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Sample records for dental veneers

  1. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers. PMID:23674920

  2. Dental Ceramics for Restoration and Metal Veneering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Kelly, J Robert

    2017-10-01

    A survey of the development of dental ceramics is presented to provide a better understanding of the rationale behind the development and clinical indications of each class of ceramic material. Knowledge of the composition, microstructure, and properties of a material is critical for selecting the right material for specific applications. The key to successful ceramic restorations rests on material selection, manufacturing technique, and restoration design, including the balancing of several factors such as residual stresses, tooth contact conditions, tooth size and shape, elastic modulus of the adhesives and tooth structure, and surface state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Veneers

    MedlinePlus

    ... ultra-thin shells of ceramic (porcelain) or a composite resin material, which are bonded to the front of ... is removed, which may require a local anesthetic. Composite resin veneers are generally done in one appointment. After ...

  4. Thermal-induced residual stresses affect the fractographic patterns of zirconia-veneer dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    Veneer fractures in dental zirconia-veneer prostheses are more frequent clinically than in conventional metal-ceramic systems. This is thought to be due to the increased residual stresses generated within the veneer during fabrication when zirconia is the infrastructure material. This investigation aimed to analyze the fractographic features of fractured zirconia-veneer dental crowns submitted to a load-to-failure test and to a more clinically relevant in vitro chewing simulation fatigue test. As-sintered and sandblasted zirconia copings were veneered with glass-ceramic with different coefficients of thermal expansion and cooled following two cooling rates, creating, this way, different levels of stresses within the veneer. Crowns with different thermal mismatch combinations and different cooling rates were hypothesized to present particular fracture patterns. A careful examination of >1000 scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces was conducted in search of characteristic fractographic markings of fracture mechanisms connected to the stress state of the veneer. Distinctive structural features could be observed between groups veneered with the two different glass-ceramics and between fractured crowns under static and cyclic loading. The presence/absence of residual stresses zones within the veneer have shown to play the major role in the fracture pattern of zirconia-veneer dental prostheses. For the fatigue crowns, the zirconia core was never exposed, either for sandblasted and as-sintered groups.

  5. Tribological behaviour of unveneered and veneered lithium disilicate dental material.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Pina, C G; Patas, N; Canhoto, J; Cláudio, R; Olhero, S M; Serro, A P; Ferro, A C; Guedes, M

    2016-01-01

    The friction and wear behaviour of a lithium disilicate dental ceramic against natural dental enamel is studied, including the effect of the presence of a fluorapatite veneering upon the tribological properties of the material. The tribological behaviour was assessed using reciprocating pin-on-plate test configuration, at pH 3 and pH 7. The surface energy of the plates was determined, as well as the zeta potential of fluorapatite, lithium disilicate and enamel particles in artificial saliva. It was found that the friction and wear behaviour of the tested enamel/plate material tribocouples is less severe in unveneered plates. Initial surface roughness of the plate does not affect wear results. However the topography of the resulting wear track affects the corresponding wear loss: a smoother final wear track is associated with lower wear. The surface topography of the wear track, and thus the tribological performance of the tested materials, is very sensitive to the pH of the sliding solution. This is because the dissolution trend, wettability and surface charge of the used materials are pH dependent. Overall friction and wear are higher under basic pH conditions, especially when plates are veneered. A wear model is proposed that correlates the effect of the described parameters with the observed tribological behaviour at pH 7. Attained results show that fluorapatite coating of lithium disilicate dental crowns affects tooth/crown wear behaviour, resulting in increased wear of both the artificial crown and the opposing natural teeth. Coating should therefore be avoided in occlusal crown surfaces.

  6. [Preliminary study of bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramic and veneering porcelains].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-li; Gao, Mei-qin; Cheng, Yu-ye; Zhang, Fei-min

    2015-04-01

    In order to choose the best veneering porcelain for diatomite-based dental ceramic substrate, the bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramics and veneering porcelains was measured, and the microstructure and elements distribution of interface were analyzed. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of diatomite-based dental ceramics was detected by dilatometry. Three veneering porcelain materials were selected with the best CTE matching including alumina veneering porcelain (group A), titanium porcelain veneering porcelain (group B), and E-max veneering porcelain (group C). Shear bonding strength was detected. SEM and EDS were used to observe the interface microstructure and element distribution. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. The CTE of diatomite-based dental ceramics at 25-500 degrees centigrade was 8.85×10-6K-1. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combined best with group C. Shear bonding strength between group A and C and group B and C both showed significant differences(P<0.05). SEM and EDS showed that the interface of group C sintered tightly and elements permeated on both sides of the interface. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combines better with E-max porcelain veneer.

  7. Thermally induced fracture for core-veneered dental ceramic structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Guazzato, Massimiliano; Sornsuwan, Tanapon; Scherrer, Susanne S; Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael V; Li, Qing

    2013-09-01

    Effective and reliable clinical uses of dental ceramics necessitate an insightful analysis of the fracture behaviour under critical conditions. To better understand failure characteristics of porcelain veneered to zirconia core ceramic structures, thermally induced cracking during the cooling phase of fabrication is studied here by using the extended finite element method (XFEM). In this study, a transient thermal analysis of cooling is conducted first to determine the temperature distributions. The time-dependent temperature field is then imported to the XFEM model for viscoelastic thermomechanical analysis, which predicts thermally induced damage and cracking at different time steps. Temperature-dependent material properties are used in both transient thermal and thermomechanical analyses. Three typical ceramic structures are considered in this paper, namely bi-layered spheres, squat cylinders and dental crowns with thickness ratios of either 1:2 or 1:1. The XFEM fracture patterns exhibit good agreement with clinical observation and the in vitro experimental results obtained from scanning electron microscopy characterization. The study reveals that fast cooling can lead to thermal fracture of these different bi-layered ceramic structures, and cooling rate (in terms of heat transfer coefficient) plays a critical role in crack initiation and propagation. By exploring different cooling rates, the heat transfer coefficient thresholds of fracture are determined for different structures, which are of clear clinical implication.

  8. Mechanical and electrothermal debonding: effect on ceramic veneers and dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Lee-Knight, C T; Wylie, S G; Major, P W; Glover, K E; Grace, M

    1997-09-01

    This study compared the ability of three orthodontic debonding techniques for the removal of brackets from ceramic veneers without creating veneer damage. Three experimental groups included metal brackets debonded by either Howe pliers, lift off debonding instrument (LODI, 3M Unitek), or electrothermal debonder (ETD, "A" Company), as well as a group of electrothermally debonded ceramic brackets. It also evaluated and compared the intrapulpal temperature changes produced by electrothermal debonding metal and ceramic brackets. A sample of 95 extracted maxillary first premolars were prepared and restored with Mirage ceramic veneers (Chameleon Dental Products, Inc.). Veneer buccal surfaces were treated with 2.5% hydrofluoric acid, before silane application and bracket bonding with a no-mix resin. Specimens were thermocycled before debonding. All debonded specimens were examined under x20 magnification for veneer damage. A thermocouple was positioned at the pulp chamber buccal wall to record temperature increases (due to ETD activation) through a digital thermometer. Results suggest that ETD provides predictable debonding to ceramic brackets with no veneer damage and minimal risk to the pulp. Removal of metal brackets through electrothermal debonding produced ceramic damage in 13% of cases, and elevated temperatures beyond the threshold of irreversible pulpal damage (5.5 degrees C) in 46% of cases. Howe plier and LODI bracket removal are associated with ceramic damage incidence of 21% and 35%, respectively.

  9. Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Dental Core Ceramics with Borosilicate Veneering material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wananuruksawong, R.; Jinawath, S.; Padipatvuthikul, P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-10-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic is a great candidate for clinical applications due to its high fracture toughness, strength, hardness and bio-inertness. This study has focused on the Si3N4 ceramic as a dental core material. The white Si3N4 was prepared by pressureless sintering at relative low sintering temperature of 1650 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Si3N4 ceramic is lower than that of Zirconia and Alumina ceramic which are popular in this field. The borosilicate glass veneering was employed due to its compatibility in thermal expansion. The sintered Si3N4 specimens represented the synthetic dental core were paintbrush coated by a veneer paste composed of borosilicate glass powder (<150 micrometer, Pyrex) with 5 wt% of zirconia powder (3 wt% Y2O3 - partial stabilized zirconia) and 30 wt% of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt% solution). After coating the veneer on the Si3N4 specimens, the firing was performed in electric tube furnace between 1000-1200°C. The veneered specimens fired at 1100°C for 15 mins show good bonding, smooth and glossy without defect and crazing. The veneer has thermal expansion coefficient as 3.98×10-6 °C-1, rather white and semi opaque, due to zirconia addition, the Vickers hardness as 4.0 GPa which is closely to the human teeth.

  10. [The effect of core veneer thickness ratio on the flexural strength of diatomite-based dental ceramic].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Mei-qin; Zhang, Fei-min; Lu, Xiao-li

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of different core veneer thickness ratios on the flexural strength and failure mode of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Diatomite-based dental ceramics blocks (16 mm×5.4 mm×1 mm) were sintered with different thickness of veneer porcelains: 0 mm (group A), 0.6 mm (group B), 0.8 mm (group C) and 1.0 mm (group D). Flexural strength was detected and scanning electron microscope was used to observe the interface microstructure. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. With the increase of the thickness of the veneer porcelain, flexural strength of group C showed highest flexural strength up to (277.24±5.47) MPa. Different core veneer thickness ratios can significantly influence the flexural strength of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Supported by Science and Technology Projects of Nantong City (HS2013010).

  11. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a* shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b* shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  12. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  13. Veneered zirconia inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses: 10-Year results from a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Friederike; Bömicke, Wolfgang; Rammelsberg, Peter; Ohlmann, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year clinical performance of zirconia-based inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (IRFDP). For replacement of a molar in 27 patients, 30 IRFDP were luted by use of different cements, Panavia F (Kuraray Europe GmbH) or Multilink Automix (Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH), with use of inlay/inlay, inlay/full-crown, or inlay/partial-crown retainers for anchorage. Frameworks were milled from yttria-stabilized zirconia (IPS e.maxZirCAD; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH) and fully veneered with pressable ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH). Before luting, the IRFDP were silica-coated (Rocatec; 3M Espe) and silanized (Monobond S; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH). Complications (for example, chipping or delamination of the veneering ceramic, debonding, secondary caries, endodontic treatment, and abutment tooth fracture) and failure were reported, by use of standardized report forms, 2 weeks, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 10 years after cementation. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier survival and success (complication-free survival) and Cox regression analysis (α=0.05 for all). During the 10-year observation period, the complications most often observed were chipping of the veneer and debonding. Twenty-five restorations failed and one participant dropped out. Cumulative 10-year survival and success were 12.1% and 0%, respectively. The design of the retainer, use of a dental dam, choice of cement, and location in the dental arch had no statistically significant effect on the occurrence of complications. Use of fully veneered zirconia-based IRFDP with this technique cannot be recommended. A large incidence of complications and poor survival were observed for fully veneered zirconia-based IRFDP, revealing an urgent need for further design improvements for this type of restoration. This, again, emphasizes the need for testing of new restoration designs in clinical trials before implementation in general dental practice. Copyright © 2017

  14. [Clinical evaluation of the possibilities of restoring the dental and periodontal esthetics using veneers vs. metal ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Poroch, Livia; Forna, Norina Consuela

    2010-01-01

    Achiving the esthetic balance is one of the most important aims of the restorations used for the anterior area of the dental arches. To evaluate the possibilities of veneers and metal ceramic crowns to restore dental and periodontal esthetics. We have evaluated 90 restorations, 40 veneers and 50 metal ceramic crowns, analysing the following parametres: gingival index, bleeding index, plaque index, also restorations margins index, presence/absence of secondary decays, marginal integrity index and the aspect of the restorations surfaces. The study also evaluates patient satisfaction using questionares. Even the veneers seem to be more indicated to restore dental and periodontal esthetics, the esthetic outcome depends mainly on the way the clinician evaluates and manages the tissues and less on the technique used (all ceramic or metal ceramic).

  15. Intraoral treatment of veneering porcelain chipping of fixed dental restorations: a review and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Kimmich, Magdalena; Stappert, Christian F J

    2013-01-01

    Every dental ceramic system can experience failure of the veneering porcelain. However, the increasing popularity of all-ceramic crowns and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) seems to have led to an increasing need to repair chipped veneering porcelain. The authors compared different methods to repair fractured ceramic restorations (porcelain-fused-to-metal and all-ceramic) and explain the basic principles of adhesion in these systems. They also evaluated the frequency and causes of failure in dental ceramic systems. This review is based on the results of PubMed and Google Scholar searches, as well as on a hand search of the scientific literature, resulting in 300 articles from 1977 to 2012. The authors used multiple key words (ceramic, repair, bonding, hydrofluoric acid, air abrasion, silane, phosphates, silicon dioxide) and different strategies (connecting different key words with OR, NOR and AND and truncation of the stem of words) to search the databases. Because of differences in the material composition of ceramic systems (composed of metal, alumina or zirconia, glass-ceramics and feldspathic ceramics), different treatments are required for the exposed material surfaces after chipping. Use of hydrofluoric acid etching, air abrasion, tribochemical coating, silanization and metal primers or zirconia primers seem to be the most successful conditioning methods for durable bonding and repair. Intraoral repair of a restoration offers a satisfying option for the patient when the restoration cannot be removed or replaced. Its success depends largely on the conditioning methods used for the fractured surfaces.

  16. Effect of metal primers and tarnish treatment on bonding between dental alloys and veneer resin

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Seung-Sik; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metal primers on the bonding of dental alloys and veneer resin. Polyvinylpyrrolidone solution's tarnish effect on bonding strength was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shape metal specimens (diameter 8 mm, thickness 1.5 mm) were made from 3 kinds of alloy (Co-Cr, Ti and Au-Ag-Pd alloy) and divided into 4 groups per each alloy. Half specimens (n=12 per group) in tarnished group were immersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone solution for 24 hours. In Co-Cr and Ti-alloy, Alloy Primer (MDP + VBATDT) and MAC-Bond II (MAC-10) were applied, while Alloy Primer and V-Primer (VBATDT) were applied to Au-Ag-Pd alloys. After surface treatment, veneering composite resin were applied and shear bond strength test were conducted. RESULTS Alloy Primer showed higher shear bond strength than MAC-Bond II in Co-Cr alloys and Au-Ag-Pd alloy (P<.05). However, in Ti alloy, there was no significant difference between Alloy Primer and MAC-Bond II. Tarnished Co-Cr and Au-Ag-Pd alloy surfaces presented significantly decreased shear bond strength. CONCLUSION Combined use of MDP and VBATDT were effective in bonding of the resin to Co-Cr and Au-Ag-Pd alloy. Tarnish using polyvinylpyrrolidone solution negatively affected on the bonding of veneer resin to Co-Cr and Au-Ag-Pd alloys. PMID:26576256

  17. Effect of frame design and veneering material on biomechanical behavior of zirconia dental crowns veneered with overpressing ceramics.

    PubMed

    Porojan, Liliana; Topală, Florin; Porojan, Sorin; Savencu, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare alternative framework designs of molar zirconia crowns veneered with various overpressing ceramics and to predict the biomechanical behavior based on the stress evaluation. The hypothesis of the study is that the zirconia framework design and type of the veneering material, using the same technological procedure, may influence the biomechanical behavior of the restorations. Three geometric models with differential coping designs (uniform thickness, cutback and buccal reduction) were developed and two types of hot-pressed ceramics (leucite and lithium disilicate reinforced) were analyzed for the veneers. Using finite element analysis (FEA), maximum principle stresses were recorded in the tooth structures and in the restorations for all the developed designs. Results led to the conclusion that the hypothesis was accepted.

  18. Replacement of missing lateral incisors with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses: a clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Bissasu, Sami M; Al-houri, Nabil A

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message This report describes the use of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses in replacing congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. This kind of prosthesis has an advantage over a lingual-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis in its capability of changing the color and shape of the abutment teeth. The prostheses provided an acceptable esthetics and comfort for the patient. PMID:25356269

  19. Fracture and shear bond strength analyses of different dental veneering ceramics to zirconia.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Alexandre C; Nascimento, Rubens M; Souza, Julio C M; Henriques, Bruno B; Carreiro, Adriana F P

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the interaction of different layering porcelains with zirconia via shear bond strength test and microscopy. Four different groups of dental veneering porcelains (VM9, Zirkonzanh, Ceramco, IPS) were fused onto forty zirconia-based cylindrical substrates (8mm in diameter and 12 mm in height) (n=10), according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Additionally, layered dental porcelain (D-sign, Ivoclar) was fired on ten Ni-Cr cylindrical substrates Shear bond strength tests of the veneering porcelain to zirconia or Ni-Cr were carried out at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. After the shear bond tests, the interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture type exhibited by the different systems was also assessed. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA at a significant level of p<.05. The shear bond strength values of the porcelain-to-NiCr interfaces (25.3±7.1 MPa) were significantly higher than those recorded for the following porcelain-to-zirconia systems: Zirkonzanh (18.8±1 MPa), Ceramco (18.2±4.7 MPa), and IPS (16±4.5 MPa). However, no significant differences were found in the shear bond strength values between the porcelain-to-NiCr and porcelain (VM9)-to-zirconia (23.2±5.1 MPa) groups (p>.05). All-ceramic interfaces revealed mixed failure type, cohesive in the porcelain and adhesive at the interface. This study demonstrated that all-ceramic systems do not attain yet the same bond strength standards equivalent to metal-ceramic systems. Therefore, despite the esthetic appeal of all-ceramic restorations, the adhesion between the porcelain and zirconia framework is still an issue considering the long term success of the restoration.

  20. Reliability and failure modes of implant-supported zirconium-oxide fixed dental prostheses related to veneering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Thompson, Van P.; Rekow, Elizabeth D.; Stappert, Christian F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives To compare fatigue failure modes and reliability of hand-veneered and over-pressed implant-supported three-unit zirconium-oxide fixed-dental-prostheses(FDPs). Methods Sixty-four custom-made zirconium-oxide abutments (n=32/group) and thirty-two zirconium-oxide FDP-frameworks were CAD/CAM manufactured. Frameworks were veneered with hand-built up or over-pressed porcelain (n=16/group). Step-stress-accelerated-life-testing (SSALT) was performed in water applying a distributed contact load at the buccal cusp-pontic-area. Post failure examinations were carried out using optical (polarized-reflected-light) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize crack propagation and failure modes. Reliability was compared using cumulative-damage step-stress analysis (Alta-7-Pro, Reliasoft). Results Crack propagation was observed in the veneering porcelain during fatigue. The majority of zirconium-oxide FDPs demonstrated porcelain chipping as the dominant failure mode. Nevertheless, fracture of the zirconium-oxide frameworks was also observed. Over-pressed FDPs failed earlier at a mean failure load of 696 ± 149 N relative to hand-veneered at 882 ± 61 N (profile I). Weibull-stress-number of cycles-unreliability-curves were generated. The reliability (2-sided at 90% confidence bounds) for a 400N load at 100K cycles indicated values of 0.84 (0.98-0.24) for the hand-veneered FDPs and 0.50 (0.82-0.09) for their over-pressed counterparts. Conclusions Both zirconium-oxide FDP systems were resistant under accelerated-life-time-testing. Over-pressed specimens were more susceptible to fatigue loading with earlier veneer chipping. PMID:21557985

  1. Fracture Toughness of Veneering Ceramics for Fused to Metal (PFM) and Zirconia Dental Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Janet B.; Quinn, George D.; Sundar, Veeraraghaven

    2010-01-01

    Veneering ceramics designed to be used with modern zirconia framework restorations have been reported to fracture occasionally in vivo. The fracture toughness of such veneering ceramics was measured and compared to that of conventional feldspathic porcelain veneering ceramics for metal framework restorations. The fracture toughness of the leucite free veneer was measured to be 0.73 MPa m ± 0.02 MPa m, which is less than that for the porcelain fused to metal (PFM) veneering ceramic: 1.10 MPa ± 0.2 MPa. (Uncertainties are one standard deviation unless otherwise noted.) The surface crack in flexure (SCF) method was suitable for both materials, but precrack identification was difficult for the leucite containing feldspathic porcelain PFM veneer. PMID:21833158

  2. Evaluation of thermal compatibility between core and veneer dental ceramics using shear bond strength test and contact angle measurement.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Paula; Della Bona, Alvaro; Kelly, J Robert

    2010-08-01

    To test the hypotheses that shear bond strength (sigma(s)) and contact angle (theta) are influenced by the thermal expansion/contraction behavior of bilayered all-ceramic systems. Glass-infiltrated ceramics (A - In-Ceram ALUMINA) and zirconia-reinforced alumina (Z - In- Ceram ZIRCONIA) were veneered with feldspathic ceramics (7 - VM7; 9 - VM9; 13 - VM13), yielding 6 experimental groups. Surface roughness (Ra) of A and Z core ceramic disks (12 mm diameter x 1.2 mm high) was measured to assure that values were similar. A cylinder of veneer (2 mm diameter x 2 mm high) was fired onto the center of all core disks, cooled under identical conditions and tested for sigma(s) to failure (n=20). For the theta evaluation (n=10) similar specimens (veneer 1 mm high) were overfired to develop an equilibrium theta that was then measured from digital images (AutoCAD 2006). Published thermal expansion data were used. The mean values of sigma(s) (MPa) and theta (degrees) for the core-veneer ceramic groups were, respectively: A7 (19.4+/-4.7; 49+/-4.7); Z7 (23.4+/-6.2; 56+/-4.9); A9 (0.9+/-1.6; 55+/-5.8); Z9 (9.8+/-5.7; 59.8+/-2.9); A13 (0; 70+/-6.0); Z13 (0; 67.2+/-6.3). As the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (coreveneer) increases, the theta value increases (r=0.95) and the sigma(s) value decreases (r=-0.92), pveneer ceramics are influenced by the thermal expansion behavior of these all-ceramic systems. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-unit posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) veneered with layered and milled (CAD-on) veneering ceramics: 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Philipp; Bindl, Andreas; Hämmerle, Christoph; Mehl, Albert; Sailer, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial was to test posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) veneered with a computer-aided design/computer- assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate veneering ceramic (CAD-on) and manually layered zirconia veneering ceramic with respect to survival of the FDPs, and technical and biologic outcomes. Sixty patients in need of one posterior three-unit FDP were included. The zirconia frameworks were produced with a CAD/CAM system (Cerec inLab 3D/Cerec inEOS inLab). Thirty FDPs were veneered with a CAD/CAM lithium disilicate veneering ceramic (Cad-on) (test) and 30 were veneered with a layered zirconia veneering ceramic (control). For the clinical evaluation at baseline, 6, and 12 months, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were used. The biologic outcome was judged by comparing the plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing pocket depth (PPD). Data were statistically analyzed. Fifty-six patients were examined at a mean follow-up of 13.9 months. At the 1-year follow-up the survival rate was 100% in the test and in the control group. No significant differences of the technical outcomes occurred. Major chipping occurred in the control group (n = 3) and predominantly minor chipping in the test group (minor n = 2, major n = 1). No biologic problems or differences were found. Both types of zirconia-ceramic FDPs exhibited very good clinical outcomes without differences between groups. Chipping occurred in both types of FDPs at small amounts, yet the extension of the chippings differed. The test FDPs predominantly exhibited minor chipping, the control FDPs major chipping.

  4. Silk bonded replacements with porcelain veneers: a cosmetic alternative in dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Walinchus, R E

    1990-01-01

    A case in which the use of a silk bonded splint bridge was incorporated as a basis for porcelain veneer fabrication is discussed. The results of the treatment indicate that silk bonding may represent an acceptable conservative treatment alternative for patient care.

  5. Fracture Strength, Failure Types, and Weibull Characteristics of Three-Unit Zirconia Fixed Dental Prostheses After Cyclic Loading: Effects of Veneering and Air-Abrasion Protocols.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernanda; Souza, Rodrigo Oa; Bottino, Marco A; Özcan, Mutlu

    The required connector dimension for zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) may be a clinical limitation due to limited space in the occlusogingival direction. Using no veneering in the gingival regions of the pontics and connectors may solve this problem. This study evaluated the mechanical durability of zirconia FDPs with and without veneering in the gingival area of the connectors and pontics and subsequent air abrasion of this region with different protocols. Models were made of resin abutments (diameter = 6 or 8 mm, height = 6 mm, 6 degrees convergence) and embedded in polyurethane resin (distance = 11 mm). Zirconia frameworks were milled and randomly distributed by veneering (veneering of the entire framework [VEN] or no veneering at gingival regions of the pontic and connector [NVEN]) and by air-abrasion (Al₂O₃/SiO₂, 30 μm; or 45 μm Al₂O₃. FDPs were adhesively cemented and subjected to mechanical cycling (1,200,000 cycles, 200 N, 4 Hz, with water cooling). Specimens were tested until fracture (1 mm/min), and failure modes were classified. Data (N) were subjected to one-way analysis of variance in two sets, Tukey test (α = .05) and Weibull analysis. While veneering did not significantly affect the results (VEN: 1,958 ± 299 N; NVEN: 1,788 ± 152 N; P = .094), air abrasion did (P = .006), with the worst results for the groups conditioned with 45 μm Al₂O₃ (SiO₂: 1,748 ± 273 N; Al₂O₃: 1,512 ± 174 N). The NVEN group demonstrated the highest Weibull modulus (12.8) compared with the other groups (5.3-7.2). Fractures commonly initiated from the gingival side of the connector. Veneering of the gingival region of the connectors and pontics in zirconia FDPs did not diminish the fracture strength, but air-abrasion of this area with 45 μm Al₂O₃ decreased the results.

  6. A Three-Year Retrospective Study on Survival of Ceramic-Veneered Zirconia (Y-TZP) Fixed Dental Prostheses Performed in Private Practices

    PubMed Central

    Norström Saarva, Veronika; Bjerkstig, Göran; Örtorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the three-year clinical outcome for ceramic-veneered zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Methods All patients who were treated with ceramic-veneered zirconia FDPs, in three private practices in Sweden, during the period June 2003 to April 2007 were included. Case records from 151 patients, treated with a total of 184 zirconia FDPs (692 units), were analysed for clinical data. All complications noted in the charts were registered and compared to definitions for success and survival and statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model. Results In total, 32 FDPs in 31 patients experienced some type of complication (17.4% of FDPs, 20.5% of patients). Core fractures occurred in two (1.1%) FDPs. Two (1.1%) FDPs or 0.6% of units showed adhesive veneer fractures. Cohesive veneer fractures occurred in 10 (5.4%) FDPs (1.6% of units). The three-year cumulative success and survival rates (CSR) were 82.3% and 95.2%, respectively. Conclusions Ceramic-veneered zirconia is a promising alternative to metal-ceramic FDPs, even in the posterior area. However, the higher survival rate of metal-ceramic FDPs should be noted and both dentists and patients must be aware of the risks of complications. PMID:28713427

  7. Failure modes and fracture origins of porcelain veneers on bilayer dental crowns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihong; Liu, Guanghua; Wang, Yong; Shen, James Zhijian; Feng, Hailan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the fracture origins and crack paths in the porcelain of clinically failed bilayer ceramic restorations and to reveal the correlation between the porcelain failures and material properties. Three clinically failed crowns of each material (bilayer zirconia crowns, galvano-ceramic crowns, and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns) were collected and underwent failure analysis. The fractures found in porcelain veneers showed several characteristics including wear, Hertzian cone crack, chipping off, and delamination. The results indicated that the fracture origins and features of the porcelain in bilayer ceramic restorations might be affected by the rigidity of core materials and thickness of copings.

  8. Influence of misfit on the occurrence of veneering porcelain fractures (chipping) in implant-supported metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses: an in vitro pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Nils; Larsson, Christel; Mattheos, Nikos; Janda, Martin

    2016-12-19

    Technical complications such as veneer fractures are more common in implant-supported than tooth-supported restorations. The underlying causes have not been fully identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether misfit between the restoration and the implant may affect the risk of veneer fractures. Twenty standardized five-unit implant-supported metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP)s were manufactured and fixed in acrylic blocks. The test group consisted of ten FDPs fixed with a 150-μm misfit at the distal abutment. The remaining ten FDPs were fixed without misfit and acted as a control group. All FDPS underwent cyclic loading for a total of 100,000 cycles at 30-300 N. The FDPs were checked for cracks or chip-off fractures regularly. After cyclic load, the retorque value of all abutment screws was checked. Cracks within the veneering porcelain were noted in nine FDPs in the test group and one FDP in the control group. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Fractures of the veneering porcelain occurred in three FDPs in the test group. No fractures occurred in the control group. This difference was not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in retorque values neither between the groups nor between different abutment positions in the FDPs. Within the limitations of this in vitro pilot trial, it is suggested that misfit between a restoration and the supporting implant may increase the risk of cracking and/or chipping of the veneering porcelain for metal-ceramic FDPs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A randomized controlled clinical trial of 3-unit posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) with layered or pressed veneering ceramics: 3-year results.

    PubMed

    Naenni, Nadja; Bindl, Andreas; Sax, Caroline; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to test whether or not posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with pressed veneering ceramic exhibit less chipping than FDPs with layered veneering ceramics. Forty patients (13 female, 27 male; mean age 54 years (range 26.1-80.7 years) in need of one maxillary or mandibular three-unit FDP in the second premolar or molar region were recruited and treated at two separate centers at the University of Zurich according to the same study protocol. The frameworks were made out of zirconia using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). The patients were randomly assigned to either the test group (zirconia frameworks veneered with pressed ceramic; IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20) or the control group (layered veneering ceramic; IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20). All FDPs were adhesively cemented and evaluated at baseline (i.e., cementation), at 6 months and at 1 and 3 years of clinical service. The survival of the reconstruction was recorded. The technical outcome was assessed using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. The biologic parameters analyzed at abutment teeth and analogous non-restored teeth included probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and tooth vitality (CO2). Data was descriptively analyzed and survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. 36 patients (25 female, 11 male; mean age 52.3 years) with 18 test and 18 control FDPs were examined after a mean follow-up of 36 months (95% CI: 32.6-39.1 months). Comparison of groups was done by Crosstabulation showing even distribution of the respective restored teeth amidst the groups. Survival rate was 100% for both test and control FDPs. Chipping of the veneering ceramic tended to occur more frequently in test (n=8; 40%) than in control (n=4; 20%) FDPs, albeit not significantly (p=0.3). No further

  10. In vitro precision of fit of computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured titanium screw-retained fixed dental prostheses before and after ceramic veneering.

    PubMed

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Enkling, Norbert; Katsoulis, Konstantinos; Blatz, Markus B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the precision of fit of full-arch implant-supported screw-retained computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium-fixed dental prostheses (FDP) before and after veneering. The null-hypothesis was that there is no difference in vertical microgap values between pure titanium frameworks and FDPs after porcelain firing. Five CAD/CAM titanium grade IV frameworks for a screw-retained 10-unit implant-supported reconstruction on six implants (FDI tooth positions 15, 13, 11, 21, 23, 25) were fabricated after digitizing the implant platforms and the cuspid-supporting framework resin pattern with a laser scanner (CARES(®) Scan CS2; Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland). A bonder, an opaquer, three layers of porcelain, and one layer of glaze were applied (Vita Titankeramik) and fired according to the manufacturer's preheating and fire cycle instructions at 400-800 °C. The one-screw test (implant 25 screw-retained) was applied before and after veneering of the FDPs to assess the vertical microgap between implant and framework platform with a scanning electron microscope. The mean microgap was calculated from interproximal and buccal values. Statistical comparison was performed with non-parametric tests. All vertical microgaps were clinically acceptable with values <90 μm. No statistically significant pairwise difference (P = 0.98) was observed between the relative effects of vertical microgap of unveneered (median 19 μm; 95% CI 13-35 μm) and veneered FDPs (20 μm; 13-31 μm), providing support for the null-hypothesis. Analysis within the groups showed significantly different values between the five implants of the FDPs before (P = 0.044) and after veneering (P = 0.020), while a monotonous trend of increasing values from implant 23 (closest position to screw-retained implant 25) to 15 (most distant implant) could not be observed (P = 0.169, P = 0.270). Full-arch CAD/CAM titanium screw-retained frameworks have a high accuracy

  11. Sol-gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol-gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia-porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol-gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain.

  12. Sol–gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol–gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia–porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol–gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain. PMID:27478376

  13. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. PMID:24932126

  14. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure.

  15. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1-7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8-11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS(®) (1,806±165 N) and e.max(®) ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM(®) 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass-ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use both anteriorly and posteriorly. Analysis of

  16. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. Materials and methods A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. Results There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N) and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. Conclusion The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass–ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use

  17. Direct Composite Laminate Veneers: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Bora; Yanıkoğlu, Funda; Günday, Mahir

    2013-01-01

    Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental esthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct and indirect laminate veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. Laminate veneers are restorations which are envisioned to correct existing abnormalities, esthetic deficiencies and discolo-rations. Laminate veneer restorations may be processed in two different ways: direct or indirect. Direct laminate veneers have no need to be prepared in the laboratory and are based on the principle of application of a composite material directly to the prepared tooth surface in the dental clinic. Indirect laminate veneers may be produced from composite materials or ceramics, which are cemented to the tooth with an adhesive resin. In this case report, direct composite laminate veneer technique used for three patients with esthetic problems related to fractures, discolorations and an old prolapsed restoration, is described and six-month follow-ups are discussed. As a conclusion, direct laminate veneer restorations may be a treatment option for patients with the esthetic problems of anterior teeth in cases similar to those reported here. PMID:23875090

  18. Midsouth veneer industry

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; John S. Vissage

    1990-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station's latest survey of the Midsouth veneer industry shows the softwood veneer industry continuing its dominance as the hardwood veneer industry has continued to decline. The number of softwood mills has stabilized after years of growth, while both commercial and container hardwood mills have decreased in...

  19. The effect of core material, veneering porcelain, and fabrication technique on the biaxial flexural strength and weibull analysis of selected dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Ercoli, Carlo; Feng, Changyong; Morton, Dean

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of veneering porcelain (monolithic or bilayer specimens) and core fabrication technique (heat-pressed or CAD/CAM) on the biaxial flexural strength and Weibull modulus of leucite-reinforced and lithium-disilicate glass ceramics. In addition, the effect of veneering technique (heat-pressed or powder/liquid layering) for zirconia ceramics on the biaxial flexural strength and Weibull modulus was studied. Five ceramic core materials (IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max Press, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.max ZirCAD) and three corresponding veneering porcelains (IPS Empress Esthetic Veneer, IPS e.max Ceram, IPS e.max ZirPress) were selected for this study. Each core material group contained three subgroups based on the core material thickness and the presence of corresponding veneering porcelain as follows: 1.5 mm core material only (subgroup 1.5C), 0.8 mm core material only (subgroup 0.8C), and 1.5 mm core/veneer group: 0.8 mm core with 0.7 mm corresponding veneering porcelain with a powder/liquid layering technique (subgroup 0.8C-0.7VL). The ZirCAD group had one additional 1.5 mm core/veneer subgroup with 0.7 mm heat-pressed veneering porcelain (subgroup 0.8C-0.7VP). The biaxial flexural strengths were compared for each subgroup (n = 10) according to ISO standard 6872:2008 with ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison test (p≤ 0.05). The reliability of strength was analyzed with the Weibull distribution. For all core materials, the 1.5 mm core/veneer subgroups (0.8C-0.7VL, 0.8C-0.7VP) had significantly lower mean biaxial flexural strengths (p < 0.0001) than the other two subgroups (subgroups 1.5C and 0.8C). For the ZirCAD group, the 0.8C-0.7VL subgroup had significantly lower flexural strength (p= 0.004) than subgroup 0.8C-0.7VP. Nonetheless, both veneered ZirCAD groups showed greater flexural strength than the monolithic Empress and e.max groups, regardless of core thickness and fabrication techniques

  20. Midsouth veneer log production

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1971-01-01

    Veneer manufacturing is an important segment of the forest industries and 1s increasing in importance every year. Veneer logs are high-valued in comparison with other kinds of logs and bolts, and considerable employment is generated and much value added in their manufacture.

  1. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Manoti; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated. PMID:27293439

  2. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Manoti; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated.

  3. Digital workflow in full-arch implant rehabilitation with segmented minimally veneered monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses: 2-year clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Kang, Kiho; DeFuria, Catherine; Amin, Sarah; Kudara, Yukio; Weber, Hans-Peter

    2017-08-09

    To illustrate a digital workflow in full-arch implant rehabilitation with minimally veneered monolithic zirconia and to report the outcomes including technical complications. Three patients (5 edentulous arches) received full-arch fixed implant rehabilitation with monolithic zirconia and mild facial porcelain veneering involving a digital workflow. The incisal edges and occluding surface areas were milled out of monolithic zirconia to reduce the possibility of chipping. Porcelain veneering was applied on the facial aspect to improve the esthetic result. Outcomes and technical complications are reported after 2 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up. Implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100% after a short-term follow-up of 2 years. Technical complications were encountered in one patient. They did not adversely affect prosthesis survival or patient satisfaction and were easily addressed. A digital workflow for the design and fabrication of full-arch monolithic zirconia implant fixed implant prostheses has benefits, but caution is necessary during CAD planning of the prosthesis to ensure a successful outcome. Long-term clinical studies are needed to corroborate the findings discussed in this report. This article presents an integrated digital workflow that was implemented for the implant-prosthodontic rehabilitation of three edentulous patients with monolithic zirconia prostheses. Monolithic zirconia has been successfully incorporated in implant prosthodontics in an effort to reduce the technical complications associated with bilayered ceramics. This workflow simplifies design and fabrication of the zirconia prostheses. However, caution should be taken during CAD planning of the prosthesis to make sure the zirconia cylinder is sufficiently thick at the interface with the titanium insert. Additionally, when cutback is planned for facial porcelain veneering, the functional occluding cusps and incisal edges should be fabricated in monolithic zirconia to avoid

  4. Esthetic rehabilitation with laminated ceramic veneers reinforced by lithium disilicate.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paulo Vinícius; Spini, Pedro Henrique Rezende; Spini, Pedro Henrique; Carvalho, Valessa Florindo; Souza, Paula Gomes; Gonzaga, Ramon Corrêa de Queiroz; Gonzaga, Ramon Corrêa; Tolentino, Andrea Barros; Machado, Alexandre Coelho

    2014-02-01

    Because of their predictable results and conservation of tooth structure, ceramic veneers are indicated for the esthetic treatment of anterior teeth with anomalous positions or appearance. The objective of this case report is to highlight the steps in dental rehabilitation using ceramic veneers reinforced by lithium disilicate. In this case the patient had diastemas between the mandibular incisors. After preliminary procedures, diagnostic models, waxing, and mock-up were completed, an impression was made with addition silicone, and the veneers were fabricated and cemented with light-cure cement. As a result, the esthetics and function expected by the patient were achieved. The use of ceramic veneers enabled a conservative and esthetically successful rehabilitation treatment.

  5. Damage Maps of Veneered Zirconia under Simulated Mastication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Janal, Malvin N.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia based restorations often fracture from chipping and/or delamination of the porcelain veneers. We hypothesize that veneer chipping/delamination is a result of the propagation of near-contact induced partial cone cracks on the occlusal surface under mastication. Masticatory loading involves the opposing tooth sliding along the cuspal inner incline surface with an applied biting force. To test this hypothesis, flat porcelain veneered zirconia plates were cemented to dental composites and cyclically loaded (contact–slide–liftoff) at an inclination angle as a simplified model of zirconia based restorations under occlusion. In the light of in-situ observation of damage evolution in a transparent glass/zirconia/polycarbonate trilayer, postmortem damage evaluation of porcelain/zirconia/composite trilayers using a sectioning technique revealed that deep penetrating occlusal surface partial cone fracture is the predominant fracture mode of porcelain veneers. Clinical relevance is discussed. PMID:19029080

  6. Joining veneers to ceramic cores and dentition with adhesive interlayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J-W; Wang, Y; Lloyd, I K; Lawn, B R

    2007-08-01

    Adhesive joining of veneers to cores offers potential simplicity and economy in the fabrication of all-ceramic crowns. We tested the hypothesis that resin-based adhesives can be used for such fabrication without compromising mechanical integrity of the crown structure. A simple test procedure for quantifying this hypothesis was proposed. A model glass veneer layer 1 mm thick (representative of porcelain), adhesively bonded onto a glass-like core substrate (ceramic or dental enamel), was loaded at its top surface with a hard sphere (occlusal force) until a radial crack initiated at the veneer undersurface. The critical loads for fracture, visually observable in the transparent glass, afforded a measure of the predisposition for the adhesive to cause veneer failure in an occlusal overload. Two adhesives were tested, one a commercial epoxy resin and the other a relatively stiff in-house-developed composite. The results confirmed that stiffer adhesives provide higher resistance to failure.

  7. Damage maps of veneered zirconia under simulated mastication.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-W; Kim, J-H; Janal, M N; Zhang, Y

    2008-12-01

    Zirconia-based restorations often fracture from chipping and/or delamination of the porcelain veneers. We hypothesized that veneer chipping/delamination is a result of the propagation of near-contact-induced partial cone cracks on the occlusal surface under mastication. Masticatory loading involves the opposing tooth sliding along the cuspal inner incline surface with an applied biting force. To test this hypothesis, we cemented flat porcelain-veneered zirconia plates onto dental composites and cyclically loaded them (contact-slide-liftoff) at an inclination angle as a simplified model of zirconia-based restorations under occlusion. In light of in situ observation of damage evolution in a transparent glass/zirconia/polycarbonate trilayer, post mortem damage evaluation of porcelain/zirconia/composite trilayers by a sectioning technique revealed that deep-penetrating occlusal surface partial cone fracture is the predominant fracture mode of porcelain veneers. Clinical relevance is discussed.

  8. Structural and Chemical Analysis of the Zirconia-Veneering Ceramic Interface.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, M; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Nakanishi, M; De Munck, J; Minakuchi, S; Vanmeensel, K; Zhang, F; Yoshida, Y; Vleugels, J; Naert, I; Van Meerbeek, B

    2016-01-01

    elemental shifts recorded in the veneering ceramic did not suffice to draw definitive conclusions regarding potential chemical interaction of the veneering ceramic with zirconia. Sandblasting damaged the zirconia surface and induced phase transformation that also resulted in residual compressive stress. Difference in CTE of zirconia versus that of the veneering ceramic resulted in an unfavorable residual tensile stress at the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  9. Midwest veneer industry

    Treesearch

    Joe F. Christopher; Herbert S. Sternizke

    1964-01-01

    This report presents information on 1963 veneer log production and consumption in the Midsouth. The information is from a canvass of the industry made by the Southern Forest Experiment Station. Though an effort was made to locate all active plants, a few may have been overlooked. Omission of a firm, therefore, is no reflection upon its activities, nor does inclusion...

  10. Enamel thickness measurement with a high frequency ultrasonic transducer-based hand-held probe for potential application in the dental veneer placing procedure.

    PubMed

    Ślak, Bartosz; Ambroziak, Andrzej; Strumban, Emil; Maev, Roman Gr

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach to measure the enamel thickness potentially applicable to the veneer placing procedure. All experiments have been carried out on the extracted human teeth, using a high frequency ultrasonic transducer (50 MHz, Sonix, Springfield, VA, USA). The enamel thickness measurement results obtained with high positional accuracy by a scanning acoustic microscope (Tessonics AM1103, Windsor, ON, Canada) were compared with the measurements conducted in a hand-held mode by using the same transducer placed in a custom fixture. Finally, to validate the ultrasonic measuring results, the samples were cut down the long axis to expose the cross-section. The enamel thickness was measured in several points along the selected part of the exposed cross-section by using an optical microscope (Stemi SV 11, Carl Zeiss AG, Jena, Germany). The values of the enamel thickness received by using the hand-held probe vs. the acoustic microscope were in close proximity (~10% difference) and were also satisfactory close to the enamel thickness results obtained from the direct cross-sectional measurements (~12% difference). The authors suggested a measuring procedure that allows avoiding errors related to the ultrasonic beam localization on the tooth surface. The high feasibility of the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements in a hand-held mode was demonstrated.

  11. Chairside veneering of composite resin to anterior stainless steel crowns: another look.

    PubMed

    Wiedenfeld, K R; Draughn, R A; Goltra, S E

    1995-01-01

    The chairside veneering of stainless steel crowns using the technique described in our original article (J Dent Child, 61: 321-326 September-December 1994) has proven to be a very dependable and successful technique for restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth. In this article an advancement in the technique is described using new light-cured materials that simplify the veneering process and produce thinner veneers. The resulting veneers maintain the adaptability, strength, and gingival contour benefits of the stainless steel crown in conjunction with the cosmetics of composite facings. The chairside technique can be quickly mastered by a dental auxiliary and results in veneered crowns with very high shear and bond strengths.

  12. Esthetic, occlusal, and periodontal rehabilitation of anterior teeth with minimum thickness porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Pedroche, Lorena Oliveira; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    Ceramic veneers of minimum thickness provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. Dental ceramics can both improve the esthetic appearance and reestablish the strength and function of teeth. In worn anterior teeth, functional surfaces, for example, anterior and lateral guidance, can be restored effectively. The characteristics of dental ceramics, such as color stability and mechanical and optical properties, make this material a good choice for indirect restorations, especially when optimum function and esthetics are required. This clinical report presents an occlusal, periodontal, and restorative solution with minimum thickness glass ceramic veneers for worn anterior teeth with multiple diastemas.

  13. 3D-characterization of the veneer-zirconia interface using FIB nano-tomography.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Douillard, Thierry; Gremillard, Laurent; Sadoun, Michaël J; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    The phenomena occurring during zirconia frameworks veneering process are not yet fully understood. In particular the study of zirconia behavior at the interface with the veneer remains a challenge. However this interface has been reported to act on residual stress in the veneering ceramic, which plays a significant role in clinical failures such as chipping. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the veneer-zirconia interface using a recent 3D-analysis tool and to confront these observations to residual stress measurements in the veneering ceramic. Two cross-sectioned bilayered disc samples (veneer on zirconia), exhibiting different residual stress profiles in the veneering ceramic, were investigated using 2D and 3D imaging (respectively Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam nanotomography (FIB-nt), associated with chemical analysis by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The observations did not reveal any structural change in the bulk of zirconia layer of both samples. However the presence of structural alterations and sub-surface microcracks were highlighted in the first micrometer of zirconia surface, exclusively for the sample exhibiting interior tensile stress in the veneering ceramic. No interdiffusion phenomena were observed. FIB nanotomography was proven to be a powerful technique to study the veneer-zirconia interface. The determination of the origin and the nature of zirconia alterations need to be further studied. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that zirconia surface property changes could be involved in the development of tensile stress in the veneering ceramic, increasing the risk of chipping. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fracture mechanics analyses of ceramic/veneer interface under mixed-mode loading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaoqi; Zhang, Song; Bian, Cuirong; Kong, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the interface fracture performance of zirconia/veneer bilayered structure, which plays an important role in dental all-ceramic restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture mechanics performance of zirconia/veneer interface in a wide range of mode-mixities (at phase angles ranging from 0° to 90°), and to examine the effect of mechanical properties of the materials and the interface on the fracture initiation and crack path of an interfacial crack. A modified sandwich test configuration with an oblique interfacial crack was proposed and calibrated to choose the appropriate geometry dimensions by means of finite element analysis. The specimens with different interface inclination angles were tested to failure under three-point bending configuration. Interface fracture parameters were obtained with finite element analyses. Based on the interfacial fracture mechanics, three fracture criteria for crack kinking were used to predict crack initiation and propagation. In addition, the effects of residual stresses due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between zirconia and veneer on the crack behavior were evaluated. The crack initiation and propagation were well predicted by the three fracture criteria. For specimens at phase angle of 0, the cracks propagated in the interface; whereas for all the other specimens the cracks kinked into the veneer. Compressive residual stresses in the veneer can improve the toughness of the interface structure. The results suggest that, in zirconia/veneer bilayered structure the veneer is weaker than the interface, which can be used to explain the clinical phenomenon that veneer chipping rate is larger than interface delamination rate. Consequently, a veneer material with larger fracture toughness is needed to decrease the failure rate of all-ceramic restorations. And the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch of the substrates can be larger to produce larger compressive

  15. The laboratory construction and teaching of ceramic veneers: a survey.

    PubMed

    Wildgoose, D G; Winstanley, R B; van Noort, R

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify current trends in the methods and materials used during teaching and construction of ceramic laminate veneers within the laboratory. A questionnaire was designed to determine the most popular laboratory techniques and materials used during the teaching and construction of ceramic veneers at a number of university dental schools and teaching hospitals in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Hong Kong, and to identify the role of technical staff. The responses showed that approximately 63% of teaching hospitals and 53% of dental schools were involved with either the construction or teaching of laboratory techniques for ceramic veneers. Of two substrate materials identified, it was clear that the use of phosphate refractory models was preferred to the platinum foil technique. A wide range of refractory and ceramic materials was reported, some of which were supplied as combined system products. However, a larger number were ceramics and refractory materials acquired from independent manufacturers and therefore not necessarily matched. Although clear information was provided by the manufacturers to identify the thermal expansion coefficient of their dental ceramic, this is not the case for most of the phosphate refractory materials. As a result, intermixing of individual ceramic and refractory products was commonplace with some combinations having different thermal expansion coefficients. To avoid this thermal mismatch, clear information relating to both products needs to be provided by the manufacturers.

  16. Effect of endodontic access cavity preparation on monolithic and ceramic veneered zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Grobecker-Karl, Tanja; Christian, Mirko; Karl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high chipping rates observed in veneered zirconia ceramic restorations, the use of monolithic zirconia restorations has been recommended. This study tried to compare veneered and monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the amount of damage induced by endodontic access preparation. Monolithic and ceramic veneered (n = 10) three-unit restorations (retainers: first premolar and first molar; pontic: second premolar) were subject to endodontic access cavity preparation in both retainers using a diamond rotary instrument under continuous water cooling. The number of chipping fractures and microfractures detected using the fluorescent penetrant method were recorded. Statistical analysis was based on Wilcoxon rank sum tests with Bonferroni correction (level of significance α = .05). Only one microfracture could be identified in the group of monolithic FDPs while a maximum of seven microfractures and three chipping fractures per retainer crown were recorded in the group of veneered restorations. At the premolar site, the veneered restorations showed significantly more microfractures (P = .0055) and chipping fractures (P = .0008). At the molar site, no significant difference with respect to microfractures could be detected (P = .0767), while significantly more chipping fractures occurred in the veneered samples (P = .0293). Monolithic zirconia restorations seem to be less susceptible to damage when endodontic access cavities have to be prepared as compared to veneered zirconia reconstructions. However, no conclusions can be drawn on the long-term performance of a specific restoration based on this study.

  17. Treating a young adult with bonded porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matt; Shull, G Franklin

    2011-04-01

    Esthetic dental treatment for young adults can be challenging. Practitioners often use direct composite bonding in children and teenagers, and often it serves them for many years. However, direct composite bonding has its limitations (such as staining and chipping), and bonded porcelain often is needed. The authors describe an 18-year-old woman who sought esthetic dental treatment. After her dentist discussed treatment options with her, she opted to receive bonded porcelain veneers. The dentist chose a lithium disilicate material on the basis of its strength and esthetic properties. Although the first set of veneers matched the patient's natural teeth well, they did not satisfy her objective of eliminating the white mottling that existed on her natural teeth. Therefore, the dental technician prepared a second set of restorations by cutting back the facial incisal areas slightly in wax to allow creation of incisal effects and by pressing them with a brighter ingot. Collaboration between the dentist and dental technician is essential to achieving treatment success. Likewise, it is important to secure the patient's input during the process, as he or she often has ideas regarding his or her smile that are different from those of the dental team.

  18. Contrast ratio of veneering and core ceramics as a function of thickness.

    PubMed

    Antonson, S A; Anusavice, K J

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of several dental ceramic products has raised questions concerning the relative translucency potential of these materials. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the contrast ratio of dental core and veneering ceramics is a linear function of ceramic thickness. Four groups of disk-shaped core ceramic specimens and four groups of veneering ceramic specimens (15 mm in diameter and 0.70, 1.10, 1.25, or 1.50 mm in thickness) were prepared for analysis. Five disks were randomly assigned to each of the eight groups. Four core ceramics were selected for study: (1) tetrasilicic fluormica glass ceramic, (2) quadruple-chain silicate glass ceramic, (3) barium silicate glass ceramic, and (4) sintered alumina. The four veneering ceramics included two feldspathic body porcelains, one fine-grained veneering porcelain, and one ultralow-fusing porcelain. There were significant differences among the mean contrast ratio values of these materials. The most translucent group of the core materials was tetrasilicic fluormica glass ceramic, and the least translucent material was sintered alumina. The most translucent group among the veneering ceramics was one of the feldspathic ceramics (Ceramco), and the least translucent material for all thicknesses was the ultralow-fusing veneering ceramic (Duceram LFC). The mean contrast ratio values were significantly different at a thickness of 1.50 mm of the four core ceramic groups and among the four veneering ceramic groups. The results of this study indicate that the tetrasilicic fluormica glass ceramic is generally the most translucent core ceramic for thicknesses of 0.70, 1.10, and 1.25 mm, and Ceramco porcelain is the most translucent veneering ceramic. However, for a thickness of 1.50 mm, the quadruple-chain silicate glass ceramic was the most translucent core ceramic. The relationship between contrast ratio and thickness was linear for all ceramics except Vita VMK 68.

  19. The veneer industry in the Northeast -1972

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1974-01-01

    From a survey of veneer producers in the Northeast in 1972, veneer-log production and receipts by states and species, and log shipments between states and regions are presented. Comparisons are made with a similar survey made in 1968. A current list of northeastern veneer manufacturers is included.

  20. Western hemlock as a veneer resource.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey; Jr. Woodfin

    1982-01-01

    Presents recovery of veneer grade and volume from western hemlock from Oregon and Washington. Veneer grade recovery varied by grade and size of logs. Veneer volume recovered was about 45 percent of the cubic volume of the log and varied somewhat with log diameter.

