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Sample records for department mende france

  1. Space Radar Image of Lozere Department, Mende, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the central part of Lozere Departement situated south of the Massif Central in France. The image is 10 kilometers by 25 kilometers (6 miles by 15.5 miles) and is centered at approximately 44.3 degrees north latitude and 3 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994 and on October 6, 1994. The image channels have the following color assignments: red was acquired in April; green was acquired in October; and blue is the ratio of the two data sets combined. Seasonal differences in the vegetation are visible in pink, which are heaths growing in the spring. This research area features two large limestone plateaus cut by the famous Gorges du Tarn, standing in parallel with the granite mountain range known as the Cevennes Mountains nearby. Land-use consists mainly of grasslands, heaths and forests. Forest types seen in the images are Austrian pines,Scots pines, spruce, fir and beech trees. Most forests were planted at the end of the 19th century through a national reforestation program aimed at reducing the strong erosion risks in these areas. This program was so successful that today the forests are exploited for forest pulpwood and sawlogs, but also remain protected as conservation regions. The study being performed in this area will assess the potential of spaceborne radar remote sensing for temperate forest type mapping and forest resource monitoring. The combination of X-band SAR data with lower frequency data (such as the SIR-C L-band data) allows scientists to distinguish forest tree species and biomass, or areas of ground vegetation. The lessons learned from the radar images of these controlled forest regions can be applied to larger areas and naturally grown forests to help ecologists protect and maintain them. The SIR-C/X-SAR images will be investigated by scientists from the remote sensing laboratory

  2. A case study of the suicide of Luis Mendès France, in Bordeaux, in 1695.

    PubMed

    Bénézech, Michel; Chapenoire, Stéphane

    2004-12-01

    After being condemned and imprisoned in Lisbon by the Portuguese Inquisition, Luis Mendes de Franca exiled himself in late 1683 to France, where his descendants adopted the family name Mendes France. In 1695, at the age of 55 years, Luis Mendes committed suicide in Bordeaux by a pistol shot that decapitated him. The inquest conducted at that time concluded that Luis Mendes was insane and thus not guilty of the crime of suicide. We hypothesize that he used a flint stone-type pistol loaded with an extraordinarily large quantity of black gunpowder. Using available information on historic firearms, ammunition, and powder, coupled with the preserved testimony of historic figures, we propose a reconstruction of this drama and a diagnostic approach to the psychiatric aspects of the suicide.

  3. Mending Mendelism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allchin, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explores the problem of dominance as a concept, traces its persistence to the history of mythic images of Mendel, and discusses how we can mend the flaws while providing valuable lessons in the history and nature of science. (SAH)

  4. Mending Mendelism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allchin, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explores the problem of dominance as a concept, traces its persistence to the history of mythic images of Mendel, and discusses how we can mend the flaws while providing valuable lessons in the history and nature of science. (SAH)

  5. Population Analysis of Disabled Children by Departments in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidatuzzahra, Diah; Kuswanto, Heri; Pech, Nicolas; Etchegaray, Amélie

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a statistical analysis is performed by model the variations of the disabled about 0-19 years old population among French departments. The aim is to classify the departments according to their profile determinants (socioeconomic and behavioural profiles). The analysis is focused on two types of methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple correspondences factorial analysis (MCA) to review which one is the best methods for interpretation of the correlation between the determinants of disability (independent variable). The PCA is the best method for interpretation of the correlation between the determinants of disability (independent variable). The PCA reduces 14 determinants of disability to 4 axes, keeps 80% of total information, and classifies them into 7 classes. The MCA reduces the determinants to 3 axes, retains only 30% of information, and classifies them into 4 classes.

  6. Pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department: practice evaluation in Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pelc, Raphaëlle; Redant, Sébastien; Julliand, Sébastien; Llor, Juan; Lorrot, Mathie; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Gajdos, Vincent; Angoulvant, François

    2014-05-16

    Based on European recommendations of ESPGHAN/ESPID from 2008, first line therapy for dehydration caused by acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is oral rehydration solution (ORS). In case of oral route failure, nasogastric tube enteral rehydration is as efficient as intra-venous rehydration and seems to lead to fewer adverse events. The primary objective was to describe rehydration strategies used in cases of AGE in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. An electronic survey describing a scenario in which a toddler had moderate dehydration caused by AGE was sent to physicians working in pediatric emergency departments. Analytical data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Kruskal -Wallis Rank test. We analyzed 68 responses, distributed as follows: Belgium N = 10, France N = 37, The Netherlands N = 7, and Switzerland N = 14. Oral rehydration with ORS was the first line of treatment for 90% of the respondents. In case of first line treatment failure, intravenous rehydration was preferred by 95% of respondents from France, whereas nasogastric route was more likely to be used by those from Belgium (80%), The Netherlands (100%) and Switzerland (86%). Serum electrolyte measurements were more frequently prescribed in France (92%) and Belgium (80%) than in The Netherlands (43%) and Switzerland (29%). Racecadotril was more frequently used in France, and ondansetron was more frequently used in Switzerland. No respondent suggested routine use of antibiotics. We found variations in practices in terms of invasiveness and testing. Our study supports the need for further evaluation and implementation strategies of ESPGHAN/ESPID guidelines. We plan to extend the study throughout Europe with support of the Young ESPID Group.

  7. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  8. France.

    PubMed

    1993-02-10

    Taxes on cigarettes in France have been increased by 15 per cent, the first of an overall rise of 30 per cent. Part of the revenue raised will help subsidise motor racing which lost its sponsors following a recent national ban on cigarette advertising. The remainder will go to the social security service.

  9. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  10. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations, indicating

  11. Epidemiology of Injuries Caused by Mammals Treated in Emergency Departments in Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Kenia; Benkouiten, Samir; Brouqui, Philippe; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    A total of 304 patients with mammal-related injuries were included over the 2-year survey period (1.5% of total admissions) at the emergency departments of a large city in southern France. Admissions peaked during the summer months. Dogs accounted for 75.3% and cats for 16.8% of cases. Dog injuries were significantly more common in younger individuals. Overall, signs of infection were observed in 17.9% of cases and were more likely to occur in patients injured by cats and in patients injured more than 1 day before consulting. The majority of patients received an antibiotic prophylaxis, independent to the delay between injury and consultation. Only 1 out of 10 injured patients who consulted an emergency department were seen at the rabies treatment center. Emergency department surveillance data offers an effective and efficient method for conducting animal bite surveillance to monitor trends and characterize animal bite victims.

  12. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem.

  13. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  14. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  15. The features of infectious diseases departments and anti-infective practices in France and Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Erdem, H; Stahl, J P; Inan, A; Kilic, S; Akova, M; Rioux, C; Pierre, I; Canestri, A; Haustraete, E; Engin, D O; Parlak, E; Argemi, X; Bruley, D; Alp, E; Greffe, S; Hosoglu, S; Patrat-Delon, S; Heper, Y; Tasbakan, M; Corbin, V; Hopoglu, M; Balkan, I I; Mutlu, B; Demonchy, E; Yilmaz, H; Fourcade, C; Toko-Tchuindzie, L; Kaya, S; Engin, A; Yalci, A; Bernigaud, C; Vahaboglu, H; Curlier, E; Akduman, D; Barrelet, A; Oncu, S; Korten, V; Usluer, G; Turgut, H; Sener, A; Evirgen, O; Elaldi, N; Gorenek, L

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the infectious diseases (ID) wards of tertiary hospitals in France and Turkey for technical capacity, infection control, characteristics of patients, infections, infecting organisms, and therapeutic approaches. This cross-sectional study was carried out on a single day on one of the weekdays of June 17-21, 2013. Overall, 36 ID departments from Turkey (n = 21) and France (n = 15) were involved. On the study day, 273 patients were hospitalized in Turkish and 324 patients were followed in French ID departments. The numbers of patients and beds in the hospitals, and presence of an intensive care unit (ICU) room in the ID ward was not different in both France and Turkey. Bed occupancy in the ID ward, single rooms, and negative pressure rooms were significantly higher in France. The presence of a laboratory inside the ID ward was more common in Turkish ID wards. The configuration of infection control committees, and their qualifications and surveillance types were quite similar in both countries. Although differences existed based on epidemiology, the distribution of infections were uniform on both sides. In Turkey, anti-Gram-positive agents, carbapenems, and tigecycline, and in France, cephalosporins, penicillins, aminoglycosides, and metronidazole were more frequently preferred. Enteric Gram-negatives and hepatitis B and C were more frequent in Turkey, while human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and streptococci were more common in France (p < 0.05 for all significances). Various differences and similarities existed in France and Turkey in the ID wards. However, the current scene is that ID are managed with high standards in both countries.

  16. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Methods Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes), outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'). Results A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day), but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results show the interest to monitor specific indicators during hot periods and to focus surveillance efforts on the elderly. Syndromic surveillance allowed the collection of data in real time and the subsequent optimization of the response by public health agencies. This method of surveillance should therefore be considered as an essential part of efforts to prevent the health effects of heat waves. PMID:19232122

  17. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France.

    PubMed

    Josseran, Loïc; Caillère, Nadège; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Rottner, Jean; Filleul, Laurent; Brucker, Gilles; Astagneau, Pascal

    2009-02-20

    The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes), outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'). A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day), but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p < 0.05). Our results show the interest to monitor specific indicators during hot periods and to focus surveillance efforts on the elderly. Syndromic surveillance allowed the collection of data in real time and the subsequent optimization of the response by public health agencies. This method of surveillance should therefore be considered as an essential part of efforts to prevent the health effects of heat waves.

  18. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents. PMID:117004

  19. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents.

  20. Overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer in the Marne and Ardennes Departments of France from 1975 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Caroline; Dramé, Moustapha; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Arveux, Patrick; Schvartz, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Incidence of thyroid cancer has increased considerably in France in recent years, but the mortality rate has declined only slightly. Part of this increased incidence could be attributable to overdiagnosis. We aimed to estimate the contribution of overdiagnosis to the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer. Incidence rates were calculated based on data from the specialised Marnes-Ardennes thyroid cancer registry, for cancers diagnosed between 1975 and 2014, by age category and by five-year period. The population was divided into two groups according to pTNM classification at diagnosis (i.e. localised or invasive). Overdiagnosis was defined as the difference in incidence rates between the invasive cancer and localised cancer groups. This rate was then divided by the incidence rate in the localised cancer group for the most recent period (2010-2014) to obtain the proportion of cancers attributable to overdiagnosis. In total, 2008 patients were included. The proportion of incidence attributable to overdiagnosis for the period 2010-2014 was estimated at 7 and 62% in men and women aged < 50 years respectively, and at 65 and 73% respectively in men and women aged ≥ 50 years. We observed a high proportion of cancers attributable to overdiagnosis. This finding raises the issue of patient management, with the risk of overtreatment, and the repercussions on quality of life for patients diagnosed with cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF AMENDMENTS FOR MENDING THE INSITU REDOX MANIPULATION (ISRM) BARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-07

    In May of 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from DOE Headquarters EM-23 to provide a team of technical experts to evaluate likely chemical/biological amendments for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. This request was a follow-on to an earlier request for assistance regarding the cause of chromium (Cr) breakthrough and recommendations for mending the barrier (March 2004 workshop). This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the ISRM technology, was installed at a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to estimate barrier longevity, calculated to be in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in approximately 17 wells has been found to contain elevated Cr concentrations. The March 2004 technical assistance team (TAT) identified potential causes of Cr breakthrough as likely related to physical and chemical heterogeneity within the aquifer (including loss of reductive capacity within preferential flow paths) and the presence of other oxidants (DO and nitrate) significantly affecting the reductive capacity of the treated aquifer. These aquifer characteristics may limit the ability of alternative amendments to extend the reducing capacity of the barrier. A 2001 Bechtel Hanford report and evaluation

  2. Be careful with triage in emergency departments: interobserver agreement on 1,578 patients in France.

    PubMed

    Durand, Anne-Claire; Gentile, Stéphanie; Gerbeaux, Patrick; Alazia, Marc; Kiegel, Pierre; Luigi, Stephane; Lindenmeyer, Eric; Olivier, Philippe; Hidoux, Marie-Annick; Sambuc, Roland

    2011-10-31

    For several decades, emergency departments (EDs) utilization has increased, inducing ED overcrowding in many countries. This phenomenon is related partly to an excessive number of nonurgent patients. To resolve ED overcrowding and to decrease nonurgent visits, the most common solution has been to triage the ED patients to identify potentially nonurgent patients, i.e. which could have been dealt with by general practitioner. The objective of this study was to measure agreement among ED health professionals on the urgency of an ED visit, and to determine if the level of agreement is consistent among different sub-groups based on following explicit criteria: age, medical status, type of referral to the ED, investigations performed in the ED, and the discharge from the ED. We conducted a multicentric cross-sectional study to compare agreement between nurses and physicians on categorization of ED visits into urgent or nonurgent. Subgroups stratified by criteria characterizing the ED visit were analyzed in relation to the outcome of the visit. Of 1,928 ED patients, 350 were excluded because data were lacking. The overall nurse-physician agreement on categorization was moderate (kappa = 0.43). The levels of agreement within all subgroups were variable and low. The highest agreement concerned three subgroups of complaints: cranial injury (kappa = 0.61), gynaecological (kappa = 0.66) and toxicology complaints (kappa = 1.00). The lowest agreement concerned two subgroups: urinary-nephrology (kappa = 0.09) and hospitalization (kappa = 0.20). When categorization of ED visits into urgent or nonurgent cases was compared to hospitalization, ED physicians had higher sensitivity and specificity than nurses (respectively 94.9% versus 89.5%, and 43.1% versus 30.9%). The lack of physician-nurse agreement and the inability to predict hospitalization have important implications for patient safety. When urgency screening is used to determine treatment priority, disagreement might not

  3. [M.A. Mendes de Leon (1856-1924), a founding father of gynaecology].

    PubMed

    Lammes, F B

    2008-04-19

    M.A. Mendes de Leon (1856-1924) was appointed private lecturer at the Department of Obstetrics of the University of Amsterdam in 1884. He promoted gynaecology in the Netherlands as a separate speciality, partly because of the new surgical possibilities following the discoveries of anaesthesia and antisepsis, but also due to the prevailing belief that the physiology of reproduction qualified the physical and psychological disorders of women. In his private gynaecological clinic he devoted himself to the surgery of ovarian tumours, uterus myomatosus and genital prolapse, but also to the diagnosis and treatment of supposed inflammations of the cervix and endometrium as cause of psychological disorders. In this he followed the opinions of contemporary English gynaecologists. As he was not aware of physiological histology, he nearly always found signs of inflammation. He treated this with curettage and drastic caustics, sometimes after using a dilation knife (hysterotome) for the cervix. At the turn of the twentieth century Dutch gynaecologists such as Treub and Nijhoff began to cast doubt on such theories of "reflex neurosis", but Mendes de Leon persisted in his views. Nevertheless, he can still be considered one of the founding fathers of gynaecology in the Netherlands, partly because of his surgical skills, but also due to his study into the interaction between gynaecological and psychological problems.

  4. Non-urgent care in the hospital medical emergency department in France: how much and which health needs does it reflect?

    PubMed Central

    Lang, T; Davido, A; Diakité, B; Agay, E; Viel, J F; Flicoteaux, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal was to describe the use of the medical emergency department as a source of non-urgent medical care in order to assess unmet health care needs among its users. The specific objectives were thus to assess the proportion of emergency department visits for non-urgent medical care and to describe those who used the department for this reason. DESIGN: A cross sectional study was performed at the emergency department in two hospitals (around 12,000 visits per year each). Subjects were interviewed before and after the visit using a standardised questionnaire. SETTING: The medical emergency department of two university hospitals, one in Paris and one in Besançon (France). SUBJECTS: Each patient aged 15 and more attending the emergency department for a visit during 40 randomly selected periods of 12 hours was included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A definition of urgent care was adopted before the beginning of the study. Four expert judgments were then used for each case to determine whether the reason for the visit was urgent or not. RESULTS: Altogether 594 patients in the Paris emergency department and 614 in the Besançon one were included. In Besançon, the patients were older, a general practitioner was more often cited as the regular source of care, and the percentage of subsequent hospital admission was higher than in Paris (71% versus 34%). The non-urgent visits were estimated to account for 35% and 29% of the visits in Paris and Besançon respectively. Patients using the emergency department for a non-urgent visit were younger than other patients. More of them were unemployed, homeless, born outside of France, and without health insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Non-urgent use of the emergency department was observed in about one third of the visits. Groups using the department for primary care and/or non-urgent care were mostly young and socially fragile, with no regular source of health care. Their poor health condition suggests that there is a need for a

  5. Clinical severity and molecular characteristics of circulating and emerging rotaviruses in young children attending hospital emergency departments in France.

    PubMed

    de Rougemont, A; Kaplon, J; Fremy, C; Legrand-Guillien, M-C; Minoui-Tran, A; Payan, C; Vabret, A; Mendes-Martins, L; Chouchane, M; Maudinas, R; Huet, F; Dubos, F; Hober, D; Lazrek, M; Bouquignaud, C; Decoster, A; Alain, S; Languepin, J; Gillet, Y; Lina, B; Mekki, Y; Morfin-Sherpa, F; Guigon, A; Guinard, J; Foulongne, V; Rodiere, M; Avettand-Fenoel, V; Bonacorsi, S; Garbarg-Chenon, A; Gendrel, D; Lebon, P; Lorrot, M; Mariani, P; Meritet, J-F; Schnuriger, A; Agius, G; Beby-Defaux, A; Oriot, D; Colimon, R; Lagathu, G; Mory, O; Pillet, S; Pozzetto, B; Stephan, J-L; Aho, S; Pothier, P

    2016-08-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. A prospective surveillance network has been set up to investigate the virological and clinical features of RVA infections and to detect the emergence of potentially epidemic strains in France. From 2009 to 2014, RVA-positive stool samples were collected from 4800 children <5 years old attending the paediatric emergency units of 16 large hospitals. Rotaviruses were then genotyped by RT-PCR with regard to their outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7. Genotyping of 4708 RVA showed that G1P[8] strains (62.2%) were predominant. The incidence of G9P[8] (11.5%), G3P[8] (10.4%) and G2P[4] (6.6%) strains varied considerably, whereas G4P[8] (2.7%) strains were circulating mostly locally. Of note, G12P[8] (1.6%) strains emerged during the seasons 2011-12 and 2012-13 with 4.1% and 3.0% prevalence, respectively. Overall, 40 possible zoonotic reassortants, such as G6 (33.3%) and G8 (15.4%) strains, were detected, and were mostly associated with P[6] (67.5%). Analysis of clinical records of 624 hospitalized children and severity scores from 282 of them showed no difference in clinical manifestations or severity in relation to the genotype. The relative stability of RVA genotypes currently co-circulating and the large predominance of P[8] type strains may ensure vaccine effectiveness in France. The surveillance will continue to monitor the emergence of new reassortants that might not respond to current vaccines, all the more so as all genotypes can cause severe infections in infants.

  6. Estimates of home and leisure injuries treated in emergency departments in the adult population living in metropolitan France: a model-assisted approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Home and leisure injuries (HLIs) are currently a major public health concern, because of their frequency, associated consequences, and considerable medical costs. As in many other countries in Europe, in France the population coverage of the surveillance system of HLIs is low. In this study, a model-assisted approach is developed to estimate the incidence rates of HLIs in adults treated in emergency departments (EDs) in metropolitan France between 2004 and 2008. Methods Using a sample of the hospitals participating in the French ED-based surveillance system, a generalized linear mixed model was applied, which describes the relationship between the numbers of ED visits for HLIs and the sex and age of the patients on the basis of the number of injury-related stays recorded by the hospitals. Statistics on hospital stays were provided by the French hospital discharge databases in the participating hospitals. The same statistics were available at the national level, which made it possible to extrapolate national incidence estimates. Results Over the 2004–2008 period, the estimated incidence rate of HLIs age-standardized on the European population aged 15 years and over was 48.7 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 39.4-58.0), and displayed little variability over time. This rate corresponded to an average of 2.5 million emergency hospital visits each year due to an HLI in people aged over 15 in France. Conclusions The method made it possible to use medico-administrative datasets available nationwide to provide informative estimates despite the small number of participating EDs. The consequences and costs generated by hospital emergency visits can sometimes be onerous, and these estimated rates confirm the scale of the problem and the need to continue investing in preventive actions. PMID:24495484

  7. [Screening sensory and developmental disorders in nursery school children by the Maternal and Infant Protection Service in the Vaucluse (France) department: results, orientations, limits].

    PubMed

    Peyronnet, S; Garnier, M-O

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether to continue the recommendations given by the doctors of the Maternal and Infant Protection (PMI) service within the medical check-ups given to nursery school children in the Vaucluse department in France. This was a longitudinal study conducted based on an observation grid from January to June 2009. A total of 2079 files were retained. This study revealed that more than one-quarter of the children for whom recommendations had been given no longer had care 3 months later; the main cause was the absence of adherence on the part of the family. This result emphasizes the limitation of the mass screenings conducted by the PMI in nursery schools: it raises the problem of access to healthcare for certain children and opens an opportunity for reflection on professional practices to optimize the mission of prevention and the promotion of health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate Change impacts in the Drôme department (southeastern France): the GICC-DECLIC Project (2010-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rome, Sandra; Bigot, Sylvain; Dubus, Nathalie; Anquetin, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    The national DECLIC ("Drôme: Eau, CLimat Impacts liés aux Changements") project, coordinated at LTHE (Grenoble-France) has begun in beginning of 2010 and is financed by the national GICC-2 program. This project deals with the climatic variability and the interactions in the Drôme's low mountain range. The main goal is to initiate an operational partnership between academics (three research laboratories LTHE, PACTE and ESPACE) and the involved Territorial Agencies, to define potential climate changes and future adaptations. Analyses will concern especially the climatic variations observed during the last 50 years at the administrative scale (namely the "Département" in the French organization), and their significant impacts on the current and future water resources, i.e. pluviometric regimes, quality of the snow coverage, flow stream variations, availability of the resources. The express request from the local administrators concerns mainly the variations of plant productivity (forests and agriculture), and mainly those due to isolated or recurrent drought periods (productivity, biomass, phenology, use of water resources). DECLIC project also concerns interactions between climatic variations and departmental tourist activities, in connection with water resources (consumption and quality). The final objective is to write a « green paper » about adaptation strategies on climate change for policies. The whole study will lean at first on a diagnostic study of climatic time-series and to various environmental data. One step will also use regional modelling of the impact of the climate on water resources. Besides geostatistic modelling, another methodology will use a simplified physical model that gives the benefit to take into account explicitly the topography at fine scale.

  9. New Stetter reactions catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate dependent MenD from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Maryam; Waltzer, Simon; Zarei, Mostafa; Müller, Michael

    2014-12-10

    The intermolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction is a rarely found biocatalysts transformation. MenD, the second enzyme of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes as a physiological reaction a Stetter-like addition of α-ketoglutarate to isochorismate. The substrate range of MenD for similar 1,4-additions is highly restricted. All other thiamine diphosphate dependent enzymes known to act as stetterases are members of the PigD enzyme subfamily, which accept aliphatic and aromatic α,β-unsaturated ketones and thioesters as Michael acceptor substrates. Here, we describe the unexpected activity of MenD with short-chain α,β-unsaturated acids and derivatives as substrates in Stetter reactions. MenD possesses a characteristic substrate range with respect to Michael acceptor substrates which is distinctly different from the classical stetterases. This provides biocatalytic access to new types of products which are not related to the products currently accessible by thiamine diphosphate dependent enzyme catalysis.

  10. Understanding Providers’ Offering and Patients’ Acceptance of HIV Screening in Emergency Departments: A Multilevel Analysis. ANRS 95008, Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Wilson d’Almeida, Kayigan; Pateron, Dominique; Kierzek, Gérald; Renaud, Bertrand; Semaille, Caroline; de Truchis, Pierre; Simon, François; Leblanc, Judith; Lert, France; Le Vu, Stéphane; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Objective We assessed the EDs’ characteristics associated with the offer and acceptance rates of a nontargeted HIV rapid-test screening in 29 Emergency Departments (EDs) in the metropolitan Paris region (11.7 million inhabitants), where half of France’s new HIV cases are diagnosed annually. Methods EDs nurses offered testing to all patients 18–64-year-old, able to provide consent, either with or without supplemental staff (hybrid staff model or indigenous staff model). The EDS’ characteristics collected included structural characteristics (location, type, size), daily workload (patients’ number and severity, length of stay in hours), staff’s participation (training, support to the intervention, leadership), type of week day (weekends vs weekdays) and time (in days). Associations between these variables and the staff model, the offer and acceptance rates were studied using multilevel modeling. Results Indigenous staff model was more frequent in EDs with a lower daily patient flow and a higher staff support score to the intervention. In indigenous-model EDs, the offer rate was associated with the patient flow (OR = 0.838, 95% CI = 0.773–0.908), was lower during weekends (OR = 0.623, 95% CI = 0.581–0.667) and decreased over time (OR = 0.978, 95% CI = 0.975–0.981). Similar results were found in hybrid-model EDs. Acceptance was poorly associated with EDs characteristics in indigenous-model EDs while in hybrid-model EDs it was lower during weekends (OR = 0.713, 95% CI = 0.623–0.816) and increased after the first positive test (OR = 1.526, 95% CI = 1.142–2.038). The EDs’ characteristics explained respectively 38.5% and 15% of the total variance in the offer rate across indigenous model-EDs and hybrid model-EDs vs 12% and 1% for the acceptance rate. Conclusion Our findings suggest the need for taking into account EDs’ characteristics while considering the implementation of an ED-based HIV screening program

  11. Evaluation of a Family Systems Intervention for Managing Pediatric Chronic Illness: Mastering Each New Direction (MEND)

    PubMed Central

    Distelberg, Brian; Williams-Reade, Jackie; Tapanes, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne; Pandit, Mayuri

    2015-01-01

    Family systems play a crucial, albeit complex, role in pediatric chronic illness. Unfortunately, very few psychosocial interventions are available to help these stressed families navigate the developmental steps of chronic illness. A new intervention (MEND) addresses the needs of these families and applies to a broad range of chronic illnesses. This article presents this family systems intervention as well as includes preliminary program evaluation data on 22 families that graduated from the program. Results show consistently strong effects across an array of psychosocial measures. Conclusions from this preliminary study suggest that families entering MEND present with high levels of stress due to the child's chronic illness, but after MEND, the level of stress and other functioning measures are comparable to those seen in healthy families, suggesting that the program offers a significant benefit to families with pediatric chronic illness. PMID:24635346

  12. Evaluation of a family systems intervention for managing pediatric chronic illness: Mastering Each New Direction (MEND).

    PubMed

    Distelberg, Brian; Williams-Reade, Jackie; Tapanes, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne; Pandit, Mayuri

    2014-06-01

    Family systems play a crucial, albeit complex, role in pediatric chronic illness. Unfortunately, very few psychosocial interventions are available to help these stressed families navigate the developmental steps of chronic illness. A new intervention (MEND) addresses the needs of these families and applies to a broad range of chronic illnesses. This article presents this family systems intervention as well as includes preliminary program evaluation data on 22 families that graduated from the program. Results show consistently strong effects across an array of psychosocial measures. Conclusions from this preliminary study suggest that families entering MEND present with high levels of stress due to the child's chronic illness, but after MEND, the level of stress and other functioning measures are comparable to those seen in healthy families, suggesting that the program offers a significant benefit to families with pediatric chronic illness. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  13. A Head-to-head Comparison between SurgiMend and Epiflex in 127 Breast Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Nadine; Brunnert, Klaus; Sauerwald, Axel; Puppe, Julian; Warm, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) has become a widely used option in breast reconstruction. A great deal of literature is available, totaling over 2400 ADM reconstructions. Nonetheless, head-to-head comparisons between SurgiMend and Epiflex are not yet reported. In fact, this is the first clinical data report on the use of Epiflex. This work will, therefore, compare postoperative complication rates and costs for these ADMs. Methods: This analysis is a retrospective review of a single surgeon’s 6-year experience with both SurgiMend—an acellular bovine dermal collagen matrix for soft-tissue reconstruction and Epiflex—a decellularized human skin tissue from 2008 to 2013. Results: One hundred patients had a total of 127 implant-based reconstructions using SurgiMend (64 cases; 50.4%) or Epiflex (63 cases; 49.6%). Gross complication rates were 11.1% for SurgiMend and 40.6% for Epiflex including hematoma, postoperative skin irritation, infection, necrosis, and revision surgery. The most common complication was postoperative red breast syndrome. Severe complications requiring revision surgery were significantly increased in patients treated with Epiflex (12.5%) compared with SurgiMend (4.8%). Conclusions: This retrospective analysis favors the use of SurgiMend over Epiflex because of significantly lower gross complication rates. Severe complication rates are comparable with those reported in literature for both products. Although results promote the use of SurgiMend, the single surgeon retrospective nature of this work limits its clinical impact. PMID:26180740

  14. Chateaubriant, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-08

    This image, acquired 11-05-2007 by NASA Terra spacecraft, shows the city of Chateaubriant, France, surrounded by very old farmsteads. The surrounding countryside presents an interesting pattern of randomly oriented, small individual farmsteads.

  15. MendeLIMS: a web-based laboratory information management system for clinical genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Susan M; Ji, Hanlee P

    2014-08-27

    Large clinical genomics studies using next generation DNA sequencing require the ability to select and track samples from a large population of patients through many experimental steps. With the number of clinical genome sequencing studies increasing, it is critical to maintain adequate laboratory information management systems to manage the thousands of patient samples that are subject to this type of genetic analysis. To meet the needs of clinical population studies using genome sequencing, we developed a web-based laboratory information management system (LIMS) with a flexible configuration that is adaptable to continuously evolving experimental protocols of next generation DNA sequencing technologies. Our system is referred to as MendeLIMS, is easily implemented with open source tools and is also highly configurable and extensible. MendeLIMS has been invaluable in the management of our clinical genome sequencing studies. We maintain a publicly available demonstration version of the application for evaluation purposes at http://mendelims.stanford.edu. MendeLIMS is programmed in Ruby on Rails (RoR) and accesses data stored in SQL-compliant relational databases. Software is freely available for non-commercial use at http://dna-discovery.stanford.edu/software/mendelims/.

  16. CVD-Based Valence-Mending Passivation for Crystalline-Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Meng

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate a new surface passivation technique, valence-mending passivation, for its applications in crystalline-Si solar cells to achieve significant efficiency improvement and cost reduction. As the enabling technique, the project includes the development of chemical vapor deposition recipes to passivate textured Si(100) and multicrystalline-Si surfaces by sulfur and the characterization of the passivated Si surfaces, including thermal stability, Schottky barrier height, contact resistance and surface recombination. One important application is to replace the Ag finger electrode in Si cells with Al to reduce cost, by ~$0.1/Wp, and allow terawatt-scale deployment of crystalline-Si solar cells. These all-Al Si cells require a low-temperature metallization process for the Al electrode, to be compatible with valence-mending passivation and to prevent Al diffusion into n-type Si. Another application is to explore valence-mending passivation of grain boundaries in multicrystalline Si by diffusing sulfur into grain boundaries, to reduce the efficiency gas between monocrystalline-Si solar cells and multicrystalline-Si cells. The major accomplishments of this project include: 1) Demonstration of chemical vapor deposition processes for valence-mending passivation of both monocrystalline Si(100) and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Record Schottky barriers have been demonstrated, with the new record-low barrier of less than 0.08 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated n-type Si(100) and the new record-high barrier of 1.14 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated p-type Si(100). On the textured p-type monocrystalline Si(100) surface, the highest barrier with Al is 0.85 eV by valence-mending passivation. 2) Demonstration of a low-temperature metallization process for Al in crystalline-Si solar cells. The new metallization process is based on electroplating of Al in a room-temperature ionic liquid. The resistivity of the electroplated Al is ~7×10–6

  17. Viruses detected by systematic multiplex polymerase chain reaction in adults with suspected community-acquired pneumonia attending emergency departments in France.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Le Floch, H; Houhou, N; Epelboin, L; Hausfater, P; Khalil, A; Ray, P; Duval, X; Claessens, Y-E; Leport, C

    2015-06-01

    Infectious agents associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are under-studied. This study attempted to identify viruses from the upper respiratory tract in adults visiting emergency departments for clinically suspected CAP. Adults with suspected CAP enrolled in the ESCAPED study (impact of computed tomography on CAP diagnosis) had prospective nasopharyngeal (NP) samples studied by multiplex PCR (targeting 15 viruses and four intracellular bacteria). An adjudication committee composed of infectious disease specialists, pneumologists and radiologists blinded to PCR results reviewed patient records, including computed tomography and day 28 follow up, to categorize final diagnostic probability of CAP as definite, probable, possible, or excluded. Among the 254 patients enrolled, 78 (31%) had positive PCR, which detected viruses in 72/254 (28%) and intracellular bacteria in 8 (3%) patients. PCR was positive in 44/125 (35%) patients with definite CAP and 21/83 (25%) patients with excluded CAP. The most frequent organisms were influenza A/B virus in 27 (11%), rhinovirus in 20 (8%), coronavirus in seven (3%), respiratory syncytial virus in seven (3%) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in eight (3%) of 254 patients. Proportion of rhinovirus was higher in patients with excluded CAP compared with other diagnostic categories (p = 0.01). No such difference was observed for influenza virus. Viruses seem common in adults attending emergency departments with suspected CAP. A concomitant clinical, radiological and biological analysis of the patient's chart can contribute to either confirm their role, or suggest upper respiratory tract infection or shedding. Their imputability and impact in early management of CAP deserve further studies. NCT01574066. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The cultural context of the Sierra Leonean Mende woman as patient.

