of the horse: evolution and anatomo-morphological and radiographic study of their development in the foetus.

    PubMed

    Soana, S; Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ontogenetic process in teeth from their early appearance in the ossifying matrix of the mandible and maxilla, in different foetuses of scalar ages. Radiographic examinations of the skull and mandible hemisections were performed and the latero-medial (LM) and dorsoventral (DV) projections for the skull and mandible were analysed. A high-definition film-screen combination was used for this study. The exposure values ranged from 35 kV/6 mAs to 58 kV/10 mAs, according to the size of the skulls and their degree of ossification. The first dental germ observed was the P3, at 138-140 days of pregnancy. At 146 days, P2 and P4 dental germs were visible. At 160-168 days, the dental germ of the first deciduous incisor tooth (I1) appeared; at 180-188 days of pregnancy the germ of the second (I2), and at 224 days the germ of the third (I3), were detectable. At 275 days the dental germ of the mandibular first molar tooth (M1) appeared, while the maxillary M1, which was not visible radiographically, was represented by a jelly-like amorphous body within its alveolar cavity.

  20. Bone texture analysis on dental radiographic images: results with several angulated radiographs on the same region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouriq, Yves; Guedon, Jeanpierre; Normand, Nicolas; Arlicot, Aurore; Benhdech, Yassine; Weiss, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Bone microarchitecture is the predictor of bone quality or bone disease. It can only be measured on a bone biopsy, which is invasive and not available for all clinical situations. Texture analysis on radiographs is a common way to investigate bone microarchitecture. But relationship between three-dimension histomorphometric parameters and two-dimension texture parameters is not always well known, with poor results. The aim of this study is to performed angulated radiographs of the same region of interest and see if a better relationship between texture analysis on several radiographs and histomorphometric parameters can be developed. Computed radiography images of dog (Beagle) mandible section in molar regions were compared with high-resolution micro-CT (Computed-Tomograph) volumes. Four radiographs with 27° angle (up, down, left, right, using Rinn ring and customized arm positioning system) were performed from initial radiograph position. Bone texture parameters were calculated on all images. Texture parameters were also computed from new images obtained by difference between angulated images. Results of fractal values in different trabecular areas give some caracterisation of bone microarchitecture.

  1. Diagnostic methods for dental caries used by private dental practitioners in Ankara.

    PubMed

    Vural, U K; Gökalp, S

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the preference profiles of various types of diagnostic tools and methods used by private dental practitioners in Ankara for detecting dental caries. Private dental practitioners, in five districts of Ankara, were provided with questionnaires comprising demographic characteristics, possession of dental imaging systems, and methods used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires were retrieved after 1-3 visits. Of 722 questionnaires, 371 were returned. Data were analyzed using frequency analysis and Chi-square tests. The completed questionnaires were obtained from 160 women and 168 men, the response rate was 51.4% aged 25-69 years; 28.4% of them were specialists. Most participants possessed a dental radiography (RG) device. Air drying and sharp explorers were the most commonly preferred methods used for caries diagnosis. There was no significant association between using a sharp explorer and sex or being a specialist (P = 0.110, 0.226, respectively). Almost one-third of the dentists with an experience of <11 years, never used an RG device to detect occlusal caries (P = 0.003). Only three participants reported the use of DIAGNOdent, while two participants used fiber-optic transillumination (FOTI). It was observed that visual-tactile examination using sharp explorer accompanied with radiographs were among the main instruments used for detecting carious lesions. Usage of magnification tools, FOTI, and DIAGNOdent were low.

  2. A comparative study on radiographic analysis of impacted third molars among three ethnic groups of patients attending AIMST Dental Institute, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kanneppady, Sham Kishor; Balamanikandasrinivasan; Kumaresan, Ramesh; Sakri, Santosh B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The patterns of facial growth, jaw and tooth size are inherited and are likely to differ among population and races. Aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the pattern of third molar (3M) impaction among three different ethnic groups (Chinese, Indian, Malay) of patients attending AIMST Dental Institute, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Dental records and orthopantomographs of 2200 patients aged between 20 and 40 years were retrieved and examined retrospectively. Wherever impacted 3Ms were present, the status of 3Ms, their location, the level of impaction and angulations were recorded and analyzed using STATDISK (version 10.4) and the values obtained were compared with least square distance of 0.05 level. Results: About 667 radiographs met with the inclusion criteria and showed the presence of 1008 impacted 3Ms. On overall comparison the incidence of level B impactions were found to be higher in our study. Level A impactions were frequently seen in Chinese (41.9%), level B in Indian (36.4%) and level C impactions had an equal distribution among Chinese and Malays (34.1%). The difference was highly significant (P ≥ 0.05). Mesioangular impaction (49.8%) followed by distoangular (22.9%) were the most common impactions among all the three races. Conclusion: On comparison, mesioangular impaction was found to be the most frequent among all the three races whereas differences were seen in levels of impaction to some extent among the ethnic groups. But as a limitation, our findings and results reflected the status of 3Ms of patients attending AIMST Dental Institute, not entire Malaysia. Therefore more similar studies have to be carried out in other parts of Malaysia to substantiate our present findings. PMID:24019804

  3. Long-term outcomes of dental implants placed in elderly patients: a retrospective clinical and radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Chul; Baek, Won-Sun; Choi, Seong-Ho; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Jung, Ui-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical and the radiographic outcomes of dental implants placed in elderly people older than 65 years. In total, 902 implants in 346 patients (age: 65-89 years) were followed up for 2-17 years following the implant surgery. The survival rate of these implants was recorded and analyzed. Changes in marginal bone levels were also analyzed in serial radiographs, and Cox regression analysis for implant loss was performed. The survival rates were 95.39% and 99.98% in the implant- and patient-based analyses, respectively (involving a total of 29 implant failures), and the marginal bone loss at the implants was 0.17 ± 0.71 mm (mean ± SD). The number of failures was greatest in patients aged 65-69 years. The Cox regression with shared frailty analysis showed that implant loss was significantly greater in those aged 65-69 years than in those aged 70-74 years (P < 0.05), and it varied between specific implant systems. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, it was concluded that implant therapy can be successfully provided to elderly patients and that age alone does not seem to affect the implant survival rate. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Geometrical modeling of complete dental shapes by using panoramic X-ray, digital mouth data and anatomical templates.

    PubMed

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2015-07-01

    In the field of orthodontic planning, the creation of a complete digital dental model to simulate and predict treatments is of utmost importance. Nowadays, orthodontists use panoramic radiographs (PAN) and dental crown representations obtained by optical scanning. However, these data do not contain any 3D information regarding tooth root geometries. A reliable orthodontic treatment should instead take into account entire geometrical models of dental shapes in order to better predict tooth movements. This paper presents a methodology to create complete 3D patient dental anatomies by combining digital mouth models and panoramic radiographs. The modeling process is based on using crown surfaces, reconstructed by optical scanning, and root geometries, obtained by adapting anatomical CAD templates over patient specific information extracted from radiographic data. The radiographic process is virtually replicated on crown digital geometries through the Discrete Radon Transform (DRT). The resulting virtual PAN image is used to integrate the actual radiographic data and the digital mouth model. This procedure provides the root references on the 3D digital crown models, which guide a shape adjustment of the dental CAD templates. The entire geometrical models are finally created by merging dental crowns, captured by optical scanning, and root geometries, obtained from the CAD templates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation exposure from conventional radiographic examinations in very and extremely low birth weight patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gois, M. L. C.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Bunick, A. P.; Legnani, A.; Paschuk, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The survival of very premature neonates has improved significantly at the last decades owing to the utilization of modern intensive care interventions that usually requires prolonged hospitalisation and are accompanied by frequent radiographic examinations. Their elevated radiosensitivity and numerous examinations combined with their greater remaining lifetime raise the issue of high risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Because it is presently impossible to substitute this type of examinations with others that do not involve radiation exposure, investigations on a hospital's routine practices becomes relevant. In this work, we present the results of an investigation on the radiation exposure of patients with birth weight lower than 1500 g in one paediatric hospital in Brazil. We analyse some important patient characteristics, like weight, gestational age, length of stay, and number of radiographs performed in the neonatal intensive care unit, in connection with the patient dose. The obtained results are compared with the existing information from other studies.

  6. Sella turcica bridging and dental anomalies: is there an association?

    PubMed

    Scribante, Andrea; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Cassani, Marco; Fraticelli, Danilo; Beccari, Sergio; Gandini, Paola

    2017-11-01

    Sella turcica bridging (STB), or calcification of the interclinoid ligament of sella turcica, has been reported to be associated with some dental anomalies (palatal canine impaction and transposition). The aim of the study was to find any association between canine impaction, hyperdontia or hypodontia and sellar dimensions or bridging. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 78 patients with impacted canines, 68 with dental agenesis and 17 with hyperdontia were collected. Linear dimensions of sella turcica were calculated and compared to those of a control group (47 individuals). A standardize scoring scale was used to quantify the extent of STB from each radiographs. The frequency of partial and complete calcifications of sella in patients with dental anomalies is increased when compared to controls. STB can influence the interclinoid distance but does not affect other linear dimensions of sella. No statistically significant difference has been found in sellar dimensions and STB expression when evaluating radiographs at different ages. STB is frequently found in patients with dental abnormalities. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Current issues and areas for improvement in the Korean Dental Hygienist National Licensing Examination: an expert Delphi survey among dental hygienists

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate current issues and areas for improvement in the Korean Dental Hygienist National Licensing Examination (KDHNLE) through an expert Delphi survey. Methods A Delphi survey was conducted from May through August 2016 in Korea. This Delphi survey included 20 persons representing the field of dental hygiene (7 groups from various dental hygiene-related organizations). The Delphi survey was administered through e-mail as 3 rounds of questionnaire surveys regarding the issues facing the KDHNLE and potential solutions to those challenges. The primary Delphi survey was an open questionnaire. In each round, subjects’ responses were categorized according to the detailed themes of their responses. The minimum value of the content validity ratio of the survey results was determined by the number of panels participating in the Delphi survey. Results Issues facing the KDHNLE were identified from the results of the Delphi survey. The following 4 items had an average importance score of 4.0 or higher and were considered as important by over 85% of the panels: the failure of the practical test to reflect actual clinical settings, the focus of the practical test on dental scaling, the gap between the items evaluated on the national examination and actual practical work, and insufficiency in strengthening the expertise of licensed dental hygienists. The following items were suggested for improvement: more rigorous rater training, adjustment of the difficulty of the licensing examination, the introduction of a specialized dental hygienist system, and more rigorous refresher training for licensed dental hygienists. Conclusion Based on the above results, the KDHNLE should be improved according to the core competencies of dental hygienists, including on-site clinical practice experience. PMID:28900069

  8. Current issues and areas for improvement in the Korean Dental Hygienist National Licensing Examination: an expert Delphi survey among dental hygienists.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoon-Sook; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Soo-Hwa; Moon, Hee-Jung; Lee, Sun-Mi; Jung, Jae-Yeon; Hwang, Su-Jeong; Ha, Jung-Eun

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate current issues and areas for improvement in the Korean Dental Hygienist National Licensing Examination (KDHNLE) through an expert Delphi survey. A Delphi survey was conducted from May through August 2016 in Korea. This Delphi survey included 20 persons representing the field of dental hygiene (7 groups from various dental hygiene-related organizations). The Delphi survey was administered through e-mail as 3 rounds of questionnaire surveys regarding the issues facing the KDHNLE and potential solutions to those challenges. The primary Delphi survey was an open questionnaire. In each round, subjects' responses were categorized according to the detailed themes of their responses. The minimum value of the content validity ratio of the survey results was determined by the number of panels participating in the Delphi survey. Issues facing the KDHNLE were identified from the results of the Delphi survey. The following 4 items had an average importance score of 4.0 or higher and were considered as important by over 85% of the panels: the failure of the practical test to reflect actual clinical settings, the focus of the practical test on dental scaling, the gap between the items evaluated on the national examination and actual practical work, and insufficiency in strengthening the expertise of licensed dental hygienists. The following items were suggested for improvement: more rigorous rater training, adjustment of the difficulty of the licensing examination, the introduction of a specialized dental hygienist system, and more rigorous refresher training for licensed dental hygienists. Based on the above results, the KDHNLE should be improved according to the core competencies of dental hygienists, including on-site clinical practice experience.

  9. [Standards and guidelines of radiation protection and safety in dental X-ray examinations].

    PubMed

    Guo, X L; Li, G; Cheng, Y; Yu, Q; Wang, H; Zhang, Z Y

    2017-12-09

    With the rapid development of imaging technology, the application of dental imaging in diagnosis, treatment planning, intraoperative surgical navigation, monitoring of treatment or lesion development and assessment of treatment outcomes is playing an essential role in oral healthcare. The increased total number of dental X-ray examinations is accompanied by a relatively significant increase in collective dose to patients as well as to dental healthcare workers, which is harmful to human bodies to a certain degree. Some radiation protection standards and guidelines in dental radiology have been published in European countries, US, Canada and Australia, etc. Adherence to these standards and guidelines helps to achieve images with diagnostic quality and avoid unnecessary and repeated exposures. However, no radiation protection standard or guideline with regard to dental X-ray examinations has been put in force so far in mainland China. Therefore, a literature review on available radiation protection standards and guidelines was conducted to provide reference to the development of radiation protection standards or guidelines in mainland China.

  10. Examination of social networking professionalism among dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy L

    2013-11-01

    Becoming a dental professional requires one to apply ethical decision making skills and demonstrate high standards of professionalism in practice, including the way professionals present themselves to the public. With social media as an evergrowing part of personal and professional communications, this study aimed to determine the accessibility, amount, and type of unprofessional content on Facebook profiles of dental hygiene and dental students in a college of dentistry. The authors evaluated the online profiles of all 499 dental and dental hygiene students at The Ohio State University using objective measures that included existence of a profile, current privacy settings, and access to personally identifiable information. A sample of profiles were evaluated for unprofessional content including photos, comments, and wall posts. The majority of these students were found to use Facebook, with 61 percent having Facebook profiles. Dental hygiene students were more likely to have a Facebook profile than were dental students: 72.6 percent and 59.1 percent, respectively (p=0.027). The majority of the students' profiles had some form of privacy setting enabled, with only 4 percent being entirely open to the public. Fewer than 2 percent of the students allowed non-friends access to personal information. Based on in-depth analysis of the profiles, fourteen (5.8 percent) instances of unprofessionalism were recorded; the most common unprofessional content involved substance abuse. This study found that these dental and dental hygiene students frequently possessed an identifiable Facebook account and nearly half had some kind of personal information on their profile that could potentially be shared with the public. In some instances, the students gave patients, faculty, and potential employers access to content that is not reflective of a dental professional. Academic institutions should consider implementing policies that bring awareness to and address the use of social media

  11. Prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Montasser, Mona A; Taha, Mahasen

    2012-01-01

    To study the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a sample of orthodontic patients. The dental casts, intraoral photographs, and lateral panoramic and cephalometric radiographs of 509 Egyptian orthodontic patients were studied. Patients were examined for dental anomalies in number, size, shape, position, and structure. The prevalence of each dental anomaly was calculated and compared between sexes. Of the total study sample, 32.6% of the patients had at least one dental anomaly other than agenesis of third molars; 32.1% of females and 33.5% of males had at least one dental anomaly other than agenesis of third molars. The most commonly detected dental anomalies were impaction (12.8%) and ectopic eruption (10.8%). The total prevalence of hypodontia (excluding third molars) and hyperdontia was 2.4% and 2.8%, respectively, with similiar distributions in females and males. Gemination and accessory roots were reported in this study; each of these anomalies was detected in 0.2% of patients. In addition to genetic and racial factors, environmental factors could have more important influence on the prevalence of dental anomalies in every population. Impaction, ectopic eruption, hyperdontia, hypodontia, and microdontia were the most common dental anomalies, while fusion and dentinogenesis imperfecta were absent.

  12. Dental implant imaging: TeraRecon's Dental 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography System.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun K

    2007-06-01

    Early in the development of implant technology, conventional dental imaging techniques were limited for evaluating the patient for implant surgery. During the treatment-planning phase, the recipient bed is routinely assessed by visual examination and palpation, as well as by periapical and panoramic radiology. These two imaging modalities provide a two-dimensional image of the mesiodistal and occlusoapical dimensions of the edentulous regions where the implants might be placed. When adequate occlusoapical bone height is available for endosteal implants, the buccolingual width and angulation of the available bone are the most important criteria for implant selection and success. However, neither buccolingual width nor angulation can be visualized on most traditional radiographs. Although clinical examination and traditional radiographs may be adequate for patients with wide residual ridges that exhibit sufficient bone crestal to the mandibular nerve and maxillary sinus, these methods do not allow for the precise measurement of the buccolingual dimension of the bone or assessment of the location of unanticipated undercuts. Because of these concerns, it is necessary to view the recipient site in a plane through the arch of the maxilla or mandible in the region of the proposed implants. Implant surgeons soon recognized that, for the optimum placement of implants, cross-sectional views of the maxilla and mandible are the ideal means for providing necessary preoperative information. For complex cases where multiple implants are required or where anatomical measurements are crucial, but also increasingly for more routine cases, more and more clinicians are recommending CT scan imaging procedure such as that offered by TeraRecon's Dental CBCT system. Because of its ability to reconstruct a fully three-dimensional model of the maxilla and mandible, CBCT provides a highly sophisticated format for precisely defining the jaw structure and locating critical anatomic structures

  13. Cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Tetradis, Sotirios; Anstey, Paul; Graff-Radford, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Conventional radiographs provide important information for dental disease diagnosis. However, they represent 2-D images of 3-D objects with significant structure superimposition and unpredictable magnification. Cone beam computed tomography, however, allows true 3-D visualization of the dentoalveolar structures, avoiding major limitations of conventional radiographs. Cone beam computed tomography images offer great advantages in disease detection for selected patients. The authors discuss cone beam computed tomography applications in dental disease diagnosis, reviewing the pertinent literature when available.

  14. In vivo near-IR imaging of approximal dental decay at 1,310 nm.

    PubMed

    Staninec, Michal; Lee, Chulsung; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The high transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) light at 1,310-nm can be exploited for imaging dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation (X-rays). We present the results of the first in vivo imaging study in which NIR images were acquired of approximal contact surfaces. NIR imaging hand-pieces were developed and attached to a compact InGaAs focal plane array and subsequently used to acquire in vivo NIR images of 33 caries lesions on 18 test subjects. The carious lesions were discernible on bitewing radiographs, but were not visible upon clinical examination. NIR images were acquired in vivo from three directions and the majority of lesions examined were too small to require restoration, based on accepted bitewing radiograph criteria. All but one of the 33 lesions examined were successfully imaged from at least one direction. This first in vivo study of imaging at the 1,310-nm wavelength region shows that NIR imaging has great potential as a screening tool for the detection of approximal lesions without the use of ionizing radiation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Biomedical implications of dental-ceramic defects investigated by numerical simulation, radiographic, microcomputer tomography, and time-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Ionita, Ciprian; Marsavina, Liviu; Negru, Radu; Topala, Florin; Petrescu, Emanuela; Rominu, Roxana; Fabriky, Mihai; Bradu, Adrian; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2011-10-01

    Imagistic investigation of the metal-ceramic crowns and fixed partial prostheses represent a very important issue in nowadays dentistry. At this time, in dental office, it is difficult or even impossible to evaluate a metal ceramic crown or bridge before setting it in the oral cavity. The possibilities of ceramic fractures are due to small fracture lines or material defects inside the esthetic layers. Material and methods: In this study 25 metal ceramic crowns and fixed partial prostheses were investigated by radiographic method (Rx), micro computer tomography (MicroCT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) working in Time Domain, at 1300 nm. The OCT system contains two interferometers and one scanner. For each incident analysis a stuck made of 100 slices was obtain. These slices were used in order to obtain a 3D model of the ceramic interface. After detecting the presence and the positions of the ceramic defects the numerical simulation method was used to estimate the biomechanical effect of the masticatory forces on fractures propagations in ceramic materials. Results: For all the dental ceramic defects numerical simulation analysis was performed. The simulation of crack propagation shows that the crack could initiate from the upper, lower or both parts of the defect and propagates through the ceramic material where tensile stress field is present. RX and MicroCT are very powerful instruments that provide a good characterization of the dental construct. It is important to observe the reflections due to the metal infrastructure that could affect the evaluation of the metal ceramic crowns and bridges. The OCT investigations could complete the imagistic evaluation of the dental construct by offering important information when it is need it.

  16. Panoramic radiographic survey of hypodontia in Australian Defence Force recruits.

    PubMed

    Lynham, A

    1990-02-01

    Comprehensive dental examinations and panoramic radiographs were used to determine the prevalence of hypodontia in 662 Australian Defence Force recruits. Of the sampled population, 6.3 per cent exhibited some degree of hypodontia (third molar agenesis excluded). Previous studies produced similar results. Third molar agenesis occurred in 22.7 per cent of the sample which again is in agreement with other studies. There was no statistical difference between the sexes in third molar agenesis; however, there was a significant difference with upper second premolars. Females exhibited an extremely low incidence of absence of maxillary lateral incisors.

  17. Analysis of dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures for forensic applications: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe and record the macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic findings obtained after subjecting the teeth to high temperatures. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to observe macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic changes in dental hard tissues in 60 unrestored non carious extracted human teeth. The teeth were grouped based on age: Below 30 years, 30–40 years, and above 40 years The teeth from each age group were further divided into five subgroups, and each subgroup was subjected to a particular temperature: 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. [C = Celsius]. Results: Various degrees of changes in relation to temperature were observed macroscopically, radiographically, and microscopically. The histological examination was limited for teeth exposed to 200°C. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out to study the gross changes, radiographic changes and histological changes in dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures, which is an important part of forensic science. The aforementioned alterations caused by heat may provide useful information about temperature ranges and duration of exposure to high temperatures. PMID:27555725

  18. A survey of collection development for United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) preparation material.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Dean; Hasman, Linda

    2008-07-01

    The research sought to ascertain medical and dental libraries' collection development policies, evaluation methods, purchase decisions, and issues that relate to print and electronic United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) preparation materials. The investigators surveyed librarians supporting American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-accredited medical schools (n = 58/125) on the USMLE and librarians supporting American Dental Association (ADA)-accredited dental schools (n = 23/56) on the NBDE. The investigators analyzed the data by cross-tabulating and filtering the results using EFM Continuum web survey software. Investigators also surveyed print and electronic USMLE and NBDE preparation materials from 2004-2007 to determine the number of publications and existence of reviews. A majority of responding AAMC libraries (62%, n = 58) provide at least 1 electronic or online USMLE preparation resource and buy an average of 11.6 print USMLE titles annually. Due to a paucity of NBDE print and electronic resources, ADA libraries bought significantly fewer print resources, and only 1 subscribed to an electronic resource. The most often reported evaluation methods for both populations were feedback from medical or dental students, feedback from medical or dental faculty, and online trials. Some AAMC (10%, n = 58) and ADA libraries (39%, n = 23) libraries reported that no evaluation of these materials occured at their libraries. From 2004-2007, publishers produced 45 USMLE preparation resources (total n = 546) to every 1 NBDE preparation resource (total n = 12). Users' needs, institutional missions and goals, financial status, and official collection policies most often underlie decisions to collect or not collect examination preparation materials. Evaluating the quality of examination preparation materials can be problematic due to lack of published reviews, lack of usability testing by libraries, and

  19. The prevalence of dental anomalies in a turkish population.

    PubMed

    Aren, Gamze; Guven, Yeliz; Guney Tolgay, Ceren; Ozcan, Ilknur; Bayar, Ozlem Filiz; Kose, Taha Emre; Koyuncuoglu, Gulhan; Ak, Gulsum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a Turkish population according to the gender and age. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 2025 patients (885 males and 1140 females) ranging in age from 9 to 35 (mean age 25.61±10.04) years attending Department of Oral Radiology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Dentistry. These patients were examined to determine the presence of developmental dental anomalies involving hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, taurodontism and other root anomalies. The incidence of these anomalies were assessed according to the gender and age. Among the 2025 subjects, a total of 96 individuals (42 males and 54 females) showed at least one of the selected dental anomalies (4.74%). Tooth agenesis was the most common dental abnormality (1.77%) followed by taurodontism (1.18%), hyperdontia (0.79%), microdontia (0.54%) and root anomalies (0.44%), respectively. Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental dental anomaly in the studied Turkish population followed by taurodontism.

  20. A radiographic study of permanent molar development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas of known chronological age from Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Kralick, Alexandra E; Loring Burgess, M; Glowacka, Halszka; Arbenz-Smith, Keely; McGrath, Kate; Ruff, Christopher B; Chan, King Chong; Cranfield, Michael R; Stoinski, Tara S; Bromage, Timothy G; Mudakikwa, Antoine; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2017-05-01

    While dental development is important to life history investigations, data from wild known-aged great apes are scarce. We report on the first radiographic examination of dental development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas, using known-age skeletal samples recovered in Rwanda. In 43 individuals (0.0-14.94 years), we collected radiographs of mandibular molars, and where possible, cone beam CT scans. Molar crown and root calcification status was assessed using two established staging systems, and age prediction equations generated using polynomial regression. Results were compared to available data from known-age captive and wild chimpanzees. Mountain gorillas generally fell within reported captive chimpanzee distributions or exceeded them, exhibiting older ages at equivalent radiographic stages of development. Differences reflect delayed initiation and/or an extended duration of second molar crown development, and extended first and second molar root development, in mountain gorillas compared to captive chimpanzees. However, differences in the duration of molar root development were less evident compared to wild chimpanzees. Despite sample limitations, our findings extend the known range of variation in radiographic estimates of molar formation timing in great apes, and provide a new age prediction technique based on wild specimens. However, mountain gorillas do not appear accelerated in radiographic assessment of molar formation compared to chimpanzees, as they are for other life history traits. Future studies should aim to resolve the influence of species differences, wild versus captive environments, and/or sampling phenomena on patterns observed here, and more generally, how they relate to variation in tooth size, eruption timing, and developmental life history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of a digital learning object (DLO) to support the learning process in radiographic dental diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Busanello, F H; da Silveira, P F; Liedke, G S; Arús, N A; Vizzotto, M B; Silveira, H E D; Silveira, H L D

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown that inappropriate therapeutic strategies may be adopted if crown and root changes are misdiagnosed, potentially leading to undesirable consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a digital learning object, developed to improve skills in diagnosing radiographic dental changes. The object was developed using the Visual Basic Application (VBA) software and evaluated by 62 undergraduate students (male: 24 and female: 38) taking an imaging diagnosis course. Participants were divided in two groups: test group, which used the object and control group, which attended conventional classes. After 3 weeks, students answered a 10-question test and took a practice test to diagnose 20 changes in periapical radiographs. The results show that test group performed better that control group in both tests, with statistically significant difference (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). In overall, female students were better than male students. Specific aspects of object usability were assessed using a structured questionnaire based on the System Usability Scale (SUS), with a score of 90.5 and 81.6 by male and female students, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that students who used the DLO performed better than those who used conventional methods. This suggests that the DLO may be a useful teaching tool for dentistry undergraduates, on distance learning courses and as a complementary tool in face-to-face teaching. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  3. [Long-term results of dental health examinations of employees of industrial enterprises with hazardous working conditions].

    PubMed

    Olesova, V N; Uiba, V V; Novozemtseva, T N; Remizova, A A; Olesov, E E

    The article analyzes the results of dental examination of employees with hazardous and normal working conditions in Atomenergomash enterprise with various dental care organization regimens and provides clear evidence of the effectiveness of serial attendances care in enterprise dental offices in terms of reduction in the dental treatment needs. Additional funding for departmental dental services was calculated by comparing the real cost of dental treatment and MHI tariffs allowing implementation of proposed dental care program.

  4. DENTAL LESIONS IN THE LOWLAND TAPIR (TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS).

    PubMed

    Tjørnelund, Karen B; Jonsson, Lena M; Kortegaard, Hanne; Arnbjerg, Jens; Nielsen, Søren S; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-06-01

    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually and radiographically examined. The specimens were divided into subpopulations according to age (juveniles, young adults, adults) and origin (free-range or captive). Dental lesions were identified in 24% (11/46) of the study population. The most common pathologic findings were complicated dental fractures with associated periapical reaction (15%) and periapical reactions of various degrees without associated detectable dental pathology (13%). All these lesions likely originated from dental trauma. As in Malayan tapirs, juveniles had significantly fewer lesions than adults. This study shows that dental lesions present frequent problems for lowland tapirs, occurring both in captive and in free-ranging individuals, and indicates that increasing age should be considered a risk factor for the development of these lesions. Notably, the predominant dental problems in lowland tapirs and Malayan tapirs are not the same.

  5. An investigation into dental digital radiography in dental practices in West Kent following the introduction of the 2006 NHS General Dental Services contract.

    PubMed

    Mauthe, Peter W; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2011-04-01

    The primary aims of the study were to investigate the use of digital radiography within primary dental care practices in the West Kent Primary Care Trust (PCT) area and general dental practitioners' (GDPs) self-reported change in radiographic prescribing patterns following the introduction of the nGDS contract in 2006. Data were gathered via a piloted, self-completed questionnaire, and circulated to all GDPs listed on the National Health Service (NHS) Choices website as practising in the West Kent PCT area. There were three mailings and follow-up telephone calls. The resulting data were entered into a statistical software database and, where relevant, statistically tested, using the chi-square test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Of 223 GDPs, 168 (75%) responded. There were 163 usable questionnaires. The respondents represented 85% of the general dental practices in West Kent. Eighty (49%) respondents were using digital intra-oral radiography. Of those who used digital radiography, 44 (55%) reported that they used phosphor plate systems and 36 (45%) that they used direct digital sensors. Eighty-three (51%) had a panoramic machine in their practice, 46 of whom (55%) were using digital systems; of these, 32 (67%) were using a direct digital system. Seventy-one GDPs reported that they worked exclusively or mainly in private practice. Forty (56%) of these 'mainly private' GDPs reported that they used digital radiographic systems, whereas only 40 (44%) of the 89 'mainly NHS' GDPs reported using digital radio-graphic systems. On average, mainly private GDPs made the transition to a digital radiographic system six months before mainly NHS GDPs. Of those who provided NHS dentistry before and after April 2006, only 18 (14%) reported taking fewer radiographs and seven (6%) taking more. In February 2010, of the West Kent GDPs who responded to the questionnaire, just under 50% used digital radio graphy. Mainly private GDPs were more likely to use digital radiography than

  6. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Ralf K W; Grimm, Stefanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Kai; Keller, Hans-Peter; Wedel, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17″ cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P=0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Success and Survival Rates of Dental Implants Restored at an Undergraduate Dental Clinic: A 13-Year Retrospective Study with a Mean Follow-up of 5.8 Years.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Shahrzad S; Matthews, Debora C; Michuad, Pierre-Luc; Ghiabi, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and patient-based outcomes of dental implants placed at an undergraduate student dental clinic. A retrospective study was performed to determine the success and survival rates of dental implants placed at the undergraduate dental clinic at Dalhousie University between January 1999 and January 2012. Only patients with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were included. Clinical and radiographic assessments determined implant success and survival rates. Questionnaires recorded patients' satisfaction with esthetics, comfort, and ease of hygiene. Of the 352 patients (n = 591 implants) who received implants over 13 years, 165 patients completed the clinical and radiographic examinations. By the end of the study period, demographic information and implant characteristics were collected for 111 (n = 217 implants; 47.5% in the maxilla, 52.6% in the mandible) of these patients. Of those assessed clinically, 36.4% were males and 63.6% females, with a mean age of 56.1 ± 14.15 years (range, 17 to 86 years) at the time of implant placement. The mean follow-up period was 5.8 years (range, 1 to 13 years). The overall implant success and survival rates were 88.0% and 97.2%, respectively. No observable bone loss was evident in 88.0% of the surviving implants. There were no implant fractures. Most patients (91.2%) were very satisfied with the implant restoration appearance, 88.0% were very comfortable with the implant, 92.6% were very satisfied with their ability to chew, and 84.8% reported easy hygiene maintenance at the implant sites. Implant success and survival in an undergraduate student clinic were comparable to those reported in the literature. It seems that inexperienced students were able to provide restorations that were very satisfying to the patients.

  8. [The Relation between the Height of Radiographic Table and Workloads of Radiologic Technologist in General X-ray Examinations].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akiko; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Arimura, Hisao; Fukano, Yuuichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Yabuuchi, Hidetake

    2015-12-01

    Workloads of radiological technologists under different conditions of heights of radiographic table and/or X-ray tube assembly were calculated using a software for preventing musculoskeletal complaint to investigate optimal working environment for general X-ray examinations. In the patient positioning, compressive force of lumbar disc decreased at higher radiographic table within the range of 45-90 cm. On the other hand, workload of the shoulder joint increased with increase in the height of radiographic table. Load of the shoulder joint similarly increased as the height of the X-ray tube assembly increased. Compressive force of lumbar disc reduced by approximately 10-30% as the height ratio of the radiographic table to body height increased by approximately 40%, compared to the lowest table of 45 cm. Muscle load of a 50-years-old woman was approximately double compared to a 30-year-old man, even in the same workload. It is important to keep suitable height of radiographic table for reduction of the workloads of lumbar rather than shoulder joint, because floating-type radiographic table is generally used.

  9. The Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Roseanna

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and educational usefulness of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education. The OSCE was administered to dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM) before they entered clinical training. Participants in this…

  10. Examining dental expenditure and dental insurance accounting for probability of incurring expenses.

    PubMed

    Teusner, Dana; Smith, Valerie; Gnanamanickam, Emmanuel; Brennan, David

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies of dental service expenditure in Australia. Although dental insurance status is strongly associated with a higher probability of dental visiting, some studies indicate that there is little variation in expenditure by insurance status among those who attend for care. Our objective was to assess the overall impact of insurance on expenditures by modelling the association between insurance and expenditure accounting for variation in the probability of incurring expenses, that is dental visiting. A sample of 3000 adults (aged 30-61 years) was randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll. Dental service expenditures were collected prospectively over 2 years by client-held log books. Questionnaires collecting participant characteristics were administered at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Unadjusted and adjusted ratios of expenditure were estimated using marginalized two-part log-skew-normal models. Such models accommodate highly skewed data and estimate effects of covariates on the overall marginal mean while accounting for the probability of incurring expenses. Baseline response was 39%; of these, 40% (n = 438) were retained over the 2-year period. Only participants providing complete data were included in the analysis (n = 378). Of these, 68.5% were insured, and 70.9% accessed dental services of which nearly all (97.7%) incurred individual dental expenses. The mean dental service expenditure for the total sample (those who did and did not attend) for dental care was AUS$788. Model-adjusted ratios of mean expenditures were higher for the insured (1.61; 95% CI 1.18, 2.20), females (1.38; 95% CI 1.06, 1.81), major city residents (1.43; 95% CI 1.10, 1.84) and those who brushed their teeth twice or more a day (1.50; 95% CI 1.15, 1.96) than their respective counterparts. Accounting for the probability of incurring dental expenses, and other explanatory factors, insured working-aged adults had (on average) approximately 60% higher individual

  11. A Survey of Collection Development for United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Preparation MaterialEC

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Dean; Hasman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to ascertain medical and dental libraries' collection development policies, evaluation methods, purchase decisions, and issues that relate to print and electronic United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) preparation materials. Methods: The investigators surveyed librarians supporting American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools (n = 58/125) on the USMLE and librarians supporting American Dental Association (ADA)–accredited dental schools (n = 23/56) on the NBDE. The investigators analyzed the data by cross-tabulating and filtering the results using EFM Continuum web survey software. Investigators also surveyed print and electronic USMLE and NBDE preparation materials from 2004–2007 to determine the number of publications and existence of reviews. Results: A majority of responding AAMC libraries (62%, n = 58) provide at least 1 electronic or online USMLE preparation resource and buy an average of 11.6 print USMLE titles annually. Due to a paucity of NBDE print and electronic resources, ADA libraries bought significantly fewer print resources, and only 1 subscribed to an electronic resource. The most often reported evaluation methods for both populations were feedback from medical or dental students, feedback from medical or dental faculty, and online trials. Some AAMC (10%, n = 58) and ADA libraries (39%, n = 23) libraries reported that no evaluation of these materials occured at their libraries. Conclusions: From 2004–2007, publishers produced 45 USMLE preparation resources (total n = 546) to every 1 NBDE preparation resource (total n = 12). Users' needs, institutional missions and goals, financial status, and official collection policies most often underlie decisions to collect or not collect examination preparation materials. Evaluating the quality of examination preparation materials can be problematic due to

  12. Conventional and digital radiographic assessment of tooth enamel de-/remineralization processes: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Leite-Ribeiro, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Thais Feitosa Leitão; Mathias, Paula; Campo, Elisângela de Jesus; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare digital techniques for evaluating dental enamel de-/remineralization. Sixty extracted molars were subjected to a process of de- and remineralization. Radiographs were taken before and after each stage. These radiographs were evaluated by the conventional method and were then scanned and analyzed either with or without the use of image enhancement. Moreover, the gray levels (GLs) of the affected areas were measured. All methods exhibited low sensitivity and identical levels of specificity (99.4%). Analysis of the grayscale levels found statistically significant differences between the initial radiographs (P < 0.05). The mean GL of the carious group was significantly lower than that of the remineralized group. The GL did not differ significantly between the initial and final radiographs of the remineralized group, although the mean of the first group was lower than that of the second, which demonstrated that the remineralization process restored the normal density of the dental enamel. Measurement of the mean GL was sufficiently sensitive to detect small alterations in the surface of the enamel.