  1. Evaluation of a novel multiple phase veneering ceramic.

    PubMed

    Sinthuprasirt, Pannapa; van Noort, Richard; Moorehead, Robert; Pollington, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    To produce a new veneering ceramic based on the production of a multiple phase glass-ceramic with improved performance in terms of strength and toughness. A composition of 60% leucite, 20% diopside and 20% feldspathic glass was prepared, blended and a heat treatment schedule of 930°C for 5 min was derived from differential thermal analysis (DTA) of the glasses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis determined the crystalline phases and microstructure. Chemical solubility, biaxial flexural strength (BFS), fracture toughness, hardness, total transmittance and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) were all measured in comparison to a commercial veneering ceramic (VITA VM9). Thermal shock resistance of the leucite-diopside and VITA VM9 veneered onto a commercial high strength zirconia (Vita In-Ceram YZ) was also assessed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Independent Samples t-test. Weibull analysis was employed to examine the reliability of the strength data. The mean chemical solubility was 6 μg/cm(2) for both ceramics (P=1.00). The mean BFS was 109 ± 8 MPa for leucite-diopside ceramic and 79 ± 11 MPa for VITA VM9 ceramic (P=0.01). Similarly, the leucite-diopside ceramic demonstrated a significantly higher fracture toughness and hardness. The average total transmittance was 46.3% for leucite-diopside ceramic and 39.8% for VITA VM9 (P=0.01). The leucite-diopside outperformed the VITA VM9 in terms of thermal shock resistance. Significance This novel veneering ceramic exhibits significant improvements in terms of mechanical properties, yet retains a high translucency and is the most appropriate choice as a veneering ceramic for a zirconia base core material. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fracture resistance and marginal discrepancy of porcelain laminate veneers influenced by preparation design and restorative material in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tai-Min; Liu, Perng-Ru; Ramp, Lance C; Essig, Milton E; Givan, Daniel A; Pan, Yu-Hwa

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate marginal discrepancy and fracture resistance of two veneering materials using two preparation designs. Two veneer preparation designs (full and traditional) were restored with leucite-reinforced ceramic (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) milled by CAD/CAM (Cerec 3D milling system, Serona Dental Systems), and conventional sintered feldspathic porcelain (Noritake Super Porcelain EX3, Noritake Dental Supply Co). Forty-eight specimens were analysed with a sample size of n=12 per group. The thickness of each veneer was measured on four specific surfaces. Marginal discrepancy was evaluated with a replica technique and cross-sectional view using a digital microscope. The fracture resistance of veneers cemented on standardised composite resin dies was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Results were analysed with ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer post hoc testing, and linear regression. The results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the thickness and marginal discrepancy of the veneers. The full preparation design with ProCAD and the traditional preparation design with feldspathic porcelain manifested smaller gap. Fracture resistance was decreased for the full preparation design with feldspathic porcelain. In terms of marginal discrepancy and fracture resistance, the most favourable combination was a traditional veneer preparation design with conventional sintered feldspathic porcelain. For the full veneer preparation, a stronger ceramic material such as ProCAD is suggested. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Veneer, 1976 - a periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1978-01-01

    The 1976 veneer industry survey in the Northeast showed that since the 1972 survey: Veneer log production rose 5 percent to 132 million board feet. Veneer log receipts at northeastern veneer plants dropped less than 1 percent. There were seven fewer veneer plants operating in the Northeast; new softwood plywood plant will be consuming northeastern timber. Exports of...

  4. Influence of Thinning and Pruning on Southern Pine Veneer Quality

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Gibson; Terry R. Clason; Gary L. Hill; George A. Grozdits

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of intensive pine plantation management on veneer yields, veneer grade distribution and veneer MOE as measured by ultrasonic stress wave transmission (Metriguard). Veneer production trials were done at a commercial southern pine plywood plant to elucidate the effects of silvicultural treatments on veneer quality, yield, and modulus of...

  5. Esthetic and functional rehabilitation of crowded mandibular anterior teeth using ceramic veneers: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Ferreira, Luiz Alves; Hirata, Ronaldo; Rodrigues, Flavia Pires; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Di Hipolito, Vinicius

    2012-09-01

    The use of ceramic veneers to restore crowded teeth in the maxilla has been widely discussed in the literature. However, the use of this technique in the mandible has received little attention. Therefore, this case report describes the treatment of crowded mandibular anterior teeth using ceramic veneers. The primary treatment challenge in this region is the reduced tooth structure available for rehabilitation. Proper communication between the clinician and dental technician is required to achieve clinical success. This article presents a straightforward treatment plan and restorative technique that includes both the clinical and laboratory sequences necessary for predictable and stable postoperative outcomes.

  6. Evaluation of shear bond strength between zirconia core and ceramic veneers fabricated by pressing and layering techniques: In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Subash, M; Vijitha, D; Deb, Saikat; Satish, A; Mahendirakumar, N

    2015-08-01

    Although ceramic veneered on to zirconia core have been in use for quite some time, information regarding the comparative evaluation of the Shear bond strength of Pressable & Layered ceramic veneered on to zirconia core is limited. To evaluate the shear bond strength of zirconia core and ceramic veneer fabricated by two different techniques, Layering (Noritake CZR) and Pressing (Noritake, CZR Press). 20 samples of zirconia blocks were fabricated and the samples were divided into group A & B. Group A - Ceramic Veneered over zirconia core by pressing using Noritake CZR Press. Group B - Ceramic Veneered over zirconia core by layering using Noritake CZR. The veneered specimens were mounted on to the center of a PVC tube using self-cure acrylic resin leaving 3 mm of the veneered surface exposed as cantilever. Using a Universal testing machine the blocks were loaded up to failure. The results were tabulated by using independent samples t-test. The mean shear bond strength for Pressed specimens was 12.458 ± 1.63(S.D) MPa and for layered specimens was 8.458 ± 0.845(S.D) MPa. Pressed specimens performed significantly better than the layered specimen with a P value 0.001. Clinicians and dental laboratory technicians should consider the use of pressed ceramics as an alternative to traditional layering procedures to reduce the chances of chipping or de-lamination of ceramics.

  7. Evaluation of shear bond strength between zirconia core and ceramic veneers fabricated by pressing and layering techniques: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Subash, M.; Vijitha, D.; Deb, Saikat; Satish, A.; Mahendirakumar, N.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Although ceramic veneered on to zirconia core have been in use for quite some time, information regarding the comparative evaluation of the Shear bond strength of Pressable & Layered ceramic veneered on to zirconia core is limited. Purpose of study: To evaluate the shear bond strength of zirconia core and ceramic veneer fabricated by two different techniques, Layering (Noritake CZR) and Pressing (Noritake, CZR Press). Materials and Method: 20 samples of zirconia blocks were fabricated and the samples were divided into group A & B. Group A - Ceramic Veneered over zirconia core by pressing using Noritake CZR Press. Group B - Ceramic Veneered over zirconia core by layering using Noritake CZR. The veneered specimens were mounted on to the center of a PVC tube using self-cure acrylic resin leaving 3 mm of the veneered surface exposed as cantilever. Using a Universal testing machine the blocks were loaded up to failure. Result: The results were tabulated by using independent samples t-test. The mean shear bond strength for Pressed specimens was 12.458 ± 1.63(S.D) MPa and for layered specimens was 8.458 ± 0.845(S.D) MPa. Conclusion: Pressed specimens performed significantly better than the layered specimen with a P value 0.001. Clinicians and dental laboratory technicians should consider the use of pressed ceramics as an alternative to traditional layering procedures to reduce the chances of chipping or de-lamination of ceramics PMID:26538929

  8. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ.

  9. Retention of esthetic veneers on primary stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Baker, L H; Moon, P; Mourino, A P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the amount of shearing force necessary to fracture, dislodge or deform the esthetic veneer facings of four commercially available veneered primary incisor stainless steel crowns. The four types tested were: Cheng Crowns, [Peter Cheng Orthodontic Laboratory]; Whiter Biter Crown II, [White Bite Inc.]; Kinder Krowns, [Mayclin Dental Studio, Inc]; and NuSmile Primary Crowns, [Orthodontic Technologies, Inc]. The crowns (#4 right central incisor) from each manufacturer were obtained with the facings attached. The crowns were soaked for ninety days and thermocycled at 4 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 45-second cycles. The crowns were cemented to standardized chromium cobalt metal dies. Each die was placed in to a custom holder on the Instron Universal testing machine. A force was applied at the incisal edge of the veneer at 148 degrees, (the primary interincisal angle), with a crosshead speed of 0.05 inches/minute until the veneer either fractured, dislodged or deformed. The mean force (Ibs) required +/- SD to produce failure, in descending order, was as follows: Cheng (107.8 +/- 17.3); NuSmile (100.2 +/- 18.2); KinderKrown (91.3 +/- 27.4)d Whiter Biter (81.5 +/- 21.7). To test the hypothesis of no difference among the four manufacturers, an analysis of variance was performed using PROC GLM. The resultant F statistic was 2.79 (p < 0.0543), indicating a marginally statistically significant difference in the response variable "pressure" among the four groups. A posthoc test was then performed to ascertain where these differences occurred. These results, using Turkey's studentized range test for pairwise comparisons, suggested that the only difference was between the Cheng and Whiter Biter manufacturers.

  10. Minimally Invasive Laminate Veneers: Clinical Aspects in Treatment Planning and Cementation Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Morita, R. K.; Hayashida, M. F.; Berger, G.; Reggiani, R. D.; Betiol, E. A. G.

    2016-01-01

    When a definitive aesthetic treatment is determined, it is crucial to grant the patient's wish with the necessary dental treatment. Thus, conservative treatments that are the solution to aesthetic problems involving morphologic modifications and provide the result that the patient expects should always be the first therapeutic option. In this context, ceramic laminate veneers, also known as “contact lens,” are capable of providing an extremely faithful reproduction of the natural teeth with great color stability and periodontal biocompatibility. Minimal or no preparation veneers are heavily advertised as the answer to our patients' cosmetic needs, which they can be if they are used correctly in the appropriate case. This report is about ultraconservative restorations to achieve functional and aesthetic rehabilitation through treatment planning. Thus, clinicians should be aware that the preparation for laminate veneers remains within enamel, to ensure the bond strength and avoid or minimize the occurrence of postoperative sensitivity. PMID:28070427

  11. Veneered anatomically designed zirconia FDPs resulting from digital intraoral scans: Preliminary results of a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Selz, Christian F; Bogler, Jan; Vach, Kirstin; Strub, Joerg R; Guess, Petra C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of veneered anatomically designed zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) resulting from intraoral digital impressions. 24 patients requiring treatment were provided with all-ceramic FDPs. Intraoral scans (iTero) were performed and veneered anatomically designed CAD/CAM-zirconia FDPs (Zerion/VitaVM9) were fabricated. A feldspar veneering ceramic following a slow cooling firing protocol was applied. A self-curing resin based luting material was used for adhesive cementation. Clinical evaluations were performed at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months recalls according to the modified USPHS-criteria. Intraoral digital surface scans (iTero) were performed at each recall examination and were digitally superimposed (Geomagic) to evaluate potential veneer cohesive fractures. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis comprised secondary caries, clinically unacceptable fractures, root canal treatment and debonding. Kaplan-Meier success rate included restorations with minimal crevices, tolerable color deviations and clinically acceptable fractures. Data were statistically analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate and success rate of the FDPs were 100% and 91.7%, respectively. Clinically acceptable veneer cohesive fractures and crevices at the restoration margin were observed in two patients. These shallow veneer fractures were only detected by overlapping baseline and recall scans. Ceramic surface roughness increased significantly over time (p<0.0001). Veneered zirconia FDPs fabricated from digital intraoral scans showed a favorable clinical performance over an observation period of 18 months. Anatomical zirconia core design and slow cooling firing protocol of the veneering ceramic reduced the incidence of chip fractures to a level that could not be detected clinically. The digital workflow on the basis of intraoral digital impressions resulted in clinically satisfying outcomes for veneered zirconia FDPs

  12. Influence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2015-09-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Δα=αcore-αveneer, ppm/°C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Δα concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Δα dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Δα varying from -1.3ppm/°C to +3.2ppm/°C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Δα≥+2.3 or ≤-0.3ppm/°C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Δα variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Δα. Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/°C Δα) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Δα-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Δα value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  14. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Qiu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Minhao; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains. Methods Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated. Results The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes. Significance Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings. PMID:26368532

  15. Veneer, 1980--A periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Treesearch

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Nevel

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output based on a canvass of the veneer plants in the Northeast and contains statistics for 1980 on the veneer-log production and receipts by states and species, log shipments between states and regions, and the disposition of manufacturing residues. Between 1976 and 1980, veneer log production jumped 19 percent and northeastern veneer plant...

  16. Effect of core design and veneering technique on damage and reliability of Y-TZP-supported crowns.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Bonfante, Estevam A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of framework design modification and veneering techniques in fatigue reliability and failure modes of veneered Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals (Y-TZP) crowns. A CAD-based mandibular molar crown preparation served as a master die. Y-TZP crown cores (VITA-In-Ceram-YZ, Vita-Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) in conventional (0.5mm uniform thickness) or anatomically designed fashion (cusp support) were porcelain veneered with either hand-layer (VM9) or pressed (PM9) techniques. Crowns (n=84) were cemented on 30 days aged dentin-like composite dies with resin cement. Crowns were subjected to single load to fracture (n=3 each group) and mouth-motion step-stress fatigue (n=18) by sliding a WC indenter (r=3.18 mm) 0.7 mm buccally on the inner incline surface of the mesio-lingual cusp. Stress-level curves (use level probability lognormal) and reliability (with 2-sided 90% confidence bounds, CB) for completion of a mission of 50.000 cycles at 200 N load were calculated. Fractographic analyses were performed under light-polarized and scanning electron microscopes. Higher reliability for hand-layer veneered conventional core (0.99, CB 0.98-1) was found compared to its counterpart press-veneered (0.50 CB 0.33-65). Framework design modification significantly increased reliability for both veneering techniques (PM9 [0.98 CB 0.87-0.99], VM9 [1.00 CB 0.99-1]) and resulted in reduced veneer porcelain fracture sizes. Main fracture mode observed was veneer porcelain chipping, regardless of framework design and veneering technique. Hand-layer porcelain veneered on conventional core designs presented higher reliability than press-veneered with similar core designs. Anatomic core design modification significantly increased the reliability and resulted in reduced chip size of either veneering techniques. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Veneer-log production and receipts in the Southeast, 1988

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, almost 1.4 billion board feet of veneer logs were harvested in the Southeast, and the region's veneer mills processed approximately 1.5 billion board feet of logs. Almost 78 percent of veneer-log production and 76 percent of veneer-log receipts were softwood. There were 79 veneer mills operating in 1988. Softwood plywood was the major product. Almost all...

  18. The effect of veneers on cosmetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Nalbandian, S; Millar, B J

    2009-07-25

    This clinical study was designed to compare the patient's opinion of the cosmetic improvement after the placement of direct composite and indirect porcelain veneers. This retrospective study involved a survey of 145 patients (96 responses) each treated with 10 direct composite (Vitalescence) or 10 porcelain (Fortress) veneers. Patients subjectively evaluated multiple aspects of their smile using visual analogue scales before and after treatment for colour, shape, size, smile line and overall facial appearance. There were no statistical differences between the cosmetic improvement achieved for porcelain and composite (p > or = 0.05). Cost factors were not significant. Significant factors were: tooth conservation (p < or = 0.021), time (p < or = 0.012), repair costs (p < or = 0.009) and replacement costs (p < or = 0.024) and favoured the direct composite veneers over the porcelain veneers. Correlation findings relating to what patients feel as the key components of the smile for overall cosmetic improvement showed medium to high correlations (0.301 < or = r < or = 0.718) with tooth shape, colour and level of tooth display, gingival level, gingival symmetry and tooth whiteness. The choice of material (direct composite resin vs porcelain) when constructing maxillary anterior veneers does not significantly affect the patient's perception of cosmetic improvement. However, there was a preference towards accepting the composite veneer option. Overall aesthetic satisfaction is multifactorial. The results support the opinion that the more conservative composite veneers are justified and that, given the choice and information, patients may prefer this option.

  19. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Gomes, Edna Maria da Cunha Ferreira; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ayala, Alejandro; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers) were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth. PMID:26568893

  20. Flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber manufactured from ultrasonically rated red maple veneer : a pilot study.

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Steven A. Verhey; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2003-01-01

    The study described in this report was conducted to examine the flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) manufactured from red maple veneer. Ultrasonically rated veneer, which was peeled from low value red maple saw-logs, was fabricated into 1/2-in.-(1.3-cm-) and 2-in.-(5-cm-) thick LVL billets. The flexural properties of the billets and of corresponding...

  1. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Fernando Peixoto; Gallo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects. PMID:27668099

  2. Influence of firing time and framework thickness on veneered Y-TZP discs curvature.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J; Douillard, Thierry; Mainjot, Amélie K

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the curvature of very thinly, veneered Y-TZP discs of different framework thicknesses submitted to different firing times. Fifteen 20-mm-wide Y-TZP discs were produced in three different thicknesses: 0.75, 1, 1.5mm. One disc from each group was left unveneered while the others were layered with a 0.1mm veneering ceramic layer. All discs underwent five firing cycles for a total cumulative firing time of 30 min, 1, 2, 5 and 10h at 900°C. The curvature profile was measured using a profilometer after the veneering process and after each firing cycle respectively. A fitted curve was then used to estimate the, curvature radius. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) measurements were taken on veneering, ceramic and Y-TZP beam samples that underwent the same firing schedule. Those data were used to calculate the curvature generated by CTE variations over firing time. All bilayered samples exhibited a curvature that increased over firing time inversely to framework thickness. However non-veneered samples did not exhibit any curvature modification. The results of the present study reveal that even a very thin veneer layer (0.1mm) can induce a significant curvature of Y-TZP discs. The dilatometric results showed that Tg and CTE, variations are not sufficient to explain this curvature. A chemical-induced zirconia volume, augmentation located at the framework sub-surface near the interface could explain the sample, curvature and its increase with firing time. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural lumber promising from pine veneer

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1973-01-01

    The possibility of laminating lumber from sliced or rotary-cut veneer has interested researchers and industrialists for many years because of the potential for increased yield and uniformity of strength. Some data on such lumber are now available.

  4. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  5. Masking properties of ceramics for veneer restorations.

    PubMed

    Skyllouriotis, Andreas L; Yamamoto, Hideo L; Nathanson, Dan

    2017-10-01

    The translucency and opacity of ceramics play a significant role in emulating the natural color of teeth, but studies of the masking properties and limitations of dental ceramics when used as monolayer restorations are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the translucency of 6 materials used for veneer restorations by assessing their translucency parameters (TPs), contrast ratios (CRs), and potential to mask dark tooth colors. Ten square- or disk-shaped specimens (0.5-mm thickness, shade A2) were fabricated from Vitablocks Mark II (VMII; Vita Zahnfabrik), IPS e.max CAD LT (EMXC LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max CAD HT (EMXC HT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS Empress CAD LT (EMP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max Press LT (EMXP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and CZR (CZR; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc). Their luminance (Y) values over black and over white tiles were measured, followed by their color (CIELab) over black tiles and white tiles and shaded A2 (control group), A3.5, A4, and B4 acrylic resin blocks. All measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer in 2 different areas on each specimen. Then CRs, TPs, and color differences (over shaded backgrounds) were determined. Data were subjected to 1-way and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05) for analysis. Mean CR values of EMXP LT were significantly higher than those of the other tested materials, whereas VMII and EMXC HT had the lowest values (P<.001). Mean TP values over black and over white backgrounds of VMII and EMXC HT were significantly higher than those of the other tested materials, while EMXP LT and EMXC LT revealed the lowest values (P<.001). Background shade A4 displayed the highest mean effect (expressed in ΔE* values) on the color of the ceramic materials, whereas shade B4 demonstrated the lowest mean background effect (P<.001). Significant differences in translucency among the tested ceramics were revealed (P<.001). The EMXC LT and EMXP LT groups were the least translucent under the

  6. Effects of core and veneer thicknesses on the color of CAD-CAM lithium disilicate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wol; Park, Jong-Kyoung; Kim, So-Ri; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2017-07-06

    The color of dental ceramics is important for achieving successful esthetic restorations. However, insufficient studies are available of the color of recently introduced computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) lithium disilicate ceramics as functions of the core and veneer thicknesses. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the thickness of different core and veneer thicknesses on the color of CAD-CAM lithium disilicate ceramics. A total of 42 specimens from 2 groups of 7 ceramic cores at 3 thicknesses (0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mm) were fabricated. The veneer was fabricated at 3 thicknesses (0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mm). The group name was based on the name of the ceramic core (IPS e.max CAD; lithium disilicate [LD], IPS Empress CAD; leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic [LR]), and the associated number was determined by the combined thicknesses of the core and the veneer: 1=0.8+0.7; 2=1.0+0.5; and 3=1.2+0.3. The color coordinates and the color differences were calculated using a spectrophotometer. The color difference was analyzed using the CIEDE2000 chrominance and the acceptability threshold. Two-way ANOVA was used to identify the color difference based on the core/veneer thicknesses, and the Tukey honest significant differences and Games-Howell tests were conducted to verify the ΔE00 differences of the group (α=.05). In addition, regression analysis was carried out to estimate the causal relationship between the independent variables and the chrominance. At a certain thickness, the color differences of LD1, LR1, and LR2 were not clinically acceptable based on the thicknesses of the core and the veneer. Results of 2-way ANOVA demonstrated that the different thicknesses of core/veneer combination significantly affected the color difference (P<.05). A significant interaction was present between the thickness and the material (P<.05). The results of multiple regression analyses showed that the average color difference of LR

  7. Human enamel veneer restoration: an alternative technique to restore anterior primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Tamay, Tereza Keiko; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Rodrigues, Célia Martins Delgado; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2006-01-01

    Restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is a clinical challenge in Pediatric Dentistry. Among the restorative treatment options, the use of prefabricated crowns and resin composite restorations, either by means of direct or indirect techniques is mentioned in the literature. The purpose of this article is to describe the rehabilitation of primary anterior teeth in a 5-year-old patient. Dental treatment consisted on an anterior space maintainer prosthesis made with natural primary teeth, plus human dental enamel veneer (facet) restorations. The advantages of this technique are better esthetics and the natural enamel has physiologic wear and offers superficial smoothness and cervical adaptation compatible with those of the surrounding teeth.

  8. Effect of wood grain and veneer side on loblolly pine veneer wettability

    Treesearch

    Todd E. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Leslie H. Groom

    1998-01-01

    Research was initiated to determine the effect of veneer side (tight or loose), and wood grain (earlywood or latewood) on the wettability of loblolly pine veneer. Contact angle measurements were performed with phenol-formaldehyde resin and distilled water. The resin and distilled water showed slightly higher contact angle mean values on the latewood portion for both...

  9. Fracture resistance of ceramic and polymer-based occlusal veneer restorations.

    PubMed

    Al-Akhali, Majed; Chaar, Mohamed Sad; Elsayed, Adham; Samran, Abdulaziz; Kern, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of thermodynamic loading on the durability and fracture resistance behavior of occlusal veneers fabricated from different biomedical dental CAD/CAM materials. The occlusal surfaces of 64 extracted premolars were prepared in the enamel layer and restored with occlusal veneers with a fissure/cusp thickness of 0.5/0.8mm made from four different dental CAD/CAM materials: group LD lithium disilicate (e.max CAD), group LS zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (Vita Suprinity), group PI polymer-infiltrated ceramic (Vita Enamic), and group PM polymethylmethacrylate PMMA (Telio CAD). The prepared teeth were etched with phosphoric acid. The occlusal veneers were then bonded using an adhesive luting system (Multilink Primer A/B and Multilink Automix luting resin). Half of the specimens were subjected to thermodynamic loading in a chewing simulator (1.2 million cycles at 98N). All specimens were quasi-statically loaded until fracture. The statistical analysis was made using the t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). All aged specimens survived the thermodynamic loading. Thermodynamic loading significantly raised the fracture resistance in groups LS, PI, and PM (P < 0.03). Occlusal veneers made from lithium disilicate and zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate recorded higher fracture resistance than those made from polymer-infiltrated ceramic and PMMA resin. All tested dental CAD/CAM biomaterials exhibited a fracture resistance considerably exceeding the average occlusal force in the posterior dentition. Therefore, they might present a viable long-term treatment for restoring the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using CAD/CAM-Modified Correlation Mode to Produce Laminate Veneers: A Six-Month Case Report.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Fsf; Cardenas, Afm; Gruber, Y L; Kose, C; Pupo, Y M; Gomes, G M; Gomes, Omm; Gomes, J C

    The expectation of an esthetically harmonious smile increases the level of difficulty when treating patients. Laminate veneers stand out as a treatment option for cosmetic rehabilitation in clinical practice, as they are a more conservative procedure and mimic dental structures. These laminate veneers are generally made with different techniques; the most common requires an impression of the prepared tooth, an impression antagonist, fabrication models, and extensive laboratory time. The computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system optimizes the fabrication of prosthetic structures, reducing chairside time and promoting good esthetic results. Thus, the purpose of this case report is to present the esthetic result of multiple CAD/CAM manufactured laminate veneers using a new self-etching glass ceramic primer with a lithium disilicate ceramic, using the modified correlation and biogeneric modes.

  11. Enhancement of the adhesion between cobalt-base alloys and veneer ceramic by application of an oxide dissolving primer.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Dittmer, Marc Philipp; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-12-01

    Uncontrolled formation of an oxide layer on base metal alloy surface impairs adhesion between the alloy and veneer ceramic. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an oxide dissolving primer on the adhesion between cobalt-base alloys and a veneer ceramic. Combinations of two cobalt-base alloys (Bärlight/BL, Cara Process/CP) and one veneering ceramic (HeraCeram) were investigated. 40 rectangular specimens of each alloy were covered with the veneer ceramic; half of the alloy samples were treated with an oxide dissolving primer (NP-Primer) prior to veneering (n=20). Subsequently, the veneering surface was ground flat and notched using the single-edge V-notched-beam method. Then specimens were loaded in a four-point bending test and the critical load to induce stable crack extension at the adhesion interface was determined, in order to calculate the strain energy release rate (G, J/m(2)). Finally, fracture surfaces of the specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Strain energy release rates averaged between 24.1J/m(2) and 28.8 J/m(2). While application of the primer statistically significantly increased adhesion between alloy and ceramic with the BL specimens (p=0.035), no significant influence was found for the CP specimens (p=0.785). For both material combinations, SEM analysis revealed enhanced wetting of the alloy surfaces with ceramic after application of the primer. Application of an oxide dissolving primer increases the wettability of cobalt-base alloy surfaces and thus improves adhesion to veneering ceramics. This may enhance the long-term stability of bilayer restorations made from these materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 13. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SHIPPING ROOMS AND VENEER MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SHIPPING ROOMS AND VENEER MILL (AT RIGHT), AND ENGINE ROOM (AT LEFT) - Ichabod T. Williams & Sons Sawmill & Veneer Plant, Roosevelt Avenue at Carteret Avenue, Carteret, Middlesex County, NJ

  13. Interactive Simulation of Hardwood Log Veneer Slicing Using CT Images

    Treesearch

    Daniel L Schmoldt; Pei Li; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    Veneer producers must make critical processing decisions based solely on external examination of logs. Unlike sawlog breakdown, however, little research has investigated ways in which veneer logs can best be flitched and sliced for increased value. This gap exists largely due to the variety of ways in which veneer is produced and used and the variety of buyers that...

  14. A CT-based Simulator for Hardwood Log Veneering

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Profits for hardwood veneer manufacturers are dependent on proper initial log breakdown (flitching) decisions. While human skill is often adequate to ãreadä bark indicators of internal defects, it is much more difficult to envision potential veneer patterns that result from different flitching options. Different veneer patterns greatly affect potential markets and...

  15. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1970

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Jr. Ginnaty

    1972-01-01

    The 1970 Lake States veneer-log production and mill receipts were 34.4 and 37.0 million board feet, respectively. The Central States produced 23.5 million board feet and received 30.0 million board feet of veneer logs. Veneer-log production and mill receipts dropped substantially throughout the north central region from 1968.

  16. The veneer industry in the Northeast: a 5-year updating of data on veneer-log production and receipts

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1970-01-01

    Early in 1969 a survey of the veneer industry in the Northeast was made to determine veneer-log receipts for calendar year 1968, by species and states of origin. The survey revealed the following changes in the past 5 years: A drop in the number of container veneer plants, offset by an increase in the number of other types of veneer plants. A 15-percent increase in...

  17. Wear performance of substructure ceramics and veneering porcelains.

    PubMed

    Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Hahnel, Sebastian; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the two-body wear resistance of substructure zirconia and veneering porcelain versus steatite and human enamel antagonists, respectively. Two-body wear tests were performed in a chewing simulator with steatite and enamel antagonists (enamel cusps). A pin-on-block design with a vertical load of 50 N for 1.2 × 10(5) cycles; (f=1.6 Hz; lateral movement: 1mm, mouth opening: 2mm) was used for the wear test. For quantification of the wear resistance, wear tests were performed with standardized steatite spheres. Human enamel was used as a reference. Five zirconia ceramics and four veneering porcelains were investigated. One zirconia ceramic was tested with superficial glaze, which was applied after polishing or sandblasting, respectively. Surface roughness R(a) (SP6, Perthen-Feinprüf, G) and wear depth were determined using a 3D-Profilometer (Laserscan 3D, Willytec, G). SEM (Quanta FEG 400, FEI, USA) pictures were used for evaluating wear performance of both, ceramics and antagonists. No wear was found for zirconia substructures. Veneering porcelain provided wear traces between 186.1±33.2 μm and 232.9±66.9 μm (steatite antagonist) and 90.6±3.5 μm and 123.9±50.7 μm (enamel). Wear of the steatite antagonists varied between 0.812±0.256 mm(2) and 1.360±0.321 mm(2) for zirconia and 1.708±0.275 mm(2) and 2.568±0.827 mm(2) for porcelain. Enamel generally showed wear, cracks or even fractures at the ridge, regardless whether opposed by zirconia or porcelain/glaze. Enamel was polished, when opposed to zirconia, or plowed, provoked and grinded, when opposed to porcelain/glaze. The results of the wear test with steatite or enamel antagonists indicated no measurable wear on zirconia surfaces. Porcelain showed higher wear than zirconia, but comparable or lower wear than an enamel reference. Antagonistic wear against zirconia was found to be lower than wear against porcelain. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials

  18. Ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Watzke, Ronny; Peschke, Arnd; Kappert, Heinrich

    2008-11-01

    Sintered ceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used as biomaterials for dental restoration, especially as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Biomaterials were developed either to veneer metal frameworks or to produce metal-free dental restorations. Different types of glass-ceramics and ceramics are available and necessary today to fulfill customers' needs (patients, dentists and dental technicians) regarding the properties of the biomaterials and the processing of the products. All of these different types of biomaterials already cover the entire range of indications of dental restorations. Today, patients are increasingly interested in metal-free restoration. Glass-ceramics are particularly suitable for fabricating inlays, crowns and small bridges, as these materials achieve very strong, esthetic results. High-strength ceramics are preferred in situations where the material is exposed to high masticatory forces.

  19. Techniques for drying thick southern pine veneer

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1964-01-01

    Thick veneers cut from southern pine are relatively easy to dry, but they are not easy to dry free of distortion. The research reported here was undertaken to compare five drying systems. Factors evaluated included rate of water loss, degree of distortion, and the effect on strength. Effects on gluability were also briefly studied.

  20. Rehabilitation of a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta using porcelain veneers and CAD/CAM polymer restorations: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Saeidi Pour, Reza; Edelhoff, Daniel; Prandtner, Otto; Liebermann, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The complete dental rehabilitation of patients with a vertical dimension loss (VDL) caused by structural enamel deficits associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) represents a difficult challenge for restorative teams. Accurate analysis and treatment planning that includes esthetic and functional evaluations and adequate material selection are important prerequisites for successful results. Long-term provisional restorations play an important role in exploring and elucidating the patients' esthetic demands and functional needs. Restorative treatment options can vary from requiring only oral hygiene instructions to extensive dental restorations that include composite fillings, ceramic veneers, metal-ceramic, or all-ceramic crowns. This case report describes a full-mouth rehabilitation of a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta including the case planning, bite replacement, preparation, and restoration setting steps with an experimental CAD/CAM polymer and porcelain veneers.

  1. 40 CFR 63.2266 - Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operate a veneer redryer, you must record the inlet moisture content of the veneer processed in the... inlet veneer moisture content with your Notification of Compliance Status to show that your veneer redryer processes veneer with an inlet moisture content of less than or equal to 25 percent (by...

  2. 40 CFR 63.2266 - Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... If you operate a veneer redryer, you must record the inlet moisture content of the veneer processed... average inlet veneer moisture content with your Notification of Compliance Status to show that your veneer redryer processes veneer with an inlet moisture content of less than or equal to 25 percent (by...

  3. Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 μs at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 μm diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was

  4. The efficiency of different light sources to polymerize resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Usumez, S; Ozturk, B

    2004-02-01

    Plasma arc light units for curing resin composites have been introduced with the claim of relatively short curing times. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two different light sources to polymerize dual curing resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers. Twenty extracted healthy human maxillary centrals were used. Teeth were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin, labial surface facing up. Cavity preparation was carried out on labial surfaces. These teeth were divided into two groups of 10 each. The resin cement/veneer combination was exposed to two different photo polymerization units. A conventional halogen light (Hilux 350, Express Dental Products) and a plasma arc light (Power PAC, ADT) were used to polymerize resin cement. Ten specimens were polymerized conventionally (40 s) and the other specimens by plasma arc curing (PAC) (6 s). Two samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microshear testing and failure values were recorded. Statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of veneers exposed to conventional light and PAC unit (P < 0.001). Samples polymerized with halogen light showed better bond strength. The results of this study suggest that the curing efficiency of PAC through ceramic was lower compared with conventional polymerization for the exposure durations tested in this study.

  5. Direct laminate veneers with resin composites: two case reports with five-year follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Barutcugil, Cagatay

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this report is to present five-year follow-ups of two different applications for the use of direct laminate resin-based composite veneers to improve esthetics. Defects in the maxillary anterior teeth, such as enamel hypoplasia and peg lateral, can present esthetic challenges. Furthermore, a treatment plan that can be completed in a single appointment is highly desirable. This case report presents two different clinical cases involving the use of direct laminate resin-based composite veneers with five-year follow-ups. Case 1: A 17-year-old female patient was referred for treatment of her anterior teeth, which were unesthetically altered due to enamel hypoplasia and dental caries. A treatment plan was developed that included restoring the affected teeth with direct resin-based composite laminate veneers to improve the patient's appearance. The six maxillary anterior teeth were prepared for and restored with direct resin-based composite laminate veneers. At the five-year follow-up, the patient was satisfied with the restorations both esthetically and functionally. Case 2: A 15-year-old female patient also was referred for treatment to improve the appearance of her maxillary anterior teeth. A treatment plan was developed with two objectives: (1) to restore the undersized supernumerary crown in the area of the maxillary right lateral incisor and (2) to close the anterior diastemas. The facial surfaces were conservatively prepared and resin-based composite was applied with the aid of transparent crown forms. After completion of the treatment, the patient was recalled at six-month intervals. At the five-year follow-up appointment, the restorations were intact, no adverse effects were noted, and the resultant appearance was highly satisfactory for the patient. The use of direct resin-based composite laminate veneers and adhesive bonding systems has been shown to provide an esthetic alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns for the rehabilitation of

  6. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based, glass-ceramic, molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Jadaan, Osama M; Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F

    2013-11-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally loaded 1.6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8mm/0.8mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4mm/1.2mm). CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  7. [Influence of veneer application on failure behavior and reliability of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic molar crowns].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya-ru; Pan, Yu; Cao, Shan-shan; Zhang, Xin-ping; Zhao, Ke

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of veneer application on failure behavior and reliability of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) crowns of maxillary first molar, and thus to reveal the failure mechanism of bilayered LDG crowns. Twenty-six LDG maxillary first molar crowns were fabricated in a dental laboratory using IPS e. max Press or IPS e. max Press/Ceram. The crowns were randomly assigned into two groups (with or without veneer application) with thirteen in each group. The crowns were cemented on composite resin dies. After storage in water for one week, the sliding-contact fatigue test was performed by sliding the steatite ceramic ball indenter (6 mm in diameter) from central fossa up to the lingual surface of disto-buccal cusp, cyclic loaded 1 200 000 times with a weight of 100 N at 2 Hz with a fatigue chewing simulator. Survived specimens were subjected to single-load-to-fracture testing using a steatite ceramic ball of 6 mm in diameter at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine. Fracture load values were recorded and analyzed with t test. Weibull modulus was calculated to evaluate structure reliability. Fractographic analysis was carried out to determine fracture modes of the failed specimens by a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analysis results indicated a significant difference of the fracture load values between monolithic group [(2071.23 ± 397.05) N] and bilayered group [(1483.41 ± 327.87) N] (P < 0.001). Monolithic and bilayered groups present similar Weibull modulus (95% confidence interval) as 6.15 (5.15 ∼ 7.15) and 5.54 (4.01 ∼ 7.08) respectively, with no significant difference (the confidence bounds overlapped with each other). Bulk fracture initiating from the middle of oblique ridge of the first maxilla molar was the primary failure mode of monolithic/bilayered LDG crowns. Crack propagation initiated from core-veneer interfacial defects was another major failure mode of bilayered

  8. Minimally invasive veneers: current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Vanlıoğlu, Burçin Akoğlu; Kulak-Özkan, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic veneers are considered a conservative solution for patients requiring improvement of the shape, color, or position of their anterior teeth. Ceramic veneers have been extensively and successfully used to mask intrinsic staining, to give the appearance of straightening, and to correct minor malformations of anterior teeth without the removal of substantial amounts of sound tooth substance. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success and correct application of ceramic veneers. PMID:25506248

  9. Minimally invasive veneers: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Vanlıoğlu, Burçin Akoğlu; Kulak-Özkan, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic veneers are considered a conservative solution for patients requiring improvement of the shape, color, or position of their anterior teeth. Ceramic veneers have been extensively and successfully used to mask intrinsic staining, to give the appearance of straightening, and to correct minor malformations of anterior teeth without the removal of substantial amounts of sound tooth substance. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success and correct application of ceramic veneers.

  10. Determining tensile properties of sweetgum veneer flakes

    Treesearch

    Eddie W. Price

    1976-01-01

    Rotary-cut sweetgum veneer flakes measuring 3 inches along the grain, 3/8 inch wide, and 0.015 inch thick, were stressed in tension parallel to the grain at gage lengths from 0.50 to 1.25 inches for unpressed control and at 0.75 inch gage length for flakes pressed in a flakeboard mat. The control fkaes had an average tensile strength of 9,400 psi for the smaller gage...

  11. Determining tensile properties of sweetgum veneer flakes

    Treesearch

    E.W. Price

    1976-01-01

    Rotary-cut 8weetgum veneer flakes measuring 3 inchee along the grain, 3/8 inch wide, and 0.015 inch thick, were stressed in tension parallel to the grain at gage lengths from 0.00 to 1.25 inchee for unpressed control and at 0.75 inch gage length for flakes pressed in a flakeboard mat. The control flakes had an average tensile strength of 9,400 psi for the smaller age...

  12. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation

    PubMed Central

    Anusavice, Kenneth J.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Esquivel–Upshaw, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. Objective The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6 mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Materials and methods Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Results Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally-loaded 1,6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8 mm/0.8 mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4 mm/1.2 mm). Conclusion CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. Significance The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. PMID:24060349

  13. Layered color of all-ceramic core and veneer ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Jin-Soo

    2007-05-01

    Color of an all-ceramic restoration is the result of interaction between core and veneer ceramics. However, the influence on color of the different types of all-ceramic core and veneer combinations at clinically relevant thicknesses is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to measure the layered color of all-ceramic core and veneer combinations with the thickness of the core set as the clinically minimum thickness to mask the background, and the thickness of the veneer set as the remaining available thickness within a clinically allowable thickness. The A2-corresponding shade of 7 all-ceramic core materials, and 1 sintering ceramic and 1 alloy core as references, were prepared in clinically minimum thicknesses (0.4 to 0.8 mm) to mask the background (n=7). The A2 and A3 corresponding shades of each recommended veneer ceramic were used to fabricate specimens that were 1.5 mm thick. The color of the core, veneer, and layered specimens was measured with a reflection spectrophotometer. Two-way ANOVA with the independent variables of the types of core and veneer ceramics on the layered color was used to analyze the data (alpha=.05). The influence of the color coordinates in the core and veneering ceramics on the layered color was analyzed with multiple regression analysis. CIE L( *), a( *), b( *), and C( *)(ab) values of A2- or A3-veneer layered specimens were influenced significantly by the combination of core and veneer ceramics (P<.001). The CIE L( *) values of layered specimens were primarily influenced by the CIE L( *) values of the core ceramic (P<.001). The other 3 parameters were primarily influenced by each corresponding parameter of veneer ceramic, based on multiple regression analyses (P<.001). The layered color of all-ceramic core and veneer ceramics in the clinically allowable thickness was different even when the same shade, keyed to a VITA guide, of core and veneer ceramics were layered. The color difference between each pair of A2- or A3

  14. Method for computing a roughness factor for veneer surfaces

    Treesearch

    C. -Y. Hse

    1972-01-01

    Equations for determining the roughness factor (ratio of true surface to apparent area) of rotary-cut veneer were derived from an assumed tracheid model. With data measured on southern pine veneers, the equations indicated that the roughness factor of latewood was near unity, whereas that of earlywood was about 2.

  15. Veneer industry and timber use, North Central Region, 1984.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1986-01-01

    Shows 1984 veneer log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with the 1980 data. Includes tables showing veneer log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central States...

  16. Factors affecting the quality of walnut lumber and veneer

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Cassens

    2004-01-01

    Walnut is a unique species in both its timber and wood characteristics. Although market conditions vary it is generally considered a valuable species. Because of these factors, setting quality (value) levels for both lumber and veneer can be involved. Lumber grades are quantitative thus straight forward once the system is understood. Determining quality in veneer is...

  17. Yield and ultrasonic modulus of elasticity of red maple veneer

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Steven Verhey; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Brian K. Brashaw; Crystal L. Pilon; Xiping Wang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for using red maple sawlogs to manufacture laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The primary objective was to determine the yield of ultrasonically graded veneer from red maple logs. A sample of 48 logs was obtained from six Eastern and Lake States in the United States. The logs were visually graded and shipped to a plywood...

  18. Powered Back-Up Roll. New Technology for Peeling Veneer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    measured while peeling Douglasfir veneer of different medium density fiberboard ( MDF ), and hardboard thicknesses. Veneer quality was not adversely affected...psi). The stand Is fabricated from 6-inch square tubing Common Industrial applications of this material are with a 318.inch waill thickness. The normal

  19. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1974.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Shows 1974 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data for 1972. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central...

  20. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1974-01-01

    Shows 1972 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data for 1970. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central...

  1. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1976.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1978-01-01

    Shows 1976 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data for 1974. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central...

  2. Veneer industry and timber use, North Central Region, 1988.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith; Ronald L. Hackett

    1990-01-01

    Shows 1988 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data in 1984. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central...

  3. Veneer industry and timber use, North Central Region, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Shows 1980 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake State (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data collected in 1976. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the...

  4. Relationship between stress wave velocities of green and dry veneer

    Treesearch

    Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship between the stress wave velocities of green and dry southern pine and Douglas-fir veneers. A commercial stress wave timer and a laboratory signal analysis system were used to measure the transit time required for an induced stress wave to travel the longitudinal length of each veneer. Stress wave transit times were measured in the...

  5. Defects in Hardwood Veneer Logs: Their Frequency and Importance

    Treesearch

    E.S. Harrar

    1954-01-01

    Most southern hardwood veneer and plywood plants have some method of classifying logs by grade to control the purchase price paid for logs bought on the open market. Such log-grading systems have been developed by experience and are dependent to a large extent upon the ability of the grader and his knowledge of veneer grades and yields required for the specific product...

  6. Southern pine veneer laminates at various moduli of elasticity

    Treesearch

    George E. Woodson

    1972-01-01

    Modulus of rigidity (GLT) of veneer laminates was shown to be unrelated to dynamic modulus of elasticity (Ed) of single veneers and also, within the range of samples tested, unrelated to specific gravity. Values determined by flexure test (GLR) were consistent with those from standard plate shear...

  7. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to porous zirconia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Sugano, Tsuyoshi; Usami, Hirofumi; Wakabayashi, Kazumichi; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Sekino, Tohru; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two types of porous zirconia and dense zirconia were used. The flexural strength of non-layered zirconia specimens and those of the layered zirconia specimens with veneering porcelain were examined. Furthermore, the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia was examined. The flexural strength of the non-layered specimens was 1,220 MPa for dense zirconia and 220 to 306 MPa for porous zirconia. The flexural strength of the layered specimens was 360 MPa for dense zirconia and 132 to 156 MPa for porous zirconia, when a load was applied to the porcelain side. The shear bond strength of porcelain veneered to dense zirconia was 27.4 MPa and that of porcelain veneered to porous zirconia was 33.6 to 35.1 MPa. This suggests that the veneering porcelain bonded strongly to porous zirconia although porous zirconia has a lower flexural strength than dense zirconia.

  8. Stress distribution in bone: single-unit implant prostheses veneered with porcelain or a new composite material.

    PubMed

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Kubilius, Ricardas; Eidukynas, Valdas; Raustia, Aune M

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to simulate dynamic and static occlusal loading on one unit fixed, implant-supported prostheses veneered with porcelain and with GRADIA in a 3-dimensional finite element model of the human mandible to analyze and compare the resultant stresses in the superstructures and in the supporting bone. Calculation and visualization of stress, deformation, and displacement of complex structures under simulated forces were evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA) using ANSYS. The device employed was from the OSTEOFIX Dental Implant System (Oulu, Finland), and the veneering materials used were standard dental porcelain and GC GRADIA (Tokyo, Japan), a new composite material. Two different loading conditions were considered: static and transitional or impact, each delivered in three different directions: horizontal (Fh) at 0 degrees , vertical (Fv) at 90 degrees , and oblique (Fo) at 120 degrees . The proportion of the force: magnitude was fh:fv:fo = 1:3.5:7. A vertical load of 500 N, a horizontal load of 143 N, and an oblique load of 1000 N were applied. The results showed that the highest stresses in the bone-implant interface occurred in the region of cortical bone adjacent to the first thread of implants in all models and varied within 6.5%. Maximum stresses and displacements were higher (7%) in those models with statically loaded implants as compared with those that had been dynamically loading. The direction of loading played a major role in determining stress levels and they varied at up to 85%. It was shown that with dynamic loads, the peak of 1.568 mm was registered in the model with the GRADIA veneering material. This displacement was 6.5% higher than that found with the Vita VMK 68 veneers. These results suggest that the implant superstructure-fixed single crown veneering materials-porcelain and GRADIA played minor influences to the displacements and stresses in the implant supported bone with a 1% variance. One of the reasons for this

  9. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    Gold and other alloys have long been used for the production of crowns and bridges as replacements for damaged or lost teeth. However, doubts have arisen on the suitability of using these materials for dental restorations, as gold has also shown a capacity to cause side-effects such as allergic reactions. This is especially valid for alloys, which during the last decades have been used as porcelain-fused-to metal restorations. This fact has led to an interest in using titanium instead of these alloys. Trials to use titanium for this purpose were initiated in Japan in the early 1980s. Titanium as an unalloyed metal differs in two aspects from the above named alloys: it has a phase transformation at 882 degrees C, which changes its outer and inner properties, and it has an expansion that lies between that of the porcelain types available on the market at the time. In Japan a technique for casting titanium was developed, where the after-treatment of the casting was elaborate, to re-establish the original properties of titanium. The porcelain developed for veneering had shortcomings as the rendering produced a rough surface and non satisfactory esthetics. In Sweden a new concept was introduced in 1989. Here the processing of titanium was performed by industrial methods such as milling, spark erosion and laser welding. The idea behind this was to avoid phase transformation. During the 1990s a number of porcelain products were launched and a vast number of both laboratory and clinical studies were performed and published, with varying results. In the first study of this thesis a prospective clinical trial was performed at a public dental health clinic in Sweden. Twenty-five patients were provided with 40 copings of pure titanium, which were veneered with porcelain. After 2 years 36 of these crowns were evaluated and the patients were also interviewed regarding problems such as shooting pains or difficulties in cleaning around the teeth that were crowned. This evaluation

  10. Biaxial flexural strength of bilayered zirconia using various veneering ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Chantranikul, Natravee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of one zirconia-based ceramic used with various veneering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia core material (Katana) and five veneering ceramics (Cerabien ZR; CZR, Lava Ceram; LV, Cercon Ceram Kiss; CC, IPS e.max Ceram; EM and VITA VM9; VT) were selected. Using the powder/liquid layering technique, bilayered disk specimens (diameter: 12.50 mm, thickness: 1.50 mm) were prepared to follow ISO standard 6872:2008 into five groups according to veneering ceramics as follows; Katana zirconia veneering with CZR (K/CZR), Katana zirconia veneering with LV (K/LV), Katana zirconia veneering with CC (K/CC), Katana zirconia veneering with EM (K/EM) and Katana zirconia veneering with VT (K/VT). After 20,000 thermocycling, load tests were conducted using a universal testing machine (Instron). The BFS were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (α=0.05). The Weibull analysis was performed for reliability of strength. The mode of fracture and fractured surface were observed by SEM. RESULTS It showed that K/CC had significantly the highest BFS, followed by K/LV. BFS of K/CZR, K/EM and K/VT were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower than the other two groups. Weibull distribution reported the same trend of reliability as the BFS results. CONCLUSION From the result of this study, the BFS of the bilayered zirconia/veneer composite did not only depend on the Young's modulus value of the materials. Further studies regarding interfacial strength and sintering factors are necessary to achieve the optimal strength. PMID:26576251

  11. Cement luting thickness beneath porcelain veneers made on platinum foil.

    PubMed

    Wall, J G; Reisbick, M H; Espeleta, K G

    1992-09-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers were made using a platinum foil matrix and were subsequently cemented to mandibular anterior Cymel teeth. Cement film thickness was measured in six predetermined locations. Repeated measures analysis of variance and single degree of freedom contrasts delineated a significant difference between marginal openings at the incisal edge where foil is folded and in four of the other vertical areas (132 versus 74.1 microns). Marginal cement film thickness of veneers made on platinum foil is less than that reported for veneers made on a refractory investment.

  12. Shear bond strength in zirconia veneered ceramics using two different surface treatments prior veneering.

    PubMed

    Gasparić, Lana Bergman; Schauperl, Zdravko; Mehulić, Ketij

    2013-03-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of the veneering ceramics to zirconia core. In a shear test the influence of grinding and sandblasting of the zirconia surface on bonding were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical package (version 17.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Office Excel 2003 (Microsoft, Seattle, WA, USA). There was a significant difference between the groups considering shear bond strength (SBS) values, i.e. ground and sandblasted samples had significantly higher SBS values than only ground samples (mean difference = -190.67; df = 10, t = -6.386, p < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that ground and sandblasted cores are superior to ground cores, allowing significantly higher surface roughness and significantly higher shear bond strength between the core and the veneering material.

  13. Thermo and mechanical cycling and veneering method do not influence Y-TZP core/veneer interface bond strength.

    PubMed

    Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Insaurralde, Elizeu; de Almeida, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga; do Valle, Accácio Lins

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of thermal and mechanical cycling and veneering technique on the shear bond strength of Y-TZP (yttrium oxide partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal) core-veneer interfaces. Cylindrical Y-TZP specimens were veneered either by layering (n=20) or by pressing technique (n=20). A metal ceramic group (CoCr) was used as control (n=20). Ten specimens for each group were thermal and mechanical cycled and then all samples were subjected to shear bond strength in a universal testing machine with a 0.5mm/min crosshead speed. Mean shear bond strength (MPa) was analysed with a 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Failure mode was determined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal and mechanical cycling had no influence on the shear bond strength for all groups. The CoCr group presented the highest bond strength value (p<0.05) (34.72 ± 7.05 MPa). There was no significant difference between Y-TZP veneered by layering (22.46 ± 2.08 MPa) or pressing (23.58 ± 2.1 MPa) technique. Failure modes were predominantly adhesive for CoCr group, and cohesive within veneer for Y-TZP groups. Thermal and mechanical cycling, as well as the veneering technique does not affect Y-TZP core-veneer bond strength. Different methods of veneering Y-TZP restorations would not influence the clinical performance of the core/veneer interfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photodegradation of heat treated hardwood veneers.

    PubMed

    Denes, Levente; Lang, Elemer M

    2013-01-05

    This paper outlines an investigation pertaining to color changes of hardwood veneers exposed to elevated temperature. The effects of convection and contact type heat applications on the different species were separately evaluated. The experimental analyses included two-factor, three-level randomized block designs, where the factors were the temperature and the duration of the exposure. Examined species included: Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated major overall effects with significant interactions between the factors for all species/heat-treatment combinations. However, pair wise comparisons (Tukey tests) revealed lack of significant differences within factors for certain levels. The gained information might be useful for adjusting drying or pressing time/temperature relations. Setting the desired colors by necessary processing operations has certain technological, economical and environmental advantages. The use of additional chemicals to create dark surfaces may be reduced or eliminated.

  15. Some causes of warping in plywood and veneered products

    Treesearch

    1966-01-01

    Requests are frequently received by the Forest Products Laboratory to examine warped plywood, veneered table tops, or similar products, to explain the cause of the warping, and if possible to suggest measures to remedy the difficulty.

  16. Mineral Detected from Orbit Found in Dark Veneers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-23

    Researchers used NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity to find a water-related mineral on the ground that had been detected from orbit, and found it in the dark veneer of rocks on the rim of Endeavour Crater.