    PubMed

    Kallon, Isata; Dundes, Lauren

    2010-07-01

    This article provides a clinically pertinent overview of Sierra Leonean immigrants, a growing patient population that most health care workers know little about. The focus is on Sierra Leonean Mende women and the relevance of their cultural perspective to clinical care. A literature review and interview responses from seven Sierra Leoneans are the sources of data. Immigrants from Sierra Leone are coming from a country that since the late 1990s has been ranked at the bottom of the United Nations' Human Development Index. Practitioner knowledge of cultural norms such as female genital mutilation and discomfort with opposite sex health practitioners can improve cross-cultural interactions in the health arena. Given that most clinicians are unfamiliar with this unique patient population, this article provides background information including special attention to medically relevant aspects of the Sierra Leonean cultural milieu that will enhance the rapport between health care workers and these patients.

  19. "Mended or ended?" Football injuries and the British and American medical press, 1870-1910.

    PubMed

    Park, R J

    2001-01-01

    'Playing Hurt/Playing Tough', a dominant ideology in today's football (soccer, rugby, American 'gridiron'), is by no means new. Many books, monographs, and articles have examined the historical development of these games, but the attention given to them in the medical press during the late 1800s/early 1900s has been overlooked. The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, and other turn-of-the-century medical publications regularly included accounts and descriptions of injuries and deaths. More telling were the many editorials in which physicians in both Britain and the United States expressed enthusiasm while also lamenting the games' physical and morale effects upon players, asking whether 'football' should be mended or ended.

  20. Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: a family-based community intervention for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Paul M; Kolotourou, Maria; Chadwick, Paul M; Cole, Tim J; Lawson, Margaret S; Lucas, Alan; Singhal, Atul

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition, Do it (MEND) Program, a multicomponent community-based childhood obesity intervention (www.mendcentral.org). One hundred and sixteen obese children (BMI >or= 98 th percentile, UK 1990 reference data) were randomly assigned to intervention or waiting list control (6-month delayed intervention). Parents and children attended eighteen 2-h group educational and physical activity sessions held twice weekly in sports centers and schools, followed by a 12-week free family swimming pass. Waist circumference, BMI, body composition, physical activity level, sedentary activities, cardiovascular fitness, and self-esteem were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. Children were followed up 12 months from baseline (0 and 6 months postintervention for the control and intervention group, respectively). Participants in the intervention group had a reduced waist circumference z-score (-0.37; P < 0.0001) and BMI z-score (-0.24; P < 0.0001) at 6 months when compared to the controls. Significant between-group differences were also observed in cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and self-esteem. Mean attendance for the MEND Program was 86%. At 12 months, children in the intervention group had reduced their waist and BMI z-scores by 0.47 (P < 0.0001) and 0.23 (P < 0.0001), respectively, and benefits in cardiovascular fitness, physical activity levels, and self-esteem were sustained. High-attendance rates suggest that families found this intensive community-based intervention acceptable. Further larger controlled trials are currently underway to confirm the promising findings of this initial trial.

  1. Effects of an ashed (MEND) powder on deep wound healing: a preliminary study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Mawera, G; Mutseekwa, D; Nyazema, N; Asala, S A

    1997-08-01

    This case control experimental study was designed to investigate the effects of an ashed powder (code-named MEND) on deep wound healing. A total of twelve guinea pigs (six in the experimental group and six in the control group) were used for the study. Square-shaped cutaneous wounds measuring approximately 2.5cmx2.5cm and extending to the fascia covering the back muscles were induced in the lumbar regions of the twelve guinea pigs. One gram of MEND was applied daily to the wound of each of the six animals in the experimental group. Nothing was applied to the wounds of the six animals in the control group. All 12 wounds were traced on transparent paper daily for 20 days. Later on, wound areas were obtained with the aid of a graph paper by counting the number of square millimetres within the traced areas. The time it took for the wounds to be covered by connective tissue matrix and the rate of reduction of wound areas were determined. By day 5 of the experiment, each experimental wound was covered by a thick hard layer of connective tissue. The wound area measurements showed a significant difference between the two groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.000126 at p = 0.05). This difference was more marked in the collagen synthesis phase of deep wound healing. It was concluded that since deep wounds heal in a similar way to chronic skin ulcers, it would appear that the ashed compound used in this study may have a role in the management of chronic skin ulcers. However, it needs to be analysed in detail and more experiments done before any extrapolations of its effects on human wounds can be made.

  2. The Spirit of France

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    self - esteem amongst the French, giving France a greater sense of dignity. Charles de Gaulle sought grandeur to unite France and give the people a sense of common purpose. According to de Gaulle, France’s pursuit of its national interests was not narrow and self-serving, but was

  3. Competition in France

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the developing market for windpower in France. The topics discussed in the article include changes in the French energy policy, Electricite de France under pressure to relax absolute control of the electricity market, a new wind energy program involving international wind turbine designs, and public opinion regarding the place of wind power in France.

  4. Photovoltaic rural electrification in France

    SciTech Connect

    Claverie, A.; Courtiade, P.; Vezin, P.

    1994-12-31

    The promotional programs sponsored by ADEME to encourage the use of off-grid photovoltaic power systems have evolved over the last ten years. From the first year-round residences that were equipped in the early 1980s, to those that are now participating in the program set up jointly by ADEME and the electricity utility Electricite de France (EDF), the notions of service quality and longevity are now better adapted to users` needs. This article outlines the evolution of ADEME`s approach in mainland France, describes the program undertaken in the French territory of New Caledonia, and lastly summarizes the results of a field survey of users of stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the French overseas department of Guadeloupe.

  5. France Without NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Community nations since 1958, France falls well behind Germany and Italy, and just barely above the Netherlands. A more meaning- ful comparison, would be...1965, p. 40. (Information relative to the shifting of the logistical base of NATO from France to the Low Countries.) 39. King, Gillian , ed

  6. Specificity and reactivity in menaquinone biosynthesis: the structure of Escherichia coli MenD (2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase).

    PubMed

    Dawson, Alice; Fyfe, Paul K; Hunter, William N

    2008-12-31

    The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) and metal-ion-dependent enzyme 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase, or MenD, catalyze the Stetter-like conjugate addition of alpha-ketoglutarate with isochorismate to release 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate and carbon dioxide. This reaction represents the first committed step for biosynthesis of menaquinone, or vitamin K2, a key cofactor for electron transport in bacteria and a metabolite for posttranslational modification of proteins in mammals. The medium-resolution structure of MenD from Escherichia coli (EcMenD) in complex with its cofactor and Mn2+ has been determined in two related hexagonal crystal forms. The subunit displays the typical three-domain structure observed for ThDP-dependent enzymes in which two of the domains bind and force the cofactor into a configuration that supports formation of a reactive ylide. The structures reveal a stable dimer-of-dimers association in agreement with gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation studies and confirm the classification of MenD in the pyruvate oxidase family of ThDP-dependent enzymes. The active site, created by contributions from a pair of subunits, is highly basic with a pronounced hydrophobic patch. These features, formed by highly conserved amino acids, match well to the chemical properties of the substrates. A model of the covalent intermediate formed after reaction with the first substrate alpha-ketoglutarate and with the second substrate isochorismate positioned to accept nucleophilic attack has been prepared. This, in addition to structural and sequence comparisons with putative MenD orthologues, provides insight into the specificity and reactivity of MenD and allows a two-stage reaction mechanism to be proposed.

  7. Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan     ... predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour ...

  8. [Suicide and occupation in France].

    PubMed

    Cohidon, C; Santin, G; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Imbernon, E

    2010-04-01

    Suicide is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. The number of work-related suicides is difficult to assess in France. There are nevertheless some data available to document this problem. The aim of this study is to describe suicide attempts (SA) and suicide mortality according to occupation in France. The description of SA relies on the "Baromètre Santé 2005", a cross-sectional representative survey conducted by the Inpes in France. The study population includes 6264 men and 7389 women in employment at the time of the survey. The prevalence of all life SA is described according to occupational category (one and two digits). Data on suicide mortality before the age of 65 comes from the Cosmop project, conducted by the Department of Occupational Health/InVS, and based on data from the "Echantillon démographique permanent"/Insee linked to medical causes of death from the French national death registry (CepiDc/Inserm). People included was born in France, employed at one of censuses (1968, 1975, 1982 and 1990, 187,938 men, 150,683 women). Relative risks for suicide mortality were estimated for the last known occupational category and economic sector. The prevalence of life course SA was higher among women than among men (6.6% vs 3.1%); an opposite situation was observed for mortality. Regarding salaried people, categories of manual workers and clerks are the most affected by SA and mortality from suicide whereas executives are the least concerned. Farmers were little affected by SA (0.4% men, 4.1% women) but experienced the highest rate of mortality by suicide (RR=3.1 men, RR=2.2 women). Among women, compared to non market sectors, the agricultural and equipment goods sectors exhibited an excessive risk of mortality from suicide. This study points out SA and mortality from suicide inequalities by occupational categories and to a lesser extent by economic sector. These results provide a first assessment on suicide according to occupation in France.

  9. France in Black Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    d’Investissement et de D~vel- oppement Economique et Social (FIDES) (the Fund for Investment and for Economic and Social Development). The new constitution...de Cooperation (FAC). CCFOM became the Caisse Cen- trale de Cooperation Economique (CCCE). The Minis- try of Overseas France, with its headquarters on...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques , commerciales et culturelles," Paris, 1984

  10. [Management of stroke in France. Results of 3 national surveys].

    PubMed

    Woimant, F; De Broucker, T; Vassel, P

    2003-05-01

    Three surveys were performed in France, in March 1999, to analyze the management of acute stroke patients. Three hundred forty five Emergency departments, 93 departments of Neurology and 258 Rehabilitation units participated. Fifty per cent of patients with stroke arrive at the emergency department within 3 hours of symptom onset. Only 40 p. cent of the patients are admitted in a neurological department and 5 p. cent in an acute stroke unit. The mean length of acute hospital stay is often very long (more than three weeks) because of the delay to transfer to a rehabilitation unit. This study shows that acute stroke management is herogeneous and not structured in France.

  11. Structural Views along the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MenD Reaction Pathway Illuminate Key Aspects of Thiamin Diphosphate-Dependent Enzyme Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jirgis, Ehab N M; Bashiri, Ghader; Bulloch, Esther M M; Johnston, Jodie M; Baker, Edward N

    2016-07-06

    Menaquinone (MQ) is an essential component of the respiratory chains of many pathogenic organisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The first committed step in MQ biosynthesis is catalyzed by 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (MenD), a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme. Catalysis proceeds through two covalent intermediates as the substrates 2-oxoglutarate and isochorismate are successively added to the cofactor before final cleavage of the product. We have determined a series of crystal structures of Mtb-MenD that map the binding of both substrates, visualizing each step in the MenD catalytic cycle, including both intermediates. ThDP binding induces a marked asymmetry between the coupled active sites of each dimer, and possible mechanisms of communication can be identified. The crystal structures also reveal conformational features of the two intermediates that facilitate reaction but prevent premature product release. These data fully map chemical space to inform early-stage drug discovery targeting MenD.

  12. Mind the Gap (or Mending It): Qualitative Research and Interdisciplinarity in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertinsky, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the perceived gap between the humanities and social sciences, and the sciences in kinesiology faculties and departments as interdisciplinary pressures mount in an increasingly complex world. I use an historical lens to highlight past difficulties in working across the two solitudes and describe Stephen Jay Gould's efforts to…

  13. Mind the Gap (or Mending It): Qualitative Research and Interdisciplinarity in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertinsky, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the perceived gap between the humanities and social sciences, and the sciences in kinesiology faculties and departments as interdisciplinary pressures mount in an increasingly complex world. I use an historical lens to highlight past difficulties in working across the two solitudes and describe Stephen Jay Gould's efforts to…

  14. [Anesthesiologists in France].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Merckx, Paul; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Kavafyan, Juliette; Mantz, Jean

    2007-03-01

    We review some anesthesiologist's curriculum and demographic characteristics in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. To become a certified anesthesiologist and an intensive care physician currently requires six years' medical education, passing national medical examination, and five years' special training as an intern of anesthesiology and intensive care. This educational course was started in 1984. There are 7942 certified anesthesiologists in France in 1999. The average age is 45.9 years and the ratio of female is 35.3%. Approximately two thirds of certified anesthesiologists are working in public institutions. 89% is full-time workers. More than half of certified anesthesiologists actually participate in daily intensive care practice. The number of certified anesthesiologists has been increasing gradually totaling 10,062 persons in 2005. The number of certified anesthesiologists per ten thousands general population is 1.7 persons and the corresponding ratio to all medical doctors is 4.8%. Working hours and holidays are regulated by the French Labour Law. The anaesthesiologist often works in a team with a nurse anaesthetist. The number of certified anesthesiologists in France is larger than that in Japan. Management of anesthesia in France seems to have an advantage in manpower.

  15. Chikungunya Virus, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Valérie; Plumet, Sébastien; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Souarès, Yvan; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Tolou, Hugues J.; Budelot, Michel; Cosserat, Didier; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Desprès, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus was recorded in southeastern France, where the Aedes albopictus mosquito vector is present. Sequence analysis of the viral genomes of imported and autochthonous isolates indicated new features for the potential emergence and spread of the virus in Europe. PMID:21529410

  16. Country Profiles. France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois-Pichat, Jean

    A profile of France is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: (1) location and description of the country; (2) population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, education,…

  17. France. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    In France, the 1882 Compulsory Education Act includes both French and foreign children. Since then, the need to go further than this general principle of non-discrimination and to undertake specific action for immigrants, both adults and children, has been recognized. Since 1970, the Ministry of Education has been directly responsible for this…

  18. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  19. Technological Elites in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilling, Leon

    1988-01-01

    Compares the training and activity of scientists and engineers in France and the United States. Describes the French higher education system including the features and curriculum design of the "grandes ecoles." Discusses the differences in the role of government to research and development between the two nations. (YP)

  20. France. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    In France, the 1882 Compulsory Education Act includes both French and foreign children. Since then, the need to go further than this general principle of non-discrimination and to undertake specific action for immigrants, both adults and children, has been recognized. Since 1970, the Ministry of Education has been directly responsible for this…

  1. English Teaching Profile: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in France provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English in the educational system at the elementary, secondary, higher, and vocational levels. The following topics are covered: instruction in English for special purposes, the…

  2. Linguistic Pluralism in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Jacques M.

    This paper suggests that a discussion of linguistic pluralism in France begins by chronicling the emergence of French as the primary language in early French history and the role of linguistic minorities at various periods in French history. It then focuses on growing linguistic activism in the second half of the twentieth century, when the…

  3. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in France].

    PubMed

    Vidon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects.

  4. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  5. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  6. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, L.; Rollin, P.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  7. 78 FR 21100 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of the Expedited Second... low enriched uranium (``LEU'') from France. The Department finds that revocation of this antidumping... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France,...

  8. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  10. Terrorism in France.

    PubMed

    Carli, Pierre; Telion, Caroline; Baker, David

    2003-01-01

    France has experienced two waves of major terrorist bombings since 1980. In the first wave (1985-1986), eight bombings occurred in Paris, killing 13 and injuring 281. In the second wave (1995-1996), six bombings occurred in Paris and Lyon, killing 10 and injuring 262. Based on lessons learned during these events, France has developed and improved a sophisticated national system for prehospital emergency response to conventional terrorist attacks based on its national emergency medical services (EMS) system, Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). According to the national plan for the emergency medical response to mass-casualty events (White Plan), the major phases of EMS response are: (1) alert; (2) search and rescue; (3) triage of victims and provision of critical care to first priority victims; (4) regulated dispatch of victims to hospitals; and (5) psychological assistance. Following the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, a national plan for the emergency response to chemical and biological events (PIRATOX) was implemented. In 2002, the Ministries of Health and the Interior collaborated to produce a comprehensive national plan (BIOTOX) for the emergency response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Key aspects of BIOTOX are the prehospital provision of specialized advance life support for toxic injuries and the protection of responders in contaminated environments. BIOTOX was successfully used during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in France.

  11. Geographical Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence in France

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. Methods We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization. We used a spatial Bayesian approach based on estimating the number of MS cases from 2005 and 2008 capture–recapture studies to analyze differences in prevalence. Results The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of MS per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 68.1 (95% credible interval 54.6, 84.4) in Hautes-Pyrénées (southwest France) to 296.5 (258.8, 338.9) in Moselle (northeast France). The greatest prevalence was in the northeast departments, and the other departments showed great variability. Discussion By combining multiple data sources into a spatial Bayesian model, we found heterogeneity in MS prevalence among the 21 departments of France, some with higher prevalence than anticipated from previous publications. No clear explanation related to health insurance coverage and hospital facilities can be advanced. Population migration, socioeconomic status of the population studied and environmental effects are suspected. PMID:27936086

  12. Geographical Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence in France.

    PubMed

    Pivot, Diane; Debouverie, Marc; Grzebyk, Michel; Brassat, David; Clanet, Michel; Clavelou, Pierre; Confavreux, Christian; Edan, Gilles; Leray, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Thibault; Vukusic, Sandra; Hédelin, Guy; Guillemin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization. We used a spatial Bayesian approach based on estimating the number of MS cases from 2005 and 2008 capture-recapture studies to analyze differences in prevalence. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of MS per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 68.1 (95% credible interval 54.6, 84.4) in Hautes-Pyrénées (southwest France) to 296.5 (258.8, 338.9) in Moselle (northeast France). The greatest prevalence was in the northeast departments, and the other departments showed great variability. By combining multiple data sources into a spatial Bayesian model, we found heterogeneity in MS prevalence among the 21 departments of France, some with higher prevalence than anticipated from previous publications. No clear explanation related to health insurance coverage and hospital facilities can be advanced. Population migration, socioeconomic status of the population studied and environmental effects are suspected.

  13. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  14. City of Paris, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    STS047-94-010 (12 - 20 Sept 1992) --- This 250mm Hasselblad color photo of Paris, France recorded during this mission, shows urban land uses in great detail. Several airports are clear, including the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget. Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to the growth of this island city. The city expanded from its island state to become a major urban center in Europe because of its location, its easy access by river traffic, and its productive hinterland.

  15. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  16. Legionnaires' disease in France.

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Descours, G; Lepoutre, A; Beraud, L; Maine, C; Che, D; Jarraud, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year.

  17. Phenotype Microarray Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus menD and hemB Mutants with the Small-Colony-Variant Phenotype†

    PubMed Central

    von Eiff, Christof; McNamara, Peter; Becker, Karsten; Bates, Donna; Lei, Xiang-He; Ziman, Michael; Bochner, Barry R.; Peters, Georg; Proctor, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Standard biochemical tests have revealed that hemin and menadione auxotrophic Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) exhibit multiple phenotypic changes. To provide a more complete analysis of the SCV phenotype, two genetically defined mutants with a stable SCV phenotype were comprehensively tested. These mutants, generated via mutations in menD or hemB that yielded menadione and hemin auxotrophs, were subjected to phenotype microarray (PM) analysis of over 1,500 phenotypes (including utilization of different carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, and sulfur sources; growth stimulation or inhibition by amino acids and other nutrients, osmolytes, and metabolic inhibitors; and susceptibility to antibiotics). Compared to parent strain COL, the hemB mutant was defective in utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including Krebs cycle intermediates and compounds that ultimately generate ATP via electron transport. The phenotype of the menD mutant was similar to that of the hemB mutant, but the defects in carbon metabolism were more pronounced than those seen with the hemB mutant. In both mutant strains, hexose phosphates and other carbohydrates that provide ATP in the absence of electron transport stimulated growth. Other phenotypes of SCV mutants, such as hypersensitivity to sodium selenite, sodium tellurite, and sodium nitrite, were also uncovered by the PM analysis. Key results of the PM analysis were confirmed in independent growth studies and by using Etest strips for susceptibility testing. PM technology is a new and efficient technology for assessing cellular phenotypes in S. aureus. PMID:16385058

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, Which Reemerged in France in August 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Quenault, Hélène; Lucas, Pierrick; Viarouge, Cyril; Touzain, Fabrice; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Attoui, Houssam; Zientara, Stéphan; Blanchard, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the complete genome sequence (coding and noncoding) of the bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8, isolated from a ram in Allier department, France, 2015. Sequence analysis confirms the reemergence of the BTV-8 strain that previously circulated in France until 2009 and other European countries until 2010. PMID:27081120

  19. 76 FR 327 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France: Partial Rescission of... (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings... of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from France in accordance with...

  20. 77 FR 53844 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of... (the Department) initiated administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and... ball bearings and parts thereof from France and Italy in accordance with section 751(a) of the Tariff...

  1. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  2. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  3. Mending the broken pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Lesley

    2012-04-01

    The tiny percentage of female physics professors in the UK is often said to be the result of a “leaky pipe”, whereby the number of women moving from one career stage to the next drops significantly each time. But Lesley Cohen says the situation is more subtle and complex.

  4. Mending the Med.

    PubMed

    Batisse, M

    1994-01-01

    In 1975, the Barcelona Convention to Protect the Sea was signed with an action plan to deal with marine pollution and halting land-based contributions to water pollution. Specifically, the Blue Plan aimed to attack the interaction between population, natural resources, environmental degradation, and economic development for the entire Mediterranean region. Scenarios were constructed to depict demographic, international economic, and national development prospects. Population was expected to grow from 357 million in 1985 to 575 million in 2025. Population concentration was expected to decline from 66% in the north to 22% in 2025. The populations in the south and east would grow to 5 times the 1950 figures. Fertility rates are expected to fall in the south, as educational levels of women rise. The decline in population in the north will mean an aging population in the north and a young population in the south with employment imbalances. Rapid urbanization will be a problem throughout the region, and particularly in the coastal areas. The demand for water, waste disposal, and conflicting pressures on use of sea and land will be the consequences. Tourism will aggravate general population conditions. The coastal regions currently receive about 100 million international and domestic tourists annually. Under poor economic conditions, scenarios would project tourism increases to 170 million by 2025. Under sustainable development scenarios, the numbers would increase even higher to 340 million tourists, mostly domestic. The environmental impact of tourism centers on the pressure on water resources, space use, and solid and liquid waste, during the summer when the water supply is low and the forests are dry. Most countries rely heavily on tourism for balance of payments and as a source of hard currency for food imports. The expectation is that the coastal areas, though fragile, are the primary asset for Mediterranean countries. Coast management thus far has contributed to erosion, deforestation, and erratic concrete surfacing of shore areas. Delays in sustainable development will only contribute to further pollution. The entire Mediterranean region could face social and ecological disruption in the future if population development needs are not met. Environmental and development issues threaten long-term peace and stability.

  5. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  6. Temporal Trends in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in France: FRANCE 2 to FRANCE TAVI.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Vincent; Lefevre, Thierry; Van Belle, Eric; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Iung, Bernard; Koning, René; Motreff, Pascal; Leprince, Pascal; Verhoye, Jean Philippe; Manigold, Thibaut; Souteyrand, Geraud; Boulmier, Dominique; Joly, Patrick; Pinaud, Frédéric; Himbert, Dominique; Collet, Jean Philippe; Rioufol, Gilles; Ghostine, Said; Bar, Olivier; Dibie, Alain; Champagnac, Didier; Leroux, Lionel; Collet, Frédéric; Teiger, Emmanuel; Darremont, Olivier; Folliguet, Thierry; Leclercq, Florence; Lhermusier, Thibault; Olhmann, Patrick; Huret, Bruno; Lorgis, Luc; Drogoul, Laurent; Bertrand, Bernard; Spaulding, Christian; Quilliet, Laurent; Cuisset, Thomas; Delomez, Maxence; Beygui, Farzin; Claudel, Jean-Philippe; Hepp, Alain; Jegou, Arnaud; Gommeaux, Antoine; Mirode, Anfani; Christiaens, Luc; Christophe, Charles; Cassat, Claude; Metz, Damien; Mangin, Lionel; Isaaz, Karl; Jacquemin, Laurent; Guyon, Philippe; Pouillot, Christophe; Makowski, Serge; Bataille, Vincent; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Gilard, Martine; Le Breton, Hervé

    2017-07-04

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is standard therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. However, national data regarding procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes over time are limited. The aim of this study was to assess nationwide performance trends and clinical outcomes of TAVR during a 6-year period. TAVRs performed in 48 centers across France between January 2013 and December 2015 were prospectively included in the FRANCE TAVI (French Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry. Findings were further compared with those reported from the FRANCE 2 (French Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards 2) registry, which captured all TAVRs performed from January 2010 to January 2012 across 34 centers. A total of 12,804 patients from FRANCE TAVI and 4,165 patients from FRANCE 2 were included in this analysis. The median age of patients was 84.6 years, and 49.7% were men. FRANCE TAVI participants were older but at lower surgical risk (median logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE]: 15.0% vs. 18.4%; p < 0.001). More than 80% of patients in FRANCE TAVI underwent transfemoral TAVR. Transesophageal echocardiography guidance decreased from 60.7% to 32.3% of cases, whereas more recent procedures were increasingly performed in hybrid operating rooms (15.8% vs. 35.7%). Rates of Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined device success increased from 95.3% in FRANCE 2 to 96.8% in FRANCE TAVI (p < 0.001). In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were 4.4% and 5.4%, respectively, in FRANCE TAVI compared with 8.2% and 10.1%, respectively, in FRANCE 2 (p < 0.001 for both). Stroke and potentially life-threatening complications, such as annulus rupture or aortic dissection, remained stable over time, whereas rates of cardiac tamponade and pacemaker implantation significantly increased. The FRANCE TAVI registry provided reassuring data regarding trends in TAVR performance in an all

  7. [Nurse anesthetist in France].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Yann, Douchy; De Almeida, Sylvie; Deckert, Christine; Gauss, Tobias; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Merckx, Paul; Mantz, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We present the system of nurse anesthetist (Infirmier Anesthésiste Diplômé d'Etat: IADE) in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. This French system with 70 years' history is older than the Japan Society of Anesthesiologists itself. There are 7000 nurse anesthetists in France now and the number of nurse anesthetists increases by 450-500 each year. Training to become a nurse anesthetist requires at least two years' experience as a general nurse and the general nurse must pass an examination after two years' special training in an anesthetistic nurse school to acquire the national certification. The nurse anesthetist's profession is regulated by French law. They work in a team with certified anesthesiologists. They can perform many kinds of anesthetic tasks including tracheal intubation and insertion of arterial catheter under the responsibility and supervision of certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to perform spinal, epidural, conduction and local anesthesia, although they can maintain these anesthesia and control these methods, e.g., by injecting local anesthetic agents through epidural catheter, following a specified prescription. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to insert central venous and pulmonary artery catheters, although they can manage them. They are allowed to administer inhalation anesthetic agents, and inject venous anesthetic agents, muscle relaxants, their antagonists, and opioids by their own initiatives, but the decision for the use of catecholamine and emergency drugs is reserved to certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists perform other tasks preparing and checking anesthetic agents and equipment such as anesthetic machine, monitor, and defibrillator everyday, and sometimes use autologous blood recovery systems. The relationship between the certified anesthesiologist and the nurse anesthetist is marked by mutual respect, confidence and cooperation at each step of the anesthetic

  8. Outreach in southern France

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1992-12-09

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year.

  9. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  10. A surgical sabbatical in France.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, F; Launois, B

    2000-06-01

    During my stay in France I had the unique opportunity to meet surgical professors from all over the world and made many friends and contacts in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. Brittany is a beautiful province of France, having unique way of life and approach to social and societal problems. The cultural enrichment that I received from my year there will last a lifetime, as well the many fond memories of the people, the culinary delights and the spectacular seashore.

  11. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France.

    PubMed

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael Gb; Dina, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses.

  12. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France

    PubMed Central

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Balkau, B; Ducimetière, P; Eschwège;, E; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Girault, A; Fumeron, F; Marre, M; Roussel, R; Bonnet, F; Cauchi, S; Froguel, P; Cogneau, J; Born, C; Caces, E; Cailleau, M; Lantieri, O; Moreau, J G; Rakotozafy, F; Tichet, J; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael GB; Dina, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  13. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Davidson, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  14. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  15. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  16. 76 FR 58768 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof...

  17. 75 FR 2108 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1, 2008, through April 30,...

  18. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  19. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition. PMID:18976564

  20. Pyemotes ventricosus dermatitis, southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  1. Education in France: Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  2. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France, would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...), entitled Sorbitol from France (Inv. No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review). \\2\\ The Commission determined to exercise...

  3. 75 FR 26920 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, Preliminary Results...

  4. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  5. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  6. Human coronavirus NL63, France.

    PubMed

    Vabret, Astrid; Mourez, Thomas; Dina, Julia; van der Hoek, Lia; Gouarin, Stéphanie; Petitjean, Joëlle; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2005-08-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in The Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory specimens for HCoV-NL63. Of the 300 samples, 28 (9.3%) were positive for HCoV-NL63. The highest prevalence was found in February (18%). The main symptoms were fever (61%), rhinitis (39%), bronchiolitis (39%), digestive problems (33%), otitis (28%), pharyngitis (22%), and conjunctivitis (17%). A fragment of the spike protein gene was sequenced to determine the variety of circulating HCoV-NL63. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strains with different genetic markers cocirculate in France.

  7. Human embryo research in France.

    PubMed

    Viville, Stéphane; Ménézo, Yves

    2002-02-01

    The French law on bioethics, voted upon in July 1994, is going to be revised. This is the occasion for France to reconsider its position concerning research on human embryos, which is currently prohibited in France, as it is in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. However, such research is authorised in other European countries such as the UK, Spain, Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands. The establishment of human embryonic stem (ES) cells has reopened the debate in France because of their potential in human therapy. Indeed, ES cells, derived from early embryos (5-6 days old), preserve in vitro a pluripotent character, and they could provide an infinite source of different tissues that could be used in replacement therapy. This consists of ES cells differentiated in vitro into the desired tissues or cell types and grafted into the patient. The use of human ES cells in replacement therapy raises the major problem of graft rejection. One of the proposed solutions would be to carry out a 'therapeutic cloning' and to derive ES cells from the embryos obtained in this way. We do consider that, for the moment, the interest of the cloning study lies mainly in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for reprogramming the nuclei. This research can be performed first on animal models. France is now thinking to allow human embryo research. We present here the French law proposed on human embryo research. French government is proposing to allow research exclusively on frozen supernumerary embryos, which no longer have any parental or adoption potential. Creation of human embryos for research purposes will still be prohibited. However, allowance of studies on human cloning in order to realise therapeutic cloning is mentioned in the proposal. We think that allowing research in humans on therapeutic cloning is premature and contradicts the prohibition of the creation of human embryos for research.