  13. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  14. Reliability of panoramic radiograph for carotid atheroma detection: a study in patients who fulfill the criteria for carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Damaskos, Spyros; Griniatsos, John; Tsekouras, Nikolaos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Klonaris, Chris; Bastounis, Elias; Tsiklakis, Kostas

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the reliability of panoramic radiograph (PR) for carotid artery atheroma detection, by comparing its results with the carotid-vertebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings, as well as with the detected calcium deposition in the carotid plaques, which were surgically resected, using direct radiographs. Forty consecutive patients suffering from carotid artery atherosclerotic occlusive disease confirmed by preoperative DSA, fulfilling the criteria for carotid endarterectomy, were operated on. Preoperatively, all of the patients had undergone PR, while postoperatively all of the surgically resected carotid plaques were radiographed using radiographic films and submitted to histologic examination. Compared with the DSA and the radiographic film findings, the PR results were classified as: 1) true-positive; 2) true-negative; 3) false-positive; or 4) false-negative. Panoramic radiograph has low sensitivity and specificity compared with the DSA findings and the direct radiographs results. However, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% per patient as well as for luminal stenosis >80% was documented. Even in the subgroup of patients who fulfill the criteria for carotid endarterectomy, PR has a low sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it cannot be considered to be a useful screening tool for atheroma detection in the general dental population. However, the 100% PPV per patient and for luminal stenosis >80%, indicates that positive calcification PR findings at the C(3)-C(4) region are highly suggestive for carotid artery atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Therefore, especially asymptomatic patients should be referred for further examination.

  15. Cone beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography for diagnosis of dental abnormalities in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luiz Antonio F.; Barriviera, Mauricio; Januário, Alessandro L.; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B.; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of veterinary dentistry has substantially improved the ability to diagnose canine and feline dental abnormalities. Consequently, examinations previously performed only on humans are now available for small animals, thus improving the diagnostic quality. This has increased the need for technical qualification of veterinary professionals and increased technological investments. This study evaluated the use of cone beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography as complementary exams for diagnosing dental abnormalities in dogs and cats. Cone beam computed tomography was provided faster image acquisition with high image quality, was associated with low ionizing radiation levels, enabled image editing, and reduced the exam duration. Our results showed that radiography was an effective method for dental radiographic examination with low cost and fast execution times, and can be performed during surgical procedures. PMID:22122905

  16. Relationship between calcified carotid atheromas in digital panoramic radiographs and underlying systemic diseases in implant patients.

    PubMed

    Ngamsom, Supak; Arayasantiparb, Raweewan; Pornprasertsuk-Damrongsri, Suchaya; Sureephong, Boonchoo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between calcified carotid atheromas (CCA) detected on digital panoramic radiographs and underlying systemic diseases. Panoramic radiographs and underlying systemic diseases of retained mandibular denture implants in 265 patients (56 males, 209 females) aged over 50 years were retrospectively evaluated at the Dental Unit of Prasat Neurological Institute, Bangkok, Thailand. The mean age of the patients was 71 ± 7.1 years. The prevalence of CCA was 38.49%. The major underlying systemic diseases were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), respectively. No relationship was found among these four systemic diseases in detecting CCA on panoramic radiographs. Similar findings were also observed in patients with only one systemic disease versus in combination with other diseases. The presence of CCA on dental panoramic radiographs was not found to be related to the presence of underlying systemic diseases, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and CVD. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Unilateral and bilateral dental transpositions in the maxilla-dental and skeletal findings in 63 individuals.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, J C; Karimian, K; Ciarlantini, R; Melsen, B; Kjær, I

    2015-12-01

    This was to elucidate dental and skeletal findings in individuals with unilateral and bilateral maxillary dental transpositions. The sample comprised of radiographic materials from 63 individuals with maxillary dental transpositions from the Departments of Odontology at the Universities of Copenhagen and Aarhus and by the Danish municipal orthodontic service. The cases were divided into three groups: unilateral transposition of the canine and first premolar (Type 1U), bilateral transposition of canine and first premolar (Type 1B), and unilateral transposition of canine and lateral incisor (Type 2). The dentitions were analysed regarding agenesis and dental morphological anomalies on panoramic radiographs, and craniofacial aspects were cephalometrically analysed on profile images The results were statistically evaluated. All groups demonstrated increased occurrences of agenesis (Type 1U and Type 1B: 31 agenesis in 15 patients; and Type 2 three agenesis in three patients). Taurodontic root morphology was most dominant in Type 1U. Peg-shaped lateral incisors showed an increased occurrence, though not in Type 1U. Skeletally, Type 1B and Type 1U demonstrated maxillary retrognathia (more pronounced in Type 1B). Type 2 showed a significant posterior inclination of the maxilla. Transpositions of maxillary canines involve dental and skeletal deviations. Dental deviations were predominantly taurodontic root morphology and agenesis. Regarding skeletal deviations, bilateral transpositions of the canines and the first premolars are associated with skeletal changes. Unilateral transpositions are possibly a localised deviation with minor or no skeletal involvements. The results indicate a possible difference in the aetiologies of unilateral and bilateral transpositions.

  18. Dual-energy KUB radiographic examination for the detection of renal calculus.

    PubMed

    Yen, Peggy; Bailly, Greg; Pringle, Christopher; Barnes, David

    2014-08-01

    The dual-energy radiographic technique has been proved to be clinically useful in the thorax. Herein, we attempt to apply this technique to the abdomen and pelvis in the context of renal colic. The visibility of renal calculi were assessed using various dual energy peak kilovoltage combination radiographs applied to standard phantoms. This technique demonstrates a higher than acceptable radiation dosage required to optimize the image quality and the optimized diagnostic quality is inferior to that of the standard Kidneys, Ureters, and Bladder radiograph. The dual-energy radiographic technique could not better identify the radiopaque renal calculi. Limiting technical considerations include the increased subcutaneous and peritoneal adipose tissue and the limited contrast between the soft tissue and underlying calculi. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is dosimetry still a necessity in current dental practice?

    PubMed

    Reddy, S S; Rakesh, N; Chauhan, Pallavi; Clint, Joseph Ben; Sharma, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Today, dentists have a wide range of imaging modalities to choose from, the film based techniques, digital techniques, and the recent introduction of 3D volumetric or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The inherent design features of the new generation dental x-ray equipment has significantly improved over the years with no evidence of substandard x-ray units in operation. In dental facilities radiological workload is comparatively low, newer radiation equipments and accessories follow safety guidelines and employ better radiation protection measures for the patient and the operator. Dentists' knowledge and expertise in radiation protection measures is good, enabling them to carry out riskfree radiation procedures in their practice. Therefore, the present study is aimed at assessing the need for dosimeters in current dental scenario. 'Is there currently a significant risk from dental radiography to merit the use of personal dosimetery in dental practice. 'Dental health professionals (Oral radiologists) and radiographic assistants of fourteen dental colleges in Karnataka state participated in this questionnaire study. The questionnaire consisted of the following questions--the make, type, year of manufacture of radiographic machines used in their setup, number of radiographs made per day in the institution, type of receptors used, number of personnel at risk for radiation exposure, radiation protection measures used, regular monitoring by personal dosimeters, equivalent dosage readings for the past 12 months and whether the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for any personnel had exceeded the recommended exposure value in the last 3 years. Dosimetry records of the radiology staff in the last three years shows doses no more than 1.50 mSv per year. The various institutions' dose (person mSv) was in the range of 3.70 mSv-3.90 mSv. Personal monitoring for Dentists can be omitted in the dental colleges since the estimated dose of oral radiologists

  20. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Syed M

    2016-12-01

    Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words: Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia.

  1. Intraligamentary--intraosseous anesthesia. A radiographic demonstration.

    PubMed

    Garfunkel, A A; Kaufman, E; Marmary, Y; Galili, D

    1983-10-01

    Intraligamentary dental anesthesia has become a widely accepted technique. The periodontal ligament seems to provide easy access to the tooth apex. In the present study, radiopaque material was injected into baboon monkeys. Serial radiographs during incremental injections showed clouding of the crestal bone. The material was seen gradually advancing through the alveolar bone crest, apically. The spread was noticed through the marrow spaces, unexpectedly avoiding the PDL route.

  2. Relationship Between Dental Students' Pre-Admission Record and Performance on the Comprehensive Basic Science Examination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin C; Lee, Victor Y; Zubiaurre, Laureen A; Grbic, John T; Eisig, Sidney B

    2018-04-01

    The Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) is the entrance examination for oral and maxillofacial surgery, but its implementation among dental students is a relatively recent and unintended use. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pre-admission data and performance on the CBSE for dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM). This study followed a retrospective cohort, examining data for the CDM Classes of 2014-19. Data collected were Dental Admission Test (DAT) and CBSE scores and undergraduate GPAs for 49 CDM students who took the CBSE from September 2013 to July 2016. The results showed that the full regression model did not demonstrate significant predictive capability (F[8,40]=1.70, p=0.13). Following stepwise regression, only the DAT Perceptual Ability score remained in the final model (F[1,47]=7.97, p<0.01). Variations in DAT Perceptual Ability scores explained 15% of the variability in CBSE scores (R 2 =0.15). This study found that, among these students, pre-admission data were poor predictors of CBSE performance.

  3. Comparison of Dental Panoramic Radiography and CBCT for Measuring Vertical Bone Height in Different Horizontal Locations of Posterior Mandibular Alveolar Process.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Zamiri, Barbad; Abolvardi, Masoud; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Paknahad, Maryam

    2018-06-01

    Accurate measurement of the available bone height is an essential step in the pre-surgical phase of dental implantation. Panoramic radiography is a unique technique in the pre-surgical phase of dental implantations because of its low cost, relatively low-dose, and availability. This article aimed to assess the reliability of dental panoramic radiographs in the accurate measurement of the vertical bone height with respect to the horizontal location of the alveolar crest. 132 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the edentulous mandibular molar area and dental panoramic radiograph of 508 patients were selected. Exclusion criteria were bone abnormalities and detectable ideal information on each modality. The alveolar ridge morphology was categorized into 7 types according to the relative horizontal location of the alveolar crest to the mandibular canal based on CBCT findings. The available bone height (ABH) was defined as the distance between the upper border of the mandibular canal and alveolar crest. One oral radiologist and one oral surgeon measured the available bone height twice on each modality with a 7-dayinterval. We found a significant correlation between dental panoramic radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography values (ICC=0.992, p < 0.001). A positive correlation between the horizontal distance of the alveolar crest to the mandibular canal and measured differences between two radiographic modalities had been found (r=0.755, p < 0.001). For each single unit of increase in the horizontal distance of the alveolar crest to the mandibular canal, dental panoramic radiographs showed 0.87 unit of overestimation ( p < 0.001). Dental panoramic radiographs can be employed safely in the pre-surgical phase of dental implantation in posterior alveolus of mandible, especially in routine and simple cases.

  4. Comparison of Dental Panoramic Radiography and CBCT for Measuring Vertical Bone Height in Different Horizontal Locations of Posterior Mandibular Alveolar Process

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Zamiri, Barbad; Abolvardi, Masoud; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Paknahad, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Accurate measurement of the available bone height is an essential step in the pre-surgical phase of dental implantation. Panoramic radiography is a unique technique in the pre-surgical phase of dental implantations because of its low cost, relatively low-dose, and availability. Purpose: This article aimed to assess the reliability of dental panoramic radiographs in the accurate measurement of the vertical bone height with respect to the horizontal location of the alveolar crest. Materials and Method: 132 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the edentulous mandibular molar area and dental panoramic radiograph of 508 patients were selected. Exclusion criteria were bone abnormalities and detectable ideal information on each modality. The alveolar ridge morphology was categorized into 7 types according to the relative horizontal location of the alveolar crest to the mandibular canal based on CBCT findings. The available bone height (ABH) was defined as the distance between the upper border of the mandibular canal and alveolar crest. One oral radiologist and one oral surgeon measured the available bone height twice on each modality with a 7-dayinterval. Results: We found a significant correlation between dental panoramic radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography values (ICC=0.992, p< 0.001). A positive correlation between the horizontal distance of the alveolar crest to the mandibular canal and measured differences between two radiographic modalities had been found (r=0.755, p< 0.001). For each single unit of increase in the horizontal distance of the alveolar crest to the mandibular canal, dental panoramic radiographs showed 0.87 unit of overestimation (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Dental panoramic radiographs can be employed safely in the pre-surgical phase of dental implantation in posterior alveolus of mandible, especially in routine and simple cases. PMID:29854881

  5. Removing Distortion of Periapical Radiographs in Dental Digital Radiography Using Embedded Markers in an External frame.

    PubMed

    Kafieh, Rahele; Shahamoradi, Mahdi; Hekmatian, Ehsan; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Emamidoost, Mostafa

    2012-10-01

    To carry out in vivo and in vitro comparative pilot study to evaluate the preciseness of a newly proposed digital dental radiography setup. This setup was based on markers placed on an external frame to eliminate the measurement errors due to incorrect geometry in relative positioning of cone, teeth and the sensor. Five patients with previous panoramic images were selected to undergo the proposed periapical digital imaging for in vivo phase. For in vitro phase, 40 extracted teeth were replanted in dry mandibular sockets and periapical digital images were prepared. The standard reference for real scales of the teeth were obtained through extracted teeth measurements for in vitro application and were calculated through panoramic imaging for in vivo phases. The proposed image processing thechnique was applied on periapical digital images to distinguish the incorrect geometry. The recognized error was inversely applied on the image and the modified images were compared to the correct values. The measurement findings after the distortion removal were compared to our gold standards (results of panoramic imaging or measurements from extracted teeth) and showed the accuracy of 96.45% through in vivo examinations and 96.0% through in vitro tests. The proposed distortion removal method is perfectly able to identify the possible inaccurate geometry during image acquisition and is capable of applying the inverse transform to the distorted radiograph to obtain the correctly modified image. This can be really helpful in applications like root canal therapy, implant surgical procedures and digital subtraction radiography, which are essentially dependent on precise measurements.

  6. Removing Distortion of Periapical Radiographs in Dental Digital Radiography Using Embedded Markers in an External frame

    PubMed Central

    Kafieh, Rahele; Shahamoradi, Mahdi; Hekmatian, Ehsan; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Emamidoost, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    To carry out in vivo and in vitro comparative pilot study to evaluate the preciseness of a newly proposed digital dental radiography setup. This setup was based on markers placed on an external frame to eliminate the measurement errors due to incorrect geometry in relative positioning of cone, teeth and the sensor. Five patients with previous panoramic images were selected to undergo the proposed periapical digital imaging for in vivo phase. For in vitro phase, 40 extracted teeth were replanted in dry mandibular sockets and periapical digital images were prepared. The standard reference for real scales of the teeth were obtained through extracted teeth measurements for in vitro application and were calculated through panoramic imaging for in vivo phases. The proposed image processing thechnique was applied on periapical digital images to distinguish the incorrect geometry. The recognized error was inversely applied on the image and the modified images were compared to the correct values. The measurement findings after the distortion removal were compared to our gold standards (results of panoramic imaging or measurements from extracted teeth) and showed the accuracy of 96.45% through in vivo examinations and 96.0% through in vitro tests. The proposed distortion removal method is perfectly able to identify the possible inaccurate geometry during image acquisition and is capable of applying the inverse transform to the distorted radiograph to obtain the correctly modified image. This can be really helpful in applications like root canal therapy, implant surgical procedures and digital subtraction radiography, which are essentially dependent on precise measurements. PMID:23724372

  7. Repeat film analysis and its implications for quality assurance in dental radiology: An institutional case study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Shruthi; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Acharya, Shashidhar

    2015-01-01

    Context: The goal of any radiologist is to produce the highest quality diagnostic radiographs, while keeping patient exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the reasons for radiograph rejections through a repeat film analysis in an Indian dental school. Settings and Design: An observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Materials and Methods: During a 6-month study period, a total of 9,495 intra-oral radiographs and 2339 extraoral radiographs taken in the Radiology Department were subjected to repeat film analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Version 16. Descriptive analysis used. Results: The results showed that the repeat rates were 7.1% and 5.86% for intraoral and extraoral radiographs, respectively. Among the causes for errors reported, positioning error (38.7%) was the most common, followed by improper angulations (26.1%), and improper film placement (11.2%) for intra-oral radiographs. The study found that the maximum frequency of repeats among extraoral radiographs was for panoramic radiographs (49%) followed by lateral cephalogram (33%), and paranasal sinus view (14%). It was also observed that repeat rate of intraoral radiographs was highest for internees (44.7%), and undergraduate students (28.2%). Conclusions: The study pointed to a need for more targeted interventions to achieve the goal of keeping patient exposure ALARA in a dental school setting. PMID:26321841

  8. Detecting the manipulation of digital clinical records in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores-García, V; Labajo-González, E; Santiago-Sáez, A; Perea-Pérez, B

    2017-11-01

    Radiography provides many advantages in the diagnosis and management of dental conditions. However, dental X-ray images may be subject to manipulation with malicious intent using easily accessible computer software. In this study, we sought to evaluate a dentist's ability to identify a manipulated dental X-ray images, when compared with the original, using a variant of the methodology described by Visser and Kruger. Sixty-six dentists were invited to participate and evaluate 20 intraoral dental X-ray images, 10 originals and 10 modified, manipulated using Adobe Photoshop to simulate fillings, root canal treatments, etc. Participating dentists were correct in identifying the manipulated image in 56% of cases, 6% higher than by chance and 10% more than in the study by Visser and Kruger. Malicious changes to dental X-ray images may go unnoticed even by experienced dentists. Professionals must be aware of the legal consequences of such changes. A system of detection/validation should be created for radiographic images. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bo-Ram; Choi, Da-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Materials and Methods Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. Results A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Conclusion Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively. PMID:23071969

  10. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  11. DYSTROPHIC CALCIFICATION OF MAXILLARY SINUS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND PIGMENTATION OF DENTAL ORGAN

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Adriana Furtado; Costa, Claudio; Mattar, Regina Helena Guedes da Motta; de Azevedo, Ramiro Anthero

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of severe dystrophic calcification in maxillary sinus of a child with liver transplantation and dental organs pigmented by hyperbilirubinemia. Case description: female patient, 12 years old, with liver transplantation performed at the age of 7 due to extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA). The patient was receiving the immunosuppressant tacrolimus (2 mg daily). Intraoral clinical exam showed tooth green pigmentation by bilirubin. Cone-beam volumetric computed tomography (CT) was performed to verify radiographic density of pigmented dental elements. Hounsfield scale measurement did not show changes in radiographic density of dental structures. However, CT scan showed intense dystrophic calcification in the maxillary sinus region. Comments: CT scan indicated relevant radiographic findings, with radiopacity of the maxillary sinus due to fungal or non-fungal sinusitis. This case report highlights the presence of radiographic image associated with acute infectious processes that could compromise the systemic state of immunosuppressed patients. PMID:29166493

  12. Intra-observer reproducibility and interobserver reliability of the radiographic parameters in the Spinal Deformity Study Group's AIS Radiographic Measurement Manual.

    PubMed

    Dang, Natasha Radhika; Moreau, Marc J; Hill, Douglas L; Mahood, James K; Raso, James

    2005-05-01

    Retrospective cross-sectional assessment of the reproducibility and reliability of radiographic parameters. To measure the intra-examiner and interexaminer reproducibility and reliability of salient radiographic features. The management and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) depends on accurate and reproducible radiographic measurements of the deformity. Ten sets of radiographs were randomly selected from a sample of patients with AIS, with initial curves between 20 degrees and 45 degrees. Fourteen measures of the deformity were measured from posteroanterior and lateral radiographs by 2 examiners, and were repeated 5 times at intervals of 3-5 days. Intra-examiner and interexaminer differences were examined. The parameters include measures of curve size, spinal imbalance, sagittal kyphosis and alignment, maximum apical vertebral rotation, T1 tilt, spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, and skeletal age. Intra-examiner reproducibility was generally excellent for parameters measured from the posteroanterior radiographs but only fair to good for parameters from the lateral radiographs, in which some landmarks were not clearly visible. Of the 13 parameters observed, 7 had excellent interobserver reliability. The measurements from the lateral radiograph were less reproducible and reliable and, thus, may not add value to the assessment of AIS. Taking additional measures encourages a systematic and comprehensive assessment of spinal radiographs.

  13. Dental Anomalies in a Brazilian Cleft Population.

    PubMed

    Sá, Jamile; Mariano, Lorena C; Canguçu, Daiane; Coutinho, Thaynara S L; Hoshi, Ryuichi; Medrado, Alena Peixoto; Martelli-Junior, Hercílio; Coletta, Ricardo D; Reis, Silvia R A

    2016-11-01

      The aim of this study was to radiographically investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies outside the cleft area in a group of Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P).   A retrospective analysis of 207 panoramic radiographs of patients with NSCL/P aged 12 to 45 years without history of tooth extraction and orthodontic treatment was performed.   Dental anomalies were found in 75.4% of the patients, and tooth agenesis (29.2%) and supernumerary tooth (2.6%) were the most common anomalies. The risk of agenesis was higher among the individuals with cleft palate (CP) compared with individuals with cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) (agenesis: CP versus CL: odds ratio 6.27, 95% confidence interval 2.21-17.8, P = .0003; CP versus CLP: odds ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval 1.27-6.81, P = .01). The frequency of dental agenesis was higher in patients with unilateral complete CLP (agenesis: P < .0001), incomplete bilateral CLP (agenesis: P = .0013), complete CP (agenesis: P < .0001), and incomplete CP (agenesis: P < .0001). The frequency of supernumerary teeth was higher in patients with bilateral complete CLP (P < .0001). The frequency of dental agenesis (P < .0001) and ectopic tooth (P = .009) was higher than the frequency estimated for general population.   The prevalence of dental anomalies in patients with NSCL/P was higher than that reported in overall population. This study found preferential associations between dental anomalies and specific extensions of NSCL/P, suggesting that dental agenesis and ectopic tooth may be part of oral cleft subphenotypes.

  14. Dental Imaging - A basic guide for the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Masthoff, Max; Gerwing, Mirjam; Masthoff, Malte; Timme, Maximilian; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Berninger, Markus; Heindel, Walter; Wildgruber, Moritz; Schülke, Christoph

    2018-06-18

     As dental imaging accounts for approximately 40 % of all X-ray examinations in Germany, profound knowledge of this topic is essential not only for the dentist but also for the clinical radiologist. This review focuses on basic imaging findings regarding the teeth. Therefore, tooth structure, currently available imaging techniques and common findings in conserving dentistry including endodontology, periodontology, implantology and dental trauma are presented.  Literature research on the current state of dental radiology was performed using Pubmed.  Currently, the most frequent imaging techniques are the orthopantomogram (OPG) and single-tooth radiograph, as well as computer tomography (CT) and cone beam CT mainly for implantology (planning or postoperative control) or trauma indications. Especially early diagnosis and correct classification of a dental trauma, such as dental pulp involvement, prevents from treatment delays or worsening of therapy options and prognosis. Furthermore, teeth are commonly a hidden focus of infection.Since radiologists are frequently confronted with dental imaging, either concerning a particular question such as a trauma patient or regarding incidental findings throughout head and neck imaging, further training in this field is more than worthwhile to facilitate an early and sufficient dental treatment.   · This review focuses on dental imaging techniques and the most important pathologies.. · Dental pathologies may not only be locally but also systemically relevant.. · Reporting of dental findings is important for best patient care.. · Masthoff M, Gerwing M, Masthoff M et al. Dental Imaging - A basic guide for the radiologist. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; DOI: 10.1055/a-0636-4129. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Oral health and dental care in aged care facilities in New South Wales, Australia. Part 3 concordance between residents' perceptions and a professional dental examination.

    PubMed

    Webb, Bettine C; Whittle, Terry; Schwarz, Eli

    2016-09-01

    To determine the perceptions of dental care held by the residents in aged care facilities (ACFs) in New South Wales (NSW) and to compare these perceptions with clinical observations. No specific data exist relating to NSW residents' perceptions of dental care compared with a clinical examination. Planning for appropriate oral health programs in ACFs necessitate such data. Four Area Health Services of Sydney and 25 low care ACFs were selected from which representative residents were sampled who completed a survey and underwent a basic dental examination. Of the subjects (25 males, 96 females), 76.9% had never received a dental visit as entering the ACF; 14.1% suffered from dental pain; 69.4% wore dentures and of these 18.3% required assistance in cleaning. Dentures were cleaned twice/day in 54.9% of cases. Natural teeth were reported present in 71.9% of residents, and 85.1% did not require assistance in cleaning. Appropriate dental care facilities and dry mouth were most frequent problems highlighted. Clinical examinations showed that 69% were denture wearers; oral hygiene and denture hygiene were considered good in 15.7% of cases. A high level of concordance existed between self-reports and examination. Increased awareness about oral health across leadership, caregivers and residents with appropriate dental health education and dedicated space within facilities would provide a much needed improvement for addressing oral health issues of the ACF residents. This might be the right time to plan for the future challenges that will need to be met by the NSW care system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Flemish general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiology

    PubMed Central

    Aps, J K M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiography and radiation protection in order to alert the Belgian authorities and dental professional societies. Prior to attending a postgraduate course on intraoral radiology, general dental practitioners in Flanders, Belgium, were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the radiological equipment and the techniques they used for intraoral radiography. The availability and type of dental panoramic equipment were also assessed. A total of 374 questionnaires were available for this study. 15% of the attendants used radiographic equipment that was more than 27 years old and 43% reported equipment that operated with a clockwork timer. 32% and 75% respectively had no idea what the kV or mA settings were on their intraoral equipment. 5% were unaware which cone geometry or geometric technique (paralleling or bisecting angle technique) they were using. 81% claimed to be using a short cone technique. 47% did not know what collimation meant, whereas 40% stated that they were using circular collimation. 38% used digital intraoral image detectors (63% were photostimulable storage phosphorplate (PSPP)), but 16% were not sure about the type of sensor they were using (PSPP or solid-state sensors). 61% also had dental panoramic equipment available, 25% of which was digital (10% charge coupled device (CCD) and 15% PSPP). These results clearly indicate the need for continued education on this subject. The latter is an important signal to Belgian authorities and dental professional societies. PMID:20100924

  17. Long-term effects of chemotherapy on dental status of children cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Orsolya; Hermann, Peter; Kivovics, Peter; Garami, Miklos

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of chemotherapy on the dental and gingival health and dental disturbance parameters of children cancer survivors. Thirty-eight children (mean age 12.2 ± 0.5 years) who underwent chemotherapy at 4.29 ± 1.71 years of age formed the study group. Forty age- and gender-matched healthy children with a similar socioeconomic background served as controls. Subjects' caries status (number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth [DMF-T]) was recorded according to World Health Organization criteria. Subjects' periodontal status was recorded according to the community periodontal index system. Radiographic dental examination was used to analyze dental malformations. DMF-T, D-T (number of decayed permanent teeth), and F-T (number of filled permanent teeth) were significantly higher in the study group compared to the controls (4.61 ± 3.71, 3.97 ± 4.45, respectively, and 0.58 ± 0.14 vs. 2.21 ± 1.01, 0.84 ± 1.82, and 1.18 ±1.07, respectively. The most frequent dental disturbances were root malformation (52.6%) and agenesis (47.4%). According to our examination dental status of long-term survivors is worse than in controls. Hence proper oral hygiene for children cancer survivors (CCS) is critical. In order to meet the need for dental care in CCS health authorities are encouraged to revitalize the dental services Long-term follow-up of CCS is necessary to monitor their dental growth and oral health.

  18. Dental findings and oral health status in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Nogueira, Ana Paula Barreto; Castro, Glória Fernanda; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To present a mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) case series evaluating oral manifestations (clinical and radiographic), oral health status and discussing its implications. All patients with MPS attending the Genetics clinic/Brazil were evaluated by means of anamnesis, clinical and radiographic examinations. The final sample consisted of 12 subjects (nine males and three females), with ages ranging from 3-31 years old. Concerning oral health, it was observed high levels of caries and periodontal problems. About oral manifestations, this study clinically observed more cases of delayed tooth eruption, thickness of alveolar process and thick lips. Radiographically, it was observed alterations on condyle, mandibular ramus and joint fossa. The dental changes in MPS population are high and consequently it is important to know them for differential diagnoses, early treatment intervention, prevention and education of both patients and parents/caregivers about oral health.

  19. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Results Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). Conclusions A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words:Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27957258

  20. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Patil, Santosh; Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

    2013-10-01

    Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.

  1. Evaluating a Team-Based Learning Method for Detecting Dental Caries in Dental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sang E.; Kim, Junhyck; Anderson, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the team-based learning environment facilitated the competency of third year dental students in caries detection and activity assessment. Corresponding data were achieved using digital radiographs to determine the carious lesions in three clinical cases. The distribution of the caries evaluations…

  2. Dental anomalies in an orthodontic patient population with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

    PubMed

    Citak, Mehmet; Cakici, Elif Bahar; Benkli, Yasin Atakan; Cakici, Fatih; Bektas, Bircan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmış

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a subpopulation of orthodontic patients with agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors (MLI). The material of the present study included the records of the 1964 orthodontic patients. Panoramic radiographs and dental casts were used to analyze other associated eight dental anomalies, including agenesis of other teeth, dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, peg shaped MLI, taurodontism, pulp stone, root dilaceration and maxillary canine impaction. Out of the 1964 patients examined, 90 were found to have agenesis of MLI, representing a prevalence of 4.6%. The most commonly found associated-anomalies were agenesis of other teeth (23.3%), peg-shaped MLIs (15.6%), taurodontism (42.2%), and dilacerated teeth (18.9%). Permanent tooth agenesis, taurodontism, peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, and root dilacerations are frequently associated with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

  3. A Retrospective Analysis of Radiographic Jaw Findings in Young Women; Prevalence and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    El Khateeb, Sara M.; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Fadel, Hani; Dar-Odeh, Najla

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and types of jaw pathologic findings as detected in panoramic radiographs of a sample of young women attending a teaching hospital in Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, and to determine the most important factors that predict the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Materials and Methods: The electronic clinical files of a representative sample of female patients who attended the outpatient dental clinics were retrieved. Patients were aged 18 to 25 years. Types of pathologic radiographic jaw findings and their prevalence were determined through screening of panoramic radiographs. Data were analyzed using the statistical analysis software [SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp.)]. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the significance of some types of dental lesions as predictor variables for the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Results: A total of 190 patients (mean age, 22.4 ± 2.46 years) were included in the study. Periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss were detected in 53.6%, 24.8%, and 17.4% of the participants, respectively. Other odontogenic abnormalities such as supernumerary and impacted teeth (6.4% and 33.7%, respectively) were also detected. Patients' age was found to be a good predictor for alveolar bone loss and number of periapical lesions (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: A high prevalence of periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss was found among a sample of young female dental attendees, as shown by their panoramic radiographs. Further studies are needed to explore potential risk factors for such a noticeable trend of poor oral health, and the needed strategies to counteract this trend. PMID:28316945

  4. Exploring Dental Providers’ Workflow in an Electronic Dental Record Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schwei, Kelsey M; Cooper, Ryan; Mahnke, Andrea N.; Ye, Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A workflow is defined as a predefined set of work steps and partial ordering of these steps in any environment to achieve the expected outcome. Few studies have investigated the workflow of providers in a dental office. It is important to understand the interaction of dental providers with the existing technologies at point of care to assess breakdown in the workflow which could contribute to better technology designs. Objective The study objective was to assess electronic dental record (EDR) workflows using time and motion methodology in order to identify breakdowns and opportunities for process improvement. Methods A time and motion methodology was used to study the human-computer interaction and workflow of dental providers with an EDR in four dental centers at a large healthcare organization. A data collection tool was developed to capture the workflow of dental providers and staff while they interacted with an EDR during initial, planned, and emergency patient visits, and at the front desk. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted on the observational data. Results Breakdowns in workflow were identified while posting charges, viewing radiographs, e-prescribing, and interacting with patient scheduler. EDR interaction time was significantly different between dentists and dental assistants (6:20 min vs. 10:57 min, p = 0.013) and between dentists and dental hygienists (6:20 min vs. 9:36 min, p = 0.003). Conclusions On average, a dentist spent far less time than dental assistants and dental hygienists in data recording within the EDR. PMID:27437058

  5. Association of Dental Anomalies with Different Types of Malocclusions in Pretreatment Orthodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Dwijendra, K S; Parikh, Vishal; George, Soja Sara; Kukkunuru, Gururam Tej; Chowdary, Gali Nagarjuna

    2015-06-01

    The study is planned to correlate the existence of dental anomalies with different types of malocclusion as the occurrence of anomalies is common in malocclusion. The present study was conducted among 430 patients with different types of malocclusion as 161 patients having Class I, 203 with Class II, and 66 with Class III malocclusion. The age of the patients ranged from 12 to 15 years. Diagnosis was done on the basis of history, clinical, cephalometric, radiographs, and dental cast examination. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Most common anomaly was rotation of teeth (18.80%), followed by hypodontia (10.90%), and least occurring was gemination, fusion, talon's cusp, and dilacerations. 31.4% showed one dental anomaly, whereas 11.9% exhibited two or more dental anomalies. The highest mean value of all the dental anomalies was seen with severe cases of malocclusion and also significant differences were observed according to gender. The present study investigated various dental anomalies in relation to malocclusion. It was found that 31.4% showed one dental anomaly, whereas 11.9% exhibited two or more dental anomalies. Hence, careful prior investigation of dental anomalies is necessary for better orthodontic treatment planning to reduce the complications.

  6. Evaluation of the medical exposure doses regarding dental examinations with different X-ray instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Chi; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Yu, Cheng-Ching; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing; Hsu, Fang-Yuh

    2015-11-01

    Modern dental X-ray examination that consists of traditional form, panorama, and cone-beamed 3D technologies is one of the most frequent diagnostic applications nowadays. This study used the Rando Phantom and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) to measure the absorbed doses of radiosensitive organs recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and whole body effective doses which were delivered due to dental X-ray examination performed with different types of X-ray instrument. Besides, enamel samples which performed reading with Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) procedure were also used to estimate the tooth doses. EPR is a dose reconstruction method of measuring free radicals induced by radiation exposure to the calcified tissue (mainly in the tooth enamel or bone) to evaluate the accepted high dose. The tooth doses estimated by TLD and EPR methods were compared. Relationships between the tooth doses and effective doses by dental X-ray examinations with different types of X-ray equipment were investigated in this work.

  7. The virtual dental home: a critique.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A; Mathu-Muju, Kavita R

    2017-09-01

    The Virtual Dental Home is a concept of the Pacific Center for Special Care of the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. It is designed to improve access to dental care for underserved populations, specifically children and institutionalized adults. This article describes the development and implementation of the Virtual Dental Home, subsequently critiquing the concept. The criteria for a dental home are not met by the program. It is the equivalent of a traditional public oral health prevention and screening program, with the additional dimension of allowing dental hygienists and assistants to place interim glass ionomer restorations in dental cavities. The critique questions the need to insert a "cloud" dentist into the process. The routine utilization of radiographs is also challenged. The VDH not only lacks the attributes of a dental home, it has not been shown to be as efficient and effective as traditional programs staffed by dental hygienists and dental therapists. The article concludes by describing how programs utilizing dental therapists could address the deficiencies of the Virtual Dental Home, effectively improving access to oral health care for underserved populations. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. Dental age estimation: Comparison of reliability between Malay formula of Demirjian method and Malay formula of Cameriere method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghali, R.; Kamaruddin, A. F.; Mokhtar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: The application of forensic odontology using teeth and bones becomes the most commonly used methods to determine age of unknown individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of Malay formula of Demirjian and Malay formula of Cameriere methods in determining the dental age that is closely matched with the chronological age of Malay children in Kepala Batas region. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. 126 good quality dental panoramic radiographs (DPT) of healthy Malay children aged 8-16 years (49 boys and 77 girls) were selected and measured. All radiographs were taken at Dental Specialist Clinic, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The measurements were carried out using new Malay formula of both Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calibrated examiner. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis between the chronological age with Demirjian and Cameriere has been calculated. The Demirjian method has shown a better percentage (91.4%) of ICC compared to Cameriere (89.2%) which also indicates a high association, with good reliability. However, by comparing between Demirjian and Cameriere, it can be concluded that Demirjian has a better reliability. Conclusion: Thus, the results suggested that, modified Demirjian method is more reliable than modified Cameriere method among the population in Kepala Batas region.

  9. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DENTAL AND SKELETAL MATURATION STAGES IN CROATIAN SUBJECTS.

    PubMed

    Srkoc, Tamara; Mestrović, Senka; Anić-Milosević, Sandra; Slaj, Mladen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and cervical vertebral maturation. The sample consisted of 295 subjects (129 male and 166 female), mean age 13.36 ± 2.65 (range 7-18) years. Dental age was evaluated from panoramic radiographs according to the method of Demirjian. Cervical vertebral maturation was determined on lateral cephalometric radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation stages (CVS). For assessing the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation, percentage distributions of the stages of calcification for each studied tooth were calculated. Only in the first CVS stage, boys and girls were of the same age. In all other stages (CVS 2-CVS 6) girls were by 0.98 (range 0.23-1.86) younger than boys. Gender differences in the mineralization pattern were also observed. It was found that dental maturation was finished earlier in female subjects. The highest correlation coefficient between dental and skeletal maturity was found for second premolars. Mineralization pattern of second premolars could be considered as a guideline for prediction of the pubertal growth spurt. Dental maturation stages might be clinically useful as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  10. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  11. Bayesian denoising in digital radiography: a comparison in the dental field.

    PubMed

    Frosio, I; Olivieri, C; Lucchese, M; Borghese, N A; Boccacci, P

    2013-01-01

    We compared two Bayesian denoising algorithms for digital radiographs, based on Total Variation regularization and wavelet decomposition. The comparison was performed on simulated radiographs with different photon counts and frequency content and on real dental radiographs. Four different quality indices were considered to quantify the quality of the filtered radiographs. The experimental results suggested that Total Variation is more suited to preserve fine anatomical details, whereas wavelets produce images of higher quality at global scale; they also highlighted the need for more reliable image quality indices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulp Calcification in Traumatized Primary Teeth - Classification, Clinical And Radiographic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Santos, Ana Maria Antunes; Bonini, Gabriela Azevedo Vasconcelos Cunha; Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti Del Conte; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    The aim of this study was to standardize the nomenclature of pulp alteration to pulp calcification (PC) and to classify it according to type, quantity and location, as well as relate it to clinical and radiographic features. The dental records of 946 patients from the Research and Clinical Center for Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth were studied. Two hundred and fifty PC-traumatized upper deciduous incisors were detected. According to radiographic analysis of the records, 62.5% showed diffuse calcification, 36.3% tube-like calcification, and 1.2% concentric calcification. According to the extension of pulp calcification, the records showed: 80% partial calcification, 17.2% total coronal calcification and partial radicular calcification, and 2.8 % total coronal and radicular calcification. As for location, only 2.4% were on the coronal pulp, 5.2% on the radicular pulp and 92.4% on both radicular and coronal pulp. Regarding coronal discoloration, 54% were yellow and 2% gray. In relation to periradicular changes, 10% showed widened periodontal ligament space, 3.1% internal resorption, 10% external resorption, 10.4% periapical bone rarefaction. Since PC is a general term, it is important to classify it and correlate it to clinical and radiographic changes, in order to establish the correct diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of each case.