  17. Mandibular ceramic veneers: an examination of complex cases.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R L

    1995-05-01

    The indications for mandibular anterior ceramic veneers, tooth preparation design, provisionalization considerations, and placement procedures were presented in a previous article by the author. The functional utility, tissue biocompatibility, and dissimilarities of mandibular veneers, in comparison to maxillary anterior ceramic veneers, were explored, along with indications and contraindications for this form of treatment. This article demonstrates the aesthetic range of these restorations in the context of more complex cases. The learning objective of this article is to illustrate the viability of mandibular ceramic veneers in realigning teeth nonorthodontically, while sustaining the biologic health of the periodontium, stability of the occlusion, and aesthetic parameters of each case. The importance of wax mock-ups is outlined for visualization of the final result, as well as the evaluation of root proximity to avoid subgingival ledging of the teeth and subsequent periodontal disease. Orthodontics and other methods for the correction of anterior crowding are discussed.

  18. Nightguard vital bleaching beneath existing porcelain veneers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haywood, V B; Parker, M H

    1999-11-01

    Dentist-prescribed, at-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide was used to lighten the apparent color of teeth with preexisting porcelain veneers. Veneers had been placed over unprepared, tetracycline-stained teeth; the translucency of the veneers over the discolored teeth resulted in a graying of the veneers. A custom-fitted tray with no reservoirs and no gingival scalloping was fabricated. A 10% carbamide peroxide material was applied nightly for 9 months to achieve the maximum change in the underlying tooth color. The patient was pleased with the apparent color change. Tooth sensitivity during treatment was minimal (lasting 4 days total); the patient treated sensitivity by brushing with a potassium nitrate-containing toothpaste or applying fluoride in the tray.

  19. Straight studs from southern pine veneer cores and cordwood

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1968-01-01

    An economically feasible system has been developed for converting southern pine veneer cores into straight 8-foot studs (2). Prototype studs - two per core - were 100 percent SPIB stud grade and better.

  20. Review on antibacterial biocomposites of structural laminated veneer lumber

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xiang; Lei, Qiong; He, Rui-lin; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the characteristics and applications of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood is introduced, and its preparation is explained, including various tree species and slab qualities, treatments for multiple effects and reinforced composites. The relevant factors in the bonding technology and pressing processes as well as the mechanical properties, research direction and application prospects of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood are discussed. PMID:26858559

  1. Aesthetic Management of Fluoresced Teeth with Ceramic Veneers and Direct Composite Bonding – An Overview and A Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Shah, Harsh Haren; Paliwal, Ashutosh; Parikh, Viral

    2015-01-01

    Tooth discolouration is a common problem and affects people of all ages. Apart from the conventional treatment modalities for the same, newer options are available today with better techniques and materials. The present case report describes a 17-year-old girl who had stained and pitted teeth, attributable to dental fluorosis and she desired aesthetic treatment for the same. The pros and cons of all treatment options were carefully weighed and a multistep treatment process involving ceramic veneers and direct bonding were planned. The execution of the planned treatment yielded a good aesthetic and functional outcome. PMID:26266231

  2. Effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Chun; Waddell, J Neil; Prior, David J; Ting, Stephanie; Girvan, Liz; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Swain, Michael V

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain. The strain energy release rate using a four-point bending stable fracture test was evaluated for two different porcelains [leucite containing (VM9) and glass (Zirox) porcelain] veneered to zirconia. Prior to veneering the zirconia had been subjected to 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 autoclave cycles. The specimens were manufactured to a total bi-layer dimension of 30 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to identify the phase transformation and fracture behavior. The strain energy release rate for debonding of the VM9 specimens were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the Zirox specimens across all test groups. Increasing autoclave cycles lowered the strain energy release rate significantly (p<0.05) from 18.67 J/m(2) (control) to the lowest of 12.79 J/m(2) (cycle 10) for only the VM9 specimens. SEM analyses showed predominant cohesive fracture within the porcelain for all cycle groups. XRD analysis of the substrate prior to veneering confirmed a tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation with increasing the number of autoclave cycles between 5 and 20. The monoclinic phase reverted back to tetragonal phase after undergoing conventional porcelain firing cycles. EBSD data showed significant changes of the grain size distribution between the control and autoclaved specimen (cycle 20). Increasing autoclave cycles only significantly decreased the adhesion of the VM9 layered specimens. In addition, a conventional porcelain firing schedule completely reverted the monoclinic phase back to tetragonal. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface preparations for metal frameworks of composite resin veneered prostheses made with an adhesive opaque resin.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Kawahara, M; Tanaka, T; Atsuta, M

    1991-07-01

    Bond strengths of a laboratory developed light-cured composite resin to dental casting alloys were evaluated with a new adhesive opaque resin. The metal specimens were type III gold, nickel-chromium, and cobalt-chromium alloys, while the surface treatments for bonding were heating, Sn plating, and ion coating. The cast metal specimens were "particle blasted" with aluminum oxide and were surface treated. Adhesive 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin was applied and a light-cured composite resin was placed over the opaque layer. The prepared specimens were thermocycled in water and shear bond strengths were recorded. The light-cured composite resin was bonded strongly to heated or Sn-plated type III alloy with 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin. Copper ion coating in a sputter coater was effective for all three alloys, with only slightly diminished bond strengths. These methods were satisfactory for making composite resin veneered prostheses.

  4. Three generations of zirconia: 
From veneered to monolithic. Part II.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Keul, Christin; Eichberger, Marlis; Figge, David; Edelhoff, Daniel; Lümkemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the historical development of the different generations of zirconia and their range of indications, from veneered to monolithic zirconia restorations. While Part I concentrated on detailed information about the development of zirconia for dental use and the mechanical and optical properties, Part II deals with the resulting guidelines for working with the relevant generations by summarizing the correct cementation procedure. Furthermore, this part also focuses on translucency measurements for better characterization and understanding of the different materials. The results obtained from measuring light transmission and contrast ratio are compared and discussed in detail, with the aid of clinical photographs. Finally, the reader is given practice-relevant recommendations for different areas of clinical use of the zirconia generations along with advice on how to process them appropriately.

  5. Contrast ratios and masking ability of three types of ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Frederick C S; Chow, Tak W; Chai, John

    2007-11-01

    Although ceramic veneers have been proven to be clinically successful in longevity studies, there is little information on the contrast ratios and masking ability of the available ceramic systems because dental laboratory technology and expensive experimental equipment are required for the investigation. Moreover, the complexity in understanding how to evaluate translucent ceramic materials may also explain why information in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the contrast ratios and masking abilities of 3 types of all-ceramic veneers by measuring their luminance and color difference over white and black backgrounds. Disk-shaped specimens (8-mm diameter x 0.7-mm thickness) of Shade A2 (Vita Lumin) of 3 types of all-ceramic systems: Procera (n=8), Empress 2 (n=8), and Vitadur Alpha (n=10) were fabricated. The luminance (as Y) and color (as CIE L*a*b*) of the specimens were measured with a colorimeter. The contrast ratio (CR=Yb/Yw), defined as the ratio of illuminance (Y) of the test material when it is placed on the black background (Yb) to the illuminance of the same material when it is placed over a white background (Yw), was determined. The masking ability of a specimen was evaluated by calculating the color difference (DeltaE) of the veneers over white and black backgrounds. Both CR and DeltaE* data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (alpha=.05). The mean contrast ratios (SD) of Procera, Empress 2, and Vitadur Alpha specimens were 0.50 (0.02), 0.46 (0.05), and 0.39 (0.02), respectively. CR values were significantly different among the 3 materials (P<.001). Procera veneers had a significantly higher CR compared to Empress 2 (P=.01) or Vitadur Alpha (P=.01), whereas the CR of Empress 2 was significantly higher than that of Vitadur Alpha (P=.046). Color difference (DeltaE*) (SD) of Procera, Empress 2, and Vitadur Alpha specimens over black and white backgrounds were 24.46 (1.03), 25.80 (1.03), and 31.08 (1

  6. Effect of Ceramic Thickness and Luting Agent Shade on the Color Masking Ability of Laminate Veneers.

    PubMed

    Begum, Zubeda; Chheda, Pratik; Shruthi, C S; Sonika, Radhika

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to recognize the effect of ceramic thickness and luting agent on the extent to which the restoration masks color variations that may be present in the underlying dental structure. Two pressable ceramics were used: Lithium disilicate reinforced (IPS e.max- Ivoclar Vivadent) and Leucite reinforced (Cergo- Dentsply). Fifteen ceramic discs were manufactured from each ceramic and divided into three groups, according to the thickness (0.5, 1, 1.5 mm). To simulate the color of a dark underlying dental structure, background discs, color C3, with 20 mm diameter, were made using resin composite. The ceramic discs with varying thicknesses were seated on the dark background of the resin composite with either resinous opaque cement or resinous cement. The color parameters were determined by the CIE Lab system of colors using a spectrophotometer and color differences (ΔE) were calculated. The results were then statistically analyzed, using ANOVA test and Tukey HSD test. The ΔE values of both ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P < 0.05). The use of an opaque luting agent resulted in an increase of the ΔE* values for all ceramics tested, regardless of the thickness. For the 1.5-mm thick veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for both ceramic materials. The color masking ability of ceramics used for laminate veneers is significantly affected by the thickness of the ceramic and the shade of the luting agent used.

  7. Clinical Evaluation of Dental Restorative Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    of Nonprecious Alloys for Use with Porcelain Veneers . Part One, Physical Properties, J. Prosth Dent, 30: 424-431, 1973. Page 13...manufacturer (Jelenko and Company, Armonk, New York) recommends the use of their "thermotrol" casting set up. Attempt to cast this alloy with this piece of ...Nielsen, J.P. and Tuccillo, J’.J.: Calculations of Interfacial Stress in Dental Porcelain Bonded to Gold Alloy Substrate

  8. Production and receipts of veneer logs in the Southeastern and Midsouth States, 1988

    Treesearch

    John B. Tansey; Dennis M. May

    1991-01-01

    Veneer-log production in the 12 Southern States totaled 4.7 billion board feet in 1988, up 11 percent from 1984. In 1988, 151 mills in the south received 4.7 billion board feet of veneer logs. In 1988 imports of veneer logs into the South exceeded exports by 17 million board feet. Yellow pines make up 90 percent of the South.s harvest of veneer logs. Ninety percent of...

  9. Fire and bending properties of blockboard with fire retardant treated veneers

    Treesearch

    T. Laufenberg; N. Ayrilmis; R. White

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated fire and bending properties of blockboards with various fire retardant treated veneers. Blockboards were manufactured using untreated fir strips and sandwiched between treated ekaba veneers at final assembly. The veneers were treated with either boric acid (BA), disodium octoborate tetrahydrate (DOT), alumina trihydrate (ATH), or a BA/DOT mixture....

  10. Veneer recovery of Douglas-fir from the Coast and Cascade Ranges of Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey; Susan A. Willlts

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of veneer recovery studies at a plywood plant in Oregon and one in Washington. Both mills peeled and clipped to maximize volume and veneer grade recovery, but because they had different objectives and techniques, both volume and grade recovery differed between the two mills. Results for veneer blocks and for woods-length logs are...

  11. An overview of silvicultural influences on loblolly pine veneer-basedpanel properties

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) harvested from five silviculturally different stands was used to manufacture 13-ply laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and 3-ply plywood. LVL panels were assembled as either all A-grade or all C-grade veneer. Plywood panels were produced according to four different veneer grade layups (AAA, ACA, ACC, and...

  12. In vitro chipping behaviour of all-ceramic crowns with a zirconia framework and feldspathic veneering: comparison of CAD/CAM-produced veneer with manually layered veneer.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the breaking load of zirconia-based crowns veneered with either CAD/CAM-produced or manually layered feldspathic ceramic. Thirty-two identical zirconia frameworks (Sirona inCoris ZI, mono L F1), 0·6 mm thick with an anatomically shaped occlusal area, were constructed (Sirona inLab 3.80). Sixteen of the crowns were then veneered by the use of CAD/CAM-fabricated feldspathic ceramic (CEREC Bloc, Sirona) and 16 by the use of hand-layered ceramic. The CAD/CAM-manufactured veneer was attached to the frameworks by the use of Panavia 2.0 (Kuraray). Half of the specimens were loaded until failure without artificial ageing; the other half of the specimens underwent thermal cycling and cyclic loading (1·2 million chewing cycles, force magnitude F(max) = 108 N) before the assessment of the ultimate load. To investigate the new technique further, finite element (FE) computations were conducted on the basis of the original geometry. Statistical assessment was made by the use of non-parametric tests. Initial breaking load was significantly higher in the hand-layered group than in the CAD/CAM group (mean: 1165·86 N versus 395·45 N). During chewing simulation, however, 87·5% (7/8) of the crowns in the hand-layered group failed, whereas no crown in the CAD/CAM group failed. The CAD/CAM-produced veneer was significantly less sensitive to ageing than the hand-layered veneer.

  13. Influence of bruxism on survival of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Granell-Ruíz, Maria; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether bruxism and the use of occlusal splints affect the survival of porcelain laminate veneers in patients treated with this technique. Restorations were made in 70 patients, including 30 patients with some type of parafunctional habit. A total of 323 veneers were placed, 170 in patients with bruxism activity, and the remaining 153 in patients without it. A clinical examination determined the presence or absence of ceramic failure (cracks, fractures and debonding) of the restorations; these incidents were analyzed for association with bruxism and the use of splints. Analysis of the ceramic failures showed that of the 13 fractures and 29 debonding that were present in our study, 8 fractures and 22 debonding were related to the presence of bruxism. Porcelain laminate veneers are a predictable treatment option that provides excellent results, recognizing a higher risk of failure in patients with bruxism activity. The use of occlusal splints reduces the risk of fractures.

  14. Composite veneering of metal based fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, M; Behr, M; Brückner, H; Handel, G

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the thermal mechanical properties of veneering composites after polymerization with the appropriate polymerization device. Fracture tests were performed to investigate the effect on fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was used to determine the temperature-dependent mechanical properties. To approximate the clinical situation, the fracture resistance of three-unit metal-based FPDs with different composite veneering was investigated after a simulated 5-year oral wearing period. The restorations were made of a high gold alloy and veneered with three different composites. To determine the influence of fabrication, one composite was used in a light-polymerizing and a heat/pressure-curing version and, in addition, a newly developed heat protection paste was used. After a 5-year simulation period, the fracture resistance was determined. The storage modulus varied between 14268 N mm(-2) (Belleglass) and 6616 N mm(-2) (Sinfony). Adoro showed no significant differences between light curing (9155 N mm(-2)) and heat curing (8184 N mm(-2)) variations. The Adoro-veneering with the heat protection paste showed the highest median fracture strength (1700 N), followed by Adoro LC (1555 N), Belleglass (1051 N), Adoro HP (1150 N) and Sinfony (909 N). The most common failure type occurring in all FPDs was a cracking of the composite, exposing the metal framework. All FPDs showed stress cracking of the composite. The heat protection paste seemed to reduce the crack formation after fabrication and increased the fracture resistance of the composite veneering. Stress cracking after thermal cycling and mechanical loading affected all composites, but all veneered three-unit alloy FPDs showed a fracture resistance sufficient for posterior application.

  15. Endo-restorative treatment of a severly discolored upper incisor: resolution of the “aesthetic” problem through Componeer veneering System

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Romeo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental aesthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct or indirect veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. The aim of the study is to evaluate clinically the effectiveness of a direct composite veneering system in resolving aesthetic problem of an upper incisor with a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Methods Patient with a severe discolored upper incisor came to our attention; at the X-ray exam there was an evidence of a past not good root canal treatment and also old and incongruent composite obturation. After removing all the material inside the root canal was performed a new correct endodontic filling, then Authors tried to bleach the tooth trough “walking-bleach” technique with a hydrogen peroxide (30 volumes) and sodium perborate solution without excellent results. So it was decided to insert a glass-fiber post and than to perform a direct composite veneer with Componeer System (Coltene). Componeer System is a system of prefabricated composite veneers that are abled to be applied directly in the first appointment: after a conservative preparation of the tooth, it must be used an adhesive agent (for example a “three steps”) and then with composite stratification it’s possible to apply the componeer veneer (choosing the right measure, modified as necessary) as the last covering aesthetic layer. Result The evaluation of result of this multidisciplinary treatment was essentially clinical and radiological; in fact it’s possible to observe, from a clinical point of view, the good aesthetic aspect of the direct composite restoration with componeer veneer that offers also some advantages: conservative preparation with

  16. Effects of core characters and veneering technique on biaxial flexural strength in porcelain fused to metal and porcelain veneered zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ju-Won; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Ahn, Seung-Geun; Park, Ju-Mi; Lee, Min-Ho

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the core materials, thickness and fabrication methods of veneering porcelain on prosthesis fracture in the porcelain fused to metal and the porcelain veneered zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty nickel-chrome alloy cores and 40 zirconia cores were made. Half of each core group was 0.5 mm-in thickness and the other half was 1.0 mm-in thickness. Thus, there were four groups with 20 cores/group. Each group was divided into two subgroups with two different veneering methods (conventional powder/liquid layering technique and the heat-pressing technique). Tensile strength was measured using the biaxial flexural strength test based on the ISO standard 6872:2008 and Weibull analysis was conducted. Factors influencing fracture strength were analyzed through three-way ANOVA (α≤.05) and the influence of core thickness and veneering method in each core materials was assessed using two-way ANOVA (α≤.05). RESULTS The biaxial flexural strength test showed that the fabrication method of veneering porcelain has the largest impact on the fracture strength followed by the core thickness and the core material. In the metal groups, both the core thickness and the fabrication method of the veneering porcelain significantly influenced on the fracture strength, while only the fabrication method affected the fracture strength in the zirconia groups. CONCLUSION The fabrication method is more influential to the strength of a prosthesis compared to the core character determined by material and thickness of the core. PMID:26576250

  17. Effects of core characters and veneering technique on biaxial flexural strength in porcelain fused to metal and porcelain veneered zirconia.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ju-Won; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Ahn, Seung-Geun; Park, Ju-Mi; Lee, Min-Ho; Seo, Jae-Min

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the core materials, thickness and fabrication methods of veneering porcelain on prosthesis fracture in the porcelain fused to metal and the porcelain veneered zirconia. Forty nickel-chrome alloy cores and 40 zirconia cores were made. Half of each core group was 0.5 mm-in thickness and the other half was 1.0 mm-in thickness. Thus, there were four groups with 20 cores/group. Each group was divided into two subgroups with two different veneering methods (conventional powder/liquid layering technique and the heat-pressing technique). Tensile strength was measured using the biaxial flexural strength test based on the ISO standard 6872:2008 and Weibull analysis was conducted. Factors influencing fracture strength were analyzed through three-way ANOVA (α≤.05) and the influence of core thickness and veneering method in each core materials was assessed using two-way ANOVA (α≤.05). The biaxial flexural strength test showed that the fabrication method of veneering porcelain has the largest impact on the fracture strength followed by the core thickness and the core material. In the metal groups, both the core thickness and the fabrication method of the veneering porcelain significantly influenced on the fracture strength, while only the fabrication method affected the fracture strength in the zirconia groups. The fabrication method is more influential to the strength of a prosthesis compared to the core character determined by material and thickness of the core.

  18. Joining dental ceramic layers with glass.

    PubMed

    Saied, M A; Lloyd, I K; Haller, W K; Lawn, B R

    2011-10-01

    Test the hypothesis that glass-bonding of free-form veneer and core ceramic layers can produce robust interfaces, chemically durable and esthetic in appearance and, above all, resistant to delamination. Layers of independently produced porcelains (NobelRondo™ Press porcelain, Nobel BioCare AB and Sagkura Interaction porcelain, Elephant Dental) and matching alumina or zirconia core ceramics (Procera alumina, Nobel BioCare AB, BioZyram yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Cyrtina Dental) were joined with designed glasses, tailored to match thermal expansion coefficients of the components and free of toxic elements. Scanning electron microprobe analysis was used to characterize the chemistry of the joined interfaces, specifically to confirm interdiffusion of ions. Vickers indentations were used to drive controlled corner cracks into the glass interlayers to evaluate the toughness of the interfaces. The glass-bonded interfaces were found to have robust integrity relative to interfaces fused without glass, or those fused with a resin-based adhesive. The structural integrity of the interfaces between porcelain veneers and alumina or zirconia cores is a critical factor in the longevity of all-ceramic dental crowns and fixed dental prostheses. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  19. Three years in vivo wear: core-ceramic, veneers, and enamel antagonists.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F; Rose, William F; Barrett, Allyson A; Oliveira, Erica R; Yang, Mark C K; Clark, Arthur E; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2012-06-01

    Test the hypotheses that there are equivalent wear rates for enamel-versus-enamel and ceramic-versus-enamel, analyzing the in vivo wear of crown ceramics, their natural enamel antagonists, and the corresponding two contralateral teeth; and, that bite force does not correlate with the wear. A controlled, clinical trial was conducted involving patients needing full coverage crowns opposing enamel antagonists. Bite forces were measured using a bilateral gnathodynamometer. Single-unit restorations of metal/ceramic (Argedent 62, Argen Corp/IPS d.SIGN veneer); or, core-ceramic/veneer from either, Empress2/Eris, or e.max Press core/e.max Ceram glaze (ceramics: Ivoclar Vivadent, USA) were randomly assigned, fabricated and cemented. Impressions were made of the ceramic crowns, as well as each maxillary and mandibular quadrant at one week (baseline) and one, two and three years. Resulting models were scanned (3D laser scanner). Maximum wear was calculated by superimposing baseline with annual images. There were a total of thirty-six crowns required for thirty-one patients. Each restoration had three associated enamel teeth: crown, (1) antagonist, (2) contralateral and (3) contralateral-antagonist. SAS PROC MIXED (α=0.05) indicated no statistical significance for mean maximum wear among crown ceramics, enamel antagonists and contralaterals. However, enamel wear was statistically significant in relation to intraoral location (p=0.04) and among years (p<0.02). Analyzed alone, the enamel contralateral-antagonist exhibited significantly greater wear (p<0.001). Considering all wear sites, there was no correlation with bite force (p=0.15). The ceramics and their antagonists exhibited in vivo wear rates within the range of normal enamel. Future studies should examine the wear implications of the contralateral-antagonist enamel. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural feasibility of parallel-laminated veneer crossarms

    Treesearch

    John Youngquist; Frank Brey; Joseph Jung

    1977-01-01

    Experimentally and commercially produced laminated M-19 crossarms were tested by standard Rural Electrification Administration (REA) crossarm tests. The laminated crossarms, produced by laminating veneer and by laminating solid-sawn dimension stock, generally performed satisfactorily according to REA specified standards. Materials tested are described and results on...

  1. Influence of bruxism on survival of porcelain laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Solá-Ruíz, María F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to determine whether bruxism and the use of occlusal splints affect the survival of porcelain laminate veneers in patients treated with this technique. Material and Methods: Restorations were made in 70 patients, including 30 patients with some type of parafunctional habit. A total of 323 veneers were placed, 170 in patients with bruxism activity, and the remaining 153 in patients without it. A clinical examination determined the presence or absence of ceramic failure (cracks, fractures and debonding) of the restorations; these incidents were analyzed for association with bruxism and the use of splints. Results: Analysis of the ceramic failures showed that of the 13 fractures and 29 debonding that were present in our study, 8 fractures and 22 debonding were related to the presence of bruxism. Conclusions: Porcelain laminate veneers are a predictable treatment option that provides excellent results, recognizing a higher risk of failure in patients with bruxism activity. The use of occlusal splints reduces the risk of fractures. Key words:Veneer, fracture, debonding, bruxism, occlusal splint. PMID:23986018

  2. Effect of Silviculture on the Yield and Quality of Veneers

    Treesearch

    Leslie H. Groom; Ray Newbold; Jim Guldin

    2002-01-01

    The structural and aesthetic value of wood is typically sacrificed in an attempt to meet demand. This paper addresses the financial and quality aspects of silvicultural choices as it relates to wood veneers. Five trees each were harvested from an uneven-aged stand and from the following even- aged stands: intensive plantation, conventional plantation, and natural...

  3. Water removal of wet veneer by roller pressing

    Treesearch

    Koji Adachi; Masafumi Inoue; Kozo Kanayama; Roger M. Rowell; Shuichi Kawai

    2004-01-01

    High moisture content, flat sawn Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) veneer was compressed using a roller press to mechanically remove water. The amount of water removed depended on the amount of compression applied. At 60% compression, 400 kg/m3 of water was removed. The process was not dependent on the size of the wood, the degree of compression, or the feed...

  4. Chapter 8:Properties of red maple laminated veneer lumber

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang; Brian K. Brashaw; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported in this chapter was to examine the flexural properties of LVL manufactured from ultrasonically rated red maple veneer sheets. The specific objectives were: 1. to determine the flatwise and edgewise bending properties of ½ inch-(1.3-cm-) thick red maple LVL billets, and 2. to examine the relationship between nondestructive parameters of...

  5. Veneer-log production and consumption, North Central Region, 1966.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1968-01-01

    Veneer-log production in 1966 was about 51 million board feet in the Lake States and 37 million in the Central States. The Lake States hard maple harvest exceeded 13 million board feet, up 1.3 million from 1965. The walnut harvest in the Central States was nearly 15 million board feet.

  6. Fracture of porcelain-veneered structures in fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kim, B; Zhang, Y; Pines, M; Thompson, V P

    2007-02-01

    Porcelain-veneered crowns are widely used in modern dentistry, and their fracture remains problematic, especially in all-ceramic systems. We hypothesized that substructure properties have a significant effect on the longevity of porcelain-veneered crowns. Flat porcelain/metal or porcelain/ceramic structures were cemented to dentin-like composite, and a mouth-motion cyclic load of 200 N was delivered by means of a tungsten carbide spherical indenter (r = 3.18 mm), emulating occlusal loading on crowns supported by dentin. Findings indicated that porcelain on a low-hardness gold-infiltrated alloy was vulnerable to both occlusal surface contact damage and porcelain lower surface radial fracture, while porcelain on a higher-hardness palladium-silver alloy fractured chiefly from occlusal surface damage. The advantage of a high-modulus metal substructure was less pronounced. Fracture in the porcelain/zirconia system was limited to surface damage in the veneer layer, similar to that in the porcelain/palladium-silver system. Bulk fracture, observed in veneered alumina layers, was not found for zirconia.

  7. Stress-wave grading techniques on veneer sheets

    Treesearch

    Joseph Jung

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare stress wave devices and determine the information available from stress waves in veneer sheets. The distortion of the stress wave as it passed a defect indicated that an estimate of the location and size of the defect can be obtained but information regarding wood quality is lost in the areas immediately behind a knot.

  8. Veneer grade yield from pruned Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Edward J. II Dimock; Henry H. Haskell

    1962-01-01

    This paper reports actual veneer yields obtained from 10 trees pruned at age 38 and harvested 20 years later. Information of this kind is needed to help determine if and when to prune and ultimately will be essential to a thorough economic analysis of expected returns from pruning.

  9. Veneer-reinforced particleboard for exterior structural composition board

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Hui Pan; Fu Feng

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of panels consisting of a veneer face and a particleboard core composed of mixed wood particles/powdered-recycled polyethylene (PE) bag waste (MWP) using urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin as a binder. The addition of 25 percent powdered-recycled PE bag waste to the MWP panels did not...

  10. Wet-preserved hemp fibreboard properties improvement with veneering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilovs, E.; Kukle, S.; Gusovius, H.-J.

    2015-03-01

    The initial research describes a new type of fiber boards for the furniture interior design, developed in cooperation with ATB (Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering) by using a new method of raw materials preparation and specific production technologies of ATB. The main raw materials are aerobically aged hemp stalks. The samples are made of hemp chips with a long preservation time and fastened together with the UF glue. Specimens are 8 mm thick and correspond to a medium-density fiberboard, fitting standard EN622. Due to the fact that non-veneered material can be used only in non-load-bearing constructions, material improving technologies were studied, such as increase of board density, increase of glue percentage, partially substitution of wet-preserved hemp chips with a dry hemp and/or wooden chips to equalize moisture content of obtained mixture. The particular article describes how the new material is veneered with the oak veneer obtaining three-ply composite board with the improved mechanical properties that allows to use these boards in a load-bearing constructions. Tests are performed with the veneered material to determine such parameters as static bending strength (MOR), modulus of elasticity in static bending (MOE), swelling in thickness and hardness.

  11. The changing veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin.

    Treesearch

    Gary R. Lindell; Lewis T. Hendricks

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes trends in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin between 1964 and 1969. In that period, red oak and hard maple replaced yellow birch as the major species used. Log supplies were adequate. Wall paneling was the major end market with doorskins next. Excess plywood producing capacity is a chronic problem.

  12. Porcelain veneer fabrication. Platinum foil and refractory model techniques.

    PubMed

    Williams, T

    1994-05-01

    A quality porcelain veneer restoration can be made by either the refractory die method or by platinum foil. The platinum foil method produces excellent results with more traditional means. The refractory method can produce equally excellent results as well, but requires more effort in model making.

  13. Tensile strength of bilayered ceramics and corresponding glass veneers

    PubMed Central

    Champirat, Tharee; Jirajariyavej, Bundhit

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the microtensile bond strength between two all-ceramic systems; lithium disilicate glass ceramic and zirconia core ceramics bonded with their corresponding glass veneers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Blocks of core ceramics (IPS e.max® Press and Lava™ Frame) were fabricated and veneered with their corresponding glass veneers. The bilayered blocks were cut into microbars; 8 mm in length and 1 mm2 in cross-sectional area (n = 30/group). Additionally, monolithic microbars of these two veneers (IPS e.max® Ceram and Lava™ Ceram; n = 30/group) were also prepared. The obtained microbars were tested in tension until fracture, and the fracture surfaces of the microbars were examined with fluorescent black light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the mode of failure. One-way ANOVA and the Dunnett's T3 test were performed to determine significant differences of the mean microtensile bond strength at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The mean microtensile bond strength of IPS e.max® Press/IPS e.max® Ceram (43.40 ± 5.51 MPa) was significantly greater than that of Lava™ Frame/Lava™ Ceram (31.71 ± 7.03 MPa)(P<.001). Fluorescent black light and SEM analysis showed that most of the tested microbars failed cohesively in the veneer layer. Furthermore, the bond strength of Lava™ Frame/Lava™ Ceram was comparable to the tensile strength of monolithic glass veneer of Lava™ Ceram, while the bond strength of bilayered IPS e.max® Press/IPS e.max® Ceram was significantly greater than tensile strength of monolithic IPS e.max® Ceram. CONCLUSION Because fracture site occurred mostly in the glass veneer and most failures were away from the interfacial zone, microtensile bond test may not be a suitable test for bonding integrity. Fracture mechanics approach such as fracture toughness of the interface may be more appropriate to represent the bonding quality between two materials. PMID:25006377

  14. Shear bond strength of porcelain veneers rebonded to enamel.

    PubMed

    St Germain, H A; St Germain, T H

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory research, shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of veneers rebonded to enamel in shear compression were determined. Three groups (A, B, and C; n=10 each) of mounted molar teeth were finished flat using wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper, and 30 leucite-reinforced porcelain veneers (5.0 × 0.75 mm) were air abraded on the internal surface with 50 μm aluminum oxide, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid, and silanated. The control group (A) veneer specimens were bonded to enamel after etching with 37% phosphoric acid using bonding resin and a dual cure resin composite cement. Groups B and C were prepared similarly to group A with the exception that a release agent was placed before the veneer was positioned on the prepared enamel surface and the resin cement was subsequently light activated. The debonded veneers from groups B and C were placed in a casting burnout oven and heated to 454°C/850°F for 10 minutes to completely carbonize the resin cement and stay below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the leucite-reinforced porcelain. The recovered veneers were then prepared for bonding. The previously bonded enamel surfaces in group B were air abraded using 50 μm aluminum oxide followed by 37% phosphoric acid etching, while group C enamel specimens were acid etched only. All specimens were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 2000 cycles using a 30-second dwell time and stored in 37°C deionized water for 2 weeks. SBS was determined at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. SBS results in MPa for the groups were (A) = 20.6±5.1, (B) = 18.1±5.5, and (C) = 17.2±6.1. One-way analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant interactions (α=0.05), and Tukey-Kramer post hoc comparisons (α=0.05) detected no significant pairwise differences. An adhesive mode of failure at the enamel interface was observed to occur more often in the experimental groups (B = 40%, C = 50%). Rebonding the veneers produced SBS values that were not

  15. Esthetic management of anterior dental anomalies: A clinical case.

    PubMed

    Chafaie, Amir

    2016-09-01

    Many types of dental abnormality can be observed in the anterior sectors, where they can cause genuine esthetic problems for our patients. While conventional prosthetic treatments offer the best solutions in terms of esthetic result and durability, they involve the sacrifice of significant quantities of mineralized dental material and cannot be undertaken before the periodontal tissues are mature. Other less invasive alternatives should be envisaged as transitional, or sometimes even permanent, solutions for the management of these anomalies in children and adolescents. This article discusses these options and presents a clinical case where composite resin veneers and microabrasion of the enamel were used to treat dental agenesis and enamel dysplasia.

  16. Effect of static and cyclic loading on ceramic laminate veneers adhered to teeth with and without aged composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Marco M; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kalk, Warner; Galhano, Graziela

    2011-12-01

    Existing composite restorations on teeth are often remade prior to the cementation of fixed dental prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of static and cyclic loading on ceramic laminate veneers adhered to aged resin composite restorations. Eighty sound maxillary incisors were collected and randomly divided into four groups: group 1: control group, no restorations; group 2: two Class III restorations; group 3: two Class IV restorations; group 4: complete composite substrate. Standard composite restorations were made using a microhybrid resin composite (Anterior Shine). Restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles). Window preparations were made on the labial surface of the teeth for ceramic laminate fabrication (Empress II). Teeth were conditioned using an etch-and-rinse system. Existing composite restorations representing the aged composites were silica coated (CoJet) and silanized (ESPE-Sil). Ceramic laminates were cemented using a bis-GMA-based cement (Variolink Veneer). The specimens were randomly divided into two groups and were subjected to either static (groups 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a) or cyclic loading (groups 1b, 2b, 3b, 4b). Failure type and location after loading were classified. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Significantly higher fracture strength was obtained in group 4 (330 ± 81 N) compared to the controls in group 1 (179 ± 120 N) (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.05). Group 1b survived a lower mean number of cyclic loads (672,820 cycles) than teeth of groups 2b to 4b (846x103 to 873x103 cycles). Failure type evaluation after the fracture test showed predominantly adhesive failures between dentin and cement, but after cyclic loading, more cohesive fractures in the ceramic were seen. Ceramic laminate veneers bonded to conditioned aged composite restorations provided favorable results. Surface conditioning of existing restorations may eliminate the necessity of removing aged composite restorations.

  17. The effect of various veneering techniques on the marginal fit of zirconia copings

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Vojdani, Mahroo; Giti, Rashin; Pardis, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the fit of zirconia ceramics before and after veneering, using 3 different veneering processes (layering, press-over, and CAD-on techniques). MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty standardized zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks were constructed and divided into three groups of 10 each. The first group was veneered using the traditional layering technique. Press-over and CAD-on techniques were used to veneer second and third groups. The marginal gap of specimens was measured before and after veneering process at 18 sites on the master die using a digital microscope. Paired t-test was used to evaluate mean marginal gap changes. One-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were also employed for comparison among 3 groups (α=.05). RESULTS Marginal gap of 3 groups was increased after porcelain veneering. The mean marginal gap values after veneering in the layering group (63.06 µm) was higher than press-over (50.64 µm) and CAD-on (51.50 µm) veneered groups (P<.001). CONCLUSION Three veneering methods altered the marginal fit of zirconia copings. Conventional layering technique increased the marginal gap of zirconia framework more than pressing and CAD-on techniques. All ceramic crowns made through three different veneering methods revealed clinically acceptable marginal fit. PMID:26140175

  18. Thermal-stress analysis of ceramic laminate veneer restorations with different incisal preparations using micro-computed tomography-based 3D finite element models.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Alper Tunga; Icer, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Baykasoglu, Cengiz; Mugan, Ata; Yildiz, Esra

    2017-11-01

    Main objective of this study is to investigate the thermal behavior of ceramic laminate veneer restorations of the maxillary central incisor with different incisal preparations such as butt joint and palatinal chamfer using finite element method. In addition, it is also aimed to understand the effect of different thermal loads which simulates hot and cold liquid imbibing in the mouth. Three-dimensional solid models of the sound tooth and prepared veneer restorations were obtained using micro-computed tomography images. Each ceramic veneer restoration was made up of ceramic, luting resin cement and adhesive layer which were generated based on the scanned images using computer-aided design software. Our solid model also included the remaining dental tissues such as periodontal ligament and surrounding cortical and spongy bones. Time-dependent linear thermal analyses were carried out to compare temperature changes and stress distributions of the sound and restored tooth models. The liquid is firstly in contact with the crown area where the maximum stresses were obtained. For the restorations, stresses on palatinal surfaces were found larger than buccal surfaces. Through interior tissues, the effect of thermal load diminished and smaller stress distributions were obtained near pulp and root-dentin regions. We found that the palatinal chamfer restoration presents comparatively larger stresses than the butt joint preparation. In addition, cold thermal loading showed larger temperature changes and stress distributions than those of hot thermal loading independent from the restoration technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Joining Dental Ceramic Layers With Glass

    PubMed Central

    Saied, MA; Lloyd, IK; Haller, WK; Lawn, BR

    2011-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that glass-bonding of free-form veneer and core ceramic layers can produce robust interfaces, chemically durable and aesthetic in appearance and, above all, resistant to delamination. Methods Layers of independently produced porcelains (NobelRondo™ Press porcelain, Nobel BioCare AB and Sagkura Interaction porcelain, Elephant Dental) and matching alumina or zirconia core ceramics (Procera alumina, Nobel BioCare AB, BioZyram yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Cyrtina Dental) were joined with designed glasses, tailored to match thermal expansion coefficients of the components and free of toxic elements. Scanning electron microprobe analysis was used to characterize the chemistry of the joined interfaces, specifically to confirm interdiffusion of ions. Vickers indentations were used to drive controlled corner cracks into the glass interlayers to evaluate the toughness of the interfaces. Results The glass-bonded interfaces were found to have robust integrity relative to interfaces fused without glass, or those fused with a resin-based adhesive. Significance The structural integrity of the interfaces between porcelain veneers and alumina or zirconia cores is a critical factor in the longevity of all-ceramic dental crowns and fixed dental prostheses. PMID:21802131

  20. Veneer vs. core failure in adhesively bonded all-ceramic crown layers.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J-W; Kwon, J-Y; Bhowmick, S; Lloyd, I K; Rekow, E D; Lawn, B R

    2008-04-01

    Joining a brittle veneer to a strong ceramic core with an adhesive offers potential benefits over current fabrication methods for all-ceramic crowns. We tested the hypothesis that such joining can withstand subsurface radial cracking in the veneer, from enhanced flexure in occlusal loading, as well as in the core. Critical conditions to initiate fractures were investigated in model crown-like layer structures consisting of glass veneers epoxy-joined onto alumina or zirconia cores, all bonded to a dentin-like polymer base. The results showed a competition between critical loads for radial crack initiation in the veneers and cores. Core radial cracking was relatively independent of adhesive thickness. Zirconia cores were much less susceptible to fracture than alumina, attributable to a relatively high strength and low modulus. Veneer cracking did depend on adhesive thickness. However, no significant differences in critical loads for veneer cracking were observed for specimens containing alumina or zirconia cores.

  1. Interfacial toughness of bilayer dental ceramics based on a short-bar, chevron-notch test.

    PubMed

    Anunmana, Chuchai; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Mecholsky, John J

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the null hypothesis that the interfacial toughness of each of two types of bonded core-veneer bilayer ceramics is not significantly different from the apparent fracture toughness of the control monolithic glass veneer. T-shaped short-bars of a lithia-disilicate glass-ceramic core (LC) and yttria-stabilized polycrystalline zirconia core ceramic (ZC) were prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendations. V-shaped notches were prepared by using 25-mum-thick palladium foil, leaving the chevron-notch area exposed, and the bars were veneered with a thermally compatible glass veneer (LC/GV and ZC/GV). Additionally, we also bonded the glass veneer to itself as a control group (GV/GV). Specimens were kept in distilled water for 30 days before testing in tension. Eight glass veneer bars were prepared for the analysis of fracture toughness test using the indentation-strength technique. The mean interfacial toughness of the LC/GV group was 0.69 MPam(1/2) (0.11), and did not significantly differ from that of the GV/GV control group, 0.74 MPam(1/2) (0.17) (p>0.05). However, the difference between the mean interfacial toughness of the ZC/GV group, 0.13 MPam(1/2) (0.07), and the LC/GV and the GV/GV groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). For bilayer all-ceramic restorations with high-strength core materials, the veneering ceramics are the weakest link in the design of the structure. Since all-ceramic restorations often fail from chipping of veneer layers or crack initiation at the interface, the protective effects of thermal mismatch stresses oral prosthesis design should be investigated. Copyright 2009 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microtensile bond strength of different components of core veneered all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Feilzer, Albert J

    2005-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the core-veneer bond strength and the cohesive strength of the components of three commercial layered all-ceramic systems. Two surface treatments for the core surface finish and different veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) were applied. The selected systems were two CAD-CAM ceramics; Cercon and Vita Mark II and one pressable system; (IPS)Empress 2 for layering technique. Standardized core specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions, or polished with 1200 siliconcarbide polishing paper. The core specimens were veneered with either its manufacturer's veneer or an experimental veneer with higher TEC. The obtained micro-bars were subjected to the microtensile bond strength test. The obtained data were analyzed using one and two-way ANOVA. A finite element analysis (FEA) model of the test setup was analyzed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was carried out at the fracture surface. The core materials were significantly stronger than the veneering materials and the layered core-veneer specimens of which the results were statistically comparable. Polishing the core surfaces did not have an effect on the core-veneer bond strength. Experimental veneer with higher TEC resulted in massive fractures in both the core and veneering material. SEM and FEA demonstrated fracture pattern and mechanism of failure. The core-veneer bond strength is one of the weakest links of layered all-ceramic restorations and has a significant role in their success. To exploit fully the high strength of zirconium oxide cores, further research work is needed to improve its bond with its corresponding veneering material.

  3. Veneer log production and receipts in the Northeast, 1984 - a periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Nevel, Jr.; Eric H. Wharton

    1987-01-01

    During 1984, 187.3 million board feet (816,600 m?) of veneer logs were harvested from northeastern timberlands. In 1984, 30.5 more million board feet (133,000 m?) of veneer logs were harvested than in 1980 - the second consecutive 19-percent increase over the past two 4-year periods. Most of the veneer logs came from Maine, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania. The...

  4. Effect of tooth brush abrasion and thermo-mechanical loading on direct and indirect veneer restorations.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Sawaljanow, Alexander; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Preis, Verena

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated toothbrush abrasion and in vitro aging on ceramic (indirect technique) and composite veneers (direct technique). Identical composite and individual human incisors were restored with industrially preformed composite veneers, indirectly produced ceramic veneers, and direct composite restorations. Surface roughness was determined before and after tooth brushing. A 5-year period of oral service was simulated by thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML). After TCML, all specimens were examined with microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens without failures during TCML were loaded until failure. analysis of variance; Bonferroni's post hoc analysis, Kaplan-Meier-Log Rank test (α = 0.05). Tooth brushing yielded a non-significant increase (p = 0.560) in roughness in all materials (industrial veneer, 0.12+/-0.07 μm, direct restoration, 0.18+/-0.14 μm, ceramic, 0.35+/-0.16 μm). No significant differences in roughness could be determined between the materials, neither before nor after testing (p < 0.001). After TCML of artificial teeth, direct and preformed composite veneers on composite teeth showed no failures or damages. Two ceramic veneers showed cracking in the labial area. After TCML of human teeth, transmission microscopy indicated a facial crack in a ceramic veneer and chipping in the cervical area of a preformed veneer. Two direct composite veneers lost retention. No significantly different survival rates were found between the three veneer groups. Fracture force on human teeth varied between 527.8+/-132.4 N (ceramic), 478.3+/-165.4 N (preformed composite), and 605.0+/-263.5 N (direct composite). All materials revealed comparable wear resistance. Indirect ceramic, direct restorative composite, and preformed composite veneers showed comparable failure rates and satisfying longevity. The results indicate similar longevity of the chosen materials for veneer restorations.

  5. Application of Monolithic Zirconia Ceramics in Dental Practice: A Case History Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monolithic zirconia restorations increasingly have been used in dental practice in recent years and demonstrate superior mechanical performance compared with porcelain-veneered zirconia restorations. Recent advances in manufacturing technology have made possible the fabrication of translucent monolithic zirconia ceramics. This case report describes three clinical examples of monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses being used in the anterior and posterior regions and exhibiting acceptable esthetic results.

  6. Esthetic Rehabilitation of Anterior Teeth with Laminates Composite Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    No- or minimal-preparation veneers associated with enamel preservation offer predictable results in esthetic dentistry; indirect additive anterior composite restorations represent a quick, minimally invasive, inexpensive, and repairable option for a smile enhancement treatment plan. Current laboratory techniques associated with a strict clinical protocol satisfy patients' restorative and esthetic needs. The case report presented describes minimal invasive treatment of four upper incisors with laminate nanohybrid resin composite veneers. A step-by-step protocol is proposed for diagnostic evaluation, mock-up fabrication and trial, teeth preparation and impression, and adhesive cementation. The resolution of initial esthetic issues, patient satisfaction, and nice integration of indirect restorations confirmed the success of this anterior dentition rehabilitation. PMID:25013730

  7. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is used to fill cavities caused by ... tooth structure. Dental amalgam is one type of dental filling material used to repair tooth structure that has been ...

  8. Wettability of southern pine veneer by phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives

    Treesearch

    C. -Y. Hse

    1972-01-01

    Wettabillty of southern pine veneers was judged by measuring the contact angles made by 36 phenol formaldehyde resins. Formulation of the resins was by factorial design. the molar ratios of sodium hydroxide to phenol being 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0, the levels of resin solids content in the reaction mixture 37, 40, and 43 percent, and the molar ratios of formaldehyde to phenol...

  9. Wettability of southern pine veneer by phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse

    1972-01-01

    Wettability of southern pine veneers was judged by measuring the contact angles made by 36 phenol formaldehyde resins. Formulation of the resins was by factorial design, the molar ratios of sodium hydroxide to phenol being 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0, the levels of resin solids content in the reaction mixture 37, 40, and 43 percent, and the molar ratios of formaldehyde to phenol...

  10. Reliability and fatigue failure modes of implant-supported aluminum-oxide fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Stappert, Christian F. J.; Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Hänssler, Felix; Rekow, Elizabeth D.; Thompson, Van P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate failure modes and reliability of implant-supported aluminum-oxide three-unit fixed-dental-prostheses (FDPs) using two different veneering porcelains. Material and methods Thirty-six aluminum-oxide FDP-frameworks were CAD/CAM fabricated and either hand-veneered(n=18) or over-pressed(n=18). All FDPs were adhesively luted to custom-made zirconium-oxide-abutments attached to dental implant fixtures (RP-4×13mm). Specimens were stored in water prior to mechanical testing. A Step-Stress-Accelerated-Life-Test (SSALT) with three load/cycles varying profiles was developed based on initial single-load-to-failure testing. Failure was defined by veneer chipping or chipping in combination with framework fracture. SSALT was performed on each FDP inclined 30° with respect to the applied load direction. For all specimens, failure modes were analyzed using polarized-reflected-light-microscopy and scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM). Reliability was computed using Weibull analysis software (Reliasoft). Results The dominant failure mode for the over-pressed FDPs was buccal chipping of the porcelain in the loading area of the pontic, while hand-veneered specimens failed mainly by combined failure modes in the veneering porcelain, framework and abutments. Chipping of the porcelain occurred earlier in the over-pressed specimens (350 N/85k, load/cycles) than in the hand-veneered (600 N/110k)(profile I). Given a mission at 300 N load and 100k or 200 K cycles the computed Weibull reliability (2-sided at 90.0 % confidence bounds) was 0.99(1/0.98) and 0.99(1/0.98) for hand-veneered FDPs, and 0.45(0.76/0.10) and 0.05(0.63/0) for over-pressed FDPs, respectively. Conclusions In the range of average clinical loads (300–700 N), hand-veneered aluminum-oxide FDPs showed significantly less failure by chipping of the veneer than the over-pressed. Hand-veneered FDPs under fatigue loading failed at loads ≥ 600N. PMID:22093019

  11. Ceramic laminate veneers: clinical procedures with a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Veneziani, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Complex cases with high esthetic needs represent a challenge for clinicians. A multidisciplinary approach is vital to achieve the planned result. New technological devices are needed to facilitate the collaboration between the clinical team members and to develop a fluent and effective diagnostic and therapeutic pathway. This article describes a well-defined protocol for the treatment of complex esthetic cases with the use of ceramic laminate veneers. The protocol involves different branches of dentistry: periodontal therapy, mucogingival surgery, restorative dentistry, orthodontics, and prosthodontics. Each step of the protocol should be executed in a very strict order: intra- and extraoral esthetic analysis of the patient, with photographs; digital previsualization by means of Digital Smile Design (DSD); clinical previsualization by means of a mock-up; orthodontic, mucogingival, and endodontic treatments, if needed; minimally invasive tooth preparation, driven by a mock-up and silicone indices; manufacture of ceramic laminate veneers; try-in and adhesive cementation. In this article, this protocol is illustrated by a clinical case report in which all the above-mentioned steps were carried out. The finalization was obtained by means of state-of-the-art adhesive techniques and ceramic laminate veneers. The correct use of modern materials, in combination with rigorous adhesive procedures, allows for a minimally invasive and highly esthetic treatment, with adequate function and a perfect integration that is in harmony with the patient's face.

  12. Contact fatigue response of porcelain-veneered alumina model systems.

    PubMed

    Stappert, Christian F J; Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Stappert, Dina; Thompson, Van P

    2012-02-01

    Fatigue damage modes and reliability of hand-veneered (HV) and over-pressed (OP) aluminum-oxide layer structures were compared. Influence of luting cement thickness on mechanical performance was investigated. Sixty-four aluminum-oxide plates (10 × 10 × 0.5 mm) were veneered with hand built-up or pressed porcelain (0.7 mm) and adhesively luted (50- or 150-μm cement thickness) to water-aged composite resin blocks (12 × 12 × 4 mm). Single-load-to-failure and fatigue tests were performed with a spherical tungsten carbide indenter (d = 6.25 mm) applied in the center of the veneer layer. Specimens were inspected with polarized-reflected-light and scanning electron microscopy. Use-level probability Weibull curves were plotted with two-sided 90% confidence bounds, and reliability at 75,000 cycles and 250 N load was calculated. For all specimens but two OP with 50-μm cement thickness, failure was characterized by flexural radial cracks initiating at the bottom surface of the alumina core and propagating into the veneering porcelain before cone cracks could extend to the porcelain/alumina interface. HV specimens showed higher reliability compared to OP. Those with 50-μm cement thickness were more reliable relative to their 150-μm counterparts (HV_50 μm: 95% (0.99/0.67); HV_150 μm: 55% (0.92/0.01); OP_50 μm: 69% (0.84/0.48); OP_150 μm: 15% (0.53/0.004)). Similar failure modes were observed in HV and OP specimens. Radial cracks developing in the core and spreading into the veneer are suggested to cause bulk fracture, which is the characteristic failure mode for alumina core crowns. However, the highest resistance to fatigue loading was found for the HV specimens with thin cement thickness, while the lowest occurred for the OP with thick cement layer.

  13. Dental aesthetics and the aging patient.

    PubMed

    Davis, Betsy K

    2006-05-01

    Those over the age of 65 years old and the "baby boomers" regard oral health, including oral/dental/facial aesthetics, as part of their overall health and wellness. Over 65% of discretionary wealth in the United States belongs to those over the age of 50. In many instances, they have had to deny their own needs for those of their families and are now at a point where their dental issues can finally be addressed. Aesthetic dentistry offers the opportunity to reverse the signs of aging and restore a youthful appearance. A smile can be the most eye-catching feature of a face and therefore should blend in or harmonize with facial appearance. Advances in aesthetic dentistry, such as porcelain veneers, bonding, periodontal surgery, and dental implants, have shown great efficacy and reliability when used properly. Aesthetic dentistry offers the opportunity for the aged population to have a more youthful, harmonious smile with improved function and optimum oral health.

  14. Effect of Provisional Cements on Shear Bond Strength of Porcelain Laminate Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Tak, Onjen; Secilmis, Asli; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three provisional cements and two cleaning techniques on the final bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers. Methods: The occlusal third of the crowns of forty molar teeth were sectioned and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Dentin surfaces were polished and specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). Provisional restorations were fabricated and two provisional restorations were cemented onto each tooth. Restorations were fixed with one of three different provisional cements: eugenol-free provisional cement (Cavex), calcium hydroxide (Dycal), and light-cured provisional cement (Tempond Clear). Provisional restorations were removed with either a dental explorer and air-water spray, or a cleaning bur (Opticlean). In the control group, provisional restorations were not used on the surfaces of specimens. IPS Empress 2 ceramic discs were luted with a dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F). Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD and Dunnett tests. Surfaces were examined by scanning electronic microscopy. Results: Significant differences were found between the control group and both the light-cured provisional cement groups and the eugenol-free provisional cement-cleaning bur group (P<.05). Groups that had received light-cured provisional cement showed the lowest bond strength values. Conclusions: Selection of the provisional cement is an important factor in the ultimate bond strength of the final restoration. Calcium hydroxide provisional cement and cleaning with a dental explorer are advisable. PMID:21912495

  15. Abrasion resistance of direct and indirect resins as a function of a sealant veneer.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Caneppele, Taciana Marco; Rocha, Daniel Maranha; Màximo Araujo, Maria Amelia; Valera, Màrcia Carneiro; Salazar Marocho, Susana MarIa

    2014-01-01

    Abrasive wear is one of the most common type of wear that not only affect teeth, as also dental restorations. Thus to investigate one of the etiological factors as tooth brushing procedure is clinical relevant in order to select the best material combination that may prevent damage of resin dental restoration's abrasion. This study evaluated the influence of tooth brushing on mass loss and surface roughness of direct Venus (Vs) and indirect Signum (Sg) resin composites, with and without a surface sealant, Fortify (F). Twenty-four specimens were prepared with each resin composite, using their proprietary curing units, according to manufacturer's instructions. All the specimens were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water for 5 minutes. Half of the specimens of each resin (n = 12) were covered with F (Vs F and Sg F ), except for the control (C) specimens (Vs C and Sg C ), which were not sealed. Mass loss (ML) as well as surface roughness (Ra ) was measured for all the specimens. Then, the specimens were subjected to toothbrush-dentifrice abrasion, using a testing machine for 67.000 brushing strokes, in an abrasive slurry. After brushing simulation, the specimens were removed from the holder, rinsed thoroughly and blot dried with soft absorbent paper. The abrasion of the material was quantitatively determined with final measurements of ML and surface roughness, using the method described above. ML data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis indicated that resin composites were not statistically different; however, the specimens sealed with F showed higher ML. Ra mean values of the groups Vs F and Sg F significantly increased. Tooth brushing affects mainly the roughness of the direct and indirect resin composites veneered with a sealant.