  8. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  9. Ragweed pollen in France: origin, diffusion, exposure.

    PubMed

    Thibaudon, M; Hamberger, C; Guilloux, L; Massot, R

    2010-12-01

    To detect the origin of ragweed pollen and to measure the impact of this pollen exposure on allergic patients, so their sensitivity can be noted (using specific IgE production: sIgEw1) in order to inform the population about an "allergy" against those ragweed pollen grains. To measure population exposure to ragweed pollen, the R.N.S.A (National Aerobiological Monitoring Network, a French association) has a pollen trap network located in urban areas. These traps allow continuous recording of airborne pollen, the light microscope analysis (with a bi-hourly time step) allows one to know the daily concentrations of ragweed grains and the circadian rhythm of grains impaction. It is thus possible to follow the evolution of pollination during each day ofeach season and to compare seasons and years at each station. Biomnis is a biological laboratory which performs more than 85% of ragweed specific IgE assay in France. It seems to be clear that when allergists ask ragweed IgE for a patient, it is because they think that this patient seems to be allergic to this specific pollen. The statistical analysis of results about specific IgE (for ragweed) from the Allergology laboratories Biomnis (located in Lyon and Paris) can determine the number ofpatients sensitized to ragweed in French departments. The distribution ofsensitized patients to ragweed is compared to ragweed pollen distribution studied by the R.N.S.A from the year 2005 to 2008 in France, whatever the ragweed plant' origin: local (closed topollen trap) or imported (by wind). The biological database (Health impact) allows a correlation between the geographical distribution ofragweed pollen and the number ofpatients with specific IgE against ragweed (sIgEw1), i.e., whose sensitization is due to local plants. That also permits one to estimate the expected number of allergy cases in the next years, because the sensitivity precedes the allergy.

  10. [Serious fireworks-related eye injuries in Alsace (France)].

    PubMed

    Marsal, C; Abry, F; Bouyon, M; Meyer, N; Bourcier, T; Speeg-Schatz, C

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to review cases of serious fireworks-related eye injuries presented in the Strasbourg (France) University Hospital ophthalmology emergency department and to analyze epidemiological and clinical data such as visual outcomes and risk factors. A 13-year retrospective study (1994-2007) including fireworks-related ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalization was conducted. Thirty-nine patients were reported; 95% were male. The mean age was 19.38 years old. There was 61.5% contusions, 33.3% eye and adnexal burns, and 15.4% of the patients suffered from a penetrating injury. More than half of the patients required emergency ophthalmic surgical procedures. Twenty-six percent of the patients had final visual acuity of 20/400 or less. Fireworks are a cause of severe eye injury in France. These injuries are potentially preventable, especially in young males. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  12. [Access to medicines in France].

    PubMed

    Bouvenot, Gilles; Bouvenot, Julien

    2009-03-01

    In France the total cost of medicinal products reimbursed by health insurers in 2007 was over 25 thousand million euros, and access to new drugs is neither restricted nor rationed, despite the unfavorable economic situation. In 2007 and 2008 the Transparency Commission (TC) of the French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé) approved the reimbursement of 97% of new drugs and new indications for existing products, within 90 days on average. The 3% of medicinal products that were not approved did not represent therapeutic advances and could be considered to be of dubious utility. If evaluation of new drugs is to be an independent process, then HAS must not only be independent of the decision-maker, funding bodies and commercial firms, but must also be a purely medical and technical organization. This implies removing all financial consideration from the picture, including the size of the target population that may qualify for a new treatment. This system could be further improved by creating special procedures to promote funding for innovations outside the marketing authorization system, thereby providing patients with faster access to the drugs they need; these procedures would include temporary authorisation, temporary treatment protocols, and a special-case function for treatment of chronic and rare conditions. Currently, new treatments produced by the pharmaceutical industry are paid for by national funding bodies and, from this point of view, it is difficult to argue that drug innovation is under-supported in France. On the other hand, it is well known that France has long been the largest consumer of medicinal drugs, both in Europe and worldwide. Two behavioral patterns partially explain this situation: one is a tendency to believe that drugs are the answer to all health concerns, and the other is a preference for new, more expensive drugs, even though "never" is not necessarily "better".

  13. [Health and politics in France].

    PubMed

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  14. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  15. [Surgical glove use in France].

    PubMed

    Caillot, J L

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, surgeons have used gloves to prevent infectious complications to the patient. The AIDS epidemic of the 1980's sparked the use of universal precautions to protect the surgeon from infection and vice-versa. The interface between surgeon and patient is in effect a two-way street. Surgical techniques must be modified and barrier protection optimized to minimize these risks. A single layer glove is a fragile barrier to blood exposure; unrecognized glove perforations may lead to unrecognized and prolonged exposure. Double gloving, though far from being a widespread practice in France, seems to be the best protection from pathogen exposure. Glove powder and latex allergies have their own inherent risks to both surgeon and patient in the form of latex allergies and adhesive peritonitis. New institutional protocols will be necesssary in order to make powder-free non-latex gloves available to French surgeons.

  16. Regulation of Biobanks in France.

    PubMed

    Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Pigeon, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The privacy of biobank research participants in France is protected by a combination of bioethics laws, research laws, and data protection laws. Although the law has attempted to facilitate research by creating an opt-out regime for research with pre-existing samples, other aspects of the law hinder research. The requirement for multiple consents throughout the process of biobank sample collection and use, the lack of acceptance of a broad consent for biobanking, and genetic exceptionalism in the law all complicate biobank research. With IRB approval, opt-out consent may be used for genetic research using human tissue collected for other purposes, but express consent is still required for research with the associated genetic data. Among the important issues remaining to be addressed are harmonizing and simplifying the various informed consent processes. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallourd, Pierre, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution from France is based on recently-published documents and in particular on the "Report on the Public Infancy Service for Early Childhood," published in February 2007 by a department of the Prime Minister's Office, the Centre of Strategic Analysis, Social Affairs Section and "Early Childhood Education and Care, a…

  18. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallourd, Pierre, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution from France is based on recently-published documents and in particular on the "Report on the Public Infancy Service for Early Childhood," published in February 2007 by a department of the Prime Minister's Office, the Centre of Strategic Analysis, Social Affairs Section and "Early Childhood Education and Care, a…

  19. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results... Commerce (the Department) initiated the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and... deadline, the Department is revoking the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from...

  20. The PermaFRANCE network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    A French long term monitoring network of permafrost and frost related processes, named PermaFRANCE, is being built since two years. It will represent the French contribution to the Alpine wide PermaNET network. The PermaFRANCE network will focus not only on permafrost, but on all frost related phenomena at different altitudinal levels, including both thermal monitoring and process observation and monitoring : 1) continuous and discontinuous permafrost in rock walls : - thermal monitoring is mainly performed at the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif) and includes rock surface temperature (RST) and temperature profils in medium depth boreholes (10 m) ; - inventory and observation of rockfall activity in high mountain rock walls : this action concerns the whole Mont Blanc area and is based on a hitorical inventory and an observation of current activity based on a network of observers and contributors ; 2) discontinuous permafrost is surficial deposits and flat bedrock : - thermal monitoring is performed on five rockglacier sites and includes ground surface temperature (GST) and annual BTS campaigns on some sites. Two medium depth boreholes (15 m) have been made in 2009 on one site, and equipped for thermal profile monitoring. A deep borehole (100 m) will be made in 2010 at 45° N latitude ; - geophysical monitoring is performed on 4 sites : repeated vertical electrical soundings exist for some sites since 20 years, and have been complemented since 2007 by eletrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismics ; - surficial displacements of rockglaciers : surficial displacements are measured either by classical geodesy or by DGPS on 6 rockglaciers ; 3) sporadic permafrost at middle altitudes : - an inventory of cold scree slopes and biological investigations on soil and tree growth (dendrogeomorphology) have already been achieved ; - a thermal monitoring should be initiated on selected sites in 2010 ; 4) seasonal frost and frost/thaw cycles at middle and low

  1. [Smoking in women in France].

    PubMed

    Hill, C

    1999-10-01

    Surveillance of smoking behavior and study of consequences of smoking on the health of the French population, and particularly the female population, is a public health priority. The amount of tobacco consumed can be determined from sales figures and from surveys. Globally, tobacco sales increased through 1985. According to the available surveys, the proportion of regular smokers has varied little as smoking rate has decreased in men and increased in women. The decrease occurred in all age groups for men and increased only in the 25-49 year age group for women. Smoking is the cause of 60,000 deaths per year in France, 57,000 in the male population and 3,000 in the female population. Despite reinforced legislation (The Veil and Evin laws) which is unfortunately poorly applied, tobacco consumption has not decreased greatly. Funding levels for anti-smoking campaigns are totally insignificant compared with the efforts of the tobacco industry to promote their products. However, the beneficial health effect of stopping smoking is truly great since the risk depends much more on the duration of smoking than on the number of daily cigarettes. In addition, the delay between the cause and consequence is long, the consequences of the increase in tobacco smoking among young women over the last 20 years will not become visible until 20 to 40 years from now. One could wonder why so little effort has been put into anti-smoking campaigns despite the readily available data clearly warranting their promotion.

  2. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  3. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    PubMed

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Cold wake of Hurricane Frances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Niiler, P. Peter; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-08-01

    An array of instruments air-deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances measured the three-dimensional, time dependent response of the ocean to this strong (60 ms-1) storm. Sea surface temperature cooled by up to 2.2°C with the greatest cooling occurring in a 50-km-wide band centered 60-85 km to the right of the track. The cooling was almost entirely due to vertical mixing, not air-sea heat fluxes. Currents of up to 1.6 ms-1 and thermocline displacements of up to 50 m dispersed as near-inertial internal waves. The heat in excess of 26°C, decreased behind the storm due primarily to horizontal advection of heat away from the storm track, with a small contribution from mixing across the 26°C isotherm. SST cooling under the storm core (0.4°C) produced a 16% decrease in air-sea heat flux implying an approximately 5 ms-1 reduction in peak winds

  5. [The occupational physician in France].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information.

  6. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR...

  7. New environmental technology options in France

    SciTech Connect

    Oppeneau, J.C. )

    1994-12-01

    Since the 1980s and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the environmental, or ''ecological,'' dimension has become the basis for a strategic orientation among industries and economies. France in 1992 allocated nearly 100.5 billion French francs ($19 billion)--1.4 percent of its gross domestic products--to environmental protection. If drinking water production facilities, natural resource conservation, urban amenities and waste recycling are included, France's expenditure on the environment is almost 140 billion francs ($26.4 billion), or 1.8 percent of GDP. Despite a recessionary period, environmental expenditures increased about 2.4 percent in 1992, while industrial investment remained constant. Traditional industry's share in this national expenditure has reached 30 percent.

  8. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  9. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  10. New digital circuits at Thomson semiconductor in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellamussia, J. P.

    1985-11-01

    DCS, Thomson Semiconductors' Semi-Standard Circuits Department, has just announced a CMOS gate array with up to 4,200 gates, standard cells, and a unique 900-component, 3 GHz linear gate array. All of Thomson's gate arrays are supported by Daisy, Valid and Mentor workstations. These are the first fruits of a reorganization begun several months ago to distance the department from the actual design and manufacture of integrated circuits, making it more of an archestrator among customers, workstation manufacturers, independent designers and the various Thomson Semiconductors division. Thomson Semiconductors' silicon sales based on DCS contracts totaled 25,000,000 Frances in 1984. This figure should be double in 1985. Thomson Semiconductors plans to offer 120 new integrated circuits this year, twice the number available in 1984. At the same time, the Munich design center and the American subsidiary, VSI, should open new markets in 1985, bringing exports to an estimated 30 percent of sales.

  11. View of Mediterranean coastal area of southeastern France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-30

    SL3-40-077 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of the Mediterranean coastal area of southeastern France as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. This view of the coast extends from the eastern outskirts of Marseilles easterly to Cannes, and includes the city of Toulon. The S190-A experiment is part of the Skylab Earth Resources Experiments Package. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  12. The Evolution of Minehunting in France (L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    AD-A132 532 THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE IL’EVOLUTION DE I/1 LA CHASSE AUX MINES EN FRANCE)(U) NAVAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER WASHINGTON...SEP 16 0 -wm- a/or.’- i.,it ______ D a " THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE (de Drezigue, Cdr; L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France...than the minehunter could assure this mission? Evolution of Minehunting The guiding thought of this evolution is the following: to have a good

  13. [Smoking and electronic cigarettes in France].

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    France is one of the developed countries where the prevalence of tobacco use is the highest. The reduction of incidence and prevalence of tobacco use in the near future would considerably decrease tobacco associated mortality and morbidity. The electronic cigarette, a consumer product that delivers pharmacologically active substances, is used by several millions of persons in France. The benefit-risk ratio of electronic cigarette use is unknown, as of today.

  14. Questionnaire-based survey on distribution and clinical incidence of canine babesiosis in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The causative agent of canine babesiosis is the protozoan Babesia canis, transmitted by the tick Dermacentor reticulatus within France. While the parasite can be found everywhere in France however cases of infection are associated with distinct geographical foci. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in veterinary clinics in order to propose an updated map of the disease distribution in France. Results Questionnaires were sent via email to all canine veterinary clinics in continental France. Information collected included the number of babesiosis cases diagnosed in 2010, the number of veterinary practitioners and the location of the clinic. The total number of dogs and practitioners per administrative department were used to define the reference population. The annual incidence rate of canine babesiosis per department was calculated as the ratio between the number of babesiosis cases reported by the clinics and the total number of dogs in the clinics of the same department. Data were geo-referenced for map construction (Quantum GIS version 1.7.4). The overall annual incidence rate of clinical babesiosis among the surveyed population was 1.07% (CI95 1.05-1.09) with geographical variations between departments, ranging from 0.01% to 16.05%. Four enzootic areas were identified: South-West, Center, East and Paris area. The South-West region should be considered as a hyper-enzootic area with the higher incidence rates. Conclusion Our results confirmed the burden of canine babesiosis in France. In the context of tick-borne disease emergence in Europe, the risk for canine babesiosis may become more significant in other European countries in the coming years. PMID:23448544

  15. Questionnaire-based survey on distribution and clinical incidence of canine babesiosis in France.

    PubMed

    Halos, Lénaïg; Lebert, Isabelle; Chao, Isabelle; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Ducrot, Christian; Abrial, David; Ravier, Jean-François; Guillot, Jacques

    2013-02-28

    The causative agent of canine babesiosis is the protozoan Babesia canis, transmitted by the tick Dermacentor reticulatus within France. While the parasite can be found everywhere in France however cases of infection are associated with distinct geographical foci. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in veterinary clinics in order to propose an updated map of the disease distribution in France. Questionnaires were sent via email to all canine veterinary clinics in continental France. Information collected included the number of babesiosis cases diagnosed in 2010, the number of veterinary practitioners and the location of the clinic. The total number of dogs and practitioners per administrative department were used to define the reference population. The annual incidence rate of canine babesiosis per department was calculated as the ratio between the number of babesiosis cases reported by the clinics and the total number of dogs in the clinics of the same department. Data were geo-referenced for map construction (Quantum GIS version 1.7.4). The overall annual incidence rate of clinical babesiosis among the surveyed population was 1.07% (CI95 1.05-1.09) with geographical variations between departments, ranging from 0.01% to 16.05%. Four enzootic areas were identified: South-West, Center, East and Paris area. The South-West region should be considered as a hyper-enzootic area with the higher incidence rates. Our results confirmed the burden of canine babesiosis in France. In the context of tick-borne disease emergence in Europe, the risk for canine babesiosis may become more significant in other European countries in the coming years.

  16. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  17. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  18. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  19. [Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in France].

    PubMed

    Herida, M; Michel, A; Goulet, V; Janier, M; Sednaoui, P; Dupin, N; de Barbeyrac, B; Semaille, C

    2005-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) in France are reported on a voluntary basis through several sentinel surveillance systems. To monitor STI, sentinel laboratory- or clinician-based surveillance systems were set up by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire: gonorrhea surveillance (Renago) in 1986, Chlamydia infections surveillance (Renachla) in 1989, and more recently, syphilis surveillance in 2000 and rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in 2004. From 2000 to 2003, 1,089 syphilis infections were reported. Most of the cases were diagnosed in men having sex with men (MSM) and were mainly reported by STI clinics located in the Paris area. From 1997 to 2000, an increase of gonorrhea was observed each year. After two years of stable trend, the prevalence of gonorrhea increased again in 2003. From 2002 to 2004, 123 LGV cases were diagnosed in France and were observed only in MSM. Since 2001, Chlamydia infections have steadily increased, particularly in women. Because STI surveillance is based on a voluntary basis, the number of reported cases is probably lower than the number of STI diagnosed in France. However, the data provided by the different surveillance systems reveals that STI have been increasing in France since 1997. Moreover, the resurgence of syphilis in 2000 and the emergence of rectal LGV in 2004 indicate that these STI occur mainly in MSM. Trends on incidence and patients characteristics observed in France are similar to those of several Europeans countries. European Public Health interventions are becoming necessary to prevent and control STI.

  20. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2008].

    PubMed

    Che, D; Antoine, D

    2011-07-01

    A total of 5,758 tuberculosis cases were notified in France in 2008, giving a rate of nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The median age was 45 years and 59% of cases were male patients. Île-de-France (Paris and greater Paris area) and French Guiana had the highest notification rate in 2008 (17.9/10(5) and 22.6/10(5) respectively). The rate of tuberculosis was higher in individuals born abroad (43.2/10(5) vs. 5.0/10(5) for individuals born in France), especially those recently arrived in France. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 72% of notified cases, 76% of which were potentially contagious (positive sputum smear, or culture). Compared to 2007, the number of notified tuberculosis cases increased by 3.3% in 2008. This increase was not accompanied by a rise of severe cases (meningitis and miliary TB); this seemed to be due partly to improvement in identification and notification of cases. However this trend could require specific monitoring in future years. A national tuberculosis control program was launched in France in 2007, aiming at reducing epidemiological disparities. Clinical and public health expertise needs to be maintained on all the territory to ensure that implemented measures can have the expected impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  1. [Utilization of methylphenidate(Ritalin) in France].

    PubMed

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2002-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the only psychostimulant approved in France and indicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children over 6 years. It is under restricted prescription and distribution conditions. As such, it requires a hospital initiated prescription from either a neurology, psychiatry or pediatric specialist and it is covered by the "narcotics" schedule. The French Pharmacovigilance database spontaneous adverse drug reactions reporting, since it was approved in 1995, were analyzed. 21 adverse drug reactions were reported. In 16 cases, methylphenidate was suspected. They were generally non-serious, mild side effects and in most cases promptly resolved. These results do not suggest methylphenidate misuse in France or an overuse in between 1300 and 4000 treated children, to date. Until more information is available concerning the long-term effects of methylphenidate, and in order to limit misuse, inappropriate or overuse, the current prescription and dispensing regulation should be maintained in France, and could well be developed in other countries.

  2. [A case of donovanosis acquired in France].

    PubMed

    Okhremchuk, I; Marmottant, E; Abed, S; Nguyen, A-T; Fournier, B; Boye, T; Morand, J-J

    2016-11-01

    Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) is a bacterial infection caused by Klebsiella granulomatis that occurs mainly in the genital area and is primarily sexually transmitted; it is seen predominantly in the tropics. Herein, we report a case of the disease contracted in metropolitan France. A 47-year-old man presented with painless ulceration of the glans, present for one month, with progressive extension; there was no history of any recent trip abroad. Skin biopsy with Whartin-Starry and Giemsa staining revealed Donovan bodies in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on these findings, further questioning of the patient revealed unprotected sexual contact two months earlier in France. Treatment was initiated with azithromycin 1g on the first day followed by 500mg per day for three weeks. The clinical outcome was spectacular, with almost complete regression of the ulcer at 7 days. This case demonstrates that donovanosis can occur in metropolitan France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [The vision of welders in France].

    PubMed

    Boissin, J P; Peyresblanques, J; Rollin, J P; Marini, F; Beaufils, D

    2002-10-01

    A study was conducted to measure the impact of welding on the vision of welders. This study was conducted in France by the occupational medicine staff of large companies on 1.131 people, namely 850 welders and 281 control subjects. This investigation included two examinations at the beginning and the end of a year. The investigative procedure examined the different welding processes, the percentage of working time spent on welding activity, the length of exposure in years, as well as the medical variables: the optical correction type and history of ocular traumatology. The Visiotest or the Ergovision were used for the visual examination, equipment in common use by occupational medicine departments. The welders were comparatively young (59.53% of them were less than 45 years old). Moreover, for 69.75% of the welders, more than 75% of their activity was devoted to welding. All currently used welding processes were represented, including the modern PLASMA-TIG welding process. No excessive blood alcohol levels were observed in all subjects, but welders did smoke slightly more than the control subjects (40% vs 33%). Self-medication was rather less frequent among the welders, except as regards the use of eye drops, where the proportions were clearly inverted. Optical correction for hyperopia was similar between the two groups; however, as regards myopia, the welders were corrected less often. Lastly, contact lens use was exceptional among the welders. Nearsightedness varied logically with age, but also, inexplicably, with the welding processes. Vision recovery time after exposure to glare was much longer among the welders, except for the PLASMA-TIG processes. No difference was observed in the other parameters of the study. No change in the visual functions studied was noted between the two examinations. The examination techniques used showed no impairment of the studied visual functions, probably because companies use protective and preventive eye care methods. Moreover

  4. [Foreign-born youth in France].

    PubMed

    Tribalat, M

    1996-12-01

    Data from an INED survey on migration and social integration (Mobilite Geographique et Insertion Sociale) carried out in France in 1992 are used to examine the process of assimilation of young people aged 20-29 in France. The results show that although there are many problems facing the young of foreign origin, and particularly those of North African origin, the situation concerning their integration into French society has improved significantly over the course of a generation despite the economic and social problems affecting the country that have made the process of assimilation more difficult.

  5. Intercomparison of passive dosimetry technology at EDF facilities in France.

    PubMed

    Garcier, Y; Cordier, G; Pauron, C; Fazileabasse, J

    2007-01-01

    Since the spring of 1999, new French radiation protection legislation has allowed the use of passive dosemeters, other than the silver emulsion film badge, for the measurement of H(p)(10). Faced with the eventual obsolescence of its dosimetry system, Electricité de France (EDF, the French electricity provider) initiated a comparative study of passive dosemeters, based on different technologies, that had received accreditation by national laboratories and regulatory bodies, namely: TLD, RPL and OSL. An extended field study in nuclear power stations and medical X-ray departments has shown that all technologies provide compatible dosimetric estimates. It also showed that the selected dosemeters based on RPL and OSL technologies gave better results due to their energy responses and to a lower detection threshold compliant with the new regulation. A final suggestion to implement a new OSL based dosimetric system is made due to its overall performance and to its lower cost of implementation.

  6. 78 FR 49115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...-100-AD; Amendment 39-17285; AD 2012-25-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... applies to certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B3 helicopters. The reference to Title...

  7. Frances Rauscher: Music and Reasoning. Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Neal

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an interview with Frances Rauscher, a research psychologist and musician who has studied the effects of music on the brain. Maintains that students who have studied music have enhanced spatial reasoning. Recommends that music education begin at younger ages. (CFR)

  8. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  9. Haemovigilance and transfusion safety in France.

    PubMed

    Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y

    2000-01-01

    The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety.

  10. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  11. France's Rich Relation: The Oc Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Simon

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of Occitan, a Romance language spoken in a large portion of France, looks at the history; irregular characteristics; orthographic and morphophonemic variations across dialects; and present status, which is in danger of becoming extinct because of neglect, of the language. (MSE)

  12. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  13. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  14. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  15. France: Nukes Stuck between NATO and EU

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    On words alone, however, the French may seem more prone to use nuclear weapons, which may start a potential chain reaction that could lead to the...A COLD HANDSHAKE BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND THE UNITED STATES...height of the Cold War. In the 1950s, France embarked on a campaign of building for nuclear energy to power its postwar reconstruction and nuclear

  16. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  17. The emergence of cognitive science in France.

    PubMed

    Chamak, B

    1999-10-01

    A comparison between the development of cognitive science in France and the USA enables us to analyze some national differences linked to specific connections between the scientific, military, economic and political worlds. The influence of new practices and tools developed during World War II and the Cold War appears to be of crucial importance in understanding the development of this new field, as well as that of cybernetics, computer science, artificial intelligence and molecular biology. This paper can be considered as a study in how the differing contexts in France and the USA shaped the history of the construction of cognitive science in each of these two countries. In spite of various differences, some common aspects may be pointed out: in both cases, computer experts and psychologists using a computational modelling approach were those first engaged in the construction of cognitive science. If in France neuroscience-oriented cognitive science research was stronger than in the USA, it seems that the artificial intelligence orientation is also of growing importance in France.

  18. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  19. Les instituts universitaires de technologie en France. (The university institutes of technology in France)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineau, Gaston

    1971-01-01

    In 1966 France passed legislation naming three types of technical training: two year postbaccalaureate, short-cycle for those without a bachelor's degree, adult education, for those already employed. (MF)

  20. Comparison of hospital pharmacy practice in France and Canada: can different practice perspectives complement each other?

    PubMed

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Bussières, Jean-François; Brion, Françoise; Bourdon, Olivier

    2007-10-01

    To compare hospital pharmacy practice in France and Canada by identifying similarities and differences in the two institution's pharmacy activities, resources, drug dispensing processes and responsibilities. Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine (SJ), Montréal, Québec, Canada and Hôpital Robert Debré (RD), Paris, France, are two maternal-child teaching hospitals. They share a similar mission focused on patient care, teaching and research. The data were gathered from annual reports, department strategic plans and by direct observation. The description and comparison of the legal environment, hospital demographics, pharmacy department data, drug dispensing processes and pharmacist activities in the two institutions. The Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine and Hôpital Robert Debré are similar with respect to their mission and general demographics; number of beds, annual hospital expenditures, number of admissions, visits and childbirths. The respective pharmacy departments differ in allocated resources. The main operational differences concern compounding, quality control programs and clinical activities. The French department also manages medical devices, medical gases, blood derivatives and the sterilisation unit. These comparisons highlight the more patient-oriented Canadian hospital pharmacy practice against the more product-oriented French hospital practice Factors contributing to these differences include academic curriculum, the attention paid to the legal environment by professional bodies, staffing patterns and culture. There are differences between the hospital pharmacy practice in the studied hospitals in Canada and France. Hospital pharmacy practice in France seems to be more product oriented, and the practice in Canada seems more patient oriented.

  1. Satellite remote sensing of hailstorms in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía

    2016-12-01

    Hailstorms are meteorological phenomena of great interest to the scientific community, owing to their socioeconomic impact, which is mainly on agricultural production. With its global coverage and high spatial and temporal resolution, satellite remote sensing can contribute to monitoring of such events through the development of appropriate techniques. This paper presents an extensive validation in the south of France of a hail detection tool (HDT) developed for the Middle Ebro Valley (MEV). The HDT is based on consecutive application of two filters, a convection mask (CM) and hail mask (HM), using spectral channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The south of France is an ideal area for studying hailstorms, because there is a robust database of hail falls recorded by an extensive network of hailpads managed by the Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA). The results show noticeably poorer performance of the HDT in France relative to that in the MEV, with probability of detection (POD) 60.4% and false alarm rate (FAR) 26.6%. For this reason, a new tool to suit the characteristics of hailstorms in France has been developed. The France Hail Detection Tool (FHDT) was developed using logistic regression from channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor of the MSG. The FHDT was validated, resulting in POD 69.3% and FAR 15.4%, thus improving hail detection in the study area as compared with the previous tool. The new tool was tested in a case study with satisfactory results, supporting its future practical application.

  2. 77 FR 18965 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Eurocopter France Model SA341G helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by an analysis and tests performed... Civile (DGAC), which is the aviation authority for France, has issued French AD No. F-2004-070, dated...

  3. 77 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B... France EC 155, SA 366, SA 365, and AS 365 model helicopters, except those with certain modifications...) Applicability This AD applies to Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, and SA-366G1 helicopters,...

  4. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  5. 77 FR 43734 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... Determination This helicopter model is manufactured in France and is type certificated for operation in the...

  6. 78 FR 75579 - Low Enriched Uranium From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Low Enriched Uranium from France: Investigation No. 731-TA-909 (Second Review). By order of the...

  7. 78 FR 857 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...-17302; AD 2012-26-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350BA helicopters with certain AERAZUR... Determination These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for...

  8. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  9. 76 FR 2647 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the...) initiated administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from...

  10. Does the Commercial French Syllabus Reflect the Situation in France? A Re-Evaluation and Suggestions for Course Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Raymond E.

    The ideal foreign language business course would be a cooperative effort between the business school and the foreign language department, prepare students for any of the five proficiency levels in the French Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris test, be designed for the American working in France, and have a balanced international trade…

  11. Does the Commercial French Syllabus Reflect the Situation in France? A Re-Evaluation and Suggestions for Course Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Raymond E.

    The ideal foreign language business course would be a cooperative effort between the business school and the foreign language department, prepare students for any of the five proficiency levels in the French Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris test, be designed for the American working in France, and have a balanced international trade…

  12. [Étienne Destot (1864-1918): the first radioanatomist in Lyon, France].

    PubMed

    Viard, B; Trost, O; Trouilloud, P; Salomon, C

    2014-03-01

    Destot was born in Dijon, France, in 1864. He began his education in Burgundy, then he started his preclinical curriculum in Lyon, France, from 1884. He had to leave Lyon, and spent some times in Algeria to treat a tuberculosis. He came back in Lyon as a resident in 1886. Destot worked as an assistant in the laboratory of anatomy of Leo Testut in 1880. His thesis, in 1892, analyzed mortality in the departments of surgery of the Lyon hospitals. The polemical results he presented compromised his surgical career. He went on as prosector by Leo Testut, and then became electrician-physician in 1895 (electrotherapy and galvanotherapy). Étienne Destot of Lyon, France, developed in 1895 the first radiography room ever at the Hôtel-Dieu of Lyon, France. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays in the same year, and Destot felt his discovery could revolutionize the approach of anatomy and traumatology. He studied wrist, ankle and calcaneus fractures, and described a new anatomy: "traumatic anatomy". For example, he focused on the posterior talar surface hollow in posterior tarsus fractures. He proposed the term of "thalamus" for this articular surface; this term is nowadays widely used by the clinicians. He introduced the term of "third malleolus" to describe the posterior part of the distal extremity of the tibia. He was the first author to analyze the normal and pathological movements of the scaphoid bone and the lunatum in wrist extension.

  13. [Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): expansion history of a "biological pollutant" in France].

    PubMed

    Dessaint, Fabrice; Chauvel, Bruno; Bretagnolle, François

    2005-02-01

    In France, common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an invasive species, which most probably originates from North America. This plant is responsible for human health problems as the pollen causes allergic rhinitis and seasonal asthma; in addition, it engenders agronomical problems as the efficient herbicide treatments are few. Consequently, various departments of the Rhône-Alpes region set up eradication programs for common ragweed. The species is distributed over a large range of ecological environments (road margins, embankments, river beds) and does not seem to be dependent on soil properties. Its ability to occupy different environments varies with the geographic location. Common ragweed was cultivated in botanical gardens during the XVIIIth century but seems to have arrived in France in seed lots during the XIXth century. It therefore began its "invasion" as a crop weed. Because of its late emergence date (late March), common ragweed is most frequently found in spring crops as well as during the inter-crop season. Its "natural" dispersal mechanisms are rudimentary; its seeds are probably dispersed mostly during the transport of material (soil, gravel, compost...), irrigation and especially via harvest combines. The development history of this species in France is scarcely known. The examination of herbarium collections helped to partially reconstruct the history of the species. According to the first results, the species arrived in several locations and at different dates in France. However, common ragweed spread most successfully in the Lyons region because of reasons still unknown.

  14. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital.