  13. An examination of periodontal treatment, dental care, and pregnancy outcomes in an insured population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Albert, David A; Begg, Melissa D; Andrews, Howard F; Williams, Sharifa Z; Ward, Angela; Conicella, Mary Lee; Rauh, Virginia; Thomson, Janet L; Papapanou, Panos N

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether periodontal treatment or other dental care is associated with adverse birth outcomes within a medical and dental insurance database. In a retrospective cohort study, we examined the records of 23,441 women enrolled in a national insurance plan who delivered live births from singleton pregnancies in the United States between January 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, for adverse birth outcomes on the basis of dental treatment received. We compared rates of low birthweight and preterm birth among 5 groups, specifying the relative timing and type of dental treatment received. We used logistic regression analysis to compare outcome rates across treatment groups while adjusting for duration of continuous dental coverage, maternal age, pregnancy complications, neighborhood-level income, and race/ethnicity. Analyses showed that women who received preventive dental care had better birth outcomes than did those who received no treatment (P < .001). We observed no evidence of increased odds of adverse birth outcomes from dental or periodontal treatment. For women with medical and dental insurance, preventive care is associated with a lower incidence of adverse birth outcomes.

  14. Dental fear and oral health and family characteristics of Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Rantavuori, Kari; Lahti, Satu; Hausen, Hannu; Seppä, Liisa; Kärkkäinen, Sakari

    2004-08-01

    Our aim was to describe the occurrence of dental fear among Finnish children of different ages and to ascertain how oral health and family characteristics are associated with dental fear. The subject groups were aged 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 years in two middle-sized cities, and the 1474 participants were distributed over fairly equal samples of each age. A questionnaire given to each child to be filled out at home enquired about social background, oral hygiene habits, diet, and dental fear. Oral health status was examined clinically and radiographically by two calibrated dentists. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for each age group in order to study the associations between dental fear and selected factors. Dental fear was higher among 12- and 15-year-old children than among the younger ones. Pain, drilling, and local anesthesia were reported to be the most frightening aspects. Excluding the 12-year-olds, children whose family members reported dental fear were more likely to report dental fear than children whose family members did not report dental fear. Six- and 12-year-olds who had experienced caries were more likely to report dental fear than were caries-free children. Among 6-year-olds, father's education modified the effect of a child's caries experience on child dental fear. Frequent intake of sugary items and a limit on eating candies to only one day per week were associated with higher dental fear. Fear of dental treatment is still fairly common among Finnish children, and the factors associated with it differ with the age of the child.

  15. An efficient multi-resolution GA approach to dental image alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Diaa Eldin; Ogirala, Mythili; Adjeroh, Donald; Ammar, Hany

    2006-02-01

    Automating the process of postmortem identification of individuals using dental records is receiving an increased attention in forensic science, especially with the large volume of victims encountered in mass disasters. Dental radiograph alignment is a key step required for automating the dental identification process. In this paper, we address the problem of dental radiograph alignment using a Multi-Resolution Genetic Algorithm (MR-GA) approach. We use location and orientation information of edge points as features; we assume that affine transformations suffice to restore geometric discrepancies between two images of a tooth, we efficiently search the 6D space of affine parameters using GA progressively across multi-resolution image versions, and we use a Hausdorff distance measure to compute the similarity between a reference tooth and a query tooth subject to a possible alignment transform. Testing results based on 52 teeth-pair images suggest that our algorithm converges to reasonable solutions in more than 85% of the test cases, with most of the error in the remaining cases due to excessive misalignments.

  16. A method for the geometric and densitometric standardization of intraoral radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, J.E.; Judy, P.F.; Goodson, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    The interpretation of dental radiographs for the diagnosis of periodontal disease conditions poses several difficulties. These include the inability to adequately reproduce the projection geometry and optical density of the exposures. In order to improve the ability to extract accurate quantitative information from a radiographic survey of periodontal status, a method was developed which provided for consistent reproduction of both geometric and densitometric exposure parameters. This technique employed vertical bitewing projections in holders customized to individual segments of the dentition. A copper stepwedge was designed to provide densitometric standardization, and wire markers were included to permit measurement of angular variation.more » In a series of 53 paired radiographs, measurement of alveolar crest heights was found to be reproducible within approximately 0.1 mm. This method provided a full mouth radiographic survey using seven films, each complete with internal standards suitable for computer-based image processing.« less

  17. Dental avoidance behaviour in parent and child as risk indicators for caries in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wigen, Tove I; Skaret, Erik; Wang, Nina J

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between avoidance behaviour and dental anxiety in both parents and children and caries experience in 5-year-old children. It was hypothesised that parents' dental avoidance behaviour and dental anxiety were related to dental caries in 5-year-old children. Data were collected from dental records and by clinical and radiographic examination of 523 children. The parents completed a questionnaire regarding education, national background, dental anxiety, dental attendance, and behaviour management problems. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted. Children having one or more missed dental appointments (OR = 4.7), child behaviour management problems (OR = 3.3), child dental anxiety (OR = 3.1), and parents avoiding dental care (OR = 2.1) were bivariately associated with caries experience at the age of 5 years. In multivariate logistic regression, having one or more missed dental appointments (OR = 4.0) and child behaviour management problems (OR = 2.4) were indicators for dental caries in 5-year-old children, when controlling for parents education and national origin. Parents that avoid bringing their child to scheduled dental appointments and previous experiences of behaviour management problems for the child indicated risk for dental caries in 5-year-old children.

  18. [Dental anomalies in Chinese children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin-xin; Li, Jing; Ge, Li-hong; Ma, Lian

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in Chinese children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Dental histories and radiographs of 244 Chinese children with UCLP were collected. The diagnosis of dental anomalies was based on panoramic radiographs before alveolar bone grafting. All patients were over 8 years old. In the UCLP group, 66.8% of the patients was presented with hypodontia. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth affected, followed by maxillary second premolars, mandibular incisors and mandibular second premolars. A total of 33.6% the patients was presented with dental malformation, most were microdontic laterel incisors. A total of 4.9% the patients was presented with hyperdontia. The supernumerary teeth were more frequently found in the cleft region. The prevalence of missing maxillary lateral incisor in the noncleft side was statistically different between genders, which was higher in male (P < 0.050). This group of Chinese children with UCLP demonstrated significantly higher prevalence of hypodontia, hyperdontia, and malformation on the cleft side than on the noncleft side (P < 0.01). Hypodontia is the most common type of dental anomalies. The prevalence of dental anomalies is higher in the UCLP patients than in the normal population. Dental anomalies occur more frequently on the cleft side than on the noncleft side.

  19. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  20. A radiograph positioning technique to evaluate prosthetic misfit and bone loss around implants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kevin C; Wadhwani, Chandur P K; Sharma, Arun; Finzen, Frederick

    2014-02-01

    A radiograph positioning device was developed to fit with commercially available film holders and implant systems. The device is indexed to the dental implant body and the adjacent dentition by using an implant placement driver and polyvinyl siloxane occlusal registration material. By fitting the device to a conventional film holder, accurate orthogonal radiographs can monitor changes in bone architecture and prosthetic misfit. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship Between Dental Hygiene Students' Performance in an Oral Radiology Course and the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; DeWald, Janice P; Solomon, Eric S

    2018-02-01

    Dental hygiene students' performance in oral radiology courses may give an early indication of their readiness prior to taking the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dental hygiene students' performance in an oral radiology lecture course and their performance on the NBDHE. Data were collected for all 117 dental hygiene students at Texas A&M University College of Dentistry from 2006 to 2009 who took the NBDHE during their second year of the program. Their final grades and scores on three written section examinations in an oral radiology course taken in their first year were compared with their overall NBDHE scores and raw scores on the oral radiology and case study sections. Moderate correlations (0.3dental hygiene program courses and students' success on the clinical licensing exam and will hopefully encourage other programs to assess their students' performance in this way.

  2. 46 CFR 52.05-20 - Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1). 52.05-20 Section 52.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-20...

  3. 46 CFR 52.05-20 - Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1). 52.05-20 Section 52.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-20...

  4. 46 CFR 52.05-20 - Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1). 52.05-20 Section 52.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-20...

  5. 46 CFR 52.05-20 - Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1). 52.05-20 Section 52.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-20...

  6. 46 CFR 52.05-20 - Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radiographic and ultrasonic examination (modifies PW-11 and PW-41.1). 52.05-20 Section 52.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-20...

  7. Dental anomalies in primary dentition and their corresponding permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R R; Fonseca, J A C; Paula, L M; Acevedo, A C; Mestrinho, H D

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this paper are to estimate the prevalence of dental anomalies in primary dentition in a sample of 2- to 5-year-old Brazilian preschool children, determine their distribution, and investigate their occurrence in the succedaneous teeth of the sample compared with a control group of children with no dental anomalies in the primary dentition. The one-stage sample comprised 1,718 two to five-year-old children with fully erupted primary dentition clinically examined for dental anomalies. All children presenting dental anomalies underwent panoramic radiographs. Descriptive statistics were performed for the studied variables. A control group matched by sex and age was studied to compare the prevalence ratio for dental anomalies in the permanent dentition. The prevalence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition was 1.8 %, with no significant statistical difference between sexes. Double teeth were the most frequently observed. Dental anomalies on the succedaneous permanent teeth were diagnosed in 54.8 % of the children with affected primary dentition. The prevalence ratio (PR) for dental anomalies in the succedaneous permanent teeth was 17.1 (confidence interval (CI) 5.33-54.12) higher compared with the control group, higher in children with bilateral anomalies (PR = 31.2, CI 10.18-94.36). An association between anomalies of the permanent dentition and the presence of dental anomalies in primary teeth was observed, especially when they occur bilaterally. The results in the present study have a clinical relevance in the diagnosis of children with dental anomalies in primary dentition. Early identification of these anomalies can aid the dentist in planning dental treatment at the appropriate time.

  8. A sensitometric evaluation of a dental radiographic developer additive.

    PubMed

    Price, C

    1982-04-01

    The efficacy of a commercially available developer additive was investigated by a sensitometric method. The effects of the additive on two different manual developing solutions were evaluated immediately after mixing and at intervals of 5, 10, and 15 weeks. An automatic film processor was used to process control radiographs. Under the conditions of this investigation, no advantages were demonstrated following the use of the additive.

  9. Attitude and awareness of general dental practitioners toward radiation hazards and safety.

    PubMed

    Aravind, B S; Joy, E Tatu; Kiran, M Shashi; Sherubin, J Eugenia; Sajesh, S; Manchil, P Redwin Dhas

    2016-10-01

    The aim and objective is to evaluate the level of awareness and attitude about radiation hazards and safety practices among general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Postanswering the questions, a handout regarding radiation safety and related preventive measures was distributed to encourage radiation understanding and protection. Statistical analysis were done by assessing the results using Chi-square statistical test, t -test, and other software (Microsoft excel + SPSS 20.0 trail version). Among 300 general practitioners (247 females and 53 males), 80.3% of the practitioners were found to have a separate section for radiographic examination in their clinics. Intraoral radiographic machines were found to be the most commonly (63.3%) used radiographic equipment while osteoprotegerin was the least (2%). Regarding the practitioner's safety measures, only 11.7% of them were following all the necessary steps while 6.7% clinicians were not using any safety measure in their clinic, and with respect to patient safety, only 9.7% of practitioners were following the protocol. The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable. However, implementation of their knowledge with respect to patient and personnel safety was found wanting. Insisting that they follow the protocols and take necessary safety measures by means of continuing medical education programs, pamphlets, articles, and workshops is strongly recommended.

  10. Prevalence of Third Molar Agenesis: Associated Dental Anomalies in Non-Syndromic 5923 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sujon, Mamun Khan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of third molar agenesis and other associated dental anomalies in Bangladeshi population and to investigate the relationship of other dental anomalies with the third molar presence/agenesis. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 5923 patients, who ranged in age from 10 to 50 years. All radiographs were analyzed by Planmeca Romexis® 3.0 software (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Pearson chi-square and one way ANOVA (Post Hoc) test were conducted. The prevalence of third molar agenesis was 38.4%. The frequency of third molar agenesis was significantly higher in females than males (p <0.025). Third molar agenesis was significantly more prevalent in maxilla as compared to mandible (p <0.007). The prevalence of other dental anomalies was 6.5%, among them hypodontia was 3.1%. Prevalence of third molar agenesis varies in different geographic region. Among the other dental anomalies hypodontia was more prevalent. PMID:27580050

  11. Prevalence of Third Molar Agenesis: Associated Dental Anomalies in Non-Syndromic 5923 Patients.

    PubMed

    Sujon, Mamun Khan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of third molar agenesis and other associated dental anomalies in Bangladeshi population and to investigate the relationship of other dental anomalies with the third molar presence/agenesis. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 5923 patients, who ranged in age from 10 to 50 years. All radiographs were analyzed by Planmeca Romexis® 3.0 software (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Pearson chi-square and one way ANOVA (Post Hoc) test were conducted. The prevalence of third molar agenesis was 38.4%. The frequency of third molar agenesis was significantly higher in females than males (p <0.025). Third molar agenesis was significantly more prevalent in maxilla as compared to mandible (p <0.007). The prevalence of other dental anomalies was 6.5%, among them hypodontia was 3.1%. Prevalence of third molar agenesis varies in different geographic region. Among the other dental anomalies hypodontia was more prevalent.

  12. Relationship between dental age according to Demirjian and cervical vertebrae maturity in Polish children.

    PubMed

    Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Kolasa--Rączka, Anna; Kalinowski, Paweł

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Demirjian's method and the improved cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method. The material consisted of the clinical files and panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 718 children (431 girls and 287 boys) aged from 6 to 17 years, inhabitants of the Mazovia region (Central Poland). Dental age according to Demirjian was estimated using panoramic radiographs and the cervical stages (CS) of the CVM were evaluated on cephalometric radiographs. Descriptive statistics of the chronological and dental ages of the patients for a particular CS of skeletal maturity was calculated for girls and boys separately. Linear regression analysis and correlation (Pearson's r coefficient), as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (R) were applied to measure the association between CS and dental calcification stages of all analysed teeth. A consistently earlier occurrence (by about 6 months) for each CS was observed in females. A moderate, but statistically significant, correlation between Demirjian's dental developmental stages and CS was determined. The level of the correlation was different for individual teeth: the teeth showing the highest relationship with CVM were the second premolars and canines (in female and male subjects, respectively). The central incisor demonstrated the poorest correlation in both genders. The findings confirmed that both dental and skeletal maturity should be assessed if the maturity stage of a growing child is to be relevant to clinical practice. The results indicate the usefulness of dental calcification stages as a simple first-level diagnostic test to determine the skeletal maturity status of a subject.

  13. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  15. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  16. Tarsal navicular stress fractures: radiographic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.; Freiberger, R.H.

    1983-09-01

    Tarsal navicular stress fractures are a potential source of disabling foot pain in physically active individuals. The diagnosis of tarsal navicular stress fracture requires a high index of clinical and radiographic suspicion because the fracture is only rarely evident on routine radiographs or standard tomograms. The radiographic diagnosis of a tarsal navicular stress fracture may require anatomic anteroposterior tomograms or a radionuclide bone scan with plantar views. Radiographic examinations of 23 fractures in 21 patients are evaluated.

  17. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P < 0.05). In girls, the mandibular second molar had the highest and the canine the lowest correlation. In boys, the canine had the highest and the first premolar the lowest correlation. Tooth calcification stage was significantly correlated with cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro evaluation of ICDAS and radiographic examination of occlusal surfaces and their association with treatment decisions.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Michele B; Lima, Luciana Monti; Eckert, George; Zandona, Andrea G Ferreira; Cordeiro, Rita C L; Pinto, Lourdes Santos

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the performance of visual (International Caries Detection and Assessment System [ICDAS]) and radiographic (bitewing [BW]) examinations for occlusal caries detection and their associations with treatment decision (TD). Permanent teeth (n=104) with occlusal surfaces varying from sound to cavitated were selected. Sites were identified from 10× occlusal surface photographs. Standardized bitewing (BW) radiographs were taken. Four dentists with at least five years of experience scored all teeth twice (one-week interval) for ICDAS (0–6), BW (0=sound, 1=caries restricted to enamel, 2=caries in outer third dentin, 3=caries in inner third dentin), and TD (0=no treatment, 1=sealant, 2=microabrasion and sealant, 3=round bur sealant, 4a=resin, 4b=amalgam). Histological validation was performed by observation under a light microscope, with lesions classified on a five-point scale. Intraexaminer and interexaminer repeatability were assessed using two-way tables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Comparisons between percentage correct, specificity, sensitivity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed using bootstrap analyses. ICCs for intraexaminer and interexaminer repeatability indicated good repeatability for each examiner, ranging from 0.78 to 0.88, and among examiners, ranging from 0.74 to 0.81. Correlation between ICDAS and TD was 0.85 and between BW and TD was 0.78. Correlation between the methods and histological scores was moderate (0.63 for ICDAS and 0.61 for BW). The area under the ROC curve was significantly greater for ICDAS than for BW (p<0.0001). ICDAS had significantly lower specificity than BW did (p=0.0269, 79% vs 94%); however, sensitivity was much higher for ICDAS than for BW (p<0.0001, 83% vs 44%). Data from this investigation suggested that the visual examination (ICDAS) showed better performance than radiographic examination for occlusal caries detection. The ICDAS was

  19. Examining Whether Dental Therapists Constitute a Disruptive Innovation in US Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dental therapists—midlevel dental providers who are roughly analogous to nurse practitioners in medicine—might constitute a disruptive innovation within US dentistry. Proponents tend to claim that dental therapists will provide more equitable access to dental care; opponents tend to view them from a perspective that focuses on retaining the current attributes of the dental profession. Therapists display traits similar to those of disruptive innovations: their attributes are different from dentists’, they may not initially be valued by current dental patients, they may appeal to current dental underutilizers, and they may transform the dental delivery system. Whether dental therapists constitute a disruptive innovation will only be determined retrospectively. PMID:21852623

  20. Observer performance in diagnosing osteoporosis by dental panoramic radiographs: results from the osteoporosis screening project in dentistry (OSPD).

    PubMed

    Taguchi, A; Asano, A; Ohtsuka, M; Nakamoto, T; Suei, Y; Tsuda, M; Kudo, Y; Inagaki, K; Noguchi, T; Tanimoto, K; Jacobs, R; Klemetti, E; White, S C; Horner, K

    2008-07-01

    Mandibular cortical erosion detected on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) may be useful for identifying women with osteoporosis, but little is known about the variation in diagnostic efficacy of observers worldwide. The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy in identifying women at risk for osteoporosis in a worldwide group of observers using DPRs. We constructed a website that included background information about osteoporosis screening and instructions regarding the interpretation of mandibular cortical erosion. DPRs of 100 Japanese postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older who had completed skeletal bone mineral measurements by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were digitized at 300 dpi. These were displayed on the website and used for the evaluation of diagnostic efficacy. Sixty observers aged 25 to 66 years recruited from 16 countries participated in this study. These observers classified cortical erosion into one of three groups (none, mild to moderate, and severe) on the website via the Internet, twice with an approximately 2-week interval. The diagnostic efficacy of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), a simple clinical decision rule based on age and weight, was also calculated and compared with that of cortical erosion. The overall mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 60 observers in identifying women with osteoporosis by cortical erosion on DPRs were 82.5, 46.2, 46.7, and 84.0%, respectively. Those same values by the OST index were 82.9, 43.1, 43.9, and 82.4%, respectively. The intra-observer agreement in classifying cortical erosion on DPRs was sufficient (weighted kappa values>0.6) in 36 (60%) observers. This was significantly increased in observers who specialized in oral radiology (P<0.05). In the 36 observers with sufficient intra-observer agreement, the overall mean sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in identifying women with osteoporosis by any cortical

  1. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  2. Quality aspects of digital radiography in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Hellén-Halme, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The number of dentists who have converted from conventional film radiography to digital radiography continues to grow. A digital system has numerous advantages, but there are also many new aspects to consider. The overall aim of this thesis was to study how digital radiography was used in general dental practices. The specific aims were to study how different factors affected image quality. To determine whether there were any differences in image quality between conventional film radiographs and digital radiographs, 4863 images (540 cases) were evaluated. The cases had been sent to the Swedish Dental Insurance Office for prior treatment approval. The image quality of digital radiographs was found to be significantly lower than that of film radiographs. This result led to a questionnaire study of dentists experienced in digital radiography. In 2003, a questionnaire was sent to the 139 general practice dentists who worked with digital radiography in Skine, Sweden; the response rate was 94%. Many general practice dentists had experienced several problems (65%), and less than half of the digital systems (40%) underwent some kind of quality control. One of the weaker links in the technical chain of digital radiography appeared to be the monitor. A field study to 19 dentists at their clinics found that the brightness and contrast settings of the monitors had to be adjusted to obtain the subjectively best image quality. The ambient light in the evaluation room was also found to affect the diagnostic outcome of low-contrast patterns in radiographs. To evaluate the effects of ambient light and technical adjustments of the monitor, a study using standardised set-ups was designed. Seven observers evaluated radiographs of 100 extracted human teeth for approximal caries under five different combinations of brightness and contrast settings on two different occasions with high and low ambient light levels in the evaluation room. The ability to diagnose carious lesions was found

  3. Dental Faculty Accuracy When Using Diagnostic Codes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jeanne C; Fay, Rose-Marie; Huynh, Carolyn P; Johnson, Cleverick D; Zhu, Liang; Quock, Ryan L

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of dental faculty members' utilization of diagnostic codes and resulting treatment planning based on radiographic interproximal tooth radiolucencies. In 2015, 50 full-time and part-time general dentistry faculty members at one U.S. dental school were shown a sequence of 15 bitewing radiographs; one interproximal radiolucency was highlighted on each bitewing. For each radiographic lesion, participants were asked to choose the most appropriate diagnostic code (from a concise list of five codes, corresponding to lesion progression to outer/inner halves of enamel and outer/middle/pulpal thirds of dentin), acute treatment (attempt to arrest/remineralize non-invasively, operative intervention, or no treatment), and level of confidence in choices. Diagnostic and treatment choices of participants were compared to "gold standard" correct responses, as determined by expert radiology and operative faculty members, respectively. The majority of the participants selected the correct diagnostic code for lesions in the outer one-third of dentin (p<0.0001) and the pulpal one-third of dentin (p<0.0001). For lesions in the outer and inner halves of enamel and the middle one-third of dentin, the correct rates were moderate. However, the majority of the participants chose correct treatments on all types of lesions (correct rate 63.6-100%). Faculty members' confidence in their responses was generally high for all lesions, all above 90%. Diagnostic codes were appropriately assigned by participants for the very deepest lesions, but they were not assigned accurately for more incipient lesions (limited to enamel). Paradoxically, treatment choices were generally correct, regardless of diagnostic choices. Further calibration is needed to improve faculty use and teaching of diagnostic codes.

  4. Panoramic radiographic predictors of mandibular third molar eruption.

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, Iwona Anna; Drugacz, Jan; Kus, Nina; Kreska, Joanna

    2006-08-01

    Third molar (M3) eruption can be problematic. According to some orthodontic surgeons, the teeth are capable of aggravating the average crowding level in the dental arch. The question is whether it might be possible to give a prognosis for ultimate M3 position in the arch and make an early decision to extract or retain them. The purpose of the study was to determine which measurements made on panoramic tomograms might facilitate prognosis for M3 position in the dental arch over the years. The investigation involved 64 patients who had been enrolled to the study group 10 years earlier, ie, in 1993, when an analysis had been carried out regarding M3 effect on dental arch crowding. At that time panoramic tomograms had been taken, and dental casts made. The procedures were repeated in 2003. The following measurements were taken at baseline (1993) and at the end of the study (2003): (1)/the retromolar space to lower third molar crown width, (2) third molar angulation to the base of the mandible, and (3) third molar to second molar inclination. At some defined values of the Ganss ratio, and M3 inclination to mandibular base and second molar, it is possible to predict potential lower third molar alignment in the dental arch using a panoramic radiograph.

  5. Dental records of forensic odontological importance: Maintenance pattern among dental practitioners of Pune city

    PubMed Central

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Choudhary, Shakira; Patil, Shankargouda; Anand, Rahul; Vyas, Himadri

    2017-01-01

    Context: Forensic odontology plays a pivotal role in the identification of victims in mass disasters with the help of “Preserved dental records” available with the general dental practitioners (GDPs). However, the status of such dental records of forensic importance has not been studied extensively. Aim: To study the current status of awareness and practice of dental record maintenance by GDPs of Pune. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 randomly selected GDPs from Pune. Data was collected in a personalized manner by means of a questionnaire. Results: Six percent of GDPs do not maintain any records of the patient, 11% of them do not record about developmental dental anomalies, and 22% GDPs do not retain radiographs. Sixty-seven percent GDPs mention about the use of abbreviations while recording history. Only 17% of GDPs record denture marking and 11% take conformity certificate for the denture. Thirty percent GDPs do not mention the serial number of an implant whereas 17% of them do not mention about the prescribed medication. Five percent GDPs handover original dental record to the patient and 91% said that they discard casts and models immediately after treatment. Conclusion: There was inadequate knowledge and lack of practice regarding proper record maintenance among GDPs. PMID:28584484

  6. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Lee, Jia-Hong; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Siao, Ming-Jhih; Lai, Tat-Ming; Ibragimov, Bulat; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Ronneberger, Olaf; Fischer, Philipp; Cootes, Tim F; Lindner, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark. The main contributions of the challenge include the creation of the dental anatomy data repository of bitewing radiographs, the creation of the anatomical abnormality classification data repository of cephalometric radiographs, and the definition of objective quantitative evaluation for comparison and ranking of the algorithms. With this benchmark, seven automatic methods for analysing cephalometric X-ray image and two automatic methods for detecting bitewing radiography caries have been compared, and detailed quantitative evaluation results are presented in this paper. Based on the quantitative evaluation results, we believe automatic dental radiography analysis is still a challenging and unsolved problem. The datasets and the evaluation software will be made available to the research community, further encouraging future developments in this field. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/ISBI2015/). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Endodontic complications of root canal therapy performed by dental students with stainless-steel K-files and nickel-titanium hand files.

    PubMed

    Pettiette, M T; Metzger, Z; Phillips, C; Trope, M

    1999-04-01

    Straightening of curved canals is one of the most common procedural errors in endodontic instrumentation. This problem is commonly encountered when dental students perform molar endodontics. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the type of instrument used by these students on the extent of straightening and on the incidence of other endodontic procedural errors. Nickel-titanium 0.02 taper hand files were compared with traditional stainless-steel 0.02 taper K-files. Sixty molar teeth comprised of maxillary and mandibular first and second molars were treated by senior dental students. Instrumentation was with either nickel-titanium hand files or stainless-steel K-files. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs of each tooth were taken using an XCP precision instrument with a customized bite block to ensure accurate reproduction of radiographic angulation. The radiographs were scanned and the images stored as TIFF files. By superimposing tracings from the preoperative over the postoperative radiographs, the degree of deviation of the apical third of the root canal filling from the original canal was measured. The presence of other errors, such as strip perforation and instrument breakage, was established by examining the radiographs. In curved canals instrumented by stainless-steel K-files, the average deviation of the apical third of the canals was 14.44 degrees (+/- 10.33 degrees). The deviation was significantly reduced when nickel-titanium hand files were used to an average of 4.39 degrees (+/- 4.53 degrees). The incidence of other procedural errors was also significantly reduced by the use of nickel-titanium hand files.

  8. The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety in Patients of a University Dental Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodmansey, Karl F.

    2005-01-01

    Dental anxiety remains a pervasive barrier to dental treatment for many individuals, including college-age patients. In this article, the author reviews dental anxiety and examines the usefulness of assessment instruments for identifying dental anxiety. Using 2 unique assessment instruments, he examines the prevalence of dental anxiety in his…

  9. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D W; Ismail, A I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations, based on current evidence, for practising physicians and dentists on interventions for the prevention of dental caries in their patients. OPTIONS: Systemic fluoride administration, professionally administered fluoride, use of fluoride mouth rinses, fissure sealants, oral-hygiene practices, dietary practices, identification of groups at a high risk of dental caries, and early diagnosis and treatment. OUTCOMES: Reduced prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis, longer retention of teeth and lower treatment costs. EVIDENCE: Several MEDLINE searches were conducted for articles published from January 1980 to December 1992, including relevant review articles. VALUES: Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized with the use of the evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations were developed for each method of caries prevention, with reduced incidence of dental caries and improved prevalence of caries-free teeth given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The potential benefits of these measures in the long-term are a lower incidence of tooth decay, longer retention of teeth and prevention of fluorosis. The cost saving can be considerable for patients and insurers; however, implementation of some recommendations will be difficult, since the traditional preventive practices of dentists and dental hygienists are not easily changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is good evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: use of dentifrices containing fluoride, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride supplements for patients in areas where there is a low level (0.3 ppm or less) of fluoride in the drinking water, professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with very active decay or at a high risk of dental caries and selective use of professionally applied fissure sealants on permanent molar

  10. Oral cavity evaluation and dental chart registration of coati (Nasua nasua) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Elisângela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Mendes, Guilherme M; Gioso, Marco A

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a dental evaluate any oral cavity disease, develop gypsum models of the dental arches, and to register the occlusions found in coatis (Nasua nasua) in captivity Formulation of the dental chart was assisted by intraoral radiographs from the head of an adult coati cadaver of the same species with the following dental formula.: I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2. Seven live coatis of the Nasua nasua species were evaluated. Five of the seven coatis presented with various dental abnormalities as follows: dental plaque (71.4 0%), gingivitis (71.4 %), periodontitis (57.1 %), dental stain (42.9 %), dental abrasion (57.1 %), dental fracture (57.1 %), pulp exposure (42.9 %), malocclusion (57.1 %) and supernumerary teeth (14.2 %).

  11. Comparative Effectiveness Study to Assess Two Examination Modalities Used to Detect Dental Caries in Preschool Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Dental caries affecting the primary dentition of U.S. children continues to be the most prevalent chronic childhood disease. Preventive screening for dental caries in toddlers by dental professionals is labor-intensive and costly. Studies are warranted to examine innovative screening modalities that reduce cost, are less labor-intensive, and have the potential to identify caries in high-risk children. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred ninety-one children were randomized into two groups: Group 1 received a traditional, visual tactile examination initially and follow up-examinations at 6 and 12 months, and Group 2 received a teledentistry examination initially and follow-up examinations at 6 and 12 months. The mean primary tooth decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) scores were calculated for all children at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Results: At baseline, the mean dfs score for children examined by means of teledentistry was 2.19, and for the children examined by means of the traditional method, the mean was 1.27; the means were not significantly different. At the 12-month examination, the mean dfs score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 3.02, and for the children examined by means of the clinical method, the mean dfs was 1.70; the means were not significantly different. At 12 months the mean fillings score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 1.43 and for the children examined by means of the clinical method was 0.51; the means were statistically significantly different (p<0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that the teledentistry examinations were comparable to clinical examinations when screening for early childhood caries in preschool children. The data further showed that color printouts of teeth with cavities provided to parents of children who received teledentistry screenings promoted oral healthcare utilization, as children from the teledentistry study group received more dental care than

  12. Prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Deshraj

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies in an Indian population and to statistically analyze the distribution of these anomalies. The study was based on clinical examination, evaluation of dental casts, and panoramic radiographs of 1123 Indian subjects (572 males, 551 females), who visited the outpatient clinic at Government Dental College, Indore between November 2009 and September 2010, after obtaining their informed consent. These patients were examined for the following developmental dental anomalies: shape anomalies (microdontia, talon cusp, dens evaginatus, fusion, taurodontism), number anomalies (hypodontia, oligodontia, anodontia), structural anomalies (amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta) and positional anomalies (ectopic eruption, rotation, impaction). The percentages of these anomalies were assessed for the whole group and compared using statistical analysis. Among the 1123 subjects, a total of 385 individuals (34.28%) presented with the selected developmental dental anomalies. The distribution by sex was 197 males (34.44%), and 188 females (34.06%). Out of the total 1123 individuals, 351 (31.26%) exhibited at least one anomaly, 28 (2.49 %) showed two anomalies and 6 (0.53%) displayed more than two anomalies. P values indicated that the dental anomalies were statistically independent of sex. On intergroup comparison, positional anomalies were significantly most prevalent (P < 0.05) in the Indian population. The most common developmental dental anomaly was rotation (10.24%), followed by ectopic eruption (7.93%). The next common group was number anomalies. The most common number anomaly was hypodontia (4.19%), which had a higher frequency than hyperdontia (2.40%). Analyzing the next prevalent group of shape anomalies, microdontia (2.58%) was found to be the most common, followed by taurodontism (2.49%), dens evaginatus (2.40%) and talon cusp (0.97%). Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.09%) was

  13. Observer agreement in the reporting of knee and lumbar spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations: selectively trained MR radiographers and consultant radiologists compared with an index radiologist.

    PubMed

    Brealey, S; Piper, K; King, D; Bland, M; Caddick, J; Campbell, P; Gibbon, A; Highland, A; Jenkins, N; Petty, D; Warren, D

    2013-10-01

    To assess agreement between trained radiographers and consultant radiologists compared with an index radiologist when reporting on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the knee and lumbar spine and to examine the subsequent effect of discordant reports on patient management and outcome. At York Hospital two MR radiographers, two consultant radiologists and an index radiologist reported on a prospective, random sample of 326 MRI examinations. The radiographers reported in clinical practice conditions and the radiologists during clinical practice. An independent consultant radiologist compared these reports with the index radiologist report for agreement. Orthopaedic surgeons then assessed whether the discordance between reports was clinically important. Overall observer agreement with the index radiologist was comparable between observers and ranged from 54% to 58%; for the knee it was 46-57% and for the lumbar spine was 56-66%. There was a very small observed difference of 0.6% (95% CI -11.9 to 13.0) in mean agreement between the radiographers and radiologists (P=0.860). For the knee, lumbar spine and overall, radiographers' discordant reports, when compared with the index radiologist, were less likely to have a clinically important effect on patient outcome than the radiologists' discordant reports. Less than 10% of observer's reports were sufficiently discordant with the index radiologist's reports to be clinically important. Carefully selected MR radiographers with postgraduate education and training reported in clinical practice conditions on specific MRI examinations of the knee and lumbar spine to a level of agreement comparable with non-musculoskeletal consultant radiologists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accuracy of radiographic caries diagnosis using different X-ray generators.

    PubMed

    Svenson, B; Petersson, A

    1989-05-01

    Dental X-ray machines utilizing five different combinations of X-ray generators and tube voltages (Philips Oralix 65 kV, Siemens Heliodent EC 60 kV, Siemens Heliodent 70 kV, Soredex Minray DC 60 kV and Soredex Minray DC 70 kV) were compared with respect to the accuracy of radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries. Nine observers diagnosed proximal caries in radiographs of extracted premolars. The findings of the observers were compared to the actual presence or absence of caries. The ROC-curve technique was used to evaluate differences in diagnostic accuracy between the X-ray machines. The results showed small differences in diagnostic accuracy between the different X-ray generators but they proved to be statistically non-significant.

  15. Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of possible breast cancer metastasis around dental implants.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Kaan; Bayndr, Hakan; Aksoy, Seçil; Seker, Basak Kusakci; Berberoğlu, Atilla; Ozan, Oğuz

    2011-05-01

    Numb chin syndrome, sometimes called numb lip syndrome, is an uncommon but well-recognized symptom in medical oncology. It may be a metastatic neurologic manifestation of malignancy, often with no clinically visible pathologic finding. The authors report a numb chin syndrome as a manifestation possible breast cancer metastasis around dental implants in a 69-year-old woman. The patient was presented with complaint of numbness in the lower jaw. Medical anamnesis revealed a metastatic breast carcinoma (CA). Radiographic imaging with conventional panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomographic examination, revealed a moth-eaten shape, radiolucent, and radiopaque mixed appearance around the dental implants that was related with possible metastasis of the breast cancer. Numb chin syndrome is almost unknown within the dental and oral and maxillofacial community, despite being well reported in the medical literature. General dentists, oral medicine specialists, and oral and maxillofacial surgeons must be aware of this condition to consider metastatic cancer in patients with unexplained facial hypoesthesia. Moreover, although the development of metastatic lesions around implants is an uncommon pathologic finding, the examination of peri-implant lesion should be performed carefully considering the entire pathologic situations.

  16. Autologous dental pulp stem cells in periodontal regeneration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Cricenti, Luca; Mariani, Giulia Maria; Romano, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Histologic findings in animal models suggest that the application of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote periodontal regeneration in infrabony defects. This case report describes the clinical and radiographic regenerative potential of autologous DPSCs in the treatment of human noncontained intraosseous defects. A chronic periodontitis patient with one vital third molar requiring extraction was surgically treated. The third molar was extracted and used as an autologous DPSCs source to regenerate the infrabony defect on the mandibular right second premolar. At the 1-year examination, the defect was completely filled with bonelike tissue as confirmed through the reentry procedure.

  17. Digital dental radiology in Belgium: a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Snel, Robin; Van De Maele, Ellen; Politis, Constantinus; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2018-06-27

    The aim of this study is to analyse the use of digital dental radiology in Belgium, by focussing on the use of extraoral and intraoral radiographic techniques, digitalisation and image communication. A nationwide survey has been performed amongst Belgian general dentists and dental specialists. Questionnaires were distributed digitally via mailings lists and manually on multiple refresher courses and congresses throughout the country. The overall response rate was 30%. Overall, 94% of the respondents had access to an intraoral radiographic unit, 76% had access to a panoramic unit, 21% has an attached cephalometric arm. One in five Belgian dentists also seem to have direct access to a cone beam CT. 90% of all intraoral radiography unit worked with digital detectors, while this was 91% for panoramic units (with or without cephalometrics). In 70% of the cases, general dental practitioners with a digital intraoral unit used a storage phosphor plate while in 30% of the cases they used sensor technology (charge-coupled device or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor). The most common method for professional image transfer appeared to be email. Finally, 16% of all respondents used a calibrated monitor for image analysis. The survey indicates that 90% of the respondents, Belgian dentists, make use of digital image techniques. For sharing images, general dental practitioners mainly use methods such as printout and e-mail. The usage of calibrated monitors, however, is not well established yet.