  16. Diagnostic guide for evaluating surface distortions in veneered furniture and cabinetry

    Treesearch

    Alfred W. Christiansen; Mark Knaebe

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturers and installers of wood-veneered furniture and cabinetry sometimes find that their products eventually develop surface distortions, characterized by either buckling or cracking of the surface finish. The veneer itself sometimes buckles or cracks. Most surface distortions are caused by moisture changes in the product. This guide is a diagnostic tool for...

  17. Effects of silviculture practice and veneer layup on some mechanical properties of loblolly pine plywood

    Treesearch

    Todd E. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; George A. Grozdits; Elvin T. Choong

    1997-01-01

    Loblolly pine three-ply plywood was manufactured from veneer obtained from silviculturally different stands. Panels from each site were assembled with four different veneer grade arrangements and tested in wet and dry conditions. Stiffness properties in both the wet and dry conditions and strength properties in the dry condition were all significantly affected by...

  18. Effects of silvicultural practice and moisture content level on lobolly pine veneer mechanical properties

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Leslie H. Groom

    1998-01-01

    Loblolly pine veneer specimens were obtained from five silviculturally different stands. Clear specimens were cut parallel to the grain from full size veneer sheets and tests were done at either air-dry or ovendry conditions to determine differences in bending modulus of rupture (MORb), bending modulus of elasticity (MOEb...

  19. A photoelastic assessment of residual stresses in zirconia-veneer crowns.

    PubMed

    Belli, R; Monteiro, S; Baratieri, L N; Katte, H; Petschelt, A; Lohbauer, U

    2012-03-01

    Residual stresses within the veneer are linked to the high prevalence of veneer chipping observed in clinical trials of zirconia prostheses. We hypothesized that the thermal mismatch between the zirconia infrastructure and the veneer porcelain, as well as the rate used for cooling zirconia-veneer crowns, would be directly proportional to the magnitude of residual stresses built within the veneer layer. Two porcelains with different coefficients of thermal expansion were used to veneer zirconia copings, to create high or low thermal mismatches. The crowns were cooled according to a fast- or a slow-cooling protocol. The retardation of polarized light waves was used to calculate the residual stress magnitude and distribution across the veneer, according to the photoelasticity principle, in 1.0-mm-thick crown sections. While thermal mismatch was an important factor influencing the maximum stress development in the veneer, cooling rate had a minor role. Curved surfaces were preferential sites for stress concentration regardless of thermal mismatch or cooling rate.

  20. Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of oriented strandboard with fire retardant treated veneers

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Zeki Candan; Robert White

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated physical, mechanical and fire properties of oriented strand boards (OSB) covered with fire retardant treated veneers. The beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) veneers were treated with either monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, lime water or a borax/boric acid (1 : 1 by weight) mixture. Physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were...

  1. Effects Of Silvicultural Practice And Veneer Lay Upon Some Mechanical Properties Of Loblolly Pine Plywood

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; George A. Grozdits; Elvin T. Choong

    1997-01-01

    Loblolly pine three-ply plywood was manufactured from veneer obtained from silviculturally different stands. Panels from each site were assembled with four different veneer grade arrangements and tested in wet and dry conditions. Stiffness properties in both the wet and dry conditions and strength properties in the dry condition were all significantly affected by...

  2. The effects of viscoelastic parameters on residual stress development in a zirconia/glass bilayer dental ceramic.

    PubMed

    Taskonak, Burak; Borges, Gilberto A; Mecholsky, John J; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Moore, B Keith; Yan, Jiahau

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the residual stresses in a zirconia-based bilayer dental composite system can be tailored through heat treatment above and below the glass transition temperature of glass veneers. Ceramic bilayer disc specimens were prepared from a zirconia core and a glass veneer. Each bilayer ceramic group was heat treated 40 degrees C below, 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C above and at the glass transition temperature of the glass veneer, and cooled using a fast or a slow cooling rate. Specimens were tested for flexure strength using a biaxial bending fixture. Residual stresses were calculated using a fracture mechanics approach. Heat treatments produced significant differences (p < or =0.05) between the mean flexural strengths of the heat treatment groups when the specimens were cooled using a fast cooling rate. However, there was not a significant difference (p >0.05) between the mean flexural strengths of the heat treatment groups when a slow cooling rate was used. Fractures initiated from the veneer surfaces of the specimens. Heat treatment above and below the glass transition temperature of the veneer layer, and the cooling rate have a significant effect on the flexural strength of the bilayer ceramic laminates. The existence of residual compressive stress is the most likely reason for the observed strength increases. Residual stresses can be modified using the elastic-viscoelastic relaxation behavior of a glass veneer.

  3. Titanium and titanium alloys as dental materials.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, E P; Monaghan, P

    1993-06-01

    Because of light weight, high strength to weight ratio, low modulus of elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance, titanium and some of its alloys have been important materials for the aerospace industry since the 1950s. Now, with the additional advantages of excellent biocompatibility, good local spot weldability, and easy shaping and finishing by a number of mechanical and electrochemical processes, these materials are finding uses in dental applications, such as implants and restorative castings. Although more research is still needed in areas such as development of optimal casting investments, porcelain veneering systems, device designs, and controlled biological responses, the present and future uses of titanium appear bright for dentistry.

  4. Origin and mixing timescale of Earth's late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescher, C.; Allu Peddinti, D.; Bell, E. A.; Bello, L.; Cernok, A.; Ghosh, N.; Tucker, J.; Wielicki, M. M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental studies on the partitioning behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) between silicate and metallic melts imply that the Earth's mantle should have been highly depleted in these elements by core formation in an early magma ocean. However, present HSE contents of the Earth's mantle are ~3 orders of magnitude higher than that expected by experiments. The apparent over-abundance of HSE has commonly been explained by the addition of meteoritic material in the "late veneer" which describes the exogenous mass addition following the moon forming impact and concluding with the late heavy bombardment at ~3.8-3.9 Ga. The strongest evidence for this theory is that the platinum group element (PGE) contents in today's mantle are present in chondritic relative abundances, as opposed to a fractionated pattern expected with metal-silicate partitioning. Archean komatiites indicate that the PGE content of the Earth's mantle increased from about half their present abundances at 3.5 Ga to their present abundances at 2.9 Ga. This secular increase in PGE content suggests a progressive mixing of the late veneer material into the Earth's mantle. However, this time scale also implies that the whole mantle was relatively well mixed by 2.9 Ga. We use a compilation of existing isotopic and trace element data in order to constrain the origin and composition of the late veneer. We use PGE abundances, W abundances and W isotopic compositions in chondritic meteorites and the primitive upper mantle to compute the amount of mass delivered during the late veneer and find the late veneer mass to be ~0.6 % the mass of the bulk silicate Earth (consistent with earlier estimates). We also use the 187Re-187Os and 190Pt-186Os systems to constrain the composition and timing of delivery of the impacting population. We model the efficiency of mantle mixing in this time frame by using 3-dimensional numerical geodynamical simulations and geochemical constraints. Initial parameters include the

  5. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.

    2016-12-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  6. Internal adaptation, marginal accuracy and microleakage of a pressable versus a machinable ceramic laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa Nabil; Elmahy, Waleed AbdelMeguid; Ghazy, Mohammed Hamed

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal adaptation and marginal properties of ceramic laminate veneers fabricated using pressable and machinable CAD/CAM techniques. 40 ceramic laminate veneers were fabricated by either milling ceramic blocks using a CAD/CAM system (group 1 n=20) or press-on veneering using lost wax technique (group 2 n=20). The veneers were acid etched using hydrofluoric acid, silanated, and cemented on their corresponding prepared teeth. All specimens were stored under water (37 °C) for 60 days, then received thermocycling (15,000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C and dwell time of 90 s) followed by cyclic loading (100,000 cycles between 50 and 100 N) before immersion in basic fuchsine dye for 24 h. Half of the specimens in each group were sectioned in labio-lingual direction and the rest were horizontally sectioned using precision cutting machine (n=10). Dye penetration, internal cement film thickness, and vertical and horizontal marginal gaps at the incisal and cervical regions were measured (α=0.05). Pressable ceramic veneers demonstrated significantly lower (F=8.916, P<0.005) vertical and horizontal marginal gaps at the cervical and incisal margins and lower cement film thickness (F=50.921, P<0.001) compared to machinable ceramic veneers. The inferior marginal properties of machinable ceramic veneers were associated with significantly higher microleakage values. Pressable ceramic laminate veneers produced higher marginal adaptation, homogenous and thinner cement film thickness, and improved resistance to microleakage compared to machinable ceramic veneers. The manufacturing process influences internal and marginal fit of ceramic veneers. Therefore, dentist and laboratory technicians should choose a manufacturing process with careful consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flexural Properties of Carbon Fibre Cloth/Wood Veneer Laminates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    AD-A161 921 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBRE CLOTH/MOOD VENEER i/i LANINATES(U) ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHMENT FARNBOROUGH ( ENGLAND ) J H SEMELL APR... unit area of panel. This improve- ,i,-nt in flexural properties can be accompanied by a significant decrease in materials costs owing to the...laminates having the same weight per unit suriace 4rca oere :.,lare. ai shown in Appenlix 3 and are given in Table 6. These methods )f -. mpar.son

  8. Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Elif; Hickel, Reinhard; Bolay, Sükran; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite films of ca. 170 μm in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent; RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and a dual-cured luting resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent). The composites were cured by using a LED-unit (Bluephase®, Ivoclar Vivadent) with three different curing times (10, 20, and 30 s) under two ceramics (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent; IPS Empress® CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) of different thicknesses (0, 0.75, and 2 mm). Forty-five groups were included, each containing six thin films. The samples were stored after curing for 24 h at 37°C by maintaining moisture conditions with distilled water. Micromechanical properties of the composites were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). For each sample, ten indentations were made, thus totalizing 60 measurements per group. Micromechanical properties of the luting resins were statistically analyzed (SPSS 17.0). Significant differences were observed between the micromechanical properties of the luting resins (p < 0.05). Variolink II showed the highest values in modulus of elasticity (E = 11 ± 0.5)* and Vickers hardness (HV = 48.2 ± 3.2)* and the lowest values in creep (Cr = 4.3 ± 0.1)* and elastic-plastic deformation (We/Wtot = 38.6 ± 0.7)* followed by RelyX Veneer (E = 6.9 ± 0.3, HV = 33 ± 2.5, Cr = 4.6 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 41.8 ± 1.0)* and Variolink Veneer (E = 4.4 ± 0.4, HV = 20.1 ± 2.6, Cr = 5 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 43.7 ± 1.3)*. Dual-cured luting resin expressed higher values in the micro-mechanical properties compared to the light-cured luting resins. The effect of luting resin type on the micromechanical properties of the luting resins was higher than the effect of

  9. Air-coupled ultrasonic assessment of wood veneer.

    PubMed

    Blomme, Erik; Bulcaen, Dirk; Cool, Tijl; Declercq, Filip; Lust, Pieter

    2010-02-01

    Air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) provides a tool to evaluate wood samples of small or moderate thickness (<30 mm) thereby avoiding direct contact or liquid coupling. Results of through-transmission ACU measurements on wood veneer samples and related products are reported with respect to a wide variety of quality aspects. Fluctuations in the averaged received signal levels appear to be correlated to the presence of natural or machine-induced thickness and density variations, flaws and grain damage, errors produced by the manufacturing process, insufficient bonding on a substrate, etc. In addition it is seen that the variability of the signal levels enables to distinguish between quarter and crown areas.

  10. Porcelain veneers as an alternative for esthetic treatment: clinical report.

    PubMed

    Rotoli, B T; Lima, D A N L; Pini, N P; Aguiar, F H B; Pereira, G D S; Paulillo, L A M S

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the restoration of the anterior dentition with porcelain laminate veneers. The advances in bonding of porcelain to tooth structure make this treatment a feasible alternative to restore teeth with alteration in shape and position in cases in which the esthetic demand is high. The rationale for various choices in this treatment protocol is detailed with reference to the pertinent literature. Thus, the clinical success of the technique depends on the correct identification of a case for which this treatment is appropriate and the successful execution of the clinical steps involved.

  11. Satisfaction with Dental Appearance and Attitude toward improving Dental Esthetics among Patients attending a Dental Teaching Center.

    PubMed

    Maghaireh, Ghada A; Alzraikat, Hanan; Taha, Nessrin A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the satisfaction of dental appearance and attitude toward treatments to improve dental esthetics among patients attending a dental teaching center. A questionnaire was used to collect data of four background variables among 450 patients attended a dental teaching center in the city of Irbid in Jordan. The questionnaire enclosed self-reported questions about the appearance of anterior teeth, received esthetic treatment and desired treatment for improving esthetics. Descriptive, multiple logistic regression and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis (p ≤ 0.05). The 450 participants consisted of (66.2%) male and (33.8%) female. Of these, 69.3% were satisfied with their dental appearance and 58.0% with the color of their teeth. Esthetic restorations were the most received treatment (39.8%) and whitening of teeth was the most desired treatment (55.3%). The patients' satisfaction with dental appearance was influenced by teeth color, crowding and receiving whitening (p < 0.05. r = 0.561, r(2) = 0.315). The most desired esthetic treatments influenced by the satisfaction with dental appearance were esthetic restorations and orthodontics (p < 0.05. r = 0.223, r(2) = 0.05). Significantly more female reported having esthetic restorations and orthodontics (p = 0.008, 0.000) and desired to have orthodontic, crowns or veneers and esthetic restorations (p = 0.000, 0.015, 0.028). Satisfaction with dental appearance was affected by teeth color, feeling teeth are crowded, desire for esthetic restorations and orthodontic treatment. A high percentage of patients were not satisfied with the color of their teeth. Recognizing the factors that affect patients' satisfaction with their present dental appearance and attitude toward treatments to improve dental esthetic can guide clinicians to strategies to improve esthetics.

  12. [Evaluation of the esthetic effect of resin cements on the final color of ceramic veneer restorations].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Shaopu; Xing, Wenzhong; Zhan, Kangru; Wang, Yining

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of various shades of resin cements on the final color of an improved lithium-disilicate pressed glass ceramic veneers and analyze the agreement of resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes. Forty-eight artificial maxillary central incisor teeth were sequenced according to the measured color parameters and divided at random into 8 groups (n = 6). These artificial teeth were prepared following veneer preparation protocol. An improved lithium- disilicate pressed glass ceramic materials (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) were selected as the veneer material. The shape and curvature of each veneer wax pattern were duplicated with the same impression to guarantee the similarity. The ceramic veneer specimens were delivered on the artificial teeth using the corresponding try-in pastes of 8 shades (Variolink Veneer, shades of LV-3, LV-2, MV, HV+2, HV+3; and 3M RelyXTM Veneer, shades of WO, TR, A3) and bonded with the resin cements. A clinical spectrophotometer was used to measure the color parameters of the ceramic veneers before the try-in, during the try-in procedure, and after cementation. ΔE values and C*ab values were calculated. The result of one-way ANOVA indicated that the color changes of ceramic veneer cementation with resin cements were statistically significantly different in the shades of resin cements (P < 0.001). The ΔE values of ceramic veneer after cementation ranged from 0.93 to 6.79. The color changes of ceramic veneer specimens using the shades of LV-3, HV+3, WO were 3.31, 4.90 and 6.79, respectively (ΔE>3.3). The ΔE values of the ceramic veneer specimens between the resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes were from 0.72 to 1.79 (except the shade of HV+3). The LV-3, HV+3, WO shades were able to change the final color of a ceramic veneer. The color of resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes achieved high agreement (except the shade of HV+3).

  13. The future of dental devices is digital.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Major changes are taking place in dental laboratories as a result of new digital technologies. Our aim is to provide an overview of these changes. In this article the reader will be introduced to the range of layered fabrication technologies and suggestions are made how these might be used in dentistry. Key publications in English from the past two decades are surveyed. The first digital revolution took place many years ago now with the production of dental restorations such as veneers, inlays, crowns and bridges using dental CAD-CAM systems and new improved systems appear on the market with great rapidity. The reducing cost of processing power will ensure that these developments will continue as exemplified by the recent introduction of a new range of digital intra-oral scanners. With regard to the manufacture of prostheses this is currently dominated by subtractive machining technology but it is inevitable that the additive processing routes of layered fabrication, such as FDM, SLA, SLM and inkjet printing, will start to have an impact. In principle there is no reason why the technology cannot be extended to all aspects of production of dental prostheses and include customized implants, full denture construction and orthodontic appliances. In fact anything that you might expect a dental laboratory to produce can be done digitally and potentially more consistently, quicker and at a reduced cost. Dental device manufacturing will experience a second revolution when layered fabrication techniques reach the point of being able to produce high quality dental prostheses. The challenge for the dental materials research community is to marry the technology with materials that are suitable for use in dentistry. This can potentially take dental materials research in a totally different direction. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  15. Clinical approach to anterior adhesive restorations using resin composite veneers.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Francesco; Cerutti, Antonio; Putignano, Angelo; Bollero, Raffaele; Madini, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Scientific progress in adhesive dentistry has led to more conservative techniques, both direct and indirect, to solve esthetic problems in anterior teeth. This article will discuss only indirect techniques, which are clearly superior in complex cases in which it will be difficult to recreate harmonious tooth shape and color. After reviewing the literature and highlighting the properties of this technique, the indications and benefits compared to the direct technique will be assessed. This is followed by a step-by-step description of operative procedures, from treatment planning to relining and polishing of the cemented adhesive restoration. The long-term success of veneers depends mainly on the tooth preparation, which should be confined to enamel, involve proximal contact areas, maintain the cervical enamel margin, and incorporate the incisal edge to increase veneer resistance and enable correct placement. Although no clinical follow-up similar to that of ceramic materials is available, the latest-generation resin composites offer interesting features. They can withstand mechanical stress, have excellent esthetic properties, and, most importantly, can be repaired intraorally without impairing their physicochemical and mechanical properties.

  16. Influence of silane surface modification of veneer on interfacial adhesion of wood-plastic plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lu; Chang, Liang; Guo, Wen-jing; Chen, Yongping; Wang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, wood-plastic plywood was fabricated with high density polyethylene (HDPE) film and poplar veneer by hot-pressing. To improve the interfacial adhesion between the wood veneer and HDPE film, silane A-171 (vinyltrimethoxysilane) was used to treat the surface of poplar veneer by spraying. The effects of silane agent on the veneer surface properties as well as the physical-mechanical performance of wood-plastic plywood were evaluated. The adsorption of several prehydrolyzed alkoxysilanes onto the veneer surface and the existence of a covalent bonding between the wood veneer and silane agent were confirmed using FTIR, XPS and contact angle. Silane surface treatment resulted in enhancement of shear strength and water resistance. When one layer HDPE film was used as adhesive, it caused 293.2% increase in shear strength, 34.6% and 40.8% reduction in water absorption and thickness swelling, respectively. In addition, the wood failure also increased from 5% to 100% due to the silane modification. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed that treated plywood have higher storage modulus, lower tan δ peak value and lagged temperature for tan δ peak value with respect to untreated plywood. Experimental results of interfacial morphology by SEM further revealed better interaction between silane A-171 treated veneer and HDPE film.

  17. Cyclic testing of porcelain laminiate veneers on superficial enamel and dentin: Pressed vs. conventional layered porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawde, Shweta

    Statement of Problem: Clinicians are inclined towards more aggressive teeth preparations to accommodate the thickness of the veneering material. The principle of conservative tooth preparation is compromised. Purpose: By using a conservative approach to treatment with porcelain veneers, long-lasting, esthetic and functional results may be achieved. Sacrificing as little tooth structure as possible and conserving the supporting tissues will facilitate prospective patients. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary and mandibular canines were selected. The teeth were divided into one of two groups (pressable and stackable) and further subdivided according to tooth substrate (all-enamel or mixed enamel-dentin exposure). Twenty canine teeth were allotted to the pressable veneer group and 20 were allotted to the stackable veneer group. Of the 20 teeth in the pressable group, all were pressed with a lithium disilicate ceramic system (IPS e.max Press), 10 with labial tooth reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (PEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (PDN). Of the 20 teeth in the stackable group, all were stacked/ layered with conventional feldspathic porcelain (Fortune; Williams/ Ivoclar); with labial veneer reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (SEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (SDN). Silicon putty matrix was fabricated prior to teeth preparation to estimate the teeth reduction. The prepared facial reduction was limited to the incisal edge. No incisal or palatal/lingual reduction was performed. Impressions of the prepared teeth were taken in medium/light-bodied PVS. Master casts were made in Resin Rock. The stackable group specimens were made with fabricating refractory dies and after following the recommended steps of laboratory procedure, stackable veneers were processed. The pressable group

  18. Esthetic rehabilitation of maxillary incisors in conjunction with flapless surgical techniques, an implant zirconia crown, and porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Douglas H; Polack, Mariano A

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Esthetic replacement of a maxillary central incisor using a dental implant can be a challenging task. The hard and soft tissues must be managed in a way that minimizes the risk of tissue loss, while preserving and/or regenerating full interdental papillae. In order to achieve this, flapless surgical techniques have been developed. Advances in dental materials have led to the introduction of zirconia abutments and crowns that can be synergistically combined with other ceramic materials. This article describes a case in which a hopeless maxillary central incisor is replaced with an implant using flapless techniques, and restored with a customized zirconia abutment and crown. In addition, the remaining maxillary incisors were restored with feldspathic porcelain veneers to yield a highly esthetic result. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE This case demonstrates how a conservative multidisciplinary approach facilitates excellent results in an esthetically demanding area. Atraumatic surgical techniques can maintain the natural soft tissue architecture, while a detailed approach to provisional and final restorations allows for a highly esthetic smile. (J Esthet Restor Dent 21:294-303, 2009).

  19. Fracture resistance of the veneering on inlay-retained zirconia ceramic fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Brigitte; Gabbert, Olaf; Schmitter, Marc; Gilde, Herbert; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fracture load of zircon frames veneered with a polymer glass holding box inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (FPDs). The influence of the position of the frame and the span length was tested. Additionally, the fracture load values of zircon frames veneered with a press ceramic were evaluated. Box inlay cavities were prepared on mandibular molars and premolars. Forty-eight FPDs were manufactured using industrially prefabricated zircon frames veneered with the polymer glass Artglass. Sixteen FPDs received individually manufactured CAD/CAM zircon frames veneered with a press ceramic. All FPDs underwent thermal cycling and mechanical loading (ML). The load to fracture was measured and fracture sites were evaluated. Four polymer veneered FPDs showed fractures in the veneering material after ML. The mean fracture resistance ranged from 531 N to 727 N. No significant influence of frame localization could be observed. Significantly greater fracture resistance values were found in the ceramic veneered FPDs (1276 N to 1413 N). There was no significant effect of span length in the polymer veneered group or in the all-ceramic group, with the exception of a significant peak in fracture load value for intermediate span lengths in the polymer group with a localized occlusal zircon frame. Polymer veneered FPDs with Y-TZP frames showed acceptable fracture resistance values, but they cannot yet be unreservedly recommended for clinical use. Fracture values for CAD/CAM manufactured Y-TZP frames combined with a press ceramic deserve further clinical investigation.

  20. [In vitro study on shear bond strength of veneering ceramics to zirconia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoping; Zhu, Hongshui; Zeng, Liwei

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the shear bond strength between veneering ceramic and zirconia core in different all-ceramic systems. Twenty disk-shaped specimens with 8 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height for each zirconia system (Lava, Cercon, IPS e.max ZirCAD, Procera) were fabricated respectively and divided into four groups: Lava group, Cercon group, IPS e.max ZirCAD group, Procera group. For each group, 10 specimens were sintered with 1 mm corresponding veneering ceramic, while the other were sintered with 2 mm corresponding veneering ceramic respectively. The shear bond strength and fracture mode of specimens were observed and determined. The values of shear bond strength for Lava, Cercon, IPS e.max ZirCAD and Procera were (13.82 +/- 3.71), (13.24 +/- 2.09), (6.37 +/- 4.15), (5.19 +/- 5.31) MPa in the group of 1 mm thicked veneering ceramics, respectively, while the values in the group of 2mm thicked veneering ceramics were (38.77 +/- 1.69), (21.67 +/- 3.34), (12.70 +/- 4.24), (9.94 +/- 6.67) MPa. The values of Lava and Cercon groups were significantly higher than that of IPS e.max ZirCAD and Procera groups (P < 0.05). And the values of 2 mm thicked veneering ceramic group were significantly higher than that in 1 mm thicked groups (P < 0.05). Adhesive fracture between core and veneering ceramics were observed in the fracture modes of most specimens. The shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to the zirconia framework are different from the zirconia system we chose, and the thickness of veneering ceramic has a great impact on its shear bond strength.

  1. Shear bond strength between veneering ceramics and ceria-stabilized zirconia/alumina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jens; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Sailer, Irena; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2010-05-01

    Ceria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO(2)/Al(2)O(3) nanocomposite (Ce-TZP/A) offers superior properties compared to yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP). However, the bond quality to veneering ceramics has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different veneering ceramics to Ce-TZP/A. Cubes of Ce-TZP/A (NANOZR) (edge length, 10 mm) were layered with veneering ceramics (5 mm in thickness) with or without application of a liner and sheared at the interface. The effect of different surface treatments (polished with 3-mum diamond paste or airborne-particle abraded) was evaluated with 1 veneering ceramic (Cerabien ZR). Shear bond strength of 5 additional veneering ceramics (IPS e.max, Initial ZR, Triceram, Vintage ZR, or VITA VM 9) to polished Ce-TZP/A was measured (n=10). Polished Y-TZP (Hint-ELs ZrO(2) HIP) veneered with 2 ceramics (Cerabien ZR, Vintage ZR) served as the control. Mean shear bond strength values (MPa) were calculated. The means were statistically analyzed with 2-way ANOVA for the effect of surface treatment and liner, 2-way ANOVA for the effect of different veneering ceramic brands and liner, and 3-way ANOVA for the effect of substrate, veneering ceramic brands, and liner, as well as 1-way ANOVA for the differences between the veneering ceramics. A post hoc Scheffé test was used (alpha=.05). The effects of surface treatment (P=.007) or application of liner (P<.001) were significant. Shear bond strength with different veneering ceramics showed bond strength values with means ranging between 14.2 +/-1.7 MPa (IPS e.max with liner) and 27.5 +/-4.2 MPa (VITA VM 9). A significant difference was found between the results of shear bond tests with Y-TZP and Ce-TZP/A (P=.022). The application of a liner on Y-TZP had no significant effect. Airborne-particle abrasion is not necessary to enhance the shear bond strength of the evaluated veneering ceramics to Ce-TZP/A. Liners impair the shear bond strength of veneering ceramics

  2. An esthetic technique for veneering anterior stainless steel crowns with composite resin.

    PubMed

    Wiedenfeld, K R; Draughn, R A; Welford, J B

    1994-01-01

    The restoration of primary anterior teeth presents complicated esthetic and retention problems to the clinician. A technique is described for the chairside veneering of composite resin to stainless steel crowns, which results in well contoured restorations with superior durability and esthetics. A trimmed and fitted stainless steel crown can be veneered in three to five minutes. This provides the adaptability and gingival contour benefits of the stainless steel crown in conjunction with the cosmetics of the composite facings. The technique described produced composite veneers with a mean sheer bond strength of 3520 PSI (24.4 Mpa).

  3. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the direction of a dentist . They may prepare materials for dental impressions or to create temporary crowns. All dental ... Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for patients in hospitals and residents of ... more information about becoming a dental assistant and for a list of accredited dental ...

  4. Resistance of full veneer metal crowns with different forms of axial grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, A. S.; Masulili, C.; Indrasari, M.

    2017-08-01

    Dental crowns or bridges can occasionally come loose or separate from the tooth during chewing, particularly when they are situated on small, short, and conical teeth. The main cause of this separation is a lack of retention and resistance to the tooth. There are several methods available to increase the retention and resistance of the crown during both inlay and onlay preparation, including parallelism, groove preparation, crown build-up, and surface roughness. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in resistance of full veneer metal crowns with various forms of groove preparation. The study involved the compressive strength testing of a total of 24 specimens, namely six specimens without groove preparation, six specimens with box-shaped grooves, six specimens with V-shaped grooves, and six specimens with half round grooves. The mean values of the metal crowns that separated from the teeth during testing were 27.97 ± 1.08 kgF for the crowns with box-shaped grooves, 6.15 ± 0.22 kgF for those with V-shaped grooves, 1.77 ± 0.12 kgF for those with half round grooves, and 0.95 ± 0.13 kgF for those without grooves. This study found that the resistance is best in crowns with box-shaped grooves, followed by those with V-shaped grooves, half round grooves, and those without groove. When clinicians are working on short and conical molar teeth, it is therefore recommended that box-shaped grooves are used to increase the resistance of the crown.

  5. Fracture and Fatigue Resistance of Cemented versus Fused CAD-on Veneers over Customized Zirconia Implant Abutments.

    PubMed

    Nossair, Shereen Ahmed; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Morsi, Tarek Salah

    2015-01-05

    To evaluate the fracture mechanics of cemented versus fused CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments. Forty-five identical customized CAD/CAM zirconia implant abutments (0.5 mm thick) were prepared and seated on short titanium implant abutments (Ti base). A second scan was made to fabricate 45 CAD-on veneers (IPS Empress CAD, A2). Fifteen CAD-on veneers were cemented on the zirconia abutments (Panavia F2.0). Another 15 were fused to the zirconia abutments using low-fusing glass, while manually layered veneers served as control (n = 15). The restorations were subjected to artificial aging (3.2 million cycles between 5 and 10 kg in a water bath at 37°C) before being axially loaded to failure. Fractured specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy to detect fracture origin, location, and size of critical crack. Stress at failure was calculated using fractography principles (alpha = 0.05). Cemented CAD-on restorations demonstrated significantly higher (F = 72, p < 0.001) fracture load compared to fused CAD-on and manually layered restorations. Fractographic analysis of fractured specimens indicated that cemented CAD-on veneers failed due to radial cracks originating from the veneer/resin interface. Branching of the critical crack was observed in the bulk of the veneer. Fused CAD-on veneers demonstrated cohesive fracture originating at the thickest part of the veneer ceramic, while manually layered veneers failed due to interfacial fracture at the zirconia/veneer interface. Within the limitations of this study, cemented CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments demonstrated higher fracture than fused and manually layered veneers. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Prospective clinical study of press-ceramic overlap and full veneer restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Stampf, Susanne; Stappert, Christian F J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the long-term performance of all-ceramic veneers with overlap (OV) and full veneer (FV) preparation designs. Twenty-five patients were restored using 42 OV restorations (incisal/palatal butt-joint margin) and 24 FV restorations (palatal rounded shoulder margin). All restorations were leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic anterior veneers. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for FV restorations and 97.6% for OV restorations. The all-ceramic veneers revealed significant deterioration over time according to United States Public Health Service criteria, irrespective of the preparation design. Based on the 7-year results of this study, both preparation designs can be considered reliable treatment options for anterior teeth with extended deficits.

  7. 40 CFR 429.30 - Applicability; description of the veneer subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to waters of the United States and to the introduction of process wastewater pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from any plant which manufactures veneer and does not store or hold raw materials...

  8. 40 CFR 429.30 - Applicability; description of the veneer subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to waters of the United States and to the introduction of process wastewater pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from any plant which manufactures veneer and does not store or hold raw materials...

  9. The influences of accelerated aging on mechanical properties of veneering ceramics used for zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huinan; Tang, Xuehua; Dong, Zhen; Tang, Hui; Nakamura, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influences of accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of veneering ceramics used for zirconia frameworks. Five different veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks were used. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each veneering ceramic. All specimens were divided into two groups. One was subjected to accelerated aging and the other was used as a control. Accelerated aging was performed in distilled water for 5 h at 200ºC and 2 atm. The density, open porosity, surface roughness, three-point flexural strength, and Vickers hardness were measured. The results showed that the density, open porosity, and surface roughness of all examined veneering ceramics were changed by the accelerated aging process. Accelerated aging was also found to have a positive effect on strength and a negative effect on the hardness.

  10. Use of Feldspathic Porcelain Veneers to Improve Smile Harmony: A 3-Year Follow-up Report.

    PubMed

    Federizzi, Leonardo; Gomes, Érica Alves; Báratro, Samantha Schaffer Pugilato; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Bacchi, Ataís; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes an esthetic treatment to improve the shape and alignment of the anterior teeth, reestablishing smile harmony, using feldspathic porcelain veneers. Results of clinical follow up after 36 months are also presented. The advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the technique are detailed with reference to the relevant literature. This suggests that the success of treatment depends on adequate conditions of bonding between the veneers and the tooth complex, which involves parameters such as the strength and durability of the bond interface. Therefore, the clinical success of feldspathic porcelain veneers depends on the accurate selection of cases and correct execution of clinical and laboratory procedures. The rehabilitation involved from first right premolar to the left with feldspathic porcelain veneers made on refractory dies. After the 3-year follow up, excellent clinical results and patient satisfaction were achieved.

  11. Thinning Pole-Sized Aspen Has no Effect on Number of Veneer Trees or Total Yield

    Treesearch

    Bryce E. Schlaegel; Stanley B. Ringlod

    1971-01-01

    Thinning 37-year-old aspen in north central Minnesota did not increase either total volume production or the number of veneer-sized trees after 10 years. Thinning is not recommended for stands nearing rotation age.

  12. [Dentacolor veneer for crowns and bridges with the Silicoater process--a clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Brauner, H; Fath, T

    1989-01-01

    Out of 157 patients treated by prosthodontic students with fixed crowns and bridges veneered with Dentacolor according to the Silicoater process 66 presented for the follow-up examination. A total of 284 veneer units were assessed consisting of 104 crowns and 51 pontics and cantilevers in the maxilla and 80 crowns and 49 pontics and cantilevers in the mandible. They had been in the mouth for an average of 17 months. The parameters evaluated were: colour fastness, abrasion, marginal gap formation, swelling, surface quality, and plaque formation for oral hygiene. Almost all veneers were rated "good" to "satisfactory"; therefore light-cured plastic veneers of crowns and bridges with the Silicoater process maybe recommended as a low-price alternative envolving little laboratory work versus the traditional pressure casting or shell methods.

  13. Surface roughness of composite resin veneer after application of herbal and non-herbal toothpaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, S.; Herda, E.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the surface roughness of composite resin veneer after brushing. In this study, 24 specimens of composite resin veneer are divided into three subgroups: brushed without toothpaste, brushed with non-herbal toothpaste, and brushed with herbal toothpaste. Brushing was performed for one set of 5,000 strokes and continued for a second set of 5,000 strokes. Roughness of composite resin veneer was determined using a Surface Roughness Tester. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Post Hoc Mann-Whitney. The results indicate that the highest difference among the Ra values occurred within the subgroup that was brushed with the herbal toothpaste. In conclusion, the herbal toothpaste produced a rougher surface on composite resin veneer compared to non-herbal toothpaste.

  14. Marginal fidelity and microleakage of porcelain veneers made by two techniques.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J A; Strutz, J M; Avera, S P; Materdomini, D

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the marginal fidelity and microleakage of porcelain veneers made with the platinum foil and refractory die techniques. Maxillary incisors, matched for size and amount of enamel, were prepared with 0.5 mm uniform intraenamel reduction. The indirectly made veneers were etched, treated with silane, and luted with a composite resin, and the margins were finished and polished. The restored teeth were stored in 37 degrees C water, thermocycled 1000 times, stained with silver nitrate, embedded, sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally, and measured at x250 magnification. The platinum foil veneers had significantly better vertical marginal fidelity but significantly more overcontouring than had the refractory die veneers. Universal microleakage at the tooth-composite resin interface and negligible microleakage at the porcelain-composite resin interface were observed. No relationship was found between the amount of vertical marginal opening and the amount of microleakage.

  15. Interfacial modulus mapping of layered dental ceramics using nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Theocharopoulos, Antonios L; Bushby, Andrew J; P'ng, Ken My; Wilson, Rory M; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Cattell, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modulus of elasticity (E) across the interfaces of yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) / veneer multilayers using nanoindentation. YTZP core material (KaVo-Everest, Germany) specimens were either coated with a liner (IPS e.max ZirLiner, Ivoclar-Vivadent) (Type-1) or left as-sintered (Type-2) and subsequently veneered with a pressable glass-ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar-Vivadent). A 5 µm (nominal tip diameter) spherical indenter was used with a UMIS CSIRO 2000 (ASI, Canberra, Australia) nanoindenter system to test E across the exposed and polished interfaces of both specimen types. The multiple point load - partial unload method was used for E determination. All materials used were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X - ray powder diffraction (XRD). E mappings of the areas tested were produced from the nanoindentation data. A significantly (P<.05) lower E value between Type-1 and Type-2 specimens at a distance of 40 µm in the veneer material was associated with the liner. XRD and SEM characterization of the zirconia sample showed a fine grained bulk tetragonal phase. IPS e-max ZirPress and IPS e-max ZirLiner materials were characterized as amorphous. The liner between the YTZP core and the heat pressed veneer may act as a weak link in this dental multilayer due to its significantly (P<.05) lower E. The present study has shown nanoindentation using spherical indentation and the multiple point load - partial unload method to be reliable predictors of E and useful evaluation tools for layered dental ceramic interfaces.

  16. Interfacial modulus mapping of layered dental ceramics using nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    Bushby, Andrew J; P'ng, Ken MY; Wilson, Rory M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to test the modulus of elasticity (E) across the interfaces of yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) / veneer multilayers using nanoindentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS YTZP core material (KaVo-Everest, Germany) specimens were either coated with a liner (IPS e.max ZirLiner, Ivoclar-Vivadent) (Type-1) or left as-sintered (Type-2) and subsequently veneered with a pressable glass-ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar-Vivadent). A 5 µm (nominal tip diameter) spherical indenter was used with a UMIS CSIRO 2000 (ASI, Canberra, Australia) nanoindenter system to test E across the exposed and polished interfaces of both specimen types. The multiple point load – partial unload method was used for E determination. All materials used were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X – ray powder diffraction (XRD). E mappings of the areas tested were produced from the nanoindentation data. RESULTS A significantly (P<.05) lower E value between Type-1 and Type-2 specimens at a distance of 40 µm in the veneer material was associated with the liner. XRD and SEM characterization of the zirconia sample showed a fine grained bulk tetragonal phase. IPS e-max ZirPress and IPS e-max ZirLiner materials were characterized as amorphous. CONCLUSION The liner between the YTZP core and the heat pressed veneer may act as a weak link in this dental multilayer due to its significantly (P<.05) lower E. The present study has shown nanoindentation using spherical indentation and the multiple point load - partial unload method to be reliable predictors of E and useful evaluation tools for layered dental ceramic interfaces. PMID:28018566

  17. Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

  18. The strength of sintered and adhesively bonded zirconia/veneer-ceramic bilayers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna Karina F; Borges, Alexandre Luiz S; Fleming, Garry James P; Addison, Owen

    2014-10-01

    Recently all-ceramic restorative systems have been introduced that use CAD/CAM technology to fabricate both the Y-TZP core and veneer-ceramic layers. The aim was to identify whether the CAD/CAM approach resulted in more favourable stressing patterns in the veneer-ceramic when compared with a conventionally sintered Y-TZP core/veneer-ceramic. Nominally identical Vita VM9 veneer-ceramic disc-shaped specimens (0.7mm thickness, 12mm diameter) were fabricated. 20 specimens received a surface coating of resin-cement (Panavia 21); 20 specimens were bonded with the resin-cement to fully sintered Y-TZP (YZ Vita Inceram Vita) discs (0.27mm thickness, 12mm diameter). A final series of 20 Y-TZP core/veneer-ceramic specimens were manufactured using a conventional sintering route. Biaxial flexure strength was determined in a ball-on-ring configuration and stress at the fracture origin calculated using multilayer closed-form analytical solutions. Fractography was undertaken using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental test was simulated using Finite Element Analysis. Group mean BFS were compared using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests at a 95% significance level. Resin cement application resulted in significant strengthening of the veneer-ceramic and further significant strengthening of the veneer-ceramic (p<0.01) occurred following bonding to the Y-TZP core. The BFS calculated at the failure origin for conventionally sintered specimens was significantly reduced when compared with the adhesively bonded Y-TZP/veneer-ceramic. Under the test conditions employed adhesive cementation between CAD/CAM produced Y-TZP/veneer-ceramic layers appears to offer the potential to induce more favourable stress states within the veneer-ceramic when compared with conventional sintered manufacturing routes. The current investigation suggests that the stressing patterns that arise in all-ceramic restorations fabricated using CAD/CAM for both the core and veneer-ceramic layers differ

  19. Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten

    2017-01-25

    The excess of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle is thought to reflect the addition of primitive meteoritic material after core formation ceased. This 'late veneer' either comprises material remaining in the terrestrial planet region after the main stages of the Earth's accretion, or derives from more distant asteroidal or cometary sources. Distinguishing between these disparate origins is important because a late veneer consisting of carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroids or comets could be the principal source of the Earth's volatiles and water. Until now, however, a 'genetic' link between the late veneer and such volatile-rich materials has not been established or ruled out. Such genetic links can be determined using ruthenium (Ru) isotopes, because the Ru in the Earth's mantle predominantly derives from the late veneer, and because meteorites exhibit Ru isotope variations arising from the heterogeneous distribution of stellar-derived dust. Although Ru isotopic data and the correlation of Ru and molybdenum (Mo) isotope anomalies in meteorites were previously used to argue that the late veneer derives from the same type of inner Solar System material as do Earth's main building blocks, the Ru isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites has not been determined sufficiently well to rule them out as a source of the late veneer. Here we show that all chondrites, including carbonaceous chondrites, have Ru isotopic compositions distinct from that of the Earth's mantle. The Ru isotope anomalies increase from enstatite to ordinary to carbonaceous chondrites, demonstrating that material formed at greater heliocentric distance contains larger Ru isotope anomalies. Therefore, these data refute an outer Solar System origin for the late veneer and imply that the late veneer was not the primary source of volatiles and water on the Earth.

  20. Exterior structural composite panels with southern pine veneer faces and cores of southern hardwood flakes

    Treesearch

    C. -Y. Hse

    1976-01-01

    One-half-inch-thick, 8tructural exterior composite panels of various constructions were made in a one-step process, with faces of eouthern pine veneer and corea of mixed southern hardwood flakes. The flakes were precisely machined to be 3/8-inch wide, 3 inches long and 0.015 inch thick. Two veneer, cross-laminated on each face over an oriented flake core, yielded the...

  1. Super-strength beams laminated from rotary-cut southern pine veneer

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1966-01-01

    Very strong beams were made by arranging 42 laminae of 1/6-inch rotary-cut southern pine veneer so that the stiffest veneers were on the tension and compression flanges and the most limber in the center. Beams thus fabricated to a 3-inch width and a 100-inch length averaged 13,280 p.s.i. stress in the outer laminae when failed in flexure. Modulus of elasticity...

  2. Reestablishment of esthetics with minimum thickness veneers: a one-year follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Marina Studart; Araújo, Diana Ferreira; Maenosono, Rafael Massunari; Ishikiriama, Bella Luna; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of adhesive procedures and ceramic systems has allowed for the placement of minimum thickness laminate veneers on unprepared teeth. A 20-year-old post-orthodontics male patient with multiple diastemas required restorative procedures. A multidisciplinary approach was performed, involving gingivectomy, in-office bleaching, and application of minimum thickness veneers. The immediate and 1-year followup results exceeded expectations; however, long-term clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the performance of this new type of indirect restoration.

  3. Durability of feldspathic veneering ceramic on glass-infiltrated alumina ceramics after long-term thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, A M M; Ozcan, M; Souza, R O A; Kojima, A N; Nishioka, R S; Kimpara, E T; Bottino, M A

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the bond strength durability of a feldspathic veneering ceramic to glass-infiltrated reinforced ceramics in dry and aged conditions. Disc shaped (thickness: 4 mm, diameter: 4 mm) of glass-infiltrated alumina (In-Ceram Alumina) and glass-infiltrated alumina reinforced by zirconia (In-Ceram Zirconia) core ceramic specimens (N=48, N=12 per groups) were constructed according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Veneering ceramic (VITA VM7) was fired onto the core ceramics using a mold. The core-veneering ceramic assemblies were randomly divided into two conditions and tested either immediately after specimen preparation (Dry) or following 30000 thermocycling (5-55 ºC±1; dwell time: 30 seconds). Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (cross-head speed: 1 mm/min). Failure modes were analyzed using optical microscope (x20). The bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Thermocycling did not decrease the bond strength results for both In-Ceram Alumina (30.6±8.2 MPa; P=0.2053) and In-Ceram zirconia (32.6±9 MPa; P=0.3987) core ceramic-feldspathic veneering ceramic combinations when compared to non-aged conditions (28.1±6.4 MPa, 29.7±7.3 MPa, respectively). There were also no significant differences between adhesion of the veneering ceramic to either In-Ceram Alumina or In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (P=0.3289). Failure types were predominantly a mixture of adhesive failure between the veneering and the core ceramic together with cohesive fracture of the veneering ceramic. Long-term thermocycling aging conditions did not impair the adhesion of the veneering ceramic to the glass-infiltrated alumina core ceramics tested.

  4. Lumber and veneer recovery from intensively managed young-growth Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey; James M. Cahill; Thomas A. Snellgrove; Linda S. Heath

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop models that predict lumber and veneer recovery as a function of young-growth log characteristics. Empirical lumber and veneer recovery data for logs cut from more than 300 young-growth Douglas-fir trees were used in model development. Trees were sampled from 15 stands in western Oregon and Washington and represent a wide range...

  5. Influence of enamel preservation on failure rates of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Galip; Sesma, Newton; Calamita, Marcelo A; Coachman, Christian; Morimoto, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the failure rates of porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) and the influence of clinical parameters on these rates in a retrospective survey of up to 12 years. Five hundred eighty laminate veneers were bonded in 66 patients. The following parameters were analyzed: type of preparation (depth and margin), crown lengthening, presence of restoration, diastema, crowding, discoloration, abrasion, and attrition. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to determine which factors would predict PLV failure. Forty-two veneers (7.2%) failed in 23 patients, and an overall cumulative survival rate of 86% was observed. A statistically significant association was noted between failure and the limits of the prepared tooth surface (margin and depth). The most frequent failure type was fracture (n = 20). The results revealed no significant influence of crown lengthening apically, presence of restoration, diastema, discoloration, abrasion, or attrition on failure rates. Multivariable analysis (Cox regression model) also showed that PLVs bonded to dentin and teeth with preparation margins in dentin were approximately 10 times more likely to fail than PLVs bonded to enamel. Moreover, coronal crown lengthening increased the risk of PLV failure by 2.3 times. A survival rate of 99% was observed for veneers with preparations confined to enamel and 94% for veneers with enamel only at the margins. Laminate veneers have high survival rates when bonded to enamel and provide a safe and predictable treatment option that preserves tooth structure.

  6. Effect of various intermediate ceramic layers on the interfacial stability of zirconia core and veneering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yeo, In-Sung; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of intermediate ceramics on the adhesion between the zirconia core and veneer ceramics. The polished surfaces of fully sintered Y-TZP blocks received three different treatments: (1) connector (C), (2) liner (L) or (3) wash layer (W). All the treated zirconia blocks were veneered with either (a) fluorapatite glass-ceramic (E) or (b) feldspathic porcelain (V) and divided into four groups (CE, CV, LE and WV). For the control group, the testing surfaces of metal blocks were veneered with feldspathic porcelain (VM). A half of the samples in each group (n = 21) were exposed to thermocycling, while the other half of the specimens were stored at room temperature under dry conditions. All specimens were subjected to the shear test and the failed surfaces were microscopically examined. The elemental distribution at the zirconia core/veneer interface was analyzed. The specimens in Groups CE and CV exhibited significantly greater mean bond strength values than those in Groups LE and WV, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the mean bond strengths significantly decreased in the connector groups (CE and CV) after thermal cycling (p < 0.05). The elemental analysis suggested diffusion of ceramic substances into the zirconia surface. A glass-ceramic based connector is significantly more favorable to core/veneer adhesion than the other intermediate ceramics evaluated in the study. However, thermal cycling affected the bond strength at the core/veneer interface differently according to the intermediate ceramics.

  7. Sources, sinks and migration patterns of dark veneers in the northern polar deposits of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Tanaka, K. L.; Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.

    1 Introduction We find that veneers of dark materials commonly mantle the surfaces of the upper and lower layered deposits ULD and LLD respectively 1-2 in the Martian polar plateau These veneers do not follow the topography and form thin coatings on the polar surface that darken and locally obscure the underlying topography Dark veneers display serrated margins oriented in the wind direction The LLD appear to consist of indurated competent materials having unconformities that indicate a complex formational history of erosion and deposition The ULD unconformably overlie the LLD are characterized by higher-albedo and appear to lack unconformities which suggests that its formation did not involve significant erosional stages 2 Sources of dark veneers within the northern polar layered deposits We propose that the primary source of these dark materials is most likely a basal dark layer of the ULD which sits unconformably on the LLD In troughs this layer is eroded and dark veneers emerge from it which indicates that it consists of easily-erodable materials We propose that prior to the formation of the ULD these dark materials blanketed the LLD The trough systems appear to have developed during the accumulation of the LLD Therefore the emplacement of dark materials over a pre-existing irregular topography may have led to the formation of thick deposits over the troughs Erosion of these deposits would have been an important source for the dark veneers 3 Nature of polar surface undulations We propose

  8. Laminating butt-jointed, log-run southern pine veneers into long beams of uniform high strength

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch; G.E. Woodson

    1968-01-01

    Twenty laminated beams were constructed of log-run, butt-jointed, loblolly pine veneers 1|6 inch thick and 100 inches long. The beams were 18 inches deep, 2 inches wide, and 25 feet long. Veneers were arranged in the beams according to their modulus of elasticity (MOE). The stiffest were placed outermost, and the most limber in the center. The veneers, which were cut...

  9. An esthetic solution for single-implant restorations - type III porcelain veneer bonded to a screw-retained custom abutment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Magne, Michel; Jovanovic, Sascha A

    2008-01-01

    A new esthetic solution to restore dental implants in combination with limited interdental, facial or labial, or interocclusal space is presented. This article describes the translational application of novel-design porcelain veneers and adhesive restorative principles in the implant realm. A patient is presented who was treated with a single implant-supported restoration replacing a missing mandibular lateral incisor and partially collapsed interdental space. A screw-retained custom metal ceramic abutment was combined with a bonded porcelain restoration. This unique design was motivated by the limited restorative space and subgingival implant shoulder. It was also developed as a solution to the interference of the screw-access channel with the incisal edge, therefore providing the surgeon with more options during implant axis selection. The porcelain-to-porcelain adhesive approach was used instead of traditional principles of retention and resistance form of the abutment.

  10. Dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is the core diagnostic modality of veterinary dentistry. Dental radiographs assist in detecting hidden painful pathology, estimating the severity of dental conditions, assessing treatment options, providing intraoperative guidance, and also serve to monitor success of prior treatments. Unfortunately, most professional veterinary training programs provide little or no training in veterinary dentistry in general or dental radiology in particular. Although a technical learning curve does exist, the techniques required for producing diagnostic films are not difficult to master. Regular use of dental x-rays will increase the amount of pathology detected, leading to healthier patients and happier clients who notice a difference in how their pet feels. This article covers equipment and materials needed to produce diagnostic intraoral dental films. A simplified guide for positioning will be presented, including a positioning "cheat sheet" to be placed next to the dental x-ray machine in the operatory. Additionally, digital dental radiograph systems will be described and trends for their future discussed.

  11. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strengths of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sreekala, Laju; Narayanan, Mahesh; Eerali, Sunil M.; Eerali, Susil M.; Varghese, Joju; Zainaba Fathima, A. l.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the failure pattern. Materials and Methods: Twenty rectangular blocks (9 mm length × 4 mm height × 4 mm width) of base metal alloy (Bellabond plus, Bego, Germany) and zirconia (Will ceramZ zirconia K block) were fabricated for shear bond strength test. Surface of the base metal alloy block (4 mm × 4 mm area) was veneered with corresponding veneering porcelain (Ivoclar, IPS classic, vivadent). Similarly, surface of the zirconia rectangular block (4 mm × 4 mm) was veneered with corresponding veneering ceramic (Cercon ceram kiss, Degudent). Out of forty rectangular porcelain veneered core specimen, ten porcelain veneered base metal alloy specimen and ten porcelain veneered zirconia specimen were immersed in water at 37°C for one month to simulate the oral environment. Results: On comparison, the highest shear bond strength value was obtained in porcelain veneered base metal alloy before aging group followed by porcelain veneered base metal alloy after aging group, Porcelain veneered zirconia before aging group, porcelain veneered zirconia after aging group. SEM analysis revealed predominantly cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups. Conclusion: Porcelain veneered base metal alloy samples showed highest shear bond strength than porcelain veneered zirconia samples. Study concluded that aging had an influence on shear bond strength. Shear bond strength was found to be decreasing after aging. SEM analysis revealed cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups suggestive of higher bond strength of the interface than cohesive strength of ceramic. Hence, it was concluded that veneering ceramic was the weakest link. PMID:26942121

  12. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  13. The impact of argon/oxygen low-pressure plasma on shear bond strength between a veneering composite and different PEEK materials.