  15. Diphtheria: a zoonotic disease in France?

    PubMed

    Bonmarin, Isabelle; Guiso, Nicole; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Patey, Olivier; Patrick, A D Grimont; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2009-06-24

    Thanks to vaccination, diphtheria has almost disappeared in France. The case definition, used for mandatory notification, was expanded in 2003 to include toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium ulcerans. We describe the epidemiology of diphtheria in France from 1990 to 2008. No cases occurred between 1990 and 2001. Since 2002, 19 cases have been reported: 4 cases due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae related to exposure in endemic countries, and 15 cases due to other corynebacteria, including 4 cases of pseudomembranous pharyngitis, mainly related to contact with domestic animals. High vaccination coverage in the population and sensitive surveillance need to be maintained. Moreover, control measures need to be adapted to the non-C. diphtheriae toxigenic species.

  16. Modeling the Historical Flood Events in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hani; Blaquière, Simon

    2017-04-01

    We will present the simulation results for different scenarios based on the flood model developed by AXA Global P&C CAT Modeling team. The model uses a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 75 m resolution, a hydrographic system (DB Carthage), daily rainfall data from "Météo France", water level from "HYDRO Banque" the French Hydrological Database (www.hydro.eaufrance.fr), for more than 1500 stations, hydrological model from IRSTEA and in-house hydraulic tool. In particular, the model re-simulates the most important and costly flood events that occurred during the past decade in France: we will present the re-simulated meteorological conditions since 1964 and estimate insurance loss incurred on current AXA portfolio of individual risks.

  17. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    PubMed Central

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France. PMID:23425508

  18. First case of human gongylonemosis in France.

    PubMed

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  19. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  20. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis.

  1. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  2. [Suicide in France, a situational analysis].

    PubMed

    Facy, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    The fall in the number of suicides in France in no way diminishes the urgent need to act and reinforce the efforts, initiatives and resources to fight against this human tragedy. Public policies are starting to show results. The action of the French national suicide watch, associations, health professionals as well as the perspectives of the French national mental health council should amplify this movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  4. The e-Bug project in France.

    PubMed

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  5. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    PubMed

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard.

  7. Bioelectromagnetics Research in France--An Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-29

    lEanetj’ hr black auf) Over the past decade, France has played a major research role In bicebec- tri~ gnetics (BEN) (studies of the interaction of...materials studied at CNRS; reasonable conclusion. Occupational use animal behavior and electroencephalogram of electromagnetic energy, on the oher...at slightly shorter A crossed -beam apparatus for treatment times and at slightly lower simultaneous spectrophotometric observa- final temperatures

  8. Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Dupieux, C; Blondé, R; Bouchiat, C; Meugnier, H; Bes, M; Laurent, S; Vandenesch, F; Laurent, F; Tristan, A

    2015-06-11

    We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus argenteus, harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). These two sporadic cases were community-acquired, and identified in France in 2014. Both had an epidemiological link with Mayotte, an overseas department of France located in the Indian Ocean off the south-eastern African coast. This report illustrates that, contrary to previous descriptions, S. argenteus can acquire important virulence factors and be responsible for severe infections.

  9. [Epidemiology of urogenital cancers in France].

    PubMed

    Rébillard, Xavier; Tretarre, Brigitte

    2007-03-31

    Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in France as well as survival data are published by the cancer registry network (Francim). In 2000, the number of new cancer cases was almost 280,000 in France. This number has been gradually increasing, partly due to population aging. The proportion of urological cancers is increasing as well, as a consequence of the marked increase in number of prostate cancers. The estimated number of new cases for the 4 main urological cancers in 2000 reached 61,174, distributed as follows: 40,310 prostate cancers, 10,771 bladder cancers, 8,293 kidney cancers and 1,800 testis cancers. Urological tumours represented at the time 22% of new cancer cases in France: 35% of male cancers (56,402 /161,025) and 4% of female cancers (4,772/117,228). The relative five-year survival for prostate cancers is high: 80%. It is below that of testis cancers (95% after 5 years), but higher than that of kidney cancers (64% in men and 63% in women after five years). Of all urological cancers, bladder cancers have the worst prognosis, since the relative five-year survival is 60% in men and especially 50% in women.

  10. Mosquito spiroplasmas from France and their ecology.

    PubMed

    Chastel, C; Devau, B; Le Goff, F; Simitzis-Le Flohic, A M; Gruffaz, R; Kerdraon, G; Gilot, B

    1987-06-01

    Spiroplasmas have been isolated previously from a number of blood-sucking arthropods, including ticks, horseflies, and deerflies. More recently, spiroplasmas were isolated from mosquitoes from the USA, France, and Taiwan. Spiroplasmas isolated from mosquitoes from France belong to at least three serogroups and are serologically different from one of the Taiwan isolates, Sp2. Our Ar 1343 strain is the prototype of a new serogroup (XIII). During 3 consecutive years (1983-85), the ecology of these spiroplasmas was studied in different biotopes near, and in, the Isère River Valley in Savoia, France. A total of 23 strains was isolated from four species or groups of mosquitoes (Aedes sticticus/vexans, Ae. cantans/annulipes, Ae. cinereus/geminus and Coquillettidia richiardii). Spiroplasmas were isolated only from female mosquitoes and only during June and July. An as yet unidentified virus was also isolated from three mosquito pools, one of which yielded spiroplasmas. Spiroplasma viruses were not detected. Antibody to our Ar 1357 isolate was found in 4 of 20 sera from cows living in the areas studied, but not in sera from wild rodents or in sera from rabbit or pigeon sentinels. Finally, preliminary results are presented on the effects of experimental infection of Ae. aegypti with the Ar 1357 isolated (serogroup XXII).

  11. A paradox in physics education in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  12. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  13. Peripheral arterial obliterative disease. Cost of illness in France.

    PubMed

    Montron, A; Guignard, E; Pelc, A; Comte, S

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this study, carried out in 1995, was to determine, using available sources, the cost of peripheral arterial obliterative disease (PAOD) in France over a 1-year period. This cost-of-illness study was based on a retrospective analysis of the available literature and databases. It involved a description of epidemiological data and a cost estimate of the different medical resources consumed over 1 year. For this latter purpose, a payer perspective was chosen. Data were extracted from national representative surveys and databases with respect to morbidity and mortality [from the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale; INSERM) and the National Sickness Insurance Fund for Salaried People (Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés; CNAMTS)], consultations, examination tests and drug prescriptions [from the French Medical Audit conducted by Intercontinental Medical Statistics (IMS)], hospitalisations [from the Statistical Unit of the Department of Health-Service des Statistiques, des Etudes et des Systemes d'Information (SESI) and the National Public Research Centre in Health Economics (Centre de Recherche d'Etude et de Documentation en Economie de la Santé; CREDES)] and related health expenditure from CNAMTS. In France, the prevalence of stage II PAOD (Leriche and Fontaine classification) in 1992 was estimated to be 675,000; 53% of these patients had undergone vascular or bypass surgery. The total annual cost of healthcare (including consultations, drugs, laboratory tests, hospitalisation and hydrotherapy) for the management of patients with PAOD ranged from 3.9 billion French francs (F) to F4.6 billion (1995 values), depending on the type of hospital considered. 50% of this cost was related to hospitalisations and 75% was covered by the CNAMTS. Although this study was only a partial evaluation and did not take into account indirect costs or nonmedical direct

  14. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  15. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  16. Time series modelling and forecasting of emergency department overcrowding.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Farid; Harrou, Fouzi; Chaabane, Sondès; Tahon, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Efficient management of patient flow (demand) in emergency departments (EDs) has become an urgent issue for many hospital administrations. Today, more and more attention is being paid to hospital management systems to optimally manage patient flow and to improve management strategies, efficiency and safety in such establishments. To this end, EDs require significant human and material resources, but unfortunately these are limited. Within such a framework, the ability to accurately forecast demand in emergency departments has considerable implications for hospitals to improve resource allocation and strategic planning. The aim of this study was to develop models for forecasting daily attendances at the hospital emergency department in Lille, France. The study demonstrates how time-series analysis can be used to forecast, at least in the short term, demand for emergency services in a hospital emergency department. The forecasts were based on daily patient attendances at the paediatric emergency department in Lille regional hospital centre, France, from January 2012 to December 2012. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method was applied separately to each of the two GEMSA categories and total patient attendances. Time-series analysis was shown to provide a useful, readily available tool for forecasting emergency department demand.

  17. Epidemiological surveillance at Electricité de France-Gaz de France: health assessment of nuclear power plant employees between 1993 and 1998.

    PubMed

    Gros, H; Chevalier, A; Carrié, E; Lahon, G

    2002-02-01

    Because the 17,500 employees working in nuclear power plants at Electricité de France, the national power company, may be exposed to a wide variety of industrial hazards, the health insurance department of the company has set up an epidemiological surveillance programme for them. This report describes its first stage, an analysis of their health problems. This descriptive, cross-sectional and exhaustive study examined sick-leave, mortality and cancer incidence to assess the health of the employees working from 1993 through 1998. The analysis compared the employees in nuclear power plants, considered 'exposed', with the rest of the personnel of Electricité de France-Gaz de France, the 'non-exposed' (125,000 persons). Relative risks for these variables were estimated, after stratification for age, sex and work grade. Globally, the employees in the nuclear sector appeared to have fewer health problems than the other company employees. This was true regardless of age and especially for men, operating employees and supervisory employees. Nonetheless, three points must be noted: non-work accidents generated a non-significant excess of absenteeism and mortality among these employees, especially among management and supervisory personnel; suicides affected supervisors in particular; and an excess of primary malignant brain tumours affected both mortality [relative risk (RR) = 1.96, n.s.] and incidence, especially among operating employees (RR = 2.87, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-8.43). No excess of malignant blood disease was observed. This study, performed for surveillance purposes, points to brain tumours as a problem that raises important aetiological questions. Research is now necessary to provide answers. Surveillance of nuclear plant employees at Electricité de France should be continued and expanded to include the study of specific occupational exposures.

  18. ITEP: A survey of innovative environmental restoration technologies in the Netherlands and France

    SciTech Connect

    Roberds, W.J.; Voss, C.F.; Hitchcock, S.A.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Exchange Program (ITEP) of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for promoting the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs and the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program, potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in the Netherlands and France, were identified, described, and evaluated. It was found that 12 innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in the Netherlands and France, may have some benefit for the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the United States.

  19. Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 569

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Reducing poverty and social exclusion is an important objective for all French governments. Even though conventionally measured poverty is in fact lower than in most other countries, it is still higher than can be easily accepted. The current policy approach involves a large number of measures tailored to different circumstances. Some policies…

  20. Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 569

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Reducing poverty and social exclusion is an important objective for all French governments. Even though conventionally measured poverty is in fact lower than in most other countries, it is still higher than can be easily accepted. The current policy approach involves a large number of measures tailored to different circumstances. Some policies…

  1. 78 FR 38821 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N, SA... apply to Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, and AS 365 N3..., 2011 (AD No. 2011-0190), to correct an unsafe condition for the Eurocopter France EC 155, SA 366,...

  2. Human tularemia in France, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max; Pelloux, Isabelle; Brion, Jean Paul; Del Banõ, Jeanne-Noëlle; Picard, Aleth

    2011-11-01

    Tularemia is an endemic but rare disease in France. We describe the epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in 101 consecutive patients investigated during a 5-year period (2006-2010). All tularemia cases confirmed at the French Reference Center for Tularemia (FRCT) were included. Data were collected both at the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (mandatory notification) and FRCT. Diagnostic methods included serological tests (microagglutination and indirect immunofluorescence assay), Francisella tularensis cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests, and molecular identification of the F. tularensis subspecies involved. The patient cohort consisted of 55 men and 46 women (sex ratio, 1.2; average age, 51.7 years), including 93 sporadic cases that occurred throughout France. Contaminations occurred predominantly through contact with or ingestion of lagomorphs (31.7%), tick bites (10.9%), or contaminated environments (7.9%). The glandular and ulceroglandular forms predominated (57.5% of cases), but 18.8% of patients experienced a systemic disease and 29.7% were hospitalized. Specific diagnosis was mainly based on serology, but 38.6% of patients had positive RT-PCR tests and 20.8% had a positive culture. F. tularensis subspecies holarctica was identified in 25 patients. All patients except 1 recovered from infection, but 38.6% experienced relapses despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. The epidemiological and clinical aspects of tularemia in France are varied, suggesting different modes of contamination. The high rates of systemic diseases and hospitalization indicate that the more serious cases are more likely to be diagnosed and notified. RT-PCR tests may help to improve diagnosis and reporting of the disease.

  3. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France].

    PubMed

    Vigoureux, S

    2016-12-01

    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Current data on malaria in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Danis, M; Legros, F; Thellier, M; Caumes, E

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological data from the French National Reference Center for Imported Diseases showed that the estimated number of cases of imported malaria in France increased from 5,940 in 1998 to 7,127 in 1999 and 8,056 in 2000. This three-year progression ended in 2001 when the number of estimated cases fell back to 7,223. It was due mainly to the concomitant increase in the number of people traveling to endemic zones especially in Africa. In 2000 the median age of patients with imported malaria in France was 29.5 years and the sex ratio was 1.78. Sixty-three percent of cases involved people of African origin and 37% involved "Westerners". The countries in which contamination occurred were located in tropical Africa (95%), Asia (2.2%), and Latin America (2.7%). During the three year period from 1998 to 2000, there were a total of 13 accidental autochtonous cases of malaria involving patients with no history of travel to tropical areas. The distribution of Plasmodium species involved in imported malaria in France was stable with 83% of cases involving Plasmodium falciparum, 6% involving Plasmodium vivax, 6.5% involving Plasmodium ovale and 1.3% involving Plasmodium malariae. Attacks were clinically uncomplicated in 90 to 95% of cases and severe in 2 to 5% including fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 0.49 to 0.37% of cases. Less than 10% of the 45% of patients claiming use of prophylaxis complied properly. Analysis of the drugs used for curative treatment in 2000 showed an increase in the use of quinine and mefloquine and decrease in the use of halofantrine. The main objectives remain reduction of mortality and improvement of prevention.

  5. Outlier detection for groundwater data in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valmy, Larissa; de Fouquet, Chantal; Bourgine, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Quality and quantity water in France are increasingly observed since the 70s. Moreover, in 2000, the EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for community action in the water policy field for the protection of inland surface waters (rivers and lakes), transitional waters (estuaries), coastal waters and groundwater. It will ensure that all aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands meet 'good status' by 2015. The Directive requires Member States to establish river basin districts and for each of these a river basin management plan. In France, monitoring programs for the water status were implemented in each basin since 2007. The data collected through these programs feed into an information system which contributes to check the compliance of water environmental legislation implementation, assess the status of water guide management actions (programs of measures) and evaluate their effectiveness, and inform the public. Our work consists in study quality and quantity groundwater data for some basins in France. We propose a specific mathematical approach in order to detect outliers and study trends in time series. In statistic, an outlier is an observation that lies outside the overall pattern of a distribution. Usually, the presence of an outlier indicates some sort of problem, thus, it is important to detect it in order to know the cause. In fact, techniques for temporal data analysis have been developed for several decades in parallel with geostatistical methods. However compared to standard statistical methods, geostatistical analysis allows incomplete or irregular time series analysis. Otherwise, tests carried out by the BRGM showed the potential contribution of geostatistical methods for characterization of environmental data time series. Our approach is to exploit this potential through the development of specific algorithms, tests and validation of methods. We will introduce and explain our method

  6. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    PubMed

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  7. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  8. Model of the 2003 Tour de France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannas, Benjamin Lee; Goff, John Eric

    2004-05-01

    We modeled the 2003 Tour de France bicycle race using stage profile data for which elevations at various points in each stage are known. Each stage is modeled as a series of inclined planes. We accounted for the forces on a bicycle-rider combination such as aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance and calculated the winning stage times for an assumed set of bicycle and rider parameters. The calculated total race time differed from the sum of all actual winning stage times by only 0.03%.

  9. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  10. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  11. [Economic repercussions of cardiac insufficiency in France].

    PubMed

    Selke, B; Brunot, A; Lebrun, T

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the article is to review economic and public health consequences of congestive heart failure in France. This disease with an increasing prevalence induces for the social security system and the society a high cost; 85 to 93% of this cost are bound to hospitalizations, most of them avoidable. New modalities of care are to be chosen in order to improve the management of heart failure and to contain costs. In this context, multidisciplinary interventions based on patients' education are experimented taking care to assure a greater role to health actors working in the ambulatory sector (GPs, private cardiologists, nurses).

  12. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.

  13. La France a ta porte: Negocier les apprentissages (France at Your Doorstep: Negotiating Learning Experiences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Acosta, Asuncion; Serna, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    A second-language teaching strategy in which students are active in the selection of a unit theme and objective is discussed. In this approach, the teacher assumes the role of monitor in student development of the unit. A sample unit on language for daily living in France illustrates the process. (MSE)

  14. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  15. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    PubMed

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m(3)). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form.

  16. Power Output during the Tour de France.

    PubMed

    Vogt, S; Schumacher, Y O; Roecker, K; Dickhuth, H-H; Schoberer, U; Schmid, A; Heinrich, L

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demands of riding a "Grand Tour" by monitoring both heart rate and power output in 15 professional cyclists. SRM power output profiles (SRM Trainingsystem, Jülich, Germany) were collected during 148 mass start stages during the 2005 Tour de France and analyzed to establish average power, heart rate (HR) and cadence produced in different terrain categories (flat [FLT]; semi-mountainous [SMT]; mountainous [MT]). The maximal mean power (MMP) for progressively longer durations was quantified. Average HR was similar between FLT (133 +/- 10 bpm) and SMT (134 +/- 8 bpm) but higher during MT (140 +/- 3 bpm). Average power output revealed a similar trend (FLT 218 +/- 21 W [3.1 +/- 0.3 W/kg], SMT 228 +/- 22 W [3.3 +/- 0.3 W/kg], and MT 234 +/- 13 W [3.3 +/- 0.2 W/kg]). Cadence during MT was approximately 6 - 7 rpm lower (81 +/- 15 rpm) compared to FLT or SMT. During MT stages, the MMP for 1800 sec. was highest (394 W vs. 342 W) but the MMP 15 was lower (836 W vs. 895 W) compared to FLT. The data document comprehensively the power output demands during the Tour de France.

  17. Medication Sales and Syndromic Surveillance, France

    PubMed Central

    Grais, Rebecca F.; Sarter, Hélène; Fagot, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Bruno; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    Although syndromic surveillance systems using nonclinical data have been implemented in the United States, the approach has yet to be tested in France. We present the results of the first model based on drug sales that detects the onset of influenza season and forecasts its trend. Using weekly lagged sales of a selected set of medications, we forecast influenzalike illness (ILI) incidence at the national and regional level for 3 epidemic seasons (2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03) and validate the model with real-time updating on the fourth (2003-04). For national forecasts 1–3 weeks ahead, the correlation between observed ILI incidence and forecast was 0.85–0.96, an improvement over the current surveillance method in France. Our findings indicate that drug sales are a useful additional tool to syndromic surveillance, a complementary and independent source of information, and a potential improvement for early warning systems for both epidemic and pandemic planning. PMID:16704778

  18. Aedes albopictus: a potential problem in France.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    1995-12-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of Asian origin, has been rapidly spreading in all the continents since a decade: it is now established in North and South America, Africa, Oceania and even in Europe where it was detected in Albania, 1979 and in Italy, 1990. The international shipping trade of used tires provides to Ae. albopictus an ideal mechanism of dissemination, and everywhere the tire stocks constitute an extremely productive ecological niche. Now, this mosquito is present in several localities in Northern and Central Italy, and it is a real threat for other Mediterranean countries, particularly Southern part of France (French Riviera and Corsica) where climatic conditions are very suitable for its establishment. In addition, the tolerance exhibited by some natural populations of Ae. albopictus for low temperatures allows this species to occupy an area much further north than Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is a very competent vector for many arboviruses, particularly the four dengue serotypes, with the possibility of a vertical transmission; we also know that it can act as an experimental vector for many other viruses. The consequences of its introduction into France would lie in an increased level of transmission of autochthonous viral or filarial (canine dirofilariasis) infections, along with the spread of viruses presently unknown in the region (like dengue, Rift Valley fever, Batai, etc.). For these reasons, it is necessary to set up a permanent entomological surveillance in all the threatened areas in order to detect immediately such an introduction and to be able to quickly eliminate the mosquito.

  19. Strategic nuclear forces of Britain and France

    SciTech Connect

    Prados, J.; Wit, J.S.; Zagurek, M.J. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Weapon inventories of the US and the USSR account for about 97% of the nuclear warheads in the world today; Britain and France have most of the remainder. Yet even the comparatively modest claims the two Western European nations can make in this regard represent an awesome military capability that the USSR (and, to a lesser extent, the US) cannot afford to ignore. Indeed, the recent proposals both superpowers have made to dismantle all their European-based intermediate-range missiles differ sharply in particulars but raise the same fundamental question: What role will the other nuclear forces in Europe have in the future military balance. The Europeans are unlikely to place their limited strategic forces on the bargaining table along with those of the USSR and the US unless the superpowers impose severe constraints on their own strategic-weapon programs, and in particular on their strategic-defense programs. The deployment of such defense systems poses a worrisome dilemma for the Europeans: while in the near term a Soviet anti-ballistic-missile (ABM) system might have only marginal military impact, over the longer term a novel, exotic defense could conceivably nullify the dependent deterrent Britain and France have so arduously sought. At the same time and American system such as the Strategic Defense Initiative could, by decoupling the defense of Europe from that of the US, increase the need for precisely such an independent deterrent in the minds of the British and the French.

  20. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  1. Chairing a Small Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.

    Ten management problems for chairs of small departments in small colleges are discussed, along with problem-solving strategies for these administrators. Serious disagreements within a small and intimate department may create a country club culture in which differences are smoothed over and the personal idiosyncrasies of individual members are…

  2. Probabilistic modeling of financial exposure to flood in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncoulon, David; Quantin, Antoine; Leblois, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    CCR is a French reinsurance company which offers natural catastrophe covers with the State guarantee. Within this framework, CCR develops its own models to assess its financial exposure to floods, droughts, earthquakes and other perils, and thus the exposure of insurers and the French State. A probabilistic flood model has been developed in order to estimate the financial exposure of the Nat Cat insurance market to flood events, depending on their annual occurrence probability. This presentation is organized in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the development of a flood hazard and damage model (ARTEMIS). The model calibration and validation on historical events are then described. In the second part, the coupling of ARTEMIS with two generators of probabilistic events is achieved: a stochastic flow generator and a stochastic spatialized precipitation generator, adapted from the SAMPO model developed by IRSTEA. The analysis of the complementary nature of these two generators is proposed: the first one allows generating floods on the French hydrological station network; the second allows simulating surface water runoff and Small River floods, even on ungauged rivers. Thus, the simulation of thousands of non-occured, but possible events allows us to provide for the first time an estimate of the financial exposure to flooding in France at different scales (commune, department, country) and from different points of view (hazard, vulnerability and damages).

  3. Frequency and correlates of late presentation for HIV infection in France: older adults are a risk group - results from the ANRS-VESPA2 Study, France.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kayigan d'Almeida; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Aubrière, Cindy; Hamelin, Christine; Spire, Bruno; Lert, France

    2014-01-01

    Correlates of late presentation (LP) for HIV infection in Metropolitan France and French overseas departments (FODs) were assessed among HIV-infected patients recently diagnosed, using data from a large cross-sectional survey, representative of the French HIV-infected population, conducted in 2011. LP was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events within the calendar year of diagnosis or CD4 < 350/mm(3) and presentation with advanced disease (PAD) was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events or CD4 < 200/mm(3). Correlates of LP/PAD were assessed through logistic modelling, separately in Metropolitan France and FODs. In Metropolitan France, 47.7% of participants were late presenters and 29.3% presented with advanced disease. LP was more frequent among male and female migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; 58.5% and 56.4%) and non-African heterosexual males (61.8%) than among men who have sex with men (34.8%). In FODs, 53.2% of participants were late presenters and 36.8% presented with an advanced disease. LP was more frequent among men than women (60.6% vs. 45.3%) and among those with a lower level of education (56.6% vs. 47.5%). A consistent positive association was found in adjusted analyses between LP/PAD and increasing age at diagnosis among all subpopulations, in both settings. In Metropolitan France, among men who have sex with men, those self-declaring as bisexual were at higher risk of LP/PAD; among non-African heterosexual males and females, religiosity was associated with increased risk of LP/PAD; and among SSA migrants, those diagnosed within the year following their arrival in France were at higher risk of LP/PAD. Older age at diagnosis is a major risk factor for LP/PAD independently of any other socio-demographic characteristics. Promotion of HIV testing should be renewed to target each subgroup at risk while paying a particular attention to middle-aged or older adults whose attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS might

  4. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  5. In Wake of Riots, France Refashions Priority Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with an initiative embarked upon by the government of France one year after widespread youth violence broke out in many disadvantaged communities in France. The initiative is aimed at adapting its 25-year-old "priority education" program to a landscape that has dramatically changed. The initiative is the centerpiece of…

  6. 78 FR 49116 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-16847; AD 2011-22-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... applies to certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1...

  7. Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Claire; Meyer, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    A new influenza virus, genus D, isolated in US pigs and cattle, has also been circulating in cattle in France. It was first identified there in 2011, and an increase was detected in 2014. The virus genome in France is 94%–99% identical to its US counterpart, which suggests intercontinental spillover. PMID:25628038

  8. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  9. A Primer for Accompanying Secondary Student Groups to France. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jim

    Many of the factors that can help ensure a successful and positive learning experience for teachers, leaders, chaperons, and students who travel and/or study in France are addressed in this publication. Although it is geared toward France, many of the ideas, especially the section on pre-departure orientation, can be applied to any travel group.…

  10. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  11. Social Representation of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Study in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Jean Louis; Zenasni, Franck; Pereira-Fradin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of giftedness in France and the need for identification. Social Representations (SR) of gifted children have never been examined in France with an appropriate methodology, yet it is important to do so as the information obtained may help ensure the insertion and inclusion of these children in school and society. The…

  12. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  13. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  14. In Wake of Riots, France Refashions Priority Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with an initiative embarked upon by the government of France one year after widespread youth violence broke out in many disadvantaged communities in France. The initiative is aimed at adapting its 25-year-old "priority education" program to a landscape that has dramatically changed. The initiative is the centerpiece of…

  15. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  16. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  17. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  18. La punaise diabolique a la conquete de la France

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys is now present in France in Alsace and in several neighboring countries (Switzerland and Italy). The potential risk of invasion of H. halys throughout France is considered to be high. Through its natural dispersal, or with human assistance, this insect will likely colonize the majo...

  19. [Training in tropical medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Touze, Jean-Étienne; Laroche, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Tropical medicine was a key element of the medical structures provided by France to our former colonies and, later; to countries within the scope of our international cooperation. hI recent decades, France has drastically reduced its bilateral commitments to countries in the tropics, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the teaching of tropical medicine, which was highly regarded even beyond our borders, has lost a good deal of its expertise. Initially available in a few large French centers, and ensured by teachers with extensive field experience, training in tropical medicine is now offered in many universities. However; their programs and educational objectives, focusing mainly on infectious and parasitic diseases, no longer meet the healthcare priorities of southern countries, which are facing an epidemiological transition and the rise of non communicable diseases. Few teachers now have recognized expertise in tropical medicine. These changes have had negative consequences for research programs in tropical medicine and for the image of French assistance to developing countries. In this context, the followving perspectives should be considered: 1) training in tropical medicine should be enhanced by the creation of a national diploma recognized by international bodies. 2) The creation of a doctoral course in tropical medicine is a prerequisite for achieving this goal, and the future diploma must include a significant research component. 3) Teaching in tropical medicine must become more practical and be ensured by teachers with extensive field experience. 4) Training in tropical medicine should be part of a bilateral relationship with countries in the tropics, each party contributing its expertise while respecting that of its partners. 5) Training in tropical medicine should be backed uip by high-level scientific research based on enhanced synergy of our current networks (Institute for Research and Development, Network of overseas Pasteur

  20. Retrospective analysis of the cholera cases imported to France from 1973 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Ioos, Sophie; Rotureau, Brice; Paquet, Christophe; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Fournier, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    The manners of traveling and travelers' vulnerability to infection are changing: increasing numbers of travelers, travels at the extreme ages of life, "backpacker" tourism in close contact with local populations. What is the epidemiologic situation and what are the trends of imported cholera to Metropolitan France? A descriptive retrospective study was undertaken on all the confirmed cases of cholera imported to France, and notified from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 2005, using compulsory notification data from local health departments and information from the National Reference Centre. A total of 129 imported cases of cholera were notified between 1973 and 2005 (3.9 cases/y on average). The geographical sources of infection have changed with time: in the 1980s, 94% of the patients were infected in Maghreb (Morocco and Algeria) but none were in 2000. On the other hand, Asia and West Africa progressively emerged and now predominate. In spite of certain poorly informed data and possible underdetection, the number of cases of importation appears to be low and falling. The patient profile seems to have evolved and increasingly concerns people at the extreme ages of life, living elsewhere than the principal basins of immigration in France, and diagnosis is increasingly made in nonteaching hospitals. The lessons likely to help clinicians will be discussed.

  1. Predictive factors of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Dieynaba S; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%-60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%-47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%-88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7-46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9-14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3-3.7]); and (ii) gravidity (p = 0.019), (compared with gravidity = 1, if gravidity≥3, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: [1.1-2.2]; if gravidity = 2, aOR = 1.0, 95% CI: [0.7-1.4]). Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity. In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France.

  2. Predictive Factors of Cytomegalovirus Seropositivity among Pregnant Women in Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    N’Diaye, Dieynaba S.; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Results Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%–60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%–47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%–88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7–46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9–14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3–3.7]); and (ii) gravidity (p = 0.019), (compared with gravidity = 1, if gravidity≥3, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: [1.1–2.2]; if gravidity = 2, aOR = 1.0, 95% CI: [0.7–1.4]). Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity. Conclusions In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France. PMID:24587077

  3. Aging in france: population trends, policy issues, and research institutions.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Viriot Durandal, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology research, and, finally, points to several emerging issues about aging. In France, these issues include active and healthy aging, the improvement of knowledge on specific vulnerable segments of the elderly population, and the adaptation of the urban landscape and infrastructure to an aging population. At the broadest level, one of the key points formulated in this article is that in France, aging research is dominated by the state, yet it is scattered and compartmentalized, posing a crucial challenge in an era dominated by European and other international networks and coordination efforts in aging policy and knowledge.

  4. [France, the European migratory system, and globalization].

    PubMed

    Simon, G

    1996-01-01

    "The overwhelming trend of migratory flows to become globalized, which is manifesting itself in all the major immigrant countries and the planet's main pools of employment, henceforth concerns France and Europe. One of the main challenges confronting these two entities is related to the spatial expansion and rising diversity of their recruitment spaces, and the great difficulty involved in controlling mobility which increasingly tends to function on a global scale. It is essential to revise analytic paradigms based on a strictly national vision which is blind to and repressive of phenomena that are more planetary every day. The global approach will have to combine national management, the functioning of the community's migratory space, relations with increasingly distant and increasingly ¿foreign' lands of origin, and the globalization of migratory dynamics." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  5. The Tour de France: a physiological review.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Arribas, Carlos

    2003-10-01

    On 5 July 2003, the Tour de France (TDF) has celebrated 100th running. Instead of a chimney sweep competing during his free time (as in 1903), the recent winner is a highly trained, professional cyclist whose entire life-style has been dedicated to reach his pinnacle during this event. The TDF has been held successfully for 100 years, but the application of the physiologic sciences to the sport is a relatively recent phenomenon. Although some historical reports help to understand the unique physiological characteristics of this race, scientific studies were not available in Sports Science/Applied Physiology journals until the 1990s. The aim of this article is to review the history of the TDF. Special emphasis is placed on the last decade where classic physiology has been integrated into applied scientific cycling data.

  6. Case management in France: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Frossard, M

    1996-01-01

    Case management is currently an important issue in France. Because neither service providers nor consumers pay for case management in this country, a cost-benefit analysis is often required by the organizations that do pay. Given the context of French social policy and the current focus on justifying case management through cost-benefit analysis, we have developed a way to evaluate its costs. This article presents the limitations of standard economic choice theory, provides a methodology based on the principles of limited rationality, and gives the results of an evaluation of four case management programs. The article provides a method to measure case management costs and efficiency, as well as the willingness of consumers to pay for services.