  18. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  19. Positive dental identification using tooth anatomy and digital superimposition.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Raymond J; Michael Bowers, C

    2013-03-01

    Dental identification of unknown human remains continues to be a relevant and reliable adjunct to forensic investigations. The advent of genomic and mitochondrial DNA procedures has not displaced the practical use of dental and related osseous structures remaining after destructive incidents that can render human remains unrecognizable, severely burned, and fragmented. The ability to conclusively identify victims of accident and homicide is based on the availability of antemortem records containing substantial and unambiguous proof of dental and related osseous characteristics. This case report documents the use of digital comparative analysis of antemortem dental models and postmortem dentition, to determine a dental identification. Images of dental models were digitally analyzed using Adobe Photoshop(TM) software. Individual tooth anatomy was compared between the antemortem and postmortem images. Digital superimposition techniques were also used for the comparison. With the absence of antemortem radiographs, this method proved useful to reach a positive identification in this case. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Testing a Novel 3D Printed Radiographic Imaging Device for Use in Forensic Odontology.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Giles, Bridget; Garcia, Hector M; Diawara, Norou

    2017-01-01

    There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored. A significant difference was found at the 0.05 level between the three devices (p = 0.0015), with the MEAD having the least amount of total errors and soft dental wax taking the least amount of time. Total errors were highest when participants used soft dental wax-both the MEAD and the CHAD performed best overall. Further research in forensic dental radiology and use of holding devices is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Dental Anomalies as Late Adverse Effect among Young Children Treated for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Proc, Patrycja; Szczepańska, Joanna; Skiba, Adam; Zubowska, Małgorzata; Fendler, Wojciech; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of dental complications in childhood cancer survivors with that of healthy control subjects, and to determine the possible influence of various factors associated with patient and treatment. Sixty-one panoramic radiographs of the dentition of cancer survivors were compared with 521 radiographs of healthy patients at a similar age, between 5 and 18 years. The mean period from termination of therapy was 4.9 years (58.9 ± 34.3 months), and 51 children (83.60%) were under age 5 when therapy began. Dental anomalies were found in 38 cancer survivors (62.29%) and 69 control subjects (13.24%) (p < 0.001). Agenesis of teeth was found in 19 cancer patients (31.14%) and in 48 control subjects (9.21%). Microdontic teeth were found in 22 cancer survivors (36.06%) and 15 control subjects (2.87%) (p < 0.001), whereas teeth with short roots were found in seven cancer patients (11.47%) and 15 control subjects (2.87%) (p < 0.01). Dental anomalies in cancer patients were more common in some tooth groups and were not observed in others. The frequency of dental anomalies did not show correlation with age at the beginning or termination or time of therapy. Children under the age of 5 are in a high risk group for dental complications after anticancer treatment. Rudimentary chemotherapy has a considerable impact on the occurrence of dental anomalies.

  2. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.

  3. Clinical and radiographic comparison of the effects of two types of fixed retainers on periodontium - a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Torkan, Sepideh; Oshagh, Morteza; Khojastepour, Leila; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Heidari, Somayeh

    2014-08-27

    Most orthodontists believe that fixed retainers are necessary to maintain ideal dental relationships. However, untoward side effects might result from their long-term placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic effect of two commonly used fixed retainers on the health of the periodontium. Thirty patients were randomly divided into two groups to receive either a fiber-reinforced composite retainer or a spiral wire retainer extended on the lingual surfaces of both maxillary and mandibular arches from canine to canine. Periapical radiographs were obtained from the patients at the time of placement of the retainers and after the 6-month period to assess the radiographic conditions of the periodontium. Clinical examination was carried out at the same two time intervals. Even though there were no significant differences between the two groups of study at the beginning of the trial, there were statistically significant differences after the 6-month follow-up regarding the main outcomes of the study. Nearly all indices showed to deteriorate after 6 months in the fiber-reinforced group, while in the spiral wire group, this was not the case. As for the secondary outcomes, radiographic examination did not reveal any statistically significant differences after 6 months or between the two groups. It can be concluded that spiral wire retainers elicit less detrimental periodontal response in the short-term follow-up compared to fiber-reinforced composite retainers as revealed by the primary outcomes of the study. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01314729.

  4. The reliability of dental x-ray film in assessment of MP3 stages of the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Kader, H M

    1998-10-01

    The main object of this clinical study is to provide a simple and practical method to assess the pubertal growth spurt stages of a subject by recording MP3 stages with the dental periapical radiograph and the standard dental x-ray machine.

  5. Early diagnosis of regional odontodysplasia in an infant.

    PubMed

    Canela, Alfredo Hiram Carrillo; Rezende, Karla Mayra Pinto E Carvalho; Benitez, Mirtha; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a rare and significant dental malformation. It is a dental alteration of unknown etiology, involving both mesodermal and ectodermal dental components, which present clinical, radiographic, and histologic features. This article reports a clinical case of a 10-month-old child who was diagnosed with regional odontodysplasia in the maxilla, confirmed by radiographic examination, with a follow-up of 5 years. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features were reviewed.

  6. Sex estimation based on tooth measurements using panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Capitaneanu, Cezar; Willems, Guy; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Sex determination is an important step in establishing the biological profile of unidentified human remains. The aims of the study were, firstly, to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in permanent teeth, based on digital tooth measurements performed on panoramic radiographs. Secondly, to identify sex-related tooth position-specific measurements or combinations of such measurements, and to assess their applicability for potential sex determination. Two hundred digital panoramic radiographs (100 males, 100 females; age range 22-34 years) were retrospectively collected from the dental clinic files of the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Center of the University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium, and imported in image enhancement software. Tooth length- and width-related variables were measured on all teeth in upper and lower left quadrant, and ratios of variables were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to quantify the sex discriminative value of the tooth position-specific variables and their combinations. The mandibular and maxillary canine showed the greatest sexual dimorphism, and tooth length variables had the highest discriminative potential. Compared to single variables, combining variables or ratios of variables did not improve substantially the discrimination between males and females. Considering that the discriminative ability values (area under the curve (AUC)) were not higher than 0.80, it is not advocated to use the currently studied dental variables for accurate sex estimation in forensic practice.

  7. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Poongodi, V; Kanmani, R; Anandi, M S; Krithika, C L; Kannan, A; Raghuram, P H

    2015-08-01

    To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application.

  8. Prevalence of dental anomalies in the permanent dentition of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa; Ucar, Faruk İzzet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of various congenital dental anomalies in the permanent dentition of Turkish children with Down syndrome. The sample consisted of 216 diagnostic records of children diagnosed with Down syndrome. All subjects had a clinical examination as well as radiographs and photographs taken. Anomalies in the permanent dentition were documented. There was a high incidence of dental anomalies, the most frequent being taurodontism (81 percent), rotation (28 percent), hypodontia (26 percent), tooth impaction (18 percent), ectopic eruption (14 percent), microdontia (13 percent), and hyperdontia (9 percent). Differences in prevalence of congenitally missing teeth, structural anomalies, and positional anomalies reached a statistically significant level regarding gender (P<.05). Turkish children with Down syndrome presented a high incidence of anomalies affecting the permanent dentition, and, in most cases, individuals presented with more than one anomaly.

  9. Dental Radiology I Student Guide [and Instructor Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.

    The dental radiology student and instructor guides provide instruction in the following units: (1) x-ray physics; (2) x-ray production; (3) radiation health and safety; (4) radiographic anatomy and pathology; (5) darkroom setup and chemistry; (6) bisecting angle technique; (7) paralleling technique; (8) full mouth survey technique--composition and…

  10. Radiographic and clinical outcomes of implants placed in ridge preserved sites: a 12-month post-loading follow-up.

    PubMed

    Patel, K; Mardas, N; Donos, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the interproximal radiographic bone levels and the survival/success rate of dental implants placed in alveolar ridges previously preserved with a synthetic bone substitute or a bovine xenograft. Alveolar ridge preservation was performed in 27 patients who were randomly assigned in two groups. In the test group (n = 14), the extraction socket was treated with a synthetic bone graft Straumann Bone Ceramic; SBC and a collagen barrier, whereas in the control group (n = 13) a deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and the same collagen barrier were used. After 8 months of healing, titanium dental implants with a hydrophilic surface were placed in the preserved ridges. During surgery, 9/13 implants in the SBC group and 8/12 implants in the DBBM group presented with either dehiscence or fenestration defects and required additional bone augmentation. The implants were loaded at 4 months following placement and were followed up for 1 year post-loading. Interproximal radiographic bone levels were evaluated in standardized periapical radiographs at loading and 1 year post-loading. Probing pocket depth, gingival recession and bleeding upon probing were recorded at implants and neighbouring teeth. The success rate of the implants was evaluated according to criteria set by Albrektsson et al. (1986). The survival rate of the implants in both groups was 100% at 1-year post-loading. No statistically significant differences in any of the clinical and radiographic measurements were detected between the two groups (P < 0.05). The success rate of the implants was 84.6% (11/13) in the SBC group and 83.3% (10/12) in the DBBM group. Equivalent success and survival rates (as well as similar radiographic changes) of dental implants placed in alveolar ridges previously preserved with SBC or DBBM should be anticipated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Incorporating digital imaging into dental hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Saxe, M J; West, D J

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe digital imaging technology: available modalities, scientific imaging process, advantages and limitations, and applications to dental hygiene practice. Advances in technology have created innovative imaging modalities for intraoral radiography that eliminate film as the traditional image receptor. Digital imaging generates instantaneous radiographic images on a display monitor following exposure. Advantages include lower patient exposure per image and elimination of film processing. Digital imaging enhances diagnostic capabilities and, therefore, treatment decisions by the oral healthcare provider. Utilization of digital imaging technology for intraoral radiography will advance the practice of dental hygiene. Although spatial resolution is inferior to conventional film, digital imaging provides adequate resolution to diagnose oral diseases. Dental hygienists must evaluate new technologies in radiography to continue providing quality care while reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  12. Ionizing radiation regulations and the dental practitioner: 1. The nature of ionizing radiation and its use in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Rout, John; Brown, Jackie

    2012-04-01

    Legislation governing the use of ionizing radiation in the workplace and in medical treatment first became law in 1985 and 1988, being superseded by the Ionizing Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) and the Ionizing Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000, (IR(ME)R 2000), respectively. This legislation ensures a safe environment in which to work and receive treatment and requires that those involved in the radiographic process must be appropriately trained for the type of radiographic practice they perform. A list of the topics required is detailed in Schedule 2 of IR(ME)R 2000 and is paraphrased in Table 1, with the extent and amount of knowledge required depending on the type of radiographic practice undertaken. Virtually all dental practitioners undertake radiography as part of their clinical practice. Legislation requires that users of radiation, including dentists and members of the dental team, understand the basic principles of radiation physics, hazards and protection, and are able to undertake dental radiography safely with the production of high quality, diagnostic images.

  13. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  14. An automatic panoramic image reconstruction scheme from dental computed tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Papakosta, Thekla K; Savva, Antonis D; Economopoulos, Theodore L; Gröhndal, H G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Panoramic images of the jaws are extensively used for dental examinations and/or surgical planning because they provide a general overview of the patient's maxillary and mandibular regions. Panoramic images are two-dimensional projections of three-dimensional (3D) objects. Therefore, it should be possible to reconstruct them from 3D radiographic representations of the jaws, produced by CBCT scanning, obviating the need for additional exposure to X-rays, should there be a need of panoramic views. The aim of this article is to present an automated method for reconstructing panoramic dental images from CBCT data. Methods: The proposed methodology consists of a series of sequential processing stages for detecting a fitting dental arch which is used for projecting the 3D information of the CBCT data to the two-dimensional plane of the panoramic image. The detection is based on a template polynomial which is constructed from a training data set. Results: A total of 42 CBCT data sets of real clinical pre-operative and post-operative representations from 21 patients were used. Eight data sets were used for training the system and the rest for testing. Conclusions: The proposed methodology was successfully applied to CBCT data sets, producing corresponding panoramic images, suitable for examining pre-operatively and post-operatively the patients' maxillary and mandibular regions. PMID:28112548

  15. Investigational Clinical Trial of a Prototype Optoelectronic Computer-Aided Navigation Device for Dental Implant Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jokstad, Asbjørn; Winnett, Brenton; Fava, Joseph; Powell, David; Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter

    New digital technologies enable real-time computer-aided (CA) three-dimensional (3D) guidance during dental implant surgery. The aim of this investigational clinical trial was to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a prototype optoelectronic CA-navigation device in comparison with the conventional approach for planning and effecting dental implant surgery. Study participants with up to four missing teeth were recruited from the pool of patients referred to the University of Toronto Graduate Prosthodontics clinic. The first 10 participants were allocated to either a conventional or a prototype device study arm in a randomized trial. The next 10 participants received implants using the prototype device. All study participants were restored with fixed dental prostheses after 3 (mandible) or 6 (maxilla) months healing, and monitored over 12 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of any surgical, biologic, or prosthetic adverse events or device-related complications. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of positioning of implants not considered suitable for straightforward prosthetic restoration (yes/no); the perception of the ease of use of the prototype device by the two oral surgeons, recorded by use of a Likert-type questionnaire; and the clinical performance of the implant and superstructure after 1 year in function. Positioning of the implants was appraised on periapical radiographs and clinical photographs by four independent blinded examiners. Peri-implant bone loss was measured on periapical radiographs by a blinded examiner. No adverse events occurred related to placing any implants. Four device-related complications led to a switch from using the prototype device to the conventional method. All implants placed by use of the prototype device were in a position considered suitable for straightforward prosthetic restoration (n = 21). The qualitative evaluation by the surgeons was generally positive, although ergonomic challenges were identified

  16. Craniofacial and dental malformations in Costello syndrome: A detailed evaluation using multi-detector row computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masashi; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    Costello syndrome is a rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by heterozygous germline HRAS mutations, which is characterized by intellectual disability, growth retardation, distinctive facies, loose skin, cardiomyopathy and a preposition to malignancies. Although teeth abnormalities have been encountered in nearly two-thirds of the patients in literature, the evaluation tended to be limited to the extent which can be obtained from physical examination. We investigated detailed craniofacial, oral and dental findings in four patients with Costello syndrome. In this study, images reconstructed by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) were used as substitutes for dental cast study and panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiograph studies to evaluate dental arches, tooth size, relationships between craniofacial and dental structures, and hypodontia. All four patients showed true/relative macrocephaly with facial bone hypoplasia and gingival hypertrophy. Occlusal attrition, malocclusion, small dental arches, microdontia, and convex face were noted in three patients. In addition, one patient showed dental caries, conic tooth and gingivitis, and another patient showed hypodontia. Our study suggests that craniofacial and dental abnormalities are common in Costello syndrome patients and comprehensive dental care should be provided from early infancy. To our knowledge, this is the first study of thorough craniofacial and dental evaluation by using MDCT in Costello syndrome. MDCT is a useful tool for precise evaluation of craniofacial and oral manifestations in patients with congenital anomaly/intellectual disability syndromes. © 2012 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. Radiopacity evaluation of Portland and MTA-based cements by digital radiographic system.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Semanoff-Segundo, Alex; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiopacity of Portland and MTA-based cements using the Digora TM digital radiographic system. The performed tests followed specification number 57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000) for endodontic sealing materials. The materials were placed in 5 acrylic plates, especially designed for this experiment, along with a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1 to 10 mm in thickness. The set was radiographed at a 30 cm focus-object distance and with 0.2 s exposure time. After the radiographs were taken, the optical laser readings of radiographs were performed by Digora TM system. Five radiographic density readings were performed for each studied material and for each step of the aluminum scale. White ProRoot MTA (155.99±8.04), gray ProRoot MTA (155.96±16.30) and MTA BIO (143.13±16.94) presented higher radiopacity values (p<0.05), while white non-structural Portland (119.76±22.34), gray Portland (109.71±4.90) and white structural Portland (99.59±12.88) presented lower radiopacity values (p<0.05). It was concluded that MTA-based cements were the only materials presenting radiopacity within the ANSI/ADA specifications.

  18. Amelogenesis imperfecta associated with dental follicular-like hamartomas and generalised gingival enlargement.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, S; Davies, J; Smallridge, J; Vaidyanathan, M

    2014-10-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited disorder characterised by generalised defects of dental enamel, but has been associated with other dental and medical conditions. It affects the appearance and structure of teeth, both in the primary and secondary dentition. AI in the presence of dental follicular hamartomas and gingival hyperplasia is rare and the management presents several challenges to the clinician. This article describes a case of a girl who presented to the paediatric department at the age of 7 years complaining of discomfort when eating and that she was unhappy with the appearance of her anterior teeth. The patient was born in the UK but she and her family were African and of Kenyan origin. She was otherwise fit and well. Investigations included clinical, radiographic and pathological examination as well as cone beam computed tomography imaging and X-ray Microtomography of extracted primary teeth. A diagnosis of AI in the presence of dental follicular hamartomas and generalised gingival hyperplasia was made, which had resulted in the delayed eruption of permanent teeth and an associated anterior open bite. There was no family history of dental defects. Initial treatment included preventative advice and the application of preformed metal crowns on all primary molars. Extraction of all remaining primary incisors was carried out followed by gingivectomy around the maxillary permanent incisors, mandibular central incisors and maxillary left second primary molar. Composite resin reconstruction of all permanent incisors and mandibular primary canines was complicated by the poor quality of enamel. Orthodontic extrusion of the anterior incisors was carried out to improve surface area for bonding with some success. A multidisciplinary team managed this case and decided that no surgical intervention of the dental follicular hamartomas was warranted. The patient coped well with treatment and attended for regular review over an 8-year period. She was

  19. Usefulness of Chest Radiographs for Scoliosis Screening: A Comparison with Thoraco-Lumbar Standing Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Chan Gyu; Lee, Myoung Seok; Park, Hyeong-Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of chest radiographs in scoliosis screening and to compare these results with those of thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs (TLSR). Materials and Methods During Korean conscription, 419 males were retrospectively examined using both chest radiographs and TLSR to confirm the scoliosis and Cobb angle at the Regional Military Manpower. We compared the types of spinal curves and Cobb angles as measured from different radiographs. Results In the pattern of spinal curves, the overall matching rate of chest radiographs using TLSR was about 58.2% (244 of 419 cases). Cobb angle differences between chest radiographs and TLSR with meaningful difference was observed in 156 cases (37.2%); a relatively high proportion (9.5%) of Cobb angle differences more than 10 degrees was also observed. The matching rate of both spinal curve types and Cobb angle accuracy between chest radiographs and TLSR was 27.9% (117 among 419 cases). Chest radiographs for scoliosis screening were observed with 93.94% of sensitivity and 61.67% of specificity in thoracic curves; however, less than 40% of sensitivity (38.27%, 20.00%, and 25.80%) and more than 95% of specificity (97.34%, 99.69%, and 98.45%) were observed in thoraco-lumbar, lumbar, and double major curves, respectively. Conclusion The accuracy of chest radiographs for scoliosis screening was low. The incidence of thoracic curve scoliosis was overestimated and lumbar curve scoliosis was easily missed by chest radiography. Scoliosis screening using chest radiography has limited values, nevertheless, it is useful method for detecting thoracic curve scoliosis. PMID:23074120

  20. Prevalence of dental anomalies in a population of cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Al Jamal, Ghaida A; Hazza'a, Abdalla M; Rawashdeh, Ma'amon A

    2010-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate radiographically the prevalence of dental anomalies in a group of Jordanian cleft lip and/or palate subjects. This is a retrospective review of panoramic radiographs of 78 subjects with cleft lip and/or palate that were evaluated from their file records and investigated for possible dental anomalies. Dental anomalies were found frequently in cleft lip and/or palate subjects. Missing teeth were found in 66.7% of the patients; the tooth most commonly missing was the maxillary lateral incisor. Supernumerary teeth were found in 16.7% of patients; 37% had microdontia; 70.5% had taurodontism; 30.8% had transposition and/or ectopic teeth; 19.2% had dilacerations; and 30.8% had hypoplastic teeth. There was no statistically significant difference in the above anomalies' prevalence between males and females. However, it was found that subjects with bilateral cleft lip and/or palate had significantly more microdontia (p = .005), dilaceration (p = .002), and hypoplastic teeth (p = .0001) than subjects with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate. The prevalence of dental anomalies in cleft lip and/or palate patients was higher than what had been reported in the normal Jordanian population. This emphasizes the relation of cleft lip and/or palate to all dental anomalies studied. Although our study represents a thorough and complete description of dental anomalies present in a sample of cleft lip and/or palate subjects, larger samples are required to effectively determine the relationship of each dental anomaly with cleft type.

  1. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Mittal, Vipula; Singh, Aparna; Aggarwal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to identify the various background variables and its influence on behavior management problems (BMP) in children. Materials and methods The study included 165 children aged 2 to 8 years. During the initial dental visit, an experienced operator obtained each child’s background variables from accompanying guardians using a standardized questionnaire. Children’s dental behavior was rated by Frankel behavior rating scale. The behavior was then analyzed in relation to the answers of the questionnaire, and a logistic regression model was used to determine the power of the variables, separately or combined, to predict BMP. Results The logistic regression analysis considering differences in background variables between children with negative or positive behavior. Four variables turned out to be as predictors: Age, the guardian’s expectation of the child’s behavior at the dental examination, the child’s anxiety when meeting unfamiliar people, and the presence and absence of toothache. Conclusion The present study concluded that by means of simple questionnaire BMP in children may be expected if one of these attributes is found. Clinical significance Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient prior to treatment process may help the pediatric dentist plan appropriate behavior management and treatment strategy. How to cite this article Sharma A, Kumar D, Anand A, Mittal V, Singh A, Aggarwal N. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):5-9. PMID:28377646

  2. The WITS Atlas: A Black Southern African dental atlas for permanent tooth formation and emergence.

    PubMed

    Esan, Temitope A; Schepartz, Lynne A

    2018-05-01

    Current dental maturity charts, such as the widely applied London atlas, do not take into consideration advanced tooth emergence and formation patterns observed in children of African ancestry. The result is inaccurate age estimation in Southern Africa, a region where there is great forensic and anthropological need for reliable age estimation. To develop a population-specific atlas of permanent tooth emergence and formation for age estimation of Black Southern Africans. Using data from a cross-sectional study of 642 school children aged 5-20 years, panoramic radiographs taken during routine dental examination in a mobile treatment van were analyzed using the Demirjian method of eight (A-H) tooth formation stages. Tables of the stages of tooth development for each tooth, including the third molars, were generated separately for age cohorts and by sex. The most frequently occurring (modal) stage of tooth formation was considered the signature developmental stage for the age. The relationship of the third molar occlusal surfaces with occlusal tables on the radiographs were checked and compared with the findings recorded during intra oral examination. Comparison with the London atlas shows that at age 9.5 years, the canine and premolar emergence are at least one year ahead and the third molar formation completes four years earlier in the WITS Atlas. Similarities in advancement in tooth formation and emergence across sub-Saharan Africa suggest that the WITS Atlas can be used for those populations as well. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dental disorders in brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) maintained in captivity.

    PubMed

    Dias Neto, Ramiro das Neves; Fecchio, Roberto Silva; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Gioso, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Camila Trevisan; Santos, Maria Augusta Adami Pereira Dos; Milanelo, Liliane

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dental disorders of brown howler monkeys maintained in captivity. The hypothesis is that the identification and diagnosis of the lesions may contribute to control and prevention. Sixteen intact brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans), eight females and eight males, weighing from 3.9 to 6.8 kg, were studied. Under general anesthesia, the teeth were evaluated by visual inspection, probing, palpation, and intra-oral radiographic exam. The findings were registered on a dental chart specific for primates. Of the 16 monkeys evaluated in the present study, 94% (n = 15) had some type of dental disorder. The lesions observed were dental calculus (88%), dental wear (81%), missing teeth (38%), gingivitis (19%), gingival recession (6%), dental fracture (19%), pulp exposure (19%), and dental staining (25%). Alouatta guariba clamitans maintained in captivity have a high rate of dental problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dental technology over 150 years: evolution and revolution.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A patient entering a dental office is often greeted and then checked in through the practice management system's digital appointment book. The provider is notified by an electronic signal that is visual, audible, or both. The patient is led to the treatment area and sits in a dental chair which is adjusted to the individual's size and position for the treatment, and the light is positioned. Sometimes a radiograph is taken, local anesthetic is delivered, and a handpiece--air turbine or electric--is used for the procedure. How different is this process today from a dentist treating a patient in 1864?

  5. Vital pulpotomy in the primary dentition: attitudes and practices of community dental staff in Wales.

    PubMed

    Hingston, Emma Jane; Parmar, Sharlene; Hunter, Margaret Lindsay

    2007-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans, leaving the dental profession to look for viable substitutes to formocresol in the vital pulpotomy technique. This study was designed to examine the attitudes and practices of Community Dental Service (CDS) staff in Wales in relation to vital pulpotomy for primary molars 18 months following the IARC's press release. The study employed a postal questionnaire. Questionnaires were returned by 79 (78.2%) of the CDS staff surveyed, yielding a sample of 65 dentists practising the technique. The most commonly used pulpotomy agents were formocresol, paraformaldehyde and ferric sulphate. Twenty-seven (41.5%) dentists expressed concern regarding their preferred pulpotomy agent and 17 (26.2%) were considering changing their technique. Only one respondent (1.5% of the sample) routinely took preoperative radiographs; follow-up radiographs were routinely taken by only three dentists (4.6%). Only 44 respondents (67.7%) always used local anaesthesia for this form of treatment. Amalgam was the most commonly used restorative material. Twenty-two respondents (33.8%) stated that they would pulp treat a primary molar on more than one occasion. The results of this study suggest that there is need for relevant continuing professional development courses for CDS staff in Wales.

  6. A Comparison of Web Page and Slide/Tape for Instruction in Periapical and Panoramic Radiographic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, John B.; Platin, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    Compared self-guided slide/tape (ST) and Web page (WP) instruction in normal radiographic anatomy of periapical and panoramic images using objective test performance and subjective preferences of 74 freshman dental students. Test performance was not different between image types or presentation technologies, but students preferred WP for…

  7. Advanced dental maturity of Finnish 6- to 12-yr-old children is associated with high energy intake.

    PubMed

    Jääsaari, Päivi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Niinikoski, Harri; Karjalainen, Sara

    2016-10-01

    We studied the association of dental maturity with body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and macronutrient intake. A randomly selected subset (n = 148) of the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) was invited to an oral follow-up study, and the 6- and 12-yr-examination data (n = 111, 60 boys) were used. Food records for four consecutive days and BMI values were extracted from the databank of the main STRIP project. The developmental stage of seven permanent mandibular teeth was assessed using panoramic radiographs. The resulting maturity scores were converted to dental age estimates. Three dental-maturity groups (delayed, average, and advanced) and two BMI groups [normal BMI (≤mean+1SD) and high BMI (>mean+1SD)] were formed. The dental age was higher than the chronological age by 0.6-0.8 yr. Maturity scores for girls were statistically significantly higher than for boys. The distribution of girls into dental-maturity groups at age 12 yr was different from that of the boys and there were more boys than girls among the high-BMI group. Children of the advanced dental-maturity group had a statistically significantly higher energy intake than children in the other groups. We conclude that advanced dental maturity is associated with higher energy intake. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. The dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the technical condition of radiological equipment.

    PubMed

    Bekas, Marcin; Pachocki, Krzysztof A

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of X-ray dental examination is associated with the patients exposure to ionizing radation. The size of the exposure depends on the type of medical procedure, the technical condition of the X-ray unit and selected exposure conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the assessment of the technical condition of medical equipment, The study included a total number of 79 dental X-ray units located in the region of Mazovia. The test methods for the assessment of the technical condition of dental X-ray units and measurement of radiation dose received by patients were based on the procedures elaborated in the Department of Radiation Hygiene and Radiobiology in the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (Warszawa, Poland) accredited for the certification of compliance with PN-EN 17025. The research found that 69.6% fully meets the criteria set out in the Polish legislation regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine, while 30.4% did not meet some of them. A tenfold difference in the size of the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examinations was discovered. For example, during a radiography of the canine teeth of a child, the recorded entrance surface dose (ESD) ranged from 72.8 to 2430 microGy with the average value of 689.1 microGy. Cases where the dose reference level defined in Polish legislation of 5 mGy was exceeded were also found. CONCKUSIONS: It is essential to constantly monitor the situation regarding the technical condition of X-ray units which affects the size of the population's exposure to ionizing radiation as well as raising dentists' awareness about the effects of X-rays on the human body.

  9. CAMBRA: An Examination of Change in the Dental Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease process, one that will not be eliminated by tooth repair alone. Caries is the most prevalent disease of children and the primary reason for most restorative dental visits in both adults and children. A risk-based approach to managing caries targets those in greatest jeopardy for contracting the disease and provides…

  10. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    PubMed

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  11. Comparison of technique errors of intraoral radiographs taken on film v photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjian; Huynh, Carolyn P; Abramovitch, Kenneth; Leon, Inga-Lill K; Arvizu, Liliana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the technical errors of intraoral radiographs exposed on film v photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates. The intraoral radiographic images exposed on phantoms from preclinical practical exams of dental and dental hygiene students were used. Each exam consisted of 10 designated periapical and bitewing views. A total of 107 film sets and 122 PSP sets were evaluated for technique errors, including placement, elongation, foreshortening, overlapping, cone cut, receptor bending, density, mounting, dot in apical area, and others. Some errors were further subcategorized as minor, major, or remake depending on the severity. The percentages of radiographs with various errors were compared between film and PSP by the Fisher's Exact Test. Compared with film, there was significantly less PSP foreshortening, elongation, and bending errors, but significantly more placement and overlapping errors. Using a wrong sized receptor due to the similarity of the color of the package sleeves is a unique PSP error. Optimum image quality is attainable with PSP plates as well as film. When switching from film to a PSP digital environment, more emphasis is necessary for placing the PSP plates, especially those with excessive packet edge, and then correcting the corresponding angulation for the beam alignment. Better design for improving intraoral visibility and easy identification of different sized PSP will improve the clinician's technical performance with this receptor.

  12. Developing laser-based therapy monitoring of early caries in pediatric dental settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaxuan; Jiang, Yang; Kim, Amy S.; Xu, Zheng; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2017-02-01

    Optical imaging modalities and therapy monitoring protocols are required for the emergence of non-surgical interventions for treating infections in teeth to remineralize the enamel. Current standard of visual inspection, tactile probing and radiograph for caries detection is not highly sensitive, quantitative, and safe. Furthermore, the latter two are not viable options for interproximal caries. We present preliminary results of multimodal laser-based imaging and uorescence spectroscopy in a blinded clinical study comparing two topical therapies of early interproximal caries in children. With a spacer placed interproximally both at baseline and followup examinations, the 405-nm excited red porphyrin uorescence imaging with green auto uorescence is measured and compared to a 12-month follow-up. 405-nm laser-induced uorescence spectroscopy is also measured from the center of selected multimodal video imaging frames. These results of three subjects are analyzed both qualitatively by comparing spectra and quantitatively based on uorescence region segmentation, and then are compared to the standard of care(visual examination and radiograph interpretation). Furthermore, this study points out challenges associated with optically monitoring non-surgical dental interventions over long periods of time in clinical practice and also indicates future direction for improvement on the protocol.

  13. Prevalence of dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Rullo, R; Festa, V M; Rullo, R; Addabbo, F; Chiodini, P; Vitale, M; Perillo, L

    2015-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of different types of dental anomalies in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip, unilateral cleft lip-palate, and bilateral cleft lip-palate. A sample of 90 patients (aged 4-20 years) affected by isolated cleft lip, unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate was examined. Cleft patients were classified into one of three groups according to cleft type: (1) Unilateral Cleft Lip-Palate, (2) Bilateral Cleft Lip-Palate, and (3) Cleft Lip. Intraoral exams, panoramic radiographs and dental casts, were used to analyse the prevalence of the various dental anomalies included in this study. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with cleft lip, unilateral cleft lip and palate and bilateral cleft lip and palate. The congenital absence of the cleft-side lateral incisor was observed in 40% of the sample, and a total of 30% patients showed supernumerary teeth at the incisors region. Second premolar agenesis was found in 4.4% of patients, whereas in 18.9% of the sample there was an ectopic dental eruption. Lateral or central incisors rotation was noted in 31.1% of the sample, while shape anomaly, lateral incisor microdontia, and enamel hypoplasia were detected respectively in 25.6%, 5.6% and 18.9% of cleft patients. High prevalence of different dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate has been confirmed. This study, in particular, shows the presence of ectopic and rotated teeth in the cleft area.

  14. Prevalence of dental anomalies of number in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Somensi, Daniele Salazar; Yoshizaki, Priscila; Reis, Luciana Laís Savero; de Cássia Moura Carvalho Lauris, Rita; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel; Dalbén, Gisele; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at carrying out a radiographic analysis on the prevalence of dental anomalies of number (agenesis and supernumerary teeth) in permanent dentition, in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate preadolescent patients. Panoramic radiographs of 300 patients aged between 9 and 12 years, with cleft palate and enrolled in a single treatment center, were retrospectively analyzed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the extension/severity of the cleft palate: complete and incomplete. The chi-square test was used for intergroup comparison regarding the prevalence of the investigated dental anomalies (P<0.05). Agenesis was found in 34.14% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 30.27% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. Supernumerary teeth were found in 2.43% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 0.91% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. No statistically significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of agenesis and supernumerary teeth. There was no difference in cleft prevalence between genders within each study group. The prevalence of dental anomalies of number in preadolescents with cleft palate was higher than that reported for the general population. The severity of cleft palate did not seem to be associated with the prevalence of dental anomalies of number.

  15. Radiopacity evaluation of Portland and MTA-based cements by digital radiographic system

    PubMed Central

    BORGES, Alvaro Henrique; PEDRO, Fabio Luiz Miranda; SEMANOFF-SEGUNDO, Alex; MIRANDA, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; CRUZ FILHO, Antônio Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiopacity of Portland and MTA-based cements using the Digora TM digital radiographic system. Material and Methods The performed tests followed specification number 57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000) for endodontic sealing materials. The materials were placed in 5 acrylic plates, especially designed for this experiment, along with a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1 to 10 mm in thickness. The set was radiographed at a 30 cm focus-object distance and with 0.2 s exposure time. After the radiographs were taken, the optical laser readings of radiographs were performed by Digora TM system. Five radiographic density readings were performed for each studied material and for each step of the aluminum scale. Results White ProRoot MTA (155.99±8.04), gray ProRoot MTA (155.96±16.30) and MTA BIO (143.13±16.94) presented higher radiopacity values (p<0.05), while white non-structural Portland (119.76±22.34), gray Portland (109.71±4.90) and white structural Portland (99.59±12.88) presented lower radiopacity values (p<0.05). Conclusions It was concluded that MTA-based cements were the only materials presenting radiopacity within the ANSI/ADA specifications. PMID:21625738

  16. Trends in dental and allied dental education.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Laura M

    2004-09-01

    Educational programs play an important role in preparing a qualified dental work force. This article reviews the current status and trends in dental, advanced dental and allied dental education programs in the United States and examines their impact on the dental work force. This analysis focuses on survey data collected by the American Dental Association during the past 10 to 15 years and compares recent patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation with previous trends. The numbers of educational programs, applicants, enrollees and graduates have increased in dentistry, dental hygiene and dental assisting, while dental laboratory technology has declined in all measures. The proportion of women in dentistry has increased, while the ethnic profile of dental and allied personnel has shown little change. Both the cost of dental education and student debt continue to increase. Despite increases in the number of educational programs and overall numbers of graduates from dental and allied dental education programs, the proportion of underrepresented groups still lags behind their representation in the overall population, and the number of allied personnel falls short of practice needs. Patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation are important determinants of the dental and allied dental work force. The cost and funding of education significantly affect the attractiveness of dental careers and the sustainability of educational programs and should be monitored carefully by the profession.