    PubMed

    Schwitalla, Andreas Dominik; Bötel, Friederike; Zimmermann, Tycho; Sütel, Mona; Müller, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of low-pressure argon/oxygen plasma with and without previous sandblasting on the shear bond strength (SBS) between dental PEEK compounds and a veneering composite. Of one type of unfilled PEEK and two pigment powder filled PEEK compounds, forty rectangular plates each were prepared and polished up to 4000 grit. The samples were randomly assigned to four surface pre-treatment groups, each consisting of ten specimens (1. Untreated; 2. Plasma treatment; 3. Sandblasting; 4. Sandblasting+plasma treatment). Plasma treatment was performed for 35min using a low-pressure plasma system with a 1:1 mixture of the process gases argon and oxygen. Surface roughness and water contact angles were recorded. An adhesive (Visio.link, Bredent GmbH & Co KG, Senden, Germany) was applied onto the specimen surfaces and light cured. A mold was used to shape the veneering composite (Vita VM LC, Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) into a cylindrical form on the sample surface before light curing. SBS was measured after 24h incubation at 37°C in distilled water using a universal testing machine. The samples pre-treated according to group 4 (sandblasting and plasma treatment) showed the highest SBS overall, whereas the unfilled PEEK showed the highest SBS (19.8±2.46MPa) compared to the other PEEK materials (15.86±4.39MPa and 9.06±3.1MPa). Sandblasting and surface activation with low-pressure argon/oxygen plasma in combination with an adhesive causes a favorable increase in shear bond strength, especially on unfilled PEEK material. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Effects of Laser Modalities on Shear Bond Strengths of Veneering Porcelains to Laser Sintered Substructures: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Gorler, Oguzhan; Saygin, Aysegul Goze

    2017-06-01

    Laser modalities and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) have a potential to enhance micromechanical bonding between dental super- and infrastructures. However, the effect of different manufacturing methods on the metal-ceramic bond strength needs further evaluation. We investigated the effect of surface treatment with Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG lasers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of high-fusion dental porcelains (Vita and G-Ceram) to infrastructures prepared with DMLS in vitro settings. Study specimens (n = 128) were randomly divided into study subsets (n = 8), considering treatment types applied on the surface of infrastructures, including sandblasting and selected laser modalities; infrastructure types as direct laser sintered (DLS) and Ni-Cr based; and superstructure porcelains as Vita and G-Ceram. The SBS test was performed to assess the effectiveness of surface modifications that were also examined with a stereo microscope. Considering laser procedure types, the highest SBS values were obtained by Er:YAG laser, followed by, with a decreasing efficiency, Ho:YAG laser and sandblasting procedures, and Nd:YAG laser procedure (p < 0.05). Nd:YAG laser decreases the bonding of Vita and G-Ceram in all the infrastructures compared with sandblasting. Considering porcelains, the highest SBS values were obtained by Vita (p < 0.05). Considering infrastructures, the highest SBS values were obtained by DMLS procedure (p < 0.05). The laser procedures caused surface irregularities as revealed by the stereo microscopic examination. In current experimental settings, Er:YAG laser applied to DLS infrastructure veneered with Vita porcelain increases bonding strength more distinctly, and Nd:YAG laser applied to Ni-Cr-based infrastructure veneered with G-Ceram porcelain alters bonding strength unfavorably.

  15. Effects of different application durations of scanning laser method on debonding strength of laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Tozlu, Murat; Iseri, Ufuk; Ulkur, Feyza; Arun, Tulin

    2012-07-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers as esthetic and minimally invasive restorations are being used as an alternative to full veneer crowns. However, the removal of porcelain veneers that have failed may be an uncomfortable and time-consuming procedure because of the high bond strength between the porcelain laminate veneers and the tooth surface. The purpose of this study was to prepare a simple and reliable method for porcelain laminate veneer debonding by using an Er:YAG laser with the scanning method and to determine the amount of lasing time required. Eighty cylindrical specimens with a thickness of 0.7 mm and a diameter of 5 mm were fabricated from Empress II ceramic material. They were cemented on the labial surface of extracted bovine mandibular incisors using Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and light cured for 40 s. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 20. The first group was assigned as the control group and no laser application was performed. The Er:YAG laser was applied on each specimen in the other three study groups for 3, 6, and 9 s by using the scanning method. One second after the lasing, a mechanical force was applied to remove the laminate veneers by using an Instron Universal Testing machine. Results of this study exhibited statistically significant differences between the control group and the three study groups. Intergroup comparison of shear bond strengths of the three study groups showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0001). This study showed that all three application times of Er-YAG laser were effective for debonding ceramic laminate veneers by softening the adhesive resin.

  16. Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    The excess of highly siderophile elements in the Earth’s mantle is thought to reflect the addition of primitive meteoritic material after core formation ceased. This ‘late veneer’ either comprises material remaining in the terrestrial planet region after the main stages of the Earth’s accretion, or derives from more distant asteroidal or cometary sources. Distinguishing between these disparate origins is important because a late veneer consisting of carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroids or comets could be the principal source of the Earth’s volatiles and water. Until now, however, a ‘genetic’ link between the late veneer and such volatile-rich materials has not been established or ruled out. Such genetic links can be determined using ruthenium (Ru) isotopes, because the Ru in the Earth’s mantle predominantly derives from the late veneer, and because meteorites exhibit Ru isotope variations arising from the heterogeneous distribution of stellar-derived dust. Although Ru isotopic data and the correlation of Ru and molybdenum (Mo) isotope anomalies in meteorites were previously used to argue that the late veneer derives from the same type of inner Solar System material as do Earth’s main building blocks, the Ru isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites has not been determined sufficiently well to rule them out as a source of the late veneer. Here we show that all chondrites, including carbonaceous chondrites, have Ru isotopic compositions distinct from that of the Earth’s mantle. The Ru isotope anomalies increase from enstatite to ordinary to carbonaceous chondrites, demonstrating that material formed at greater heliocentric distance contains larger Ru isotope anomalies. Therefore, these data refute an outer Solar System origin for the late veneer and imply that the late veneer was not the primary source of volatiles and water on the Earth.

  17. Bond strength, microhardness, and core/veneer interface quality of an all-ceramic system.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Nadia Z

    2010-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate three veneering materials for an all-ceramic alumina system in terms of bond strength, microhardness, and core/veneer interface quality. Fifteen In-Ceram cores were constructed for this study, forming three groups of five specimens each divided by the veneering ceramic disc fired on the occlusal surface of the alumina core: Vitadur N, Vitadur Alpha, or VM7. The specimens underwent shear bond and microhardness testing. Gross examination of debonded discs by SEM and EDAX analysis was conducted. Data for shear bond strength (SBS) and microhardness were presented as means and standard deviation (SD) values. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test were used for pairwise comparison between the means when ANOVA test was significant. VM7 showed the highest shear bond value and lowest microhardness values of the three tested veneering materials. No statistically significant difference was evident between the SBSs of Vitadur N and Vitadur Alpha to the alumina cores. Vitadur Alpha showed statistically the highest mean VHN, followed by Vitadur N, while VM7 showed statistically the lowest mean values of VHN. In-Ceram core/Vitadur N disc debondings appeared to be interfacial by complete delaminations, leaving a shiny visible and quite distinct area, whereas there appeared to be perfect adhesion between the core and VM7 veneering material. VM7 appeared to possess ultra-fine texture with intimate contact to the core, forming what seemed like a transition zone where the ceramic and core appeared to blend for a distance. VM7's finer particle size has improved the core/veneer bond strength and decreased micohardness values. This new veneering material will probably enhance the performance and esthetics of the In-Ceram system.

  18. In vitro evaluation of fracture strength of zirconia restoration veneered with various ceramic materials

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yu-Sung; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Fracture of the veneering material of zirconia restorations frequently occurs in clinical situations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strengths of zirconia crowns veneered with various ceramic materials by various techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS A 1.2 mm, 360° chamfer preparation and occlusal reduction of 2 mm were performed on a first mandibular molar, and 45 model dies were fabricated in a titanium alloy by CAD/CAM system. Forty-five zirconia copings were fabricated and divided into three groups. In the first group (LT) zirconia copings were veneered with feldspathic porcelain by the layering technique. In the second group (HT) the glass ceramic was heat-pressed on the zirconia coping, and for the third group (ST) a CAD/CAM-fabricated high-strength anatomically shaped veneering cap was sintered onto the zirconia coping. All crowns were cemented onto their titanium dies with Rely X™ Unicem (3M ESPE) and loaded with a universal testing machine (Instron 5583) until failure. The mean fracture values were compared by an one-way ANOVA and a multiple comparison post-hoc test (α=0.05). Scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the fractured interface. RESULTS Mean fracture load and standard deviation was 4263.8±1110.8 N for Group LT, 5070.8±1016.4 for Group HT and 6242.0±1759.5 N for Group ST. The values of Group ST were significantly higher than those of the other groups. CONCLUSION Zirconia crowns veneered with CAD/CAM generated glass ceramics by the sintering technique are superior to those veneered with feldspathic porcelain by the layering technique or veneered with glass ceramics by the heat-pressing technique in terms of fracture strength. PMID:22977725

  19. Effect of porcelain and enamel thickness on porcelain veneer failure loads in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunling; Green, Chad C; Sederstrom, Dalene; McLaren, Edward A; White, Shane N

    2014-05-01

    Bonded porcelain veneers are widely used esthetic restorations. Although high success and survival rates have been reported, failures occur. Fracture is the most common failure mode. Fractures range from incomplete cracks to the catastrophic. Minimally invasive or thin partial veneers have gained popularity. The aim of this study was to measure the influences of porcelain veneer thickness and enamel substrate thickness on the loads needed to cause the initial fracture and catastrophic failure of porcelain veneers. Model discoid porcelain veneer specimens of varying thickness were bonded to the flattened facial surfaces of incisors, artificially aged, and loaded to failure with a small sphere. Individual fracture events were identified and analyzed statistically and fractographically. Fracture events included initial Hertzian cracks, intermediate radial cracks, and catastrophic gross failure. Increased porcelain, enamel, and their combined thickness had like effects in substantially raising resistance to catastrophic failure but also slightly decreased resistance to initial Hertzian cracking. Fractographic and numerical data demonstrated that porcelain and tooth enamel behaved in a remarkably similar manner. As porcelain thickness, enamel thickness, and their combined thickness increased, the loads needed to produce initial fracture and catastrophic failure rose substantially. Porcelain veneers withstood considerable damage before catastrophic failure. Increased enamel thickness, increased porcelain thickness, and increased combined enamel and porcelain thickness all profoundly raised the failure loads necessary to cause catastrophic failure. Enamel and feldspathic porcelain behaved in a like manner. Surface contact damage occurred initially. Final catastrophic failure followed flexural radial cracking. Bonded porcelain veneers were highly damage tolerant. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Testing the Late-Veneer hypothesis with selenium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, J.; Koenig, S.; Bennett, N.; Kurzawa, T.; Aierken, E.; Shahar, A.; Schoenberg, R.

    2016-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a siderophile element displaying an excess abundance in Earth's mantle compared to experimental predictions [1], which may be attributed to the Late-Veneer. As Se is also volatile, testing the late-veneer addition of Se can constrain the origin of other volatile elements on Earth. Here we combine high-precision Se isotope measurements of metal-silicate partitioning experiments and chondrites to assess whether planetary differentiation could leave a measurable Se isotopic signature on planetary mantles. We performed Se isotopic measurements of 5 metal-silicate partitioning experiments and 20 chondrites of all major classes. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 1650 C for 1 to 4 hours using the piston-cylinder apparatus at Carnegie's Geophysical Laboratory. After wet chemistry, data were obtained on a ThermoFisher Scientific™ NeptunePlus MC-ICP-MS at the University of Tübingen with a 74Se/77Se double spike technique. δ82/76Se values are given relative to NIST SRM-3149 and the external reproducibility calculated from duplicate meteorite analyses is ≤ 0.1‰ (2 s.d.). Chondrites vary over a 0.8‰ range of δ82/76Se values. CIs and CMs show evidence for heavier 82Se/76Se ratios, likely due to mixing processes in the proto-planetary nebula. When these isotopically heavier meteorites are excluded, remaining chondrites have δ82/76Se values varying over a 0.3‰ range, within uncertainty of previous results [2]. We suggest that these chondrites may be used to estimate a δ82/76Se value of bulk planets. At the conditions of our experiments, the partition coefficients for Se log Dmetal-silicate range from 0.7±0.1 to 1.9±0.1, consistent with previous work [1]. A small but resolvable Se isotopic fractionation was observed: 82Se/76Se ratios were enriched by ≤ 0.5‰ in the silicates relative to the metals. Thus, given current uncertainties for Se isotopic measurements, marginal differences between planetary mantles and chondrites may be resolved

  1. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  2. The effect of ceramic thickness and resin cement shades on the color matching of ceramic veneers in discolored teeth.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wenzhong; Chen, Xiaodong; Ren, Dafei; Zhan, Kangru; Wang, Yining

    2017-01-10

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of ceramic material thickness and resin cement shade on the color matching of ceramic veneers at the gray tooth structures. Seventy-two artificial maxillary right central incisor teeth (C2 shade) were prepared according to veneer tooth preparation in practice. Ceramic materials (LT, A2 shade, IPS e.max Press) were selected to fabricate the 0.50- and 0.75-mm thick veneers at the body region. The ceramic veneer specimens were bonded to the artificial teeth by the 6 shades of resin cements (Variolink Veneer: shades of HV+3, LV-2, LV-3; and RelyX(TM) Veneer: shades of WO, TR, A3). A clinical spectrophotometer (Crystaleye, Olympus) was used to measure the color parameters. The color differences (ΔE values) of ceramic veneers and A2 shade tab (Vitapan Classical, Vita) and C* ab values were calculated. The results of three-way ANOVA indicated that the ΔE values of ceramic veneer and A2 shade tab were significantly different in the thickness of ceramic materials, shades of resin cements, and measuring regions (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in 0.50-mm-thick ceramic veneers that exhibited higher ΔE values compared with veneers that were 0.75-mm thick. Tukey's HSD test showed that the average ΔE values in body region were significantly smaller than that in cervical and incisal regions. The color matching of ceramic veneers was significantly influenced not only by the ceramic thickness and the resin cement shades but also the tooth regions.

  3. Fracture resistance and failure mode of posterior fixed dental prostheses fabricated with two zirconia CAD/CAM systems

    PubMed Central

    López-Suárez, Carlos; Gonzalo, Esther; Peláez, Jesús; Rodríguez, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an improvement of zirconia ceramic materials to replace posterior missing teeth. To date little in vitro studies has been carried out on the fracture resistance of zirconia veneered posterior fixed dental prostheses. This study investigated the fracture resistance and the failure mode of 3-unit zirconia-based posterior fixed dental prostheses fabricated with two CAD/CAM systems. Material and Methods Twenty posterior fixed dental prostheses were studied. Samples were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 each) according to the zirconia ceramic analyzed: Lava and Procera. Specimens were loaded until fracture under static load. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon´s rank sum test and Wilcoxon´s signed-rank test (P<0.05). Results Partial fracture of the veneering porcelain occurred in 100% of the samples. Within each group, significant differences were shown between the veneering and the framework fracture resistance (P=0.002). The failure occurred in the connector cervical area in 80% of the cases. Conclusions All fracture load values of the zirconia frameworks could be considered clinically acceptable. The connector area is the weak point of the restorations. Key words:Fixed dental prostheses, zirconium-dioxide, zirconia, fracture resistance, failure mode. PMID:26155341

  4. Mechanical and chemical analyses across dental porcelain fused to CP titanium or Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Souza, Júlio C M; Henriques, Bruno; Ariza, Edith; Martinelli, Antonio E; Nascimento, Rubens M; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of mechanical properties and chemical variation across veneering dental porcelain fused to different titanium-based substrates. Test samples were synthesized by fusing dental feldspar-based porcelain onto commercially pure titanium grade II or Ti6Al4V alloy. Samples were cross-sectioned at angles of 10 and 90° to the interface plane. Afterwards, nanoindentation tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) system were carried out across interfaces extending from the metal towards the porcelain area. Elemental diffusion profiles across the porcelain-to-metal interfaces were also obtained by EDS analysis. The mismatch in mechanical properties found in porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V interfaces was lower than that of porcelain-to-CP titanium. Cracking was noticed at low-thickness veneering dental porcelain regions after the nanoindentation tests of samples cross-sectioned at low angles to the interface plane. A wide reaction zone between titanium and porcelain as well as higher incidence of defects was noticed at the porcelain-to-CP titanium interfaces. This study confirmed Ti6Al4V as an improved alternative to CP-titanium as it showed to establish a better interface with the veneering dental porcelain considering the slight chemical interaction and the lower mechanical properties mismatch. The elastic modulus of porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V samples showed to be less sensitive to porcelain thickness variations.

  5. Shear stress relaxation of dental ceramics determined from creep behavior.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, Paul H; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2004-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that shear stress relaxation functions of dental ceramics can be determined from creep functions measured in a beam-bending viscometer. Stress relaxation behavior was determined from creep data for the following materials: (1) a veneering ceramic-IPS Empress2 body ceramic (E2V); (2) an experimental veneering ceramic (EXV); (3) a low expansion body porcelain-Vita VMK 68 feldspathic body porcelain (VB); (4) a high expansion body porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic body porcelain (WCB); (5) a medium expansion opaque porcelain-Vita feldspathic opaque porcelain (VO); and (6) a high expansion opaque porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic opaque porcelain (WCO). Laplace transform techniques were used to relate shear stress relaxation functions to creep functions for an eight-parameter, discrete viscoelastic model. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to fit a four-term exponential relaxation function for each material at each temperature. The relaxation functions were utilized in the ANSYS finite element program to simulate creep behavior in three-point bending for each material at each temperature. Shear stress relaxation times at 575 degrees C ranged from 0.03 s for EXV to 195 s for WCO. Knowledge of the shear relaxation functions for dental ceramics at high temperatures is required input for the viscoelastic element in the ANSYS finite element program, which can used to determine transient and residual stresses in dental prostheses during fabrication.

  6. Influence of Heat Treatment and Veneering on the Storage Modulus and Surface of Zirconia Ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Siavikis, Georgius; Behr, Michael; van der Zel, Jef M; Feilzer, Albert J; Rosentritt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glass-ceramic veneered zirconia is used for the application as fixed partial dentures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the heat treatment during veneering, the application of glass-ceramic for veneering or long term storage has an influence on the storage modulus of zirconia. Methods: Zirconia bars (Cercon, DeguDent, G; 0.5x2x20 mm) were fabricated and treated according to veneering conditions. Besides heating regimes between 680°C and 1000°C (liner bake and annealing), sandblasting (Al2O3) or steam cleaning were used. The bars were investigated after 90 days storage in water and acid. For investigating the influence of veneering, the bars were veneered in press- or layer technique. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in a three-point-bending design was performed to determine the storage modulus between 25°C and 200°C at a frequency of 1.66 Hz. All specimens were loaded on top and bottom (treatment on pressure or tensile stress side). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for evaluating the superficial changes of the zirconia surface due to treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann Whitney U-test (α=0.05). Results: Sintered zirconia provided a storage modulus E’ of 215 (203/219) GPa and tan δ of 0.04 at 110°C. A 10%-decrease of E’ was found up to 180°C. The superficial appearance changed due to heating regime. Sandblasting reduced E’ to 213 GPa, heating influenced E’ between 205 GPa (liner bake 1) and 222 GPa (dentin bake 1). Steam cleaning, annealing and storage changed E’ between 4 GPa and 22 GPa, depending on the side of loading. After veneering, strong E’-reduction was found down to 84 GPa and 125 GPa. Conclusions: Veneering of zirconia with glass-ceramic in contrast to heat treating during veneering procedure had a strong influence on the modulus. The application of the glass-ceramic caused a stronger decrease of the storage modulus. PMID:21494388

  7. Cervical and Incisal Marginal Discrepancy in Ceramic Laminate Veneering Materials: A SEM Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Ganapathy, Dhanraj M; Jain, Ashish R

    2017-01-01

    Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) tests were used for statistical analysis. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  8. Cervical and Incisal Marginal Discrepancy in Ceramic Laminate Veneering Materials: A SEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Ganapathy, Dhanraj M.; Jain, Ashish R.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. Settings and Design: This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Subjects and Methods: Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups. PMID:28839415

  9. Treatment of natural wood veneers with nano-oxides to improve their fire behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés Bueno, A. B.; Navarro Bañón, M. V.; Martínez de Morentín, L.; Moratalla García, J.

    2014-08-01

    Conventional flame retardants used to improve fire behaviour of wood based materials are commonly based on halogenated and/or nitrogenated chemicals. These chemicals are toxic and can harm the environment and human health. Some works describe the incorporation of nanomaterials to the polymeric systems to improve their fire behaviour. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of several treatments based on the use of nanomaterials on the properties of natural wood veneers and mainly on their fire behaviour. Firstly, several modes for treating pine veneers (immersion, spraying and impregnation) were evaluated using a commercial flame retardant to select the most effective treatment. The treatment selected as the most effective was immersion in a bath of flame retarding agent for 30 minutes at standard conditions. Afterward, pine veneers were treated by immersion in aqueous dispersions which contained 3wt% of the following nanoparticles: SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2, respectively. The effect of each treatment on the properties of veneers was analyzed. The results obtained showed that the treatment based on the use of 3wt% SiO2 aqueous dispersion was the most effective to improve the fire behaviour of pine veneers.

  10. Nonlinear visco-elastic finite element analysis of different porcelain veneers configuration.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Apicella, Davide; Riccio, Carlo; Gherlone, Enrico; Zarone, Fernando; Aversa, Raffaella; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Ferrari, Marco; Apicella, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the biomechanical behavior of feldspathic versus alumina porcelain veneers. A 3D numerical model of a maxillary central incisor, with the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the alveolar bone was generated. Such model was made up of four main volumes: dentin, enamel, cement layer and veneer. Incisors restored with alumina and feldspathic porcelain veneers were compared with a natural sound tooth (control). Enamel, cementum, cancellous and cortical bone were considered as isotropic elastic materials; on the contrary, the tubular structure of dentin was designed as elastic orthotropic. The nonlinear visco-elatic behavior of the PDL was considered. The veneer volumes were coupled with alumina and feldspathic porcelain mechanical properties. The adhesive layers were modeled in the FE environment using spring elements. A 50N load applied at 60 degrees angle with tooth longitudinal axis was applied and validated. Compressive stresses were concentrated on the external surface of the buccal side of the veneer close to the incisal margin; such phenomenon was more evident in the presence of alumina. Tensile stresses were negligible when compared to compressive ones. Alumina and feldspathic ceramic were characterized by a different biomechanical behavior in terms of elastic deformations and stress distributions. The ultimate strength of both materials was not overcome in the performed analysis.

  11. Effect of cooling rate on shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to a zirconia ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Komine, Futoshi; Saito, Ayako; Kobayashi, Kazuhisa; Koizuka, Mai; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooling rates after firing procedures of veneering porcelain on shear bond strength between veneering porcelain and a zirconium dioxide (zirconia; ZrO₂) ceramic material. A total of 48 ZrO₂ disks were divided equally into three groups. Two veneering porcelains that are recommended for ZrO₂ material - Cerabien ZR (CZR), IPS e.max Ceram (EMX) - and one that is recommended for metal ceramics - Super Porcelain AAA (AAA) were assessed. Each group was then further divided into two subgroups (n = 8) according to cooling time (0 or 4 min) after porcelain firing. Specimens were fabricated by veneering the porcelain on the ZrO₂ disks, after which shear bond testing was conducted. Bond strength differed significantly by cooling time in ZrO₂-AAA (P < 0.001) and ZrO₂-EMX (P = 0.001) specimens. There was no significant difference in shear bond strength with respect to cooling time in ZrO₂-CZR specimens (P = 0.382). The duration of cooling from firing temperature to room temperature may affect the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to a zirconia material depending on porcelain material used.

  12. Marginal adaptation of Spinell InCeram and feldspathic porcelain laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedi-Rad, Fahimeh; Fakhrzadeh, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: This in vitro study investigated the marginal fit of two porcelain laminate veneers to help the selection of more accurate veneers in discolored teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty impressions of metal master die created from the prepared labial surface of an acrylic maxillary central incisor were made and poured with Type IV stone. The dies were distributed into test groups (n = 15) for the construction of DuCeram and InCeram laminate veneers. An image-analysis program was used to measure the gap between the veneers and the master die at the labial, lingual, and proximal margins. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures ANOVA. Independent t-test was used to compare the mean values between the two groups. Values of P < 0.05 were judged to be significant. Results: Differences between marginal fit of two groups were significant (P < 0.001). The overall mean marginal gap values (μm) for InCeram and DuCeram were, respectively, 114.4 ± 40.81 and 282.3 ± 82.82. Independent t-test revealed significant differences between the marginal gaps of two materials at different predetermined points. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the marginal gap in InCeram laminate veneer was within the clinically acceptable standard set at 120 μm. PMID:27274344

  13. Marginal adaptation of Spinell InCeram and feldspathic porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedi-Rad, Fahimeh; Fakhrzadeh, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the marginal fit of two porcelain laminate veneers to help the selection of more accurate veneers in discolored teeth. Thirty impressions of metal master die created from the prepared labial surface of an acrylic maxillary central incisor were made and poured with Type IV stone. The dies were distributed into test groups (n = 15) for the construction of DuCeram and InCeram laminate veneers. An image-analysis program was used to measure the gap between the veneers and the master die at the labial, lingual, and proximal margins. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures ANOVA. Independent t-test was used to compare the mean values between the two groups. Values of P < 0.05 were judged to be significant. Differences between marginal fit of two groups were significant (P < 0.001). The overall mean marginal gap values (μm) for InCeram and DuCeram were, respectively, 114.4 ± 40.81 and 282.3 ± 82.82. Independent t-test revealed significant differences between the marginal gaps of two materials at different predetermined points. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal gap in InCeram laminate veneer was within the clinically acceptable standard set at 120 μm.

  14. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-10-11

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications.

  15. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications. PMID:24121810

  16. Evaluation of veneer yields and grades from yellow-poplar, white oak, and sweetgum from the southeast

    Treesearch

    Robert H. McAlister

    1980-01-01

    Dry volume yields and standard grades of veneer are given for yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and white oak by tree diameter and location within the stem. Results show that the typical stands of mixed southern pine and hardwood timer yield enough veneer to utilize almost 90 percent of the stand volume in the production of COM-PLY lumber and panels

  17. Bilateral treatment: a strategy for enhancing the mechanical strength of machinable veneers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Wei, Yong-jie; Chen, Ming-ming; Zhang, Zhen-ting

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the potential application of bilateral treatment of glazing plus staining in machinable veneer mechanical strength improvement. Standard laminate specimens (n=105) were sliced from machinable ceramic blocks and divided into seven batches for further treatments: (1) batch C, standard specimens; (2) batch P, one specimen surface polished; (3) batch F, fired in glaze-firing-program without glaze; (4) batch G, fired with glaze on one surface; (5) batch S, fired with stain on one surface; (6) batch GA, fired with glaze on one surface, then re-fired in stain-firing-program without stain, and (7) batch GS, fired with glaze on one surface then fired with stain on the other side. The flexural strength of all specimens was tested with a three-point-bending test and the results statistically evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze fractographs of bilateral treatment specimens. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of thermal annealing effect on strength improvement in bilateral treatment. The flexural strength of bilateral treated GS (143.23+/-14.02 MPa) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than unilateral treated G (125.92+/-14.01 MPa) and P (114.48+/-8.45 MPa) and other batches, including C (100.11+/-6.65 MPa), F (99.48+/-8.61 MPa), S (119.28+/-19.34 MPa) and AG (126.65+/-9.83 MPa). SEM imaging showed that no underlying separation between the glaze-matrix or stain-matrix could be found in the fractured GS specimen. No evidence of Bragg diffraction peak broadening could be seen in XRD spectra compared with specimens from batches C and AG. To improve machinable laminate strength, a bilateral treatment comprising staining and glazing gave higher strength than unilateral glazing or polishing alone. It was the surface layer effect achieved by glazing and staining, not the thermal annealing effect achieved during glaze and stain sintering, which contributed to the laminate strength improvement. Copyright

  18. A prospective evaluation of zirconia anterior partial fixed dental prostheses: Clinical results after seven years.

    PubMed

    Solá-Ruíz, Maria Fernanda; Agustin-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Labaig-Rueda, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Because of the high mechanical strength of zirconium dioxide, the metal in fixed partial prostheses can now be replaced. However, the material is susceptible to aging or hydrothermal degradation and to chipping of the feldspathic veneer. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the survival (without failure) and success (survival without any complication or failure) rate and clinical efficacy of anterior zirconia partial fixed dental prostheses. Twenty-seven anterior partial fixed dental prostheses of 3 to 6 units were fabricated. All participants were examined after 1 month and 6 months, then annually for 7 years. Three partial fixed dental prostheses failed and had to be removed: 2 because of secondary caries, which increased failure significantly (P=.001) and 1 because of severe chipping. Six partial fixed dental prostheses had complications: 2 debonded, 3 had chipping, and 1 had periapical pathology. All veneer porcelain fractures occurred in 6-unit fixed partial prostheses (P=.002). The clinical success rate was 88.8% after the 7-year follow-up. The clinical behavior of partial fixed dental prostheses with a zirconium dioxide core in the anterior region provides an adequate medium-term survival rate. The main cause of failure was secondary caries. The most frequent complication was chipping, which was directly related to the number of units of the prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of Luting Agents on the Resultant Shade of Ceramic Veneers: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Yogesh; Pustake, Swati; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Pustake, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers. Aim To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic). Materials and Methods Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I’ Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value. Conclusion Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades. PMID:26501014

  20. Restoration of primary canines with porcelain laminate veneers: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2014-09-01

    This article describes treatment of a young adult patient with porcelain laminate veneers for restoring unaesthetic maxillary anterior teeth with two retained primary canines. The patient had experienced an approximately two-year orthodontic treatment and had received both fixed and removable retainers for the upper arch. The patient could not afford implant supported restorations for his missing premolar teeth and was not pleased by the appearance of his smile. Using porcelain laminate veneers is a proper treatment option that could be taken into consideration in these situations.

  1. Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory applied to porcelain veneer systems using a colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Davis, B K; Johnston, W M; Saba, R F

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ability of Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory to predict color parameters of veneer porcelain on various backings using colorimetric measurements. Tristimulus absorption and scattering coefficients were used to predict the respective tristimulus reflectance values of A1, D3, and translucent porcelain samples after they had been bonded to light and dark substrates using universal, opaque, and untinted shades of bonding resin. Observed and predicted reflectance values exhibited high correlation (r2 > or = 0.93 for each porcelain shade). Kubelka-Munk theory offers an accurate prediction for the resultant colorimetric reflectance parameters of veneer porcelain bonded to variously colored backings.

  2. Some important physical properties of laminated veneer lumber (Lvl) made from oriental beech and Lombardy poplar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, Murat

    2012-09-01

    This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.

  3. Esthetic restorations of maxillary anterior teeth with orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    If orthodontists and restorative dentists establish the interdisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry, the esthetic and functional outcome of their combined efforts will be greatly enhanced. This article describes satisfying esthetic results obtained by the distribution of space for restoration by orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers in uneven space between maxillary anterior teeth. It is proposed that the use of orthodontic treatment for re-distribution of the space and the use of porcelain laminate veneers to alter crown anatomy provide maximum esthetic and functional correction for patients with irregular interdental spacing. PMID:21165191

  4. Dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P O; Lowder, M Q

    1998-08-01

    Dental sepsis or periapical abscess formation constitutes a large percentage of dental conditions that afflict horses. Dental sepsis occurs when the pulp chamber of the tooth is exposed to the oral cavity or external environment, allowing bacterial localization with resulting infection. Although acute, primary, septic pulpitis in horses is rare, dental sepsis often results from colonization of the pulp chamber with pathogenic bacteria secondary to maleruption or impaction of teeth with secondary alveolar bone lysis, primary fractures of the tooth, mandible, or maxilla, periodontal disease, or infundibular necrosis. The sequela to pulpal infection are extensions into the periradicular tissues and mandibular or maxillary periapical abscess formation.

  5. Zirconia-based dental crown to support a removable partial denture: a three-dimensional finite element analysis using contact elements and micro-CT data.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Martini, Ana Paula; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Sales; Luersen, Marco Antonio; Ko, Ching Chang

    2015-01-01

    Veneer fracture is the most common complication in zirconia-based restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of a zirconia-based crown in a lower canine tooth supporting removable partial denture (RPD) prosthesis, varying the bond quality of the veneer/coping interface. Microtomography (μCT) data of an extracted left lower canine were used to build the finite element model (M) varying the core material (gold core - MAu; zirconia core - MZi) and the quality of the veneer/core interface (complete bonded - MZi; incomplete bonded - MZi-NL). The incomplete bonding condition was only applied for zirconia coping by using contact elements (Target/Contact) with 0.3 frictional coefficients. Stress fields were obtained using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The loading condition (L = 1 N) was vertically applied at the base of the RPD prosthesis metallic support towards the dental apex. Maximum principal (σmax) and von Mises equivalent (σvM) stresses were obtained. The σmax (MPa) for the bonded condition was similar between gold and zirconia cores (MAu, 0.42; MZi, 0.40). The incomplete bonded condition (MZi-NL) raised σmax in the veneer up to 800% (3.23 MPa) in contrast to the bonded condition. The peak of σvM increased up to 270% in the MZi-NL. The incomplete bond condition increasing the stress in the veneer/zirconia interface.

  6. Evaluation of the optical properties of CAD-CAM generated yttria-stabilized zirconia and glass-ceramic laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Alghazzawi, Tariq F; Lemons, Jack; Liu, Perng-Ru; Essig, Milton E; Janowski, Gregg M

    2012-05-01

    When feldspathic porcelain (FP) laminate veneers are used to mask tooth discoloration that extends into the dentin, significant tooth reduction is needed to provide space for the opaque layer and optimize the bonding of the restoration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color effect of trial insertion paste (TP), composite resin abutment (CRA), and veneer regions on the optical properties of feldspathic porcelain (FP), yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP), and IPS e.max CAD HT (IEC) veneers. A melamine tooth was prepared for a laminate veneer on a model, and a definitive cast was made. The definitive die was scanned by using the TurboDent System (TDS), then 30 CRA were machined and 10 veneers were fabricated for each ceramic material (FP, Y-TZP, IEC). The optical properties of different veneer materials, CRA (A(1), A(2), A(3)) and TP (bleach XL, opaque white, transparent, and yellow) were evaluated in the cervical, body, and incisal regions with a spectrophotometer. Results were analyzed by using 1-way ANOVA (.05). The color difference for all the veneers was affected by TP and CRA colors in different regions. The mean values for the Y-TZP veneer color coordinates (L*: 74 ±0.34, a*: 0.09 ±0.20, and b*: 17.43 ±0.44) were significantly different (P<.001) from those of IEC veneers (L*: 70.15 ±0.23, a*: -0.69 ±0.073, and b*:11.48 ±0.30) and FP veneers (L*: 70.00 ±0.86, a*: - 0.28 ±0.203, and b*: 13.86 ±1.08). There was no difference between IEC for L* and FP. Significant difference was detected (P<.001) in color coordinates among the 3 veneer materials for a* and b*. The TP color affected the color difference for all veneer materials except the Y-TZP, while there was no effect on the CRA color. The magnitude of color coordinates changed as a function of TP color and veneer material. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Veneer Layers on the Bending Shear Strength and Delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from Oil Palm Trunk (OPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Nordin, K.; Bahari, S. A.; Ahmad, M.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the number of veneer layers on the bending shear strength and delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from oil palm trunk (OPT). Five (5), Six (6) and Seven (7) veneer layers of OPT LVL were manufactured. The dimension of the boards was 45 cm by 45 cm by 1.9 cm. The boards were hot pressed for 13 minutes at a pressure of 31 kgf per m2. Urea formaldehyde (UF) supplied by a local adhesive manufacturer was used as the binder for the boards. The bending shear tests consisted of the edgewise and flatwise tests, whereas the delamination test consisted of the cold and hot water boil tests. The preparation of the test specimens and tests set-up was in accordance to the Japanese Standards, JAS-1991 [1]. Six replications were used for each test. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test to test for significant differences. The results indicated that as the number of layers increased the strength also increased. All the boards passed the standard. The difference in strength between the different types of samples was significant at 95 percent confidence level. Bending shear failures were primarily in the veneers. It is possible to use the boards as light weight interior building and furniture components. Over the years, the supply of quality timber resources from the natural forest has decrease as the wood-based industry experienced rapid growth. The supply of rubberwood for the furniture industry is also decreasing as a result of increase latex price. Accordingly, OPT LVL can be an alternative or supplementary raw material for the wood-based industry.

  8. Thoracic complications associated with utilization of the air turbine dental drill.

    PubMed

    Kost, M

    1996-06-01

    Thoracic complications associated with the use of the high-speed air turbine dental drill have been reported sporadically in the anesthesia literature. This case report documents the potential sequelae associated with air entrainment from utilization of the high-speed air turbine dental drill in general dentistry. Signs and symptoms of air entrainment include chest fullness, periorbital and facial edema, and crepitus. Prompt recognition of this phenomena is essential because of potential airway obstruction and additional complications, as the infused air dissects through the fascial planes. Cardiovascular collapse, associated with the development of venous air embolism, has also been reported as a life-threatening complication associated with the high-speed air turbine dental drill. This is a case report of a patient who developed pneumomediastinum while receiving dental preparatory treatment for multiple crowns, veneers, and impressions.

  9. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  10. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  11. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  12. The fracture load and failure types of veneered anterior zirconia crowns: an analysis of normal and Weibull distribution of complete and censored data.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Ozcan, Mutlu; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Roos, Malgorzata

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture load of veneered anterior zirconia crowns using normal and Weibull distribution of complete and censored data. Standardized zirconia frameworks for maxillary canines were milled using a CAD/CAM system and randomly divided into 3 groups (N=90, n=30 per group). They were veneered with three veneering ceramics, namely GC Initial ZR, Vita VM9, IPS e.max Ceram using layering technique. The crowns were cemented with glass ionomer cement on metal abutments. The specimens were then loaded to fracture (1 mm/min) in a Universal Testing Machine. The data were analyzed using classical method (normal data distribution (μ, σ); Levene test and one-way ANOVA) and according to the Weibull statistics (s, m). In addition, fracture load results were analyzed depending on complete and censored failure types (only chipping vs. total fracture together with chipping). When computed with complete data, significantly higher mean fracture loads (N) were observed for GC Initial ZR (μ=978, σ=157; s=1043, m=7.2) and VITA VM9 (μ=1074, σ=179; s=1139; m=7.8) than that of IPS e.max Ceram (μ=798, σ=174; s=859, m=5.8) (p<0.05) by classical and Weibull statistics, respectively. When the data were censored for only total fracture, IPS e.max Ceram presented the lowest fracture load for chipping with both classical distribution (μ=790, σ=160) and Weibull statistics (s=836, m=6.5). When total fracture with chipping (classical distribution) was considered as failure, IPS e.max Ceram did not show significant fracture load for total fracture (μ=1054, σ=110) compared to other groups (GC Initial ZR: μ=1039, σ=152, VITA VM9: μ=1170, σ=166). According to Weibull distributed data, VITA VM9 showed significantly higher fracture load (s=1228, m=9.4) than those of other groups. Both classical distribution and Weibull statistics for complete data yielded similar outcomes. Censored data analysis of all ceramic systems based on failure types is essential

  13. Color match of a feldspathic ceramic CAD-CAM material for ultrathin laminate veneers as a function of substrate shade, restoration color, and thickness.

    PubMed

    Sarı, Taylan; Ural, Çağrı; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Emir; Duran, İbrahim; Cengiz, Seda; Kavut, İdris

    2017-05-26

    The final color of a ceramic restoration, especially an ultrathin veneer, is important, but selecting the correct shade is difficult because the substrate can affect the final color of the restoration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of substrate shade and thickness on the final color of ultrathin laminate veneers milled from feldspathic ceramic and to present a simple methodology with which a clinician can visualize the effects of substrate color, ceramic thickness, and prefabricated computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) block color on the final color of the restoration. All specimens were fabricated by slicing CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic material with a precision cutter into 12×10-mm slices of approximately 0.35, 0.55, 0.75, and 1.55 mm in thickness with 10 different colors (0M1-1M1-1M2-2M1-2M2-2M3-3M1-3M2-3M3-4M1). As a background substrate, composite resin disks (12×10×2 mm) were fabricated with different shades (0M1 S, 1M1 S, 2M3 S, 3M2 S, 4M3 S, 5M3 S). The CIELab values of the polished surfaces of each specimen were measured on a background (white or simulated foundation) with a spectrophotometer by a single experienced operator, and color differences (ΔE) were calculated. Mean ±SD values were calculated and subjected to ANOVA with 2 variables (substrate and ceramic color) (α=.05). Combinations of a lighter substrate shade and a lighter value ceramic restoration and of a darker substrate shade and darker value ceramic restoration only changed the final color of the restoration minimally. The final color of a dental restoration is affected by the thickness of the restoration, the substrate color, and the ceramic color. Lighter and darker substrate colors show more color changes, and thin veneers cannot mask the substrate color. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fracture resistance of porcelain veneered zirconia crowns with exposed lingual zirconia for anterior teeth after thermal cycling: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Amir Rad, Fatemeh A.; Succaria, Faysal G.; Morgano, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem In some clinical conditions minimally invasive complete crown tooth preparations are indicated. This is especially true when gross removal of tooth structure would weaken the remaining tooth or violate the vitality of the dental pulp. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of (1) exposed lingual zirconia with veneered zirconia crowns, and (2) reduced lingual thickness of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns on the fracture resistance of the crowns after cyclic loading. Metal-ceramic crowns with exposed lingual metal served as controls. Materials and methods Twenty-four maxillary central incisor crowns were fabricated in identical shape on metal testing dies in 3 groups: metal-ceramic crowns (MC, n = 8), veneered zirconia crowns (VZ, n = 8), and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MO, n = 8). A conservative preparation design with 0.75 mm lingual clearance was used for each crown system. All crowns were cemented to their corresponding crown preparations with self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Automix). The crowns were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, then cyclic loading of 111 N by means of a stainless steel ball, and 50,000 cycles of loading were applied for the fatigue test. Fatigue loading was followed by a continuously increasing compressive load, at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. The compressive load (N) required to cause failure was recorded. Means were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = .05). Results There was a significant difference between MO vs. MC (P = .0001), MO vs. VZ (P = .0001), and VZ vs. MC (P = .012). Conclusions There was a significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of MC, VZ, and MO crowns in this in vitro study. The MC group recorded the highest mean fracture strength. PMID:26082571

  15. A fractographic study of clinically retrieved zirconia–ceramic and metal–ceramic fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zhen; Chughtai, Asima; Sailer, Irena; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent 3-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tooth supported three- to five-unit zirconia–ceramic and metal–ceramic posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) revealed that veneer chipping and fracture in zirconia–ceramic systems occurred more frequently than those in metal–ceramic systems [1]. This study seeks to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the fracture phenomena observed in this RCT using a descriptive fractographic analysis. Methods Vinyl-polysiloxane impressions of 12 zirconia–ceramic and 6 metal–ceramic FDPs with veneer fractures were taken from the patients at the end of a mean observation of 40.3 ± 2.8 months. Epoxy replicas were produced from these impressions [1]. All replicas were gold coated, and inspected under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for descriptive fractography. Results Among the 12 zirconia–ceramic FDPs, 2 had small chippings, 9 had large chippings, and 1 exhibited delamination. Out of 6 metal–ceramic FDPs, 5 had small chippings and 1 had large chipping. Descriptive fractographic analysis based on SEM observations revealed that fracture initiated from the wear facet at the occlusal surface in all cases, irrespective of the type of restoration. Significance Zirconia–ceramic and metal–ceramic FDPs all fractured from microcracks that emanated from occlusal wear facets. The relatively low fracture toughness and high residual tensile stress in porcelain veneer of zirconia restorations may contribute to the higher chipping rate and larger chip size in zirconia–ceramic FDPs relative to their metal–ceramic counterparts. The low veneer/core interfacial fracture energy of porcelain-veneered zirconia may result in the occurrence of delamination in zirconia–ceramic FDPs. PMID:26233469

  16. Two-body wear of dental porcelain and substructure oxide ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Handel, Gerhard; Kolbeck, Carola

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the two-body wear of different ceramics. Two-body wear tests were performed in a chewing simulator with steatite and enamel antagonists, respectively. Specimens were loaded in a pin-on-block design with a vertical load of 50 N for 1.2 × 10(5) cycles; (f = 1.6 Hz; lateral movement, 1 mm; mouth opening: 2 mm). Human enamel was used as a reference. Three zirconia ceramics, three veneering porcelains, two glass-infiltrated and one lithium disilicate ceramic were investigated. Veneering and lithium disilicate ceramics were glazed before testing. Surface roughness Ra (SP6, Perthen-Feinprüf, G) and wear depth were determined using a 3D scanner (Laserscan 3D, Willytec, G). SEM (Quanta FEG 400, FEI, USA) pictures of the worn specimens and antagonists were made for evaluating wear performance. Veneering porcelain provided wear traces between 71.2 and 124.1 μm (enamel antagonist) and 117.4 and 274.1 μm (steatite). Wear of the steatite antagonists varied between 0.618 and 2.85 mm². No wear was found for zirconia and glass-infiltrated substructure ceramics. Also, no wear was found for the corresponding antagonists. Wear of specimens and antagonists was strongly material dependent. No visible wear was found on zirconia and glass-infiltrated ceramics. Porcelain and lithium disilicate ceramic showed a comparable or lower wear than the enamel reference. Antagonist wear was found to be lower when specimens were made of substructure oxide ceramics instead of veneering porcelain. From the point of wear testing, zirconia may be used for the fabrication of fixed dental prosthesis without veneering.

  17. Effect of Thermal Treatment of Veneer on Formaldehyde Emission of Poplar Plywood

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Koji; Watanabe, Yashuhiro; Nakano, Takato

    2013-01-01

    A large amount of poplar plywood is now being imported into Japan from China, and as a result, formaldehyde emitted from this plywood represents an undesirable chemical that must be controlled using a chemical catching agent. The aim of this study is to find an approach to reduce the formaldehyde emission of poplar plywood using thermal treatment without employing any chemicals. The experimental results obtained show that heating veneer sheets in the temperature range of 150 °C to 170 °C effectively reduced the formaldehyde emission of plywood, without diminishing the mechanical properties of the veneer. By applying Langmuir’s theory and Hailwood-Horrobin theory to the adsorption isotherm obtained in this study, the relationship between the formaldehyde emission of plywood and the adsorption properties of veneer as a material is discussed. When veneer sheets were heated in the temperature range of 150 °C to 170 °C, the amount of hydrated water (monomolecular layer) decreased slightly and that of dissolved water (polymolecular layer) did not change. It is hypothesized that the formaldehyde emission of plywood is related to the condition of the adsorption site of the wood. PMID:28809315

  18. Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: Relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knoll, A.H.; Jolliff, B.L.; Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johson, J.R.; McLennam, S.M.; Morris, Robert; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Tosca, N.J.; Yen, A.; Learner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Veneers and thicker rinds that coat outcrop surfaces and partially cemented fracture fills formed perpendicular to bedding document relatively late stage alteration of ancient sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The chemistry of submillimeter thick, buff-colored veneers reflects multiple processes at work since the establishment of the current plains surface. Veneer composition is dominated by the mixing of silicate-rich dust and sulfate-rich outcrop surface, but it has also been influenced by mineral precipitation, including NaCl, and possibly by limited physical or chemical weathering of sulfate minerals. Competing processes of chemical alteration (perhaps mediated by thin films of water or water vapor beneath blanketing soils) and sandblasting of exposed outcrop surfaces determine the current distribution of veneers. Dark-toned rinds several millimeters thick reflect more extensive surface alteration but also indicate combined dust admixture, halite precipitation, and possible minor sulfate removal. Cemented fracture fills that are differentially resistant to erosion occur along the margins of linear fracture systems possibly related to impact. These appear to reflect limited groundwater activity along the margins of fractures, cementing mechanically introduced fill derived principally from outcrop rocks. The limited thickness and spatial distribution of these three features suggest that aqueous activity has been rare and transient or has operated at exceedingly low rates during the protracted interval since outcropping Meridiani strata were exposed on the plains surface. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: Relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Jolliff, Brad L.; Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Clark, Benton C.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M. P.; Grotzinger, John P.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard; Squyres, Steven W.; Sullivan, Robert; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Yen, Albert; Learner, Zoe

    2008-05-01

    Veneers and thicker rinds that coat outcrop surfaces and partially cemented fracture fills formed perpendicular to bedding document relatively late stage alteration of ancient sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The chemistry of submillimeter thick, buff-colored veneers reflects multiple processes at work since the establishment of the current plains surface. Veneer composition is dominated by the mixing of silicate-rich dust and sulfate-rich outcrop surface, but it has also been influenced by mineral precipitation, including NaCl, and possibly by limited physical or chemical weathering of sulfate minerals. Competing processes of chemical alteration (perhaps mediated by thin films of water or water vapor beneath blanketing soils) and sandblasting of exposed outcrop surfaces determine the current distribution of veneers. Dark-toned rinds several millimeters thick reflect more extensive surface alteration but also indicate combined dust admixture, halite precipitation, and possible minor sulfate removal. Cemented fracture fills that are differentially resistant to erosion occur along the margins of linear fracture systems possibly related to impact. These appear to reflect limited groundwater activity along the margins of fractures, cementing mechanically introduced fill derived principally from outcrop rocks. The limited thickness and spatial distribution of these three features suggest that aqueous activity has been rare and transient or has operated at exceedingly low rates during the protracted interval since outcropping Meridiani strata were exposed on the plains surface.

  20. ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF LATE VENEER IMPACTORS FROM IMPACT-INDUCED MIXING ON MERCURY

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Barr, A. C.

    2014-02-10

    Late accretion of a ''veneer'' of compositionally diverse planetesimals may introduce chemical heterogeneity in the mantles of the terrestrial planets. The size of the late veneer objects is an important control on the angular momenta, eccentricities, and inclinations of the terrestrial planets, but current estimates range from meter-scale bodies to objects with diameters of thousands of kilometers. We use a three-dimensional global Monte Carlo model of impact cratering, excavation, and ejecta blanket formation to show that evidence of mantle heterogeneity can be preserved within ejecta blankets of mantle-exhuming impacts on terrestrial planets. Compositionally distinct provinces implanted at the time of the late veneer are most likely to be preserved in bodies whose subsequent geodynamical evolution is limited. Mercury may have avoided intensive mixing by solid-state convection during much of its history. Its subsequent bombardment may have then excavated evidence of primordial mantle heterogeneity introduced by the late veneer. Simple geometric arguments can predict the amount of mantle material in the ejecta blanket of mantle-exhuming impacts, and deviations in composition relative to geometric predictions can constrain the length-scale of chemical heterogeneities in the subsurface. A marked change in the relationship between mantle and ejecta composition occurs when chemically distinct provinces are ∼250 km in diameter; thus, evidence of bombardment by thousand-kilometer-sized objects should be readily apparent from the variation in compositions of ejecta blankets in Mercury's ancient cratered terrains.

  1. The relation of mechanical properties of wood and nosebar pressure in the production of veneer

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin

    1958-01-01

    Observations of checking frequency, depth of check penetration, veneer thickness, and surface quality were made at 20 machining conditions. An inverse relationship between depth of check and frequency of checking was established. The effect of cutting temperature was demonstrated, and strength in compression perpendicular to the grain, tension perpendicular to the...

  2. Hardwood Face Veneer and Plywood Mill Closures in Michigan and Wisconsin Since 1950

    Treesearch

    Lewis T. Hendricks

    1966-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great deal of concern about the closure of numberous hardwood face veneer and plywood mills in Michigan and Wisconsin. As part of an overall study of that industry in the northern Lake States region, the basic reasons leading to the closure of these mills were investigated. In the past 15 years, there have been eight known mill...

  3. Preformed resin-veneered stainless steel crowns for restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P; Helpin, M L

    1996-05-01

    Stainless steel crown forms with bonded resin veneers for primary incisors are commercially available to dentists. This type of preveneered crown was developed to serve as a convenient, durable, reliable, and esthetic solution to the difficult challenge of restoring severely carious primary incisors. This article describes preveneered crowns, reviews their advantages and disadvantages, and details a technique for placement of such restorations.

  4. Effect of Er:YAG laser on debonding strength of laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Iseri, Ufuk; Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Ozkurt, Zeynep; Kazazoglu, Ender; Arun, Tulin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the debonding strength of laminate veneers after using erbium-doped: yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 bovine mandibular incisor teeth were divided into two groups (n = 30). Cylindrical specimens (0.7 mm × 5 mm) were fabricated from Empress II ceramic. Then, they were cemented to incisors using dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II). In the first group, no laser application was performed. The Er:YAG laser was applied on each laminate veneer at the test group for 9 s by using the scanning method. Shear force to remove the laminate veneers were applied with universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Results: Results of this study exhibited significant differences between the control (27.28 ± 2.24 MPa) and test group (3.44 ± 0.69 MPa) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that application of Er:YAG laser decreased the bond strength of laminate veneers. PMID:24966747

  5. 40 CFR 63.2266 - Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer. 63.2266 Section 63.2266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood...

  6. 40 CFR 63.2266 - Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer. 63.2266 Section 63.2266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  7. 40 CFR 63.2265 - Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer. 63.2265 Section 63.2265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  8. 40 CFR 63.2266 - Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a veneer redryer. 63.2266 Section 63.2266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  9. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2265 - Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer. 63.2265 Section 63.2265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2265 - Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer. 63.2265 Section 63.2265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  13. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood...

  14. Contribution factor of wood properties of three poplar clones to strength of laminated veneer lumber

    Treesearch

    Fucheng Bao; Feng Fu; Elvin Choong; Chung-Yun Hse

    2001-01-01

    The term "Contribution Factor" (c.) was introduced in this paper to indicate the contribution ratio of solid wood properties to laminated veneer lumber (LVL) strength. Three poplar (Populus sp.) clones were studied, and the results showed that poplar with good solid wood properties has high Contribution Factor. The average Contribution...