  7. [Epidemiology of autochthonous leishmaniases in France].

    PubMed

    Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Carme, Bernard; Desbois, Nicole; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Lachaud, Laurence; Pratlong, Francine

    2013-11-01

    Leishmania infantum is the only species occurring in metropolitan France; located in the Mediterranean part of the country, it is responsible for a highly enzootic canine disease, while the human endemicity is low, with about 23 cases yearly reported to the National Reference Centre of Leishmaniases, mainly visceral forms. In French Guyana, five Leishmania species occur in the Amazonian forest, of which L. guyanensis is the predominant species, and L. braziliensis is responsible for the most critical forms. The most frequent clinical feature is cutaneous leishmaniasis, with a mean annual incidence reaching 2 p. 1000, with some inter-annual fluctuations. In Martinique Island, recent studies have confirmed the presence of an ancestral Leishmania species, responsible for small cutaneous lesions, of mild evolution; the life cycle of this species remains unknown. In Guadeloupe Island, a few autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases have been reported, needing a prospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Lafon, Alain; Perves, Jean-Pierre; Rosengard, Alex; Sauzay, Guy

    1993-05-01

    France has developed a very complete nuclear industry, from mining to reprocessing and radwastes management, and now has a major electro-nuclear park, with 55 power reactors, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity and representing 32% of its energy requirements. The modern multinational EURODIF enrichment plant in Pierrelatte in the south of the country supplies these reactors with enriched uranium as well as foreign utilities (30% exports). It works smoothly and has continuously been improved to reduce operating costs and to gain flexibility and longevity. Investment costs will be recovered at the turn of the century. The plant will be competitive well ahead of an aging production park, with large overcapacity, in other countries. Meanwhile, world needs will increase only slightly during the next 15 years, apart from the Asian Pacific area, but many world governments are becoming well aware of the necessity to progressively resume nuclear energy development worldwide from the year 2000 on.

  9. The LUNEX5 project in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Betinelli, P.; Bouvet, F.; Buteau, A.; Cassinari, L.; Daillant, J.; Denard, J. C.; Eymard, P.; Gagey, B.; Herbeaux, C.; Labat, M.; Lagarde, B.; Lestrade, A.; Loulergue, A.; Marchand, P.; Marlats, J. L.; Miron, C.; Morin, P.; Nadji, A.; Polack, F.; Pruvost, J. B.; Ribeiro, F.; Ricaud, J. P.; Roy, P.; Tanikawa, T.; Roux, R.; Bielawski, S.; Evain, C.; Szwaj, C.; Lambert, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.; Lehe, R.; Rousse, A.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Thaury, C.; Devanz, G.; Luong, M.; Carré, B.; LeBec, G.; Farvacque, L.; Dubois, A.; Lüning, J.

    2013-03-01

    The LUNEX5 (free electron Laser Using a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) in France aims at investigating the generation of short, intense, and coherent pulses in the soft x-ray region (with two particular targeted wavelengths of 20 and 13 nm). It consists in a single Free Electron Laser (FEL) line with cryo-ready in-vacuum undulators using a Conventional Linear Accelerator (CLA) using the superconducting technology of 400 MeV or a Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) ranging from 0.4 to 1 GeV with multi-TW or PW lasers. The FEL line can be operated in the seeded (High order Harmonic in Gas seeding) and Echo Enable Harmonic Generation configurations, which performances will be compared. Two pilot user experiments for time-resolved studies of isolated species and magnetization dynamics will take benefit of LUNEX5 FEL radiation.

  10. [Improving emergency department organisation].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Youri; Beltramini, Alexandra; Debuc, Erwan; Pateron, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments use has been constantly increasing over the world. Overcrowding is defined as a situation which compromises patient safety because of delayed cares. This situation is often reached. Emergency departments have to continuously improve their organization to be able to ensure the same quality of care to a higher number of patients. Thus a good organization is essential: it doesn't always avoid overcrowding. The rest of the hospital has to be involved in this process to ensure efficiency. We examine the various interventions and procedures that can be found in medical literature for improving patients flow and management in emergency departments.

  11. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  12. Women's career choices in radiology in France.

    PubMed

    Pyatigorskaya, N; Madson, M; Di Marco, L

    2017-07-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of gender on residents' and fellows' motivations in choosing radiology as a career in France, and on choosing a practice setting later on. An online survey was sent to French residents and fellows in order to access their radiology practice and career aspirations, as well as the potential influence of their gender. Influence of being a woman on initial professional expectations, professional choices, and the evolution of career paths was investigated using the chi-square test. Responses were collected from 206 French residents and fellows. The reasons for choosing radiology residency were, at first, mostly the same for men and women such as interest in the specialty (100% of women and men), work conditions (74% of women and men), technical aspects of the specialty (63% of men and 52% of women, P=0.11) or "reasonable" workload (29% women and 21% men, P=0.19); however, 74% of women stated that maternity might influence their career choices, and were less interested in unstable positions exclusively in private practice (45% men and 33% women, P=0.05). Male and female radiologists primarily considered the same factors in choosing their specialties. However, maternity is still a source of inequality in France, including fewer opportunities for fellowship positions or academic careers. Furthermore, more women were willing to work in salaried positions to acquire a secure job, even though compensation might be lower. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Nebraska Department of Transportation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Nebraska Department of Transportation, a state agency located at 1500 Highway 2, Lincoln, NE 68509, for alleged violations of its municipal separate stormwater sewer sy

  14. Other Departments . . . Other Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADE Bulletin, 1981

    1981-01-01

    This collection of project and program descriptions describes a successful student recruiting method, the features of the United States Air Force Academy's English department, a writing program for the professions, and the writing program at Pennsylvania's Beaver College. (AEA)

  15. Developing the Art Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Harold E.; Stark, Barry

    1977-01-01

    Methods for developing effective inventories for a college store art department are discussed and illustrated. Both on-campus course needs and needs prompted by the local community are considered. (LBH)

  16. Information Update Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

  17. [Emergency departments--2016 update].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M; Brokmann, J C; Gräff, I; Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Gries, A

    2016-04-01

    Acute medical care in hospital emergency departments has experienced rapid development in recent years and gained increasing importance not only from a professional medical point of view but also from an economic and health policy perspective. The present article therefore provides an update on the situation of emergency departments in Germany. Care in emergency departments is provided with an increasing tendency to patients of all ages presenting with varying primary symptoms, complaints, illnesses and injury patterns. In the process, patients reach the emergency department by various routes and structural provision. Cross-sectional communication and cooperation, prioritization and organization of emergency management and especially medical staff qualifications increasingly play a decisive role in this process. The range of necessary knowledge and skills far exceeds the scope of prehospital medical emergency care and the working environment differs substantially. In addition to existing structural and economic problems, the latest developments, as well as future proposals for the design of in-hospital emergency medical care in interdisciplinary emergency departments are described.

  18. First occurrence of cylindrospermopsin in freshwater in France.

    PubMed

    Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Bormans, Myriam; Fastner, Jutta

    2009-08-01

    Eleven waterbodies in Western France dominated by cyanobacteria of the genera Aphanizomenon and Anabaena were analyzed in September 2006 for microcystins (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). CYN was detected for the first time in France in four of them in the presence of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and in the presence of Anabaena planctonica in the other. The intracellular concentrations of CYN measured by LC-MS/MS ranged between 1.55 and 1.95 microg/L. The occurrence of CYN represents an additional health hazard to MC especially because Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is the third most common species in freshwaters in France. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Improving Departments of Psychology.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed

    2016-11-01

    Our procedures for creating excellent departments of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve departments in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these. Finally, I argue that more hiring should occur at advanced levels, where scholars have a proven track record of independent scholarship. Although these practices will be a challenge to implement, institutions do ossify over time and thus searching for ways to improve our departments should be a key element of faculty governance.

  20. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool appropriated for studying multiscale and non-stationary processes that occur in finite spatial and temporal domains. Its development began with Morlet and, since then, the wavelet transform (WT) has had better applications in Geophysics. However, the characterization of hail precipitation is not exempt from difficulty, since it deals with phenomenon on a small scale, with elevated spatial and temporal variation. The extreme variability of the frequency and distribution of hail is attributed, among other things, to the same process of its formation. The conditions that influence hail formation span from air masses climatology to lower-scale factors such as orography, wind fields, concentration of ice nuclei or temperature. This last factor is important both from a point of view of convective activity as well as its influence in the height of the freezing point. Thus, it would be possible to do comparative analysis between time series of temperature and diverse hail variables; or, rather, to try to establish a relationship between periodicities found and phenomenon such as ENSO (El Niño, Southern Oscillation) or NAO (North-Atlantic Oscillation). France is one of the European countries that is most affected by hail precipitation. Previous climatic studies have been done with the objective of characterizing the long-term variability of distinct variables of this hydrometeor that is present in the time series. These measurements are obtained using networks of hailpads distributed in French territory and managed by ANELFA. Berthet et al. (2011) observed the annual hail frequency in France, finding successions of three years with high values followed by three years of low values; this being calculated as the number of hailfalls per year divided by the number of hailpad stations that were in use during said year. In the present paper, a wavelet analysis was carried out with the objective of detecting the possible existence of

  1. Rethinking emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Resar, Roger K; Griffin, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to date have been unable to reverse the trend of increased emergency department utilization. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement has developed a framework for reducing avoidable emergency department visits on the basis of the formation of local coalitions. These coalitions include interested partners approaching improvement by integrating community resources and nonmedical solutions. Targeted patient populations are identified via homogeneous characteristics. Open-ended interview questions are used to identify possible community and nonmedical solutions to complement medical strategies. This article describes the framework and process of testing. If validated, this approach will have significant policy implications.

  2. Spatio-temporal genetic variation of the biting midge vector species Culicoides imicola (Ceratopogonidae) Kieffer in France.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Guis, Hélène; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Goffredo, Maria; Allène, Xavier; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Chevillon, Christine; Bouyer, Jérémy; Baldet, Thierry; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire

    2016-03-11

    Introduction of vector species into new areas represents a main driver for the emergence and worldwide spread of vector-borne diseases. This poses a substantial threat to livestock economies and public health. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, a major vector species of economically important animal viruses, is described with an apparent range expansion in Europe where it has been recorded in south-eastern continental France, its known northern distribution edge. This questioned on further C. imicola population extension and establishment into new territories. Studying the spatio-temporal genetic variation of expanding populations can provide valuable information for the design of reliable models of future spread. Entomological surveys and population genetic approaches were used to assess the spatio-temporal population dynamics of C. imicola in France. Entomological surveys (2-3 consecutive years) were used to evaluate population abundances and local spread in continental France (28 sites in the Var department) and in Corsica (4 sites). We also genotyped at nine microsatellite loci insects from 3 locations in the Var department over 3 years (2008, 2010 and 2012) and from 6 locations in Corsica over 4 years (2002, 2008, 2010 and 2012). Entomological surveys confirmed the establishment of C. imicola populations in Var department, but indicated low abundances and no apparent expansion there within the studied period. Higher population abundances were recorded in Corsica. Our genetic data suggested the absence of spatio-temporal genetic changes within each region but a significant increase of the genetic differentiation between Corsican and Var populations through time. The lack of intra-region population structure may result from strong gene flow among populations. We discussed the observed temporal variation between Corsica and Var as being the result of genetic drift following introduction, and/or the genetic characteristics of populations at their range edge. Our results

  3. [Surveillance of work-related suicide in France: An exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Bossard, C; Santin, G; Lopez, V; Imbernon, E; Cohidon, C

    2016-06-01

    Despite a large media coverage of the phenomenon, the number of work-related suicides is currently unknown in France. There are nevertheless some data available to document this important issue. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of an epidemiological surveillance system for work-related suicides designed to quantify and describe work-related suicides mainly according to economic sectors and occupational categories. Existing data sources in France were identified and evaluated for their relevance and their potential use in a multi-sources surveillance system. A regional pilot study was performed using the main relevant sources identified to investigate different aspects of the system design. Four major data sources were identified to be used to describe work-related suicides: death certificates, social insurance funds, data collected by the officers of the labor inspectorate and data collected from autopsy reports in forensic departments. The regional pilot study gave an estimate of 28 cases of work-related suicide in two years. The findings point out the difficulties involved and the criteria for successful implement of such a system. The study provides some solutions for carrying out this system, the achievement of which will depend upon particular resources and partners' agreements. Recommendations for the next steps have been made based on this work, including possible collaboration with forensic departments, which collect essential data for surveillance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Briquet and Briquet's syndrome viewed from France.

    PubMed

    Dongier, M

    1983-10-01

    Briquet's contributions to the description of hysteria have been almost completely forgotten in France. One may wonder how he, as well as contemporary French psychiatrists, would react to the approach to hysteria introduced and officialized by DSM III. In particular, its fragmentation into syndromes without apparent link to each other (psychogenic amnesia, conversion disorders, histrionic personality disorder, etc.) and its psychological causation, unbalanced by the consideration of organic factors in etiology, may raise questions. The correlation of conversion disorders with hysterical personality remains a feature of the WHO classification (ICD 9), as well as a feature of French contemporary texts, although it is no longer viewed as a regular association by American psychiatry. It may be that cultural factors lead, as suggested by Brisset, to a repression of conversion phenomena and of hyperexpressivity of affects replaced by more psychosomatic disorders in many contemporary societies. Finally, one may question whether the choice of the term "Briquet Syndrome" is appropriate, as many of the patients described by him did not have the chronic and malignant course described by Guze: It tends to limit hysteria to one end (the most severe one) of a spectrum of disorders.

  5. View of Mediterranean coast of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Mediterranean coast of France is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view includes the port cities of Marseilles (near center) and Toulon (far right). The mouth of the Rhone River is on the left. The irregular L-shaped inland body of water is Etang de Berre and is connected to the sea by a narrow canal. The city of Martiques is on the inland side of the canal. Cloud formations form narrow bands or streets along the coast east of Martiques and over the water. Cultural features such as major highways are indicated by thin white lines. Harbor facilities (wharves) and inner city patterns are distinctive in Marseilles and Toulon. The light tan areas in the regions inland from the major cities represent farming communities. The patterns are well shown in the vicinity of the Rhone River. The geology of the region is complex as illustrated by

  6. Sexology as a profession in France.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain; de Colomby, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    A national survey of sexologists was carried out in France in 1998-1999, among the individuals listed in the professional directories and the telephone book as "sexologists." It described the sociodemographic characteristics of sexologists, their initial profession and training in sexology, sex therapy and psychotherapeutic techniques, and how they practice sexology. A total of 959 individuals were identified and surveyed. The response rate was 63%. Two thirds of the sexologists were physicians and 60% were men. French sexologists appeared to be segmented into three subgroups: (1) one-third were general practitioners, trained in sexology and psychotherapeutic approaches, recognized themselves as sexologists, and devoted 40% of their professional activity to sexology. Men were about two thirds of this group; (2) one-third were nonphysicians (including psychologists and other health professionals, such as social workers and nurses), recognized themselves as sex therapists and devoted one third of their time to sexology. Men and women were equally represented in this group; (3) one-third were specialists, with less training in sexology and psychotherapeutic techniques, and did not generally recognize themselves as sexologists. They devoted a lesser part of their time to sexology and had academic and hospital practice. Men comprised more than 75% of this group. This study raised the issue of the diversity of primary professions involved in the field of sexology and showed that sexology is a secondary professional choice for the majority of sexologists.

  7. View of Mediterranean coast of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Mediterranean coast of France is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view includes the port cities of Marseilles (near center) and Toulon (far right). The mouth of the Rhone River is on the left. The irregular L-shaped inland body of water is Etang de Berre and is connected to the sea by a narrow canal. The city of Martiques is on the inland side of the canal. Cloud formations form narrow bands or streets along the coast east of Martiques and over the water. Cultural features such as major highways are indicated by thin white lines. Harbor facilities (wharves) and inner city patterns are distinctive in Marseilles and Toulon. The light tan areas in the regions inland from the major cities represent farming communities. The patterns are well shown in the vicinity of the Rhone River. The geology of the region is complex as illustrated by

  8. Tick-borne encephalitis in eastern France.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Yves; Pierre Gut, Jean; Remy, Veronique; Martinot, Martin; Allard Witz, Marie; Christmann, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Each y a few cases of TBE infection are described in Alsace, France which lies at the occidental limit of the endemic zone of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Hence we carried out a retrospective epidemiological and clinical study of TBE infection in Alsace. Data were collected from serological results sent to the Institut de Virologie (Université Louis Pasteur) in Strasbourg. All samples positive for specific IgM against TBE were retained. The physician in charge of each patient was asked to provide clinical, epidemiological and biological data and with his agreement the medical file was referred to us. Since 1968, 64 cases of TBE infection, occurring between April and November, had been described. In 56% of cases, flu-like symptoms preceded neurological symptoms. Most patients had meningitis (54%) or meningoencephalitis (34%). There was no death due to TBE. Two areas were more highly endemic for the disease: the Guebwiller valley in low mountain country and the Neuhof forest, near Strasbourg in the plain of Alsace. In the last 2 y of the study, a third zone seemed to emerge, in the Munster valley. This epidemiological survey revealed the existence in Alsace of 2 endemic zones of TBE with a third zone possibly emerging in the last few y. The survey must be continued to follow the evolution of the disease.

  9. Cystic fibrosis mortality trends in France.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Gil; Cazes, Marie-Hélène; Parant, Alain; Gaimard, Maryse; Travers, Cécile; Le Roux, Evelyne; Ravilly, Sophie; Rault, Gilles

    2007-05-01

    In 1992 France set up a national cystic fibrosis observatory (Observatoire national de la mucoviscidose, ONM) to monitor the state of health of patients on an annual basis. Using the ONM data, this study estimates the main indicators for life expectancy and assesses the total number of cystic fibrosis patients. The data for the years 1994 to 2003 are divided into 3-year periods. Life tables are drawn up for these periods, from which mean and median lengths of life are determined. Using the most recent life table, the number of births in 2003 and the incidence of the disease, the total population of patients can be estimated, assuming a stationary population. In 2001-2003, life expectancy at birth of patients registered with the ONM was 39.1 years and median length of life was 36.4 years. These results, substantially better than those of 1994-1996, are linked to improved conditions of patient inclusion in the ONM database, to improvements in their healthcare, but also to the limitations of the life tables. Based on the 2003 data, the total theoretical number of patients is 6490, and coverage by the ONM database is thus 63.2%. These provisional results demonstrate the need to convert the ONM observatory into a registry providing exhaustive coverage of all patients.

  10. The CQI/TQM journey in France.

    PubMed

    Maguerez, G

    1997-01-01

    In France interest in continuous quality improvement (CQI) and other quality improvement (QI) approaches is recent and experience modest, but the pace of change should quicken now that the government has required that all hospitals be accredited within the next five years. In addition, in the face of increasing competition, hospitals, public and private, may find a quality strategy to be critical in helping them survive. In fall 1994 the National Agency for the Promotion of Medical Evaluation (ANDEM) was mandated by the Ministry of Health to set up a national demonstration project based on quality assurance and CQI methodologies. The program was designed to identify the key success factors for implementing such programs within hospitals. The program involves 28 18-month CQI projects, which deal with prevention of nosocomial infection, patient safety in anesthesia, medical records, blood transfusion safety, drug dispensing safety, and control of violence in psychiatric settings. Participating hospitals are required to analyze the variation in the involved processes and attempt to reduce variation through cross-departmental quality management programs. The general method for each team's management of the project closely follows the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle. Preliminary experience suggests that the participating hospitals have benefited from following the same model and sharing of accounts of their progress. Representatives of the 28 teams met in fall 1995 and June 1996, and future meetings are planned. Most of the teams have collected quantitative data about the current processes and have started to pilot test process changes.

  11. [The blood donors' haemovigilance in France].

    PubMed

    Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N

    2013-05-01

    This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. The Quaternary coversands of southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bateman, Mark D.; Hernandez, Marion; Garon, Henri; de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Mercier, Norbert; Leroyer, Chantal; Queffelec, Alain; Voinchet, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64-42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24-14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial-interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.

  13. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  14. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the Établissement français du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  15. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France.

    PubMed

    Adida, Claire L; Laitin, David D; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-12-28

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences' 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin.

  16. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  17. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    PubMed

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  18. [The image of smoking women in France].

    PubMed

    Sledziewski, E G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to try to understand why the social image of the smoking woman remains positive and cannot be assimilated to that of the smoking man. We wanted to describe the typical status and function of smoking women in today's social imaginary in France. We identified and interpreted selected images in which female smoking is presented as an ideological corpus. The cultural meaning of female and male smoking, as well as their pathological effects, are different and should not be apprehended symmetrically. The leading feministic culture deeply resists alarming discourses about the dangers of tobacco, considering them to have little importance. Female smoking is still encouraged and exalted for its emancipating power: tobacco liberates woman from an impracticable womanhood. There is a need for a political approach to female smoking, viewing it as a modern form of mutilation meant to compensate for the extension of women's rights. In order to fight against this imagery efficiently, it must be put into a critical perspective, eliminating taboos about certain feministic misunderstandings and dead-ends. A woman must be offered something more than smoking cessation: an improvement in her own being, a way to reappropriate her gendered identity.

  19. Strengthening Science Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers do not work in a vacuum. They are, in most cases, part of a science department in which teachers and the chairperson have important roles in science education reform. Current reform is shaped by national standards documents that emphasize the pedagogical and conceptual importance of best practices framed by constructivism and focused on…

  20. Maryland Department of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.

    This document traces the historical development of the Maryland Department of Education from the first notable efforts to establish free schooling in 1825 to the present. An introductory section briefly sketches early development of a centralized system and the establishment of a state board in 1870. "From 1900 to World War I" focuses on…

  1. Planning Homemaking Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Ruth; Mather, Mary

    1961-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for home economists, the article treats five major ideas for planning home economics departments in schools, as follows--(1) the importance of sharing the planning responsibility among teacher, parent, and administrator, citing an example of successful planning, (2) the need for teaching methods, course content and equipment…

  2. Department-Initiated Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics departments in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of departments…

  3. Honoring Energy Department Vets

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven; Majors, Alvan; Underwood, David

    2016-07-12

    Veterans from the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and the National Guard who work at the Department of Energy met Wednesday with Secretary Steven Chu, who hosted more than a dozen former service members to thank them for their continued service to America.

  4. Planning Homemaking Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Ruth; Mather, Mary

    1961-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for home economists, the article treats five major ideas for planning home economics departments in schools, as follows--(1) the importance of sharing the planning responsibility among teacher, parent, and administrator, citing an example of successful planning, (2) the need for teaching methods, course content and equipment…

  5. Personnel Department Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, David

    In 1989, the Austin Independent School District's Office of Research and Evaluation was directed to monitor the automation of personnel information and processes in the district's Department of Personnel. Earlier, a study committee appointed by the Superintendent during the 1988-89 school year identified issues related to Personnel Department…

  6. Department-Initiated Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics departments in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of departments…

  7. Strengthening Science Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers do not work in a vacuum. They are, in most cases, part of a science department in which teachers and the chairperson have important roles in science education reform. Current reform is shaped by national standards documents that emphasize the pedagogical and conceptual importance of best practices framed by constructivism and focused on…

  8. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right.

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection California Historical Society Original: About 1890 Re-photo: January 1940 SECOND FRAME CHURCH REPLACING MISSION (1890) - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  10. 16. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society, 1900) Photographer unknown, Date unknown FRONT VIEW OF MISSION, c. 1900 - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  11. 19. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society, 1880) Photographer unknown, April 1940 EXTERIOR VIEW OF REAR OF CHURCH - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  12. 20. Photocopy of photograph (From Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (From Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW OF CHURCH FROM REAR - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  13. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  14. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  15. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  16. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  17. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  18. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.

  19. History as Passport: Frances FitzGerald and Her Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall, William

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to get at some of the assumptions and definitions behind "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald and, in addition, to investigate some of the conceptions of history held by critics who reviewed the book. (DB)

  20. Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-14

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured these images and cloud-top height retrievals of Hurricane Frances on September 4, 2004, when the eye sat just off the coast of eastern Florida, and Hurricane Ivan on September 5th.

  1. [Low vaccination coverage against influenza in elderly hospitalized in France].

    PubMed

    Rouveix, E; Greffe, S; Dupont, C; Gherissi Cherni, D; Beauchet, A; Sordet Guepet, H; Gavazzi, G; Gaillat, J

    2013-12-01

    Annual influenza epidemics is still a major cause of illness and mortality especially in the elderly. Annual vaccination is the most effective way to prevent disease and reduce hospitalizations and deaths related to influenza in the elderly population. In France, there are few data available about vaccination coverage of elderly at risk for influenza. The aim of the study was to measure the influenza vaccination coverage and assess traceability in the elderly (≥ 75 years old) admitted to hospital. In participating French hospitals, each patient aged 75 years or more, hospitalized in acute units of internal medicine, geriatric and infectious disease, was included in a multicentric point prevalence survey. Between April and May 2011, 63 departments of 28 hospitals participated and 903 patients were included (mean age of included patients: 85 years): 82% were previously living at home and 13% were institutionalized. Most of them had multiple diseases (77%) and 21% were admitted for a respiratory disease: 58% were vaccinated against influenza. A back-up for traceability was identified in 53% of cases. Patient refusal may be a common determinant of non-vaccination, as well as non-proposal by the attending physician. The vaccination rate did not differ according to usual living place including accommodation facilities in geriatric. Coverage for influenza vaccination is low in hospitalized elderly patients and traceability is insufficient. This vaccine, noncompliance mostly linked to the refusal of patients, is a worrisome public health problem, on which physicians and hospital staff in charge, as well as institutions, should turn attention toward a multi-professional preventive strategy against the morbidity risk of this infectious disease. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Child homicide and neglect in France: 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, F; Rambaud, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the victims and the offenders in children homicide cases and to propose preventive measures. We retrospectively investigated homicides and deaths by neglect involving children aged 15 or less, which have been autopsied in the Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine of the Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France, during the 18-year period from 1991 to 2008. Cases included were analyzed for victims' age and gender, victim-assailant's relation, death cause and scenery, and offender's motivation. For the purposes of the study, victims were divided into four age groups: new born; infants (1-23 months); young children (2-5 years); and children (6-15 years). During the study period, 70 victims of homicide or fatal neglect were identified, which equates to a child homicide prevalence of 0.56 per 100,000 children per year. Slightly more than half of the victims (51.4%) were less than 1 year old. Neonaticide prevalence was 0.12 per 100,000 births with an equal distribution between genders. Neonates were most likely to be killed by their mothers while fathers were the most frequent assailants in both infants and children groups. Stepparents were involved in only one case. Familicide cases where children and spouses are killed were perpetrated only by fathers. The leading cause of death was blunt trauma (especially head trauma). In the neonaticide group, half of the victims died from passive neglect whereas gunshots were predominant in the children groups.

  3. Indoor terrestrial gamma dose rate mapping in France: a case study using two different geostatistical models.

    PubMed

    Warnery, E; Ielsch, G; Lajaunie, C; Cale, E; Wackernagel, H; Debayle, C; Guillevic, J

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma dose rates show important spatial variations in France. Previous studies resulted in maps of arithmetic means of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates by "departement" (French district). However, numerous areas could not be characterized due to the lack of data. The aim of our work was to obtain more precise estimates of the spatial variability of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates in France by using a more recent and complete data base and geostatistics. The study was based on the exploitation of 97,595 measurements results distributed in 17,404 locations covering all of France. Measurements were done by the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) using RPL (Radio Photo Luminescent) dosimeters, exposed during several months between years 2011 and 2012 in French dentist surgeries and veterinary clinics. The data used came from dosimeters which were not exposed to anthropic sources. After removing the cosmic rays contribution in order to study only the telluric gamma radiation, it was decided to work with the arithmetic means of the time-series measurements, weighted by the time-exposure of the dosimeters, for each location. The values varied between 13 and 349 nSv/h, with an arithmetic mean of 76 nSv/h. The observed statistical distribution of the gamma dose rates was skewed to the right. Firstly, ordinary kriging was performed in order to predict the gamma dose rate on cells of 1*1 km(2), all over the domain. The second step of the study was to use an auxiliary variable in estimates. The IRSN achieved in 2010 a classification of the French geological formations, characterizing their uranium potential on the bases of geology and local measurement results of rocks uranium content. This information is georeferenced in a map at the scale 1:1,000,000. The geological uranium potential (GUP) was classified in 5 qualitative categories. As telluric gamma rays mostly come from the progenies of the (238)Uranium series present in rocks, this

  4. Incidence of acute intussusception among infants in eastern France: results of the EPIstudy trial.

    PubMed

    Fotso Kamdem, Arnaud; Vidal, Chrystelle; Pazart, Lionel; Leroux, Franck; Pugin, Aurore; Savet, Caroline; Sainte-Claire Deville, Geoffroy; Riou França, Lionel; Guillemot, Didier; Massol, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of intussusception in infants varies around the world. The epidemiology of intussusception in France has never been prospectively studied. We performed a prospective observational study with systematic inclusion of all infants aged <1 year with suspected intussusception admitted to the emergency departments of the hospitals in the eastern region of France (98,000 live births per year), from 4/1/2008 to 3/31/2012. Cases were classified using the Brighton Collaboration classification. In total, 185 infants with suspected intussusception were included of which 169 were idiopathic intussusception. Among these 169 cases, 115 (68%) were classed as Brighton level 1 (confirmed cases). Overall incidence of intussusception over the 4 years of the study was 29.8 (95% CI 24.6-35.7) cases per 100,000 live births for level 1 and 37.5 (95% CI 31.7-44.2) cases per 100,000 live births for all cases (levels 1-4). Annual incidence rates of level 1 intussusception were as follows: 44 (95% CI 31.9-59.3), 30.9 (20.9-44.2), 21.7 (13.4-33.2) and 22.1 (13.7-33.8) per 100,000 live births in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th study years, respectively. The incidence rate of intussusception in the eastern part of France is comparable to that of other European countries. There was a significant trend towards a decrease in the incidence of intussusception. What is known • Intussusception is the most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction in infants and young children. Overall incidence of intussusception in infants aged <1 year varies widely around the world. No specific epidemiological studies have not been conducted in France on intussusception. What is new: • This prospective and multicenter study provides important information about the epidemiology of intussusception in infants in France over a period of 4 years.

  5. France, West Germany, and the Security of the Persian Gulf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    oligopolistic battle developed between the major oil companies on one side and the nationalized or cartelized coal companies on the other in which the oil...French government, relishing the favored treatment, insisted that all oil companies supplying France implement the Arab policy fully and refused to...maximum potential, whereas the technology for exploiting geothermal power still remains to be developed . By 1979, however, France relied on hydroelectric

  6. [A probable case of alveolar echinococcosis in Normandy, France].

    PubMed

    Costes, Laurent; Thirot-Bidault, Anne; Dhalluin-Venier, Valérie; Rangheard, Anne-Sophie; Benichou, Joseph; Pelletier, Gilles

    2005-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis induced liver infection was diagnosed in a Moroccan patient. Diagnosis was based on CT scan results and Western Blot test. Contamination probably occurred in France, in the Cherbourg area where the patient travelled frequently and ate wild berries. This case and other recently reported cases outside the usual endemic areas (Besançon and the Massif Central) suggest that the Echinococcus multilocularis epidemic has moved towards the west of France. French gastroenterologists should be aware of this parasitic disease.

  7. [First report of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1984) in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F; Karch, S

    2000-04-01

    The first record of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France has been made in a village of Orne (Basse-Normandie). A few larvae were collected in October 1999, in the used tire stock of an important tire recycling company, importing in particular from the USA and Japan. Reproduction of the species has taken place in France, and the environmental conditions make the implantation of the species probable.

  8. 77 FR 54353 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, SA-366G1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC... to amend 14 CFR part 39 to include an AD that would apply to all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, SA-366G1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC 155B, and EC155B1 helicopters. That NPRM proposed...