  17. Referrals for dental care during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kloetzel, Megan K; Huebner, Colleen E; Milgrom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Oral health is essential to overall health in the prenatal period. Pregnancy is not a time to delay dental care. Several studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and poor pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth. Interventions to provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women yield inconsistent results regarding preterm birth but have established the safety of periodontal therapy during pregnancy. Postpartum women in poor dental health readily transmit the tooth decay pathogen Streptococcus mutans from their saliva to their infants, resulting in increased risk of early childhood caries. Preventive services and treatment for acute problems should be recommended, fears allayed, and women referred. Dental radiographs may be performed safely with the use of appropriate shielding. Nonemergent interventions are best provided between 14 and 20 weeks' gestation for comfort and optimal fetal safety. Most gravid women do not seek dental care. Increased interprofessional communication to encourage dentists to treat pregnant women will reduce the number of women without care. In states where it is available, Medicaid coverage of dental services for pregnant women is typically allowed during pregnancy and for 2 months postpartum. Women's health providers should understand the importance of protecting oral health during pregnancy and educate their patients accordingly. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Iranian Orofacial Cleft Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Shabnam; Pakshir, Hamidreza; Samady, Hedyeh

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Individuals with oral clefts exhibit considerably more dental anomalies than individuals without clefts. These problems could initially be among the symptoms of their disease and/or they may be the side effect of their treatments. Pushback palatoplasty could cause some interference during the development of teeth and result in tooth defects. Purpose: The study was performed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of developmental dental anomalies in orofacial cleft patients who attended Shiraz Orthodontics Research Center-Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic. We managed to compare dental anomaly traits based on gender and cleft side. Materials and Method: Eighty out of 121 cleft patients were included in this cross-sectional study. All the patients used pushback palatoplasty in their palate closure surgeries. Intraoral photographs, panoramic and intraoral radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and dental and medical histories were examined and recorded by two observers. Data were analyzed using SPSS PC version 20.0. The differences in the side of cleft and dental anomalies were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean age of patients was 14.27 years (SD=5.06). The most frequent cleft type was unilateral cleft lip and palate (50%) followed by bilateral cleft lip and palate (43.75%), cleft palate (2.5%) and cleft lip (1.25%). Male predominance (70%) was observed. 92.5 percent had at least one developmental dental anomaly. The most prevalent anomalies were hypodontia (71.25%) followed by microdontia (30%), root dilacerations (21.25%) and supernumerary teeth (15%). Conclusion: The most prevalent cleft types were unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate with male and left side predominance. Hypodontia, microdontia, dilacerations and supernumerary teeth were the most prevalent developmental dental anomalies among Iranian southwestern cleft patients. The surgical technique used to repair their cleft palate may have

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Iranian Orofacial Cleft Patients.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Shabnam; Pakshir, Hamidreza; Samady, Hedyeh

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with oral clefts exhibit considerably more dental anomalies than individuals without clefts. These problems could initially be among the symptoms of their disease and/or they may be the side effect of their treatments. Pushback palatoplasty could cause some interference during the development of teeth and result in tooth defects. The study was performed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of developmental dental anomalies in orofacial cleft patients who attended Shiraz Orthodontics Research Center-Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic. We managed to compare dental anomaly traits based on gender and cleft side. Eighty out of 121 cleft patients were included in this cross-sectional study. All the patients used pushback palatoplasty in their palate closure surgeries. Intraoral photographs, panoramic and intraoral radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and dental and medical histories were examined and recorded by two observers. Data were analyzed using SPSS PC version 20.0. The differences in the side of cleft and dental anomalies were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of patients was 14.27 years (SD=5.06). The most frequent cleft type was unilateral cleft lip and palate (50%) followed by bilateral cleft lip and palate (43.75%), cleft palate (2.5%) and cleft lip (1.25%). Male predominance (70%) was observed. 92.5 percent had at least one developmental dental anomaly. The most prevalent anomalies were hypodontia (71.25%) followed by microdontia (30%), root dilacerations (21.25%) and supernumerary teeth (15%). The most prevalent cleft types were unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate with male and left side predominance. Hypodontia, microdontia, dilacerations and supernumerary teeth were the most prevalent developmental dental anomalies among Iranian southwestern cleft patients. The surgical technique used to repair their cleft palate may have played a role in developmental dental defects.

  20. A residual granuloma in association with a dental implant.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Michael S; Chavali, Ramakiran V; Al-Naief, Nasser Said; Eleazer, Paul D

    2012-04-01

    At times, dental implants are placed into sites with a history of periapical pathology. Sometimes the infection is active, and other times the tooth may have been extracted years before implant placement. In either case, the possibility exists for long-term residual cysts or infections that can negatively impact the prognosis of the implant. In this case report, an implant is placed into a healed mandibular ridge several months after extraction of the tooth. A radiolucency was noted on routine radiographic examination 2 years later. Surgical inspection and histology revealed a periapical granuloma with acute and chronic inflammatory cells. After surgical curettage of the site, the patient healed without complication. Implants may develop apical pathology as a result of a preexisting long-term residual infection.

  1. Examining the Spatial Frequency Components of a Digital Dental Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiou, A.; Michail, C.; Koukou, V.; Martini, N.; Bakas, A.; Papastamati, F.; Maragkaki, P.; Lavdas, L.; Fountos, G.; Valais, I.; Kalyvas, N.

    2017-11-01

    Digital X-ray detectors are widely used in dental radiography. The scope of this work is the examination of the spatial frequency component of a dedicated dental CMOS detector. A commercially available SCHICK CDR CMOS detector was irradiated at a Del Medical Eureka X-ray system at 60kVp and 70kVp. The irradiation setup included images of an edge, for Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) calculation. The air-KERMA was measured with an RTI PIRANHA X-ray multimeter. The images were evaluated in ‘for presentation’ format with the use of ImageJ software. The linear range of the detector was found in the range 13μGy-183μGy at 60 kVp and 18μGy-180μGy at 70 kVp. By inspecting the MTF curves it was found that MTF(6lp/mm)60kVp=0.29 and MTF(6lp/mm)70kVp=0.25. The inspection of the Normalized Noise Power Spetrum (NNPS) showed similar low noise components. Our results indicate that this detector presents comparable performance at both kVp, although its X-ray response (pixel value vs air KERMA) was not equal to previously published results, for the same detector type.

  2. Patterns of physical growth and dental development in Jordanian children and adolescents with thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Faiez N

    2013-03-01

    Dental development and physical growth are of particular interest in pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. This study evaluated these variables in patients with thalassemia major (TM). Physical growth was assessed in 54 patients (31 males and 23 females) aged 5.5 to 18.3 years and dental development was analyzed using panoramic radiographs from 39 of the 54 patients. The Demirjian system was used to characterize dental development of the seven left mandibular permanent teeth. Chronologic age (CA) and dental age (DA) were compared using the paired t-test, and the correlation between CA and extent of delay in dental development (DA minus CA) was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Growth retardation (< 10th percentile for height and weight) was present in 75.9% of TM patients. Height less than the third percentile was noted in 41.9% (13/31) of males and 34.8% (8/23) of females. Mean (SD) body mass index was 16.5 ± 2.2 kg/m(2). The extent of growth retardation increased with advancing age. Patient radiographs revealed a delay in dental development in 31 of 39 (79.5%) of participants (mean delay, 1.12 years in males and 0.81 years in females; range, 0.1 to 2.7 years). The mean difference between CA and DA was 0.97 years (P < 0.001). CA was significant correlated with extent of dental developmental delay (r = 0.64, P < 0.01). The results show that, among children and adolescents with TM, the proportions of those who had short stature, were underweight, and had a low growth rate increased with age. In addition, participants had significant delays in dental development.

  3. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  4. In vitro comparison of the radiopacity of cavity lining materials with human dental structures

    PubMed Central

    Pires de Souza, Fernanda CP; Pardini, Luiz C; Cruvinel, Diogo R; Hamida, Hisham M; Garcia, Lucas FR

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the optical densities (OD) of calcium hydroxide (CH) and glass ionomer cement with the same thicknesses of the dental structures. Materials and Methods: Eighteen specimens of each material, with thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm were made in a Teflon matrix. To compare the radiopacity of the materials with the dental structures, dental cuts of the first molars, increasing in thickness from 0.5 to 3.0 mm, were obtained. To standardize the radiographs, a transparent acrylic matrix (Standardizing Device) was developed and used. Thirty radiographs were taken, five for each tested material. Results: Statistical analysis (Two-way ANOVA - Bonferroni, P < 0.05) demonstrated that when the materials were compared, there was statistically significant difference between the ODs, only for the thickness of 1.0 mm (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The thickness of the material contributed to its radiopacity, and these materials had to be used in a thickness between 1.5 and 2.0 mm. PMID:20859477

  5. Radiographic and ultrasonographic characteristics of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Amer, Mohammed S; Hassan, Elham A; Torad, Faisal A

    2018-02-20

    Five female egg-laying pigeons presented with painless, reducible, ventral abdominal swellings located between the keel and the pubis, or close to the cloaca. Based on clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, these pigeons were diagnosed with ventral abdominal hernia requiring surgical interference. Reduction was successfully performed under general anesthesia. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial for confirming the diagnosis and visualizing the hernial content for surgical planning. Lateral radiographs were more helpful than ventrodorsal radiographs for identification of the hernial content and its continuation with the abdominal muscles. Ultrasonographic examination offered a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allowed for the differentiation of hernia from other abdominal swellings. In addition, it played a beneficial role in identification of the hernial content and follow up after surgical interference. In conclusion, radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial in the diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow up after surgical interference of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons.

  6. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: clinical findings and dental management of a child patient

    PubMed Central

    Terlemez, Arslan; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Celebi, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular primary molar teeth. Clinical examination revealed that most of the primary teeth had been decayed and all primary teeth were hypoplastic. Patient’s history revealed delayed development in the primary dentition and radiographic examination showed rootless primary molar teeth and short-rooted incisors. The treatment was not possible due to the lack of root of the left mandibular primary molars; so the teeth were extracted. Thorough and timely dental evaluation is crucial for the prevention of dental problems and the maintenance of oral health in patients with MOPD II syndrome is of utmost importance. PMID:28955524

  7. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: clinical findings and dental management of a child patient.

    PubMed

    Terlemez, Arslan; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Celebi, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular primary molar teeth. Clinical examination revealed that most of the primary teeth had been decayed and all primary teeth were hypoplastic. Patient's history revealed delayed development in the primary dentition and radiographic examination showed rootless primary molar teeth and short-rooted incisors. The treatment was not possible due to the lack of root of the left mandibular primary molars; so the teeth were extracted. Thorough and timely dental evaluation is crucial for the prevention of dental problems and the maintenance of oral health in patients with MOPD II syndrome is of utmost importance.

  8. Association between growth stunting with dental development and skeletal maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Mauricio, Franco Raul; Orellana, Maria Fernanda; Major, Paul William

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of growth stunting on the maturation stage of the medium phalanx of the third finger (MP3) and the dental development of the left mandibular canine in 280 high school children (140 stunted and 140 normal controls; equally distributed by sex) between 9.5 and 16.5 years of age, from a representative Peruvian school. Periapical radiographs of the MP3 from the left hand were used to determine the skeletal maturity stage, according to an adaptation of the Hägg and Taranger method. Panoramic radiographs were used to determine the dental maturity stage of the lower left canine, according to Demirjian method. Stunting was determined by relating height and age, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. There was no statistically significant difference in the skeletal maturation stage (P = .134) and the dental development stage (P = .497) according to nutritional status, even when considering different age groups (P > .183). A high correlation (r = 0.85) was found between both maturity indicators regardless of the nutritional status (growth stunted, r = 0.855 and normal controls, r = 0.863) or sex (boys, r = 0.809 and girls, r = 0.892). When skeletal level was considered, correlations values were similar between advanced (r = 0.903) and average (r = 0.895) maturers but lower (r = 0.751) for delayed maturers. Growth stunting was not associated with dental development and skeletal maturity stages in Peruvian school children.

  9. Dental insurance and dental service use by U.S. women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2011-01-01

    Oral health has a significant effect on health, and for women, poor oral health can lead to poor birth outcomes and can affect their child's health. Nursing interventions to improve the oral health of at-risk women have the potential to increase maternal and child systemic and oral health. The identification of women at a high risk for poor oral health is a necessary to develop and evaluate these interventions. This study examined the factors related to dental insurance and dental service use for women of childbearing age in the United States. A secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was completed to examine the predisposing, enabling, and need variables associated with dental insurance status and dental service use in a representative random sample of 1,071 women. The results showed that over 40% of women had no dental insurance. Women with less education, lower income, and dental need were significantly less likely to have dental insurance. Dental utilization by the uninsured was low and a racial/ethnic disparity was noted. A lack of dental insurance and dental service utilization is a significant concern. Nurses working with low-income women should educate the population about oral health and advocate for policies to increase dental insurance coverage. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The burden of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Annelies; Sieper, Joachim; van der Heijde, Désirée; Dougados, Maxime; Bukowski, Jack F; Valluri, Satish; Vlahos, Bonnie; Kotak, Sameer

    2015-04-01

    To identify patients earlier, new classification criteria have been introduced for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Patients who satisfy the clinical or imaging criteria for axSpA in the absence of definite sacroiliac joint changes on pelvic x-rays are classified as having non-radiographic axSpA. Although the burden associated with radiographic axSpA (i.e., ankylosing spondylitis) has been extensively studied, the impact of non-radiographic disease is not well understood. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the burden of illness in non-radiographic axSpA, including epidemiology and effects on patients׳ functioning and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). A PubMed search was performed using relevant key words (e.g., "spondyloarthritis," "ankylosing spondylitis," "epidemiology," and "quality of life") to examine literature published from 2003 to 2013. Studies conducted to date suggest that radiographic progression is detected in approximately 10% of patients with non-radiographic axSpA over 2 years. Differences between patients with non-radiographic and radiographic axSpA were found in age, symptom duration, and gender distribution. Although less inflammation (i.e., lower C-reactive protein levels and less spinal inflammation on MRI) and less impairment in spinal mobility are observed in non-radiographic than in radiographic axSpA, the 2 conditions pose a similar burden in terms of disease activity, physical function, HR-QoL impairment. Patients with non-radiographic axSpA are more frequently female. Although patients with non-radiographic axSpA have shorter disease duration and lack radiological changes, they demonstrate a substantial burden of illness, with self-reported disease activity and functional impairments comparable to those found in patients with radiographic disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy of Teledentistry for Diagnosing Dental Pathology Using Direct Examination as a Gold Standard: Results of the Tel-e-dent Study of Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Queyroux, Alain; Saricassapian, Bernard; Herzog, Daniel; Müller, Karin; Herafa, Isabelle; Ducoux, Dorothée; Marin, Benoît; Dantoine, Thierry; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Tchalla, Achille

    2017-06-01

    Dental neglect and high levels of unmet dental needs are becoming increasingly prevalent among elderly residents of long-term care facilities, although frail, elderly, and dependent populations are the most in need of professional dental care. Little is known about the validity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology in nursing home residents. To evaluate the accuracy of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology, assessing the rehabilitation status of dental prostheses, and evaluating the chewing ability of older adults living in nursing homes (using direct examination as a gold standard). Multicenter diagnostic accuracy study performed in France and Germany. Eight nursing homes in France and Germany. Nursing home residents with oral or dental complaints, self-reported or reported by caregivers, willing to receive oral or dental preventive care. In total, 235 patients were examined. The mean age was 84.4 ± 8.3 years, and 59.1% of the subjects were female. The patients were examined twice. Each patient was his or her own control. First, the dental surgeon established a diagnosis by reviewing a video recorded in the nursing home and accessed remotely. Second, within a maximum of 7 days, patients were examined conventionally (face-to-face) by the same surgeon who established the initial diagnosis. All residents received a comprehensive clinical examination in their home by a trained geriatrician and underwent a dental hygiene evaluation that used the Silness-Loe and Greene-Vermillion dental hygiene assessment indices. The diagnoses established via the video recording and in the face-to-face setting were compared. The main outcome measure was number of dental pathologies. In total, 128 (55.4%) patients had a dental pathology. The sensitivity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology was 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90.7-96.9), and the specificity was 94.2% (95% CI 91.2-97.2). Among the 128 cases of dental pathology identified by

  12. Factors of patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction in a dental faculty outpatient clinic in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürdal, P; Cankaya, H; Onem, E; Dinçer, S; Yílmaz, T

    2000-12-01

    Being service providers, dental professionals should satisfy their consumers/dental patients. This study investigates satisfaction with dental care among the patients of a dental faculty outpatient clinic of a major university in Izmir, Turkey. The study was performed on 1001 patients of whom 674 filled out the questionnaire containing sociodemographic items and open-ended questions to determine the factors of (dis)satisfaction. The open-ended questions were content analyzed, and each patient was scored according to his comments: "complaining: (0)", "both praising and complaining: (1)", "no comment: (2)", and "praising: (3)". Each factor that has an impact on the decision of the study sample was determined by statistical analyses of data, using student t-test, chi-square test, and multiple regression analysis. Most of the patients were highly educated (74.7%), had a high income (48.7%), and were young to middle-aged (73.1%). There was a well-balanced gender representation. The patient sample had sought care mostly for dental caries, periodontal diseases, problems with old restorations, and prosthetic rehabilitation. Of 1,001 patients, 38.6% were satisfied with the dental care they received, 23.8% were both satisfied and dissatisfied, 5% were dissatisfied, and 32.7% failed to comment. No significant differences were observed between the satisfaction/dissatisfaction scores and sociodemographic variables of the patients in the groups (P>0.05). The most important components of satisfaction were found to be "relationship between dentists and patients" (P<0.001), "organized service system" (P<0.001), and "scientific ability of dental personnel" (P<0.001). The most prominent complaints were "long treatment span" (P<0.001), "disorganized service system" (P<0.001), and "slowness of radiographical examination procedures" (P<0.001). Despite the significant variations among the cultural and ethnic structures of different societies, personal interactions have priority in

  13. The potential of digital dental radiography in recording the adductor sesamoid and the MP3 stages.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Kader, H M

    1999-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of using a recent advance in clinical radiographic technique, digital dental radiography, in recording two growth indicators: the adductor sesamoid and MP3 stages. With an exposure time five times less than that used in the conventional approach, this method shows greatest flexibility in providing a high quality digitized radiographic images of the two growth indicators under investigation. Refereed Paper

  14. Baseline dental plaque activity, mutans streptococci culture, and future caries experience in children.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Kerrod B; O'Rourke, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chairside caries risk assessment protocol utilizing a caries prediction instrument, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity in dental plaque, mutans streptococci (MS) culture, and routine dental examination in five- to 10-year-old children at two regional Australian schools with high caries experience. Clinical indicators for future caries were assessed at baseline examination using a standardized prediction instrument. Plaque ATP activity was measured directly in relative light units (RLU) using a bioluminescence meter, and MS culture data were recorded. Each child's dentition was examined clinically and radiographically, and caries experience was recorded using enamel white spot lesions and decayed, missing, and filled surfaces for primary and permanent teeth indices. Univariate one-way analysis of variance between selected clinical indicators, ATP activity, MS count at baseline, and future new caries activity was performed, and a generalized linear model for prediction of new caries activity at 24 months was constructed. Future new caries activity was significantly associated with the presence of visible cavitations, reduced saliva flow, and orthodontic appliances at baseline (R(2)=0.2, P<.001). Baseline plaque adenosine triphosphate activity and mutans streptococci counts were not significantly associated with caries activity at 24 months.

  15. Comparison of parameters characterizing lumbar lordosis in radiograph and photogrammetric examination of adults.

    PubMed

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Tarnowski, Adam; Płaszewski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test validity of photogrammetry compared with radiography as a method of measuring the Cobb angle and the size of anterior-posterior spine curvatures in adults. The study included 50 volunteers, 23 men and 27 women whose mean age was 52.6 years. The average weight of the subjects was 81.3 kg, average body height was 172.0 cm, and the average body mass index was 27.4. Based on radiologic examination, the length and depth of lumbar lordosis were determined and the size of the Cobb angle of lumbar scoliosis. After the radiologic examination, a photogrammetric test was performed for each subject with the projection moire phenomenon. The Pearson correlation found statistically significant associations concerning the length of lordosis (P < .001) and the Cobb angle (P < .001). Correlation of the depth of lordosis indicated a strong trend (P = .063). This study found that the moire method of photogrammetric measurement produced similar findings to radiographic measurements in determining size of the Cobb angle and the length of lumbar lordosis. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rate of abnormal osteoarticular radiographic findings in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Petit, P; Sapin, C; Henry, G; Dahan, M; Panuel, M; Bourlière-Najean, B; Chaumoitre, K; Devred, P

    2001-04-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the rate of abnormal radiographic findings in the most frequent osteoarticular locations of traumatic injury in a pediatric population. During two periods of 12 weeks each, all patients admitted to the pediatric emergency department for osteoarticular trauma who underwent radiography were prospectively included in this study. A connection was drawn between the rate of abnormal radiographic findings for the seven most frequently radiographed locations and the clinical findings. Of 3128 locations of trauma in 2470 children, only 22% of the radiographic examinations were considered to reveal abnormal findings. In decreasing order, the hand and fingers, the ankle, the wrist, the knee, the elbow, the foot and toes, and the forearm were the most frequently examined locations. The rate of abnormal findings was 25.7% for the hand and fingers, 9.0% for the ankle, 42.5% for the wrist, 9.5% for the knee, 33.3% for the elbow, 18.3% for the foot, and 43.2% for the forearm. When only the direct sign of fracture was taken into account, these rates decreased for the ankle and knee to 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively. There was always a significant link between the degree of clinical suspicion and the rate of abnormal radiographic findings. However, fewer than 50% of the cases with high clinical suspicion of fracture were radiographically confirmed. It appears necessary, especially in cases of lower limb trauma, to evaluate clinical tests, including the implementation of the Ottawa ankle rules, to reduce the number of unnecessary radiographic examinations. This reduction will improve some parameters of children's quality of life and will significantly decrease the cost of emergency care.

  17. Association of dental caries and salivary sIgA with tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Golpasand Hagh, L; Zakavi, F; Ansarifar, S; Ghasemzadeh, O; Solgi, G

    2013-06-01

    Salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) is said to play an important role in the immune response against dental caries. This study aimed to determine the salivary sIgA levels in healthy smokers and non-smokers, and its correlation with dental caries. A total of 70 healthy subjects were selected and classified into four groups according to dental caries and tobacco smoking habits: smoking with caries (Group 1, n = 15); smoking without caries (Group 2, n = 15); non-smoking with caries (Group 3, n = 15); and non-smoking without caries (Group 4, n = 25). Salivary sIgA was measured using ELISA. The fissure and proximal caries were examined clinically and radiographically. Caries status was determined according to the decay surface index. Smokers showed a higher number of caries and the lowest concentration of sIgA. The highest levels of sIgA were observed in non-smoking and caries-free subjects compared to caries-active smokers (123.2 ± 19.9 vs. 13.3 ± 4.1 μg/ml respectively, p < 0.001). Also, the mean level of sIgA in Group 4 was significantly higher than Group 3 (p = 0.009). More importantly, higher and significant levels of sIgA were found in Group 3 versus Group 1 (p < 0.0001) and Group 2 (p = 0.0004). Our findings indicate that low concentrations of salivary sIgA are correlated with a higher prevalence of dental caries in smokers. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  18. The Future of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The author, a representative of the American Dental Trade Association, identifies major challenges facing dental education in the areas of predoctoral dental education, postdoctoral dental education, and continuing dental education. Ten recommendations address preclinical and clinical courses, licensing examinations, mandatory continuing…

  19. Radiation in dental practice: awareness, protection and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Praveen, B N; Shubhasini, A R; Bhanushree, R; Sumsum, P S; Sushma, C N

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. There are several forms of radiation, including ionizing and nonionizing. X-rays are the ionizing radiation used extensively in medical and dental practice. Even though they provide useful information and aid in diagnosis, they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry, it is mainly used for diagnostic purposes and in a dental set-up usually the practicing dentist exposes, processes and interprets the radiograph. Even though such exposure is less, it is critical to reduce the exposure to the dental personnel and patients in order to prevent the harmful effects of radiation. Several radiation protection measures have been advocated to ameliorate these effects. A survey conducted in the Bengaluru among practicing dentists revealed that radiation protection awareness was very low and the necessary measures taken to reduce the exposure were not adequate. The aim of the article is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set-up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel.

  20. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  1. Computer enhancement of radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekaney, A.; Keane, J.; Desautels, J.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of three relevant noise processes and the image degradation associated with Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) X-ray/scanning system was conducted for application to computer enhancement of radiographs using MSFC's digital filtering techniques. Graininess of type M, R single coat and R double coat X-ray films was quantified as a function of density level using root-mean-square (RMS) granularity. Quantum mottle (including film grain) was quantified as a function of the above film types, exposure level, specimen material and thickness, and film density using RMS granularity and power spectral density (PSD). For various neutral-density levels the scanning device used in digital conversion of radiographs was examined for noise characteristics which were quantified by RMS granularity and PSD. Image degradation of the entire pre-enhancement system (MG-150 X-ray device; film; and optronics scanner) was measured using edge targets to generate modulation transfer functions (MTF). The four parameters were examined as a function of scanning aperture sizes of approximately 12.5 25 and 50 microns.

  2. Dental status and oral function in an adult group of subjects with thalidomide embryopathy - a clinical and questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Ekfeldt, Anders; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to present the results of an oral examination of individuals with thalidomide embryopathy in relation to dental conditions and functional aspects of the masticatory system, with a special focus on tooth wear. All 108 subjects with thalidomide embryopathy living in Sweden were invited to participate in a comprehensive investigation, and approximately one-third, 31 subjects (13 F and 18 M, aged 45-49 years), took part. The methods included a questionnaire and clinical and radiographic examinations. Most of the subjects had regular dental care, which they in general considered sufficient. All except one always brushed their teeth themselves. One subject had limited mouth opening (25 mm). There were no great deviations from normal anatomy and function of the masticatory system. Caries and periodontal conditions were also normal. Regurgitation was reported by 42% of the subjects. Tooth wear was more extensive than in comparable age groups. About a third of the subjects had Class III or edge-to-edge occlusion. In general, subjects with thalidomide embryopathy had no great deviations in dental conditions from people of the same age in the general population except for an increased rate of tooth wear and a higher prevalence of prenormal jaw relations. Tooth wear was related less to use of the teeth as tools and more to dental erosion associated, among other things, with a high rate of regurgitation.

  3. A study to determine the added value of 740 screening panoramic radiographs compared to intraoral radiography in the management of adult (>18 years) dentate patients in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Michael N; Rushton, Vivian E

    2012-08-01

    To measure the added value of panoramic radiography in new dentate patients attending for routine treatment. Thirty-seven general dental practitioners using panoramic radiographs routinely were recruited. Twenty dentate patients were identified prospectively by each participating dentist if they were new to the practice, attending for an examination and requesting any treatment deemed necessary. A panoramic radiograph was taken with appropriate intraoral radiographs in line with national guidelines. Each dentist completed a radiological report for the panoramic radiograph only and these 20 reports were forwarded to the researchers along with the 20 panoramic radiographs, their accompanying bitewing and periapical radiographs and twenty completed clinical assessment sheets. 740 panoramic, 1418 bitewing and 325 periapical radiographs were assessed by the researchers. Only 32 panoramic films provided any additional diagnostic value when compared to intraoral films when guidelines had been observed resulting from the poor technical and processing quality of the accompanying intraoral films. Assessment of the number of caries and periapical lesions and the degree of periodontal bone loss from the intraoral films provided a greater diagnostic yield at the p<0.001 level of significance. The research found that dentists underestimated the number of caries lesions present and level of periodontal bone loss when compared to the researchers but overestimated the presence of periapical pathology, at the level of significance at p<0.001. The study found that there was no support for the use of panoramic radiographs in routine screening as there was no net diagnostic benefit to the patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in Postdoctoral Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Presents trend data concerning the current number of programs and positions in postdoctoral dental education, and examines applicant trends in postdoctoral dental education, as background for examining needs and issues that will emerge as a mandatory year of postdoctoral dental education is implemented. Factors influencing student plans to pursue…

  5. Exotic encounters with dental implants: managing complications with unidentified systems.

    PubMed

    Mattheos, N; Janda, M Schittek

    2012-06-01

    As the application of dental implants increases worldwide, so is the number of technical and biological complications that general dental practitioners will be called to manage, while maintaining implant patients. In addition, the greater patient mobility encountered today combined with a growing trend of 'dental implant tourism' will very often result in situations where the dentist is requested to deal with complications in implants placed elsewhere and which sometimes might be of an 'exotic' system one cannot directly recognize. Such a situation can pose significant challenges to even experienced clinicians. The challenges are not only in the scientific field, but often include professional and ethical implications. This case report will discuss strategies for the management of implant complications in cases of unidentified implant systems. Critical factors in such situations would be the clinician's experience and special training, the correct radiographic technique, as well as access to the appropriate tools and devices. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  6. The Key Points of Maintenance Therapy for Dental Implants: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pirc, Miha; Dragan, Irina F

    2017-04-01

    Dental implants require lifelong maintenance and care. Success is defined by biologic factors (presence of inflamed soft tissues surrounding dental implants and radiographic changes in the crestal bone levels) and mechanical factors (stability of the implant fixture and implant supported restoration, etc). Most implant failures are initiated by incipient stages of inflammatory processes, which lead to peri-mucositis and peri-implantitis. The evidence regarding the value of maintenance protocol regarding implants is sparse compared with the one for teeth. This article addresses the existing literature on processes for oral hygiene for implant care.

  7. Maxillary canine morphology: comparative and descriptive analysis from periapical radiographs and cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Torres, Hianne Miranda de; Arruda, Julyanna Jacinto de; Silva-Filho, João Manoel da; Faria, Danielle Lago Bruno de; Nascimento, Monikelly Carmo Chagas; Torres, Érica Miranda de

    2017-01-01

    The anatomical characteristics of permanent maxillary canines were evaluated through visual examination, periapical radiography, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and measurements obtained from the images and directly on the teeth were compared. Fifty extracted human maxillary canines were classified according to the side of the mouth. The direction of root curvature and location of the apical foramen were also verified. Periapical radiographs and CBCTs of the specimens were obtained. The number of root canals was verified. Tooth length and the mesiodistal and buccopalatal widths of the root were measured directly on the specimens as well as on the radiographs and CBCTs. Data were analyzed by chi-square testing and analysis of variance (α = 0.05). All teeth-26 (52%) from the right side of the dental arch and 24 (48%) from the left-had only 1 main canal each. The apical foramen was located exactly in the root apex in 34 teeth (68%). Root curvature toward the distal side was observed in the apical third in 23 teeth (46%). There were no statistically significant differences between the canines' arch side and either the foramen location (P = 0.104) or the root curvature (P = 0.215). No statistically significant differences were found in measurements of tooth length (P = 0.669), mesiodistal root width (P = 0.517), or buccopalatal root width (P = 0.672) obtained from specimens and images. Both CBCTs and periapical radiographs were reliable for determining the tooth length, mesiodistal root width, and buccopalatal root width of maxillary canines and produced statistically similar measurements.

  8. A novel conversion method for radiographic guide into surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yao-Te; Tseng, Chung-Chih; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yen-Nien; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-06-01

    The study proposed a novel method for converting a radiographic guide into a surgical guide and evaluated its accuracy. Radiographic guide was reformed with the addition of index rods for geometric conversion method (GCM). Planning implants were projected on geometric projection planes, and the implant positions were measured. The radiographic guide was converted into surgical guide using a generic bench drill machine with GCM data. Two experiments were designed to validate the GCM. (1) In vitro test: Twenty implants were placed on five edentulous dental models by using the GCM (group 1) and Stereolithography (SLA) method (group 2), respectively. The deviations of planned and placed implant were calculated, and the precision error (PE) value was calculated to evaluate the stability of the GCM and SLA. (2) In vivo test: Nine edentulous subjects were selected for clinical implant surgery with the GCM guide. Two level of the index rods of radiographic guides were prepared for surgical guides forming. The differences between the planned and actual implants were calculated in implant head, apex, and angulation. The in vitro test revealed no significant differences in the planned and placed angulations between groups 1 and 2 (P > .05). The PE was not significantly different between groups 1 and 2 (P > .05). The in vivo test revealed a successful treatment of the subjects, and 16 implant sites were evaluated. The results indicated that GCM guide could achieve the three-dimensional (3D) offset deviations of 1.03 ± 0.27 mm and 1.17 ± 0.24 mm at the implant head and apex, respectively, and 1.37° ± 0.21° for the 3D angulation. The novel method for converting a radiographic guide into a surgical guide appears accurate and stable compared with SLA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Morphometric Comparison of Clavicle Outlines from 3D Bone Scans and 2D Chest Radiographs: A Short-listing Tool to Assist Radiographic Identification of Human Skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Carl N.; Amidan, Brett G.; Trease, Harold E.

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system, primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted for US soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75%more » of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950’s photoflurographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied.« less

  10. Development and implementation of online National Board Dental Examination Review Courses.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Austin, Kylie Siruta; Overman, Pamela R

    2013-12-01

    Failure on the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Parts I and II has troubling consequences for dental students, faculty members, and school administrators. Since the NBDE is a high-stakes exam for all involved, it is important to determine effective strategies to help students prepare. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of online NBDE Parts I and II Review Courses by the faculty and administration at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry. The courses are taught by faculty members who are content experts. By utilizing distance technology, students in any geographic location can review the material at the time, place, and pace that are most convenient. Early outcomes show that 592 students from thirty-two states have participated in the courses since they were first offered in 2010-11. In post-course evaluations, students report that participation in the courses encouraged them to spend more time preparing for the exam and that the associated PowerPoint slides/handouts provided structure for their review. The literature suggests that multiple modalities are most effective in preparing for the NBDE. These online review courses can serve as a beneficial component of a student's preparation regimen.

  11. Head posture and dental wear evaluation of bruxist children with primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Vélez, A L; Restrepo, C C; Peláez-Vargas, A; Gallego, G J; Alvarez, E; Tamayo, V; Tamayo, M

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the head position and dental wear of bruxist and non-bruxist children with primary dentition. All the subjects had complete primary dentition, dental and skeletal class I occlusion and were classified as bruxist or non-bruxist according to their anxiety level, bruxism described by their parents and signs of temporomandibular disorders. The dental wear was drawn in dental casts and processed in digital format. Physiotherapeutic evaluation and a cephalometric radiograph with natural head position were also performed for each child to evaluate the cranio-cervical position for the bruxist group (n = 33) and the control group (n = 20). The variables of the two groups were compared, using the Student t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. A more anterior and downward head tilt was found in the bruxist group, with statistically significant differences compared with the controls. More significant dental wear was observed in the bruxist children. Bruxism seems to be related to altered natural head posture and more intense dental wear. Further studies are necessary to explore bruxism mechanisms.

  12. Radiographic correlation of dental and skeletal age: Third molar, an age indicator.

    PubMed

    Suma, Gn; Rao, Balaji B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Rao, Dayashankara Jk; Goel, Sumit

    2011-01-01

    Age estimation plays a great role in forensic investigations, orthodontic and surgical treatment planning, and tooth transplantation. Teeth offer an excellent material for age determination by stages of development below the age of 25 years and by secondary changes after the age of 25 years. Third molar is often not included for this purpose due to its notorious developmental patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of third molar anlage in relation to skeletal maturities and the chronological age. One hundred and fifty-six young individuals, 78 males and 78 females, were selected. The stages of development of all the third molars in every individual were determined from panoramic radiographs. The skeletal development was assessed using hand wrist radiographs. Data were analyzed statistically for mean value, standard deviation and the relationship between the recorded characteristics. A STRONG CORRELATION WAS FOUND BETWEEN THIRD MOLAR DEVELOPMENT AND SKELETAL MATURITY (IN MALES: r=0.88, P<0.001; in females: r=0.77 for maxillary third molar and 0.89 for mandibular third molar, P<0.001). Hence, it is concluded that a strong correlation exists between chronological age, developmental stages of third molars and maturation of epiphyses of hand. Any of the three parameters could be used for the assessment of other maturities.

  13. Prevalence of dental anomalies in deciduous dentition and its association with succedaneous dentition: A cross-sectional study of 4180 South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, G; Gokhale, Niraj; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental anomalies in primary dentition of Indian population. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4180 children in the age of 2-6 years. Anomalies were classified based on Kreiborg criteria. The term "double tooth" was used to avoid misinterpretation between gemination. and fusion. Patients having radiographs were also examined for associated dental anomalies in permanent dentition. The occurrence and gender prevalence were evaluated using descriptive statistics. About 95. (2.27%) children exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Thirty.seven children showed 51 missing teeth. (0.88%), mostly in lower right incisors with a statistically significant difference between arches. (P = 0.0056) Nine children. (0.21%) had supernumerary teeth commonly in the right maxilla. Two cases of oligodontia. (0.04%) and talon cusps. (0.04%) and one case of triple tooth. (0.02%) were observed. Forty children. (0.95%) had 43 double teeth mostly in the right mandible with a statistically significant difference between the arches. (P = 0.0105). No significant difference was observed based on gender and arch, but they were statistically significant between the right and left sides. (P = 0.018). Among the children with radiographs available, 45% showed anomalies in the succedaneous dentition. The prevalence rates of children with double tooth, hypodontia, and hyperdontia in our study are 0.95%, 0.88%, and 0.21%, respectively. The overall prevalence rate of anomalies among boys was higher than girls.

  14. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  15. Parental attitudes regarding behavior guidance of dental patients with autism.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jennifer; Sheller, Barbara; Mancl, Lloyd; Williams, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate: (1) parents' ability to predict dental treatment cooperation by their autistic child; (2) behavior guidance techniques (BGTs) used during treatment; and (3) parental attitudes regarding basic and advanced BGTs. Data were collected from 85 parent/autistic child pairs and their dentists using surveys and treatment records. Parents most accurately predicted if their child would permit an examination in the dental chair (> or = 88%) and would cooperate for radiographs (> or = 84%). BGTs utilized most often (> 50%) were positive verbal reinforcement (PVR), tell-show-do (TSD), mouthprops, and rewards. In general, basic BGTs were more acceptable (> 81%) than advanced BGTs (>54%). The most acceptable techniques (>90%) in order were: PVR, TSD, distraction, rewards, general anesthesia, hand-holding by parent, and mouth-props. When parents evaluated only BGTs used for their child, all BGTs, including a stabilization device, were highly acceptable (> 91%), except for staff restraint (74%). Parents were accurate in predicting cooperation for some procedures. The most acceptable and efficacious BGTs in order were: PVR, TSD, distraction, rewards, and hand-holding by parent. Parental perceptions of BGTs were influenced by whether or not they had been used for their child.

  16. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: Report of a case documented with clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings

    PubMed Central

    Çankal, Dilek A.; Bozkaya, Süleyman; Ergün, Gülfem; Bar??, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) has been described as a condition that characteristically affects the jaws of middle-aged black women. This condition has also been classified as gigantiform cementoma, chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis, sclerosing osteitis, multiple estenosis and sclerotic cemental masses. It usually exhibits as multiple radiopaque cementum-like masses distributed throughout the jaws. Radiographically, FCOD appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. Computed tomography, because of its ability to give axial, sagittal, and frontal views, is useful in the evaluation of these lesions. This article reports the case of a 45-year-old white man who was diagnosed with FCOD on the basis of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings. It is of major importance to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity as well as ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against wrong dental treatments that might save patients dental health. This case report illustrates the point that periapical radiolucencies may represent benign fibro-osseous lesions that may be overlooked or result in unnecessary endodontic treatment. Key words:Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid osseous dysplasia, fibro-osseous lesions. PMID:24455053

  17. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: Report of a case documented with clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Kutluay Köklü, Harika; Cankal, Dilek A; Bozkaya, Süleyman; Ergün, Gülfem; Bar, Emre

    2013-02-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) has been described as a condition that characteristically affects the jaws of middle-aged black women. This condition has also been classified as gigantiform cementoma, chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis, sclerosing osteitis, multiple estenosis and sclerotic cemental masses. It usually exhibits as multiple radiopaque cementum-like masses distributed throughout the jaws. Radiographically, FCOD appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. Computed tomography, because of its ability to give axial, sagittal, and frontal views, is useful in the evaluation of these lesions. This article reports the case of a 45-year-old white man who was diagnosed with FCOD on the basis of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings. It is of major importance to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity as well as ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against wrong dental treatments that might save patients dental health. This case report illustrates the point that periapical radiolucencies may represent benign fibro-osseous lesions that may be overlooked or result in unnecessary endodontic treatment. Key words:Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid osseous dysplasia, fibro-osseous lesions.