  15. Role of indenter material and size in veneer failure of brittle layer structures.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Sanjit; Meléndez-Martínez, Juan José; Hermann, Ilja; Zhang, Yu; Lawn, Brian R

    2007-07-01

    The roles of indenter material and size in the failure of brittle veneer layers in all-ceramic crown-like structures are studied. Glass veneer layers 1 mm thick bonded to alumina layers 0.5 mm thick on polycarbonate bases (representative of porcelain/ceramic-core/dentin) are subject to cyclic contact loading with spherical indenters in water (representative of occlusal biting environment). Two indenter materials-glass and tungsten carbide-and three indenter radii-1.6, 5.0, and 12.5 mm-are investigated in the tests. A video camera is used to follow the near-contact initiation and subsequent downward propagation of cone cracks through the veneer layer to the core interface, at which point the specimen is considered to have failed. Both indenter material and indenter radius have some effect on the critical loads to initiate cracks within the local Hertzian contact field, but the influence of modulus is weaker. The critical loads to take the veneer to failure are relatively insensitive to either of these indenter variables, since the bulk of the cone crack propagation takes place in the contact far field. Clinical implications of the results are considered, including the issue of single-cycle overload versus low-load cyclic fatigue and changes in fracture mode with loading conditions.

  16. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence

    Treesearch

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  17. Structural Performance of COM-Ply Studs Made with Hardwood Veneers

    Treesearch

    Robert H. McAlister

    1979-01-01

    COM-PLY 2 x 4 studs made with veneers of yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and white oak were tested for strength and stiffness, nail-holding properties, modulus of elasticity of component parts, static bending, and compression parallel and perpendicular to the grain. All tests were conducted according to performance standards for composite studs used in exterior walls or ASTM...

  18. Fracture of porcelain-veneered gold-alloy and zirconia molar crowns using a modified test set-up

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Christel; Drazic, Marko; Nilsson, Eddie; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The main aim of this study was to compare fracture load and fracture mode of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and metal-ceramic (MC) molar crowns using a modified test set-up to produce fractures similar to those seen in vivo, i.e. fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. Materials and methods: 13 high-noble-alloy MC and 13 Y-TZP molar crowns veneered with porcelain were manufactured. The crowns were artificially aged before final load to fracture. Load was applied using a 7 mm diameter steel ball exerting force on the cusps with stresses directed toward the core-veneer interface. Fracture surface analysis was performed using light- and scanning electron microscopy. Results: The test design produced fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. MC crowns withstood significantly (p > 0.001) higher loads (mean 2155 N) than Y-TZP (mean 1505 N) crowns, yet both endure loads sufficient for predictable clinical use. Fracture mode differed between MC and Y-TZP. MC crowns exhibited fractures involving the core-veneer interface but without core exposure. One Y-TZP crown suffered a complete fracture, all others except one displayed fractures of the veneering material involving the core-veneer interface with core exposure. Conclusions: The test set-up produces fractures similar to those found in vivo and may be useful to evaluate the core-veneer interface of different material systems, both metals and ceramics. The study confirms suggestions from previous studies of a weaker core-veneer bond for Y-TZP compared to MC crowns. PMID:28642899

  19. Interfacial characterization of ceramic core materials with veneering porcelain for all-ceramic bi-layered restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Tagmatarchis, Alexander; Tripodakis, Aris-Petros; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, George

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the elemental distribution at the interface between all-ceramic core and veneering porcelain materials. Three groups of all-ceramic cores were selected: A) Glass-ceramics (Cergo, IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, e-max Press, Finesse); B) Glass-infiltrated ceramics (Celay Alumina, Celay Zirconia) and C) Densely sintered ceramics (Cercon, Procera Alumina, ZirCAD, Noritake Zirconia). The cores were combined with compatible veneering porcelains and three flat square test specimens were produced for each system. The core-veneer interfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. The glass-ceramic systems showed interfacial zones reach in Si and O, with the presence of K, Ca, Al in core and Ca, Ce, Na, Mg or Al in veneer material, depending on the system tested. IPS Empress and IPS Empress 2 demonstrated distinct transitional phases at the core-veneer interface. In the glassinfiltrated systems, intermixing of core (Ce, La) with veneer (Na, Si) elements occurred, whereas an abrupt drop of the core-veneer elemental concentration was documented at the interfaces of all densely sintered ceramics. The results of the study provided no evidence of elemental interdiffusion at the core-veneer interfaces in densely sintered ceramics, which implies lack of primary chemical bonding. For the glass-containing systems (glassceramics and glass-infiltrated ceramics) interdiffusion of the glass-phase seems to play a critical role in establishing a primary bonding condition between ceramic core and veneering porcelain.

  20. Detection of artificial demineralization bordering different types of laminate veneers using visual inspection and storage phosphor radiography.

    PubMed

    Cömlekoğlu, Erhan; Önem, Erinç; Dündar Çömlekoğlu, Mine; Baksı, B Güniz; Mert, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection (VI) and storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiography for the detection of artificial demineralization bordering different laminate veneers. Twenty human maxillary canine teeth were prepared. All-ceramic (A) and hybrid ceramic (H) laminate veneers were fabricated and luted. Veneered teeth were covered except for a circular window on the proximal surface bordering restorations. Teeth were kept in acetic acid buffer to create demineralization and imaged with a SPP system. Ten observers evaluated all teeth first visually then with SPP images for the presence/absence of demineralization. Teeth were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well. The accuracy was expressed as the area under the ROC curves (A(z)). Pair-wise comparisons were performed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc t test (p = 0.05). Fleiss kappa (κ) was used for agreement. SPP radiography was better than the VI for both veneers (p = 0.004). The A(z)s of two veneers were different for both VI (p < 0.005) and SPP (p < 0.005). SEM evaluation revealed lesions confined to enamel. κ was fair for H, and fair to moderate for A. Agreement was higher for the radiographic evaluation for both veneers. Enamel demineralizations bordering hybrid and ceramic laminate veneers can be detected better with SPP radiography than VI and detectability was better for all-ceramic veneers than the hybrid ceramic ones. Early detection of enamel demineralizations bordering laminate veneers would result in time-saving and less-invasive treatment methods; therefore, SPP radiography may be recommended in clinically suspicious cases since it provides better diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to zirconia core after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Kirmali, Omer; Akin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Ali Kemal

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments: sandblasting, liners, and different laser irradiations on shear bond strength (SBS) of pre-sintered zirconia to veneer ceramic. The SBS between veneering porcelain and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) substructure was weak. Various surface treatment methods have been suggested for zirconia to obtain high bond strength to veneering porcelain. There is no study that evaluated the bond strength between veneering porcelain and the different surface treatments on pre-sintered ZrO2 substructure. Two hundred specimens with 7 mm diameter and 3 mm height pre-sintered zirconia blocks were fabricated. Specimens were randomly divided into 10 groups (n=20) according to surface treatments applied. Group C, untreated (Control); Group E, erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiated; Group N, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiated; Group SB, sandblasted; Group L, liner applied; Group NL, Nd:YAG laser irradiated+liner applied; Group EL, Er:YAG laser irradiated+liner applied; Group SN, sandblasted+Nd:YAG laser irradiated; Group SE, sandblasted+Er:YAG laser irradiated; and Group SL, sandblasted+liner applied. The disks were then veneered with veneering porcelain. Before the experiment, specimens were steeped in 37°C distilled water for 24 h. All specimens were thermocycled for 5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C with a 30 sec dwell time. Shear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The fractured specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope to evaluate the fracture pattern. Surface treatments significantly changing the topography of the yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic according to scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. The highest mean bond strength value was obtained in Group SE, and the lowest bond strength value was observed in NL group. Bond strength values of the other groups were similar to each other. This

  2. Effect of core and veneer thicknesses on the color parameters of two all-ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Tamer E; Shen, Chiayi; Elhosary, Mohamed M; Elkhodary, Adel M

    2006-02-01

    Specific contributions of the core and the veneer thickness on the appearance of layered disk specimens are not well characterized. This study examined the effect of varying core and veneer thickness on the color parameters of layered disk specimens made of 2 ceramic systems. Disk specimens 16 mm in diameter with core/veneer thickness (mm) of 0.8/0.2 (baseline), 0.8/0.7, 0.8/1.2, 1.0/0.5, 1.3/0.2, and 1.8/0.2 were made from a leucite-reinforced ceramic (IPS Empress; 2B shade), and thickness (mm) of 0.5/0.5 (baseline), 0.5/1.0, 0.5/1.5, 0.8/0.7, 1.0/0.5, and 1.5/0.5 were made from a glass-infiltrated spinell ceramic (In-Ceram Spinell; A2 shade). Color parameters L*, a*, and b* of CIELAB color space were measured against a neutral gray background with a tri-stimulus colorimeter, and deltaE between disk group and its respective baseline group was calculated. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of material and core and veneer thickness on the color parameters (alpha = .05). Increasing the total disk thickness resulted in decrease of L* (P < .001) and an increase of a* (P < .001), b* (P < .001), and deltaE (P = .0236). For leucite-reinforced ceramic, the core thickness, veneer thickness, and their interaction exhibited significant influence on the mean values of a* and b* (P < .0028) but not on the mean values of L*. For spinell ceramic, the core thickness and veneer thickness exhibited significant influence on the mean values of L* and b* (P < .0272) but not on a*; the interaction demonstrated significant influence on b* (P = .0003) but not on L* and a*. The color appearance of the layered ceramic disk specimens is strongly influenced not only by the core thickness and veneer thickness, but also by their interaction.

  3. Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Özcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core–veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm⋅min−1). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)−(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)−(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia–veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal–ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core–veneer adhesion. Metal–ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia–veneer ceramics tested. PMID:24158142

  4. Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Ozcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core-veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm⋅min(-1)). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)-(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)-(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia-veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal-ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core-veneer adhesion. Metal-ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia-veneer ceramics tested.

  5. Fractographic Analysis of a Dental Zirconia Framework: a Case Study on Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Amberger, Gudrun; Quinn, George D.; Scherrer, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Fractographic analysis of clinically failed dental ceramics can provide insights as to the failure origin and related mechanisms. One anterior 6-unit all-ceramic zirconia fixed partial denture (FPD) (Cercon®) has been clinically recovered and examined using qualitative fractography. The purpose was to identify the fracture origin and to state the reasons for failure. The recovered parts of the zirconia FPD were microscopically examined to identify classic fractographic patterns such as arrest lines, hackle, twist hackle and wake hackle. The direction of crack propagation was mapped and interpreted back to the origin of failure at the interface of the occlusalpalatal tip of the core and the veneering ceramic. An inappropriate core drop design favoring localized stress concentration combined with a pore cluster in the veneering ceramic at the core tip interface were the reasons for this premature through-the-core thickness failure. PMID:20826369

  6. Asteroid bombardment and the core of Theia as possible sources for the Earth's late veneer component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2016-07-01

    The silicate Earth contains Pt-group elements in roughly chondritic relative ratios, but with absolute concentrations <1% chondrite. This veneer implies addition of chondrite-like material with 0.3-0.7% mass of the Earth's mantle or an equivalent planet-wide thickness of 5-20 km. The veneer thickness, 200-300 m, within the lunar crust and mantle is much less. One hypothesis is that the terrestrial veneer arrived after the moon-forming impact within a few large asteroids that happened to miss the smaller Moon. Alternatively, most of terrestrial veneer came from the core of the moon-forming impactor, Theia. The Moon then likely contains iron from Theia's core. Mass balances lend plausibility. The lunar core mass is ˜1.6 × 1021 kg and the excess FeO component in the lunar mantle is 1.3-3.5 × 1021 kg as Fe, totaling 3-5 × 1021 kg or a few percent of Theia's core. This mass is comparable to the excess Fe of 2.3-10 × 1021 kg in the Earth's mantle inferred from the veneer component. Chemically in this hypothesis, Fe metal from Theia's core entered the Moon-forming disk. H2O and Fe2O3 in the disk oxidized part of the Fe, leaving the lunar mantle near a Fe-FeO buffer. The remaining iron metal condensed, gathered Pt-group elements eventually into the lunar core. The silicate Moon is strongly depleted in Pt-group elements. In contrast, the Earth's mantle contained excess oxidants, H2O and Fe2O3, which quantitatively oxidized the admixed Fe from Theia's core, retaining Pt-group elements. In this hypothesis, asteroid impacts were relatively benign with ˜1 terrestrial event that left only thermophile survivors.

  7. Flexural strength of glass-infiltrated zirconia/alumina-based ceramics and feldspathic veneering porcelains.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Marco Antonio; Salazar-Marocho, Susana M; Leite, Fabiola P P; Vásquez, Vanessa C; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2009-07-01

    To compare the flexural strength of two glass-infiltrated high-strength ceramics and two veneering glass-ceramics. Four ceramic materials were tested: two glass-infiltrated high-strength ceramics used as framework in metal-free restorations [In-Ceram Zirconia IZ (Gr1) and In-Ceram Alumina IA (Gr2)], and two glass-ceramics used as veneering material in metal-free restorations [Vita VM7 (Gr3) and Vitadur-alpha (Gr4)]. Bar specimens (25 x 5 x 2 mm3) made from core ceramics, alumina, and zirconia/alumina composites were prepared and applied to a silicone mold, which rested on a base from a gypsum die material. The IZ and IA specimens were partially sintered in an In-Ceram furnace according to the firing cycle of each material, and then were infiltrated with a low-viscosity glass to yield bar specimens of high density and strength. The Vita VM7 and Vitadur-alpha specimens were made from veneering materials, by vibration of slurry porcelain powder and condensation into a two-part brass Teflon matrix (25 x 5 x 2 mm3). Excess water was removed with absorbent paper. The veneering ceramic specimens were then removed from the matrix and were fired as recommended by the manufacturer. Another ceramic application and sintering were performed to compensate the contraction of the feldspar ceramic. The bar specimens were then tested in a three-point bending test. The core materials (Gr1: 436.1 +/- 54.8; Gr2: 419.4 +/- 83.8) presented significantly higher flexural strength (MPa) than the veneer ceramics (Gr3: 63.5 +/- 9.9; Gr4: 57.8 +/- 12.7). In-Ceram Alumina and Zirconia were similar statistically and more resistant than VM7 and Vitadur-alpha.

  8. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  9. Registered Dental Hygienists as Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Janet; Shugars, Daniel A.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys conducted to (1) investigate why dental hygienists choose to become dentists, (2) evaluate their success in dental school, (3) assess the experience of those who had entered dental school, and (4) gauge the level of interest among dental hygienists in applying to dental school are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  10. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to...

  11. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... few quick steps. There is no drilling or scraping of the molars. Your dentist will: Clean the ... Dental sealants. Updated October 19, 2016. ADA.org Web site. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral- ...

  12. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygienists to be licensed; requirements vary by state. Education Dental hygienists typically need an associate’s degree in ... the skills needed in this occupation. Entry-level Education Typical level of education that most workers need ...

  13. Dental Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when children regularly consume fluoride during the teeth-forming years, age 8 and younger. Most dental fluorosis ... over a long period when the teeth are forming under the gums. Only children aged 8 years ...

  14. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  15. Dental Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249

  16. Effects of thermo-hygro-mechanical densification on the surface characteristics of trembling aspen and hybrid poplar wood veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Papa Niokhor; Stevanovic, Tatjana; Cloutier, Alain; Fang, Chang-Hua; Blanchet, Pierre; Koubaa, Ahmed; Mariotti, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    The effect of thermo-hygro-mechanical (THM) densification temperature on the surface color, roughness, wettability, and chemical composition of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and hybrid poplar (Populus maximowiczii × P. balsamifera) veneers was investigated. Veneers were subjected to four THM densification temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C). Veneer color darkened with increasing THM densification temperature. Surface roughness decreased between 160 °C and 200 °C. Wettability decreased after THM densification, but no significant difference was found between treated specimens. ATR-FTIR and XPS results confirmed that THM densification caused major chemical changes in veneer surfaces, and more pronounced at temperatures higher than 160 °C.

  17. Effect of surface conditioning modalities on the repair bond strength of resin composite to the zirconia core / veneering ceramic complex.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Pereira, Sarina Maciel; Amaral, Regina; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Pekkan, Gurel

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface conditioning protocols on the repair strength of resin composite to the zirconia core / veneering ceramic complex, simulating the clinical chipping phenomenon. Forty disk-shaped zirconia core (Lava Zirconia, 3M ESPE) (diameter: 3 mm) specimens were veneered circumferentially with a feldspathic veneering ceramic (VM7, Vita Zahnfabrik) (thickness: 2 mm) using a split metal mold. They were then embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic with the bonding surfaces exposed. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following surface conditioning protocols (n = 10 per group): group 1, veneer: 4% hydrofluoric acid (HF) (Porcelain Etch) + core: aluminum trioxide (50-µm Al2O3) + core + veneer: silane (ESPE-Sil); group 2: core: Al2O3 (50 µm) + veneer: HF + core + veneer: silane; group 3: veneer: HF + core: 30 µm aluminum trioxide particles coated with silica (30 µm SiO2) + core + veneer: silane; group 4: core: 30 µm SiO2 + veneer: HF + core + veneer: silane. Core and veneer ceramic were conditioned individually but no attempt was made to avoid cross contamination of conditioning, simulating the clinical intraoral repair situation. Adhesive resin (VisioBond) was applied to both the core and the veneer ceramic, and resin composite (Quadrant Posterior) was bonded onto both substrates using polyethylene molds and photopolymerized. After thermocycling (6000 cycles, 5°C-55°C), the specimens were subjected to shear bond testing using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure modes were identified using an optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope images were obtained. Bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed statistically using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Bonferroni Holm correction (α = 0.05). Group 3 demonstrated significantly higher values (MPa) (8.6 ± 2.7) than those of the other groups (3.2 ± 3.1, 3.2 ± 3, and 3.1 ± 3.5 for groups 1, 2, and 4

  18. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  19. Porcelain laminate veneer restorations bonded with a three-liquid silane bonding agent and a dual-activated luting composite.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hideo; Aida, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Yumi; Tanoue, Naomi

    2006-12-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication and bonding of porcelain laminate veneer restorations in a patient with anterior open spaces. Laminate veneer restorations made of feldspathic porcelain were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid, rinsed under tap water, ultrasonically cleaned with methanol, and primed with a chemically activated three-liquid silane bonding agent (Clearfil Porcelain Bond). The enamel surfaces were etched with 40% phosphoric acid, rinsed with water, and primed with a two-liquid bonding agent (Clearfil New Bond) that contained a hydrophobic phosphate (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate; MDP). The restorations were bonded with a dual-activated luting composite (Clapearl DC). The veneers have been functioning satisfactorily for an observation period of one year. Combined use of the Clearfil bonding agents and Clapearl DC luting composite is an alternative to conventional materials for seating porcelain laminate veneer restorations, although the system is inapplicable to dentin bonding.

  20. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  1. Nanoindentation derived stress-strain properties of dental materials.

    PubMed

    He, Li H; Swain, Michael V

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the stress-strain response of different dental materials, especially dental brittle materials, and compare them with enamel. A nano-based indentation system (Ultra Micro-Indentation System, UMIS-2000, CSIRO, Australia) was used to determine the indentation stress-strain response of two kinds of dental ceramics (Cerec 2 Mark II and Vita VM9), one kind of dental alloy (Wiron 99) and healthy enamel. A spherical indenter was used to test the materials with nanometer and micro-Newton displacement and force resolution. Assuming the elastic modulus remained constant, a plot of contact pressure versus contact strain, H-a/R, of each material was obtained. By comparing the H-a/R curve of the different materials with enamel, it can be concluded that only the metallic alloy, has similar stress-strain response as enamel. Dental ceramics showed much higher yield stress response than enamel. VM9, a porcelain veneer component of crown/bridge structure, is slightly softer than its core, Mark II. The yield point for Mark II and VM9 are nearly 10 and 7GPa, respectively, and approximately 2GPa for Wiron alloy and enamel. H-a/R curves provide a new method to compare the mechanical properties of different dental materials. From the standpoint of structural reliability, strong and tough materials with primarily elastic response, such as toughened ceramics are required to enable dental crown/bridges to have long term reliability. On the other hand, materials with too high hardness or yield response may damage opposing teeth during occlusal contact. Future studies may establish a relationship between stress and strain property and abrasive wear of dental material.

  2. A retrospective observational study of the effect of surface treatments and cementing media on the durability of gold palatal veneers.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, R G; Linklater, K I

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a retrospective observational study that sought to determine both the longevity and effects of surface treatments of gold palatal veneers used to restore tooth surface loss. Details of all gold palatal veneers fabricated from Mattident 60 were sourced from hospital records spanning 11 years and 9 months. The case notes of each individual were accessed and, for each restoration, a note was made of the date and method of cementation, together with the period of patient follow-up. When patients continued their routine checkups, the records were scrutinized closely for evidence of restoration failure. This yielded a data set of 151 palatal gold veneer cementations for which the surface treatments and/or cementing media were known. Survival analysis by the Kaplan-Meier method of alumina blasted veneers revealed median survival times of 4,663 days when cemented with Panavia 21 and 687 days if cemented with Aquacem. Veneers that were alumina blasted, oxidized and cemented with Panavia 21 had a survival probability of 1.0. A Logrank test revealed highly statistically significant differences between the survival curves (p<0.0001). It was concluded that: (1) Alumina blasting the fit surface of a gold veneer prior to cementation with Panavia 21 resulted in a significantly more durable restoration compared to alumina blasting and cementation with Aquacem and no etching of tooth substance. (2) Due to low MST cementing, gold palatal veneers with a conventional glass polyalkenoate cement are not recommended. (3) Pre-treatment of gold palatal veneers by alumina blasting and oxidation prior to cementing with Panavia 21 appears to improve the chances of obtaining a dependable restoration. A greater number of restorations would be required to statistically test this trend.

  3. Clinical evaluation on porcelain laminate veneers bonded with light-cured composite: results up to 7 years.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, Camillo; De Angelis, Francesco; Vadini, Mirco; D'Amario, Maurizio

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of laminate porcelain veneers bonded with a light-cured composite. Thirty patients were restored with 119 porcelain laminate veneers. The veneers were studied for an observation time of 7 years. Marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, color match, and anatomic form were clinically examined following modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Each restoration was also examined for cracks, fractures, and debonding. Pulp vitality was verified. In addition, plaque and gingival indexes and increase in gingival recession were recorded. Survival rate evaluating absolute failures and success rate describing relative failures were statistically determined, using both restoration and patient-related analyses. On the basis of the criteria used, most of the veneers rated Alfa. After 7 years, the results of the clinical investigation regarding marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration revealed only 2.5% and 4.2% Bravo ratings, respectively, among the 119 initially placed veneers. Using the restoration as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 97.5%, with a high estimated success probability of 0.843 after 7 years. Using the patient as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 90.0% and the estimated success probability after 7 years was 0.824. Gingival response to the veneers was all in the satisfactory range. Porcelain laminate veneers offer a predictable and successful treatment modality giving a maximum preservation of sound tooth. The preparation, cementation, and finishing procedures adopted are considered key factors for the long-term success and aesthetical result of the veneer restorations.

  4. Ocular prosthesis incorporating IPS e-max press scleral veneer and a literature review on non-integrated ocular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Godwin Clovis; Aras, Meena Ajay; Chalakkal, Paul; Da Costa, Michelle Clovis

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights a new method for the fabrication of an ocular prosthesis by the incorporation of a ceramic scleral veneer. The steps of fabrication include impression making, wax try-in, performing a “cut-back” on a selected stock eye, insertion of the IPS e-max press scleral veneer, finishing and insertion. It also includes a detailed review on non-integrated ocular prostheses. PMID:28149792

  5. Ocular prosthesis incorporating IPS e-max press scleral veneer and a literature review on non-integrated ocular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Godwin Clovis; Aras, Meena Ajay; Chalakkal, Paul; Da Costa, Michelle Clovis

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights a new method for the fabrication of an ocular prosthesis by the incorporation of a ceramic scleral veneer. The steps of fabrication include impression making, wax try-in, performing a "cut-back" on a selected stock eye, insertion of the IPS e-max press scleral veneer, finishing and insertion. It also includes a detailed review on non-integrated ocular prostheses.

  6. Evaluation of a conditioning method to improve core-veneer bond strength of zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jili; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao; Liang, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The high strength and fracture toughness of zirconia have supported its extensive application in esthetic dentistry. However, the fracturing of veneering porcelains remains one of the primary causes of failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, with shear bond strength testing, the effect of a simple and novel surface conditioning method on the core-veneer bond strength of a zirconia ceramic system. The shear bond strength of a zirconia core ceramic to the corresponding veneering porcelain was tested by the Schmitz-Schulmeyer method. Thirty zirconia core specimens (10 × 5 × 5 mm) were layered with a veneering porcelain (5 × 3 × 3 mm). Three different surface conditioning methods were evaluated: polishing with up to 1200 grit silicon carbide paper under water cooling, airborne-particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina particles, and modification with zirconia powder coating before sintering. A metal ceramic system was used as a control group. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The shear bond strength values were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc pairwise comparisons (α=.05). The fractured specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope to observe the failure mode. The mean (SD) shear bond strength values in MPa were 47.02 (6.4) for modified zirconia, 36.66 (8.6) for polished zirconia, 39.14 (6.5) for airborne-particle-abraded zirconia, and 46.12 (7.1) for the control group. The mean bond strength of the control (P=.028) and modified zirconia groups (P=.014) was significantly higher than that of the polished zirconia group. The airborne-particle-abraded group was not significantly different from any other group. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed that cohesive fracture in the veneering porcelain was the predominant failure mode of modified zirconia, while the other groups principally fractured at the interface. Modifying the zirconia surface

  7. Veneering technique for a Ti-6Al-7Nb framework used in a resin-bonded fixed partial denture with a highly filled indirect composite.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hideo; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Shimoe, Saiji

    2002-12-01

    This article presents a veneering technique for fixed partial denture frameworks made from a Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. The fixed partial denture framework was prepared with a magnesia-based mold material and a centrifugal casting machine. An esthetic veneer was fabricated with a highly filled dual-polymerized composite material and a metal-conditioning agent. This technique can be applied as a standardized veneering procedure for the titanium alloy, for which porcelain fusing is currently difficult.

  8. The influence of felling season and log-soaking temperature on the wetting and phenol formaldehyde adhesive bonding characteristics of birch veneer

    Treesearch

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Pekka Saranpää; Martin Ohlmeyer; Mark Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most adhesive studies employing wood veneer as the substrate assume that it is a relatively uniform material if wood species and veneer thickness are constant. In the present study, veneers from rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) were produced from logs harvested in spring, autumn and winter, and soaked at 20°C and 70°C prior to peeling. Firstly...

  9. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia after argon plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Canullo, Luigi; Micarelli, Costanza; Bettazzoni, Laura; Magnelli, Angela; Baldissara, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if argon plasma cleaning increases the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneering ceramic surfaces. Ninety tablets of densely sintered yttriastabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal were divided into three groups according to cleaning treatment (steam cleaning or plasma of Argon for 375 or 750 seconds). Groups were divided into two subgroups according to the application of a ceramic liner (A = liner, B = no liner). Within subgroup A, argon plasma cleaning significantly decreased shear bond strength. In subgroup B, the plasma treatment increased the shear bond strength, but the differences were not statistically significant. Subgroup A demonstrated lower shear bond strength compared to subgroup B. Argon plasma cleaning was suggested to improve the bond between ceramic and zirconia surfaces; however, when plasma cleaning was followed by a glassy liner application, the veneering ceramic/zirconia bond was significantly reduced.

  10. Esthetic rehabilitation of crowded maxillary anterior teeth utilizing ceramic veneers: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Kivanç Utku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In attempting to provide a solution for cases that have been compromised by malpositioned anterior teeth, clinicians traditionally decide orthodontic approach. Nevertheless, in some cases changes in tooth morphology, tooth size, and shape is compulsory for optimal aesthetics. The advent in contemporary aesthetic materials and preparation techniques empowered the clinicians to deliver a promising result with minimal biologic cost. This article presents the clinical considerations that must be addressed when providing a prosthetic restoration for crowded teeth. Case presentation A 23 years old Turkish female patient who had malaligned anterior teeth was rehabilitated with ceramic veneers due to her rejection of orthodontic treatment. The paper describes ceramic veneers can be an alternative treatment to orthodontic therapy under variety of preparation forms when patient has anterior malalignment and rejects the orthodontic treatment. Conclusion The new smile line was satisfactory for the patient and the esthetics was considered as excellent. PMID:19830068

  11. A customized zirconia abutment design combined with a CAD/CAM laminate veneer: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, Burcu Kanat; Çömlekoğlu, M Erhan; Çömlekoğlu, Mine Dündar; Aladağ, Akιn; Güngör, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    An alternative prosthetic treatment approach for single implants in the maxillary esthetic zone with an improper implant axis, limited interocclusal distance, inadequate abutment retention, and screw holes located at the labial surface is presented in this clinical report. The gingiva and soft tissues were contoured with provisional composite restorations to mimic the emergence profile of lateral incisors. Prefabricated zirconia abutments were customized with laminate veneer preparations by appropriate ceramic build-up with reference from the reshaped gingiva to avoid labiolingual overcontour. The laminate veneers were fabricated by computer-aided design/ computer-assisted manufacture to cover the screw hole of the angulated abutment at the labial surface. Preliminary results revealed improvement in esthetics; however, long-term clinical follow-up should be performed.

  12. Effect of preliminary irradiation on the bond strength between a veneering composite and alloy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Furuchi, Mika; Oshima, Akiko; Tanoue, Naomi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The shear bond strength of a veneering composite (Solidex) and silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy (Castwell M.C.12) was evaluated for different duration times and irradiance for preliminary photo-polymerization. A veneering composite was applied onto a cast disk. Preliminary photo irradiation was performed using different duration times or irradiance. After final polymerization, the bond strength and the spectral distribution of each curing unit were determined. Shear bond strength was significantly higher for 90 s (12.4 MPa), than that for 0 s (8.3 MPa). With regard to the effect of irradiance, that from Solidilite (11.4 MPa) was significantly higher than that from Sublite S at 3 cm (8.7 MPa). The irradiance of Hyper LII and Sublite S at 3 cm was higher than Sublite S at 15 cm or Solidilite unit. Long time irradiation and low intensity is effective for preliminary irradiation in order to enhance the bond strength.

  13. A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

    2014-03-01

    Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure.

  14. High-temperature kilning of southern pine poles, timbers, lumber, and thick veneer

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1973-01-01

    At dry-bulb temperatures above the boiling point of water, with large wet-bulb depressions and high air velocities, southern pine prodcuts can be dried quickly. In an impingement-jet kiln at 300o F., veneer 3/8-inch to 5/8-inch thick can be brought to 10 percent moisture content in 40 to 75 minutes. Drying times for lumber arte linearly related...

  15. Shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to coping materials with different pre-surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Tarib, Natasya Ahmad; Anuar, Norsamihah; Ahmad, Marlynda

    2016-10-01

    Pre-surface treatments of coping materials have been recommended to enhance the bonding to the veneering ceramic. Little is known on the effect on shear bond strength, particularly with new coping material. The aim of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to three coping materials: i) metal alloy (MA), ii) zirconia oxide (ZO), and iii) lithium disilicate (LD) after various pre-surface treatments. Thirty-two (n = 32) discs were prepared for each coping material. Four pre-surface treatments were prepared for each sub-group (n = 8); a) no treatment or control (C), b) sandblast (SB), c) acid etch (AE), and d) sandblast and acid etch (SBAE). Veneering ceramics were applied to all discs. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons tests. Mean shear bond strengths were obtained for MA (19.00 ± 6.39 MPa), ZO (24.45 ± 5.14 MPa) and LD (13.62 ± 5.12 MPa). There were statistically significant differences in types of coping material and various pre-surface treatments (P<.05). There was a significant correlation between coping materials and pre-surface treatment to the shear bond strength (P<.05). Shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to zirconia oxide was higher than metal alloy and lithium disilicate. The highest shear bond strengths were obtained in sandblast and acid etch treatment for zirconia oxide and lithium disilicate groups, and in acid etch treatment for metal alloy group.

  16. Fatigue strength of bilayered ceramics under cyclic loading as a function of core veneer thickness ratios.

    PubMed

    Dibner, Aurora Clark; Kelly, J Robert

    2016-03-01

    Minimal evidence is available concerning the appropriate thickness of each layer in bilayered ceramic systems. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of core-veneer thickness ratios on the fatigue strength of a bonded bilayered ceramic system. Specimens of Ivoclar Porcelain System (IPS) e.max lithium disilicate were fabricated with core/veneer thicknesses of 0.5/1.0 mm, 0.75/0.75 mm, 1.0/0.5 mm, and 1.5/0.0 mm. All specimens were cemented to bases of a dentin-like material. Each specimen was cyclically loaded by a 2-mm-diameter G10 piston in water. Loads ranging from 10 N to the target load were applied at a frequency of 20 Hertz for 500,000 cycles. If cracked, the next specimen was cycled at a lower load; if not cracked, at a higher load (step size of 25 N). Mean and standard deviations of fatigue loads for the different core thicknesses were 0.5-mm core 610.94 N ±130.11; 0.75-mm core 600.0 N ±132.80; 1.0-mm core 537.50 N ±41.67; a Nd 1.5-mm core 501.14 N ±70.12. All veneered groups were significantly stronger than the full thickness group (ANOVA, P<.001; 95% post hoc). Cone cracking was observed only in the 2 thinner core groups (χ(2) test, P<.05), possibly indicating residual stresses. Results indicate that the addition of veneering porcelain to lithium disilicate cores increases the fatigue strength of the biceramic system. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to coping materials with different pre-surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Norsamihah; Ahmad, Marlynda

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Pre-surface treatments of coping materials have been recommended to enhance the bonding to the veneering ceramic. Little is known on the effect on shear bond strength, particularly with new coping material. The aim of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to three coping materials: i) metal alloy (MA), ii) zirconia oxide (ZO), and iii) lithium disilicate (LD) after various pre-surface treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-two (n = 32) discs were prepared for each coping material. Four pre-surface treatments were prepared for each sub-group (n = 8); a) no treatment or control (C), b) sandblast (SB), c) acid etch (AE), and d) sandblast and acid etch (SBAE). Veneering ceramics were applied to all discs. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons tests. RESULTS Mean shear bond strengths were obtained for MA (19.00 ± 6.39 MPa), ZO (24.45 ± 5.14 MPa) and LD (13.62 ± 5.12 MPa). There were statistically significant differences in types of coping material and various pre-surface treatments (P<.05). There was a significant correlation between coping materials and pre-surface treatment to the shear bond strength (P<.05). CONCLUSION Shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to zirconia oxide was higher than metal alloy and lithium disilicate. The highest shear bond strengths were obtained in sandblast and acid etch treatment for zirconia oxide and lithium disilicate groups, and in acid etch treatment for metal alloy group. PMID:27826383

  18. Three generations of zirconia: 
From veneered to monolithic. Part I.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Keul, Christin; Eichberger, Marlis; Figge, David; Edelhoff, Daniel; Lümkemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the historical development of the different generations of zirconia and their range of indications, from veneered to monolithic zirconia restorations. Because of the large extent of this topic, it is divided into two parts. In Part I, the mechanical and optical properties of the three generations of zirconia materials are discussed critically and theoretically. A short summary is given of the current scientific literature, investigating the third generation of zirconia comparatively regarding the properties discussed.

  19. Automated knot detection with visual post-processing of Douglas-fir veneer images

    Treesearch

    C.L. Todoroki; Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra

    2010-01-01

    Knots on digital images of 51 full veneer sheets, obtained from nine peeler blocks crosscut from two 35-foot (10.7 m) long logs and one 18-foot (5.5 m) log from a single Douglas-fir tree, were detected using a two-phase algorithm. The algorithm was developed using one image, the Development Sheet, refined on five other images, the Training Sheets, and then applied to...

  20. Comparison of shear bond strength of two veneering ceramics to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Rismanchian, Mansour; Shafiei, Soufia; Askari, Navid; Khodaeian, Niloufar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chip-off fracture of veneering porcelain has been described as the most frequent reason for the failure of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two commercial zirconia core ceramics to their corresponding veneering ceramics. Materials and Methods: Zirconia disks with 7-mm diameter and 3-mm height were prepared (Cercon and Biodenta systems) and veneered with recommended layering ceramics (Cercon ceram and 2 in 1 ceramic, respectively) (n = 10). The disks were polished with diamond paste and airborne-particle abraded before layering. The specimens were mounted in a T-shaped metal holder using autopolymerized acrylic resin and stored in 37°C distilled water for one week, after which they were subjected to thermal cycling. SBS of zirconia core to veneering ceramic was measured using a universal testing machine and failure modes were determined microscopically. Data were analyzed using t test (α < 0.05). Results: Mean (±SD) SBS values were 27.19(±3.43) and 28.22(±4.08) MPa for Cercon and Biodenta systems, respectively, with no significant difference. Biodenta system showed more adhesive failure compared to more combined (adhesive and cohesive) failures in Cercon system. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that SBS of Biodenta and Cercon specimens were nearly the same, but the fracture mode of these two systems were different. Since Biodenta fracture pattern was predominantly adhesive, it seems that maybe Biodenta porcelain was stronger than Cercon porcelain where as its adhesive bond was weaker. PMID:23559931

  1. An alternative treatment approach to gingival recession: gingiva-colored partial porcelain veneers: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Capa, Nuray

    2007-08-01

    This clinical report describes the treatment of excessive gingival recession involving maxillary right and left central incisors in a 30-year-old woman. The loss of the gingival soft tissue caused an increase in crown length. Gingiva-colored partial porcelain laminate veneers were applied to imitate the lost gingiva and to provide a natural anatomical tooth length. This method may be a minimally invasive alternative treatment method for gingival soft tissue loss, providing esthetic results and patient satisfaction.

  2. Influence of surface modification techniques on shear bond strength between different zirconia cores and veneering ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Rismanchian, Mansour; Savabi, Omid; Ashtiani, Alireza Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Veneering porcelain might be delaminated from underlying zirconia-based ceramics. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of different surface treatments and type of zirconia (white or colored) on shear bond strength (SBS) of zirconia core and its veneering porcelain. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty zirconia disks (40 white and 40 colored; 10 mm in diameter and 4 mm thick) were treated with three different mechanical surface conditioning methods (Sandblasting with 110 µm Al2O3 particle, grinding, sandblasting and liner application). One group had received no treatment. These disks were veneered with 3 mm thick and 5 mm diameter Cercon Ceram Kiss porcelain and SBS test was conducted (cross-head speed = 1 mm/min). Two and one way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD Past hoc, and T-test were selected to analyzed the data (α=0.05). RESULTS In this study, the factor of different types of zirconia ceramics (P=.462) had no significant effect on SBS, but the factors of different surface modification techniques (P=.005) and interaction effect (P=.018) had a significant effect on SBS. Within colored zirconia group, there were no significant differences in mean SBS among the four surface treatment subgroups (P=0.183). Within white zirconia group, "Ground group" exhibited a significantly lower SBS value than "as milled" or control (P=0.001) and liner (P=.05) groups. CONCLUSION Type of zirconia did not have any effect on bond strength between zirconia core and veneer ceramic. Surface treatment had different effects on the SBS of the different zirconia types and grinding dramatically decreased the SBS of white zirconia-porcelain. PMID:22259706

  3. Activation of wood surfaces for glue bonds by mechanical pre-treatment and its effects on some properties of veneer surfaces and plywood panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, İsmail

    2004-06-01

    Some chemical pre-treatments with chemical reagents are widely applied to wood surfaces in order to improve bonding ability, wettability and reactivate wood surfaces for glue-wood bonds. Besides these chemical treatments, some mechanical pre-treatments such as sanding and planing can be applied to get a fresh surface which eliminates bonding problems and improves glue bonding of wood. In this study, 2 mm thick rotary cut veneers obtained from steamed beech ( Fagus orientalis) logs were used as material. Both air-drying and oven-drying methods were used for drying veneer. After drying, the surfaces of some veneers were sanded with 100 and 180 grit sandpapers. Three-layer-plywood panels were produced from sanded and non-sanded veneers by using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde glue resins to evaluate the effects of sanding some mechanical properties of plywood. Changes in pH, surface roughness and adhesive wettability of veneers were evaluated. Wettability of veneers was assessed with contact angle measurements according to the sessile drop method. Both veneer and plywood properties investigated in this study improved clearly after the sanding process. Shear and bending strength values of plywood panels manufactured from sanded and non-sanded veneers were vary depending on glue types and veneer drying methods.

  4. [Effect of ceramic thickness and resin cement shades on final color of heat-pressed ceramic veneers].

    PubMed

    Ren, D F; Zhan, K R; Chen, X D; Xing, W Z

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To analyze the effect of ceramic materials thickness and resin cement shades on the final color of ceramic veneers in the discolored teeth, and to investigate the color agreement of try-in pastes to the corresponding resin cements. Methods: Sixty artificial maxillary central incisor teeth (C2 shade) were used to simulate the natural discolored teeth and prepared according to veneer tooth preparation protocol. Veneers of different thickness in the body region (0.50 and 0.75 mm) were fabricated using ceramic materials (LT A2 shade, IPS e.max Press). The ceramic veneer specimens were bonded to the artificial teeth using the 6 shades of resin cements (Variolink Veneer: shades of LV-3, LV-2, HV+3; RelyX™ Veneer: shades of TR, A3, WO) (n=5). A clinical spectrophotometer was used to measure the color parameters of ceramic veneers at the cervical, body and incisal regions. Color changes of veneers before and after cementation were calculated and registered as ΔE1, and the changes between try-in paste and the corresponding resin cements were registered as ΔE2. Results: Three-way ANOVA indicated that ΔE1 and ΔE2 values were significantly affected by the ceramic thickness, resin cement shades and measuring regions (P<0.05). The ΔE1 values of six shades ranged from 0.59-8.27. The ΔE1 values were more than 2.72 when the ceramic veneers were cemented with resin cements in shades of HV+3 and WO. The ΔE2 values of six shades ranged from 0.60-2.56. The shades of HV+3, WO and A3 resin cements were more than 1.60. Conclusions: Different thickness of ceramic materials, resin cement shades and measuring regions could affect the final color of ceramic veneers. The color differences of some resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes might be observed in clinical practice.

  5. The Esthetic Effect of Veneered Zirconia Abutments for Single-Tooth Implant Reconstructions: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Brandenberg, Francine; Fehmer, Vincent; Knechtle, Nathalie; Hämmerle, Christoph Hf; Sailer, Irena

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to test whether or not veneering of the submucosal part of zirconia abutments can positively influence the esthetic outcome compared with nonveneered zirconia abutments; to evaluate the influence of the mucosal thickness on the esthetic outcomes of the veneered and nonveneered abutments; and to evaluate the thickness of the peri-implant mucosa compared with the thickness of the gingiva of contralateral tooth sites. Forty-four single-tooth implants in 44 patients were randomly restored with either cemented (CR) or screw-retained (SR) reconstructions based on white zirconia abutments (CR-W, SR-W) or pink-veneered zirconia abutments (CR-P, SR-P). Esthetic outcome measurements were performed based on a spectrophotometric evaluation of the peri-implant mucosal color. In addition, the thickness of the mucosa was measured. A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to test the effect of veneering (pink vs white) and mucosa thickness (<2 mm vs ≥2 mm) on the calculated color difference ΔE for pooled data of CR and SR reconstructions (p < .05). Analyses grouping the sites according to veneering of the abutments and mucosal thickness demonstrated less discoloration for sites with a veneered abutment irrespective of the mucosal thickness: ΔE 4.50 ± 1.93 (<2 mm) and ΔE 6.88 ± 2.45 (≥2 mm); CR-P, SR-P) compared with sites without veneering ΔE 9.72 ± 3.82 (<2 mm; CR-W, SR-W) and ΔE 8.31 ± 2.98 (≥2 mm). The differences between veneered and nonveneered abutments were significant (p = .032). Veneering of zirconia abutments with pink veneering ceramic positively influenced the peri-implant mucosal color. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  7. Tensile bond strength of veneering resins to PEEK: impact of different adhesives.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Keul, Christine; Beuer, Florian; Roos, Malgorzata; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    This study tested tensile bond strength (TBS) between veneering resins and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) after pre-treatment with adhesive systems. Five-hundred-seventy-six PEEK disks were fabricated, air-abraded and divided into six pre-treatment groups (n=96/group): Z-Prime Plus, Ambarino P60, Monobond Plus, Visio.link, Signum PEEK Bond, and control group without pre-treatment. Each group was divided into three subgroups of different veneering resins (n=32): Sinfony, GC Gradia and VITA VM LC. After specimen preparation with a bond area of 6.6 mm(2), half of each subgroup (n=16) was tested initially, and the other half was thermo-cycled. TBS measurements were analysed by three-way and one-way ANOVA, t-test and Weibull statistics. Groups without pre-treatment and groups pre-treated by Z-Prime Plus and Ambarino P60 showed no TBS. Pre-treatment with Monobond Plus increased the TBS values. The highest TBS before and after thermo-cycling between PEEK and all tested veneering resins was observed for groups pre-treated with Visio.link and Signum PEEK Bond.

  8. Effects of coloring procedures on zirconia/veneer ceramics bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Özat, Pelin; Eroğlu, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The most common failure seen in restorations with a zirconia core is total or layered delamination of the ceramic veneer. In the present study, the shear bond strengths between veneering ceramics and colored zirconia oxide core materials were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia discs (15 × 12 × 1.6 mm) were divided into 11 groups of 12 discs each. Groups were colored according to the Vita Classic scale: A3, B1, C4, D2, and D4. Each group was treated with the recommended shading time for 3 s, or with prolonged shading for 60 s, except for the control group. Samples were veneered with 3 mm thick and 3.5 mm in diameter translucent ceramic and subjected to shear test in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD tests were used for comparisons of the groups having the same shading times. A paired t-test was used for groups of the same color (3 s/60 s). RESULTS Among the 11 groups investigated C4 (3 s) had the highest bond strength with a value of 36.40 MPa, while A3 (3 s) showed the lowest bond strength with a value of 29.47 MPa. CONCLUSION Coloring procedures can affect zirconia/ceramic bond strength. However, the results also showed that bond strengths of all the investigated groups were clinically acceptable. PMID:25551004

  9. Effects of coloring procedures on zirconia/veneer ceramics bond strength.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, İlkin; Özat, Pelin; Eroğlu, Erdal

    2014-12-01

    The most common failure seen in restorations with a zirconia core is total or layered delamination of the ceramic veneer. In the present study, the shear bond strengths between veneering ceramics and colored zirconia oxide core materials were evaluated. Zirconia discs (15 × 12 × 1.6 mm) were divided into 11 groups of 12 discs each. Groups were colored according to the Vita Classic scale: A3, B1, C4, D2, and D4. Each group was treated with the recommended shading time for 3 s, or with prolonged shading for 60 s, except for the control group. Samples were veneered with 3 mm thick and 3.5 mm in diameter translucent ceramic and subjected to shear test in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD tests were used for comparisons of the groups having the same shading times. A paired t-test was used for groups of the same color (3 s/60 s). Among the 11 groups investigated C4 (3 s) had the highest bond strength with a value of 36.40 MPa, while A3 (3 s) showed the lowest bond strength with a value of 29.47 MPa. Coloring procedures can affect zirconia/ceramic bond strength. However, the results also showed that bond strengths of all the investigated groups were clinically acceptable.

  10. Fracture resistance of zirconia-composite veneered crowns in comparison with zirconia-porcelain crowns.

    PubMed

    Alsadon, Omar; Patrick, David; Johnson, Anthony; Pollington, Sarah; Wood, Duncan

    2017-02-11

    The objectives were to evaluate the fracture resistance and stress concentration in zirconia/composite veneered crowns in comparison to zirconia/porcelain crowns using occlusal fracture resistance and by stress analysis using finite element analysis method. Zirconia substructures were divided into two groups based on the veneering material. A static load was applied occlusally using a ball indenter and the load to fracture was recorded in Newtons (N). The same crown design was used to create 3D crown models and evaluated using FEA. The zirconia/composite crowns subjected to static occlusal load showed comparable results to the zirconia/porcelain crowns. Zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress on the zirconia substructure at 63.6 and 50.9 MPa on the zirconia substructure veneered with porcelain. In conclusion, zirconia/composite crowns withstood high occlusal loads similar to zirconia/porcelain crowns with no significant difference. However, the zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress values than the zirconia/porcelain crowns at the zirconia substructure.

  11. Development of partial rock veneers by root throw in a subalpine setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Toy, T.J.; Lenart, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Rock veneers stabilize hillslope surfaces, occur especially in areas of immature soil, and form through a variety of process sets that includes root throw. Near Westcliffe, Colorado, USA, data were collected from a 20 ?? 500 m transect on the east slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Ages of pit/mound complexes with rock fragments exposed at the surface by root throw ranged from recent (freshly toppled tree) to unknown (complete tree decay). Calculations based on dimensions of the pit/mound complexes, estimated time of free topppling, sizes of exposed rock fragments, and percentage rock covers at pit/mound complexes, as well as within the transect area, indicate that recent rates of root throw have resulted in only partial rock veneering since late Pleistocene deglaciation. Weathering of rock fragments prevent development of an extensive rock veneer and causes a balance, achieved within an estimated 700 years, between the rates of rock-fragment exposure by root throw and clast disintegration by chemical reduction. The estimated rate of rock-fragment reduction accounts for part of the fluvial sediment yields observed for forested subalpine areas of western North America. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Esthetic rehabilitation of worn anterior teeth with thin porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Marco; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kalk, Warner

    2011-01-01

    Bonded porcelain restorations are a predictable and durable treatment option with which not only esthetic appearance but also the strength and function of teeth can be re-established. One of the most important issues of today's dentistry is the preservation of sound enamel. Following biomimetic principles, employing minimally invasive applications and adhesive technologies are of paramount importance for successful restorations. The mock-up technique is advised for delicate removal of the required space for thin porcelain veneers minimally. Besides minimally invasive preparation, long-term success is determined by the adhesive quality of the laminate veneers. This case presentation demonstrates restoration of anterior dentition where the wear of incisal edges posed a negative effect on the smile of the patient. Before bonded porcelain veneers were adhesively cemented, incisal lengthening with direct resin composite and gingival contouring was performed. By using the mock-up technique, minimal preparations were made with the outline ending in enamel only. For cementation of these restorations, step-by-step adhesive procedures are presented.

  13. Microspectral analysis with laser in microleakage evaluation between infrastructure and veneer materials in fixed partial dentures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Draganescu, Gheorghe; Todea, Carmen; Dodenciu, Dorin; Rominu, Roxana

    2008-02-01

    The microleakage at the interface between the metal infrastructure and the veneering part of the fixed partial dentures are a common problem of aesthetic dentistry. It is possible to use the method of laser microspectral analysis for investigations of microleakage at the metal-veneering material interfaces in fixed partial prostheses. The laser microspectral analysis device LMA-10 (Carl Zeiss, Jena) was used equipped with a diffraction spectrometer PGS-2 (Carl Zeiss, Jena). Different fixed partial dentures were used to determine the microleakage between the metal infrastructure and the veneering material. The distribution of chemical elements at interface infiltration was investigated, making a series of craters and establishing the spectra of the vapours emitted from the craters. Data was gathered in various tables of chemical elements showing the quality and the quantity of microleakage. The laser microspectral analysis is a punctual method of analysis, which allows to investigate small quantities of materials of around 0.1 μg. This method allows to establish the content of atoms and molecules and to perform semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis. By this method it is possible to establish trace elements, i. e. with concentration of ppm (parts per million).

  14. Effect of surface treatment and liner material on the adhesion between veneering ceramic and zirconia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yeo, In-Sung; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2014-12-01

    Fully sintered zirconia blocks, each with one polished surface, were treated with one of the followings: 1) no treatment, 2) airborne-particle abrasion with 50μm alumina, and 3) airborne-particle abrasion with 125μm alumina. Before veneering with glass ceramic, either liner Α or liner B were applied on the treated surfaces. All veneered blocks were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine. For the groups with liner A, irrespective of the particle size, air abrasion on Y-TZP surfaces provided greater bond strength than polishing. Application of liner B on an abraded zirconia surface yielded no significant influence on the adhesion. In addition, specimens with liner A showed higher bond strength than those with liner B, if applied on roughened surfaces. Fractured surfaces were observed as mixed patterns in all groups. For the liner A, surface treatment was helpful in bonding with veneering ceramic, while it was ineffective for the liner B. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electron beam irradiation of dental composites.

    PubMed

    Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin; Faltermeier, Andreas; Handel, Gerhard

    2005-09-01

    Electron beam irradiation can be used to influence the mechanical properties of polymers. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether dental composites can benefit from irradiation in order to achieve increased fracture toughness, work of fracture, hardness or less wear. Two hundred rectangular specimens of five veneering composites were electron beam irradiated with 25, 100 and 200 kGy using an electron accelerator of 10 MeV. Fracture toughness, work of fracture, Vickers hardness, color changes and three-medium wear were measured and compared with non-irradiated specimens. Visible color changes (DeltaE>3) were observed with all composites and with all dose rates. Fracture toughness, work of fracture, Vickers hardness and resistance against wear increased significantly with few exceptions. Composites with a simple curing process needed higher dose rates while systems with a more complex curing procedure should be irradiated with lower dose rates. Electron beam irradiation can significantly change the mechanical properties of dental composites. However, color changes can limit the use of irradiation for dentistry.

  16. [Dental biofilms].

    PubMed

    Simain, F; Rompen, E; Heinen, E

    2010-10-01

    Orodental pathologies are generally classified into two main groups: caries and parodontopathies. They result from polymicrobial infections based on the dental plaque's theory which has constantly evolved. Therefore, the concept of acquired biological pellicle or biofilm has been described and largely elaborated.A bacterial biofilm is a unit of bacterial microcolonies embedded within an exopolymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the literature with regard to the formation, and composition of the biofilm, as well as to point out the close link that exists between biofilm and dental medicine.