  9. A brief history of genome research and bioinformatics in France.

    PubMed

    Danchin, A

    2000-01-01

    The development of in silico genomics has progressed slowly in France for a number of political reasons. Two administrative organizations, the Groupement de Recherche sur les Génomes (GREG) and the Groupement de Recherche 1029 (GDR 1029) of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) have been established. These organizations have created the dynamics that hopefully will place France (which coordinated consortia that completed several of the first large microbial genomes) among the developed nations that support Large-Scale Biology.

  10. Comparison of rehospitalization rates in France and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gusmano, Michael; Rodwin, Victor; Weisz, Daniel; Cottenet, Jonathan; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To compare rates of 30-day all-cause rehospitalization in France and the US among patients aged 65 years and older and explain any difference between the countries. To calculate rehospitalization rates in France, we use an individual identifying variable in the national hospital administrative dataset to track unique individuals aged 65 years or more hospitalized in France in 2010. To calculate the proportion of rehospitalized patients (65+) who received outpatient visits between the time of initial discharge and rehospitalization, we linked the hospital database with a database that includes all medical and surgical admissions. We used step by step regression models to predict rehospitalization. Rates of rehospitalization in France (14.7%) are lower than among Medicare beneficiaries in the US (20%). We find that age, sex, patient morbidity and the ownership status of the hospital are all correlated with rehospitalization in France. Lower rates of rehospitalization in France appear to be due to a combination of better access to primary care, better health among the older French population, longer lengths of stay in French hospitals and the fact that French nursing homes do not face the same financial incentive to rehospitalize residents. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. [Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden].

    PubMed

    Dezileaux, Barbara; Martinez, Florie

    2016-06-01

    Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Project compares quantitatively outpatient drug prescriptions in France, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained from national databases; the unit of measurement was defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants. The five most prescribed drug classes were compared in each country in 2009, then benzodiazepines and antibiotics from 2006 to 2012. A literature review was focused on the context of prescriptions for each country. In 2009, the five most prescribed drug classes in the four countries represented seven classes in total. France was not the biggest prescriber of drugs, but from 2006 to 2012 benzodiazepines and antibiotics were prescribed much more in France than in the other countries. The evolution of prescriptions was different for each country, and very stable in France. In 2009, France was not the biggest drugs consumer of all classes, but was characterized by high prescriptions in some classes. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Infidelity: Mending Your Marriage After an Affair

    MedlinePlus

    ... long-term decisions. Consider the following: Don't make rash decisions. If you think you might physically hurt yourself ... healing: Don't decide. This is not a decision to make at the height of your emotional struggles. Before ...

  13. Mending Vending: Administrators Face a Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    Phil Gainous is in a sticky spot. The board of education in Montgomery County, Md., decided this was the year when sugary sodas and non-nutritious snacks must disappear from high school vending machines, replaced by healthier options. Gainous isn't against promoting healthy habits. But as the veteran principal of Montgomery Blair High School, the…

  14. Mending Vending: Administrators Face a Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    Phil Gainous is in a sticky spot. The board of education in Montgomery County, Md., decided this was the year when sugary sodas and non-nutritious snacks must disappear from high school vending machines, replaced by healthier options. Gainous isn't against promoting healthy habits. But as the veteran principal of Montgomery Blair High School, the…

  15. [History of clinical pharmacology in France: adaptation, evaluation, defense and illustration of drug in France 1978-1981].

    PubMed

    Montastruc, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This text illustrates some unknown aspects of the history and beginnings of clinical pharmacology in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s From the current situation, development and objectives of clinical pharmacology are recalled as well as obstacles necessary to overcome to change the paradigm in the field of drug evaluation and appropriate use in France. The text recalls this important moment where French medicine and medical pharmacology entered the modern era.

  16. Risk of cancer associated with cardiac catheterization procedures during childhood: a cohort study in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation can be used effectively for diagnosis and medical treatment, but it can also cause cancers later on. Children with congenital heart disease frequently undergo cardiac catheterization procedures for diagnostic or treatment purposes. Despite the clear clinical benefit to the patient, the complexity of these procedures may result in high cumulative radiation exposure. Given children’s greater sensitivity to radiation and the longer life span during which radiation health effects can develop, an epidemiological cohort study is being launched in France to evaluate the risks of leukaemia and solid cancers in this specific population. Methods/design The study population will include all children who have undergone at least one cardiac catheterization procedure since 2000 and were under 10 years old and permanent residents of France at the time of the procedure. Electronically stored patient records from the departments of paediatric cardiology of the French national network for complex congenital heart diseases (M3C) are being searched to identify the children to be included. The minimum dataset will comprise: identification of the subject (file number in the centre or department, full name, sex, date and place of birth), and characteristics of the intervention (date, underlying disease, type of procedure, technical details, such as fluoroscopy time and dose area product, (DAP), which are needed to reconstruct the doses received by each child). The cohort will be followed up through linkage with the two French paediatric cancer registries, which have recorded all cases of childhood leukaemia and solid cancers in France since 1990 and 2000, respectively. Radiation exposure will be estimated retrospectively for each child. 4500 children with catherizations between 2000 and 2011 have been already included in the cohort, and recruitment is ongoing at the national level. The study is expected to finally include a total of 8000 children. Discussion This

  17. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  18. Emergency department triage revisited.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerard; Jelinek, George A; Scott, Deborah; Gerdtz, Marie Frances

    2010-02-01

    Triage is a process that is critical to the effective management of modern emergency departments. Triage systems aim, not only to ensure clinical justice for the patient, but also to provide an effective tool for departmental organisation, monitoring and evaluation. Over the last 20 years, triage systems have been standardised in a number of countries and efforts made to ensure consistency of application. However, the ongoing crowding of emergency departments resulting from access block and increased demand has led to calls for a review of systems of triage. In addition, international variance in triage systems limits the capacity for benchmarking. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the literature pertaining to emergency department triage in order to inform the direction for future research. While education, guidelines and algorithms have been shown to reduce triage variation, there remains significant inconsistency in triage assessment arising from the diversity of factors determining the urgency of any individual patient. It is timely to accept this diversity, what is agreed, and what may be agreeable. It is time to develop and test an International Triage Scale (ITS) which is supported by an international collaborative approach towards a triage research agenda. This agenda would seek to further develop application and moderating tools and to utilise the scales for international benchmarking and research programmes.

  19. Imported amoebic liver abscess in France.

    PubMed

    Cordel, Hugues; Prendki, Virginie; Madec, Yoann; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Bourée, Patrice; Caumes, Eric; Matheron, Sophie; Bouchaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, amoebic liver abscess (ALA) can be found in individuals in non-endemic areas, especially in foreign-born travelers. We performed a retrospective analysis of ALA in patients admitted to French hospitals between 2002 and 2006. We compared imported ALA cases in European and foreign-born patients and assessed the factors associated with abscess size using a logistic regression model. We investigated 90 ALA cases. Patient median age was 41. The male:female ratio was 3.5:1. We were able to determine the origin for 75 patients: 38 were European-born and 37 foreign-born. With respect to clinical characteristics, no significant difference was observed between European and foreign-born patients except a longer lag time between the return to France after traveling abroad and the onset of symptoms for foreign-born. Factors associated with an abscess size of more than 69 mm were being male (OR = 11.25, p<0.01), aged more than 41 years old (OR = 3.63, p = 0.02) and being an immigrant (OR = 11.56, p = 0.03). Percutaneous aspiration was not based on initial abscess size but was carried out significantly more often on patients who were admitted to surgical units (OR = 10, p<0.01). The median time to abscess disappearance for 24 ALA was 7.5 months. In this study on imported ALA was one of the largest worldwide in terms of the number of cases included males, older patients and foreign-born patients presented with larger abscesses, suggesting that hormonal and immunological factors may be involved in ALA physiopathology. The long lag time before developing ALA after returning to a non-endemic area must be highlighted to clinicians so that they will consider Entamoeba histolytica as a possible pathogen of liver abscesses more often.

  20. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG <3.1, special attention is paid to the non-unity slope of the relation between the local magnitudes and M w. All M w determined during the SI-Hex project is calibrated according to reference M w of recent events. As for some small events, no M L-LDG has been determined; local magnitudes issued by other French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  1. The spatial distribution of Mustelidae in France.

    PubMed

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the "small carnivorous species logbooks" program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest.

  2. Metal music and mental health in France.

    PubMed

    Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick

    2009-09-01

    Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mental health of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mental health and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mental health was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, <5 percent of metal music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society.

  3. Contraceptive practices and trends in France.

    PubMed

    Toulemon, L; Leridon, H

    1998-01-01

    This study describes current contraceptive practices in France over the past 30 years, by method, among single men and women, for dual method use, for pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, and at 1st intercourse. Data were obtained from the 1994 Fertility and Family Survey and previous fertility surveys. In 1994, 69% of women aged 20-49 years used contraceptives. Most women relied on the pill (about 36%), followed by the IUD (16%). 7% of women were sterilized. About 5% used condoms, and 6% used abstinence or withdrawal. 31% reported not using contraceptives, of whom 3% were sterile. 4% were infertile. 4% were pregnant. 4% desired pregnancy, and 11% had no ongoing sexual relationship. 5% were determined to be at risk for unintended pregnancy. About 83% of women reported ever use of the pill, and 58% had ever used condoms. Typical patterns of use during the 1980s include 10 years of pill use followed by IUD use. Contraceptive behavior only differed among single men and women not in a union. Some men and women reported multiple method use, especially pills and condoms. During 1988-94, pill use increased, IUD use decreased, and condom use increased. Condom use was higher among singles, among the well educated, and in large cities. During 1978-94, natural method use and sterilization declined. Women tended to identify condom use with pregnancy prevention. Men tended to include STD/AIDS prevention. Contraceptive use at 1st intercourse increased over time. Even though contraceptive use increased, the number of induced abortions remained constant, suggesting lower use-effectiveness.

  4. The Spatial Distribution of Mustelidae in France

    PubMed Central

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the “small carnivorous species logbooks” program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  5. The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.

    2006-12-01

    The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.

  6. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i) map the reported cases in France, and ii) produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model). Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central), at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average), 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France. PMID:20377867

  7. Photoelectronic Radiology Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capp, M. P.; Nudelman, Sol; Fisher, Donald; Ovitt, Theron W.; Pond, Gerald D.; Frost, Meryl M.; Roehrig, Hans; Seeger, Joachim; Oimette, Donald

    1981-11-01

    The University of Arizona Department of Radiology first considered establishing a photoelectronic radiology department in 1973. It seemed clear that the technology had progressed far enough for us to investigate the possibility of total film replacement.' Data from the space program in particular indicated at that time that sophisticated television images over 1000 x 1000 lines were approaching the detail seen on the traditional x-ray film. This technology has been known over many years of research and development as "photoelectronic imaging devices (PEID) ."14 However, at that time film replacement was out of the question. What was not out of the question was the consideration of using a subtraction technique, "digital video subtraction angiography." To this end, we, and independently the University of Wisconsin,314 proceeded to develop this technology.5'6 Our intravenous video subtraction images in patients started in our research laboratory in 1977 and in March of 1980 we opened a biplane special procedures room dedicated only to photoelectronic imaging (no film).7'8 Digital video subtraction angiography has been successful and is described in much greater detail in these Proceedings by other authors. Current efforts are under way toward total replacement of film. This is an immense problem, one that will require a much greater sophistication of computers, storage devices, system analysis, and cooperation from both the radiologist and the clinician.9'10 In a theoretical study we converted our 65,000 procedures-per-year department to complete photoelectronic imaging (no film) and estimated that we would save approximately five million dollars over ten years.15 Extrapolating this to the entire United States would result in a conservative estimate of saving one billion dollars per year. Not included in these mathematics are cost-effective savings of the physicians' time and effort.

  8. Formaldehyde in pathology departments.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P

    1983-01-01

    Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

  9. Socio-economic characteristics, living conditions and diet quality are associated with food insecurity in France.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Vieux, Florent; Lioret, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Carine; Caillavet, France; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) in France and to describe its associations with socio-economic factors, health behaviours, diet quality and cost (estimated using mean food prices). Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. FI was assessed using an adapted version of the US Department of Agriculture's Food Insufficiency Indicator; dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d open-ended food record; and individual demographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Individuals experiencing FI were compared with food-secure individuals, the latter being divided into four categories according to quartiles of their income per consumption unit (FS1 to FS4). Differences among categories were analysed using χ² tests, ANOVA and tests for trend. Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007. Adults aged 18-79 years (n 2624). Individuals experiencing FI represented 12·2% of the population. They were on average younger, more frequently women and single parents with children compared with those in the other four categories. Their mean income per consumption unit was higher than that in the FS1 category, but they reported poorer material and housing conditions. The prevalence of smoking and the mean daily time spent watching television were also higher in the FI category. No significant difference among categories was found for energy intake, but mean intakes of fruits, vegetables and fish were lower, and diet quality was slightly but significantly poorer in the FI category. Daily diet cost was also lower in the FI category. France is not spared by FI. FI should be routinely monitored at the national level and research should be promoted to identify effective strategies to reduce nutrition inequalities in France.

  10. Inventory of antibiotic stewardship programs in general practice in France and abroad.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Boivin, J-M; Birgé, J

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a survey of measures implemented in France and abroad for a better use of antibiotics in general practice. A literature review was conducted from January 2000 to July 2014. Emails were sent to every infectious diseases department, to all regional health authorities (ARS), to the health insurance offices (CPAM) with the highest and lowest antibiotic use, and to the ministry of health to make an inventory of all antibiotic stewardship programs. The ministry of health, the board of general practitioners, infectious diseases specialists, pharmacists, and the medical and pharmacy schools of the nation's capital were contacted in 17 countries of Europe and North America. The main measures implemented in France were training of healthcare professionals, publishing guidelines, feedback to the practitioners on their prescriptions, and availability of rapid diagnostic tests. Telephone networks were created in some regions, such as Antibiolor or Medqual, to help physicians with antibiotic prescription. Many foreign countries issued pedagogical material to physicians, for patients to explain what to do in case of viral infection or delayed prescription. In Alberta (Canada), the government introduced an optional authorization for quinolones. In Denmark, the government temporarily suspended the reimbursement of some agents to preserve them according to bacterial ecology. In the United-Kingdom, the antibiotic susceptibility test report must include less than 5 agents. The measures implemented in France and abroad were usually more persuasive than restrictive. But the bacterial resistance crisis should lead to implementing more restrictive measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Imported Amoebic Liver Abscess in France

    PubMed Central

    Cordel, Hugues; Prendki, Virginie; Madec, Yoann; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Bourée, Patrice; Caumes, Eric; Matheron, Sophie; Bouchaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, amoebic liver abscess (ALA) can be found in individuals in non-endemic areas, especially in foreign-born travelers. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of ALA in patients admitted to French hospitals between 2002 and 2006. We compared imported ALA cases in European and foreign-born patients and assessed the factors associated with abscess size using a logistic regression model. Results We investigated 90 ALA cases. Patient median age was 41. The male:female ratio was 3.5∶1. We were able to determine the origin for 75 patients: 38 were European-born and 37 foreign-born. With respect to clinical characteristics, no significant difference was observed between European and foreign-born patients except a longer lag time between the return to France after traveling abroad and the onset of symptoms for foreign-born. Factors associated with an abscess size of more than 69 mm were being male (OR = 11.25, p<0.01), aged more than 41 years old (OR = 3.63, p = 0.02) and being an immigrant (OR = 11.56, p = 0.03). Percutaneous aspiration was not based on initial abscess size but was carried out significantly more often on patients who were admitted to surgical units (OR = 10, p<0.01). The median time to abscess disappearance for 24 ALA was 7.5 months. Conclusions/Significance In this study on imported ALA was one of the largest worldwide in terms of the number of cases included males, older patients and foreign-born patients presented with larger abscesses, suggesting that hormonal and immunological factors may be involved in ALA physiopathology. The long lag time before developing ALA after returning to a non-endemic area must be highlighted to clinicians so that they will consider Entamoeba histolytica as a possible pathogen of liver abscesses more often. PMID:23951372

  12. Myocastor coypus as a reservoir host of Fasciola hepatica in France.

    PubMed

    Ménard, A; Agoulon, A; L'Hostis, M L; Rondelaud, D; Collard, S; Chauvin, A

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the role of the nutria Myocastor coypus in the epidemiology of domestic fasciolosis in Loire-Atlantique (department of western France), 438 nutrias were trapped in 9 humid areas of the department and 304 nutrias were trapped in 3 farms where Fasciola hepatica was present; all animals were necropsied. Liver flukes were found in 160 nutrias: 38 nutrias randomly taken in the department (8.7%) and 122 trapped in fasciolosis areas (40.1%). The average parasitic burden was 5.7 flukes per nutria. Sixty-five percent of the liver flukes measured more than 18 mm (size of sexual maturity). The coproscopic examinations carried out on 144 infected nutrias showed that 90% of the infected nutrias shed fluke eggs. The hatching rate was 39.6%. Two groups of 100 Lymnaea truncatula snails, originating from 2 different populations, were exposed to F. hepatica miracidiae hatched from eggs collected from infected nutrias. The prevalence of the infection was 74% and 58.6% in the 2 groups of snails. The average redial burden was 6.2 rediae per snail. The total number of metacercariae was 72.4 metacercariae per snail producing cercariae. Two groups of 5 sheep were orally infected by 150 metacercariae of nutria or sheep origin, respectively. The installation rates of F. hepatica in sheep were respectively 31.6% and 29.6% for the two groups. Specific antibody kinetics of sheep were similar whether the metacercariae were of nutria or sheep origin. M. coypus allows the complete development of F. hepatica and releases parasitic elements that are infective for domestic ruminants. Because of its eco-ethologic characteristics, the nutria could be a potential wild reservoir of F. hepatica in France.

  13. [Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis and neuroborreliosis in France].

    PubMed

    Blanc, F

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a systemic disease called neuroborreliosis (NB) when neurological symptoms are pre-eminent. LB is a zoonosis caused by Borrelia bacteria transmitted by Ixodes tick-bite. Because of the absence of a national registry, epidemiology of LB in France is not well known. Moreover, diagnosis of NB may be difficult because of the various clinical forms. Acute meningoradiculitis is the most common presentation, but pauci-symptomatic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, polyneuropathy, cerebrovascular involvement, and rarely chronic encephalomyelitis are also described. The vector Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) is found throughout metropolitan France excepting border areas of the Mediterranean seaside and in regions with an altitude above 1500 meters. In France, the Borrelia infestation rate of Ixodes is 7% with wide disparity between administrative districts. Prospective work in 1999-2000 by 875 general practitioners participating in the "Sentinel" network established the estimated incidence of BL (9.4/100 000) and of NB (0.6/100 000) in France. Incidence is higher in certain regions: in Alsace, prospective work by 419 general practitioners and specialists in cooperation with the national surveillance agency (Institut national de veille sanitaire), estimated BL incidence at 86 to 200/100 000 inhabitants and NB at 10/100 000. Thus, although globally France is a country with a moderate risk for LB, some regions such as Limousin, Auvergne, Lorraine and Alsace, have a high risk of LB, comparable to countries in the northeastern Europe such as Germany and Sweden.

  14. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Planning a Radiotherapy Department.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, D

    2017-02-01

    The master planning of new radiotherapy facilities requires the input and engagement of a range of highly specialised professionals, both in the construction and health sector. Although radiation protection and safety aspects of radiotherapy services are universal, low and middle income countries are often presented with unique challenges that also need to be considered, e.g. competing needs within the health sector, lack of financial and human resources, environmental factors like poor provision of transport or electrical power, inadequate regulatory infrastructure, etc. Efforts to establish, upgrade or expand radiotherapy services should therefore not only focus on the technology that is appropriate and sustainable, but also be mindful of the need for quality, safety and optimal utilisation of technology. The workflow in a radiotherapy department can be facilitated by strategic placement of the main functional areas into the concept design. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative hazard analysis of processes leading to remarkable flash floods (France, 1930-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, M.; Lang, M.; Vinet, F.; Cœur, D.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flood events are responsible for large economic losses and lead to fatalities every year in France. This is especially the case in the Mediterranean and oversea territories/departments of France, characterized by extreme hydro-climatological features and with a large part of the population exposed to flood risks. The recurrence of remarkable flash flood events, associated with high hazard intensity, significant damage and socio-political consequences, therefore raises several issues for authorities and risk management policies. This study aims to improve our understanding of the hazard analysis process in the case of four remarkable flood events: March 1930, October 1940, January 1980 and November 1999. Firstly, we present the methodology used to define the remarkability score of a flood event. Then, to identify the factors leading to a remarkable flood event, we explore the main parameters of the hazard analysis process, such as the meteorological triggering conditions, the return period of the rainfall and peak discharge, as well as some additional factors (initial catchment state, flood chronology, cascade effects, etc.). The results contribute to understanding the complexity of the processes leading to flood hazard and highlight the importance for risk managers of taking additional factors into account.

  17. No increase in drug dispensing for acute gastroenteritis after Storm Klaus, France 2009.

    PubMed

    Pirard, P; Goria, S; Nguengang Wakap, S; Galey, C; Motreff, Y; Guillet, A; Le Tertre, A; Corso, M; Beaudeau, P

    2015-09-01

    During the night of 23-24 January 2009, Storm Klaus hit south-western France and caused power outages affecting 1,700,000 homes and stopping numerous pumping and drinking water disinfection systems. In France, medicalized acute gastroenteritis (MAGE) outbreaks are monitored by analysing the daily amount of reimbursements of medical prescriptions, registered in the French National Health Insurance database, at the 'commune' administrative level. As AGE is suspected to be associated with perturbations to water supply systems as well as power outages, Storm Klaus provided an opportunity to test its influence on the incidence of MAGE in the communes of three affected French departments (administrative areas larger than communes). The geographical exposure indicator was built by using the mapping of the water distribution zones, the reported distribution/production stoppages and their duration. Irrespective of exposure class, a relative risk of MAGE of 0.86 (95% confidence 0.84-0.88) was estimated compared with the 'unexposed' reference level. Although these results must be considered with caution because of a potential marked decrease in global medical consultation probably due to impassable roads, they do not suggest a major public health impact of Klaus in terms of increased MAGE incidence.

  18. The Tour de France: an updated physiological review.

    PubMed

    Santalla, Alfredo; Earnest, Conrad P; Marroyo, José A; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    From its initial inception in 1903 as a race premised on a publicity stunt to sell newspapers, the Tour de France had grown and evolved over time to become one of the most difficult and heralded sporting events in the world. Though sporting science and the Tour paralleled each other, it was not until the midlate 1980s, and especially the midlate 1990s (with the use of heart-rate monitors) that the 2 began to unify and grow together. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize what is currently known of the physiological demands of the Tour de France, as well as of the main physiological profile of Tour de France competitors.

  19. Cord blood banking in France: reorganising the national network.

    PubMed

    Katz, Gregory; Mills, Antonia

    2010-06-01

    Paradoxically, France is one of the leading exporters of cord blood units worldwide, but ranks only 17th in terms of cord blood units per inhabitant, and imports 64% of cord blood grafts to meet national transplantation demands. With three operational banks in 2008, the French allogeneic cord blood network is now entering an important phase of development with the creation of seven new banks collecting from local clusters of maternities. Although the French network of public banks is demonstrating a strong commitment to reorganise and scale up its activities, the revision of France's bioethics law in 2010 has sparked a debate concerning the legalisation of commercial autologous banking. The paper discusses key elements for a comprehensive national plan that would strengthen the allogeneic banking network through which France could meet its national medical needs and guarantee equal access to healthcare. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism Following a Viper Envenomation in France

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Géraldine; Pineau, Samuel; Biron, Charlotte; Connault, Jérôme; Artifoni, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France. A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble. Repeated lower limbs Doppler ultrasound were normal. This case is particularly interesting because it is only the 7th reported case of pulmonary embolism following a snake envenomation; moreover, it happened in France where poisonous snakes are very rare. Several hypotheses have been made to explain this late localized coagulopathy: an increased level of unstable fibrin produced by thrombin-like glycoproteins from the venom is one of them. PMID:27175626

  1. [Child victims of house fires in France. Mortality, morbidity, prevention].

    PubMed

    Leveque, B; Lareng, L; Julien, H; Lavaud, J; Wassermann, D; Latarjet, J

    1993-10-01

    Children injuries by house fires in France are the cause of a severe mortality (sixty deaths in average each year) and of a morbidity for the survival due to smoke toxicity (oxygen deprivation and inhalation of toxic gases--CO and HCN) and to thermal burns. Epidemiological studies show that young children (0 to 4) are specially concerned by this threat and that the deaths occurred more often in some part of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region). A special strategy for this prevention should be applied in France, the same available in USA, Sweden and UK, including information on the behavior one should have with children: never leave them alone and escape with them as soon as possible out of the smoke. The usefulness of smoke detectors should be confirmed by French administration and recommended to the public, since they have had effective results in other countries.

  2. Spatial distribution of Lindane concentration in topsoil across France.

    PubMed

    Orton, T G; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D; Jolivet, C C; Villanneau, E J; Marchant, B P; Caria, G; Barriuso, E; Bispo, A; Briand, O

    2013-01-15

    Lindane [γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] is an organochlorine pesticide with toxic effects on humans. It is bioaccumulative and can remain in soils for long periods, and although its use for crop spraying was banned in France in 1998, it is possible that residues from before this time remain in the soil. The RMQS soil monitoring network consists of soil samples from 2200 sites on a 16 km regular grid across France, collected between 2002 and 2009. We use 726 measurements of the Lindane concentration in these samples to (i) investigate the main explanatory factors for its spatial distribution across France, and (ii) map this distribution. Geostatistics provides an appropriate framework to analyze our spatial dataset, though two issues regarding the data are worth special consideration: first, the harmonization of two subsets of the data (which were analyzed using different measurement processes), and second, the large proportion of data from one of these subsets that fell below a limit of quantification. We deal with these issues using recent methodological developments in geostatistics. Results demonstrate the importance of land use and rainfall for explaining part of the variability of Lindane across France: land use due to the past direct input of Lindane on cropland and its subsequent persistence in the soil, and rainfall due to the re-deposition of volatilized Lindane. Maps show the concentrations to be generally largest in the north and northwest of France, areas of more intensive agricultural land. We also compare levels to some contamination thresholds taken from the literature, and present maps showing the probability of Lindane concentrations exceeding these thresholds across France. These maps could be used as guidelines for deciding which areas require further sampling before some possible remediation strategy could be applied.

  3. Increased average longevity among the "Tour de France" cyclists.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, F; Olaso-Gonzalez, G; Corella, D; Gomez-Cabrera, M C; Vina, J

    2011-08-01

    It is widely held among the general population and even among health professionals that moderate exercise is a healthy practice but long term high intensity exercise is not. The specific amount of physical activity necessary for good health remains unclear. To date, longevity studies of elite athletes have been relatively sparse and the results are somewhat conflicting. The Tour de France is among the most gruelling sport events in the world, during which highly trained professional cyclists undertake high intensity exercise for a full 3 weeks. Consequently we set out to determine the longevity of the participants in the Tour de France, compared with that of the general population. We studied the longevity of 834 cyclists from France (n=465), Italy (n=196) and Belgium (n=173) who rode the Tour de France between the years 1930 and 1964. Dates of birth and death of the cyclists were obtained on December 31 (st) 2007. We calculated the percentage of survivors for each age and compared them with the values for the pooled general population of France, Italy and Belgium for the appropriate age cohorts. We found a very significant increase in average longevity (17%) of the cyclists when compared with the general population. The age at which 50% of the general population died was 73.5 vs. 81.5 years in Tour de France participants. Our major finding is that repeated very intense exercise prolongs life span in well trained practitioners. Our findings underpin the importance of exercising without the fear that becoming exhausted might be bad for one's health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  5. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  6. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  7. EUROPEAN SCIENCE POLICY: France Rebels Against Gene-Patenting Law.

    PubMed

    Balter, M

    2000-06-23

    France is on a collision course with the European Union over an E.U. directive that many researchers believe would allow raw DNA sequences of human genes to be patented. On 7 June, French justice minister Elisabeth Guigou told the National Assembly that the directive--which must be enacted by each of the 15 E.U. member nations by 30 July--contradicts French bioethics laws, which forbid the patenting of any part of the human body. If France maintains its defiance, it could be fined up to $600,000 daily for each day it refuses to adopt the directive.

  8. History of psychosurgery at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, through translational interactions between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Marc; Pallud, Johan; Baup, Nicolas; Peeters, Sophie; Turak, Baris; Krebs, Marie Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Gaillard, Raphael; Devaux, Bertrand

    2017-09-01

    Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France. Pierre Puech defined psychosurgery as the necessary cooperation between neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to treat the conditions causing psychiatric symptoms, from brain tumors to mental health disorders. He reported the results of his series of 369 cases and underlined the necessity for proper follow-up and postoperative re-education, illustrating the relative caution of French neurosurgeons concerning psychosurgery. Marcel David and his assistants tried to follow their patients closely postoperatively; this resulted in numerous publications with significant follow-up and conclusions. As early as 1955, David reported intellectual degradation 2 years after prefrontal leucotomies. Jean Talairach, a psychiatrist who eventually trained as a neurosurgeon, was the first to describe anterior capsulotomy in 1949. He operated in several hospitals outside of Paris, including the Sarthe Psychiatric Hospital and the Public Institution of Mental Health in the Lille region. He developed stereotactic surgery, notably stereo-electroencephalography, for epilepsy surgery but also to treat psychiatric patients using stereotactic lesioning with radiofrequency ablation or radioactive seeds of yttrium-90. The evolution of functional neurosurgery has been marked by the development of deep brain stimulation, in particular for obsessive-compulsive disorder, replacing the former lesional stereotactic procedures. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital's Neurosurgery Department sheds

  9. Anaphylaxis in schools and other child-care settings--the situation in France.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    1999-05-01

    The American Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology joined to the Canadian Society published in August 1998 guidelines for the management of anaphylaxis in schools. The authors assess the situation in France. An emergency health care form entitled "Projet d'Accueil Individualisé", is carried out by allergologists, and countersigned by the physician in charge of the School Health Department. The clinical symptoms that may occur, are described, as well as the incriminated foods to be avoided, the treatment to be used, the content of the mergency kit. Epinephrine is the first drug to be used. Beta adrenergic drugs are advised on the account of severe attacks of asthma. School lunches being not safe are not allowed. Civil society's liability is a question that has not yet been solved.

  10. Evaluation of the Theoretical Teaching of Postgraduate Radiation Oncology Medical Residents in France: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Agopiantz, Mikaël; Salleron, Julia; Wack, Maxime; Janoray, Guillaume; Roché, Henri; Culine, Stéphane; Rivera, Sofia

    2017-01-30

    This study's purpose was to have residents evaluate Radiation Oncology (RO) theoretical teaching practices in France. An anonymous electronically cross-functional survey on theoretical teaching practices in the RO residents was conducted by (i) collecting data from residents in the medical faculties in France, (ii) comparing the data across practices when possible and (iii) suggesting means of improvement. A total of 103 out of 140 RO residents responded to the survey (73.5% response rate). National, inter-university, university and internships courses do not exist in 0% (0), 16.5% (17), 53.4% (55) and 40.8% (42) of residents, respectively. Residents need additional training due to the shortage of specialised postgraduate degree training (49.5% (51)), CV enhancement to obtain a post-internship position (49.5% (51)) or as part of a career plan (47.6% (49)). The topics covered in teaching to be improved were the following: basic concept 61.2% (63), advanced concept 61.2 (63) and discussion of frequent clinical cases 50.5% (52). The topics not covered in teaching to be improved were the following: the development of career (66.0% (68)), medical English (56.3% (58)), the organisation of RO speciality (49.5% (51)) and the hospital management of RO department (38.8% (40)). This is the first national assessment of theoretical teaching of RO residents in France.