  18. Relations among obesity, family socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors, and dental caries in adolescents: the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ah; Choi, Hayon Michelle; Seo, Yunhee; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among obesity, family socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors, and dental caries and to identify possible differences in factors related with dental caries according to gender among a representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2010 and 2012. This nationally representative cross-sectional survey included approximately 10,000 individuals, including adolescents, each year as a survey sample, and collected information on socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, quality of life, healthcare utilization, anthropometric measures, biochemical and clinical profiles for non-communicable diseases, and dietary intake via three component surveys (health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey). The health interview and health examination were conducted by trained staff members. A total of 1646 adolescents of ages 13 to 18 years old were included in this study; there were 879 males and 767 females. Data were analyzed by t-test, X 2 -test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using SAS 9.4 and 'R' statistical software for Windows to account for the complex sampling design. In males, significant associations between family income and dental caries on permanent teeth were noted after adjusting for confounding variables; the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals thereof were 0.43(0.24-0.76), 0.41(0.24-0.70), and 0.28(0.16-0.49) for low-middle, middle-high, and high family income, respectively. Smoking experience showed a significant association with dental caries on permanent teeth in females. Oral health behaviors, such as tooth brushing frequency, were associated with dental caries in only male adolescents. There was no association between obesity and dental caries on permanent teeth in either male or female adolescents. The present study demonstrated that

  19. Maxillary Nine-year Molars: Prevalence and Associated Dental and Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ulrich; Alford, Jacqueline A; Allshouse, Amanda A; Sain, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, from a large number of panoramic images taken in the clinic of a pediatric dentistry residency program, the prevalence of maxillary nine-year molars (9YM), associated medical conditions (MCs), and the presence of coexisting tooth anomalies (TAs). Pantomograms from 13,140 patients were searched for 9YM. Radiographs from identified subjects were examined for coexisting TAs, and charted MCs were noted. For identified 9YM, Nolla's stage of tooth formation was determined and the subjects' dental ages were calculated. Among 53 subjects (68 percent females), 21 unilateral and 32 bilateral cases of 9YM occurred. Females and males were of similar age (7.98 versus 7.91 years old). Overall dental and chronological ages were significantly different: dental development in bilateral cases was delayed by 4.1 months in females and 2.9 months in both sexes (P=.003). In unilateral cases, it was accelerated by 3.6 months in females and 3.5 months in males. The specific tooth age for all 9YM was 4.95 years for females and 5.56 years for males (P=.018). The average count of associated findings (e.g., missing teeth, peg laterals, other TAs, and other eruption delays) was 0.62 in unilateral and 1.44 in bilateral cases (P=.02). Commonly associated MCs included clefting (N equals five), and Down syndrome (n equals three). The prevalence of nine-year molars was one in 248 (0.4 percent), and the average delay in dental development was 2.7 years.

  20. A Naval Postgraduate Dental School Analysis Of Initial Endodontic Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    available for consideration as a study pmiicipant. Exclusion Criteria: Patients whose record did not include a final treatment radiograph or whose...of symptoms, tooth type (single versus multi-root), and existing medical conditions (smoker, coronary heart disease , diabetes). lntraoperative...A NAVAL POSTGRADUATE DENT AL SCHOOL ANALYSIS OF INITIAL ENDODONTIC TREATMENT by Allen Daniel Rasmussen, D.M.D. Lieutenant Commander, Dental Corps

  1. Autism and primary care dentistry: parents' experiences of taking children with autism or working diagnosis of autism for dental examinations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nicole; Blake, Sharon; Morris, Christopher; Moles, David R

    2018-03-01

    Accessing and receiving preventative dental treatment can be difficult for children with autism due to sensory processing disorders and/or challenging behaviours coupled with a reported reluctance by dentists to treat these children. To gather dental experiences of UK parents of children with autism or working diagnosis of autism and explore how they feel primary care dental services can be improved. A total of 17 parents of children with a diagnosis or working diagnosis of autism took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed thematically. Key themes identified were flexibility of the dental team and environment, confidence of the parents to advocate for their children's needs, continuity of services and clear referral pathways to specialist services. Cross-cutting all themes was the value of clear communication. The experiences provide greater understanding of issues such as hyper-empathy, the dental chair, challenges of the waiting room, perceived medical authority, and the importance of continuation of care. In line with previous research about the importance of family-centred care, a strong relationship between parents and the whole dental team is essential for children with autism to access dental examinations and have satisfactory experience of care. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dental age estimation: the role of probability estimates at the 10 year threshold.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Roberts, Graham

    2014-08-01

    The use of probability at the 18 year threshold has simplified the reporting of dental age estimates for emerging adults. The availability of simple to use widely available software has enabled the development of the probability threshold for individual teeth in growing children. Tooth development stage data from a previous study at the 10 year threshold were reused to estimate the probability of developing teeth being above or below the 10 year thresh-hold using the NORMDIST Function in Microsoft Excel. The probabilities within an individual subject are averaged to give a single probability that a subject is above or below 10 years old. To test the validity of this approach dental panoramic radiographs of 50 female and 50 male children within 2 years of the chronological age were assessed with the chronological age masked. Once the whole validation set of 100 radiographs had been assessed the masking was removed and the chronological age and dental age compared. The dental age was compared with chronological age to determine whether the dental age correctly or incorrectly identified a validation subject as above or below the 10 year threshold. The probability estimates correctly identified children as above or below on 94% of occasions. Only 2% of the validation group with a chronological age of less than 10 years were assigned to the over 10 year group. This study indicates the very high accuracy of assignment at the 10 year threshold. Further work at other legally important age thresholds is needed to explore the value of this approach to the technique of age estimation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Investigation of an electronic image enhancer for radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1972-01-01

    Radiographs of nuclear and aerospace components were studied with a closed-circuit television system to determine the advantages of electronic enhancement in radiographic nondestructive evaluation. The radiographic images were examined on a television monitor under various degrees of magnification and enhancement. The enhancement was accomplished by generating a video signal whose amplitude is proportional to the rate of change of density. Points, lines, edges, and other density variations that are faintly registered in the original image are rendered in sharp relief. Examples of the applications of this mode of enhancement are discussed together with the system's dynamic response and resolution.

  4. Investigation of an electronic image enhancer for radiographs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1972-01-01

    Radiographs of nuclear and aerospace components were studied with a closed-circuit television system to determine the advantages of electronic enhancement in radiographic nondestructive evaluation. The radiographic images were examined on a television monitor under various degrees of magnification and enhancement. The enhancement was accomplished by generating a video signal whose amplitude is proportional to the rate of change of density. Points, lines, edges, and other density variations that are faintly registered in the original image are rendered in sharp relief. Examples of the applications of this mode of enhancement are discussed together with the system's dynamic response and resolution.

  5. Basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity.

    PubMed

    Mamoun, John

    2012-01-01

    To maximize office productivity, dentists should focus on performing tasks that only they can perform and not spend office hours performing tasks that can be delegated to non-dentist personnel. An important element of maximizing productivity is to arrange the schedule so that multiple patients are seated simultaneously in different operatories. Doing so allows the dentist to work on one patient in one operatory without needing to wait for local anesthetic to take effect on another patient in another operatory, or for assistants to perform tasks (such as cleaning up, taking radiographs, performing prophylaxis, or transporting and preparing equipment and supplies) in other operatories. Another way to improve productivity is to structure procedures so that fewer steps are needed to set up and implement them. In addition, during procedures, four-handed dental passing methods can be used to provide the dentist with supplies or equipment when needed. This article reviews basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity, based on the author's observations of business logistics used by various dental offices.

  6. The chronology of the radiographic visibility of the periodontal ligament and the root pulp in the lower third molars.

    PubMed

    Timme, M; Timme, W H; Olze, A; Ottow, C; Ribbecke, S; Pfeiffer, H; Dettmeyer, R; Schmeling, A

    2017-07-01

    Eruption and mineralization of third molars are the main criteria for dental age estimation in living adolescents. As the validation of completion of the 18th year of life appears not to be possible with the forensically necessary probability even if all the third molars of a person are completely mineralized, degenerative dental characteristics might be used for this purpose. In previous publications by Olze et al. (2010a,b) the radiographic visibility of the periodontal ligament and the root pulp in lower third molars were suggested as methods for this purpose. The aim of this study was to validate these characteristics in a large study population with a wide age range. In a material of 2346 orthopantomograms of 1167 female and 1179 male Germans aged from 15 to 70years the radiographic visibility of the root pulp in the lower third molars with completed mineralization were studied according to stage classifications proposed by Olze et al. (2010a,b). 1541 orthopantomograms of 705 females and 836 males with a sufficient quality of the radiograph showed at least one third molar. The suitability of the studied characteristics for age estimation in living individuals could be confirmed. Males and females presenting stage 1 of both characteristics were older than 18years of life. Males and females presenting stage 2 of both characteristics were older than 21years of life. The high number of missing third molars in the studied age group (46-60%) must be considered as a limitation of the methods. In further studies the influence of ethnicity, dietary habits and modern dental health care on the characteristics in question should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconstruction of the maxilla following hemimaxillectomy defects with scapular tip grafts and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Christian; Freudlsperger, Christian; Bodem, Jens; Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freier, Kolja

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of post-resective defects of the maxilla can be challenging and usually requires dental obturation or microvascular reconstruction. As compared to soft-tissue microvascular grafts, bone reconstruction can additionally allow for facial support and retention of dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate scapular tip grafts with respect to their applicability for maxillary reconstruction and their potential to retain dental implants for later dental rehabilitation. In this retrospective study, 14 patients with hemimaxillectomy defects were reconstructed with free scapular tip grafts, oriented horizontally, to rebuild the palate and alveolar ridge. After bone healing, three-dimensional virtual implant planning was performed, and a radiographic guide was fabricated to enable implant placement in the optimal anatomic and prosthetic position. All patients' mastication and speech were evaluated, along with the extent of defect closure, suitability of the graft sites for implant placement, and soft-tissue stability. Pre- and postsurgical radiographs were also evaluated. A good postoperative outcome was achieved in all patients, with complete closure of maxillary defects that were class II, according to the system of Brown and Shaw. Additional bone augmentation was necessary in two patients in order to increase vertical bone height. Patients were subsequently treated with 50 dental implants to retain dental prostheses. In all cases, additional soft-tissue surgery was necessary to achieve a long-term stable periimplant situation. No implants were lost during the mean observation period of 34 months. Due to its specific form, the scapular tip graft is well suited to reconstruct the palate and maxillary alveolar ridge and to enable subsequent implant-retained rehabilitation. Due to the limited bone volume, an accurate three-dimensional graft orientation is essential. Furthermore, most cases require additional soft-tissue surgery to achieve a long

  8. Assuring dental hygiene clinical competence for licensure: a national survey of dental hygiene program directors.

    PubMed

    Fleckner, Lucinda M; Rowe, Dorothy J

    2015-02-01

    To conduct a national survey of dental hygiene program directors to gain their opinions of alternative assessments of clinical competency, as qualifications for initial dental hygiene licensure. A 22 question survey, comprised of statements eliciting Likert-scale responses, was developed and distributed electronically to 341 U.S. dental hygiene program directors. Responses were tabulated and analyzed using University of California, San Francisco Qualtrics® computer software. Data were summarized as frequencies of responses to each item on the survey. The response rate was 42% (n=143). The majority of respondents (65%) agreed that graduating from a Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA)-approved dental hygiene program and passing the national board examination was the best measure to assure competence for initial licensure. The addition of "successfully completing all program's competency evaluations" to the above core qualifications yielded a similar percentage of agreement. Most (73%) agreed that "the variability of live patients as test subjects is a barrier to standardizing the state and regional examinations," while only 29% agreed that the "use of live patients as test subjects is essential to assure competence for initial licensure." The statement that the one-time state and regional examinations have "low validity in reflecting the complex responsibilities of the dental hygienist in practice" had a high (77%) level of agreement. Most dental hygiene program directors agree that graduating from a CODA-approved dental hygiene program and passing the national board examination would ensure that a graduate has achieved clinical competence and readiness to provide comprehensive patient-centered care as a licensed dental hygienist. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. Learning-based landmarks detection for osteoporosis analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Erkang; Zhu, Ling; Yang, Jie; Azhari, Azhari; Sitam, Suhardjo; Liang, Xin; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Ling, Haibin

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is the common cause for a broken bone among senior citizens. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis requires routine examination which may be costly for patients. A potential low cost diagnosis is to identify a senior citizen at high risk of osteoporosis by pre-screening during routine dental examination. Therefore, osteoporosis analysis using dental radiographs severs as a key step in routine dental examination. The aim of this study is to localize landmarks in dental radiographs which are helpful to assess the evidence of osteoporosis. We collect eight landmarks which are critical in osteoporosis analysis. Our goal is to localize these landmarks automatically for a given dental radiographic image. To address the challenges such as large variations of appearances in subjects, in this paper, we formulate the task into a multi-class classification problem. A hybrid feature pool is used to represent these landmarks. For the discriminative classification problem, we use a random forest to fuse the hybrid feature representation. In the experiments, we also evaluate the performances of individual feature component and the hybrid fused feature. Our proposed method achieves average detection error of 2:9mm.

  10. Dental hygienists in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-H

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give basic information about the status of dental hygienists in Korea. This paper examines the changing process of the dental hygiene education system in Korea, from its start in 1965 until the present, 2003, the composition of dental personnel in Korea, the specialised areas and roles of dental hygienists after they receive their licenses, employment of dental hygienists, dental hygiene-related organisations, and the status and direction of dental hygienists in Korea. This paper shows the organisational, educational, governmental and individual efforts to increase the level of professionalism, education and quality of care delivered to Korean citizens nationwide.

  11. Examining the safety of dental treatment in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Michalowicz, Bryan S; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Novak, M John; Buchanan, William; Papapanou, Panos N; Mitchell, Dennis A; Curran, Alice E; Lupo, Virginia R; Ferguson, James E; Bofill, James; Matseoane, Stephen; Deinard, Amos S; Rogers, Tyson B

    2008-06-01

    Although clinicians generally consider it safe to provide dental care for pregnant women, supporting clinical trial evidence is lacking. This study compares safety outcomes from a trial in which pregnant women received scaling and root planing and other dental treatments. The authors randomly assigned 823 women with periodontitis to receive scaling and root planing, either at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation or up to three months after delivery. They evaluated all subjects for essential dental treatment (EDT) needs, defined as the presence of moderate-to-severe caries or fractured or abscessed teeth; 351 women received complete EDT at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation. The authors used Fisher exact test and a propensity-score adjustment to compare rates of serious adverse events, spontaneous abortions/stillbirths, fetal/congenital anomalies and preterm deliveries (<37 weeks' gestation) between groups, according to the provision of periodontal treatment and EDT. Rates of adverse outcomes did not differ significantly (P> .05) between women who received EDT and those who did not require this treatment, or between groups that received both EDT and periodontal treatment, either EDT or periodontal treatment alone, or no treatment. Use of topical or local anesthetics during root planing also was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. EDT in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing serious medical adverse events or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data from larger studies and from groups with other treatment needs are needed to confirm the safety of dental care in pregnant women. This study provides evidence that EDT and use of topical and local anesthetics are safe in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation.

  12. An in-vitro comparison of the radiographic and actual gutta-percha terminus.

    PubMed

    Namazikhah, M S; Ghiai, M; Parkin, M J; Puccinelli, L

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between the radiographic gutta-percha terminus and the actual gutta-percha terminus of human molars by comparing radiographic obturation results with actual obturation results. Forty maxillary palatal roots and 50 mandibular distal roots were randomly selected from a population of 540. They were then mounted in stone and radiographed. Conventional endodontic therapy was completed using stainless-steel K files and lateral condensation. Each radiographic gutta-percha terminus was evaluated under 4.5x magnification by three examiners following the completion of root canal therapy. These results were recorded. Each tooth was then removed from its mounting, and the actual gutta-percha terminus was evaluated under 4.5x magnification. These results were recorded and compared to the radiographic gutta-percha terminus results. In all 90 teeth examined, the actual gutta-percha terminus was equal to or longer than the radiographic gutta-percha terminus. In the 50 mandibular distal roots, the actual gutta-percha terminus averaged 0.645 mm longer than the radiographic gutta-percha terminus. In the 40 maxillary palatal roots, this difference measured 0.6375 mm.

  13. Technologist-Directed Repeat Musculoskeletal and Chest Radiographs: How Often Do They Impact Diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Jacobs, Jill E; Jain, Nidhi; Brusca-Augello, Geraldine; Mechlin, Michael; Parente, Marc; Recht, Michael P

    2017-12-01

    Radiologic technologists may repeat images within a radiographic examination because of perceived suboptimal image quality, excluding these original images from submission to a PACS. This study assesses the appropriateness of technologists' decisions to repeat musculoskeletal and chest radiographs as well as the utility of repeat radiographs in addressing examinations' clinical indication. We included 95 musculoskeletal and 87 chest radiographic examinations in which the technologist repeated one or more images because of perceived image quality issues, rejecting original images from PACS submission. Rejected images were retrieved from the radiograph unit and uploaded for viewing on a dedicated server. Musculoskeletal and chest radiologists reviewed rejected and repeat images in their timed sequence, in addition to the studies' remaining images. Radiologists answered questions regarding the added value of repeat images. The reviewing radiologist agreed with the reason for rejection for 64.2% of musculoskeletal and 60.9% of chest radiographs. For 77.9% and 93.1% of rejected radiographs, the clinical inquiry could have been satisfied without repeating the image. For 75.8% and 64.4%, the repeated images showed improved image quality. Only 28.4% and 3.4% of repeated images were considered to provide additional information that was helpful in addressing the clinical question. Most repeated radiographs (chest more so than musculoskeletal radiographs) did not add significant clinical information or alter diagnosis, although they did increase radiation exposure. The decision to repeat images should be made after viewing the questionable image in context with all images in a study and might best be made by a radiologist rather than the performing technologist.

  14. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Dental implants in medically complex patients-a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manor, Yifat; Simon, Roy; Haim, Doron; Garfunkel, Adi; Moses, Ofer

    2017-03-01

    Dental implant insertion for oral rehabilitation is a worldwide procedure for healthy and medically compromised patients. The impact of systemic disease risks on the outcome of implant therapy is unclear, since there are few if any published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The objective of this study is to investigate the rate of complications and failures following dental implantation in medically compromised patients in order to elucidate risk factors and prevent them. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from patient files treated with dental implantation between the years 2008-2014. The study group consisted of medically complex patients while the control group consisted of healthy patients. Preoperative, intraoperative, and post operative clinical details were retrieved from patients' files. The survival rate and the success rate of the dental implants were evaluated clinically and radiographically. A total of 204 patients (1003 dental implants) were included in the research, in the study group, 93 patients with 528 dental implants and in the control group, 111 patients with 475 dental implants. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding implant failures or complications. The failure rate of dental implants among the patients was 11.8 % in the study group and 16.2 % in the control group (P = 0.04). It was found that patients with a higher number of implants (mean 6.8) had failures compared with patients with a lower number of implants (mean 4.2) regardless of their health status (P < 0.01). We found a similar rate of failure and complications of dental implantation in medically complex patients and in healthy patients. Medically complex patients can undergo dental implantation. There are similar rates of complications and failures of dental implants in medically complex patients and in healthy patients.

  16. Dental technician pneumoconiosis mimicking lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Meral; Sokucu, Oral; Sanli, Maruf; Filiz, Ayten; Ali Ikidag, Mehmet; Feridun Isik, Ahmet; Bakir, Kemal

    2015-09-01

    A 47-year-old man was referred for assessment of bilateral lymph node enlargement identified on a routine chest radiograph. Positron emission tomography showed high standardized uptake values (SUVmax: 20.5) in right supraclavicular, right intercostal, and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes. Biopsy samples obtained from the right upper and left lower paratracheal nodes by mediastinoscopy revealed granulomatous inflammation. Clinical and laboratory findings indicated a diagnosis of dental technician pneumoconiosis. The patient is alive and well 3 years after diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of obtaining an occupational history.

  17. A novel type of dental tube implant for areas with limited bone height. Clinical and radiographic data from three patients with 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Dan; Slotte, Christer; Gröndahl, Kerstin

    2013-08-01

    Alternative implant designs may reduce the need for complicated and costly bone augmentation procedures in situations with limited bone height. Wide dental tube implants have been manufactured and tested in three patients and followed for 5 years to evaluate if such implants are capable to support fixed prosthetic constructions with good prognosis in areas with limited bone height. Four machined-tube implants with a height of 6 mm, an outer diameter of 7.4 mm, and an inner diameter of 6.0 mm were placed in three patients. After a healing period of 3 months, ceramometal suprastructures were constructed to supply the implants. Annual clinical and radiographical follow-ups were done up to 5 years. At the 5-year follow-up, all three patients were examined with a cone beam computed tomography technique. All implants and the suprastructures were clinically stable after 5 years. In one patient, vertical bone loss and a 6-mm deep pocket appeared after 1 year. The pocket has remained throughout the observation period and has been regularly debrided and kept it free from clinical signs of inflammation. In the other two patients, the soft tissue surrounding the implants was in good health with no or only slight inflammation throughout all observations. Pocket probing revealed no or slight bleeding and pocket depths amounting to less than 3 mm. It was shown that this new type of implant will function excellent during follow-up times of several years. Further studies should be done to explore in more detail indications for such implants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Delayed dental maturity in dentitions with agenesis of mandibular second premolars.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, S; Christensen, I J; Kjaer, I

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate dental maturity in the mandibular canine/premolar and molar innervation fields in children with agenesis of the 2nd mandibular premolar and to associate these findings with normal control material. Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Odontology, University of Copenhagen. Eighty-three panoramic radiographs (27 girls and 31 boys with agenesis of one mandibular 2nd premolar and 17 girls and eight boys with agenesis of both mandibular 2nd premolars) represented all mandibular second premolar agenesis cases from a material of 2847 radiographs. On each radiograph, dental maturity of all available mandibular premolars, canines and 2nd molars was evaluated and categorized in maturity stages according to Haavikko whose material served as control material. Descriptive statistics given by sample mean, standard deviation and range for each tooth stratified by gender and agenesis. Ninety-five percentage confidence limits and T-statistics were used. p-values <5% were considered significant. In unilateral agenesis, the canines are specifically delayed in both girls and boys, with a larger delay in girls (p=0.009). The second molar is not delayed in boys (p=0.98) but is in girls (p=0.04). The differences in delay for the canine compared to the second molar are significant for both girls and boys. The results show a considerable delay in tooth maturation within the canine/premolar innervation field predominantly in girls. The 2nd molar is delayed in girls but not in boys. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Value of History, Physical Examination, and Radiographic Findings in the Diagnosis of Symptomatic Meniscal Tear Among Middle-Aged Subjects With Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Smith, Savannah R; Yang, Heidi Y; Martin, Scott D; Wright, John; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A; Losina, Elena

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of clinical history, radiographic findings, and physical examination findings in the diagnosis of symptomatic meniscal tear (SMT) in patients over age 45 years, in whom concomitant osteoarthritis is prevalent. In a cross-sectional study of patients from 2 orthopedic surgeons' clinics, we assessed clinical history, physical examination findings, and radiographic findings in patients age >45 years with knee pain. The orthopedic surgeons rated their confidence that subjects' symptoms were due to meniscal tear; we defined the diagnosis of SMT as at least 70% confidence. We used logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with diagnosis of SMT, and we used the regression results to construct an index of the likelihood of SMT. In 174 participants, 6 findings were associated independently with the expert clinician having ≥70% confidence that symptoms were due to meniscal tear: localized pain, ability to fully bend the knee, pain duration <1 year, lack of varus alignment, lack of pes planus, and absence of joint space narrowing on radiographs. The index identified a low-risk group with 3% likelihood of SMT. While clinicians traditionally rely upon mechanical symptoms in this diagnostic setting, our findings did not support the conclusion that mechanical symptoms were associated with the expert's confidence that symptoms were due to meniscal tear. An index that includes history of localized pain, full flexion, duration <1 year, pes planus, varus alignment, and joint space narrowing can be used to stratify patients according to their risk of SMT, and it identifies a subgroup with very low risk. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Radiographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of radiographer, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of radiographer. The following skill areas are covered in the…

  1. Five-year clinical evaluation of zirconia-based bridges in patients in UK general dental practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J T; Crisp, R J; Cowan, A J; Lamb, J; Thompson, O; Tulloch, N

    2013-11-01

    This study reported the results at 5 years of fixed-fixed all-ceramic bridges, constructed in a yttria oxide stabilized tetragonal zirconium oxide polycrystal (Y-TZP) substructure, placed in adult patients in UK general dental practices. Four UK general dental practitioners recruited patients who required fixed bridgework and, after obtaining informed written consent, appropriate clinical and radiographic assessments were completed. The teeth were prepared and bridges constructed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Each bridge was reviewed annually within 3 months of the anniversary of its placement by a calibrated examiner, together with the clinician who had placed the restoration, using modified USPHS criteria. Of the 41 bridges originally placed, 33 bridges were examined at 5 years. All Y-TZP frameworks were intact and no bridge retainers had debonded. Eight chipping fractures in the veneering ceramic were noted over the 5-year period. In five cases the patients were unaware of these and these cases were polished. Of the remaining three cases, in one a repair was attempted but was unsuccessful, but the bridge remained in satisfactory service. However, in the case involving a chipping fracture of the mesial-incisal angle of a central incisor, it was considered that replacement of the bridge was necessary. 97% (n=32) of the 33 Lava Y-TZP fixed-fixed bridges, evaluated in patients attending UK general dental practices, were found to be performing satisfactorily. The use of Y-TZP frameworks holds promise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Guidance and examination by ultrasound versus landmark and radiographic method for placement of subclavian central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Central venous catheters play an important role in patient care. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian central venous (SCV) cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications and the time between skin penetration and the aspiration of venous blood into the syringe. Ultrasonic diagnosis of catheter misplacement and pneumothorax related to central venous catheterization is rapid and accurate. It is unclear, however, whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination can reduce procedure times and complication rates when compared with landmark guidance and radiographic examination for SCV catheterization. Methods/Design The Subclavian Central Venous Catheters Guidance and Examination by UltraSound (SUBGEUS) study is an investigator-initiated single center, randomized, controlled two-arm trial. Three hundred patients undergoing SCV catheter placement will be randomized to ultrasound real-time guidance and examination or landmark guidance and radiographic examination. The primary outcome is the time between the beginning of the procedure and control of the catheter. Secondary outcomes include the times required for the six components of the total procedure, the occurrence of complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax, or misplacement), failure of the technique and occurrence of central venous catheter infections. Discussion The SUBGEUS trial is the first randomized controlled study to investigate whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination for SCV catheter placement reduces all procedure times and the rate of complications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01888094 PMID:24885789

  3. A Retrospective Study of Association between Peg-shaped Maxillary Lateral Incisors and Dental Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Nam-Ki; Kim, Seon-Mi

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors and the incidence of associated dental anomalies in children. We investigated the prevalence of peg-laterals and incidence of associated dental anomalies in 3,834 children aged 7-15 who visited the Department of Pediatric Dentistry from January 2010 to December 2015 and underwent panoramic radiographs. The prevalence of peg-laterals was 1.69% in boys, 1.75% in girls, and 1.72% overall. Among children with peg-laterals, the frequencies of associated dental anomalies were as follows: congenitally missing teeth, 31.8%; dens invaginatus, 19.7%; palatally displaced canines, 12.1%; supernumerary teeth, 7.6%; and transposition, 7.6%. As children with peg-laterals have a higher incidence of other dental anomalies, careful consideration is needed when planning diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Feasibility and validation of virtual autopsy for dental identification using the Interpol dental codes.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Thevissen, Patrick; Coudyzer, Walter; Develter, Wim; Van de Voorde, Wim; Oyen, Raymond; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Willems, Guy

    2013-05-01

    Virtual autopsy is a medical imaging technique, using full body computed tomography (CT), allowing for a noninvasive and permanent observation of all body parts. For dental identification clinically and radiologically observed ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM) oral identifiers are compared. The study aimed to verify if a PM dental charting can be performed on virtual reconstructions of full-body CT's using the Interpol dental codes. A sample of 103 PM full-body CT's was collected from the forensic autopsy files of the Department of Forensic Medicine University Hospitals, KU Leuven, Belgium. For validation purposes, 3 of these bodies underwent a complete dental autopsy, a dental radiological and a full-body CT examination. The bodies were scanned in a Siemens Definition Flash CT Scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). The images were examined on 8- and 12-bit screen resolution as three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and as axial, coronal and sagittal slices. InSpace(®) (Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany) software was used for 3D reconstruction. The dental identifiers were charted on pink PM Interpol forms (F1, F2), using the related dental codes. Optimal dental charting was obtained by combining observations on 3D reconstructions and CT slices. It was not feasible to differentiate between different kinds of dental restoration materials. The 12-bit resolution enabled to collect more detailed evidences, mainly related to positions within a tooth. Oral identifiers, not implemented in the Interpol dental coding were observed. Amongst these, the observed (3D) morphological features of dental and maxillofacial structures are important identifiers. The latter can become particularly more relevant towards the future, not only because of the inherent spatial features, yet also because of the increasing preventive dental treatment, and the decreasing application of dental restorations. In conclusion, PM full-body CT examinations need to be implemented in the

  5. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants’ demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC = 0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. Results The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p < 0.0001. The structural equation model fitted the raw data well (χ2 = 9.20, df = 8, p = 0.34). All components of DMFT were closely associated in equal strength to the unidimensional hypothetical latent variable of dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. Conclusion In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural–urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this

  6. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach.

    PubMed

    Esa, Rashidah; Ong, Ai Leng; Humphris, Gerry; Freeman, Ruth

    2014-03-12

    To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants' demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC = 0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p < 0.0001. The structural equation model fitted the raw data well (χ2 = 9.20, df = 8, p = 0.34). All components of DMFT were closely associated in equal strength to the unidimensional hypothetical latent variable of dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural-urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this relationship.

  7. Measurement of the levels anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectations for success using an objective structured clinical examination, a written examination, and a preclinical preparation test in Kerman dental students.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Mahsa; Zadeh, Nazila Lashkari; Agahi, Raha Habib; Navabi, Nader; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Nassab, Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan

    2017-01-01

    Examinations have an important role in evaluating students' learning outcomes and their mastery of a subject. Passing or failing an examination can have far-reaching consequences for the students. Therefore, it is not surprising that international studies consistently show that dental students report examinations and grades among the highest ranking stressors in dental schools. The aim of this research was to measure the levels of anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectations for success using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a written examination and a preclinical preparation test, and to examine the effects of the three predictive variables on the outcomes of assessments. The present research is a cross-sectional study. The population under consideration was students of Kerman Dental School in 2013. Examination anxiety was measured with Spielberger's state anxiety inventory. Preparation for the assessment (I am fully prepared = 4, I am prepared = 3, I'm not prepared = 2, I'm not fully prepared = 1) and expectation to succeed (I am quite successful = 4, I am successful = 3, I'm not successful = 2, I'm not quite successful = 1) were quantified with Likert scale. The questionnaire was completed during an OSCE, a written examination, a preclinical crown and bridge preparation test and a nonexamination situation. The study population consisted of 138 4 th , 5 th , and 6 th year Kerman dental students (65 males and 73 females). The results showed that all the assessment methods induced a significant increase in state anxiety compared to baseline levels with the highest anxiety levels reported during an OSCE (62.4 ± 8.1, P = 0.04) and a written examination (48.8 ± 9.2, P = 0.04). The preparation levels in females were significantly higher than those in males in OSCE ( P = 0.03) and written ( P = 0.04). State anxiety was high in all the three assessment methods. OSCE induced more anxiety than other assessment formats. However, anxiety was

  8. Technical aspects of dental CBCT: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Araki, K; Siewerdsen, J H; Thongvigitmanee, S S

    2015-01-01

    As CBCT is widely used in dental and maxillofacial imaging, it is important for users as well as referring practitioners to understand the basic concepts of this imaging modality. This review covers the technical aspects of each part of the CBCT imaging chain. First, an overview is given of the hardware of a CBCT device. The principles of cone beam image acquisition and image reconstruction are described. Optimization of imaging protocols in CBCT is briefly discussed. Finally, basic and advanced visualization methods are illustrated. Certain topics in these review are applicable to all types of radiographic imaging (e.g. the principle and properties of an X-ray tube), others are specific for dental CBCT imaging (e.g. advanced visualization techniques). PMID:25263643

  9. Radiographic, microcomputer tomography, and optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Ionita, Ciprian; Topala, Florin; Petrescu, Emanuela; Rominu, Roxana; Pop, Daniela Maria; Marsavina, Liviu; Negru, Radu; Bradu, Adrian; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-12-01

    Imagistic investigation of the metal-ceramic crowns and fixed partial prostheses represent a very important issue in nowadays dentistry. At this time, in dental office, it is difficult or even impossible to evaluate a metal ceramic crown or bridge before setting it in the oral cavity. The possibilities of ceramic fractures are due to small fracture lines or material defects inside the esthetic layers. Material and methods: In this study 25 metal ceramic crowns and fixed partial prostheses were investigated by radiographic method (Rx), micro computer tomography (MicroCT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) working in Time Domain, at 1300 nm. The OCT system contains two interferometers and one scanner. For each incident analysis a stuck made of 100 slices was obtain. These slices were used in order to obtain a 3D model of the ceramic interface. Results: RX and MicroCT are very powerful instruments that provide a good characterization of the dental construct. It is important to observe the reflections due to the metal infrastructure that could affect the evaluation of the metal ceramic crowns and bridges. The OCT investigations could complete the imagistic evaluation of the dental construct by offering important information when it is need it.

  10. Radiographic localization of unerupted maxillary anterior teeth using the vertical tube shift technique: the history and application of the method with some case reports.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S G

    1999-10-01

    The preferred means of radiographic localization is the parallax method introduced by Clark in 1910. He used 2 periapical radiographs and shifted the tube in the horizontal plane. In 1952, Richards appreciated that a vertical tube shift could also be carried out. No major changes then occurred in the technique until Keur, in Australia, in 1986 replaced the periapical radiographs with occlusal radiographs. This modification enables a greater tube movement and therefore a greater shift of the image of the impacted tooth; it also ensures that the whole of the tooth is captured on the radiograph. For the vertical tube shift, Keur introduced the use of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph. In 1987, Southall and Gravely discussed this vertical tube shift combination in the English dental literature, and it is now the preferred combination of radiographs for localizing impacted maxillary anterior teeth. Jacobs introduced this method to the American literature in 1999, but it has yet to gain acceptance in the continental European literature. Jacobs recommended, when using this combination, to routinely increase the vertical angulation for the occlusal radiograph by 10 degrees to achieve a greater image shift. Four case reports are presented in this article. Three have photographs taken at surgical exposure to illustrate how the position of the impacted tooth can be accurately predicted by appropriate interpretation of the radiographs.

  11. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation.

    PubMed

    Matos, Luiz Felipe; Giordano, Marcos; Cardoso, Gustavo Novaes; Farias, Rafael Baptista; E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP) view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film. An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements. From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements. Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  12. Analysis of dental supportive structures in orthodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Pavicin, Ivana Savić; Ivosević-Magdalenić, Natasa; Badel, Tomislav; Basić, Kresimir; Keros, Jadranka

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to define the impact of orthodontic appliances on the density of the underlying dental bone tissue. Radiographic images of teeth were made in 27 study subjects before and twelve months after fixed orthodontic appliances were carried. The radiographs were digitalized and the levels of gray at sites where the greatest bone resorption was expected were transformed into optic density. In the standardization and comparison of values from the first and the second measurements the copper calibration wedge--a stepwedge--was used. Optic densities in the observed sites were compared with optic densities of the calibration wedge and expressed as their thickness equivalent. The study results showed no statistically significant difference in bone densities, indicating that the orthodontic therapy was properly planned and carried out and that excessive forces were not used in the applied correctional procedures.

  13. A four-part setting on examining the anxiety-provoking capacity of the sound of dental equipment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Xu, Ying Feng

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a four-part questionnaire survey to assess the effects of the sound of dental equipment on people's perceptions and dental anxiety levels. The convenience sample for the survey comprised 230 dental students and 230 gender and age matched non-dental university students. The subjects were requested to complete the questionnaires themselves. The results show that the sound of dental equipment has a great influence on dental anxiety. Dental students, who are more familiar with the operation of this equipment, are less prone to anxiety when they hear its sound than their non-dental counterparts.

  14. Expanded function allied dental personnel and dental practice productivity and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Chen, Lei; Lazar, Vickie F; Brown, L Jackson; Ray, Subhash C; Heffley, Dennis R; Berg, Rob; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of expanded function allied dental personnel on the productivity and efficiency of general dental practices. Detailed practice financial and clinical data were obtained from a convenience sample of 154 general dental practices in Colorado. In this state, expanded function dental assistants can provide a wide range of reversible dental services/procedures, and dental hygienists can give local anesthesia. The survey identified practices that currently use expanded function allied dental personnel and the specific services/procedures delegated. Practice productivity was measured using patient visits, gross billings, and net income. Practice efficiency was assessed using a multivariate linear program, Data Envelopment Analysis. Sixty-four percent of the practices were found to use expanded function allied dental personnel, and on average they delegated 31.4 percent of delegatable services/procedures. Practices that used expanded function allied dental personnel treated more patients and had higher gross billings and net incomes than those practices that did not; the more services they delegated, the higher was the practice's productivity and efficiency. The effective use of expanded function allied dental personnel has the potential to substantially expand the capacity of general dental practices to treat more patients and to generate higher incomes for dental practices.