  17. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  18. Trends in dental and allied dental education.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Laura M

    2004-09-01

    Educational programs play an important role in preparing a qualified dental work force. This article reviews the current status and trends in dental, advanced dental and allied dental education programs in the United States and examines their impact on the dental work force. This analysis focuses on survey data collected by the American Dental Association during the past 10 to 15 years and compares recent patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation with previous trends. The numbers of educational programs, applicants, enrollees and graduates have increased in dentistry, dental hygiene and dental assisting, while dental laboratory technology has declined in all measures. The proportion of women in dentistry has increased, while the ethnic profile of dental and allied personnel has shown little change. Both the cost of dental education and student debt continue to increase. Despite increases in the number of educational programs and overall numbers of graduates from dental and allied dental education programs, the proportion of underrepresented groups still lags behind their representation in the overall population, and the number of allied personnel falls short of practice needs. Patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation are important determinants of the dental and allied dental work force. The cost and funding of education significantly affect the attractiveness of dental careers and the sustainability of educational programs and should be monitored carefully by the profession.

  19. Degree of conversion of a resin cement light-cured through ceramic veneers of different thicknesses and types.

    PubMed

    Runnacles, Patrício; Correr, Gisele Maria; Baratto Filho, Flares; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    During the cementation of ceramic veneers the polymerization of resin cements may be jeopardized if the ceramics attenuate the irradiance of the light-curing device. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types and thicknesses of ceramic veneers on the degree of conversion of a light-cured resin-based cement (RelyX Veneer). The cement was light-cured after interposing ceramic veneers [IPS InLine, IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max LT (low translucency) and IPS e.max HT (high translucency) - Ivoclar Vivadent] of four thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm). As control, the cement was light-cured without interposition of ceramics. The degree of conversion was evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy (n=5). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Significant differences were observed among groups (p<0.001). The degree of conversion was similar to the control for all light-cured groups with interposition of ceramics of 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm (p>0.05). Among 1.5-mm-thick veneers, IPS e.max LT was the only one that showed different results from the control (p<0.05). At the thickness of 2.0 mm, only the IPS e.max LT and HT veneers were able to produce cements with degrees of conversion similar to the control (p>0.05). The degree of conversion of the evaluated light-cured resin cement depends on the thickness and type of ceramics employed when veneers thicker than 1.5 mm are cemented.

  20. Post-fatigue fracture resistance of metal core crowns: press-on metal ceramic versus a conventional veneering system

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Campos-Estellés, Carlos; Labaig-Rueda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical failure behavior and to analyze fracture characteristics of metal ceramic crowns with two veneering systems – press-on metal (PoM) ceramic versus a conventional veneering system – subjected to static compressive loading. Material and Methods Forty-six crowns were constructed and divided into two groups according to porcelain veneer manufacture. Group A: 23 metal copings with porcelain IPS-InLine veneering (conventional metal ceramic). Group B: 23 metal copings with IPS-InLine PoM veneering porcelain. After 120,000 fatigue cycles, the crowns were axially loaded to the moment of fracture with a universal testing machine. The fractured specimens were examined under optical stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope. Results Fracture resistance values showed statistically significant differences (Student’s t-test) regarding the type of ceramic veneering technique (p=0.001): Group A (conventional metal ceramics) obtained a mean fracture resistance of 1933.17 N, and Group B 1325.74N (Press-on metal ceramics). The most common type of fracture was adhesive failure (with metal exposure) (p=0.000). Veneer porcelain fractured on the occlusal surface following a radial pattern. Conclusions Metal ceramic crowns made of IPS InLine or IPS InLine PoM ceramics with different laboratory techniques all achieved above-average values for clinical survival in the oral environment according to ISO 6872. Crowns made with IPS InLine by conventional technique resisted fracture an average of 45% more than IPS InLine PoM fabricated with the press-on technique. Key words:Mechanical failure, conventional feldspathic, pressable ceramic, chewing simulator, thermocycling, compressive testing, fracture types, scanning electron microscope. PMID:26155346

  1. Influence of abutment type and esthetic veneering on preload maintenance of abutment screw of implant-supported crowns.

    PubMed

    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    The effect of veneering materials on screw joint stability remains inconclusive. Thus, this study evaluated the preload maintenance of abutment screws of single crowns fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials. Sixty crowns were divided into five groups (n = 12): UCLA abutment in gold alloy with ceramic (group GC) and resin (group GR) veneering, UCLA abutment in titanium with ceramic (group TiC) and resin (group TiR) veneering, and zirconia abutment with ceramic veneering (group ZiC). Abutment screws made of gold were used with a 35 Ncm insertion torque. Detorque measurements were obtained initially and after mechanical cycling. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's exact test at a significance level of 5%. For the initial detorque means (in Ncm), group TiC (21.4 ± 1.78) exhibited statistically lower torque maintenance than groups GC (23.9 ± 0.91), GR (24.1 ± 1.34), and TiR (23.2 ± 1.33) (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Group ZiC (21.9 ± 2.68) exhibited significantly lower torque maintenance than groups GC, GR, and TiR (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). After mechanical cycling, there was a statistically significant difference between groups TiC (22.1 ± 1.86) and GR (23.8 ± 1.56); between groups ZiC (21.7 ± 2.02) and GR; and also between groups ZiC and TiR (23.6 ± 1.30) (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Detorque reduction occurred regardless of abutment type and veneering material. More irregular surfaces in the hexagon area of the castable abutments were observed. The superiority of any veneering material concerning preload maintenance was not established. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. Aim To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. Results The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Conclusion Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer

  3. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Dhanraj; Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-12-01

    Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer following luting in All ceramic complete veneer crowns. Hence

  4. Inlay-retained zirconia fixed dental prostheses: modified designs for a completely adhesive approach.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Carlo; Cardelli, Paolo; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there are many options for single-tooth replacement: metal-ceramic, all-ceramic, direct or indirect fibre-reinforced composite fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) or implants. Inlay-retained FDPs may especially be indicated when adjacent teeth have been previously restored and when implant placement is not possible or not indicated. In such cases, both metal-ceramic and fibre-reinforced composite FDPs have certain disadvantages. In this paper, we describe the use of all-ceramic inlay-retained FDPs with zirconia frameworks, veneered using a press-on technique.

  5. Effectiveness of optical illusions 
applied on a single composite resin veneer for the diastema closure 
of maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Thomai; Antoniadou, Maria; Papazoglou, Efstratios

    To assess the esthetic effectiveness of four illusion techniques applied to a composite resin veneer for diastema closure between maxillary central incisors. An acrylic model with six natural maxillary anterior teeth was fabricated with a 2-mm diastema between the central incisors. Resin veneers were constructed on the left central incisor and the following cases were derived: V0: no veneer; V1: veneer without optical illusion features; V2: veneer with centralized interproximal ridges; V3: veneer with curved incisal edges; V4: veneer with gray pigment mesially/distally; V5: veneer with gray pigment on the developmental lobes. Digital printed photos of the models (13.2 x 17.8 cm, and 6.1 x 8 cm), with low, medium, and high smile lines and without a smile line (processed by Adobe Photoshop CS6) were shown to three groups of people (faculty members, senior undergraduate students, and patients; n = 25/group) for them to assess the overall size and width of the two central incisors. The results were analyzed by Pearson's and chi-square goodness of fit tests. There was no significant influence in the estimation of the two central incisors as being the same size, according to the technique used (P = 0.869) and group of evaluators (P = 0.209). The estimated probability of assessing the tested incisor as wider was indicatively lower in V2 compared to V1 (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; P = 0.088). The height of the smile line affected the evaluation of the veneers only in the large-sized photos. No interference is the best esthetic decision concerning a 2-mm diastema closure when restoring only one central incisor with a laminate veneer. The next best option is to deliver a veneer with centralized interproximal ridges.

  6. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  7. Finding Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finding Dental Care Where can I find low-cost dental care? Dental schools often have clinics that allow dental ... can I find more information? See Finding Low Cost Dental Care . ​​​​ WWNRightboxRadEditor2 Contact Us 1-866-232-4528 nidcrinfo@ ...

  8. Influence of porcelain veneering on the marginal fit of Digident and Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Marginal fit is a very important factor considering the restoration's long-term success. However, adding porcelain to copings can cause distortion and lead to an inadequate fit which exposes more luting material to the oral environment and causes secondary caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of 2 different all-ceramic crown systems before and after porcelain veneering. This study was also intended to verify the marginal fit of crowns originated from green machining of partially sintered blocks of zirconia (Lava CAD/CAM system) and that of crowns obtained through machining of fully sintered blocks of zirconia (Digident CAD/CAM system). 20 crowns were made per each system and the marginal fit was evaluated through a light microscope with image processing (Accura 2000) at 50 points that were randomly selected. Each crown was measured twice: the first measurement was done after obtaining a 0.5 mm coping and the second measurement was done after porcelain veneering. The means and standard deviations were calculated and statistical inferences among the 2 groups were made using independent t-test and within the same group through paired t-test. The means and standard deviations of the marginal fit were 61.52 ± 2.88 µm for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns before porcelain veneering and 83.15 ± 3.51 µm after porcelain veneering. Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns showed means and standard deviations of 62.22 ± 1.78 µm before porcelain veneering and 82.03 ± 1.85 µm after porcelain veneering. Both groups showed significant differences when analyzing the marginal gaps before and after porcelain veneering within each group. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the marginal gaps of each group before porcelain veneering and after porcelain veneering as well. The 2 all-ceramic crown systems showed marginal gaps that were within a reported clinically acceptable range of marginal discrepancy.

  9. Influence of porcelain veneering on the marginal fit of Digident and Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Marginal fit is a very important factor considering the restoration's long-term success. However, adding porcelain to copings can cause distortion and lead to an inadequate fit which exposes more luting material to the oral environment and causes secondary caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of 2 different all-ceramic crown systems before and after porcelain veneering. This study was also intended to verify the marginal fit of crowns originated from green machining of partially sintered blocks of zirconia (Lava CAD/CAM system) and that of crowns obtained through machining of fully sintered blocks of zirconia (Digident CAD/CAM system). MATERIALS AND METHODS 20 crowns were made per each system and the marginal fit was evaluated through a light microscope with image processing (Accura 2000) at 50 points that were randomly selected. Each crown was measured twice: the first measurement was done after obtaining a 0.5 mm coping and the second measurement was done after porcelain veneering. The means and standard deviations were calculated and statistical inferences among the 2 groups were made using independent t-test and within the same group through paired t-test. RESULTS The means and standard deviations of the marginal fit were 61.52 ± 2.88 µm for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns before porcelain veneering and 83.15 ± 3.51 µm after porcelain veneering. Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns showed means and standard deviations of 62.22 ± 1.78 µm before porcelain veneering and 82.03 ± 1.85 µm after porcelain veneering. Both groups showed significant differences when analyzing the marginal gaps before and after porcelain veneering within each group. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the marginal gaps of each group before porcelain veneering and after porcelain veneering as well. CONCLUSION The 2 all-ceramic crown systems showed marginal gaps that were within a reported clinically

  10. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the influence of different backgrounds on the color of glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Charisis, Dimitrios; Koutayas, Spiridon-Oumvertos; Kamposiora, Photini; Doukoudakis, Asterios

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this spectrophotometric study was to evaluate the influence of different color backgrounds on Vita In-Ceram (Vident) glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers. A total of 50 color background disks were fabricated from Vitadur Alpha 2M2 (n=30) and 5M1 (n=20) dentin porcelain (Vi-dent). Ceramic veneer disks were fabricated from In-Ceram Spinell (n=20) or In-Ceram Alumina (n=20) glass-infiltrated core veneered using Vitadur Alpha 2M2 dentin porcelain. In addition, 10 ceramic veneer disks were fabricated from feldspathic dentin porcelain Vitadur Alpha 2M2. The ceramic veneer specimens were bonded onto the color background specimens using dual-curing luting composite cement, creating the following groups (each n=10): S2M2 (Spinell/2M2), S5M1 (Spinell/5M1), A2M2 (Alumina/2M2), A5M1 (Alumina/5M1), and control (Vitadur Alpha/2M2). L*a*b* color coordinates were measured five times for each specimen using a Vita Easyshade (Vident) spectrophotometer. Mean color differences (deltaE) between each study group and the control group were: 3.79 for S2M2; 7.24 for S5M1; 5.86 for A2M2, and 7.32 for A5M1. Two-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in deltaE between all groups. However, a t test revealed that the statistically significant differences only existed between groups S2M2/S5M1, A2M2/A5M1, and S2M2/A2M2. The results suggest that vacuum infiltration with a translucent glass provides the Spinell and Alumina ceramic veneers with increased semi-translucency, which makes them highly influenced by discolored backgrounds. In-Ceram Spinell glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers could be considered as an alternative to conventional feldspathic veneers for the restoration of nondiscolored teeth. Although Spinell and Alumina ceramic veneers could enhance the final color establishment of discolored teeth, the results would not be clinically acceptable.

  11. What I wish I'd learned at dental school.

    PubMed

    Oliver, G R; Lynch, C D; Chadwick, B L; Santini, A; Wilson, N H F

    2016-08-26

    Background Much concern appears to exist as to the scope and content of contemporary dental school programmes, with the oft-cited criticism being made that dental graduates are 'no longer as good as they used to be'.Aim The aim of this project was to survey the views of dentists - both new graduates and more established practitioners - on aspects of their own dental school training they felt had been deficient as well as commenting on what aspects of dental school education they would like to see improved/enhanced in current times.Methods An invitation to complete an Internet-based questionnaire was emailed to the Fellows and Members of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK). Topics in the questionnaire included the respondent's own dental education history, how well they felt their dental school training had covered certain clinical and non-clinical topics; and their opinions on areas they felt should be included in contemporary dental school programmes.Results Six hundred and forty-nine responses were received from 3,348 emailed invitations (response rate = 19.4%). Sixty-one percent (395) of respondents were qualified for 10 years or more. Among clinical skills and techniques, a majority of respondents reported they felt they had not had sufficient teaching/training in dental school in surgical endodontics (76%), conscious sedation (72%), root surface debridement (71%), fixed orthodontic appliances (68%), porcelain veneers (63%), implants (56%) and posterior composites (53%). If designing a new dental school programme, the most common topics respondents would seek to include/increase were business and practice management (21%), communication skills (including patient management and leadership skills) (10%), and increased clinical time and experience (8%).Conclusions The findings of this project are of interest and relevance to those working with student dentists and young dental practitioners. A greater emphasis is needed on the teaching of certain non

  12. Dental education and dental practice.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper relates recent modes of dental practice to changes that the public and government are likely to ask the health care professions to make in the future. As usual they are asking for the best of all worlds. First, that we maintain the clinical model to the highest standards of personal dental care based and tested against the best research at our disposal, whilst we ensure there is no reduction in the high technical standards for which british dentists have a reputation. Second, that the profession is required to consider ways of providing care on the medicosocial model for the whole community at an economic level the country will afford. The broad changes in dental education have been reviewed, from the technical apprenticeship to the establishment of strong university departments in teaching hospitals. The importance of a sound biomedical foundation and of research both to education and the credibility of dental practice as a primary health care profession is stressed if the profession is to retain its position as a sister to medicine and not slide down to that of a technical ancillary. PMID:6374141

  13. Influence of Different Post-Plasma Treatment Storage Conditions on the Shear Bond Strength of Veneering Porcelain to Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mun-Hwan; Min, Bong Ki; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated whether different storage conditions of plasma-treated zirconia specimens affect the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain. Zirconia plates were treated with a non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma (200 W, 600 s). Porcelain veneering (2.38 mm in diameter) was performed immediately (P-I) or after 24 h storage in water (P-W) or air (P-A) on the treated surfaces (n = 10). Untreated plates were used as the control. Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to the application of a ceramic liner. All veneered specimens underwent a shear bond strength (SBS) test. In the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the oxygen/carbon ratios of the plasma-treated groups increased in comparison with those of the control group. When a liner was not used, the three plasma-treated groups showed significantly higher SBS values than the control group (p < 0.001), although group P-A exhibited a significantly lower value than the other two groups (p < 0.05). The liner application negatively affected bonding in groups P-I and P-W (p < 0.05). When the veneering step was delayed after plasma treatment of zirconia, storage of the specimens in water was effective in maintaining the cleaned surfaces for optimal bonding with the veneering porcelain. PMID:28787841

  14. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  15. Dental Implant Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Dental implant surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots ... that look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures ...

  16. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of differences in coefficient of thermal expansion of veneer and Y-TZP ceramics on interface phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Lubica; Ulmer, Peter; Wille, Sebastian; Kern, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    The stability of veneering ceramics requires further investigation. The purpose of this study was to investigate, with Raman spectroscopy, the occurrence and extent of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in yttria partially stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic at the veneer-framework interface. Three different Y-TZP blanks Cercon base, ZENO TEC, and Zerion were used. The specimens were sintered according to the recommendations of the manufacturers (1350°C Cercon base, 1450°C ZENO TEC, and 1500°C Zerion for 2 hours). Three veneer ceramics with different coefficients of thermal expansion, Cercon ceram kiss, Zirox, and VITA VM9 were used to veneer the Y-TZP frameworks. For the investigation of the temperature gradient on the phase transformation of Y-TZP ceramic, some specimens were fractured, with a universal testing machine along the long axis of the coping. No evidence was found for the presence of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation for nonabraded and nonveneered specimens. The tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation was observed at the veneer-framework interface for all veneered specimens and was dependent on the sintering temperature of the framework. The highest volume fractions of the monoclinic phase at the veneer-framework interface amounted to 0.57 (Cercon base), 0.69 (ZENO TEC), and 0.72 for the Zerion framework. The tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation was not homogenous along the veneer-framework interface and depended on the distance from the cross section of the veneer-framework interface. The greatest tetragonal to monoclinic transformation was observed at the interface and disappeared with increasing distance from it. For the veneered Cercon base specimens, the volume fraction of the monoclinic phase decreased from 0.53 to 0.13 over a distance of 20 μm. No phase transformation was observed at a distance that exceeded 20 μm from the cross section of the veneer

  18. Dental caries.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  19. Dental Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  20. Spectrophotometric assessment of peri-implant mucosa after restoration with zirconia abutments veneered with fluorescent ceramic: a controlled, retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Happe, Arndt; Schulte-Mattler, Verena; Fickl, Stefan; Naumann, Michael; Zöller, Joachim E; Rothamel, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optical appearance of the soft tissue labial to dental implants restored with fluorescent ceramic-veneered zircona abutments. It was hypothesized that the tested abutment design leads to an increased brightness in the marginal peri-implant tissue, which does not differ from that of natural teeth. Moreover, a reduction of the color difference that has been reported from other abutment materials was expected. A total of 12 patients with single titanium implants in the maxillary anterior region were recruited. All implants (N = 12) were restored with zirconia abutments veneered with fluorescent ceramic and full-ceramic crowns. Color measurements of the peri-implant mucosa at the test sites were made of the facial aspect of the teeth using a Spectroshade-spectrophotometer. The gingiva of a contralateral or adjacent natural tooth served as a control. Color data (CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates) were obtained in five incremental areas of 1 × 2 mm in both test and control sites. ∆E-values were calculated from the ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* values for each patient. Data acquisition from the test site demonstrated lower mean values of L*, a* and b* than the control site. Statistical significance between the test site and control site was reached in the L* values only in the second of the five incremental areas (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon test). However, discrepancies in a*- and b*-values reached a statistically significant difference in the incremental areas 1, 2 and 4, and in b* in area 5 (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Medians of the ∆E-values in all five increments were found to be higher than the clinical perceptual threshold of 3.7. However, considering the original data, five individual patients did not reach the threshold in increment 1 and 2, two in increment 3 and three in increment 4. None of the patients showed lower ∆E-values than the perceptual threshold of 3.7 in increment 5, which had the largest distance from the gingival

  1. Fracture load and failure analysis of zirconia single crowns veneered with pressed and layered ceramics after chewing simulation.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Ozcan, Mutlu; Roos, Malgorzata; Trottmann, Albert; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the fracture load of zirconia crowns veneered with four overpressed and four layered ceramics after chewing simulation. The veneered zirconia crowns were cemented and subjected to chewing cycling. Subsequently, the specimens were loaded at an angle of 45° in a Universal Testing Machine to determine the fracture load. One-way ANOVA, followed by a post-hoc Scheffé test, t-test and Weibull statistic were performed. Overpressed crowns showed significantly lower fracture load (543-577 N) compared to layered ones (805-1067 N). No statistical difference was found between the fracture loads within the overpressed group. Within the layered groups, LV (1067 N) presented significantly higher results compared to LC (805 N). The mean values of all other groups were not significantly different. Single zirconia crowns veneered with overpressed ceramics exhibited lower fracture load than those of the layered ones after chewing simulation.

  2. Comminution process to produce wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2017-03-28

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  3. Adhesion of veneering resins to polymethylmethacrylate-based CAD/CAM polymers after various surface conditioning methods.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, B; Trottmann, A; Hämmerle, C H F; Özcan, M

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test whether the bond strength of a hybrid composite and a PMMA-based veneer to CAD/CAM polymers would improve after pre-treatment and to evaluate the failure types after debonding. Three types of PMMA-based (CAD-Temp, artBloc Temp and TelioCAD) CAD/CAM blocks were obtained (N = 360, n = 15 per test group). They were divided into four groups to be conditioned with the following methods: (a) no-treatment, (b) air-abrasion (50 μm Al2O3), (c) air-abrasion (50 μm Al2O3) + MPS-Silane (Monobond S) + Adhesive resin (StickResin) (for Gradia)/MMA (for Integral Esthetic Press) application, (d) Silica coating and silanization (CoJet-System). The conditioned surfaces were veneered with a hybrid composite (Gradia) or a PMMA-based resin (Integral esthetic press). After water storage (1 week, 37°C), the bond strength was measured. Data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and post-hoc Scheffé test (α = 0.05). Surface-conditioning method, veneer type and CAD/CAM polymers significantly affected the results. Hybrid composite did not bond to non-conditioned CAD/CAM polymers. Regardless of the conditioning method, PMMA-based resin showed significantly higher bond strength to all CAD/CAM polymers compared to hybrid composite. Air-abrasion increased the bond strength in all tested groups. Additional silane application after air-abrasion did not significantly increase the bond strength of hybrid composite. While exclusively adhesive failures were observed between the hybrid composite and the CAD/CAM polymers, PMMA veneer demonstrated cohesive failures in the CAD/CAM polymers. CAD/CAM polymers could be veneered with only a PMMA-based veneer with and without air-abrasion.

  4. Evaluation of the color reproducibility of all-ceramic restorations fabricated by the digital veneering method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical acceptability of all-ceramic crowns fabricated by the digital veneering method vis-à-vis the traditional method. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia specimens manufactures by two different manufacturing method, conventional vs digital veneering, with three different thickness (0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm) were prepared for analysis. Color measurement was performed using a spectrophotometer for the prepared specimens. The differences in shade in relation to the build-up method were calculated by quantifying ΔE* (mean color difference), with the use of color difference equations representing the distance from the measured values L*, a*, and b*, to the three-dimensional space of two colors. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with a Tukey multiple-range test was used to analyze the data (α=0.05). RESULTS In comparing means and standard deviations of L*, a*, and b* color values there was no significant difference by the manufacturing method and zirconia core thickness according to a two-way ANOVA. The color differences between two manufacturing methods were in a clinically acceptable range less than or equal to 3.7 in all the specimens. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, a carefully consideration is necessary while selecting upper porcelain materials, even if it is performed on a small scale. However, because the color reproducibility of the digital veneering system was within the clinically acceptable range when comparing with conventional layering system, it was possible to estimate the possibility of successful aesthetic prostheses in the latest technology. PMID:24843390

  5. Porcelain laminate veneer conditioning for orthodontic bonding: SEM-EDX analysis.

    PubMed

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Ileri, Zehra; Yavuz, Tevfik; Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Ozturk, Nilgun

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and laser irradiation on the bond strength of brackets bonded to porcelain laminate veneer. Porcelain laminate veneer specimens were embedded in the centers of acrylic resin blocks. Thirty-nine teeth were used for shear bond strength testing and the remaining three (one tooth for each group) were used for evaluation of the debonded bracket interface. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups, each containing 13 specimens. The details of the groups are as follows: Group SB, sandblasting with alumina particles (50 μm); Group HFA, 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching; Group ER, erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er: YAG) irradiation (from 1 mm distance, 2 W, 10 Hz for 10 s). After conditioning, the upper central brackets were bonded to the porcelain surfaces. Porcelain laminate veneers were examined under stereomicroscope for adhesive remnant index and surface damage after debonding. The highest shear bond strength values were obtained with Group HFA (10.8 ± 3.8 MPa) and Group ER (9.3 ± 1.5 MPa), whereas Group SB revealed the lowest values. Scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed that the silicon level in the porcelain decreased after debonding in all groups. The sandblasting method did not demonstrate any ideal bond strength values; however, the 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching and Er: YAG laser did. There were no significant differences among all groups in terms of laminate surface damages. The Er: YAG laser therefore can be selected for ideal bond strength and minimal damage to porcelain laminates.

  6. Weibull analysis and flexural strength of hot-pressed core and veneered ceramic structures.

    PubMed

    Bona, Alvaro Della; Anusavice, Kenneth J; DeHoff, Paul H

    2003-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the Weibull moduli of single- and multilayer ceramics are controlled primarily by the structural reliability of the core ceramic.Methods. Seven groups of 20 bar specimens (25 x 4 x 1.2 mm) were made from the following materials: (1) IPS Empress--a hot-pressed (HP) leucite-based core ceramic; (2) IPS Empress2--a HP lithia-based core ceramic; (3 and 7) Evision--a HP lithia-based core ceramic (ES); (4) IPS Empress2 body--a glass veneer; (5) ES (1.1 mm thick) plus a glaze layer (0.1 mm); and (6) ES (0.8 mm thick) plus veneer (0.3 mm) and glaze (0.1 mm). Each specimen was subjected to four-point flexure loading at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min while immersed in distilled water at 37 degrees C, except for Group 7 that was tested in a dry environment. Failure loads were recorded and the fracture surfaces were examined using SEM. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences were found between the mean flexural strength values of Groups 2, 3, 5, and 6 or between Groups 1 and 4 (p>0.05). However, significant differences were found for dry (Group 7) and wet (Groups 1-6) conditions. Glazing had no significant effect on the flexural strength or Weibull modulus. The strength and Weibull modulus of the ES ceramic were similar to those of Groups 5 and 6. The structural reliability of veneered core ceramic is controlled primarily by that of the core ceramic.

  7. Effect of different veneering techniques on the fracture strength of metal and zirconia frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Ayse Gozde; Ulusoy, Mubin; Yuce, Mert

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether the fracture strengths and failure types differed between metal and zirconia frameworks veneered with pressable or layering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS A phantom molar tooth was prepared and duplicated in 40 cobalt-chromium abutments. Twenty metal (IPS d.SIGN 15, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and 20 zirconia (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar) frameworks were fabricated on the abutments. Each framework group was randomly divided into 2 subgroups according to the veneering material: pressable and layering ceramics (n=10). Forty molar crowns were fabricated, cemented onto the corresponding abutments and then thermocycled (5-55℃, 10,000 cycles). A load was applied in a universal testing machine until a fracture occurred on the crowns. In addition, failure types were examined using a stereomicroscope. Fracture load data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The highest strength value was seen in metal-pressable (MP) group, whereas zirconia-pressable (ZP) group exhibited the lowest one. Moreover, group MP showed significantly higher fracture loads than group ZP (P=.015) and zirconia-layering (ZL) (P=.038) group. No significant difference in fracture strength was detected between groups MP and ML, and groups ZP and ZL (P>.05). Predominant fracture types were cohesive for metal groups and adhesive for zirconia groups. CONCLUSION Fracture strength of a restoration with a metal or a zirconia framework was independent of the veneering techniques. However, the pressing technique over metal frameworks resisted significantly higher fracture loads than zirconia frameworks. PMID:26816575

  8. Fracture strength of monolithic all-ceramic crowns made of high translucent yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium dioxide compared to porcelain-veneered crowns and lithium disilicate crowns.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Camilla; Kmet, Gratiela; Rivera, Johnny; Larsson, Christel; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to provide data on the fracture strength of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns and porcelain-veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores and to compare that data with the fracture strength of porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Sixty standardized crowns divided into six groups (n = 10) were fabricated: monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns, brand A, monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns, brand B, veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores, brand A, veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores, brand B, heat-pressed monolithic lithium disilicate crowns and veneered Y-TZP crown cores. All crowns were thermocycled, cemented onto dies, cyclically pre-loaded and finally loaded to fracture. The monolithic Y-TZP groups showed significantly higher fracture strength (2795 N and 3038 N) compared to all other groups. The fracture strength in the veneered Y-TZP group (2229 N) was significantly higher than the monolithic lithium disilicate group (1856 N) and the veneered high translucent Y-TZP groups (1480 N and 1808 N). The fracture strength of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns is considerably higher than that of porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores, porcelain-veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns. The fracture strength of a crown made of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP is, with a large safety margin, sufficient for clinical use for the majority of patients. Porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores show higher fracture resistance than monolithic lithium disilicate crowns.

  9. THE LAST STAGES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION: DYNAMICAL FRICTION AND THE LATE VENEER

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Warren, Paul H.; Yin Qingzhu

    2012-06-10

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation consists of the clean-up of residual planetesimals after the giant impact phase. Dynamically, a residual planetesimal population is needed to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets to circular and coplanar orbits after the giant impact stage. Geochemically, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance patterns inferred for the terrestrial planets and the Moon suggest that a total of about 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} of chondritic material was delivered as 'late veneer' by planetesimals to the terrestrial planets after the end of giant impacts. Here, we combine these two independent lines of evidence for a leftover population of planetesimals and show that: (1) a residual population of small planetesimals containing 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} is able to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets after giant impacts to their observed values. (2) At the same time, this planetesimal population can account for the observed relative amounts of late veneer added to the Earth, Moon, and Mars provided that the majority of the accreted late veneer was delivered by small planetesimals with radii {approx}< 10 m. These small planetesimal sizes are required to ensure efficient damping of the planetesimal's velocity dispersion by mutual collisions, which in turn ensures sufficiently low relative velocities between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals such that the planets' accretion cross sections are significantly enhanced by gravitational focusing above their geometric values. Specifically, we find that, in the limit that the relative velocity between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals is significantly less than the terrestrial planets' escape velocities, gravitational focusing yields a mass accretion ratio of Earth/Mars {approx}({rho}{sub Circled-Plus }/{rho}{sub mars})(R{sub Circled-Plus }/R{sub mars}){sup 4} {approx} 17, which agrees well with the mass

  10. Tooth preparation and fabrication of porcelain veneers using a double-layer technique.

    PubMed

    Chpindel, P; Cristou, M

    1994-09-01

    This article discusses proper tooth preparation when using the double-layered porcelain technique for constructing porcelain veneers designed to produce strength and translucency. Indications for this technique include color correction, restoration of lost tooth structure or improper tooth size, and overall smile design. A new indication--misalignment--has been added. The objective of this article is to review tooth preparation and double-layered laboratory techniques using hydrothermal ceramics in combination. Four cases are used to illustrate the procedure, concentrating on the correction of misaligned teeth.

  11. Influence of veneering composite composition on the efficacy of fiber-reinforced restorations (FRR).

    PubMed

    Ellakwa, A; Shortall, A; Shehata, M; Marquis, P

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of fiber reinforcement on the flexural properties of four commercial (Artglass, Belleglass HP, Herculite XRV and Solidex) veneering composites (Series A) and two experimental composites (Series B&C). This study investigated how the composition of the veneering composites influenced the enhancement of strength and modulus produced by fiber reinforcement. The formulation of the experimental composites were varied by changing the filler load (Series B) or the resin matrix chemistry (Series C) to assess the effect these changes would have on the degree of reinforcement. In Series A, the commercial veneering composites were reinforced by an Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene fiber (UHMW-PE/Connect) to evaluate flexural properties after 24 hours and six months. In Series B, experimental composites with the same organic matrix but with different filler loads (40% to 80% by weight) were also reinforced by Connect fiber to evaluate flexural properties. In Series C, experimental composites (Systems 1-4) with the same filler load (76.5% by weight) but with different organic matrix compositions were reinforced by Connect fiber to evaluate flexural properties. For Series B and C, flexural properties were evaluated after 24 hours water storage. All the samples were prepared in a mold 2 mm x 2 mm x 25 mm and stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C until they were ready for flexural testing in an Instron Universal Testing Machine using a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The results showed no significant differences in the flexural strength (FS) between any of the commercial reinforced composites in Series A. The flexural modulus (FM) of the fiber-reinforced Belleglass HP group was significantly higher than for Artglass and Solidex. Water storage for six months had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the flexural strength of three of the four reinforced veneering composites. The flexural strength for Artglass was significantly reduced (p<0

  12. Esthetic Correction of Orthodontically Transposed Teeth with Veneers and Laser Periodontal Modification.

    PubMed

    Magid, Kenneth S; Juma, Zahid

    2015-07-01

    Missing teeth in the esthetic zone, whether congenital or as a result of other factors, present difficult choices in clinical management. The missing teeth can be replaced by surgical or restorative intervention but are often treated orthodontically. These repositioned teeth often lead to an unaesthetic result because of differences in morphology, color, and particularly in gingival architecture. This article describes the use of multiple lasers for periodontal modification and feldspathic porcelain veneers to achieve a highly esthetic result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of UV exposure on the surface chemistry of wood veneers treated with ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patachia, Silvia; Croitoru, Catalin; Friedrich, Christian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of four types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) on the chemical alteration of the surface of wood veneers exposed to 254 nm UV irradiation have been studied by using image analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface energy calculation. The wood treated with ionic liquids showed better stability to UV light, as demonstrated by the low lignin, carbonyl index and cellulose crystallinity index variation, as well as very small color modification of the surface with the increase of the UV exposure period, by comparing to non-treated wood. The results show that the tested ionic liquids could be effective as UV stabilizers.

  14. The Last Stages of Terrestrial Planet Formation: Dynamical Friction and the Late Veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Warren, Paul H.; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-06-01

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation consists of the clean-up of residual planetesimals after the giant impact phase. Dynamically, a residual planetesimal population is needed to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets to circular and coplanar orbits after the giant impact stage. Geochemically, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance patterns inferred for the terrestrial planets and the Moon suggest that a total of about 0.01 M⊕ of chondritic material was delivered as "late veneer" by planetesimals to the terrestrial planets after the end of giant impacts. Here, we combine these two independent lines of evidence for a leftover population of planetesimals and show that: (1) a residual population of small planetesimals containing 0.01 M⊕ is able to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets after giant impacts to their observed values. (2) At the same time, this planetesimal population can account for the observed relative amounts of late veneer added to the Earth, Moon, and Mars provided that the majority of the accreted late veneer was delivered by small planetesimals with radii <~ 10 m. These small planetesimal sizes are required to ensure efficient damping of the planetesimal's velocity dispersion by mutual collisions, which in turn ensures sufficiently low relative velocities between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals such that the planets' accretion cross sections are significantly enhanced by gravitational focusing above their geometric values. Specifically, we find that, in the limit that the relative velocity between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals is significantly less than the terrestrial planets' escape velocities, gravitational focusing yields a mass accretion ratio of Earth/Mars ~(ρ⊕/ρmars)(R⊕/Rmars)4 ~ 17, which agrees well with the mass accretion ratio inferred from HSEs of 12-23. For the Earth-Moon system, we find a mass accretion ratio of

  15. [The study of the colorimetric characteristics of the cobalt-chrome alloys abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns by using dental spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Liu, Hongchun; Meng, Yukun; Chao, Yonglie; Liu, Changhong

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the optical data of the different sites of the cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloy abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns and the color difference between the crowns and target tab using a digital dental spectrophotometer. Ten Co-Cr alloy abutments were made and tried in four different groups of all-ceramic crowns, namely, Procera aluminia, Procera zirconia, Lava zirconia (Lava-Zir), and IPS E.max glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced monolithic. The color data of the cervical, body, and incisal sites of the samples were recorded and analyzed by dental spectrophotometer. The CIE L*, a*, b* values were again measured after veneering. The color difference between the abutments covered by all-ceramic crowns and A2 dentine shade tab was evaluated. The L* and b* values of the abutments can be increased by all of the four groups of all-ceramic copings, but a* values were decreased in most groups. A statistical difference was observed among four groups. After being veneered, the L* values of all the copings declined slightly, and the values of a*, b* increased significantly. When compared with A2 dentine shade tab, the ΔE of the crowns was below 4. Four ceramic copings were demonstrated to promote the lightness and hue of the alloy abutments effecttively. Though the colorimetric baseline of these copings was uneven, veneer porcelain can efficiently decrease the color difference between the samples and thee target.

  16. Strength and thickness of the layer of materials used for ceramic veneers bonding.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Karolina; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta; Molak, Rafał; Kożuchowski, Mariusz; Pakieła, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The use of adhesive bonding systems and composites in prosthetic dentistry brought improved and more aesthetic prosthetic restorations. The adhesive bonding of porcelain veneers is based on the micromechanical and chemical bond between tooth surface, cement layer and ceramic material. The aim of the study was to measure the thickness of the material layer formed during cementing of a ceramic restoration, and - in the second part of the study - to test tension of these cements. The materials investigated comprised dual-curing materials: Variolink II, KoNroot Cem, KoNroot Cem Viscous and Panavia F 2.0, as well as a light-curing composite: Variolink Veneer. The thickness was measured with the use of ZIP Lite 250 optical gauging apparatus. SEM microscope - Hitachi Tabletop Microscope TM-100 - was used to analyse the characteristics of an adhesive bond and filler particle size of particular materials. Tension tests of the cements under study were carried out on the MTS Q Test 10 static electrodynamic apparatus. The tests showed that KoNroot Cem exhibited the best mechanical properties of bonding to enamel and dentin among the materials tested. Variolink II base light-curing cement formed the thinnest layer. All the materials tested formed the layer not exceeding 1/3 of ceramic restoration thickness.

  17. Electroless nickel plating on APTHS modified wood veneer for EMI shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haibing; Li, Jian; Wang, Lijuan

    2010-12-01

    A new activation process was developed for electroless plating to prepare wood-based EMI shielding material. Pd(II) was adsorbed on a wood surface modified with γ-aminopropyltrihydroxysilane (APTHS) formed by the hydrolysis of γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). After reduction of Pd(II), electroless plating was successfully initiated and an Ni-P coating was deposited on the wood veneer. The activation process and resulting coating were characterized by XPS, SEM-EDS and XRD. The metal deposition, surface resistivity and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness were measured. XPS analysis proved that Pd(II) was bonded to the amino group of APTHS and was reduced to Pd(0). The Ni-P coating was uniform, compact and continuous, and consisted of 3.39 wt.% phosphorus and 96.61 wt.% nickel. XRD analysis indicated that the coating was crystalline, which is thought to be related to the low phosphorus content. The plated birch veneers exhibited electromagnetic shielding effectiveness greater than 60 dB in the frequency range 10 MHz-1.5 GHz.

  18. Reliability of Reduced-thickness and Thinly Veneered Lithium Disilicate Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Silva, N.R.F.A.; Bonfante, E.A.; Martins, L.M.; Valverde, G.B.; Thompson, V.P.; Ferencz, J.L.; Coelho, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation hypothesized that the reliability of reduced-thickness monolithic lithium disilicate crowns is high relative to that of veneered zirconia (Y-TZP) and comparable with that of metal ceramic (MCR) systems. CAD/CAM first mandibular molar full-crown preparations were produced with uniform thicknesses of either 1.0-mm or 2.0-mm occlusal and axial reduction, then replicated in composite for standard crown dies. Monolithic 1.0-mm (MON) and 2.0-mm CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns, the latter with a buccal thin veneer (BTV) of 0.5 mm, were fabricated and then sliding-contact-fatigued (step-stress method) until failure or suspension (n = 18/group). Crack evolution was followed, and fractography of post mortem specimens was performed and compared with that of clinical specimens. Use level probability Weibull calculation (use load = 1,200 N) showed interval overlaps between MON and BTV. There was no significant difference between the Weibull characteristic failure loads of MON and BTV (1,535 N [90% CI 1,354–1,740] and 1,609 N [90% CI 1,512–1,712], respectively), which were significantly higher than that of Y-TZP (370 N [90% CI 322–427]) and comparable with that of MCR (1,304 N [90% CI 1,203–1,414]), validating the study hypothesis. PMID:22205635

  19. Tribocorrosion behavior of veneering biomedical PEEK to Ti6Al4V structures.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Miguel; Buciumeanu, Mihaela; Henriques, Bruno; Silva, Filipe S; Souza, Júlio C M; Gomes, José R

    2016-02-01

    In dentistry, prosthetic structures must be able to support masticatory loads combined with a high biocompatibility and wear resistance in the presence of a corrosive environment. In order to improve the simultaneous wear and corrosion response of highly biocompatible prosthetic structures, a veneering poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) to Ti6Al4V substrate was assessed by tribocorrosion analyses under conditions mimicking the oral environment. Samples were synthesized by hot pressing the PEEK veneer onto Ti6Al4V cylinders. The tribocorrosion tests on Ti6Al4V or PEEK/Ti6Al4V samples were performed on a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer at 30N normal load, 1Hz and stroke length of 3mm. The tests were carried out in artificial saliva at 37°C. Open circuit potential (OCP) was measured before, during and after reciprocating sliding tests. The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed a lower wear rate on PEEK combined with a lower coefficient of friction (COF), when compared to Ti6Al4V. In fact, PEEK protected Ti6Al4V substrate against the corrosive environment and wear avoiding the release of metallic ions to the surrounding environment.

  20. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  1. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  2. Early complications and short-term failures of zirconia single crowns and partial fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Pihlaja, Juha; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Raustia, Aune

    2014-10-01

    Ceramic single crowns fabricated from newer materials, especially zirconia, have shown relatively high survival rates. However, early reversible complications may increase the risk of an irreversible failure later. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the early complications and short-term failures of zirconia single crowns and partial fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) made by predoctoral dental students. Data were collected from the patient records. Altogether, 264 zirconia single crowns and 120 FDPs (342 abutments and 190 pontics) were fabricated for 173 patients between 2007 and 2010. Early complications were recorded during the prosthetic treatment phase, and short-term failures were recorded during the first year in use. The most frequent early complications were localized gingival irritation (1.9% of single crowns and 2.5% of FDP) and postoperative tooth sensitivity (0.4% of single crowns and 3.3% of FDPs). Pulp exposure during preparation was recorded in 3 abutment teeth of the FDPs. The most frequent short-term failure was chipping of the veneering porcelain (0.8% for single crowns, 0.8% for FDPs). One crown lost cementation because of poor retention (0.4%), and 2 FDPs failed because of framework fractures (1.7%). The most frequent early complications were localized gingival irritation and postoperative tooth sensitivity, and the most frequent short-term failure was chipping of the veneering porcelain. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  4. A 10-Year Clinical Evaluation of Resin-Bonded Fixed Dental Prostheses on Non-Prepared Teeth.

    PubMed

    Piemjai, Morakot; Özcan, Mutlu; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the conditions of the non-invasive resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (FDP) and patient satisfaction up to 10 years of clinical function. A total of 23 patients who required fixed prostheses in the areas of mandibular anterior and premolar, and maxillary anterior region received resin-bonded restorations between 1999-2003. In 13 patients with 14 edentulous areas were restored with an adhesive pontic (natural tooth, acrylic and porcelain). Two indirect proximal veneers using resin composite were placed in each space in 10 patients having 13 edentulous spaces. All prostheses were bonded to the proximal surface of adjacent teeth using resin cement based on 4-META/MMA-TBB. No debonding of proximal veneers but 4 pontic debonding was observed which were rebonded and remained functional until final follow up. The abutments in pontic and proximal veneer groups were free of caries and hypersensitivity. Periodontal health was improved after treatment and was maintained for 10 years except for 4 abutments that still showed some bleeding on probing. Non-invasive resin-bonded FDPs are simple, pain-free, less costly treatment procedures that could provide acceptable clinical longevity with high patient satisfaction.

  5. The influence of log soaking temperature on surface quality and integrity performance of birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer

    Treesearch

    Anti Rohumaa; Toni Antikainen; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Wood material surface properties play an important role in adhesive bond formation and performance. In the present study, a test method was developed to evaluate the integrity of the wood surface, and the results were used to understand bond performance. Materials used were rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneers, produced from logs soaked at 20 or 70 °C prior...

  6. Foam Core Particleboards with Intumescent FRT Veneer: Cone Calorimeter Testing With Varying Adhesives, Surface Layer Thicknesses, and Processing Conditions

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Johannes Welling; Ali Shalbafan

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent FRT Veneers adhered to the surface of foam core particleboard to provide adequate fire protection were evaluated by means of cone calorimeter tests (ASTM E1354). The foam core particleboards were prepared with variations in surface layer treatment, adhesives, surface layer thicknesses, and processing conditions. Ignitability, heat release rate profile, peak...

  7. Comparative study between laser sintering and casting for retention of resin composite veneers to cobalt-chromium alloy.

    PubMed

    Muratomi, Ryuta; Kamada, Kohji; Taira, Yohsuke; Higuchi, Shizuo; Watanabe, Ikuya; Sawase, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the bond strengths between resin composite veneer and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy with and without retention devices (Laser-R and Laser-N respectively). Cast Co-Cr alloy with and without retention devices (Cast-R and Cast-N respectively) were also prepared for fabrication technique comparison. Disk-shaped Co-Cr alloy specimens were air-abraded with alumina and veneered with a veneering system, Estenia C&B (ES) or Ceramage (CE). After 20,000 thermocycles, tensile testing was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and multiple comparison test. When no retention devices were present, no significant differences were observed between Laser-N/ES and Cast-N/ES, or between Laser- N/CE and Cast-N/CE, but ES exhibited significantly higher bond strength than CE. With retention devices, Laser-R/ES, Cast- R/ES and Laser-R/CE showed no significant differences, and their retention strengths were significantly higher than that of Cast- R/CE. Compared to cast Co-Cr alloy, laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy with retention devices provided better retention durability for resin composite-veneered prostheses.

  8. Stress analysis in bone tissue around single implants with different diameters and veneering materials: a 3-D finite element study.

    PubMed

    Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution on bone tissue with a single prosthesis supported by implants of large and conventional diameter and presenting different veneering materials using the 3-D finite element method. Sixteen models were fabricated to reproduce a bone block with implants, using two diameters (3.75×10 mm and 5.00×10 mm), four different veneering materials (composite resin, acrylic resin, porcelain, and NiCr crown), and two loads (axial (200 N) and oblique (100 N)). For data analysis, the maximum principal stress and von Mises criterion were used. For the axial load, the cortical bone in all models did not exhibit significant differences, and the trabecular bone presented higher tensile stress with reduced implant diameter. For the oblique load, the cortical bone presented a significant increase in tensile stress on the same side as the loading for smaller implant diameters. The trabecular bone showed a similar but more discreet trend. There was no difference in bone tissue with different veneering materials. The veneering material did not influence the stress distribution in the supporting tissues of single implant-supported prostheses. The large-diameter implants improved the transference of occlusal loads to bone tissue and decreased stress mainly under oblique loads. Oblique loading was more detrimental to distribution stresses than axial loading. © 2013.

  9. Distribution Methods and End-Uses For Hardwood Face Veneer and Plywood Manufactured In Michigan and Wisconsin In 1964

    Treesearch

    Lewis T. Hendrics

    1966-01-01

    A number of distribution methods are currently used to market a wide variety of products manufactured by the hardwood face veneer and plywood industry in Michigan and Wisconsin. Wall paneling, door skins, and kitchen cabinet stock are major products, but specialty lines such as curved and molded plywood components for furniture, shoe heels, and golf club heads are...

  10. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  11. Creep functions of dental ceramics measured in a beam-bending viscometer.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, Paul H; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2004-03-01

    To characterize the high temperature viscoelastic properties of several dental ceramics by the determination of creep functions based on mid-span deflections measured in a beam-bending viscometer (BBV). Six groups of beam specimens (58 x 5.5 x 2.5 mm) were made from the following materials: (1) IPS Empress2 body--a glass veneer ceramic (E2V); (2) an experimental glass veneer (EXV); (3) Vita VMK 68 feldspathic body porcelain--a low-expansion body porcelain (VB); (4) Will-Ceram feldspathic body porcelain--a high-expansion body porcelain (WCB); (5) Vita feldspathic opaque porcelain--a medium-expansion opaque porcelain (VO); and (6) Will-Ceram feldspathic opaque porcelain--a high-expansion opaque porcelain (WCO). Midpoint deflections for each specimen were measured in a BBV under isothermal conditions at furnace temperatures ranging from 450 to 675 degrees C. Non-linear regression and linear regression analyses were used to determine creep functions and shear viscosities, respectively, for each material at each temperature. The shear viscosities of each group of dental ceramics exhibited bilinear Arrhenius behavior with the slope ratios (x) ranging from 0.19 for WCB to 0.71 for EXV. At the higher temperature ranges, activation energies ranged from 363 kJ/mol for VO to 386 kJ/mol for E2V. The viscoelastic properties of dental ceramics at high temperatures are important factors in understanding how residual stresses develop in all-ceramic and metal-ceramic dental restorations.

  12. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of Ceramic Veneer with three different incisal design preparations - An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jankar, Ajit S; Kale, Yogesh; Kangane, Suresh; Ambekar, Anand; Sinha, Manish; Chaware, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ceramic veneer fracture has occurred mainly at the incisal edge of the veneer because of greater stress. This study compares and evaluates the fracture resistance ceramic veneers with three different incisal preparations. Materials & Methods: 15 human permanent maxillary central incisor extracted were selected which were divided into three groups of 5 each having a different Incial design Preparation. Group 1: No Incisal reduction with facio- incisal bevel, Group 2 : 1 mm incisal reduction with butt joint, Group 3 : 1 mm incisal reduction with 1 mm height of Palatal chamfer. It was found that Group III had greater fracture resistance as compared to Group I and Group II. Group I had least fracture resistance as compared to Group II and III. Group II had greater fracture resistance as compared to Group I but less than Group III. Results: Ceramic veneer with 1mm incisal reduction with 1mm height of palatal chamfer showed highest fracture resistance as compared to 1mm incisal reduction with butt joint and no incisal reduction with facial-incisal bevel, in order to achieve better esthetic and functional results. Conclusion: The palatal chamfer margin results in preservation of some peripheral enamel layer, which eliminates the micro leakage at the palatal margin-restoration interface and also effectively counteracting shear stress. This design provides a definite seat for cementation. How to cite the article: Jankar AS, Kale Y, Kangane S, Ambekar A, Sinha M, Chaware S. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of Ceramic Veneer with three different incisal design preparations - An In-vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):48-54. PMID:24653603

  13. The effect of graded glass-zirconia structure on the bond between core and veneer in layered zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruoyu; Sun, Ting; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Yaokun; Jiang, Danyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a graded glass-zirconia structure can strengthen the core-veneer bond in layered zirconia materials. A graded glass-zirconia structure was fabricated by infiltrating glass compositions developed in our laboratory into a presintered yttria tetrahedral zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) substrate by the action of capillary forces. The wettability of the infiltrated glass and Y-TZP substrate was investigated by the sessile drop technique. The microstructures of the graded glass-zirconia structure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase structure characterization in the graded glass-zirconia structure were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The elastic modulus and hardness of the graded glass-zirconia structure were evaluated from nanoindentations. Further, the shear bond strength (SBS) of the graded glass-zirconia structure and veneering porcelain was also evaluated. SEM images confirmed the formation of the graded glass-zirconia structure. Glass frits wet the Y-TZP substrate at 1200 °C with a contact angle of 43.2°. Only a small amount of t-m transformation was observed in as-infiltrated Y-TZP specimens. Nanoindentation studies of the glass-zirconia graded structure showed that the elastic modulus and hardness of the surface glass layer were higher than those of the dense Y-TZP layer. The mean SBS values for the graded glass-zirconia structure and veneering porcelain (24.35 ± 0.40 MPa) were statistically higher than those of zirconia and veneering porcelain (9.22 ± 0.20 MPa) (P<0.05). A graded glass-zirconia structure can be fabricated by the glass infiltration/densification technique, and this structure exhibits a strong core-veneer bond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of residual stress, viscoelastic and thermodynamic parameters on apparent fracture toughness of dental bilayer ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskonak, Burak

    Bilayer dental ceramic composites used for fixed partial dentures are becoming more widely used in dental practices because of their biocompatibility, aesthetic properties, and chemical durability. However, large statistical variations in the strength of ceramics are associated with the structural flaws as a result of processing and complex stress states within the surfaces of the materials because of thermal properties of each layer. In addition, partial delaminations of the veneer layer and connector fractures of bilayer ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have been observed in a clinical study which is a part of this dissertation. Analysis of fracture surfaces of failed FPDs reveals that such fractures of the veneering ceramic are most likely caused by lateral crack growth. Global residual stresses associated with the coefficient of thermal expansion differences between core and veneering ceramics can cause lateral crack initiation. Also, rapid cooling of bilayer ceramics from the sintering temperature of the glass veneer may not allow the interfacial stresses in the viscoelastic glass to relax to equilibrium values. This can further contribute to the propagation of lateral cracks. Furthermore, local residual stresses that develop in the plastic deformation zone below sharp contact areas on the occlusal surface are another contributor to lateral crack growth. Superposition of global residual stresses and a Boussinesq stress field can incrementally increase the possibility of lateral crack growth. The long-range goals of this study are to critically analyze the lateral crack growth mechanisms associated with residual stresses, to modify residual tensile stress distributions by controlled heat treatment, and to minimize the probability of veneering ceramic fractures. Four approaches were used to accomplish these goals: (1) clinical evaluation of a bilayer ceramic fixed partial denture system; (2) fracture surface analysis of clinically failed FPDs; (3

  15. Retention strength between veneering resin composites and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloy.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kohji; Taira, Yohsuke; Sumi, Tadateru; Sawase, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retention strength between a resin composite veneering material and three types of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy substrates. Co-Cr alloy specimens with 81 retention devices (LSR), with 144 retention devices (LDR), and without retention device (LN) were fabricated using a laser-sintering system. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, conditioned with a primer [Alloy primer (AP) or M.L. primer (ML)], and veneered with a light-polymerized resin composite (Gradia). Three control groups (LSR-N, LDR-N, and LN-N) without primer were also prepared. After 20,000 thermocycles in 4 and 60 °C water, tensile retention strengths were determined using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey-Kramer HSD test (α = 0.05, n = 8). The highest retention strengths were obtained in LSR-AP (28.3 MPa), LSR-ML (23.3 MPa), LDR-AP (26.9 MPa), and LDR-ML (27.8 MPa), and these values were not significantly different. In the absence of a retention device, the retention strengths were significantly different in the following order: LN-N (0.1 MPa) < LN-ML (12.4 MPa) < LN-AP (20.2 MPa). The specimens without primer were significantly different in the following order: LN-N (0.1 MPa) < LSR-N (15.4 MPa), LDR-N (17.1 MPa). No significant difference was found between the numbers of retention devices, which were 81 and 144. In conclusion, the combined use of the primers and the retention devices is recommended when the laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy is veneered with the resin composite materials to maximize the retention strength.