  11. Managed care's clinical and economic impact on patients with type II diabetes in France: a controlled population-based study.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Laurent; François, Patrice; Fourny, Magali; Ohrond, Céline; Chanut, Charles; Labarère, José; Auquier, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of five type II diabetes managed care programmes (MCPs) in clinical and economic terms at the community level in which these programmes function in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. A prospective, controlled, before-and-after study (2001-2004) compared diabetic patients who lived in departments (localities) with (the experimental group) and without a MCP (the control group). Quality of care was estimated by the conformity of health care professionals' practices when following-up type II diabetes. Costs are compared from a health service perspective. The study finds that of 626 patients enrolled, 529 lived in departments with an MCP and 97 patients in departments without. Type II diabetes follow-up globally improved between the two study periods (2001 and 2004), but the study did not show significant differences between the two groups, except for the proportion of creatinine and ophthalmologic examinations, which were higher for the control group. The study did not find significant differences in the increase of costs between the two groups from 2001 to 2004. This type of study could constitute a methodological model to assess the MCPs population impact. MCPs probably did not reach a critical size in terms of patient recruitment and healthcare professional adhesion to have a significant impact at a population level. The study highlights a number of points to consider for future MCPs in France.

  12. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents’ initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France. Methods The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed) and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance (“Couverture Maladie Universelle”, a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income) were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation. Conclusion We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents’ initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school

  13. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France.

    PubMed

    Héquet, Delphine; Rouzier, Roman

    2017-01-01

    In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents' initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France. The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed) and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance ("Couverture Maladie Universelle", a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income) were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation. We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents' initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school-based programs, can help improve coverage rates.

  14. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  15. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  16. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    PubMed Central

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  17. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in animals in France.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy; Boschiroli, Maria Laura

    2015-03-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002-2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated.

  18. [Population characteristics and data on live births in France].

    PubMed

    Launay, C

    1993-01-01

    The collection of birth information in France is outlined and data on fertility trends are presented. Two forms used by the Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques to gather information on mothers and families of newborns are included. Tabular data are provided for births by cohorts of women, by nationality of mother, and by maternal age.

  19. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France

    PubMed Central

    Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Tazi, Asmaa; Billoët, Annick; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Bidet, Philippe; Bingen, Edouard; Raymond, Josette; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases. PMID:18826837

  20. Invasive group B streptococcal infections in infants, France.

    PubMed

    Poyart, Claire; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Tazi, Asmaa; Billoët, Annick; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Bidet, Philippe; Bingen, Edouard; Raymond, Josette; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases.

  1. [The Australian nurses in France during the Great War].

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil

    2014-06-01

    Australia was dragged into the First World War due to its status as a dominion of the British Empire. High numbers of nurses, both civilian and military, served during this conflict, notably in France, reflecting the surge of support and sympathy felt by Australians for the country.

  2. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    PubMed

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  3. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  4. Geographic variation in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Gregoire; Georgescu, Vera; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Potentially avoidable hospitalizations are studied as an indirect measure of access to primary care. Understanding the determinants of these hospitalizations can help improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of health care delivery. Few studies have tackled the issue of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France, and none has done so at the national level. We assessed disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France in 2012 and analyzed their determinants. The standardized rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations ranged from 0.1 to 44.4 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, at the ZIP code level. Increased potentially avoidable hospitalizations were associated with higher mortality, lower density of acute care beds and ambulatory care nurses, lower median income, and lower education levels. This study unveils considerable variation in the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in spite of France's mandatory, publicly funded health insurance system. In addition to epidemiological and sociodemographic factors, this study suggests that primary care organization plays a role in geographic disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations that might be addressed by increasing the number of nurses and enhancing team work in primary care. Policy makers should consider measuring potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France as an indicator of primary care organization.

  5. Surveillance of leishmaniases in France, 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lachaud, L; Dedet, J P; Marty, P; Faraut, F; Buffet, P; Gangneux, J P; Ravel, C; Bastien, P

    2013-07-18

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in the south of France, where autochthonous disease is caused by Leishmania infantum, and affects both humans and dogs. The prevalence of canine leishmaniasis is between 3 and 66% depending on the region and the methods used. Human leishmaniases are also imported into France, mainly from French Guiana and North Africa. The surveillance of autochthonous and imported human leishmaniases is based on passive notification to the National Reference Centre for Leishmaniases (NRCL) created in 1998. Between 1999 and 2012, 317 autochthonous and 1,154 imported cases were notified to the NRCL. The average number of autochthonous cases notified per year was 22.6, mainly cases of visceral leishmaniasis (84.5%). All cases were infected in the south of France. Leishmaniasis incidence is 0.22 per 100,000 inhabitants in the endemic area. Imported cases were more frequent (annual mean of 82.4 cases) and consisted predominantly in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases (91%), essentially L. major CL imported from Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa, and L. guyanensis CL from French Guiana. This national notification system allowed a better understanding of the incidence and distribution of the disease; it is also useful to assess the temporal-spatial evolution of the disease in France, which appears relatively stable.

  6. [Courses in microsurgical techniques in France and abroad].

    PubMed

    Alzakri, A; Al-Rajeh, M; Liverneaux, P A; Facca, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the state of current training programs for microsurgery in France and abroad. Our survey of microsurgery training programs determined the registration volume, program contents, and number of students in France, and looked at registration volume and teaching time for programs abroad. Data were obtained from the Internet, university administration, those responsible for university diploma programs, and students. There were 18 university diploma programs in microsurgery in France. The average list price was €1,129 for an average of 19 hours of theoretical training and 100 hours of practice. Evaluation methods varied, but all required at least vascular anastomosis in rats. In 2011-2012, 148 students were enrolled and 126 graduated (85% passing rate). Abroad, 16 basic courses were listed in the USA, Europe and Asia. Nine advanced courses were offered. The average price was $1,346 for 36 hours of practice in the basic courses and $1,955 for over 50 hours of training in advanced courses. None of these courses gave out a diploma. Our results show that in France, university diploma programs in microsurgery are heterogeneous and the French College should consider updating them. Globally, a study is underway by the International Microsurgical Simulation Society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  8. Proceedings of the Full Board Meeting (Orleans, France, July 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris (France). Abstracting Board.

    The 1971 General Assembly and full board meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions Abstracting Board (ICSU AB) were held in July at Orleans, France. This volume is the published proceedings of those meetings. The first part of the Proceedings is a detailed description of the activities of the Board. The second part records the…

  9. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  10. Foodborne Outbreak and Nonmotile Salmonella enterica Variant, France

    PubMed Central

    Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations. PMID:22257550

  11. Foodborne outbreak and nonmotile Salmonella enterica variant, France.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Simon; Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations.

  12. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bat, France.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michael; Teeling, Emma C

    2010-02-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

  13. Magpies as Hosts for West Nile Virus, Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Sabatier, Philippe; Grège, Océane; Greenland, Timothy; Leblond, Agnès; Lafaye, Murielle; Zeller, Hervé G.

    2008-01-01

    European magpies (Pica pica) from southern France were tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and viral shedding in feces during spring–autumn 2005. Results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on WNV ecology in Europe. PMID:18258098

  14. Magpies as hosts for West Nile virus, southern France.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Elsa; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Sabatier, Philippe; Grège, Océane; Greenland, Timothy; Leblond, Agnès; Lafaye, Murielle; Zeller, Hervé G

    2008-01-01

    European magpies (Pica pica) from southern France were tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and viral shedding in feces during spring-autumn 2005. Results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on WNV ecology in Europe.

  15. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  16. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  17. Pre-School Education in the Massif Central (France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Emile

    This paper lists and tentatively assesses three experiments in preschool education in rural areas in France, and outlines the Massif Central development program which draws extensively on these experiments. In Experiment I, a peripatetic teacher worked with young children, concentrating on speech activities in four different single-class schools.…

  18. New large-format holographic laboratory in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, Pascal E. P.

    1994-01-01

    A new holographic laboratory, Photonics 3D, has opened in Lyon, France. Its objectives are many fold: to encourage creative research in the field of holographic imagery, to set up an artist in residence program and to allow the production of very large holograms.

  19. Critical Citizenship Education in England and France: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of "critical citizenship" has become a key objective of official school curricula around the world. Using an analytic framework developed by the authors, this paper identifies the diverse conceptions of critical citizenship that are promoted, by comparing the official school curricula for citizenship in England and France.…

  20. Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies, France, 2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Vulin, Johann; Calavas, Didier; Baron, Thierry G M

    2008-02-01

    In France, through exhaustive active surveillance, approximately 17.1 million adult cattle were tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy from July 2001 through July 2007; approximately 3.6 million were >8 years of age. Our retrospective Western blot study of all 645 confirmed cases found that 7 were H-type and 6 were L-type.

  1. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  2. Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella in Bats from France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Matthew J.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Bartonella in 11 of 109 insectivorous bats from France and 1 of 26 bats from Spain. These genetic variants are closely related to bat-associated Bartonella described in Finland and the United Kingdom and to B. mayotimonensis, the agent of a human endocarditis case in the United States. PMID:28221109

  3. Teaching of Languages to Migrant Workers . (Toulouse, France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscail, X.; And Others

    With the cooperation of the Council of Europe, CREPT (tr. Regional Center for the Study and Promotion of Travel) conducted an experimental training course for migrant workers at Toulouse, France. Aim of the course was to bring trainees from the stage of attaining literacy to that of entering the Centre for Vocational Training for Adults (FPA). In…

  4. Rights and Rites of Passage: Crossing Boundaries in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes the adult and higher education system in France in terms of institutional boundaries, increased proportion of adults in universities, and the chaotic system of qualifications. Examines procedures for articulation and transfer between the various components of the educational system. (SK)

  5. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in Animals in France

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002–2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  6. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  7. 78 FR 70242 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... this proposed AD, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) AD, the economic evaluation, any comments...

  8. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  9. Clonal propagation on Eucalyptus by cuttings in France

    Treesearch

    H. Chaperon

    1983-01-01

    A.FO.CEL has developed a technique for mass propagation by cuttings of Eucalyptus in France. This technique is described from the selection of the ortet to the mass propagation of the clone for afforestation: the first stage is the mobilization of the ortet, the second stage is called pre-propagation which includes rejuvenating and rooting conditioning, the third stage...

  10. Current status of beech bark disease in France

    Treesearch

    R. Perrin

    1983-01-01

    The two organisms involved in beech bark disease are endemic everywhere in France. Nevertheless the disease is restricted to the northern part of the beech's range, where it grows on the plains. During the last five years beech bark disease has shown a general decrease in severity but there have been local increases in the north and north-eastern parts of forests...

  11. Seasonality of cat-scratch disease, France, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti-Morelli, Diane; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Richet, Hervé; Davoust, Bernard; Rolain, Jean Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-04-01

    Cat-scratch disease is seasonal in the United States and Japan; but no data are available from Europe. To assess the seasonality of the disease in France, we analyzed lymph node biopsy specimens collected during 1999-2009. Most (87.5%) cases occurred during September-April and peaked in December.

  12. Seasonality of Cat-Scratch Disease, France, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti-Morelli, Diane; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Richet, Hervé; Davoust, Bernard; Rolain, Jean Marc

    2011-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease is seasonal in the United States and Japan; but no data are available from Europe. To assess the seasonality of the disease in France, we analyzed lymph node biopsy specimens collected during 1999–2009. Most (87.5%) cases occurred during September–April and peaked in December. PMID:21470466

  13. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  15. Recent Developments in Assessment and Examination Procedures in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    Recent changes in educational assessment in France reflect pressures to modernize the French educational system to align it with prevailing democratic and egalitarian values and to respond to the economy's vocational training needs. After providing background on the French educational system, this paper discusses two areas of secondary school…

  16. [The pharmaceutical industry in France: the turning point of 1915].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    For several convergent reasons, 1915 was a key period for the pharmaceutical industry in France. The overall realization that France was dependent on Germany for chemical and pharmaceutical products came from shortages of key drugs but also from massive use of poison gas for which France was not able to face this unexpected event. France's shortage for chemists properly trained to answer the needs of industry, the weak relationship between industry and faculty, the uncomfortable situation of specialty drugs, the regulations on patents and trademarks were many subjects of controversies which will contribute to the analysis of the source of this French dependence to Germany. It will be at the origin of new orientations after the war for the pharmaceutical industry and the French society. The objective was to be independent for drugs and consequently to resolve the identified issues, as well as to have a dynamic industrial research. The creation and development of several pharmaceutical companies after the war was a more or less direct benefit from the considerations starting in 1915.

  17. Pre-School Education in the Massif Central (France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Emile

    This paper lists and tentatively assesses three experiments in preschool education in rural areas in France, and outlines the Massif Central development program which draws extensively on these experiments. In Experiment I, a peripatetic teacher worked with young children, concentrating on speech activities in four different single-class schools.…

  18. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  19. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, and George Washington Bridge in background, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  20. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, George Washington Bridge, Hudson River, and Palisades Interstate Park in background, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  1. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  2. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on…

  3. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  4. Systemic Change in Vocational Training Institutions in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moallem, Abbas; Moallem, Mahnaz

    1998-01-01

    The Specialized Vocational Training Institutions known as Institut Medico-Professionel (IMPro) in France are faced with increasing demands to provide quality services to adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This article describes the process of organizational changes in IMPro including the model, methods, tools, and techniques used in…

  5. Early Childhood Program for the Handicapped in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucman, Elisabeth

    1985-01-01

    Early intervention in France begins with compulsory screening of all infants at birth, nine months, and at two years. Problems remain, especially in the availability of adequate support and of services for the handicapped child. Interdisciplinary teams operate from "early medico-social activity centers" to provide a variety of…

  6. Romanticism or Reality? An Exploration of Frances Mary Hendry's "Chandra."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jilaine

    This paper singles out a novel written for children about India, "Chandra" (1995) by Frances Mary Hendry, as a powerful and useful novel to present to today's 11 to 14 year old students. The paper contends that the novel allows students to explore and consider different value systems, challenges them to become aware of prejudice and the…

  7. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  8. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  9. Economic consequences of migration from North Africa to France.

    PubMed

    1979-10-01

    Migration to France from the countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) for employment has supplied France with a labor force on favorable terms, though with some problems. In the Maghreb countries, development has been immediately aided by emigrant remittances and the relief of underemployment. Whether or not emigration will favor those countries in the long run is the question. Immigration to France from the Maghreb was suspended in July 1974 when 1.3 million emigrants from the Maghreb were living there including 710,000 workers. Building and engineering firms employed them as unskilled labor. Whole sections were able to grow at little social cost. It is the country of origin that loses the manpower, the human capital, and investment. Every Algerian in gainful employment has to provide, directly or indirectly, for the subsistence of 7 other Algerians who are not productive. In France the equivalent ratio is 1 to 2.5. As long as female employment is so limited in the Maghreb the pattern of emigration to support the family left behind will continue. The monthly postal order is a means of survival for many Maghreb families living at the subsistence level. The family of the emigrant is liable to pattern its consumption on the Western ideas which support the breadwinner.

  10. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  11. Preparing Foreign Students for Engineering Studies in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Franck; Dutto, Estelle; Guillet, Stephane; Michau, Florence

    2007-01-01

    This article puts forward a project approach and a set of solutions to better prepare foreign students wishing to enter engineering schools in France. It focuses on how we train students to understand scientific presentations through intensive listening comprehension. Within this framework, it proposes a new educational ICT model that is original…

  12. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  13. The Present State of Educational Research in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Louis

    This chapter briefly describes the kinds of educational research centers active in France and the types of research they are conducting, then focuses on developments in the field of educational research from 1930 to the present and on the impact research has had on policy and innovations in recent years. In the section on history it is noted that…

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  15. Prevalence of Gout in the Adult Population of France.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Thomas; Bouée, Stéphane; Clerson, Pierre; Chalès, Gérard; Flipo, René-Marc; Lioté, Frédéric; Perez, Vincent; Poiraud, Thierry; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Richette, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    To estimate adult gout prevalence in France. We used a previously established phone questionnaire that allowed for classifying patients as gouty or nongouty by 2 logistic regression models and 1 classification and regression tree (CART) model, the sensitivity and specificity of which were all more than 80%. The full questionnaire was administered by phone to subjects who acknowledged present or past nontraumatic acute pain in a peripheral joint, the others being classified as nongouty. A random sample of adults residing in France was derived from the national telephone directory (home and mobile) by the quota method and further redressed to match the French population. The target size for the interview survey conducted in March and June 2013 was 10,000 participants. We interviewed 10,026 participants. All 3 models (2 logistic regression models and a CART model) converged to an estimated gout prevalence of 0.9%. This prevalence was lower than that estimated by self-reporting only (3.7% [95% confidence interval 3.3-4.1]). The prevalence was higher for men than women and increased with age but did not differ by area of France. Gout prevalence in the adult population of France in 2013 was estimated at 0.9%. Studies using self-reporting only might overestimate the prevalence. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Moal, V.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature. PMID:26958347

  17. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  18. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P; Hamer, Davidson H; Esposito, Douglas H; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-10-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012-2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response.

  19. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Esposito, Douglas H.; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012–2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response. PMID:26401954

  20. Correspondence Tuition in France and the Development of Permanent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cros, Louis

    This report covers the current situation and general trends in correspondence study in France and describes two public institutions involved in it: Centre National de Tele-Enseignement and Radio-Television Scolaire. The evolution of correspondence study has been linked with the development of permanent education and the parallel transformation of…

  1. Preparing Foreign Students for Engineering Studies in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Franck; Dutto, Estelle; Guillet, Stephane; Michau, Florence

    2007-01-01

    This article puts forward a project approach and a set of solutions to better prepare foreign students wishing to enter engineering schools in France. It focuses on how we train students to understand scientific presentations through intensive listening comprehension. Within this framework, it proposes a new educational ICT model that is original…

  2. Sarah Frances Whiting: A foremother of American women physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Frieda A.

    2005-11-01

    Sarah Frances Whiting taught physics and astronomy at Wellesley College from 1876 to 1916 and developed the first physics laboratory classes for female students. She was elected a fellow of AAAS in 1883 and received an honorary D. Sc. from Tufts University in 1905. I review her accomplishments and discuss some of the barriers that she had to overcome.

  3. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper in the Reconstruction South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Farah Jasmine

    1988-01-01

    In letters and poetry Frances Ellen Harper wrote about the reconstruction era as it affected and influenced Black women. They confirm that there were values and priorities separate from those of middle class leaders and that Black women were oppressed by Whites and by Black men. (VM)

  4. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  5. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  6. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased…

  7. The Educational Movement in France 1974/1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Paris (France).

    Educational policy in France emphasizes international and global relationships as well as relevance of education to students' and society's needs. Educational priorities include increasing school attendance of two to four-year-olds, limiting class size to 35, and equalizing enrollments between urban and rural areas. There are three levels in the…

  8. 78 FR 69989 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1... certain part-numbered nuts and washers from the lower ball-joint bolt. This AD was prompted by a report of... of the lower ball-joint nut, which could lead to loss of the sliding door and damage to...

  9. 78 FR 37154 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AS350C and AS350D1 because those models have a similar lower ball joint nut and washer. Costs of...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model...- joint bolt. This proposed AD is prompted by a report of a sliding door detaching from the helicopter...

  10. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN FRANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RATHMELL, GEORGE

    UNTIL THE FRENCH MINISTRY OF EDUCATION ESTABLISHED A COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF SPOKEN FRENCH AND TO DEVELOP A NEW TYPE OF LANGUAGE COURSE, THE MOST WIDELY ACCEPTED METHOD OF INSTRUCTION IN FRANCE WAS THE DIRECT METHOD OF BERLITZ AND GOUIN. FROM THE COMMISSION'S RESEARCH, A NEW AUDIOVISUAL COURSE, "VOIX ET IMAGES DE…

  11. Identification Strategies of a Texas Rebel: Frances (Sissy) Farenthold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Eva M.

    The identification techniques in Herbert C. Kelman's schema of identification were used to analyze the near, and perhaps surprising, success of Rep. Frances (Sissy) Farenthold's bid for the Democratic Texas gubernatorial nomination in 1972. Opposing government corruption, Farenthold overcame the potential obstacles of being a politically liberal…

  12. [Representations and disease experience of hepatitis B by Sub-Saharan patients in Ivory Coast and France].

    PubMed

    Pourette, Dolorès; Enel, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B, a major public health problem in Africa and among Sub-Saharan populations living in France, remains poorly characterized and insufficiently managed. Two social sciences studies in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and Île-de-France investigated representations of hepatitis B and attitudes towards medical care among chronic hepatitis B carriers. Comparison of the two studies raises the question of the role of different settings of access to care in the relationship towards disease and medical care. In Abidjan, the study was conducted with 14 patients at the University Hospital and the blood donor monitoring medical centre (Centre médical de suivi des donneurs de sang). In Île-de-France, it was conducted among 33 chronic carriers in two hospital departments. The method was qualitative, using semi-structured interviews and consultation observations. The comparison showed similarities and differences. Similarities exclusively concerned representations of hepatitis B, ignorance of the disease, and the negatively-charged association with HIV, linked in particular to the lack of collective mobilization on issues relating to hepatitis B in Africa and France. Differences concerned patients' attitudes towards medical follow-up and screening of close relatives, which are determined by the radically different funding conditions between the two sites. Given the lack of universal health insurance in Ivory Coast, patients with chronic hepatitis B experience difficulties of access to medical care. These studies emphasize the need for awareness campaigns on hepatitis B and information about conditions of management of chronic hepatitis B carriers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. To Be an Ordinary Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Forrest D.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience being the "chair" of the Department of Latin American and Puerto Rican Studies at Lehman College of the City University of New York. He also shares how this department proved to be an "ordinary" department at an "ordinary" liberal arts college. However, to conclude…

  14. To Be an Ordinary Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Forrest D.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience being the "chair" of the Department of Latin American and Puerto Rican Studies at Lehman College of the City University of New York. He also shares how this department proved to be an "ordinary" department at an "ordinary" liberal arts college. However, to conclude…

  15. Multiple sclerosis in North African migrants to France.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F; Delasnerie-Lauprêtre, N; Wallin, M T

    1998-11-01

    Among some 7500 respondents with known place of birth who had completed a nationwide questionnaire survey for multiple sclerosis (MS) in France in 1986, there were 260 born in former French North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). They had migrated to France between 1923 and 1986, but 66% came between 1956 and 1964. Two-thirds were from Algeria, where virtually the entire European population had emigrated in 1962 at the end of the Algerian war for independence. The migrants were younger at prevalence day (mean 43.4 years) and at onset (29.4 years) than the French-born MS (46.6; 31.3 years). Eight migrants lacked age information. The 225 migrants with onset more than 1 year after immigration presumably acquired their MS in France. They provided an age adjusted (US 1960) MS prevalence rate 1.54 times that for all France. If the latter is taken at 50 per 100,000 population their estimated adjusted rate is 76.8 with 95% confidence interval of 67.1 to 87.5. The other 27 with presumed acquisition in North Africa gave an estimated adjusted prevalence of 16.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 10.9-24.1). For those migrants with acquisition in France there was a mean interval of 13 years between immigration or age 11 and clinical onset, with a minimum of 3 years. This series provides further support for the theses: 1) that MS is primarily an environmental disease acquired after childhood; 2) that acquisition requires prolonged or repeated exposure (here 3 years for these medium-to-high MS risk migrants) followed by a prolonged latent or incubation period between acquisition and symptom onset (here 10 years); and 3) that this disease is most likely a widespread but unknown persistent infection which results in clinical MS in only a small proportion of those affected.

  16. An estimation of burden of serious fungal infections in France.

    PubMed

    Gangneux, J-P; Bougnoux, M-E; Hennequin, C; Godet, C; Chandenier, J; Denning, D W; Dupont, B

    2016-12-01

    An estimation of burden of serious fungal diseases in France is essential data to inform public health priorities on the importance of resources and research needed on these infections. In France, precise data are available for invasive fungal diseases but estimates for several other diseases such as chronic and immunoallergic diseases are by contrast less known. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Web of Science Platform. Published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from France were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. The model predicts high prevalences of severe asthma with fungal sensitization episodes (189 cases/100,000 adults per year), of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (145/100,000) and of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (5.24/100,000). Besides, estimated incidence for invasive aspergillosis is 1.8/100,000 annually based on classical high risk factors. Estimates for invasive mucormycosis, pneumocystosis and cryptococcosis are 0.12/100,000, 1/100,000 and 0.2/100,000, respectively. Regarding invasive candidiasis, more than 10,000 cases per year are estimated, and a much higher number of recurrent vaginal candidiasis is probable but must be confirmed. Finally, this survey was an opportunity to report a first picture of the frequency of tinea capitis in France. Using local and literature data of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, approximately 1,000,000 (1.47%) people in France are estimated to suffer from serious fungal infections each year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  18. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  19. State behavior during the Ukrainian crisis: the perspectives of Romania, France, and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    State Behavior During the Ukrainian Crisis: The Perspectives of Romania, France , and the...Perspectives of Romania, France , and the United States Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER MAJ Valerica-Iulian...TERMS State behavior, Ukrainian crisis, Romania, France , the United States, geographical proximity, cultural-historical connectivity, economic

  20. 77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France on February 10, 2012,\\1\\ in which the... Results. \\1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  1. Rates of admission for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in France in 2009-2010: trends, geographic variation, costs, and an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Weeks, William B; Ventelou, Bruno; Paraponaris, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are considered preventable and indicators of poor access to primary care. We wondered whether per-capita rates of admission for ACSCs in France demonstrated geographic variation, were changing, were related to other independent variables, or were comparable to those in other countries; further, we wanted to quantify the resources such admissions consume. We calculated per-capita rates of admission for five categories (chronic, acute, vaccination preventable, alcohol-related, and other) of ACSCs in 94 departments in mainland France in 2009 and 2010, examined measures and causes of geographic variation in those rates, computed the costs of those admissions, and compared rates of admission for ACSCs in France to those in several other countries. The highest ACSC admission rates generally occurred in the young and the old, but rates varied across French regions. Over the 2-year period, rates of most categories of ACSCs increased; higher ACSC admission rates were associated with lower incomes and a higher supply of hospital beds. We found that the local supply of general practitioners was inversely associated with rates of chronic and total ACSC admission rates, but that this relationship disappeared if we accounted for patients' use of general practitioners in neighboring departments. ACSC admissions cost 4.755 billion euros in 2009 and 5.066 billion euros in 2010; they consumed 7.86 and 8.74 million bed days of care, respectively. France had higher rates of ACSC admissions than most other countries examined. Because admissions for ACSCs are generally considered a failure of outpatient care, cost French taxpayers substantial monetary and hospital resources, and appear to occur more frequently in France than in other countries, policymakers should prioritize targeted efforts to reduce them.

  2. [Organisation of emergency medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Braun, Françis

    2015-01-01

    The French emergency medicine infrastructure (structures de médecine d'urgence) ensures patients care from the very location of the distress to the appropriate hospital department: medical care in the field, by hospital clinical teams (the services mobiles d'urgence et de réanimation [SMUR]), is a key characteristic of our medical emergency response system. Response to medical distress revolves around information about not only the location and characteristics of the medical need, but also the availability of adapted hospital services. Gathering and transmitting this information is the prerogative of the service d'aide médicale d'urgence (SAMU) and its telephone dispatch center (Centre 15). For patients coming directly to the hospital, the emergency room (ER), a former underfunded and neglected hospital service, has become a key point of access. The ER is now responsible, after providing immediate first line care, to guide the patient through the care system. As such they are equipped with short term hospitalization units designed to enable up to 24h patient observation before orientation. This ensemble, networked at the level of a health territory, ensures the quality, safety, and efficacy that the population is entitled to demand.

  3. Feasibility studies to upgrade the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope site for the next generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; Angers, Mathieu; Breckenridge, Craig; Bauman, Steven; Loewen, Nathan; Loop, David; McConnachie, Alan; Pazder, Jonh; Salmon, Derrick; Spano, Paolo; Stiemer, Siegfried; Veillet, Christian

    2012-09-01

    The Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope is a dedicated, 10m aperture, wide-field, fiber-fed multiobject spectroscopic facility proposed as an upgrade to the existing Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea. The Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope baseline concept assumes the new facility is built on the existing Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope telescope pier and enclosure pier and occupies the same three dimensional exterior “footprint”. Three technical studies have been planned to examine the validity of these assumptions. The technical studies are executed in series as they represent technical decision points in a logical sequence. The three technical studies in succession are: 1. Telescope Pier Study - Load Capacity and Structural Interface, 2. Enclosure Fixed Base Study - Telescope and Enclosure Configuration and Load Capacity and 3. Aero- Thermal Study - Dome Thermal Seeing and Air Flow Attenuation over the Enclosure Aperture Opening. The paper outlines the baseline facility (telescope, spectrograph and enclosure) concept and the status of these studies, and discusses the proposed telescope and enclosure configuration in terms of the redevelopment assumptions. A consolidated feasibility study report will be submitted to the CFHT Board and Science Advisory Committee in the Fall of 2012, with first light for the facility aiming to be in the early 2020s.

  4. [Possibility to screen COPD in emergency department].

    PubMed

    Vial, M; Apelt, P; Cavalli, P; Guerin, T; Vercherin, P; Vergnon, J-M

    2012-02-01

    The COPD is a stake of public health because of its prevalence in the world, its morbi-mortality and its considerable cost (2,2 billion euros/year in France). An early screening allows for a fast and effective intervention. The prospective study with in the emergency department of Roanne included smokers and ex-smokers, more than 10PY for the 40 years old and older, more than 20PY for the others, and/or symptomatic of COPD. Screening rested on a questionnaire filled out by the patient. Are excluded patients already diagnosed with COPD. This screening is carried out with the FEV1/FEV6. The criterion of principal judgment rests on the time taken for screening and acceptability by the patients. One hundred and twenty-two patients were included, 6.5% refused screening. The average time of screening was 4.8 minutes. There were 27 positive patients with the FEV1/FEV6, 14 came to make the classic spirometry. Only 10.53% have a FEV1/FEV6<0.73. On the whole, 15.86% do not have a COPD, 75,25% are at the risk of COPD, 5,94% have a COPD stage 1, 1,98% are stage 2, 0.99% stage 3 and none stage 4. The study thus showed that a screening of the COPD in the emergency rooms is possible because of the simple and reproductible process. Its shows, however its limits since the number of inclusion decrease during days of strong attendance in emergency rooms. The screening of the COPD as foreseen in the study is possible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ile de France: the metro area of Paris.

    PubMed

    Inserra, P

    1985-11-01

    Analysis of small area data shows that France is now experiencing the same trend seen in the 1970s in Great Britain and the US--the population in urban areas is migrating to semirural areas beyond traditional suburbs but still within commuting distance of city centers and employment. As a result, no population center of more than 20,000 people gained population between 1975 and 1982. The Ile de France Region houses 18.5% of France's total population, yet it accounts for only 2.2% of the country's land mass. This region grew by more than 194,400 residents between 1975 and 1982 to a total of 10 million people. For the 1st time in 20 years, the rate of population drain from the city center has slowed. Factors attributable to this slowing of population loss are 1) a sluggish economy holding down housing starts, 2) the aging of the population--making it less mobile, 3) a slight increase in births among inner-city Parisians, and 4) a shortage in older rental housing. Over the past 20 years Paris has lost 1/2 its blue collar jobs; it is becoming more and more bourgeois. The age and sex distribution of Ile de France reflects the effects of the World Wars and the postwar baby booms. One person households predominate in the Paris metro area; 2 person households declined from 30% in 1975 to 28% in 1982. In 1982, 42% of Paris residents were married couples, 8% were widows or widowers, 6% were divorced, and 44% were single. At least a half million Paris residents hold management or professional jobs; Paris produces half the area's jobs. Average salaries in Paris are more than 1/5 higher than the national average. 1/3 of France's students are enrolled in universities located in Paris. Nearly 15% of the French household budget is spent on health related services, and 1 in 5 Frenchman runs for aerobic exercise. Overall, Paris functions as the vital hub of a thriving metropolitan area, dominating the country's closely interrelated Ile de France region.

  6. Characterization of Genetic Diversity of Bacillus anthracis in France by Using High-Resolution Melting Assays and Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Derzelle, S.; Laroche, S.; Le Flèche, P.; Hauck, Y.; Thierry, S.; Vergnaud, G.; Madani, N.