  15. Radiation risk assessment in neonatal radiographic examinations of the chest and abdomen: a clinical and Monte Carlo dosimetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makri, T.; Yakoumakis, E.; Papadopoulou, D.; Gialousis, G.; Theodoropoulos, V.; Sandilos, P.; Georgiou, E.

    2006-10-01

    Seeking to assess the radiation risk associated with radiological examinations in neonatal intensive care units, thermo-luminescence dosimetry was used for the measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) in 44 AP chest and 28 AP combined chest-abdominal exposures of a sample of 60 neonates. The mean values of ESD were found to be equal to 44 ± 16 µGy and 43 ± 19 µGy, respectively. The MCNP-4C2 code with a mathematical phantom simulating a neonate and appropriate x-ray energy spectra were employed for the simulation of the AP chest and AP combined chest-abdominal exposures. Equivalent organ dose per unit ESD and energy imparted per unit ESD calculations are presented in tabular form. Combined with ESD measurements, these calculations yield an effective dose of 10.2 ± 3.7 µSv, regardless of sex, and an imparted energy of 18.5 ± 6.7 µJ for the chest radiograph. The corresponding results for the combined chest-abdominal examination are 14.7 ± 7.6 µSv (males)/17.2 ± 7.6 µSv (females) and 29.7 ± 13.2 µJ. The calculated total risk per radiograph was low, ranging between 1.7 and 2.9 per million neonates, per film, and being slightly higher for females. Results of this study are in good agreement with previous studies, especially in view of the diversity met in the calculation methods.

  16. Difference of Success Rates of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Pulpotomies Performed Both by Undergraduate Dental Students and by an Expert Operator: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Marco; Giuca, Maria Rita; Gatto, Roberto; Caruso, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic success of pulpotomy on primary molars performed by dental students compared to that performed by an expert operator. The study was conducted on 142 second primary molars in 102 children. The patients were randomly selected from the available records. The test group (treated by dental students) included 51 subjects (28 males and 23 females, mean age: 7.2 ± 1) and the control group included 51 children (29 males and 22 females, mean age: 7.4 ± 1.2 years). After pulpotomy, a clinical and radiographic evaluation after 12 months was performed. Chi-square test and odds ratio were calculated and significance level was set at p < 0.05. The success rate was significantly lower, 81.6% ( p < 0.05), in the test group than in the control group (93%). The test group showed less clinical and radiographic success (86% and 80%, resp.) compared to the control group (97.2% for clinical success and 93% for radiographic success). Pulpotomy with MTA is an effective method that ensures a good percentage of success. The clinical experience of the operator is a contributing factor.

  17. Dental fragment embedded in the lower lip after facial trauma: Brief review literature and report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo; Sacco, Gerardo; Campus, Guglielmo; Carinci, Francesco; Milillo, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Upper incisors are the most frequently involved teeth in traumatic dental injuries. Soft tissues (lips and/or oral mucosa) adjacent to incisal edge can receive direct and/or indirect traumas. Laceration of the lower lip is a not rare eventuality and teeth fragments could be embedded in labial soft tissue. The reattachment of these fragments, if possible, is the elective treatment choice, thanks to the modern adhesive and restorative techniques. The authors present a case of a white Caucasian 10-year-old child, who attended the dental clinic for the treatment of both upper central incisors’ crown fractures. The fragment of the left incisor was retrieved embedded in the lower lip. It was successfully surgically removed and reattached using a composite adhesive technique. A careful clinical and radiographic examination with the surgical removal of tooth fragments could prevent undesirable foreign body reaction, infection and scarring. The authors also reviewed the most relevant literature concerning tooth fragment reattachment after removal from oral soft tissues. PMID:23814592

  18. Dental anxiety and regularity of dental attendance in younger adults.

    PubMed

    Quteish Taani, D S M

    2002-06-01

    Dental anxiety constitutes a major problem for patients and dental care providers alike. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dental anxiety and regularity of dental attendance among young adults. A random sample of 15 course directors (1:50) was asked to participate in the study. Of these, only 10 course-directors agreed to handout the 500 questionnaires. All undergraduate students who participated in this study were asked to complete a questionnaire modified from Dental Fear Survey (DFS) questionnaire and 368 (73.6%) filled forms were returned for statistical analysis. The results showed that only 20.9% were regular dental attendee while the majority (79.1%) were irregular attendee. The reasons given for irregular attendance were 'lack of time' (36%), 'treatment not needed' (34.1%), 'fear from dentist' (13.3%) and 'cost' (16.6%). The sight and sensation of the injection and sight, sound, and sensation of the drill were the most common fear-eliciting stimuli. Increased heart rate was the commonest reported physiological response. Females had higher mean ratings, therefore tended to be more anxious than males. Dental anxiety represented by the mean responses to the items, was found to be higher in irregular dental attendee than regular attendee. In conclusion, this suggests that dental anxiety may affect the seeking of dental care, therefore to be taken into account when training dental care providers.

  19. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a... intended for dental radiographic examination and diagnosis of diseases of the teeth, jaw, and oral...

  20. Two new methods to increase the contrast of track-etch neutron radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, J.

    1971-01-01

    Methods for increasing the (optical density span) of radiographs were evaluated. In one method, fluorescent dye was deposited in the tracks of the radiograph. The radiograph was then examined under ultraviolet light. The second method was a crossed Polaroid filter technique. The radiograph was placed between the filters and then illuminated with a diffuse white-light source. An increase in the optical density span from .10 to .37 was obtained with the dye method. With the Polaroid method, the increase obtained was from .10 to 2.4.

  1. Periodontist-Dental Hygienist Collaboration in Periodontal Care for Chronic Periodontitis: An 11-year Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Uekusa, Tomomi; Hosono, Meiko; Kigure, Takashi; Sugito, Hiroki; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of severe chronic periodontitis treated and longitudinally maintained by a periodontist and dental hygienists. The patient was a 45-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of gingival bleeding and tooth mobility. An initial examination revealed generalized gingival inflammation and subgingival calculus in the premolar and molar regions. Premature contact was observed in #14 and 45. Clinical examination revealed 42% of sites with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and 44% of sites with bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone resorption in #35, 36, and 45, and horizontal bone resorption in other regions. Based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis, initial periodontal therapy consisting of plaque control, scaling and root planing, and removal of an ill-fitting prosthesis was performed. Following suppression of inflammation, occlusal adjustment of premature contact sites was performed. Open flap debridement was performed for teeth with a PD of ≥5 mm. After confirming the stability of the periodontal tissue, final prostheses were placed on #16, 35-37, and 46. Following re-evaluation, the patient was placed on supportive periodontal therapy. It has been 11 years since the patient's first visit, and the periodontal conditions have remained stable. Meticulous periodontal care maintained over a number of years by a periodontist and dental hygienist have yielded a clinically favorable outcome.

  2. Generation of intra-oral-like images from cone beam computed tomography volumes for dental forensic image comparison.

    PubMed

    Trochesset, Denise A; Serchuk, Richard B; Colosi, Dan C

    2014-03-01

    Identification of unknown individuals using dental comparison is well established in the forensic setting. The identification technique can be time and resource consuming if many individuals need to be identified at once. Medical CT (MDCT) for dental profiling has had limited success, mostly due to artifact from metal-containing dental restorations and implants. The authors describe a CBCT reformatting technique that creates images, which closely approximate conventional dental images. Using a i-CAT Platinum CBCT unit and standard issue i-CAT Vision software, a protocol is developed to reproducibly and reliably reformat CBCT volumes. The reformatted images are presented with conventional digital images from the same anatomic area for comparison. The authors conclude that images derived from CBCT volumes following this protocol are similar enough to conventional dental radiographs to allow for dental forensic comparison/identification and that CBCT offers a superior option over MDCT for this purpose. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Medicaid dental coverage alone may not lower rates of dental emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Fingar, Kathryn R; Smith, Mark W; Davies, Sheryl; McDonald, Kathryn M; Stocks, Carol; Raven, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Medicaid was expanded to millions of individuals under the Affordable Care Act, but many states do not provide dental coverage for adults under their Medicaid programs. In the absence of dental coverage, patients may resort to costly emergency department (ED) visits for dental conditions. Medicaid coverage of dental benefits could help ease the burden on the ED, but ED use for dental conditions might remain a problem in areas with a scarcity of dentists. We examined county-level rates of ED visits for nontraumatic dental conditions in twenty-nine states in 2010 in relation to dental provider density and Medicaid coverage of nonemergency dental services. Higher density of dental providers was associated with lower rates of dental ED visits by patients with Medicaid in rural counties but not in urban counties, where most dental ED visits occurred. County-level Medicaid-funded dental ED visit rates were lower in states where Medicaid covered nonemergency dental services than in other states, although this difference was not significant after other factors were adjusted for. Providing dental coverage alone might not reduce Medicaid-funded dental ED visits if patients do not have access to dental providers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement in National Football League Combine athletes undergoing radiographs for previous hip or groin pain.

    PubMed

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Brophy, Robert H; Matava, Matthew J; Wright, Rick W; Clohisy, John C

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elite football players with a history of hip pain or groin injury who underwent radiographs. We performed a retrospective review of athletes undergoing hip radiography at the National Football League Combine from 2007 to 2009. Radiographs were obtained in athletes with a history of hip pain or injury. Anteroposterior pelvis and frog-lateral radiographs were obtained in 123 hips (107 players) that met our inclusion criteria. Radiographic indicators of cam-type FAI (alpha angle, head-neck offset ratio) and pincer-type FAI (acetabular retroversion, center-edge angle, acetabular inclination) were recorded. Findings were correlated with clinical factors (previous groin/hip pain, position, race, and body mass index). The most common previous injuries included groin strain (n = 57) and sports hernia/abdominal strain (n = 21). Markers of cam- and/or pincer-type FAI were present in 94.3% of hips (116 of 123). Radiographic evidence of combined cam- and pincer-type FAI was the most common (61.8%, 76 hips), whereas isolated cam-type FAI (9.8%, 12 hips) and pincer-type FAI (22.8%, 28 hips) were less common. The most common deformities included acetabular retroversion (71.5%) and an abnormal alpha angle (61.8%). A body mass index greater than 35 was associated with the presence of global overcoverage (46.2% v 17.3%, P = .025). Radiographic indicators of FAI are very common among athletes evaluated at the National Football League Scouting Combine subjected to radiographic examination for the clinical suspicion of hip disease. Elite football athletes with significant or recurrent pain about the hip should be evaluated clinically and radiographically for FAI, because pain from FAI may be falsely attributed to or may be present in addition to other disorders. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  5. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a... dental radiographic examination and diagnosis of diseases of the teeth, jaw, and oral structures. The x...

  6. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a... dental radiographic examination and diagnosis of diseases of the teeth, jaw, and oral structures. The x...

  7. Twins and the paradox of dental-age estimations: a caution for researchers and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Pechníková, M; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Vecchio, V; Cameriere, R; Zeqiri, B; Cattaneo, C

    2014-08-01

    The biological age difference among twins is frequently an issue in studies of genetic influence on various dental features, particularly dental development. The timing of dental development is a crucial issue also for many clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was therefore to verify within groups of twins how dental development differs, by applying Demirjian's method, Mincer's charts of development of third molars and two of Cameriere's methods for dental age estimation, which are among the most popular methods both in the clinical and the forensic scenario. The sample consisted of 64 twin pairs: 21 monozygotic, 30 dizygotic same-sex and 13 dizygotic opposite-sex with an age range between 5.8 and 22.6 years. Dental age was determined from radiographs using the mentioned methods. Results showed that dental age of monozygotic twins is not identical even if they share all their genes. The mean intra-pair difference of monozygotic pairs was low and similar to the difference in dizygotic same-sex twins; the maximum difference between monozygotic twins, however, was surprisingly large (nearly two years). This should lead to some circumspection in the interpretation of systematic estimations of dental age both in the clinical and forensic scenario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Biometric Analysis - A Reliable Indicator for Diagnosing Taurodontism using Panoramic Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Veda; Anegundi, Rajesh Trayambhak; Pravinchandra, K R

    2013-08-01

    Taurodontism is a clinical entity with a morpho-anatomical change in the shape of the tooth, which was thought to be absent in modern man. Taurodontism is mostly observed as an isolated trait or a component of a syndrome. Various techniques have been devised to diagnose taurodontism. The aim of this study was to analyze whether a biometric analysis was useful in diagnosing taurodontism, in radiographs which appeared to be normal on cursory observations. This study was carried out in our institution by using radiographs which were taken for routine procedures. In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from dental records of children who were aged between 9-14 years, who did not have any abnormality on cursory observations. Biometric analyses were carried out on permanent mandibular first molar(s) by using a novel biometric method. The values were tabulated and analysed. Fischer exact probability test, Chi square test and Chi-square test with Yates correction were used for statistical analysis of the data. Cursory observation did not yield us any case of taurodontism. In contrast, the biometric analysis yielded us a statistically significant number of cases of taurodontism. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with taurodontism, which was obtained between the genders and the age group which was considered. Thus, taurodontism was diagnosed on a biometric analysis, which was otherwise missed on a cursory observation. It is therefore necessary from the clinical point of view, to diagnose even the mildest form of taurodontism by using metric analysis rather than just relying on a visual radiographic assessment, as its occurrence has many clinical implications and a diagnostic importance.

  9. Evaluation of Dental Status of Adolescents at Kuwait University Dental Clinic.

    PubMed

    Ali, Dena A

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the dental status of adolescents initially presenting at Kuwait University Dental Clinic (KUDC). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate (a) the prevalence of unrestored caries dentin among 12- to 16-year-old Kuwaiti residents, (b) the frequency of restorations extending into the inner half of the dentin, and (c) tooth loss pattern among this age group. Twelve- to 16-year-old patients who attended KUDC during the period January 2009 to December 2012 were included in this study. The total number of patients included in the study was 486; however, only 409 panoramic radiographs were available for evaluation. The Student t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of unrestored dentin caries among 12- to 16-year-old patients was 52%. The frequency of deep restorations extending into the inner half of the dentin was 33%. Tooth loss was found in 8.0% of the sampled population. The most common missing tooth was the mandibular first molar followed by the mandibular second premolar and the maxillary first molar. There were no statistical differences between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti residents regardless of gender; however, males had a slightly higher DMFT. The DMFT and DMFS values in this study were higher than in other studies. Despite the tremendous effort by the Kuwaiti government to improve oral health, comprehensive preventive strategies, dental treatment and maintenance of oral health are still necessary and must be reinforced in this age group.

  10. Digital radiography in general dental practice: a field study.

    PubMed

    Hellén-Halme, K; Nilsson, M; Petersson, A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a field study to survey the performance of digital radiography and how it was used by dentists in general dental practice. 19 general dental practitioners were visited at their clinics. Ambient light (illuminance) was measured in the rooms where the monitors were placed. Different technical display parameters were noted. Test images and two phantoms--one low-contrast phantom and one line-pair resolution phantom--were used to evaluate the digital system. How the dentists used the enhancement program was investigated by noting which functions were used. Average illuminance in the operating room was 668 lux (range 190-1250 lux). On radiographs of the low-contrast phantom taken at the clinic, the ability to observe the holes decreased as illuminance increased. On average, the "light percentage" initially set on the monitor had to be decreased by 17% and contrast by 10% to optimize the display of the test images. The general dental practitioners used the enhancement programs most often to alter brightness and contrast to obtain the subjectively best image. Large differences between the clinics were noted. Knowledge of how to handle digital equipment in general dental practice should be improved. A calibrated monitor of good quality should be a given priority, as should proper ambient light conditions. There is a need to develop standardized quality controls for digital dental radiography.

  11. Dental caries experience and use of dental services among Brazilian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Rodrigues, Iris Sant Anna Araujo; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento

    2014-11-25

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, "decayed" and "missing" components contributed to the high mean DMFT index.

  12. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  13. Examination Outcomes Following Use of Card Games for Learning Radiographic Image Quality in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ober, Christopher P

    Understanding the concepts of radiographic image quality and artifact formation can be difficult for veterinary students. Two educational card games were previously developed to help students learn about factors affecting contrast and blackness as well as radiographic artifacts. Second-year veterinary students played one of the two card games as a part of their normal studies for their veterinary imaging course and later took the radiographic physics quiz normally administered during the course. Performance on quiz questions related to each of the two games was compared between students who played each respective game and those who did not. The hypothesis was that students who played a game would perform better on related questions than those who did not play that game. For the contrast and blackness questions, students who played the associated game as part of their studies performed better than those who only studied by conventional means (mean 4.3 vs. 3.8 out of 5 points, p=.02). However, there was no significant difference in results between groups for artifacts questions (mean 4.7 vs. 4.5 out of 5 points, p=.35). Based on these results, educational game play can have benefits to student learning, but performance may be dependent on specific game objectives and play mechanics.

  14. General Dental Practitioners’ Concept towards Using Radiography and Apex-Locators in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Heidaripour, Maryam; Shahravan, Arash; Haghani, Jahangir; Afkham, Arash; Razifar, Mahsa; Mohammadizadeh, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite being the gold standard as well as a routine technique in endodontics, radiographic working length (WL) determination owns many drawbacks. Electronic apex-locators (EALs) are recommended to complement radiographies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of Iranian general dental practitioners (GDPs) towards using radiography and EAL. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and ninety one GDPs attending the 53th Iranian Dental Association Congress completed a questionnaire focusing on the use of radiography and EALs during the various stages of root canal treatment. The data was analyzed with the chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. The results were then calculated as frequencies and percentages. Results: More than half of the GDPs reported using radiographs as the sole method for WL determination. A total of 30.4% of the practitioners were using the combined approach during root canal therapy of a single-rooted tooth, while 38.9% used this method in multi-rooted teeth. Approximately half of the respondents would not order follow-up radiographies after root canal treatment. Conclusion: Radiography continues to be the most common method for WL determination in Iran. PMID:25386209

  15. OCT of early dental caries: a comparative study with histology and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael G.

    2005-03-01

    Early dental caries result from destruction of the tooth's outer mineral matrix by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaques. Early caries begin as surface disruptions where minerals are leached from the teeth resulting in regions of decreased mineral matrix integrity. Visually, these early carious regions appear as white spots due to the higher backscattering of incident light. With age these areas may become stained by organic compounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of human teeth demonstrates a difference in penetration depth of the OCT signal into the carious region in comparison with sound enamel. However, while OCT demonstrates a structural difference in the enamel in the region of the caries, this technique provides little insight into the source of this difference. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical measures derived from hydroxyapatite within the enamel as well as information on the crystallinity of the enamel matrix. The differences in the biochemical and morphological features of early caries and intact sound enamel are compared. Histological thin sections confirm the observations by OCT morphological imaging while Raman spectroscopy allows for biochemical identification of carious regions by a non-destructive method. Visual examination and conventional radiographic imaging of the intact tooth are used in clinical assessment prior to optical measurements. The combination of OCT, Raman spectroscopy and thin section histology aid in determining the changes that give rise to the visual white spot lesions.

  16. Influence of rhBMP-2 on Guided Bone Regeneration for Placement and Functional Loading of Dental Implants: A Radiographic and Histologic Study in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ben Amara, Heithem; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Ju; Kang, Yun-Mi; Kang, Eun-Jung; Koo, Ki-Tae

    Evidence on the outcomes of functional loading placed in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2)/acellular collagen sponge (ACS)-induced bone is lacking. The aim of this study was to verify whether guided bone regeneration (GBR) with rhBMP-2/ACS enhances regeneration of missing bone and osseointegration of dental implants subject to functional loading. Two bilateral standardized large saddle-type defects (≈10 × 10 × 6 mm) were surgically created in each mandible of seven beagle dogs 2 months after tooth extraction. Defects were immediately reconstructed randomly using rhBMP-2 (O-BMP or InFuse) soaked in ACS, deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) granules, or ACS alone as surgical control and subsequently covered with collagen membrane. Screw-type sand-blasted, acid-etched dental implants were placed 3 months later into the reconstructed defects and into adjacent bone. Osseointegration was allowed to progress for 3 months before functional loading of 3 months until sacrifice. Significantly more bone fill was radiographically observed for GBR with rhBMP-2/ACS (O-BMP: 92.5%, InFuse: 79%) in comparison to the DBBM (52%) and ACS alone groups (56.6%). Osseointegration was achieved and maintained in all experimental defects challenged by prostheses-driven functional load. The bone density ranged from 37.49% in the ACS group to 64.9% in the rhBMP-2/ACS (InFuse) group with no significance. The highest mean percentage of BIC was found in rhBMP-2/ACS (InFuse: 52.98%) with no statistical difference. Crestal bone resorption was observed around implants placed in reconstructed areas without any significant difference. GBR with rhBMP-2/ACS provided the greatest bone fill among the three treatment procedures. GBR with rhBMP-2/ACS showed efficacy for placement, osseointegration, and functional loading of titanium implants in alveolar ridge defects.

  17. Dental care coverage and income-related inequalities in foregone dental care in Europe during the great recession.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2017-08-01

    This study examines income inequalities in foregone dental care in 23 European countries during the years with global economic crisis. Associations between dental care coverage from public health budgets or social insurance, and income-related inequalities in perceived access to dental care, are analysed. Survey data 2008-2013 from 23 countries were combined with country data on macro-economic conditions and coverage for dental care. Foregone dental care was defined as self-reported abstentions from needed dental care because of costs or other crisis-related reasons. Age-standardized percentages reporting foregone dental care were estimated for respondents, age 20-74, in the lowest and highest income quartile. Associations between dental care coverage and income inequalities in foregone dental care, adjusted for macro-economic indicators, were examined by country-level regression models. In all 23 countries, respondents in the lowest income quartile reported significantly higher levels of foregone dental care than respondents in the highest quartile. During 2008-2013, income inequalities in foregone dental care widened significantly in 13 of 23 countries, but decreased in only three countries. Adjusted for countries' macro-economic situation and severity of the economic crisis, higher dental care coverage was significantly associated with smaller income inequalities in foregone dental care and less widening of these inequalities. Income-related inequalities in dental care have widened in Europe during the years with global economic crisis. Higher dental care coverage corresponded to less income-related inequalities in foregone dental care and less widening of these inequalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Application of third molar development and eruption models in estimating dental age in Malay sub-adults.

    PubMed

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera; Cauwels, Rita; Deschepper, Ellen; Martens, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The third molar development (TMD) has been widely utilized as one of the radiographic method for dental age estimation. By using the same radiograph of the same individual, third molar eruption (TME) information can be incorporated to the TMD regression model. This study aims to evaluate the performance of dental age estimation in individual method models and the combined model (TMD and TME) based on the classic regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. A sample of 705 digital panoramic radiographs of Malay sub-adults aged between 14.1 and 23.8 years was collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage the TMD and TME, respectively. The data was divided to develop three respective models based on the two regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. The trained models were then validated on the test sample and the accuracy of age prediction was compared between each model. The coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated. In both genders, adjusted R² yielded an increment in the linear regressions of combined model as compared to the individual models. The overall decrease in RMSE was detected in combined model as compared to TMD (0.03-0.06) and TME (0.2-0.8). In principal component regression, low value of adjusted R(2) and high RMSE except in male were exhibited in combined model. Dental age estimation is better predicted using combined model in multiple linear regression models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Condylar guidance: correlation between protrusive interocclusal record and panoramic radiographic image: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tannamala, Pavan Kumar; Pulagam, Mahesh; Pottem, Srinivas R; Swapna, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sagittal condylar angles set in the Hanau articulator by use of a method of obtaining an intraoral protrusive record to those angles found using a panoramic radiographic image. Ten patients, free of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder and with intact dentition were selected. The dental stone casts of the subjects were mounted on a Hanau articulator with a springbow and poly(vinyl siloxane) interocclusal records. For all patients, the protrusive records were obtained when the mandible moved forward by approximately 6 mm. All procedures for recording, mounting, and setting were done in the same session. The condylar guidance angles obtained were tabulated. A panoramic radiographic image of each patient was made with the Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the floor of the mouth. Tracings of the radiographic images were made. The horizontal reference line was marked by joining the orbitale and porion. The most superior and most inferior points of the curvatures were identified. These two lines were connected by a straight line representing the mean curvature line. Angles made by the intersection of the mean curvature line and the horizontal reference line were measured. The results were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p < 0.05. The radiographic values were on average 4° greater than the values obtained by protrusive interocclusal record method. The mean condylar guidance angle between the right and left side by both the methods was not statistically significant. The comparison of mean condylar guidance angles between the right side of the protrusive record method and the right side of the panoramic radiographic method and the left side of the protrusive record method and the left side of the panoramic radiographic method (p= 0.071 and p= 0.057, respectively) were not statistically significant. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar

  20. A new surgical template with a handpiece positioner for use during flapless placement of four dental implants to retain a mandibular overdenture.

    PubMed

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the fabrication of a new and inexpensive surgical template from a radiographic template for flapless placement of dental implants to retain a mandibular overdenture. A radiographic template with radiopaque metal plate markers is constructed and used as a guide for achieving three-dimensional evaluation of bone using computed tomography (CT). The potential position and angulation of the implants are measured relative to the metal plates using the CT data. The radiographic template is converted into a surgical template by attaching rigid metal rods that guide the handpiece precisely during subsequent drilling procedures. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. A retrospective evaluation of traumatic dental injury in children who applied to the dental hospital, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, M E; Ozmen, B; Koyuturk, A E; Tokay, U; Kasap, P; Guler, D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze traumatic dental injuries in children visiting the dental hospital emergency department in Samsun of Turkey, in the period from 2007 to 2011. Data of age, gender, causes of dental trauma, injured teeth, type of dental injuries, the application period, the dental treatments, and traumatic dental injuries according to the seasons were obtained from the records at dental hospital. Of all 320 patients with traumatic dental injury, 205 were boys and 115 were girls with a boys/girls ratio 1.78:1. Traumatic dental injury was observed more frequently in the 7-12 age groups: 52.5% in girls and 67.8% in boys. Falls are the major cause of traumatic dental injury in the age group 6-12 (51.4%). Sport activities are a common cause of traumatic dental injury in the 7-12 age group (34.2%). Patients visited a dentist within approximately 2 h (57.1%). The upper anterior teeth were subjected to trauma more frequently than the lower anterior teeth. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly affected teeth, and the mandibular canins were the least affected teeth. In primary teeth, avulsion was the most common type of dental injury (23%); on the other hand, enamel fractures were the most common type of dental injury (30.6%) observed in permanent teeth. In the primary dentition, the most commonly performed treatments were dental examination and prescribing (70%). The most common treatment choices in permanent teeth were restoration and dental examination (49.7 and 15.8%, respectively). The results of the study show that the emergency intervention to traumatized teeth is important for good prognosis of teeth and oral tissues. Therefore, the parents should be informed about dental trauma in schools, and dental hospital physicians should be subjected to postgraduate training.

  2. Dental fear and satisfaction with dental services in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Jason M; Enkling, Norbert; Wolf, Christian A; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Dental satisfaction is associated with continuity of dental care, compliance with dentist advice, and positive health outcomes. It is expected that people with higher dental fear might have less dental satisfaction because of more negative dental experiences. The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction and reasons for satisfaction with dental practitioners in Switzerland and variations by dental fear. A national sample of 1,129 Swiss residents aged 15-74 (mean = 43.2 years) completed a personal interview at their home with questions assessing dental fear, dental service use, general satisfaction with their dentist, and reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Overall, 47.9 percent of participants responded that they were satisfied with their dentist and 47.6 percent that they were very satisfied. Satisfaction differed significantly by gender, language spoken, region of residence, and educational attainment. Greater dental fear was significantly associated with greater dissatisfaction with the dentist. The percentage of people who were very satisfied with the dentist ranged from 56.0 percent among people with no fear to 30.5 percent for participants with "quite a lot" of fear but was higher (44.4 percent) for people who stated that they were "very much" afraid of the dentist. The most common reasons attributed for satisfaction with dentists were interpersonal characteristics of the dentist and staff. People with "quite a lot" of fear were found to endorse these sentiments least. Although higher dental fear was associated with more dissatisfaction with the dentist, the level of satisfaction among fearful individuals in Switzerland is still high. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Radiographic anatomy of the foot and ankle—part 4: the metatarsals.

    PubMed

    Christman, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The normal radiographic anatomy of the foot and ankle, aside from my previous work, has been addressed only superficially or sparingly in the medical literature. This project correlates the detailed radiographic anatomy of the entire adult foot and ankle (two-dimensional) to osteology (three-dimensional). Each bone's position was determined after meticulous examination and correlation to an articulated skeleton relative to the image receptor and direction of the x-ray beam, with correlation to the radiograph for confirmation. Images of each foot and distal leg bone ("front" and "back" perspectives) are presented alongside a corresponding radiographic image for comparison. The normal gross and radiographic anatomy is correlated and described for each radiographic positioning technique. Foundational knowledge is provided that future researchers can use as a baseline ("normal") and that students and practitioners can use for comparison when interpreting radiographs and distinguishing abnormal findings. The results of the original project, owing to its broad scope, have been divided into five parts: the lower leg, the greater tarsus, the lesser tarsus, the metatarsals (the focus of this article), and the phalanges.

  4. Radiographic anatomy of the foot and ankle-part 5. The phalanges.

    PubMed

    Christman, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    The normal radiographic anatomy of the foot and ankle, aside from my previous work, has been addressed only superficially or sparingly in the medical literature. This project correlates the detailed radiographic anatomy of the entire adult foot and ankle (two-dimensional) to osteology (three-dimensional). Each bone's position was determined after meticulous examination and correlation to an articulated skeleton relative to the image receptor and direction of the x-ray beam, with correlation to the radiograph for confirmation. Images of each foot and distal leg bone ("front" and "back" perspectives) are presented alongside a corresponding radiographic image for comparison. The normal gross and radiographic anatomy is correlated and described for each radiographic positioning technique. Foundational knowledge is provided that future researchers can use as a baseline ("normal") and that students and practitioners can use for comparison when interpreting radiographs and distinguishing abnormal findings. The results of the original project, owing to its broad scope, have been divided into five parts: the lower leg, the greater tarsus, the lesser tarsus, the metatarsals, and the phalanges (the focus of this article).

  5. Cervical vertebral maturation and dental age in coeliac patients.

    PubMed

    Costacurta, M; Condò, R; Sicuro, L; Perugia, C; Docimo, R

    2011-07-01

    subjects with late diagnosis. From the comparison between Group 2 and Group A there are no statistically significant differences (p=0.951). Conclusions. The skeletal age and dental age delay may be two predictive indexes for a CD diagnosis. The dental age and cervical vertebral maturity can be assessed with a low cost, non invasive, easy to perform exam carried out through the routine radiographic examinations such as orthopanoramic and lateral teleradiography.

  6. Displacement of a Broken Dental Injection Needle Into the Perivertebral Space.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bayram; Yildirimturk, Senem; Sirin, Yigit; Basaran, Bora

    2017-07-01

    Dental injection needle breakage is an uncommon problem in dental practice. Displacement of the broken fragment into anatomical spaces is, on the other hand, a serious complication that occurs most commonly during inferior alveolar nerve blocks as a result of material wear, incorrect application of the anesthesia technique, or sudden movement of the patient during injection. Further complications such as infection, trismus, and nerve paralysis may exacerbate the condition and, if not treated adequately, life-threatening conditions may develop over time as the fragment dislodges deeper in soft tissues. Clinical symptoms of the patient, as well as the findings gathered from detailed physical examination and radiographic evaluation, are important factors to consider before performing an exploratory surgery. Removal of a broken needle may be troublesome due to its proximity to vital anatomic structures. Multislice computed tomography is a reliable imaging modality that provides accurate information to pinpoint the exact location of the needle fragment.This report describes a case of needle breakage occurred during inferior alveolar nerve block which was performed to extract a third molar tooth and the migration of the broken fragment from the right mandibular ramus area into the perivertebral space, with special emphasis on the surgical retrieval technique with multiplanar computed tomography imaging guidance.

  7. Dental attendance patterns among older people: a retrospective review of records in public and private dental care in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Derblom, C; Hagman-Gustafsson, M-L; Gabre, P

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, older people retain their natural teeth more frequently and so are at increased risk of oral disease. At the same time, discontinued contacts with dental services prevent access to preventive care and increase the risk of undetected disease. This study aims to evaluate how often older people discontinue regular dental visits and to establish the reasons. This study is a retrospective review of records of patients aged ≥75 years from seven Swedish clinics, three in the public dental service (PuDS) and four in the private (PrDS). All patients were examined in 2010, and their dental attendance records from 2010 to 2014 studied. Data included gender, dental insurance system, last performed planned examination, emergency visits, registrations in the recall system, cause of discontinued care and number of teeth and implants. In total, 993 records were studied, 303 in PuDS and 690 in PrDS. In both groups, 10% of patients had no complete dental examinations between 2010 and 2014 after baseline examination in 2010. One-quarter were not registered in the recall system after their last examinations, and this was more common in PrDS than PuDS. In many cases, no reason for discontinued regular visits were described in the records. The mean number of natural teeth was 19.0 in both groups, but there were more implants in the PrDS group. A large proportion of the participants risked losing regular contact with dental services. Dental services appeared to lack strategies for maintaining regular dental care for elderly patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Association Between Dentist-Dental Hygienist Communication and Dental Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Tomoko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kumagai, Takashi; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-03-01

    Communication between physician and patient is critical in all fields of medicine, and various types of communication exist in healthcare settings. Cooperation among healthcare professionals is thought to be essential in providing high-quality services. Dental hygienists are key team members in the provision of dental care, and are known to play an important role in the health of their patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of communication between dentists and hygienists on patient satisfaction. Study subjects were dentists, patients, and dental hygienists, and we examined how dentist-dental hygienist communication affected patient outcome indices. A significant difference was observed only for satisfaction in terms of meeting expectations (p = 0.035). Results for patient satisfaction indicated significant differences in explanatory behavior in dentist-dental hygienist evaluations (p = 0.001). The results showed improved health and reduced fear, indicating significant differences for the dentist-dental hygienist evaluations in explanation behavior (p = 0.016). Our evaluation of the effects of dentist-dental hygienist communication on patient outcomes indicated a significant correlation, suggesting that inter-professional communication in the field of dentistry affects patient satisfaction.

  9. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions.

    PubMed

    Nikneshan, Sima; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Sabbagh, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Diagnostic accuracy. Seventy premolar teeth were mounted in 14 gypsum blocks. Digora; Optime and RVG Access were used for obtaining digital radiographs. Six observers evaluated the proximal surfaces in radiographs for each resolution in order to determine the depth of caries based on a 4-point scale. The teeth were then histologically sectioned, and the results of histologic analysis were considered as the gold standard. Data were entered using SPSS version 18 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for data analysis. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. No significant difference was found between different resolutions for detection of proximal caries (P > 0.05). RVG access system had the highest specificity (87.7%) and Digora; Optime at high resolution had the lowest specificity (84.2%). Furthermore, Digora; Optime had higher sensitivity for detection of caries exceeding outer half of enamel. Judgment of oral radiologists for detection of the depth of caries had higher reliability than that of restorative dentistry specialists. The three resolutions of Digora; Optime and RVG access had similar accuracy in detection of noncavitated proximal caries.

  10. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents.

    PubMed

    Krikken, J B; Vanwijk, A J; Tencate, J M; Veerkamp, J S

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using four different questionnaires. Parents also completed the Child Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) on behalf of their child and a questionnaire about the dental history of their child. 454 interview forms were available for analysis. Minor associations were found between dental anxiety and parenting style. Anxious parents were more permissive and less restrictive in their parenting style. Parents of children who did not visit their dentist for regular check-ups reported more laxness and less restrictiveness. Children who had a cavity at the time of investigation, children who had suffered from toothache in the past and children who did not have a nice and friendly dentist reported more dental anxiety. No clear associations between parenting style and dental anxiety were found. Known causes of dental anxiety were confirmed.

  11. The impact of glucocorticosteroids administered for systemic diseases on the osseointegration and survival of dental implants placed without bone grafting-A retrospective study in 31 patients.

    PubMed

    Petsinis, Vassilis; Kamperos, Georgios; Alexandridi, Foteini; Alexandridis, Konstantinos

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of glucocorticosteroids, administered for the treatment of systemic diseases, on the osseointegration and survival of dental implants placed without bone grafting. A retrospective study was conducted in search of patients treated with dental implants while receiving glucocorticosteroid therapy for various systemic diseases. In these cases, a conventional two-stage surgical protocol was used, without bone regeneration procedures. The osseointegration was clinically and radiographically tested at the uncovering of the implants. The follow-up after loading was set at a minimum of 3 years. A total of 31 patients were included in the study. Of the 105 dental implants placed, 104 were osseointegrated (99%). No bone absorption was radiographically noted at the uncovering of the osseointegrated implants. All of the osseointegrated implants were successfully loaded for the prosthetic restoration. The mean follow-up period after loading was 71 months, with an implant survival rate of 99%. Glucocorticosteroid intake for systemic diseases does not have a significant impact on the osseointegration and the 3-year survival of dental implants placed with a conventional two-stage surgical protocol and without bone grafting. Therefore, it should not be considered a contraindication for dental implant placement. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Medicaid Adult Dental Benefits Increase Use Of Dental Care, But Impact Of Expansion On Dental Services Use Was Mixed.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Damiano, Peter; Sabik, Lindsay

    2017-04-01

    Dental coverage for adult enrollees is an optional benefit under Medicaid. Thirty-one states and the District of Columbia have expanded eligibility for Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act. Millions of low-income adults have gained health care coverage and, in states offering dental benefits, oral health coverage as well. Using data for 2010 and 2014 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the impact of Medicaid adult dental coverage and eligibility expansions on low-income adults' use of dental care. We found that low-income adults in states that provided dental benefits beyond emergency-only coverage were more likely to have had a dental visit in the past year, compared to low-income adults in states without such benefits. Among states that provided dental benefits and expanded their Medicaid program, regression-based estimates suggest that childless adults had a significant increase (1.8 percentage points) in the likelihood of having had a dental visit, while parents had a significant decline (8.1 percentage points). One possible explanation for the disparity is that after expansion, newly enrolled childless adults might have exhausted the limited dental provider capacity that was available to parents before expansion. Additional policy-level efforts may be needed to expand the dental care delivery system's capacity. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Developing a primary dental care outreach (PDCO) course--part 1: practical issues and evaluation of clinical activity.