  16. Ceramic (Feldspathic & IPS Empress II) vs. laboratory composite (Gradia) veneers; a comparison between their shear bond strength to enamel; an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nikzad, S; Azari, Abbas; Dehgan, S

    2010-07-01

    Patient demand for aesthetic dentistry is steadily growing. Laminates and free metal restorations have evolved in an attempt to overcome the invasiveness nature of full veneer restorations. Although many different materials have been used for making these restorations, there is no single material that fits best for all purposes. Two groups of ceramic material (Feldspathic and IPS Empress II) and one group of laboratory composite (Gradia) discs (10 discs in each group; 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) were prepared according to the manufacturer's instruction. The surface of ceramic discs were etched and silanized. In Gradia group, liquid primer was applied on composite surfaces. Thirty freshly extracted sound human molars and premolars were randomly divided into three groups. The enamel surface of each tooth was slightly flattened (0.3 mm) on the buccal or lingual side and then primed and cemented to the prepared discs with the aid of a dental surveyor. The finishing specimens were thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 2500 cycles and then prepared for shear bond strength testing. The resulting data were analyzed by one-way anova and Tukey HSD test. The fractured surfaces of each specimen were inspected by means of stereomicroscope and SEM. There is significant difference between the bond strength of materials tested. The mean bond strengths obtained with Feldspathic ceramic, IPS Empress II and Gradia were 33.10 +/- 4.31 MPa, 26.04 +/- 7.61 MPa and 14.42 +/- 5.82 MPa, respectively. The fracture pattern was mainly mixed for ceramic groups. More scientific evidence needed for standardization of bonding protocols.

  17. Polyethylene ribbon and fixed orthodontic retention and porcelain veneers: solving an esthetic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Iniguez, I; Strassler, H E

    1998-01-01

    The patient, a 58-year-old woman, had started orthodontic treatment to correct spacing between the maxillary anterior teeth 6 year prior to presentation with a chief complaint of tooth discoloration and spacing. The treatment had consisted of the use of a removable appliance to retract the maxillary anterior teeth. The patient continued to wear the appliance sporadically. When she presented, the maxillary incisors were in primary occlusal trauma with Grade 2 mobility. The patient discontinued wearing the appliance. The periodontal condition was addressed with initial therapy. As part of the treatment plan to stabilize the maxillary anterior teeth and provide the patient with an esthetic result, it was decided to do a limited occlusal adjustment of the maxillary anterior teeth to control fremitus, and to place a fixed, composite resin, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced splint, using a facial approach. The esthetic restoration of these teeth was accomplished with bonded porcelain veneers.

  18. Procedure for combining a facial porcelain veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface.

    PubMed

    Bishop, K; Priestley, D

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a procedure for making a crown that combines an all-porcelain facial veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface. The procedure combines both the conventional lost wax technique and the use of a refractory cast for firing porcelain. The crown retains the advantages of the traditional all-porcelain crown restoration but reduces the risk of damage to the opposing teeth associated with an all-ceramic occluding surface. Furthermore, compared with porcelain, the metal surface allows more control over the occlusal and lingual contours during construction of the crown. Although the construction of the anterior crown is described, the procedure is equally applicable to posterior full-coverage restorations.

  19. The effect of asbestos-alternatives on the accuracy of cast veneer crowns.

    PubMed

    Yli-Urpo, A; Oilo, G; Syverud, M

    1982-01-01

    The effect of three different lining materials on the investment expansion during the casting procedure, was compared. The accuracy of the castings was assessed by measuring slits at the gingival shoulder of a cast veneer crown. The liners were made of asbestosos, paper and a glassfiber material. They were used with a gypsum bonded and a phosphate bonded investment material using a regular type III and a high-fusing alloy. The glass-fiber material seemed to give a good and reproducible accuracy with both investments. The effect of this liner seemed to be comparable or better than that of the conventional asbest material. The paper liner sometimes allowed a sufficient expansion, but with varying results. Additional problems were connected to this material as it was burnt to ash during the mould heating procedure.

  20. Evidence for an extracellular zinc-veneer in rodent brains from experiments with Zn-ionophores and ZnT3 knockouts.

    PubMed

    Nydegger, Irma; Rumschik, Sean M; Zhao, Jinfu; Kay, Alan R

    2012-10-17

    Ionic zinc is found at a high concentration in some glutamatergic vesicles of the mammalian brain. Ionic zinc is also found chelated to macromolecules in the extracellular space, constituting what has been called the "zinc veneer". In this communication we show that the zinc ionophore, pyrithione, can be used to demonstrate the presence of the veneer. Application of pyrithione without added ionic zinc to rodent hippocampal slices mobilizes extracellular zinc, which can be detected intracellularly by the zinc probe FluoZin-3. In addition, we show that ZnT3 null mice, which lack the transporter responsible for stocking synaptic vesicles, nevertheless do have a zinc veneer, albeit diminished compared to wild type animals. The presence of the zinc veneer in ZnT3 null mice may account for the absence of any marked deficit in these animals.

  1. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  2. Effect of provisional restorations on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Aykent, F; Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Yucel, M T

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the different provisional restorations cementation techniques on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs). Thirty-six extracted human central incisors were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction, and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin. Standardized PLV preparations were carried out on labial surfaces of the teeth. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 12 each. In group 1, provisional restorations were cemented with eugenol-free cement. In group 2, prepared teeth surfaces were first coated with a desensitizing agent then provisional restorations were cemented with resin cement. In group 3, provisional restorations were not fabricated to serve as control. After specimens were stored in distilled water for 2 weeks, provisional restorations were removed and final IPS Empress 2 ceramic veneers were bonded with a dual-curing resin. Two microtensile samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microtensile testing and failure values were recorded. The data were analysed by one-way anova and Tukey HSD tests. The PLVs, placed on the tooth surface that had received a dentine desensitizer and provisional restorations luted with resin cement (group 2), showed the lowest bond strength in all test groups. But no statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of PLVs in control group (no provisional restorations) and group 1 (provisional restorations cemented with eugenol-free cement before final cementations). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of this study also showed that the bonding to enamel surface was better in control group and group 1 than group 2.

  3. Three years in vivo wear: core-ceramic, veneers, and enamel antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F.; Rose, William F.; Barrett, Allyson A.; Oliveira, Erica R.; Yang, Mark C.K.; Clark, Arthur E.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Test the hypotheses that there are equivalent wear rates for enamel-versus-enamel and ceramic-versus-enamel, analyzing the in vivo wear of crown ceramics, their natural enamel antagonists, and the corresponding two contralateral teeth; and, that bite force does not correlate with the wear. Methods A controlled, clinical trial was conducted involving patients needing full coverage crowns opposing enamel antagonists. Bite forces were measured using a bilateral gnathodynamometer. Single-unit restorations of metal/ceramic (Argedent 62, Argen Corp/IPS d.SIGN veneer); or, core-ceramic/veneer from either, Empress2/Eris, or e.maxPress core/e.maxCeram glaze (ceramics: Ivoclar Vivadent, USA) were randomly assigned, fabricated and cemented. Impressions were made of the ceramic crowns, as well as each maxillary and mandibular quadrant at one week (baseline) and one, two and three years. Resulting models were scanned (3D laser scanner). Maximum wear was calculated by superimposing baseline with annual images. Results There were a total of thirty-six crowns required for thirty-one patients. Each restoration had three associated enamel teeth; 1) crown, 2) antagonist, 3) contralateral, and 4) contralateral-antagonist. SAS PROC MIXED (α=0.05) indicated no statistical significance for mean maximum wear among crown ceramics, enamel antagonists and contralaterals. However, enamel wear was statistically significant in relation to intraoral location (p=0.04) and among years (p<0.02). Analyzed alone, the enamel contralateral-antagonist exhibited significantly greater wear (p<0.001). Considering all wear sites, there was no correlation with bite force (p=0.15). Significance The ceramics and their antagonists exhibited in vivo wear rates within the range of normal enamel. Future studies should examine the wear implications of the contralateral-antagonist enamel. PMID:22410113

  4. Effect of resin shades on opacity of ceramic veneers and polymerization efficiency through ceramics.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Elif; Chiang, Yu-Chih; Coşgun, Erdal; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different resin cement shades on the opacity and color difference of ceramics and to determine the polymerization efficiency of the resin cement at different shades after curing through ceramics. Two different ceramics (IPS e.max Press and IPS Empress(®)CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were used for this study. A light-cured veneer luting resin (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent) in four different shades of HV+1, HV+3, LV-1, and LV-3 was used for the colorimetric measurements. The color and spectral reflectance of the ceramics were measured according to the CIELab color scale relative to the standard illuminant D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer (ColorEye7000A, USA). Color differences (ΔE values) and the contrast ratios (CR) of the different groups of samples were calculated. In order to analyse the polymerization efficiency of the resin cements, the micromechanical properties of the resins were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests (SPSS 18.0). The one-way ANOVA test showed that the values of ΔE and CR of the different specimen groups were significantly different (p<0.05). Group 1 (20.7 ± 0.5) (IPS-CAD without resin cement) exhibited the highest and group 10 (14.8 ± 0.5) (e.max:HV+3) exhibited the lowest ΔE value. Significant differences in the micromechanical properties were identified among the tested resin cements in different shades (p<0.05). Resin cement shade is an important factor for the opacity of a restoration. Furthermore, the resin shade affects the micromechanical properties of the underlying resin cement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of spark erosion on the fit of screw-retained Co-Cr fixed complete denture frameworks veneered with different materials.

    PubMed

    Presotto, Anna Gabriella Camacho; Oliveira, Luciana Valadares; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz

    2017-09-29

    Spark erosion is a fit corrective technology that can be used even after the veneering material has been applied. The framework does not require sectioning, thus preserving its mechanical resistance. However, the spark erosion effect on veneered Co-Cr fixed complete denture (FCD) frameworks has not been investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether spark erosion is effective in improving marginal fit on screw-retained Co-Cr FCD frameworks veneered with different materials. A comparison between ceramic applications and simulated ceramic firing cycles was also investigated. Forty FCD frameworks were fabricated with a Co-Cr alloy. Four groups (n=10) were obtained according to the veneer material used on frameworks: HR (heat-polymerized resin); LR (light-polymerized resin); C (ceramic); and SC (simulated ceramic firing cycle). The spark erosion process was conducted for all groups. The marginal fit was analyzed according to the single-screw test protocol, and the measurements were performed at 3 evaluation times: initial, after veneer material application, and after spark erosion process. The results were submitted to a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant differences test (α=.05). Poorer marginal fit (in micrometers) was noted after veneer material application, where the HR and C groups presented the worst values (HR: 170; LR: 72; C: 165; SC: 86; P<.05). The spark erosion process was effective in improving the fit for all groups (HR: 109; LR: 52; C: 110; SC: 60; P<.05). Spark erosion improved the fit of Co-Cr FCD frameworks veneered with different materials. An actual ceramic application should be used to assess distortions generated by veneer material application instead of using only simulated ceramic firing cycles. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DENTAL CARIES

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, George O.

    1951-01-01

    The most generally accepted theory as to the cause of dental caries is that certain bacteria in the mouth, in the presence of fermentable sugars, cause the formation of acids which in turn decalcify teeth. Physicians may help reduce the incidence of caries by recommending elimination of refined sugars from the diet, or at least control of the amount consumed. Cleaning the teeth with a well designed tooth brush after each meal will to a certain extent mechanically remove the fermentable sugar and debris from the teeth. One step further in oral hygiene that may be beneficial is to use a dentifrice with 5 per cent dibasic ammonium phosphate and 3 per cent urea to reduce the formation of acid. Anything that will increase salivation will aid in buffering any acids that may be present. A 2 per cent solution of sodium fluoride applied to the thoroughly dried “intact” enamel surface may prevent caries. Sodium fluoride added to drinking water to a concentration of 1 part per million is utilized by the body in formation of an enamel that is particularly resistant to caries. PMID:14801729

  7. [Comparison of the shear bond strength by using nano silica sol to zirconia basement and veneer porcelain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-qian; Zhang, Da-feng; Zhen, Tie-li; Yang, Jing-yuan; Lin, Ting-ting; Ma, Jian-feng

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using sol gel technique to produce thin layer nano silicon dioxide on zirconia ceramic surface and the effect of improving shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer porcelain. The presintered zirconia specimen was cut into a rectangle block piece (15 mm×10 mm×2.5 mm), a total of 40 pieces were obtained and divided into 4 groups, each group had 10 pieces. Four different treatments were used in each group respectively. Pieces in group A (control group) were only sintered at 1450°C to crystallization; pieces in group B underwent 30% nano silica sol infiltration first and then were sintered at 1450°C to crystallization; piece in group C underwent crystallization first at 1450°C, then 30% nano silica sol infiltration and were sintered at 1450°C again; pieces in group D was coated by nano silica sol and then sintered at 1450°C to crystallization; ten rectangle block pieces (12 mm×8 mm×2 mm) in group E were made. Cylinder veneers 5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height were produced in each group and the shear bond strength was tested. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 19.0 software package. The shear bond strength of the 5 group specimens were: (28.12±2.95) MPa in group A, (31.09±3.94) MPa in group B, (25.60±2.45) MPa in group C, (31.75±4.90) MPa in group D, (28.67±3.95) MPa in group E, respectively. Significant differences existed between the 5 groups, and group C had significant difference compared with group B and D. CONCLUSIONS:① Use of nano silicon sol gel on presintered zirconia surface to make thin layer of nano silicon dioxide can improve the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer; ②Using nano silicon sol gel on crystallization zirconia surface to make thin layer of nano silicon dioxide will decrease the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer; ③ Zirconia veneer bilayer ceramic has the same shear bond strength with porcelain fused to Ni Cr alloy; ④Use of sol gel technique to

  8. Effect of real time aging and cyclic fatigue on fused and cemented machined veneers to Y-TZP zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhaddad, Abdulrahman Jafar M.

    Objectives: The objectives of this study was to determine the differences in failure load between cemented and fused machined veneers to zirconia while observing the effects of real time aging on failure load between cemented and fused machined veneers to zirconia. The study was to examine the differences in aging and fatigue resistance amongst a machined glass-ceramic veneer and a machined feldspathic porcelain veneer. Materials & Methods: VITA In Ceram YZ zirconia blocks were used as a substructure framework for the three unit fixed partial denture. The veneering material was either milled IPS e.max CAD (glass-ceramic) or milled VITABLOCS Triluxe Forte (feldspathic porcelain). The types of linking material between the substructures and veneering material were either fusing or cementation. Observations were compared between aged and non-aged specimens divided into two main groups; (a) non-aged group (b) aged for three years at room temperature. Each group has two subgroups; fused and cemented which are further divided into static and cyclic fatigue at 20K, 60K and 80K. Specimens were subjected to load to failure test using universal test machine. 40% of failure load was calculated for the cyclic fatigue subgroups. In order to examine the difference in failure load between the static and fatigued specimens, the Tukey-Kramer HSD test was used to analyze the data. Results and Conclusions: The VITABLOCS Triluxe Forte (feldspathic porcelain) fused to YZ zirconia showed significantly lower failure load values compared to all the other groups (p<0.05). The non-aged VITABLOCS Triluxe Forte cemented to YZ zirconia (static and cyclic) showed significantly higher load to failure than the aged cemented Triluxe fatigued groups (p<0.05). There is no significant difference in failure load between IPS e.max CAD fused and IPS e.max CAD cemented to YZ zirconia framework (p>0.05). The aged IPS e.max CAD fatigued (20K, 60K and 80K cycles) cemented to YZ zirconia showed lower

  9. Influence of preparation design and existing condition of tooth structure on load to failure of ceramic laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kyle K; Chiayabutr, Yada; Phillips, Keith M; Kois, John C

    2011-06-01

    Although investigators have evaluated the effect of ceramic veneer preparation design, limited information is available regarding preparation design in association with the condition of existing tooth structure. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of preparation design and the amount of existing tooth structure on the fracture resistance of pressable ceramic laminate veneers. Thirty-two extracted human maxillary central incisors were allocated into 4 groups (n=8) to test for 2 variables: (1) the preparation design (a 2 mm incisal reduction shoulder finish line with or without palatal chamfer) and (2) the existing amount of tooth structure (non-worn tooth or worn tooth). Measurement of the remaining enamel thickness on the inciso-occlusal surface was made after the tooth was prepared. All prepared teeth were restored with pressable ceramic (IPS Empress) veneers, and the veneers were luted with resin cement (Rely-X Veneer). These luted specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine, in the compression mode, with a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD multiple comparison test (α=.05) Preparation design and the amount of existing tooth structure had a significant effect on the load to failure value (P<.001); however, the interaction between preparation design and existing amount of tooth structure was not significant (P=.702). Mean (SD) load to failure values were as follows: a preparation design with a palatal chamfer margin with a non-worn tooth (166.67 N (28.89)) revealed a significantly higher failure load than the group with a shoulder finish line alone (131.84 N (18.88)) (P<.01). The preparation design with a palatal chamfer margin for worn teeth (119.56 N (23.88)) revealed a significantly higher failure load than a shoulder finish line design alone (90.56 N (9.32)) (P<.05). The preparation design with a shoulder finish line for worn teeth had a significantly lower

  10. Dental Exam for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and thumb sucking Toddlers, school-age children and adolescents During each regular checkup, the dentist or hygienist ... dental hygienist about proper oral health care for adolescents. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/ ...

  11. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powdered alloy composed of silver, tin, and copper. Approximately 50% of dental amalgam is elemental mercury ... to react with and bind together the silver/copper/tin alloy particles to form an amalgam. Dental ...

  12. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  13. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... centers, and dental providers in the community to foster more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at highest risk of cavities, including those covered ...

  14. AUTHORITARIANISM AND DENTAL CARIES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in particular. If so, dental decay among nonauthoritarians might well progress further than among authoritarians. To determine whether or not there...is any relationship between dental decay and authoritarianism is the purpose of the present study. (Author)

  15. Dental Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview and documents for Dental Office Category regulation (40 CFR Part 441); comprising pretreatment standards for discharges of dental amalgam pollutants, including mercury, into publicly owned treatment works (POTWs).

  16. Dental education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Bird, William F

    2007-12-01

    There was only one dental school in Malaysia until 1997 but five new schools have been established since 1998. This review provides information about dental education in Malaysia including; the history of dental education, the current dental school system and curriculum, and dental licensure. There are four public and two private dental schools in Malaysia. High school graduates are required to take the nationwide matriculation entrance examination or the Higher School Certificate (HSC) to apply for a dental degree programme. A five-year dental programme leads to the BDS or the DDS degree. National or state examinations are not required to practise dentistry. Currently, there are approximately 2,500 dentists, with a ratio of 1 dentist for every 10,000 people.

  17. Five-year clinical evaluation of 300 teeth restored with porcelain laminate veneers using total-etch and a modified self-etch adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Aykor, Arzu; Ozel, Emre

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers luted with hybrid composite in combination with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems. The study was performed on 30 patients ranging in age between 28 and 54 years. Ten veneers were performed per patient in the maxillary arch. In Group 1, 150 teeth were treated with porcelain veneers, using a total-etch adhesive system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus, 3M ESPE). In Group 2, 150 teeth were bonded with a self-etch adhesive system (AdheSE, Ivoclar-Vivadent). All the veneers were luted with a light-cured hybrid composite (Z100, 3M ESPE). The patients were recalled after 1, 2 and 5 years. Modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were utilized to evaluate the porcelain laminate veneers in terms of marginal adaptation, cavo-surface marginal discoloration, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity, satisfaction with restoration shade and gingival tissue response. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the total-etch and self-etch groups in terms of USPHS criteria (p > 0.05). Porcelain veneers exhibited successful clinical performance with both total-etch and two-step self-etch adhesives at the end of five-years.

  18. Dental laser technology.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2008-10-01

    Dental technology is rapidly affecting the treatment options available to patients. Dental lasers are an innovative technology for both hard- and soft-tissue treatment applications. The ability to recontour soft tissues efficiently and predictably with immediate hemostatsis and minimal postoperative sequelae is of value to both the dentist and the patient. This article reviews the principles of dental lasers, criteria to consider when selecting a dental laser, and some of their clinical applications.

  19. Dental Manpower Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…

  20. Dental Assisting Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Sandra J.

    Compiled to introduce the dental assisting student to various techniques used in the dental office and to present theoretical information essential for the student's professional development, this laboratory guide consists of three units of instruction. The first unit is an introduction to dental assisting and contains five topics of study. The…

  1. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  2. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  3. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  4. Dental transfigurements in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    2001-07-28

    Dental transfigurement, formerly termed dental mutilation, has been practised by many societies worldwide. This article gives many of the forms that have been attributed to the indigenes of the island of Borneo. The method has been performed by review of anthropological books, sparse dental references, Borneo research literature, and popular writing.

  5. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  6. Perspectives from Dental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the Institute of Medicine's 1995 report concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It examines whether real reform is occurring at the National Institute of Dental Research, within the academic dental community, and within the practicing profession. It concludes that very little…

  7. In vivo biofilm formation on different dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Felicia; Grade, Sebastian; Kohorst, Philipp; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the formation of oral biofilm on various dental ceramics in vivo. Five different ceramic materials were included: a veneering glass- ceramic, a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, a yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP), a hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Y-TZP ceramic, and an HIP Y-TZP ceramic with 25% alumina. Test specimens were attached to individually designed acrylic appliances; five volunteers wore these appliances for 24 hours in the maxillary arch. After intraoral exposure, the samples were removed from the appliances and the adhering biofilms vitally stained. Then, the two-dimensional surface coating and thickness of the adhering biofilm were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA with the level of significance set at .05. Significant differences (P < .001) in the bacterial surface coating and in the thickness of the biofilm were found between the various ceramic materials. The lowest surface coating (19.0%) and biofilm thickness (1.9 Μm) were determined on the HIP Y-TZP ceramic; the highest mean values were identified with the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (46.8%, 12.6 Μm). Biofilm formation on various types of dental ceramics differed significantly; in particular, zirconia exhibited low plaque accumulation. In addition to its high strength, low plaque accumulation makes zirconia a promising material for various indications (including implant abutments and telescopic crowns) that previously were met only with metal-based materials.

  8. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  9. Influences of multiple firings and aging on surface roughness, strength and hardness of veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuehua; Luo, Huinan; Bai, Yang; Tang, Hui; Nakamura, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of multiple firings and aging on surface roughness, strength, and hardness of veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks. Five different veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks were used: Vintage ZR (ZR), Cerabien ZR (CZR), VitaVM9 (VM9), Cercon ceram KISS (KISS), and IPS e.max ceram (e.max). Specimens were fired 2 or 10 times in order to accelerate aging. Surface roughness was evaluated using laser profilometry. Flexural strength and Vickers hardness were also measured. Surface topography was observed using scanning electron microscopy. After accelerated aging, the surface roughness of all specimens fired 10 times was significantly lower than that of the same specimens fired 2 times (P=0.000). Except for VM9, the flexural strength of all specimens fired 10 times was greater than that of the same specimens fired 2 times, and the differences were significant for ZR and CZR (P<0.01). The flexural strength of VM9 fired 10 times was significantly lower than that of VM9 fired 2 times (P=0.034). The Vickers hardness of ZR and VM9 fired 10 times was significantly higher than that of the same specimens fired 2 times (P<0.05), but that of KISS fired 10 times was significantly lower than that of KISS fired 2 times (P=0.000). Multiple firings had a positive effect on the surface roughness of all aged veneering ceramics used for zirconia restorations and on the strength and hardness of many aged veneering ceramics used for zirconia restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shear Bond Strength between Fiber-Reinforced Composite and Veneering Resin Composites with Various Adhesive Resin Systems.

    PubMed

    AlJehani, Yousef A; Baskaradoss, Jagan K; Geevarghese, Amrita; AlShehry, Marey A; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the shear bond strength of different laboratory resin composites bonded to a fiber-reinforced composite substrate with some intermediate adhesive resins. Mounted test specimens of a bidirectional continuous fiber-reinforced substrate (StickNet) were randomly assigned to three equal groups. Three types of commercially available veneering resin composites - BelleGlass®, Sinfony®, and GC Gradia® were bonded to these specimens using four different adhesive resins. Half the specimens per group were stored for 24 hours; the remaining were stored for 30 days. There were 10 specimens in the test group (n). The shear bond strengths were calculated and expressed in MPa. Data were analyzed statistically, and variations in bond strength within each group were additionally evaluated by calculating the Weibull modulus. Shear bond values of those composites are influenced by the different bonding resins and different indirect composites. There was a significant difference in the shear bond strengths using different types of adhesive resins (p = 0.02) and using different veneering composites (p < 0.01). Belle-Glass® had the highest mean shear bond strength when bonded to StickNet substrate using both Prime & Bond NT and OptiBond Solo Plus. Sinfony® composite resin exhibited the lowest shear bond strength values when used with the same adhesive resins. The adhesive mode of failure was higher than cohesive with all laboratory composite resins bonded to the StickNet substructure at both storage times. Water storage had a tendency to lower the bond strengths of all laboratory composites, although the statistical differences were not significant. Within the limitations of this study, it was found that bonding of the veneering composite to bidirectional continuous fiber-reinforced substrate is influenced by the brand of the adhesive resin and veneering composite. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Ratios of S, Se and Te in the silicate Earth require a volatile-rich late veneer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaicong; Becker, Harry

    2013-07-18

    The excess of highly siderophile (iron-loving) elements (HSEs) and the chondritic ratios of most HSEs in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) may reflect the accretion of a chondritic 'late veneer' of about 0.5 per cent of Earth's mass after core formation. The amount of volatiles contained in the late veneer is a key constraint on the budget and the origin of the volatiles in Earth. At high pressures and temperatures, the moderately volatile chalcogen elements sulphur (S), selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te) are moderately to highly siderophile; thus, if depleted by core formation their mantle abundances should reflect the volatile composition of the late veneer. Here we report ratios and abundances of S, Se and Te in the mantle determined from new isotope dilution data for post-Archaean mantle peridotites. The mean S/Se and Se/Te ratios of mantle lherzolites overlap with CI (Ivuna-type) carbonaceous chondrite values. The Se/Te ratios of ordinary and enstatite chondrites are significantly different. The chalcogen/HSE ratio of the BSE is similar to that of CM (Mighei-type) carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the view that the HSE signature of the BSE reflects a predominance of slightly volatile-depleted, carbonaceous-chondrite-like material, possibly with a minor proportion of non-chondritic material. Depending on the estimates for the abundances of water and carbon in the BSE, the late veneer may have supplied 20 to 100 per cent of the budget of hydrogen and carbon in the BSE.

  12. Investigation of the time-dependent wear behavior of veneering ceramic in porcelain fused to metal crowns during chewing simulations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiawen; Tian, Beimin; Wei, Ran; Wang, Weiguo; Zhang, Hongyun; Wu, Xiaohong; He, Lin; Zhang, Shaofeng

    2014-12-01

    The excessive abrasion of occlusal surfaces in ceramic crowns limits the service life of restorations and their clinical results. However, little is known about the time-dependent wear behavior of ceramic restorations during the chewing process. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the dynamic evolution of the wear behavior of veneering porcelain in PFM crowns as wear progressed, as tested in a chewing simulator. Twenty anatomical metal-ceramic crowns were prepared using Ceramco III as the veneering porcelain. Stainless steel balls served as antagonists. The specimens were dynamically loaded in a chewing simulator with 350N up to 2.4×10(6) loading cycles, with additional thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C. During the testing, several checkpoints were applied to measure the substance loss of the crowns' occlusal surfaces and to evaluate the microstructure of the worn areas. After 2.4×10(6) cycles, the entire wear process of the veneering porcelain in the PFM crowns revealed three wear stages (running-in, steady and severe wear stages). The occlusal surfaces showed traces of intensive wear on the worn areas during the running-in wear stage, and they exhibited the propagation of cracks in the subsurface during steady wear stage. When the severe wear stage was reached, the cracks penetrated the ceramic layer, causing the separation of porcelain pieces. It also exhibited a good correlation among the microstructure, the wear loss and the wear rate of worn ceramic restorations. The results suggest that under the conditions of simulated masticatory movement, the wear performance of the veneering porcelain in PFM crowns indicates the apparent similarity of the tribological characteristics of the traditional mechanical system. Additionally, the evaluation of the wear behavior of ceramic restorations should be based on these three wear stages.

  13. The impact of in vitro aging on the mechanical and optical properties of indirect veneering composite resins.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Egli, Roger; Roos, Malgorzata; Ozcan, Mutlu; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2011-12-01

    Flexural strength, hardness, surface roughness, discoloration, and abrasion resistance are important properties of veneering composite resins. Recently introduced veneering resins are purported to have enhanced mechanical properties due to their composition, but their long-term durability is not known. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of aging on 3 different veneering composite resins. Indirect composite resins, GC Gradia, VITA VM LC, and Sinfony were prepared for flexural strength (n=165 per group), Martens hardness (n=10), surface roughness (n=10), discoloration measurement (n=30), and abrasion resistance (n=6) testing. After initial flexural strength measurement, the remaining specimens were stored in water or subjected to thermocycling for 1, 7, 28, 90, or 180 days, and hardness and surface roughness (water stored: n=5 and thermocycling: n=5) were tested. The discoloration specimens were divided into 3 groups: coffee, black tea, and red wine; n=10), and age and discoloration were measured. Abrasion resistance was determined after 120,000, 240,000, 640,000, and 1,200,000 mechanical thermocycling loading. One-way ANOVA was used, followed by a post hoc Scheffé test and t test. The longitudinal observations were analyzed by using linear mixed models (α=.05). When considering all 5 of the properties tested, Sinfony demonstrated the best results, followed by GC Gradia and VITA VM LC. The veneering composite resin, Sinfony, showed the most stable properties. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An in vitro radiographic analysis of the density of dental luting cements as measured by CCD-based digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Jevremovic, Danimir; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Obradovic-Djuricic, Kosovka

    2012-05-01

    According to the ISO, the radiopacity of luting cements should be equal to or greater than that of aluminum. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the radiopacity of 13 commercially available dental luting cements and compare them with human enamel and dentin. Five classes of luting cements were evaluated: zinc phosphate (Cegal N and Harvard Zinc Phosphate), zinc polycarboxylate (Harvard Polycarboxylate and Hoffmann's Carboxylate), glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easymix, Ketac Cem Radiopaque, and Fuji I), resin-modified glass ionomer (Rely X Luting), and resin cements (Multilink Automix, Variolink II, Speed CEM, Rely X Unicem Automix, and three shades of Variolink Veneer). Tooth slices served as controls. Five specimens of each material measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick were prepared and radiographed alongside tooth slices and an aluminum stepwedge using a Trophy RVG sensor. The radiopacity values were expressed in mm Al and analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey tests (P < .05). All the cements examined except Variolink Veneer had significantly higher radiopacities than that of dentin. Rely X Unicem Automix, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements demonstrated radiopacities that were not significantly different with respect to enamel. Zinc phosphate, zinc polycarboxylate, and three of the resin cements presented radiopacity values that were significantly greater than that of enamel. Almost all the investigated materials presented an acceptable radiopacity. Radiopacity of dental cements seems to depend more on the presence of elements with high atomic numbers than on the type of the material.

  15. Redistribution of Lunar Polar Water to Mid-latitudes and its Role in Forming an OH veneer - Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Hodges, R. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest that energization processes like ion sputtering and impact vaporization can eject/release polar water molecules residing within lunar cold trapped regions with sufficient velocity to allow their redistribution to mid-latitudes. We consider the possibility that these polar-ejected molecules can be an additional (but not dominant) contribution to the water/OH veneer observed as a 3 micron absorption feature at mid-latitudes by Chandrayaan-I, Cassini, and EPOXI. Taking the conservative case that polar water is ejected only from the floor of polar craters with an 0.1 % icy regolith then overall source rates are near 10(exp 18) H20s/s. This outflow amounts to approx 10(exp -7) kg/s of water to be ejected from each pole and is a water source rate that is 10(exp .5 lower than the overall exospheric source rate for all species. Hence, the out-flowing polar water is a perturbation in the overall exosphere composition & dynamics. This polar water 'fountain' model may not fully account for the relatively high concentrations in the mid-latitude water veneer observed in the IR (approx 10-1000 ppm). However, it may account for some part of the veneer. We note that the polar water fountain source rates scale linearly with ice concentration, and larger mass fractions of polar crater water should provide correspondingly larger fractions of water emission out of the poles which then 'spills' on to mid-latitude surfaces.

  16. The influence of various core designs on stress distribution in the veneered zirconia crown: a finite element analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seung-Ryong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yoo, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Se-Chul; Lee, Jai-Bong; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate various core designs on stress distribution within zirconia crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three-dimensional finite element models, representing mandibular molars, comprising a prepared tooth, cement layer, zirconia core, and veneer porcelain were designed by computer software. The shoulder (1 mm in width) variations in core were incremental increases of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm in proximal and lingual height, and buccal height respectively. To simulate masticatory force, loads of 280 N were applied from three directions (vertical, at a 45° angle, and horizontal). To simulate maximum bite force, a load of 700 N was applied vertically to the crowns. Maximum principal stress (MPS) was determined for each model, loading condition, and position. RESULTS In the maximum bite force simulation test, the MPSs on all crowns observed around the shoulder region and loading points. The compressive stresses were located in the shoulder region of the veneer-zirconia interface and at the occlusal region. In the test simulating masticatory force, the MPS was concentrated around the loading points, and the compressive stresses were located at the 3 mm height lingual shoulder region, when the load was applied horizontally. MPS increased in the shoulder region as the shoulder height increased. CONCLUSION This study suggested that reinforced shoulder play an essential role in the success of the zirconia restoration, and veneer fracture due to occlusal loading can be prevented by proper core design, such as shoulder. PMID:23755346

  17. The effect of melt infiltration of borosilicate glass on biaxial flexural strength of porcelain-veneered zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Kyu Ji; Song, Kyung Woo; Jung, Jong Hyun; Ahn, Hyo Jin; Park, Il Song; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Tae Sung

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of melt infiltration on the biaxial flexural strength of porcelain-bonded zirconia, borosilicate glasses were used in this study. Presintered yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) blocks were milled and used for disc specimens. Prior to veneering of porcelain, the infiltration of borosilicate glass on zirconia was performed at 1,100 °C for 1 h. After a biaxial flexural test with the crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/min, fractured surfaces and interfaces between zirconia and veneer porcelain were observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The fracture strength of sintered zirconia and veneer porcelain was significantly increased by the melt infiltration of borosilicate glass (P < 0.05). The melt infiltration process of borosilicate glass greatly improved the Weibull modulus of sintered zirconia. However, the Weibull modulus of porcelain increased slightly. The sintered zirconia group showed a smooth fracture surface containing many pores, but the glass-infiltrated zirconia group showed a rough fracture surface.

  18. Dental education in Peru.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Sato, Manuel; Rodiguez, Lyly; Sato, Doris; Bird, William F

    2008-09-01

    This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000.

  19. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  20. CO2 Laser Glazing Treatment of a Veneering Porcelain: Effects on Porosity, Translucency, and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Sgura, R; dos Reis, M C; Salvadori, M C; Hernandes, A C; Cesar, P F; Medeiros, I S

    2015-01-01

    This work tested CO2 laser as a glazing agent and investigated the effects of irradiation on the porosity, translucency, and mechanical properties of veneering porcelain. Sixty discs (diameter 3.5 × 2.0 mm) of veneering porcelain for Y-TZP frameworks (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik) were sintered and had one of their faces mirror polished. The specimens were divided into six groups (n=10/group) according to surface treatment, as follows: no treatment-control; auto-glaze in furnace following manufacturer's instructions (G); and CO2 laser (45 or 50 W/cm(2)) applied for four or five minutes (L45/4, L45/5, L50/4, L50/5). Optical microscopy (Shimadzu, 100×) was conducted and the images were analyzed with Image J software for the determination of the following porosity parameters: area fraction, average size, and Feret diameter. The translucency parameter studied was masking ability, determined by color difference (ΔE) over black and white backgrounds (CM3370d, Konica Minolta). Microhardness and fracture toughness (indentation fracture) were measured with a Vickers indenter (HMV, Shimadzu). Contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) (50 × 50 μm(2), Nanoscope IIIA, Veeco) was performed at the center of one sample from each group, except in the case of L45/5. With regard to porosity and translucency parameters, auto-glazed and laser-irradiated specimens presented statistical similarity. The area fraction of the surface pores ranged between 2.4% and 5.4% for irradiated specimens. Group L50/5 presented higher microhardness when compared to the G group. The higher (1.1) and lower (0.8) values for fracture toughness (MPa.m(1/2)) were found in laser-irradiated groups (L50/4 and L45/4, respectively). AFM performed after laser treatment revealed changes in porcelain surface profile at a submicrometric scale, with the presence of elongated peaks and deep valleys.

  1. Bond strength of veneer ceramic and zirconia cores with different surface modifications after microwave sintering

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of surface treatments on shear bond strength (SBS) between microwave and conventionally sintered zirconia core/veneers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 96 disc shaped Noritake Alliance zirconia specimens were fabricated using YenaDent CAM unit and were divided in 2 groups with respect to microwave or conventional methods (n=48/group). Surface roughness (Ra) evaluation was made with a profilometer on randomly selected microwave (n=10) and conventionally sintered (n=10) cores. Specimens were then assessed into 4 subgroups according to surface treatments applied (n=12/group). Groups for microwave (M) and conventionally (C) sintered core specimens were as follows; MC,CC: untreated (control group), M1,C1:Al2O3 sandblasting, M2,C2:liner, M3,C3:Al2O3 sandblasting followed by liner. Veneer ceramic was fired on zirconia cores and specimens were thermocycled (6000 cycles between 5°-55℃). All specimens were subjected to SBS test using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min, failure were evaluated under an optical microscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Shapiro Wilk, Levene, Post-hoc Tukey HSD and Student's t tests, Two-Way-Variance-Analysis and One-Way-Variance-Analysis (α=.05). RESULTS Conventionally sintered specimens (1.06 ± 0.32 µm) showed rougher surfaces compared to microwave sintered ones (0.76 ± 0.32 µm)(P=.046), however, no correlation was found between SBS and surface roughness (r=-0.109, P=.658). The statistical comparison of the shear bond strengths of C3 and C1 group (P=.015); CC and MC group (P=.004) and C3 and M3 group presented statistically higher (P=.005) values. While adhesive failure was not seen in any of the groups, cohesive and combined patterns were seen in all groups. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this in-vitro study, Al2O3- sandblasting followed by liner application on conventionally sintered zirconia cores may be preferred to enhance bond strength. PMID:24353890

  2. Colorimetric evaluation of the influence of five different restorative materials on the color of veneered densely sintered alumina.

    PubMed

    Koutayas, Spiridon-Oumvertos; Kakaboura, Aphrodite; Hussein, Amr; Strub, Jörg-Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Since the introduction of densely sintered alumina ceramic material in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of all-ceramic crowns, no scientific data have been presented on the color of these restorations in combination with different restorative materials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of five different restorative materials used for implant abutments or posts and cores on the color of veneered densely sintered alumina. Sixty discs, 0.6 mm in thickness and 10 mm in diameter, were made out of densely sintered alumina ceramic material (Procera, Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) and veneered using feldspathic porcelain (AllCeram, Ducera, Rosbach, Germany) for a total thickness of 2 mm. Ten of the discs were evaluated colorimetrically using the CIE, L*, a*, b* system (control group). In addition, 50 discs, 3 mm in thickness and identical diameter, were fabricated using the following restorative materials (five different materials used on 10 specimens each): (1) high-precious gold alloy, (2) aluminum-oxide ceramic material, (3) titanium metal alloy, (4) yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide ceramic material, and (5) glass-ceramic material. The 50 veneered densely sintered alumina specimens were bonded to the 50 restorative specimens using an autopolymerizing luting composite. L*, a*, b* color coordinates were measured 10 times for each veneered densely sintered alumina specimen. Color differences were calculated using the equation DeltaE = [(DeltaL*)2 + (Deltaa*)2 + (Deltab*)2] 1/2. DeltaE values correspond to differences between the control group and each of the five materials groups. Mean color differences (DeltaE) and SDs for each group were as follows: DeltaE (1) = 1.42 +/- 0.5, DeltaE (2) = 1.53 +/- 0.5, DeltaE (3) = 1.55 +/- 0.4, DeltaE (4) = 1.95 +/- 0.5, DeltaE (5) = 1.23 +/- 0.3. All restorative materials induced changes to the densely sintered alumina color relative to the original color. One-way analysis of variance

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial of Implant-Supported Ceramic-Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Fixed Dental Prostheses: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F.; Clark, Arthur E.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the survival rates over time of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic prostheses as a function of core-veneer thickness ratio, gingival connector embrasure design, and connector height. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study involving 55 patients missing three teeth in either one or two posterior areas. These patients (34 women; 21 men; age range 52–75 years) were recruited for the study to receive a 3-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Two implants were placed for each of the 72 FDPs in the study. The implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech), which were made of titanium, were grit blasted. A gold-shaded, custom-milled titanium abutment (Atlantis, Astra Tech), was secured to each implant body. Each of the 72 FDPs in 55 patients were randomly assigned based on one of the following options: (1) A. Material: ceramic-ceramic (Yttria-stabilized zirconia core, pressable fluorapatite glass-ceramic, IPS e.max ZirCAD and ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent) B. metal-ceramic (palladium-based noble alloy, Capricorn, Ivoclar Vivadent, with press-on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic veneer, IPS InLine POM, Ivoclar Vivadent); (2) occlusal veneer thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm); (3) curvature of gingival embrasure (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mm diameter); and (4) connector height (3, 4, and 5 mm). FDPs were fabricated and cemented with dual-cure resin cement (RelyX, Universal Cement, 3M ESPE). Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. FDPs were examined for cracks, fracture, and general surface quality. Results Recall exams of 72 prostheses revealed 10 chipping fractures. No fractures occurred within the connector or embrasure areas. Two-sided Fisher’s exact tests showed no significant correlation between fractures and type of material system (p = 0.51), veneer thickness (p = 0.75), radius of curvature of gingival embrasure

  4. Randomized clinical trial of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F; Clark, Arthur E; Shuster, Jonathan J; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the survival rates over time of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic prostheses as a function of core-veneer thickness ratio, gingival connector embrasure design, and connector height. An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study involving 55 patients missing three teeth in either one or two posterior areas. These patients (34 women; 21 men; age range 52-75 years) were recruited for the study to receive a three-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Two implants were placed for each of the 72 FDPs in the study. The implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech), which were made of titanium, were grit blasted. A gold-shaded, custom-milled titanium abutment (Atlantis, Astra Tech), was secured to each implant body. Each of the 72 FDPs in 55 patients were randomly assigned based on one of the following options: (1) A. ceramic-ceramic (Yttria-stabilized zirconia core, pressable fluorapatite glass-ceramic, IPS e.max ZirCAD, and ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent) B. metal-ceramic (palladium-based noble alloy, Capricorn, Ivoclar Vivadent, with press-on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic veneer, IPS InLine POM, Ivoclar Vivadent); (2) occlusal veneer thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm); (3) curvature of gingival embrasure (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mm diameter); and (4) connector height (3, 4, and 5 mm). FDPs were fabricated and cemented with dual-cure resin cement (RelyX, Universal Cement, 3M ESPE). Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. FDPs were examined for cracks, fracture, and general surface quality. Recall exams of 72 prostheses revealed 10 chipping fractures. No fractures occurred within the connector or embrasure areas. Two-sided Fisher's exact tests showed no significant correlation between fractures and type of material system (p = 0.51), veneer thickness (p = 0.75), radius of curvature of gingival embrasure (p = 0.68), and connector height (p = 0

  5. Biocompatibility of dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words "dental amalgam" and "toxicity" were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials.

  6. Biocompatibility of Dental Amalgams

    PubMed Central

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words “dental amalgam” and “toxicity” were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials. PMID:22145006

  7. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.

  8. The influence of veneering porcelain thickness of all-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns on failure resistance after cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Akihiko; Lee, Heeje; Geminiani, Alessandro; Ercoli, Carlo; Feng, Changyong

    2009-02-01

    In some clinical situations, the length of either a prepared tooth or an implant abutment is shorter than ideal, and the thickness of a porcelain crown must be increased. Thickness of the coping and the veneering porcelain should be considered to prevent mechanical failure of the crown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of veneering porcelain thickness for all-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns on failure resistance after cyclic loading. All-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns (n=20) were fabricated on an implant abutment (RN Solid Abutment) for the study. Two different framework designs with 2 different incisal thicknesses of veneering porcelain (2 mm and 4 mm) were used for each all-ceramic and metal ceramic crown system, resulting in 4 experimental groups (n=10) with identically shaped crowns. The all-ceramic crown consisted of alumina (Procera AllCeram) frameworks and veneering porcelain (Cerabien), while metal ceramic crowns were made of high noble metal (Leo) frameworks and veneering porcelain (IPS Classic). All crowns were cemented on the corresponding abutments using a resin cement (Panavia 21). They were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling (5 degrees C and 55 degrees C; 5-second dwell time). The crowns were tested with a custom-designed cyclic loading apparatus which delivered simultaneous unidirectional cyclic loading at 135 degrees, vertically, at an rpm of 250, with a load of 49 N. Each specimen was loaded for 1.2 x 106 cycles or until it failed. The specimens were thoroughly evaluated for cracks and/or bulk fracture with an optical stereomicroscope (x10) and assigned a score of success, survival, or failure. The specimens without bulk fracture after cyclic loading were loaded along the long axis of the tooth, on the incisal edge, in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.5 mm/min, until fracture. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the success and survival rate between the 2 different materials (alpha=.05

  9. Properties and Clinical Application of Three Types of Dental Glass-Ceramics and Ceramics for CAD-CAM Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ritzberger, Christian; Apel, Elke; Höland, Wolfram; Peschke, Arnd; Rheinberger, Volker M.

    2010-01-01

    The main properties (mechanical, thermal and chemical) and clinical application for dental restoration are demonstrated for three types of glass-ceramics and sintered polycrystalline ceramic produced by Ivoclar Vivadent AG. Two types of glass-ceramics are derived from the leucite-type and the lithium disilicate-type. The third type of dental materials represents a ZrO2 ceramic. CAD/CAM technology is a procedure to manufacture dental ceramic restoration. Leucite-type glass-ceramics demonstrate high translucency, preferable optical/mechanical properties and an application as dental inlays, onlays and crowns. Based on an improvement of the mechanical parameters, specially the strength and toughness, the lithium disilicate glass-ceramics are used as crowns; applying a procedure to machine an intermediate product and producing the final glass-ceramic by an additional heat treatment. Small dental bridges of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were fabricated using a molding technology. ZrO2 ceramics show high toughness and strength and were veneered with fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. Machining is possible with a porous intermediate product.

  10. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  11. The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. PMID:28869512

  12. The effects of different shades of resin luting cement on the color of ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Aljurais, Rana M; Alshaafi, Maan M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of different shades of light-polymerized resin cement on the color of two different thicknesses (0.5 mm and 0.7 mm) of three different ceramic materials (Esthetic, e.max, and ZirPress). A spectrophotometer (Color Eye 7000A - CIE (L*a*b*) was used to measure the color of specimens on the control substrate without cement, and then on (Translucent, White Opaque, B0.5, A1, and A3 of RelyX™ Veneer cement). The mean values of color difference (ΔE) were higher for Esthetic, followed by ZirPress, with the lowest values for e.max. The mean values of ΔE decreased when the thickness of ceramic increased from 0.5 mm to 0.7 mm. It was observed that the White Opaque had significantly increased ΔE values when compared with (TR, B0.5, A1, and A3), whereas no significant difference between B0.5 and TR, and between B0.5 and A3.

  13. Effect of veneering materials and curing methods on resin cement knoop hardness.

    PubMed

    Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop hardness of Enforce resin cement activated by the either chemical/physical or physical mode, and light cured directly and through ceramic (HeraCeram) or composite resin (Artglass). Light curing were performed with either conventional halogen light (QTH; XL2500) for 40 s or xenon plasma arc (PAC; Apollo 95E) for 3 s. Bovine incisors had their buccal surfaces flattened and hybridized. On these surfaces a mold was seated and filled with cement. A 1.5-mm-thick disc of the veneering material was seated over this set for light curing. After storage (24 h/37 masculineC), specimens (n=10) were sectioned for hardness (KHN) measurements in a micro-hardness tester (50 gf load/ 15 s). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). It was observed that the dual cure mode yielded higher hardness compared to the physical mode alone, except for direct light curing with the QTH unit and through Artglass. Higher hardness was observed with QTH compared to PAC, except for Artglass/dual groups, in which similar hardness means were obtained. Low KHN means were obtained with PAC for both Artglass and HeraCeram. It may be concluded that the hardness of resin cements may be influenced by the presence of an indirect restorative material and the type of light-curing unit.

  14. Effect of veneering material on the deformation suffered by implant-supported fixed prosthesis framework

    PubMed Central

    GRANDO, Antônio Francisco; REZENDE, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; SOUSA, Edson Antônio Capello; RUBO, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Knowing how stresses are dissipated on the fixed implant-supported complex allows adequate treatment planning and better choice of the materials used for prosthesis fabrication. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the deformation suffered by cantilevered implant-supported fixed prostheses frameworks cast in silver-palladium alloy and coated with two occlusal veneering materials: acrylic resin or porcelain. Material and Methods Two strain gauges were bonded to the inferior surface of the silver-palladium framework and two other were bonded to the occlusal surface of the prosthesis framework covered with ceramic and acrylic resin on each of its two halves. The framework was fixed to a metallic master model and a 35.2 N compression force was applied to the cantilever at 10, 15 and 20 mm from the most distal implant. The measurements of deformation by compression and tension were obtained. The statistical 2-way ANOVA test was used for individual analysis of the experiment variables and the Tukey test was used for the interrelation between all the variables (material and distance of force application). Results The results showed that both variables had influence on the studied factors (deformation by compression and tension). Conclusion The ceramic coating provided greater rigidity to the assembly and therefore less distortion compared with the uncoated framework and with the resin-coated framework. The cantilever arm length also influenced the prosthesis rigidity, causing higher deformation the farther the load was applied from the last implant. PMID:25025562

  15. Crack initiation modes in bilayered alumina/porcelain disks as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and supporting substrate stiffness.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, N; Anusavice, K J

    2000-06-01

    We hypothesize that the fracture resistance of alumina core/porcelain veneer disks increases and that crack initiation shifts from veneer to core as the core/veneer thickness ratio (t(C)/t(V)) increases from 0.5/1.0 to 1.3/0.2, or as the elastic modulus of the supporting substrate (E(S)) to which it is resin-bonded increases from 5.1 to 226 GPa. When supported by a low-modulus substrate, disks with low t(C)/t(V) ratios exhibited cracks in the veneer and within the core, while those with high t(C)/t(V) ratios demonstrated core cracks, but not veneer cracks. None of the disks supported by Ni-Cr alloy (E = 226 GPa) exhibited core cracks. These results support the hypothesis that the crack initiation site shifts as the t(C)/t(V) ratio increases, but the increase in E(S) did not affect the crack initiation site. This study suggests that the t(C)/t(V) ratio is the dominant factor that controls the failure initiation site in bilayered ceramic disks.

  16. Pathways in dental public health.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven J

    2005-07-01

    Dental public health is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation. Dental public health has been defined as the "science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than as an individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis." This article will describe the many career and educational pathways dentists may follow to become irvolved in the practice of dental public health.

  17. Dental radiology for children

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation.

  18. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  19. Influence of the fabrication process on the in vitro performance of fixed dental prostheses with zirconia substructures.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Behr, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Chipping of the applied veneering ceramic is reported to be a main clinical failure type of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing- or manually copy-milled zirconia restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether different substructure designs and veneering processes done by different dental technicians do significantly influence chipping in zirconia-based all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses during simulated oral service. Five groups (n = 8 per group) of three-unit zirconia substructures were fabricated in three different laboratories using copy-milling technique. Three series were veneered with identical porcelain (groups 1-3) and one with a second different porcelain (group 4). The fifth group was milled to final contour design without veneering. Dimensions of the connector areas were determined. All fixed partial dentures (FPDs) were adhesively boned on human teeth and thermally cycled and mechanically loaded (1.2 × 10(6) × 50 N; 6,000 × 5°C/55°C) using human antagonists. Restorations were monitored during thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML). FPDs which survived were loaded to fracture. FPDs which failed during TCML were investigated with fractographic means. During TCML, chipping took place in groups 1 (two times), 2 (four times) and 3 (five times) (Table 1). Chipping areas varied between 2.3 mm(2) (group 3) and 58.7 mm(2) (group 2). Groups 4 and 5 provided no failures during TCML. Failure in all cases started from contact points, where superficial wear and disruption of the porcelain were found. No significant correlation could be determined between connector thickness and number of failures. Median fracture results varied between 1,011 N (group 3) and 2,126 N (group 2). The results show the necessity of considering individual design and manufacturing of restorations as well as contact situation. Advanced technical training on zirconia-based restorations is recommended.

  20. Dental conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-30

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule the proposal to amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes. This amendment clarifies that principles governing determinations by VA's Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility for dental treatment by VA's Veterans Health Administration (VHA), apply only when VHA requests information or a rating from VBA for those purposes. This amendment also clarifies existing regulatory provisions and reflects the respective responsibilities of VHA and VBA in determinations concerning eligibility for dental treatment.