    2011-01-01

    Using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, we developed a cost-effective method to genotype a set of 13 phylogenetically informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genome of Bacillus anthracis. SNP discrimination assays were performed in monoplex or duplex and applied to 100 B. anthracis isolates collected in France from 1953 to 2009 and a few reference strains. HRM provided a reliable and cheap alternative to subtype B. anthracis into one of the 12 major sublineages or subgroups. All strains could be correctly positioned on the canonical SNP (canSNP) phylogenetic tree, except the divergent Pasteur vaccine strain ATCC 4229. We detected the cooccurrence of three canSNP subgroups in France. The dominant B.Br.CNEVA sublineage was found to be prevalent in the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Auvergne region, and the Saône-et-Loire department. Strains affiliated with the A.Br.008/009 subgroup were observed throughout most of the country. The minor A.Br.001/002 subgroup was restricted to northeastern France. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis using 24 markers further resolved French strains into 60 unique profiles and identified some regional patterns. Diversity found within the A.Br.008/009 and B.Br.CNEVA subgroups suggests that these represent old, ecologically established clades in France. Phylogenetic relationships with strains from other parts of the world are discussed. PMID:21998431

  7. Mechanical engineering department technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.B. Denney, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to: (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical acievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each division in the department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the division accomplishing the work.

  8. Mechanical Engineering Department. Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Simecka, W.B.; Condouris, R.A.; Talaber, C.

    1980-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the Department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each Division in the Department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the Division accomplishing the work.

  9. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  10. Expedition 32 Departs for Baikonur

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A new trio of Expedition 32 flight engineers, NASA astronaut Suni Williams, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, departs the Gagarin Cosm...

  11. Public Health Department Accreditation Implementation: Transforming Public Health Department Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Kaye; Lownik, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In response to a call for improved quality and consistency in public health departments, the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) is leading a voluntary public health accreditation initiative in the United States. The public health department accreditation system will implement a comprehensive set of standards that set uniform performance expectations for health departments to provide the services necessary to keep communities healthy. Continuous quality improvement is a major component of PHAB accreditation, demonstrating a commitment to empower and encourage public health departments to continuously improve their performance. The accreditation process was tested in 30 health departments around the country in 2009 and 2010, and was launched on a national level in September 2011 at the National Press Club in Washington, DC. PMID:22390438

  12. New innovative ecosystems in France to develop the Bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Thierry; Chauvet, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-09

    The cluster's policy initiated in France in 2005 was a formidable opportunity to boost innovation in the bioeconomy and to develop innovation platforms allowing industrial demonstration and feasibility at technology readiness level (TRL) from 5 to 9. The IAR Cluster (Industries and Agro-Resources), based in the Hauts-de-France and Grand Est regions is completely dedicated to the bioeconomy. IAR's work has contributed to build a complete innovation ecosystem on bioeconomy by opening up relationships between actors along the full value chain. It also facilitated investments in new platforms and programs through public-private partnerships. The Biorefinery of Pomacle is a good illustration of such a collective approach. The role of regional and national public partners is essential to succeed in this development which requires a long term strategy and support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cryptosporidium oocysts in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Normandy (France).

    PubMed

    Li, Xunde; Guyot, Karine; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Mallard, Jean-Paul; Ballet, Jean Jacques; Brasseur, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected seasonally during one year from three sites on the Northwestern coastal area of Normandy (France). Flesh, gills and innerwater were examined for Cryptosporidium oocyst detection using immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescence assay. Oocysts were present in all samples for all sites and seasons and flesh was the most contaminated part. Oocyst rates were apparently related with seasonal rain precipitation variations. Molecular analysis revealed that oocysts belonged to the species Cryptosporidium parvum (formerly genotype 2 or ). Oocyst infectivity was assessed by oral administration to suckling NMRI-mice, and developmental stages were observed in only one mouse infected with oocysts from one location. The detection of potentially infectious C. parvum oocysts of likely cattle-breeding origin in cultured edible mussels confirms their resistance to sea environments, and underlines the potential risk of food-borne infection. This work reports for the first time the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts in shellfish from France.

  14. [How to approach the discipline of "nursing science" in France?].

    PubMed

    Lecordier, Didier; Rémy-Largeau, Isabelle; Jovic, Ljiljana

    2013-03-01

    The last four years have seen the development of supports toward research in nursing and other healthcare professionals' research, along with the fact that, nursing education has become part of university programs. Professional and scientific landscapes are changing and the opening perspectives let glimpse a growing professionalization of nurses' activities but also, raise the question of the nursing science construction in France. By considering interdisciplinary work, as an approach for complex situations of care, by specifying the purpose of the production of nursing scientific knowledge in order to meet the population needs of healthcare, by explaining the purpose of nursing research and theoretical elements that allow its construction, the following article offers an epistemological reflection on the evolution of the profession and on the construction of a nursing scientific discipline in France.

  15. The future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.

    2012-12-01

    This contribution presents a poll undertaken at the beginning of 2012, and addressed to every doctor in astronomy who obtained his/her degree in France. Its goal is to motivate the French astronomical community to think and discuss about what should be the training of PhDs, and what should be its objective. Further discussions and reactions can be posted e.g. on {http://docastro.blogspot.fr/}. A worrying results from the poll is that the majority of the participants would not encourage a young student to start a thesis in astronomy. The main reasons for this fact may be the high pressure on astronomy positions and the little interest a doctorate has for other careers in France. I suggest we either have to modify our training or reduce the number of thesis starting each year in astronomy.

  16. [Reflection on the psychiatric financial allocation in France].

    PubMed

    Boyer, L; Fond, G; Devictor, B; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C; Rouillon, F; Gaillard, R; Zendjidjian, X; Llorca, P-M

    2016-08-01

    For 25years work has been underway in France for the implementation of an alternative to public financing of health care. In the absence of progress, some regional health agencies are engaged in work related to the reallocation of public finances between psychiatric institutions. We propose a reflection with suggestion on the method proposed by the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Regional Health Agency. Without questioning the need for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions, the method proposed here needs to evolve further to be applied in a legitimate and appropriate manner. There is a kind of urgency for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions in France, but it implies a collective thinking and especially the definition of evaluation procedures for the selected models. These conditions are necessary to guarantee the quality of French psychiatry and equity in access to psychiatric care.

  17. [Study on two manuscripts with colored illustrations collected in France].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Two manuscripts with colored illustrations in French libraries were investigated. The research showed that: the first manuscript with colored pictures include 2 volumes, titled Animaux et Plantes de Chine collected in Library of Museum National d'Historie Naturelle (MNHN);the other manuscript with colored pictures has only 1 volume, titled Botanique Chinoise collected in Library of Societe Asiatique, College de France, which were identified as illustrations of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1640 edition) by Li Shi-zhen. These pictures were copied by P. d'Incarville, and are similar to Plantes fleurs et arbres de Chine in Bibliotheque de l'Institut de Franceand, Collection de Plantes Veneneuses de la Chine Gravees et Imprimees en Couleurs par les Missionnaries Jesuites in Bibliotheque Nationale de France, respectively. The latter two manuscripts were identified as illustrations of Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Essential Collections of Materia Medica) (1700 edition).

  18. NRC assessment of the Department of Energy annealing demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.A.; Malik, S.N.

    1997-02-01

    Thermal annealing is the only known method for mitigating the effects of neutron irradiation embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Westinghouse, Cooperheat, Electric Power Research Institute (with participating utilities), Westinghouse Owner`s Group, Consumers Power, Electricite` de France, Duquesne Light and the Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (Japan) sponsored an annealing demonstration project (ADP) at Marble Hill. The Marble Hill Plant, located in Madison, Indiana, is a Westinghouse 4 loop design. The plant was nearly 70% completed when the project was canceled. Hence, the RPV was never irradiated. The paper will present highlights from the NRCs independent evaluation of the Marble Hill Annealing Demonstration Project.

  19. Enhancing Incentives to Improve Performance in the Education System in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 570

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The French education system has a mixed record. A generally very successful pre-school and primary school level contrasts with underfunded public universities with high dropout rates which exist alongside very successful higher education institutions for elites. Initial education, especially secondary education and the universities, along with…

  20. The mortality impacts of fine particles in France.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Mathilde; de Crouy Chanel, Perrine; Wagner, Vérène; Corso, Magali; Tillier, Claude; Bentayeb, Malek; Blanchard, Myriam; Cochet, Amandine; Pascal, Laurence; Host, Sabine; Goria, Sarah; Le Tertre, Alain; Chatignoux, Edouard; Ung, Aymeric; Beaudeau, Pascal; Medina, Sylvia

    2016-11-15

    Worldwide, air pollution has become a main environmental cause of premature mortality. This burden is largely due to fine particles. Recent cohort studies have confirmed the health risks associated with chronic exposure to PM2.5 for European and French populations. We assessed the mortality impact of PM2.5 in continental France using these new results. Based on a meta-analysis of French and European cohorts, we computed a shrunken estimate of PM2.5-mortality relationship for the French population (RR 1.15 [1.05:1.25] for a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5). This RR was applied to PM2.5 annual concentrations estimated at a fine spatial scale, using a classical health impacts assessment method. The health benefits associated with alternative scenarios of improving air quality were computed for 36,219 French municipalities for 2007-2008. 9% of the total mortality in continental France is attributable to anthropogenic PM2.5. This represents >48,000 deaths per year, and 950,000years of life lost per year, more than half occurring in urban areas larger than 100,000 inhabitants. If none of the municipalities exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value for PM2.5 (10μg/m(3)), the total mortality could be decreased by 3%, corresponding to 400,000years of life saved per year. Results were consistent with previous estimates of the long-term mortality impacts of fine particles in France. These findings show that further actions to improve air quality in France would substantially improve health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  2. Risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in France.

    PubMed

    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2005-02-01

    France has the second highest number of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) cases worldwide. Imports of bovine carcasses from the UK probably constituted the main source of exposure of the French population to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Meat products consumed whilst visiting the UK have also been considered as a possible source of exposure. We estimated the number of future vCJD cases in France using a simulation approach. Both the distribution of the vCJD incubation period and the age-dependent susceptibility to the BSE agent were estimated from UK data. The French epidemic was simulated by gender and birth-cohort from data on the infectivity of UK bovine tissues and simulations of the French consumption of infected beef products. We also used data on travel to the UK between 1980 and 1995. We predicted 33 future cases of vCJD: 12 in the 1940-69 birth-cohort and 21 in the post-1969 birth-cohort. No case was predicted in the pre-1940 cohort. Based on our model, simulated vCJD cases occurred later in the older (1940-69) than in the younger cohort (post-1969). Age at onset was stable in the post-1969 cohort and increased in the older cohort. The model predicted a small excess of male patients. No case was attributed to travels in the UK. This modelling confirms that a large vCJD epidemic in France is very unlikely. Since France (where 60% of the total British exports of bovine carcasses were exported) has been highly exposed to the BSE agent, our results are reassuring for most countries worldwide.

  3. Vichy France and the continuity of medical nationalism.

    PubMed

    Evleth, D

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the rise of medical nationalism and protectionism in France from the end of the nineteenth century through to the 1940s, with an emphasis on the Vichy period. It presents this nationalism as part of a continuity, showing its beginnings well before the coming of the Vichy government, its extremes under this government, and its continuation after the fall of the Vichy government, although retreating from its more extreme positions.

  4. 77 FR 20319 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, SA-366G1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC 155B, and EC155B1 helicopters. This proposed AD was..., 2010 (AD 2006-0368R1), to correct an unsafe condition for the EC Model SA 365 N, SA 365 N1, AS 365...

  5. Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France

    PubMed Central

    Gallian, Pierre; Lhomme, Sébastien; Piquet, Yves; Sauné, Karine; Abravanel, Florence; Assal, Azzedine; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We screened plasma samples (minipools of 96 samples, corresponding to 53,234 blood donations) from France that had been processed with solvent–detergent for hepatitis E virus RNA. The detection rate was 1 HEV-positive sample/2,218 blood donations. Most samples (22/24) from viremic donors were negative for IgG and IgM against HEV. PMID:25340881

  6. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-03

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs.

  7. Stress and burnout among teachers in Italy and France.

    PubMed

    Pedrabissi, L; Rolland, J P; Santinello, M

    1993-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show differences between culture-bound stress levels in two samples of elementary and junior high school teachers in Italy (N = 299) and in France (N = 217), using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson, 1981) as a questionnaire. The results confirmed the influence of sociocultural background on stress levels in both samples in relation to age. Personal accomplishment was the most discriminating indicator in the two groups.

  8. Characterization of the large fire regime in SE France

    Treesearch

    Anne Ganteaume; Marielle Jappiot

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern France is the most wildfire prone region of the country, covering 14.7 percent of its land area-entire country, is the region most affected by wildfires, with 55 percent of the total number of fires recorded in the whole country from 2006 to 2008. It is a typical Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers, often with strong NW wind, and includes plant...

  9. [The locations of mobile geriatric teams in France].

    PubMed

    Salles, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Mobile geriatric teams fulfil several missions in healthcare facilities. They work within and outside hospitals. A nationwide study was carried out in 2011 and a task force was created within the French geriatric and gerontology society (SFGG) to standardise the practices of these teams in France and emphasise their place at the heart of the health care pathway of the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Barriers of influenza vaccination in health care personnel in France.

    PubMed

    Kadi, Zoher; Atif, Mohamed-Lamine; Brenet, Annie; Izoard, Sylvain; Astagneau, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    To identify barriers against influenza vaccination of health care personnel in Northern France, a cross-sectional study was conducted in health care facilities. A total of 3,213 questionnaires from 67 health care facilities were completed. In multivariate analysis using a logistic model, influenza vaccine coverage in health care personnel was significantly associated with level of knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bariatric surgery trends in France: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Lazzati, Andrea; Guy-Lachuer, Rodolphe; Delaunay, Vincent; Szwarcensztein, Karine; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery underwent a dramatic change in the past decade in France. The objective of this study was to examine elective bariatric surgical procedures from 2005 to 2011 in France and to determine trends in the use of the procedure. Data were extracted from the National Hospital Database. All admissions involving a bariatric surgery procedure were included. Procedures authorized by the Public Health Authority for the treatment of morbid obesity, including the adjustable gastric banding (AGB), vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), gastric bypass (GB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), either by laparotomic or laparoscopic approach, were retrieved. Revisional procedures, such as band removal or repositioning, band changing, and access device revisions, were also evaluated. We observed a 2.5-fold increase in bariatric procedures, from 12,800 in 2005 to 31,000 in 2011. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass became the most common bariatric procedures in France in 2011, whereas adjustable gastric banding has been decreasing since 2007. During the analysis period, about 50,000 revisional procedures were performed. The number of hospitals (private or public) providing bariatric surgery has considerably increased. However, most of the activity remains confined to a small number of centers, as 50% of all bariatric surgeries are carried out in 12% of hospitals. Bariatric procedures are predominantly performed in private hospitals. In France the number of bariatric procedures increased considerably between 2005 and 2011. The type of procedures changed, with a constant decrease of AGB and an important increase of SG and GB. Most bariatric procedures are still performed in low volume activity hospitals and in private hospitals. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.

  12. IUD use in France: women's and physician's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Bohet, Aline; Hassoun, Danielle; Ringa, Virginie; Bajos, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    While the intra-uterine device (IUD) is the second most popular contraceptive method in France, its use remains low among women most at risk of unintended pregnancies. Acknowledging the conjoint role of women and physicians in contraceptive decision making, we investigate the determinants of IUD use and IUD recommendations from the user and prescriber perspectives. Data are drawn from 2 national probability surveys (population-based and physician surveys) on sexual and reproductive health in France. The population based survey comprised 3,563 women ages 15-49 at risk of an unintended pregnancy in 2010 and the physician survey included 364 general practitioners (GPs) and 401 gynecologists practicing in private offices in 2010-2011. Analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Altogether, 21.4% of women were IUD users, with substantial differences by age and parity. Less than 1% of young women (<25 years) and 3% of nulliparous were current IUD users in 2010. The odds of IUD use were four times higher in women followed by a gynecologist as compared to a GP. Mirroring these results, gynecologists were more likely to recommend IUDs than GPs. Misconception about IUD risks was widespread among women and providers. Medical training and information, professional practice settings, and ever use of IUDs also informed physician's likelihood of recommending IUDs, regardless of specialty. The study reveals the intersection of individual and professional influences on contraceptive use patterns. The considerable age discrepancy in IUD use in France, with very few young women most at risk of an unintended pregnancy using the method, reflects a knowledge gap shared by users and providers. These findings suggest there are significant opportunities to improve contraceptive care in France. This study stresses the need to inform women and doctors about the benefits and risks of IUDs for all women. Substantial efforts are required to improve the medical curriculum, in order

  13. The loess and coversands of northern France and southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Catt, John; Lautridou, Jean-Pierre; Sommé, Jean

    2003-02-01

    Loess and coversands are widespread on either side of the English Channel. In southern England, loess is generally thin and discontinuous, but locally reaches thickness of about 4 m in east Kent. Coversands occur mainly in areas well north of the Channel, such as parts of East Anglia and the southern side of the Bristol Channel. Most of the loess and coversand deposits in southern England date from the Late Devensian cold stage (marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 2), but there are also a few localised patches of older (mainly MOIS 6 and 12) loess, which are the dissected remnants of originally more extensive covers. In France loess is widespread and locally very thick (up to 12 m), especially in northern and northeastern France. In Normandy and in the Somme basin some long records indicate that accumulation began at the end of the Lower Pleistocene, at about 900 ka. Nevertheless the main accumulations of typical calcareous loess are related to the Upper Weichselian and Upper Saalian stages (MOIS 2 and end of MOIS 3 and MOIS 6). Indeed, before about 160-170 ka, loess deposition was generally restricted to special sediment traps such as fluvial and marine terraces exposed to the east or northeast. These older deposits are characterised by more sandy facies derived from local fluvial sources (mainly by northwest to north-northwest winds). Coversands occur locally along the coast of the Mont Saint-Michel bay, and over the northern part of the Seine estuary near Le Havre. The main differences in thickness and extent of the loess deposits between southern England and northern France are linked to their location in relation to the source areas (Channel and North Sea), to ice sheets, and to the main wind directions (northwest to north-northwest in France and western England but northeast in eastern England).

  14. Cannabis use during pregnancy in France in 2010.

    PubMed

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M-J; Prunet, C; Blondel, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to estimate the proportion of women who reported cannabis use during pregnancy, to analyse the demographic and social characteristics of users, and the link between cannabis use and either preterm or small-for-gestational-age birth. Data were obtained from interviews of a representative sample of women giving birth in France in 2010 in the days after delivery, and from their medical records. All maternity units in France. The analysis includes women with live singleton births in metropolitan France who responded to the question about cannabis use during pregnancy: in total, 13 545 women. The percentage of cannabis users during pregnancy was estimated, and variations according to social characteristics were described. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate any associations between cannabis use and preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age status. Percentage of cannabis use, preterm birth rate, and small-for-gestational-age rate. In all, 1.2% of women reported having used cannabis during pregnancy. This percentage was higher among younger women, women living alone, or women who had a low level of education or low income. It was also associated with tobacco use and drinking alcohol. Cannabis users had higher rates of spontaneous preterm births: 6.4 versus 2.8%, for an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.15 (95% CI 1.10-4.18). The corresponding aOR was 2.64 (95% CI 1.12-6.22) among tobacco smokers and 1.22 (95% CI 0.29-5.06) among non-tobacco smokers. Although the reported rate of cannabis use during pregnancy in France is low, efforts should be continued to inform women and healthcare providers about the potential consequences of its use. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccinal coverage in hospitalized elderly patients in France.

    PubMed

    Rouveix, E; Gherissi Cherni, D; Dupont, C; Beauchet, A; Sordet Guepet, H; Gavazzi, G; Gaillat, J

    2013-01-01

    In France, there is little data on vaccinal coverage in elderly people at risk for invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI). The study objective was to assess the pneumococcal vaccination coverage and traceability in hospitalized elderly people (>75 years of age). A multicentric point prevalence survey was made on volunteers over 75 years of age, hospitalized in internal medicine, geriatrics, and infectious diseases units. Nine hundred and three patients in 63 units of 28 hospitals were included (mean 85 years of age) in the study between April and May 2011. Ten percent (93/903) were vaccinated against the pneumococcus. Thirty-eight percent of the patients had at least one risk factor for IPI and 20.5% of these had been vaccinated. There was a traceability back-up in 59% of the cases. Vaccination was not considered by the hospital for 83% of patients with IPI risk factor but not vaccinated (task delegated to the family physician in 50% of the cases). Vaccination coverage against the pneumococcus in France is very low in hospitalized patients over 75 years of age even though more than one out of three presents at least one risk factor for IPI. The rate of traceability is also poor. Hospitalization should be an opportunity to offer pneumococcal vaccination to elderly patients at risk for IPI in France because of unclear recommendations for elderly individuals and lack of political will to improve vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in France in 2010.

    PubMed

    Antona, D; Lepoutre, A; Fonteneau, L; Baudon, C; Halftermeyer-Zhou, F; LE Strat, Y; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains the leading cause of congenital virus infection in developed countries. Measuring the national prevalence of this infection, especially among women of childbearing age, is of great value to estimate the risk of congenital CMV infection, as well as to identify risk groups that should be targeted for behavioural interventions and/or vaccination once a CMV vaccine finally becomes available. In order to fulfil these objectives, a seroprevalence survey was conducted in 2010, using a nationally representative, population-based sample of 2536 people aged between 15 and 49 years, living in metropolitan France and attending private microbiological laboratories for blood testing. All blood samples were analysed in the same laboratory and screened for CMV-specific IgG using an enzyme-linked immunoassay technique (Elisa PKS Medac Enzyme immunoassay). The overall point estimate of CMV infection seroprevalence for individuals aged 15-49 years was 41.9%. The estimates were higher in women than in men (respectively 45.6% and 39.3%), and people born in a non-Western country were more likely to be CMV seropositive than those born in France or in another Western country (93.7% vs. 37.7%). Our results showed that a substantial percentage of women of childbearing age in France are CMV seronegative and therefore at risk of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. Educational measures and future vaccine are key issues to prevent infection in pregnant women and congenital CMV disease.

  17. A streamflow assimilation system for ensemble streamflow forecast over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, G.; Martin, E.; Mahfouf, J. F.; Massart, S.; Ricci, S.; Habets, F.

    2009-04-01

    SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) is a hydro-meteorological model used at Météo-France to predict soil water content and river streamflows. In order to produce a better initial state for the Ensemble Streamflow forecasts, an assimilation system is developed at Météo-France. This system uses past streamflow measurements in order to assess the best initial state of soil water content of the model for streamflow prediction. The data assimilation system is developed with a modular software (PALM, from the Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique), and is based on the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator method. Data from a maximum of 186 gauge stations are assimilated over France. This first study focuses on the selection of the best model variables for the assimilation process : root zone layer only or root and sub root layers taken together or apart. Two versions of SIM, including or not an exponential profile of hydraulic conductivity in the soil, are tested, and a set of classical hydrologic scores will be performed in order to describe the performances of the experiments. The impact of this improvement of the initial state of the model on ensemble streamflow forecasts scores will be assessed in a subsequent work.

  18. What do costs really tell us? Lessons from Xynthia windstorm in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, E.; Przyluski, V.; Hallegatte, S.

    2012-04-01

    Xynthia was a violent windstorm which crossed Western Europe in 2010. Its transit caused the death of 59 people in Europe. France was the hardest country hit by Xynthia: 47 people were killed, most of them from drowning, and direct insured losses amounted to more than 2.5 billion Euros. Strong gusts and waves of several meters of height, associated to high coefficient tides, caused a phenomenon of storm surge in the Atlantic coastal area of France, particularly in the Vendée and Charente-Maritime departments. Sea walls, originally built to defend agricultural land and lacking of maintenance, were not able to protect houses. Around 10,000 people were forced to evacuate after the inundation of their properties. Essentially, a restrictive construction policy is supposed to be applied to these areas. In actual practice, mayors are sometimes not able to resist the pressure of property developers and, since 1999, about 100,000 houses have been built in flood prone areas all over France. A close study of policies and incentives in place in the local areas hit by Xynthia reveals that economic system and incentives related to land value and land economics (in particular to crucial topics of land scarcity and increase in value), dominates incentives of risk management. That is to say, independently Policies Plans and Projects in place to govern risk are of adequate designs. However, in practice there are not followed. This raises several questions in terms of costing methodology. First, does it mean that costing methodology have to take in consideration all the economic parameters and policies at the right level? What does it mean for current applied methodology for direct and indirect costs (e.g. CGE)? Second, does this reveal the existence of governance costs and is it possible to account for them? What would be the implications in terms of mitigation policies for instance? Third, it appears then that land value, and in general the way to value resources, is important in

  19. Congenital toxoplasmosis in France in 2007: first results from a national surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Villena, I; Ancelle, T; Delmas, C; Garcia, P; Brezin, A P; Thulliez, P; Wallon, M; King, L; Goulet, V

    2010-06-24

    When immunocompetent people become infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the disease is generally asymptomatic. However, transplacental transmission of T. gondii may lead to severe congenital infection including in utero abortion, foetal death, or neurological or ocular damage of the foetus. France has had a national programme to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis since 1978. However, although estimated seroprevalence in pregnant women has fallen from 84% in the 1960s to 44% in 2003, no reliable data have been available on the annual number of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis or the severity of infection. In 2006, the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance (Institut de Veille Sanitaire) and the National Reference Centre for Toxoplasmosis recommended that a national laboratory-based surveillance system be used for the surveillance of the disease. In 2007, 31 laboratories reported at least one congenital case through the surveillance system, giving a total of 272 cases. A total of 11 terminations of pregnancy were reported (six abortions and five foetal deaths). Of the live-born cases, 206 were asymptomatic, 28 were symptomatic and seven had a severe form of the disease. As there were 818,700 births in France and French overseas departments in 2007, the overall prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis observed that year was 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9 to 3.7) per 10,000 live births and the incidence rate of the disease at birth was 2.9 (95% CI: 2.5 to 3.2) per 10,000 live births; the estimated incidence rate of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.5) cases per 10,000 live births.

  20. [ A registry of ischaemic cardiopathies among active workers at Electricité de France-Gaz de France. Program development and first results].

    PubMed

    Chevalier, A; Zins, M; Godard, C; Morin, J; Jourdain, V; François, F; Lambrozo, J; Goldberg, M; Ducimetière, P

    2001-02-01

    The social security department of the French national electric and gas company has established an ischemic heart disease register among a population of about 140 000 employees based on sick leaves as well as deaths recorded with their medical cause. History of the illness, medical tests and treatments were known retrospectively from the consulting physicians of the company. Acute coronary events recorded were: inaugural angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden coronary death and fortuitous discovery of coronary disease. A first study conducted on employees during the 1993-1995 period showed infarction incidence age rates similar to those estimated from the French MONICA registers for France as a whole. Regional discrepancies were observed for myocardial infarction rates: Nord-Pas de Calais, Champagne-Ardennes, Lorraine, Franche-Comté and Limousin were at the most elevated risk (SIR=131, 155, 169, 125 and 178 resp). Large variations according to socio-economic status were observed. This register will permit studies on the links between socio-economic status at different professional career points and the occurrence of ischemic heart disease and the evaluation of the impact of psychosocial factors such as previous depressive disorders.

  1. STRENGTHENING STATE DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, ROALD F.; AND OTHERS

    MAJOR FINDINGS OF A SUMMER SEMINAR HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO IN 1966 DEFINE CURRENT ISSUES RELATED TO STATE DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION (SDE) AND LEAD TO 23 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRENGTHENING THESE DEPARTMENTS SO THAT THEY MAY BE EFFECTIVE PARTNERS IN THE GOVERNMENT OF EDUCATION. SDE'S ARE EVALUATED WITH RESPECT TO FIVE MAJOR…

  2. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  3. The Communication Department in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fest, Thorrel B.; Darnell, Donald K.

    Two papers describing and reacting to the proposed abolition of a department of communication are contained in this document. The first paper ("Proposed Abolition of a Department of Communication" by Thorrel B. Fest) describes the factors that led the attack. Environmental factors--distrust of the discipline, decreasing funds, and…

  4. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  5. France: A Study of the Educational System of France and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States. World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, A. Mariam

    The purpose of this book is to explain French educational credentials to U.S. college and university admissions officers and credentials evaluators. Following introductory sections providing a map of France and an educational and historical overview of France, the following chapters are presented: (1) elementary and secondary education (including…

  6. France: A Study of the Educational System of France and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States. World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, A. Mariam

    The purpose of this book is to explain French educational credentials to U.S. college and university admissions officers and credentials evaluators. Following introductory sections providing a map of France and an educational and historical overview of France, the following chapters are presented: (1) elementary and secondary education (including…

  7. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long

  8. The history of Mother-Baby Units (MBUs) in France and Belgium and of the French version of the Marcé checklist

    PubMed Central

    Cazas, Odile; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M.-C.

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Until fairly recently, mentally ill mothers were separated from their new-borns because of the potential danger to the baby. Over the past 50 years, however, we have learned more about the perinatal period, with the development of child psychiatry and interest in maternal postpartum disorders. This knowledge has led psychiatric departments to develop new ways to provide care without separating mentally ill mothers from their babies. Joint full-time admissions began in Great Britain in 1948. The first Mother-Baby Unit (MBU) in France opened in 1979 and in Belgium in 1990. In 2003, there are 17 MBUs in France and 3 in Belgium. From 1995 to 1998, Odile Cazas and Nine Glangeaud, working with a group of child and adult psychiatrists and psychologists, adapted the English Marcé Checklist to the French and Belgian health and child protective systems and added items useful for research. PMID:14963733

  9. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  14. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  15. Department Chairs and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Patti P.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses legal problems confronting department administrators. Covers equal opportunity, tenure and promotion, truth in advertising, and areas particular to the theatre: contracts with guest directors and artists, copyrights and royalties, and safety. (PD)

  16. Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.B.; Denney, R.M.

    1981-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to inform readers of various technical activities within the Department, promote exchange of ideas, and give credit to personnel who are achieving the results. The report is presented in two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into seven sections, each of which reports on an engineering division and its specific activities related to nuclear tests, nuclear explosives, weapons, energy systems, engineering sciences, magnetic fusion, and materials fabrication.

  17. Department of Education ISS Link

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-05

    U.S. Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan speaks during an event at the Department of Education, Thursday, Nov. 5, 2009, in Washington where he and NASA Administrator Charles Bolden hosted Washington area middle and high school students for a live discussion with astronauts aboard the International Space Station. The event is part of the 10th annual celebration of International Education Week. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. Departments as Agents of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  19. [Family and population policy in the overseas French departments since 1946].

    PubMed

    Gautier, A

    1988-01-01

    The French overseas departments of Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, and Reunion are in the position of Third World countries because of their dependent economies and demographic characteristics. Despite their legal status as French departments, the 1946 French family allowance legislation was never applied to them. France was one of the few developed countries to adopt an explicit family policy. Its 3 major goals were to increase fertility, to assure equity between families with children and persons without, and to allow mothers to stay at home. The 1946 laws provided family allowances and prenatal allowances to all French and foreigners except those unemployed but able to work. Allowances for families with 1 income were available even for foreign parents of illegitimate children, while the maternity allowances were more restricted. Political support in France for the family allowances as well as their economic value for a family eroded considerably in later years. When the 4 former French colonies became overseas departments in 1946, it was expected that French social legislation would apply to them as to any other department, but this was never the case. Initially, only family allowances strictly speaking without the single income, maternity, and prenatal allowances were applied overseas, at a significantly lower rate than in France and as a function of the number of days worked. Only about 58% of families with children were eligible in 1955. Administrators and planners cited overpopulation and rapid population growth as reasons for not providing family allowances, but no concrete actions to curb population growth or improve the living conditions of the population were taken. In the 1960s, with Algeria and other French colonies formed in the the 19th century gaining independence, de Gaulle reaffirmed that the overseas departments would remain French. The government undertook programs to assure social parity between France and the overseas departments, including a

  20. Euroscepticism in Britain and France: Implications for NATO and the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    BRITAIN AND FRANCE : IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION by William R. Walsh March 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Yost Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EUROSCEPTICISM IN BRITAIN AND FRANCE : IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION 5...power leaving the European Union (EU)? Political movements in two of the most influential member states, the United Kingdom and France , have