    PubMed

    Hind, V; Waterhouse, P J; Maguire, A; Tabari, D; Lloyd, J

    2009-11-01

    The primary dental care outreach (PDCO) course in Newcastle, UK commenced in September 2004 with dental undergraduates attending outreach clinics on a fortnightly rotation over a 2 year continuous placement. To evaluate the PDCO with respect to practical issues and clinical activity. Clinical activity data were collected using data sheets and Access software together with data on patient attendances and Structured Clinical Operative Tests (SCOTs). Comparative clinical data were collected from the same group of students in Child Dental Health (CDH) in the School of Dental Sciences. In 2004/2005, 1683 clinical procedures were undertaken in PDCO and 1362 in CDH. Of the treatment undertaken in PDCO, 37.1% was examination and treatment planning, 17.1% basic intracoronal restorations and 13.1% fissure sealing, the activity representative of day to day in general practice. Completion rates for the five piloted SCOTs in cross infection control, writing a prescription, writing a referral letter, taking a valid consent and taking a radiograph ranged from 74% to 97% in 2004/2006. The practical issues and challenges of delivering a new clinical course broadly related to induction of new PDCO staff, support of staff, establishing effective communication, timetabling logistics, delivery of clinical teaching and quality assurance. Once the practical issues and challenges of setting up a new clinical course have been overcome PDCO has a valuable role to play in preparing undergraduates for their future practising careers.

  14. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Casaglia, A; DE Dominicis, P; Arcuri, L; Gargari, M; Ottria, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory.

  15. Correlation between osteoarthritic changes in the stifle joint in dogs and the results of orthopedic, radiographic, ultrasonographic and arthroscopic examinations.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Flores, Gabriel Ignacio; Del Angel-Caraza, Javier; Quijano-Hernández, Israel Alejandro; Hulse, Don A; Beale, Brian S; Victoria-Mora, José Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disease affecting the articular cartilage and subchondral bone that causes pain and inhibits movement. The stifle's joint fibrous capsule contains the synovial membrane, which produces cartilage nutrients. A ruptured cranial cruciate ligament injures the joint and produces OA. Osteoarthritis diagnosis starts with clinical radiographic and ultrasonographic tests, although the latter is not used very much in dog and cat clinics for this purpose. The objective of this study was to establish the correlation among the results of orthopedic, radiographic, ultrasonographic examinations and structural anatomical changes revealed by arthroscopic evaluation to diagnose stifle joint OA and determine risk factors in the dogs affected. Of 44 clinical cases of OA included in the study, 88.64% had ruptured of cranial cruciate ligaments. The correlation between synovial fluid effusion and osteophytosis was of 0.84. It was concluded that there is good diagnostic agreement between synovial fluid effusion and osteophytosis when dealing with stifle joint OA. Risk factors for dogs regarding the development of stifle joint OA included: ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments or patella luxation, female dogs and weight over 10 kg.

  16. Distribution of dental plaque and gingivitis within the dental arches.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Prem K; Prasad, Kakarla V V

    2017-10-01

    Objective The natural accumulation of supragingival plaque on surfaces of human teeth is associated with gingival inflammation and the initiation of common oral diseases. This study evaluated the distribution of dental plaque and gingivitis scores within the dental arches after prophylaxis. Methods Adult subjects from the Dharwad, India area representing the general population who provided written informed consent were scheduled for screening. Healthy subjects over the age of 18 years, not currently requiring any medical or dental care, and presenting with a complement of at least 20 natural teeth were recruited for this parallel design study. Enrolled subjects (n = 41) underwent oral examinations for dental plaque (PI) and gingivitis (GI) using the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein and the Löe-Silness Index, respectively, at the baseline visit, followed by a whole mouth dental prophylaxis. Subjects were given fluoride toothpaste for twice daily oral hygiene for the next 30 days. Subjects were recalled on days 15 and 30 for PI and GI examinations identical to baseline. Results Analyses indicated that mean scores for PI and GI on either arch and the whole mouth were higher than 2 and 1, respectively, during all examinations. Anterior surfaces consistently exhibited lower PI scores than posterior regions of either arch, or the entire dentition. Regional GI differences within the dentition were similar to PI scores, with lower scores on anterior than posterior teeth. Prophylaxis reduced both the frequency and mean scores of both PI and GI, irrespective of arch, with lower scores observed on anterior than posterior regions during all recall visits. Molar and lingual regions consistently exhibited higher PI and GI scores compared with anterior surfaces. At all examinations, mean scores for both plaque and gingivitis were higher on approximal vestibular than mid-vestibular surfaces. Conclusions Differences observed in PI and GI within the dentition have

  17. Weld radiograph enigmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemian, Wartan A.

    1986-01-01

    Weld radiograph enigmas are features observed on X-ray radiographs of welds. Some of these features resemble indications of weld defects, although their origin is different. Since they are not understood, they are a source of concern. There is a need to identify their causes and especially to measure their effect on weld mechanical properties. A method is proposed whereby the enigmas can be evaluated and rated, in relation to the full spectrum of weld radiograph indications. Thie method involves a signature and a magnitude that can be used as a quantitive parameter. The signature is generated as the diference between the microdensitometer trace across the radiograph and the computed film intensity derived from a thickness scan along the corresponding region of the sample. The magnitude is the measured difference in intensity between the peak and base line values of the signature. The procedure is demonstated by comparing traces across radiographs of a weld sample before and after the introduction of a hole and by a system based on a MacIntosh mouse used for surface profiling.

  18. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts

    PubMed Central

    CASAGLIA, A.; DE DOMINICIS, P.; ARCURI, L.; GARGARI, M.; OTTRIA, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory. PMID:28042424

  19. U.S. Navy Dental Corps Officer Survey: Perceptions, Attitudes, and Turnover Intent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    dentistry instead of general dentistry (crown/bridge, perio , endo , surgery and operative). junior officers (0-5 years) get stuck doing alloys and...without current radiographs in order to increase production, and resulted in missing even good-sized caries, lesions . I have done-over more exams and...i.e., bridges, impacted teeth, periografts, molar endo , etc.) as an isolated duty Dental Officer for his battalion without any supervision, yet now be

  20. The effect of developer age on the detection of approximal caries using three dental films.

    PubMed

    Syriopoulos, K; Velders, X L; Sanderink, G C; van Ginkel, F C; van Amerongen, J P; van der Stelt, P F

    1999-07-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy for the detection of approximal caries of three dental X-ray films using fresh and aged processing chemicals. Fifty-six extracted unrestored premolars were radiographed under standardized conditions using the new Dentus M2 (Agfa-Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium), Ektaspeed Plus and Ultra-speed (Kodak Eastman Co, Rochester, USA) dental films. The films were processed manually using Agfa chemicals (Heraeus Kulzer, Dormagen, Germany). The procedure was repeated once a week until the complete exhaustion of the chemicals (6 weeks). Three independent observers assessed 210 radiographs using the following rating scale: 0 = sound, 1 = enamel lesion; 2 = lesion reaching the ADJ; 3 = dentinal lesion. True caries depth was determined by histological examination (14 sound surfaces, 11 enamel lesions, eight lesions reaching the ADJ and 23 dentinal lesions). True caries depth was subtracted from the values given by the observers and an analysis of variance was performed. The null hypothesis was rejected when P < 0.05. No significant differences were found in the diagnostic accuracy between the three films when using chemicals of up to 3 weeks old (P = 0.056). After the third week, Ultra-speed was significantly better than the other two films (P = 0.012). On average caries depth was underestimated. A similar level of diagnostic accuracy for approximal caries is achieved when using the three films. Dentus M2 and Ektaspeed Plus are at present the fastest available films and they should therefore be recommended for clinical practice. Agfa chemicals should be renewed every 3 weeks. Fifty per cent reduction in average gradient is indicative of renewing processing chemicals.

  1. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Conclusion: Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196. PMID:25206221

  2. Digital dental photography: a contemporary revolution.

    PubMed

    Desai, Vela; Bumb, Dipika

    2013-09-01

    Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196.

  3. Low reproducibility between oral radiologists and general dentists with regards to radiographic diagnosis of caries.

    PubMed

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Pakkala, Tuomas; Haukka, Jari; Siukosaari, Päivi

    2018-04-12

    Early clinical and radiological diagnosis of dental caries is one of the fundamental objectives of clinical dentistry because of the high frequency of the disease and severe complications if caries remains untreated, especially among the elderly and patients with immunodeficiency. Dental panoramic tomography (DPT) is a common radiographic method for evaluating dentition when indicated, especially in an adult population. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of diagnosis between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists with regards to caries lesions based on DPTs of adults. One-hundred DPTs taken from adult patients (average age 35) and then analyzed and reported on by 42 general dentists were then analyzed independently by two specialists in oral radiology with respect to caries lesions in the premolar and molar areas using radiographic criteria established for caries diagnosis. The general dentists versus oral radiologists were not calibrated before. Level of agreement between specialists and general dentists was measured using Cohen's kappa. Comparison between observations of general dentists and specialists in oral radiology showed that 61% of the caries lesions on proximal surfaces of premolars and molars observed by specialists went unobserved by general dentists. Cohen's kappa value for specialists was 0.85 (p < .001) and for each specialist and general dentists 0.48 (p < .001) and 0.44 (p < .001). The reproducibility between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists for detecting caries in DPTs was low.

  4. The association between prune belly syndrome and dental anomalies: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare condition produced by an early mesodermal defect that causes abdominal abnormalities. However, the literature indicates that disturbances related to ectodermal development may also be present. This is the first case report in the literature to suggest that dental abnormalities are part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of prune belly syndrome. Because the syndrome causes many serious medical problems, early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions are encouraged. Case presentation The authors report the clinical case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy with prune belly syndrome. In addition to the triad of abdominal muscle deficiency, abnormalities of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and cryptorchidism, a geminated mandibular right central incisor, agenesis of a mandibular permanent left incisor, and congenitally missing primary teeth (namely, the mandibular right and left lateral incisors) were noted. Conclusion This original case report about prune belly syndrome highlights the possibility that dental abnormalities are a part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of the syndrome. Therefore, an accurate intra-oral clinical examination and radiographic evaluation are required for patients with this syndrome in order to provide an early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions. PMID:23249412

  5. The association between prune belly syndrome and dental anomalies: a case report.

    PubMed

    Basso, Maria Daniela; Favretto, Carla Oliveira; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2012-12-18

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare condition produced by an early mesodermal defect that causes abdominal abnormalities. However, the literature indicates that disturbances related to ectodermal development may also be present. This is the first case report in the literature to suggest that dental abnormalities are part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of prune belly syndrome. Because the syndrome causes many serious medical problems, early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions are encouraged. The authors report the clinical case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy with prune belly syndrome. In addition to the triad of abdominal muscle deficiency, abnormalities of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and cryptorchidism, a geminated mandibular right central incisor, agenesis of a mandibular permanent left incisor, and congenitally missing primary teeth (namely, the mandibular right and left lateral incisors) were noted. This original case report about prune belly syndrome highlights the possibility that dental abnormalities are a part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of the syndrome. Therefore, an accurate intra-oral clinical examination and radiographic evaluation are required for patients with this syndrome in order to provide an early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions.

  6. Dental anomalies associated with buccally- and palatally-impacted maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Sajnani, Anand K; King, Nigel M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association of both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines with other dental anomalies. This retrospective study was conducted on a population of 533 southern Chinese children and adolescents who had impacted maxillary canines that had been treated in the Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Clinic, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Descriptions of the impacted canine and other associated anomalies were obtained from the case notes and radiographs. Clinical photographs and study casts were used, where available. A total of 253 (47.5%) patients with impacted maxillary canines were diagnosed with other dental anomalies. Microdontia was the most frequently-occurring anomaly reported in these patients, with the maxillary lateral incisor the most commonly affected tooth. Other odontogenic anomalies that were associated with both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines included hypodontia, supernumerary teeth, transposition of other teeth, enamel hypoplasia, other impacted teeth, and dens invaginatus. Both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines were found to be associated with other odontogenic anomalies. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Using Registered Dental Hygienists to Promote a School-Based Approach to Dental Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wellever, Anthony; Kelly, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    We examine a strategy for improving oral health in the United States by focusing on low-income children in school-based settings. Vulnerable children often experience cultural, social, economic, structural, and geographic barriers when trying to access dental services in traditional dental office settings. These disparities have been discussed for more than a decade in multiple US Department of Health and Human Services publications. One solution is to revise dental practice acts to allow registered dental hygienists increased scope of services, expanded public health delivery opportunities, and decreased dentist supervision. We provide examples of how federally qualified health centers have implemented successful school-based dental models within the parameters of two state policies that allow registered dental hygienists varying levels of dentist supervision. Changes to dental practice acts at the state level allowing registered dental hygienists to practice with limited supervision in community settings, such as schools, may provide vulnerable populations greater access to screening and preventive services. We derive our recommendations from expert opinion. PMID:28661808

  8. Radiographic anatomy of the foot and ankle-part 2: the greater tarsus.

    PubMed

    Christman, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Normal radiographic anatomy of the foot and ankle, aside from my previous work, has been addressed only superficially or sparingly in the medical literature. This project correlates detailed radiographic anatomy of the entire adult foot and ankle (two-dimensional) to osteology (three-dimensional). Each bone's position was determined after meticulous examination and correlation to an articulated skeleton relative to the image receptor and direction of the x-ray beam, with correlation to the radiograph for confirmation. Images of each foot and distal leg bone ("front" and "back" perspectives) are presented alongside a corresponding radiographic image for comparison. The normal gross and radiographic anatomy is correlated and described for each radiographic positioning technique. Foundational knowledge is provided that future researchers can use as a baseline ("normal") and that students and practitioners can use for comparison when interpreting radiographs and distinguishing abnormal findings. The results of the original project, owing to its broad scope, have been divided into five parts: the lower leg, the greater tarsus (the focus of this article), the lesser tarsus, the metatarsals, and the phalanges.

  9. Disparities in the experience and treatment of dental caries among children aged 9-18 years: the cross-sectional study of Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyeong; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Kim, Jeong Lim; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and the experience as well as treatment of dental caries among children aged 9 to 18 years. Data from 1253 children aged 9-18 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013) were analyzed. Parental socioeconomic status was measured using household income level and maternal educational level. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to measure experience of dental caries (DMFT ≥ 1). Non-treatment of dental caries was measured according to whether the participants who experienced dental caries used a dental service at a dental clinic to treat caries during the previous year. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between parental socioeconomic status and the experience of dental caries as well as the association between parental socioeconomic status and the non-treatment of dental caries among children that have experienced caries. A total of 808 subjects (64.5 %) experienced dental caries among 1253 participants, and 582 of these 808 subjects (72.0 %) did not receive treatment among those having experience of dental caries. Parental socioeconomic status was not associated with experience of dental caries. However, those from low- and middle-income households were less likely to receive treatment than those from high-income households (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.16-3.86], OR 2.14 [95 % CI 1.27-3.62]). In particular, those from low- and middle-income households who had regular dental checkups were more likely to have untreated caries than those from high-income households (OR 3.58 [95 % CI 1.25-10.24]). This study demonstrates the parental household income-related disparities in children's dental health treatment. Efforts should be made to lower financial barriers to dental health services, particularly among those from low-income households, in order to reduce

  10. Stress and Academic Performance in Dental Students: The Role of Coping Strategies and Examination-Related Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, María; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martín

    2016-02-01

    Academic stress negatively affects students' performance. However, little is known of the processes that may be involved in this association. This study aimed to analyze how other variables such as coping strategies and exam-related self-efficacy could be related to academic stress and performance for dental students. An online survey, including measures of coping strategies, perceived stress, exam-related self-efficacy, and academic performance, was completed by undergraduate dental students in Madrid, Spain. Of the 275 students invited to take the survey, 201 participated (response rate 73.6%). Rational coping strategies (problem-solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support) were negatively associated with perceived stress (β=-0.25, p<0.01), whereas emotional coping strategies (venting negative emotions, negative auto-focus) were linked to increased academic stress (β=0.34, p<0.01). Moreover, rational and emotional coping strategies were, respectively, positively (β=0.16, p<0.05) and negatively (β=-0.22, p<0.01) associated with students' exam-related self-efficacy, and this relation was found to be partially mediated by the students' perceived stress (β=-0.30, p<0.01). Experiencing higher levels of stress during the examination period was found to be associated with poorer average grades (β=-0.21, p<0.01), but students' exam-related self-efficacy partially mediated this relation (β=0.23, p<0.01). Those students who perceived themselves as more efficient in completing examinations reported better grades. Using adequate coping strategies (i.e., rational coping) may help to reduce stress for dental students and, through their effect on exam-related self-efficacy appraisals, contribute to improved academic performance.

  11. Dental anxiety and personality: investigating the relationship between dental anxiety and self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Economou, George C

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated whether personality plays a role in a condition called dental anxiety. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between dental anxiety (the negative response to the stress elicited from a dental interaction) and self-consciousness (the tendency to evaluate aspects of oneself that are subject to private and public display). The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics possessed by dentally anxious individuals who face potential health risks because of their avoidance. Sixty York University undergraduate students were recruited by convenience sampling to participate. These subjects completed Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale and the Self-Consciousness Scale. The Self-Consciousness Scale consists of three subscales, including private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness, and social anxiety. Results indicated an 0.54 significant correlation between dental anxiety and self-consciousness. The public self-consciousness and social anxiety subscales correlated the most with dental anxiety. Furthermore, the data did not indicate a significant moderating relationship for gender between the two aforementioned variables. These results contribute to the establishment of personality characteristics as one of the dimensions determining dental anxiety.

  12. Dental caries, its surface susceptibility and dental fluorosis in South India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shashidhar

    2005-12-01

    To correlate water fluoride levels with dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with different levels of fluoride in the drinking water and to establish the surface susceptibility of dental caries in an endemic fluoride area. 544 schoolchildren 12 to 15 years of age from the Davangere region of India were examined. The DMFS index was used to measure dental caries, which was further differentiated into smooth surface and pit and fissure lesions. Dean's index was used to diagnose dental fluorosis. Five villages with fluoride levels ranging from 0.43 ppm to 3.41 ppm were studied. There was a highly significant negative correlation (r = -0.16) between water fluoride levels and dental caries. Dental fluorosis increased from 16% at 0.43 ppm to 100% at 3.41 ppm. Pit and fissure lesions made up the vast majority of the lesions in all the villages and showed a decreasing trend with increasing fluoride levels, however no such trend was seen for smooth surface lesions. Water fluoride was an important factor responsible for the low caries prevalence. The prevalence of fluorosis and low caries even in low fluoride areas may point to a halo effect.

  13. An analysis of the attitudes of dental patients attending general dental practice in Galway.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Martina; Burke, Francis; McKenna, Gerald; Madden, Jamie; Cronin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To describe the patterns of dental attendance and attitudes towards tooth loss of general dental practice patients in Galway. 1. To determine the pattern of adult dental attendance in general practices in Galway; and, 2. To examine the oral health attitudes of these patients. Questionnaires were distributed to 311 consecutive adult patients in the waiting rooms of ten general dental practices in Galway, which were randomly selected from the telephone directory. A total of 254 of the 311 questionnaires distributed were fully completed, returned and included in the results, giving a response rate of 81.7%. A total of 59% of dentate participants attended their dentist for annual or biannual examinations compared to 23% of edentate patients. Some 10.5% of medical card holders and 0.5% of non-medical card holders were edentulous. The data from the survey indicated that medical card holders in Galway were more likely to be edentulous than nonmedical card holders. Edentate patients were less likely to be regular dental attenders than dentate patients.

  14. Radiographic inspection of porosity in pure titanium dumbbell castings.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Juliana Maria Costa; Takahashi, Jessica Mie Ferreira Koyama; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha; Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio de Arruda; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz

    2011-09-01

      Titanium frameworks are frequently indicated for implant supported prostheses; however, voids are usually encountered inside cast titanium.   This study aimed to confirm the efficacy of a radiographic technique for inspection of porosity in commercially pure titanium castings with different diameter.   Sixty dumbbell rods (n=20) with a central 1.5, 2.0 and 3.5mm diameter were prepared by lost-wax casting. Cast specimens were finished and polished and submitted to radiographic examination (90kV, 15mA, 0.6s and 10-13mm of distance) using periapical film. The radiographs were visually analysed for the presence of porosity in the extension of the dumbbell or in the central portion of the rods. Data were submitted to Pearson Chi-square test (5%).   The tested radiographic method proved to be suitable for the evaluation of cast frameworks. Internal porosities were observed in most of the specimens (91.7%) (p=0.0005); however, only 20% occurred on the central portion of the rods (p=0.612).   Internal porosities can be visualised through radiographs and occur mostly in small diameter structures. The radiographic evaluation of metal structures can improve the quality of frameworks and thereby potentially increase the longevity of the rehabilitation. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Dental needs and socioeconomic status associated with utilization of dental services in the presence of dental pain: a case-control study in children.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Maupomé, Gerardo; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Márquez-Corona, María de Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    To identify the effect of unmet dental treatment needs and socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables on the patterns of dental visits in the presence of dental pain in 6- to 12-year-old Mexican schoolchildren. A case-control study included 379 patients that had a dental visit because of dental pain in the 12 months preceding this study and 1,137 controls. Mothers and/or guardians supplied sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and oral health-related information through a questionnaire. The profiles of unmet dental needs and of oral hygiene were ascertained by means of a standardized dental examination administered to participating children. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with logistic regression. Higher unmet dental needs and lack of health insurance were associated with the experience of dental visits because of dental pain in the preceding 12 months. Boys who attended public schools had a 70% (95% CI = 1.29 to 2.23) higher probability of having had a dental visit in which dental pain was one of the main reasons for attendance, compared to boys attending private schools. The effect for girls was only 28% (95% CI = 1.10 to 1.50) higher for girls attending a public school, compared to girls attending private schools. Older children had a higher occurrence of dental visits because of dental pain than younger children. While higher unmet dental needs and lack of health insurance were strong predictors of having had dental visits because of dental pain in the preceding 12 months, some socioeconomic variables and sociodemographic variables modified these relationships.

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilization in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T.; Billings, R J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilization in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative-effectiveness study. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomized into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a Teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Results Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0 to 34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of Teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. Statistics The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. Conclusions The data show that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilization by inner-city preschool children. PMID:21640057

  17. Dental health changes in an Australian Defence Force population.

    PubMed

    Dawson, A S; Smales, R J

    1994-08-01

    The dental histories of 100 long-term members of the Royal Australian Air Force were obtained from their dental records. Data relating to dental health status, as measured by the DMF indices and the T-Health scores, were tested to determine if there were any correlations present between changes in dental health and certain risk factors which had been identified by previous studies in the General Dental Service in Scotland. These studies had demonstrated positive relationships between the frequency of dental examination and the frequency with which patients changed their dentist, with the amount of dental treatment the patients received. However, within the potential limitations imposed by the sample size, the present long-term study did not detect any significant associations between the frequencies of dental examination or change of dentist, with changes in dental health.

  18. Integration of basic sciences and clinical sciences in oral radiology education for dental students.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2013-06-01

    Educational research suggests that cognitive processing in diagnostic radiology requires a solid foundation in the basic sciences and knowledge of the radiological changes associated with disease. Although it is generally assumed that dental students must acquire both sets of knowledge, little is known about the most effective way to teach them. Currently, the basic and clinical sciences are taught separately. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of students when taught basic sciences segregated or integrated with clinical features. Predoctoral dental students (n=51) were taught four confusable intrabony abnormalities using basic science descriptions integrated with the radiographic features or taught segregated from the radiographic features. The students were tested with diagnostic images, and memory tests were performed immediately after learning and one week later. On immediate and delayed testing, participants in the integrated basic science group outperformed those from the segregated group. A main effect of learning condition was found to be significant (p<0.05). The results of this study support the critical role of integrating biomedical knowledge in diagnostic radiology and shows that teaching basic sciences integrated with clinical features produces higher diagnostic accuracy in novices than teaching basic sciences segregated from clinical features.

  19. [Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian greyhound].

    PubMed

    Roux, P; Stich, H; Schawalder, P

    2011-06-01

    An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog.

  20. Biocompatibility of Resin-based Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Moharamzadeh, Keyvan; Brook, Ian M.; Van Noort, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Oral and mucosal adverse reactions to resin-based dental materials have been reported. Numerous studies have examined the biocompatibility of restorative dental materials and their components, and a wide range of test systems for the evaluation of the biological effects of these materials have been developed. This article reviews the biological aspects of resin-based dental materials and discusses the conventional as well as the new techniques used for biocompatibility assessment of dental materials.

  1. Radiographic evaluation of nasal septal deviation from computed tomography correlates poorly with physical exam findings.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Ahmad R; Kieff, David A; Bergmark, Regan W; Cunnane, Mary E; Busaba, Nicolas Y

    2015-03-01

    Performance of septoplasty is dependent on objective evidence of nasal septal deviation. Although physical examination including anterior rhinoscopy and endoscopic examination is the gold standard for evaluation of septal deviation, third-party payors' reviews of septoplasty claims are often made on computed tomography (CT) findings. However, the correlation between radiographic evaluation of septal deviation with physical examination findings is unknown. Retrospective, blinded, independent evaluation of septal deviation in 39 consecutive patients from physical examination, including anterior rhinoscopy and endoscopic examination, by an otolaryngologist and radiographic evaluation of sinus CT scan by a neuroradiologist. Four distinct septal locations (nasal valve, cartilaginous, inferior/maxillary crest and osseous septum) were evaluated on a 4-point scale representing (1) 0% to 25%, (2) >25% to 50%, (3) >50% to 75%, and (4) >75% obstruction. Correlation between physical examination and radiographic evaluations was made by Pearson's correlation and quantitative agreement assessed by Krippendorf's alpha. Statistically significant correlation was detected between physical examination including nasal endoscopy and radiographic assessment of septal deviation only at the osseous septum (p = 0.007, r = 0.425) with low quantitative agreement (α = 0.290). No significant correlation was detected at the cartilaginous septum (p = 0.286, r = 0.175), inferior septum (p = 0.117, r = 0.255), or nasal valve (p = 0.174, r = 0.222). Quantitative agreement at the nasal valve suggested a bias in CT to underestimate physical exam findings (α = -0.490). CT is a poor substitute for physical examination, the gold standard, in assessment of septal deviation. Clinical decisions about pursuit of septoplasty or third-party payors' decisions to approve septoplasty should not be made on radiographic evidence. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Dental erosion among 12 year-old Libyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Huew, R; Waterhouse, P J; Moynihan, P J; Maguire, A

    2012-12-01

    As there are limited data on dental erosion in Libya, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion in a sample of 12 year-old children in Benghazi, Libya. Cross-sectional observational study. Elementary schools in Benghazi, Libya. A random sample of 791 12 year-old children (397 boys and 394 girls) attending 36 schools. Clinical dental examination for erosion using UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000) criteria and self-completion questionnaire. The area and depth of dental erosion affecting the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper permanent incisors and occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molars. Dental erosion was observed in 40.8% of subjects; into enamel affecting 32.5%, into dentine affecting 8.0% and into pulp affecting 0.3% of subjects. Based on area affected, 323 subjects (40.8%) exhibited dental erosion (code > 0), with 32.6% of these subjects having erosion affecting more than two thirds of one or more surfaces examined. Mean total scores for dental erosion for all surfaces per mouth by area and by depth were both 2.69 (sd 3.81). Of the 9492 tooth surfaces examined, 2128 surfaces (22.4%) had dental erosion. Girls had more experience of erosion than boys at all levels of severity (p = 0.001). In a cohort of 12 year-old Libyan schoolchildren, more than one third of children examined showed dental erosion, requiring clinical preventive counselling. Significantly more erosion occurred in girls than boys.

  3. Effective Dose of Positioning Scans for Five CBCT Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    CBCT. Journal of Dental Research , Dental Clinics , Dental Prospects 2014;8(2):107-10. 26. Kim D, Rashsuren O, Kim E. Conversion coefficients for the... International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 2014;29:55-77. 10. Brooks SL. Radiation doses of common dental radiographic examinations: A review...dose was measured with metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters for five CBCT devices in a postgraduate dental clinic

  4. Ultrasonographic and radiographic findings in 503 cattle with traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ueli; Gerspach, Christian; Warislohner, Sonja; Nuss, Karl; Ohlerth, Stefanie

    2018-05-26

    This study involved 503 cattle with traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP), 494 of which underwent ultrasonographic and 484 radiographic examination of the reticulum. Ultrasonography revealed changes in the reticulum and/or peritoneum suggestive of peritonitis in 403 (83%) cattle, a decrease in the amplitude of reticular contractions in 244 (54%) and reduced or absent reticular motility in 173 (37%). A total of 536 foreign bodies were seen on 465 (96%) radiographs and a magnet was seen on 311 (64%) radiographs. Of the 536 foreign bodies, 300 (56%) were not attached to a magnet and 236 (44%) were attached. Of 300 radiographs showing foreign bodies not attached to a magnet, the foreign body was lying flat on the floor of the reticulum on 98 (18%) radiographs, was at an angle of greater than 30 degrees to the ventral aspect of the reticulum on 54 (10%), had penetrated the dorsal reticular wall on 76 (14%), had perforated the reticulum on 64 (12%) and was completely outside of the reticulum on 8 (1%) radiographs. Ultrasonography provides information about the scale and localisation of inflammatory changes of the peritoneum, and radiography allows the visualisation of ferromagnetic foreign bodies and magnets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Biometric Analysis – A Reliable Indicator for Diagnosing Taurodontism using Panoramic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Veda; Anegundi, Rajesh Trayambhak; Pravinchandra, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taurodontism is a clinical entity with a morpho–anatomical change in the shape of the tooth, which was thought to be absent in modern man. Taurodontism is mostly observed as an isolated trait or a component of a syndrome. Various techniques have been devised to diagnose taurodontism. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze whether a biometric analysis was useful in diagnosing taurodontism, in radiographs which appeared to be normal on cursory observations. Setting and Design: This study was carried out in our institution by using radiographs which were taken for routine procedures. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from dental records of children who were aged between 9–14 years, who did not have any abnormality on cursory observations. Biometric analyses were carried out on permanent mandibular first molar(s) by using a novel biometric method. The values were tabulated and analysed. Statistics: Fischer exact probability test, Chi square test and Chi-square test with Yates correction were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Cursory observation did not yield us any case of taurodontism. In contrast, the biometric analysis yielded us a statistically significant number of cases of taurodontism. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with taurodontism, which was obtained between the genders and the age group which was considered. Conclusion: Thus, taurodontism was diagnosed on a biometric analysis, which was otherwise missed on a cursory observation. It is therefore necessary from the clinical point of view, to diagnose even the mildest form of taurodontism by using metric analysis rather than just relying on a visual radiographic assessment, as its occurrence has many clinical implications and a diagnostic importance. PMID:24086912

  6. Disparities in unmet dental need and dental care received by pregnant women in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, A Isabel; Adams, Amy B; Cheng, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To examine prenatal dental care needs, utilization and oral health counseling among Maryland women who delivered a live infant during 2001-2003 and identify the factors associated with having a dental visit and having an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System is an ongoing population based surveillance system that collects information of women's attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to model dental visits and unmet dental need using predictor variables for Maryland 2001-2003 births. Less than half of all women reported having a dental visit and receiving oral health advice during pregnancy. Twenty-five percent of women reported a need for dental care, of which 33 % did not receive dental care despite their perceived need. Multivariate modeling revealed that racial minorities, women who were not married and those with annual income <$40,000 were least likely to have a dental visit. Women who were not married, had low annual income, were older than 40 years of age, had an unintended pregnancy and received prenatal care later than desired were most likely to have an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Despite reported needs and existing recommendations to include oral health as a component of prenatal care, less than half of pregnant women have a dental visit during their pregnancy. One-third of women with a dental problem did not have a dental visit highlighting the unmet need for dental care during pregnancy.

  7. Pediatric cleft palate patients show a 3- to 5-fold increase in cumulative radiation exposure from dental radiology compared with an age- and gender-matched population: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Pauwels, Ruben; Scarfe, William C; De Cock, Carl; Dula, Karl; Willems, Guy; Verdonck, An; Politis, Constantinus

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare estimates of pediatric cumulative exposure and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of radiation-induced cancer from dental radiology between cleft palate (CP) subjects and age- and gender-matched controls (non-CP), with and without orthodontic treatment. The radiation exposure frequency of CP subjects and non-CP controls with and without orthodontic treatment was compared for two-dimensional radiography (intra-oral, panoramic and cephalometric radiography), computed tomography (CT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using cumulative radiation dose as an estimate. From this dose estimate, the age- and gender-dependent risk for radiation-induced stochastic effects was calculated for each patient group. CP patients received more radiographic examinations than non-CP controls, with the exception of intra-oral radiographs. The cumulative dose to CP patients was considerably higher (1963 μSv at the age of 20 years) than non-CP patients with (597 μSv) and without (383 μSv) orthodontic treatment, primarily due to the higher frequency of CT scanning. Accordingly, CP patients had a three to five times higher LAR than non-CP patients. This study suggests a significantly higher lifetime radiation exposure to CP patients than non-CP controls from dental radiographic procedures. Diagnostic benefits from the use of CT and CBCT in children must be justified and appropriate dose optimization strategies implemented. The present study indicates the need for proper justification and optimization of pediatric exposures in dentistry, with a special focus on high-risk groups.

  8. Patient-Directed Valgus Stress Radiograph of the Knee: A New and Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Mauerhan, David R; Cook, Kyle D; Botts, Tonia D; Williams, Sherita T

    2016-01-01

    The radiographic investigation of patients with medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee is a critical element in the decision-making process of determining whether the patient is a candidate for unicompartmental or total knee arthroplasty. A valgus stress radiograph of the affected knee is an essential part of this radiographic investigation. Historically, this has been performed with manual stress applied by the surgeon or the radiologic technologist; thus, this examination requires 2 individuals to complete. In addition to being inefficient, 1 individual is exposed to radiation, which can be undesirable over many exposures and in a long career. For these reasons, we instituted a quality improvement project to develop a method of obtaining the valgus stress view with 1 technologist that would obviate these concerns. Of 78 examinations performed, 5 studies did not show complete correction of the varus deformity. Of these, 3 showed complete correction on a manual valgus stress radiograph, and 2 did not. Three patients displayed collapse of the lateral compartment, indicating a nonfunctional lateral compartment. The remaining 70 patients had identical radiographic results with both the manual and patient-directed valgus stress.

  9. The FiCTION dental trial protocol - filling children's teeth: indicated or not?

    PubMed

    Innes, Nicola P T; Clarkson, Jan E; Speed, Chris; Douglas, Gail V A; Maguire, Anne

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of evidence for effective management of dental caries (decay) in children's primary (baby) teeth and an apparent failure of conventional dental restorations (fillings) to prevent dental pain and infection for UK children in Primary Care. UK dental schools' teaching has been based on British Society of Paediatric Dentistry guidance which recommends that caries in primary teeth should be removed and a restoration placed. However, the evidence base for this is limited in volume and quality, and comes from studies conducted in either secondary care or specialist practices. Restorations provided in specialist environments can be effective but the generalisability of this evidence to Primary Care has been questioned. The FiCTION trial addresses the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme’s commissioning brief and research question “What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of restoration caries in primary teeth, compared to no treatment?” It compares conventional restorations with an intermediate treatment strategy based on the biological (sealing-in) management of caries and with no restorations. This is a Primary Care-based multi-centre, three-arm, parallel group, patient-randomised controlled trial. Practitioners are recruiting 1461 children, (3-7 years) with at least one primary molar tooth where caries extends into dentine. Children are randomized and treated according to one of three treatment approaches; conventional caries management with best practice prevention, biological management of caries with best practice prevention or best practice prevention alone. Baseline measures and outcome data (at review/treatment during three year follow-up) are assessed through direct reporting, clinical examination including blinded radiograph assessment, and child/parent questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of either pain or infection related to dental caries. Secondary outcomes are; incidence of caries in primary and

  10. The Evaluation of Effect of Developer Age in the Detection of Approximal Caries Using Three Speed Dental X-Ray Films: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Madalli, Vijaylaxmi B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Basavaraddi, Shrinivas M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Ever since the first radiograph was taken in 1895, radiographs have become an essential part of dental practice. Since radiation exposure for the patients is a major concern, it is important for us to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient and surrounding environment, without compromising the quality of image. Since improper film processing is one of the major causes of poor image quality, it is very important to test dental films under a variety of processing conditions. So this study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy between Kodak Ultraspeed, Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 Comfort films for the detection of approximal caries in fresh as well as in aged processing solution. Methods: Hundred extracted unrestored maxillary and mandibular teeth were aligned in a group of five teeth in each plaster model. Total of 20 plaster models were constructed and only 3 teeth in the middle were utilized for the study. The final sample consisted of 60 teeth in the study. The exposure time for Ultraspeed film was standardized at 0.5 seconds and for Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 films, the exposure time was 0.32 seconds. For each radiograph two blocks were used simulating bitewing radiograph. All 20 plaster blocks were exposed using three film types at standardized exposure timings with 30 radiographs each week. The procedure was repeated every week until 6 weeks. Radiographs were evaluated by an observer and assessed by following four point scale 0- sound tooth, 1- lesion in enamel, 2- lesion in amelodentinal junction, 3- dentinal lesion. Only distal surfaces were assessed. Thereafter all the teeth were subjected for histological study and actual depth of the lesion was recorded which acted as gold standard and this reading was subtracted in observer readings after radiographic examination. All data collected were analyzed statistically using ANOVA, paired and unpaired t-tests. Results: Ektaspeed and Agfa films required less exposure

  11. The evaluation of effect of developer age in the detection of approximal caries using three speed dental x-ray films: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Madalli, Vijaylaxmi B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Basavaraddi, Shrinivas M

    2014-03-01

    Ever since the first radiograph was taken in 1895, radiographs have become an essential part of dental practice. Since radiation exposure for the patients is a major concern, it is important for us to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient and surrounding environment, without compromising the quality of image. Since improper film processing is one of the major causes of poor image quality, it is very important to test dental films under a variety of processing conditions. So this study was conducted to compare the diagnostic ac